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Sample records for potent apn inhibitor

  1. Aminopeptidase N (APN)/CD13 inhibitor, Ubenimex, enhances radiation sensitivity in human cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Hirohisa; Shibata, Kiyosumi; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Terauchi, Mikio; Nawa, Akihiro; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2008-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy can be used to treat all stages of cervical cancer. For improving local control via radiotherapy, it is important to use additional antitumor agents. Aminopeptidase N (APN)/CD13, a 150-kDa metalloproteinase, is a multifunctional cell surface aminopeptidase with ubiquitous expression. Recent studies have suggested that APN/CD13 plays an important role in tumor progression in several human malignancies. Methods We investigated whether the suppression of APN/CD13 using Ubenimex, an inhibitor of APN/CD13 activity, may affect tumor radiosensitivity in cervical cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cell surface APN/CD13 activity in HeLa cells was calculated using alanine-p-nitroanilido as a substrate. For colony formation assays, single-dose radiation and/or Ubenimex were administered to each dish of HeLa cells, and these dishes were cultured for 14 days. Molecular changes of apoptosis were determined by Western blot. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin-V PI staining (flow cytometry analysis) and the Tunel method. Moreover, we investigated the effect of combining Ubenimex and low-dose radiation on tumor growth using nude mice. Results We demonstrated that Ubenimex enhanced the effectiveness of radiotherapy, acting as a radiosensitizer both in vitro and in vivo. In colony formation assays, a significant decline in clonogenic survival was observed in Ubenimex-treated cells. Mice treated with a combination of radiation and Ubenimex showed a significant prolongation of the tumor-doubling time compared with the control, Ubenimex, or radiation-alone groups. We also showed that ubenimex enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Although further studies are needed, this report suggests that Ubeniemx acts as a radiosensitizer in cervical cancer treatment, and that the inhibition of APN/CD13 activity may represent a new approach for improving the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer. PMID:18366676

  2. Divergent actions by inhibitors of DP IV and APN family enzymes on CD4+ Teff cell motility and functions.

    PubMed

    Biton, Aliza; Ansorge, Siegfried; Bank, Ute; Täger, Michael; Reinhold, Dirk; Brocke, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP IV)/CD26 and aminopeptidase N (APN)/CD13 family enzymes control T cell functions. We have previously defined these peptidases as targets to treat autoimmune disease, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we determined the effect of enzymatic inhibitors on chemotaxis by CD4+ effector T (Teff) cells. Exposure of Teff cells to the inhibitor of DP IV activity, Lys[Z(NO2)]-pyrrolidide (LZNP) and the inhibitor of APN activity, actinonin has no effect on chemotaxis or unstimulated cell migration, even at high inhibitor concentrations. LZNP and actinonin also fail to suppress migration of unfractionated lymph node cells, excluding paracrine action through other leukocyte subsets. In contrast, inhibition of DP IV and APN activities selectively suppresses lymphocyte functions including proliferation and production of the T helper type (Th)1 cytokine IFN-γ, the Th17 cytokine IL-17, as well as TNF-α, and ameliorates autoimmunity in vivo. The present results combined with previous studies suggest that LZNP and actinonin do not prevent migration of pathogenic Teff cells into target tissues, but rather suppress disease through inhibitor induced release of TGF-β by T cells at the site of inflammation.

  3. Orally Bioavailable Potent Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung Hee; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Liu, Jun-Yan; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    A series of N,N′-disubstituted ureas having a conformationally restricted cis- or trans-1,4-cyclohexane α to the urea were prepared and tested as soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors. This series of compounds showed low nanomolar to picomolar activities against recombinant human sEH. Both isomers showed similar potencies, but the trans isomers were more metabolically stable in human hepatic microsomes. Furthermore, these new potent inhibitors show a greater metabolic stability in vivo than previously described sEH inhibitors. We demonstrated that trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid 13g (t-AUCB, IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.05 nM) had excellent oral bioavailability (98%, n = 2) and blood area under the curve in dogs and was effective in vivo to treat hypotension in lipopolysaccharide challenged murine models. PMID:17616115

  4. Oxidized mucus proteinase inhibitor: a fairly potent neutrophil elastase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Boudier, C; Bieth, J G

    1994-01-01

    N-chlorosuccinimide oxidizes one of the methionine residues of mucus proteinase inhibitor with a second-order rate constant of 1.5 M-1.s-1. Cyanogen bromide cleavage and NH2-terminal sequencing show that the modified residue is methionine-73, the P'1 component of the inhibitor's active centre. Oxidation of the inhibitor decreases its neutrophil elastase inhibitory capacity but does not fully abolish it. The kinetic parameters describing the elastase-oxidized inhibitor interaction are: association rate constant kass. = 2.6 x 10(5) M-1.s-1, dissociation rate constant kdiss. = 2.9 x 10(-3) s-1 and equilibrium dissociation constant Ki = 1.1 x 10(-8) M. Comparison with the native inhibitor indicates that oxidation decreases kass. by a factor of 18.8 and increases kdiss. by a factor of 6.4, and therefore leads to a 120-fold increase in Ki. Yet, the oxidized inhibitor may still act as a potent elastase inhibitor in the upper respiratory tract where its concentration is 500-fold higher than Ki, i.e. where the elastase inhibition is pseudo-irreversible. Experiments in vitro with fibrous human lung elastin, the most important natural substrate of elastase, support this view: 1.35 microM elastase is fully inhibited by 5-6 microM oxidized inhibitor whether the enzyme-inhibitor complex is formed in the presence or absence of elastin and whether elastase is pre-adsorbed on elastin or not. PMID:7945266

  5. Sifuvirtide, a potent HIV fusion inhibitor peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Rui-Rui; Yang, Liu-Meng; Wang, Yun-Hua; Pang, Wei; Tam, Siu-Cheung; Tien, Po; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2009-05-08

    Enfuvirtide (ENF) is currently the only FDA approved HIV fusion inhibitor in clinical use. Searching for more drugs in this category with higher efficacy and lower toxicity seems to be a logical next step. In line with this objective, a synthetic peptide with 36 amino acid residues, called Sifuvirtide (SFT), was designed based on the crystal structure of gp41. In this study, we show that SFT is a potent anti-HIV agent with relatively low cytotoxicity. SFT was found to inhibit replication of all tested HIV strains. The effective concentrations that inhibited 50% viral replication (EC{sub 50}), as determined in all tested strains, were either comparable or lower than benchmark values derived from well-known anti-HIV drugs like ENF or AZT, while the cytotoxic concentrations causing 50% cell death (CC{sub 50}) were relatively high, rendering it an ideal anti-HIV agent. A GST-pull down assay was performed to confirm that SFT is a fusion inhibitor. Furthermore, the activity of SFT on other targets in the HIV life cycle was also investigated, and all assays showed negative results. To further understand the mechanism of action of HIV peptide inhibitors, resistant variants of HIV-1{sub IIIB} were derived by serial virus passage in the presence of increasing doses of SFT or ENF. The results showed that there was cross-resistance between SFT and ENF. In conclusion, SFT is an ideal anti-HIV agent with high potency and low cytotoxicity, but may exhibit a certain extent of cross-resistance with ENF.

  6. Sifuvirtide, a potent HIV fusion inhibitor peptide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Rui; Yang, Liu-Meng; Wang, Yun-Hua; Pang, Wei; Tam, Siu-Cheung; Tien, Po; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2009-05-01

    Enfuvirtide (ENF) is currently the only FDA approved HIV fusion inhibitor in clinical use. Searching for more drugs in this category with higher efficacy and lower toxicity seems to be a logical next step. In line with this objective, a synthetic peptide with 36 amino acid residues, called Sifuvirtide (SFT), was designed based on the crystal structure of gp41. In this study, we show that SFT is a potent anti-HIV agent with relatively low cytotoxicity. SFT was found to inhibit replication of all tested HIV strains. The effective concentrations that inhibited 50% viral replication (EC(50)), as determined in all tested strains, were either comparable or lower than benchmark values derived from well-known anti-HIV drugs like ENF or AZT, while the cytotoxic concentrations causing 50% cell death (CC(50)) were relatively high, rendering it an ideal anti-HIV agent. A GST-pull down assay was performed to confirm that SFT is a fusion inhibitor. Furthermore, the activity of SFT on other targets in the HIV life cycle was also investigated, and all assays showed negative results. To further understand the mechanism of action of HIV peptide inhibitors, resistant variants of HIV-1(IIIB) were derived by serial virus passage in the presence of increasing doses of SFT or ENF. The results showed that there was cross-resistance between SFT and ENF. In conclusion, SFT is an ideal anti-HIV agent with high potency and low cytotoxicity, but may exhibit a certain extent of cross-resistance with ENF.

  7. Potent pyrrolidine- and piperidine-based BACE-1 inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Iserloh, U.; Wu, Y.; Cumming, J.N.; Pan, J.; Wang, L.Y.; Stamford, A.W.; Kennedy, M.E.; Kuvelkar, R.; Chen, X.; Parker, E.M.; Strickland, C.; Voigt, J.

    2008-08-18

    Based on lead compound 1 identified from the patent literature, we developed novel patentable BACE-1 inhibitors by introducing a cyclic amine scaffold. Extensive SAR studies on both pyrrolidines and piperidines ultimately led to inhibitor 2f, one of the most potent inhibitors synthesized to date. The discovery and development of novel BACE-1 inhibitors incorporating a cyclic amine scaffold is described.

  8. Potent macrocyclic inhibitors of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) by olefin ring-closing metathesis.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Hanna; Demaegdt, Heidi; Johnsson, Anders; Vauquelin, Georges; Lindeberg, Gunnar; Hallberg, Mathias; Erdelyi, Mate; Karlen, Anders; Hallberg, Anders

    2011-06-01

    Macrocyclic analogues of angiotensin IV (Ang IV, Val(1)-Tyr(2)-Ile(3)-His(4)-Pro(5)-Phe(6)) targeting the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) have been designed, synthesized, and evaluated biologically. Replacement of His(4)-Pro(5)-Phe(6) by a 2-(aminomethyl)phenylacetic acid (AMPAA) moiety and of Val(1) and Ile(3) by amino acids bearing olefinic side chains followed by macrocyclization provided potent IRAP inhibitors. The impact of the ring size and the type (saturated versus unsaturated), configuration, and position of the carbon-carbon bridge was assessed. The ring size generally affects the potency more than the carbon-carbon bond characteristics. Replacing Tyr(2) by β(3)hTyr or Phe is accepted, while N-methylation of Tyr(2) is deleterious for activity. Removal of the carboxyl group in the C-terminal slightly reduced the potency. Inhibitors 7 (K(i) = 4.1 nM) and 19 (K(i) = 1.8 nM), both encompassing 14-membered ring systems connected to AMPAA, are 10-fold more potent than Ang IV and are also more selective over aminopeptidase N (AP-N). Both compounds displayed high stability against proteolysis by metallopeptidases.

  9. Aminofurazans as potent inhibitors of AKT kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Rouse, Meagan B.; Seefeld, Mark A.; Leber, Jack D.; McNulty, Kenneth C.; Sun, Lihui; Miller, William H.; Zhang, ShuYun; Minthorn, Elisabeth A.; Concha, Nestor O.; Choudhry, Anthony E.; Schaber, Michael D.; Heerding, Dirk A.

    2009-06-24

    AKT inhibitors containing an imidazopyridine aminofurazan scaffold have been optimized. We have previously disclosed identification of the AKT inhibitor GSK690693, which has been evaluated in clinical trials in cancer patients. Herein we describe recent efforts focusing on investigating a distinct region of this scaffold that have afforded compounds (30 and 32) with comparable activity profiles to that of GSK690693.

  10. Identification of potent, selective KDM5 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gehling, Victor S; Bellon, Steven F; Harmange, Jean-Christophe; LeBlanc, Yves; Poy, Florence; Odate, Shobu; Buker, Shane; Lan, Fei; Arora, Shilpi; Williamson, Kaylyn E; Sandy, Peter; Cummings, Richard T; Bailey, Christopher M; Bergeron, Louise; Mao, Weifeng; Gustafson, Amy; Liu, Yichin; VanderPorten, Erica; Audia, James E; Trojer, Patrick; Albrecht, Brian K

    2016-09-01

    This communication describes the identification and optimization of a series of pan-KDM5 inhibitors derived from compound 1, a hit initially identified against KDM4C. Compound 1 was optimized to afford compound 20, a 10nM inhibitor of KDM5A. Compound 20 is highly selective for the KDM5 enzymes versus other histone lysine demethylases and demonstrates activity in a cellular assay measuring the increase in global histone 3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3). In addition compound 20 has good ADME properties, excellent mouse PK, and is a suitable starting point for further optimization. PMID:27476424

  11. A series of novel, potent, and selective histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jones, Philip; Altamura, Sergio; Chakravarty, Prasun K; Cecchetti, Ottavia; De Francesco, Raffaele; Gallinari, Paola; Ingenito, Raffaele; Meinke, Peter T; Petrocchi, Alessia; Rowley, Michael; Scarpelli, Rita; Serafini, Sergio; Steinkühler, Christian

    2006-12-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors offer a promising strategy for cancer therapy and the first generation HDAC inhibitors are currently in clinical trials. A structurally novel series of HDAC inhibitors based on the natural cyclic tetrapeptide Apicidin is described. Selected screening of the sample collection looking for L-2-amino-8-oxodecanoic acid (L-Aoda) derivatives identified a small acyclic lead molecule 1 with the unusual ketone zinc binding group. SAR studies around this lead resulted in optimization to potent, low molecular weight, selective, non-hydroxamic acid HDAC inhibitors, equipotent to current clinical candidates.

  12. Peptide deformylase inhibitors as potent antimycobacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Teo, Jeanette W P; Thayalan, Pamela; Beer, David; Yap, Amelia S L; Nanjundappa, Mahesh; Ngew, Xinyi; Duraiswamy, Jeyaraj; Liung, Sarah; Dartois, Veronique; Schreiber, Mark; Hasan, Samiul; Cynamon, Michael; Ryder, Neil S; Yang, Xia; Weidmann, Beat; Bracken, Kathryn; Dick, Thomas; Mukherjee, Kakoli

    2006-11-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of the N-terminal formyl group from nascent proteins. This is an essential step in bacterial protein synthesis, making PDF an attractive target for antibacterial drug development. Essentiality of the def gene, encoding PDF from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was demonstrated through genetic knockout experiments with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. PDF from M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv was cloned, expressed, and purified as an N-terminal histidine-tagged recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. A novel class of PDF inhibitors (PDF-I), the N-alkyl urea hydroxamic acids, were synthesized and evaluated for their activities against the M. tuberculosis PDF enzyme as well as their antimycobacterial effects. Several compounds from the new class had 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of <100 nM. Some of the PDF-I displayed antibacterial activity against M. tuberculosis, including MDR strains with MIC90 values of <1 microM. Pharmacokinetic studies of potential leads showed that the compounds were orally bioavailable. Spontaneous resistance towards these inhibitors arose at a frequency of < or =5 x 10(-7) in M. bovis BCG. DNA sequence analysis of several spontaneous PDF-I-resistant mutants revealed that half of the mutants had acquired point mutations in their formyl methyltransferase gene (fmt), which formylated Met-tRNA. The results from this study validate M. tuberculosis PDF as a drug target and suggest that this class of compounds have the potential to be developed as novel antimycobacterial agents.

  13. Rapid assembly of diverse and potent allosteric Akt inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhicai; Robinson, Ronald G; Fu, Sheng; Barnett, Stanley F; Defeo-Jones, Deborah; Jones, Raymond E; Kral, Astrid M; Huber, Hans E; Kohl, Nancy E; Hartman, George D; Bilodeau, Mark T

    2008-03-15

    This paper describes the rapid assembly of four different classes of potent Akt inhibitors from a common intermediate. Among them, a pyridopyrimidine series displayed the best intrinsic and cell potency against Akt1 and Akt2. This series also showed a promising pharmacokinetic profile and excellent selectivity over other closely related kinases.

  14. Identification of potent inhibitors of the chicken soluble epoxide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Shihadih, Diyala S.; Harris, Todd R.; Yang, Jun; Merzlikin, Oleg; Lee, Kin Sing S.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Morisseau, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In vertebrates, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyzes natural epoxy-fatty acids (EpFAs), which are chemical mediators modulating inflammation, pain, and angiogenesis. Chick embryos are used to study angiogenesis, particularly its role in cardiovascular biology and pathology. To find potent and bio-stable inhibitors of the chicken sEH (chxEH) a library of human sEH inhibitors was screened. Derivatives of 1(adamantan-1-yl)-3-(trans-4-phenoxycyclohexyl) urea were found to be very potent tight binding inhibitors (KI < 150 pM) of chxEH while being relatively stable in chicken liver microsomes, suggesting their usefulness to study the role of EpFAs in chickens. PMID:25479771

  15. 9-Benzoyl 9-deazaguanines as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marili V N; Barbosa, Alexandre F; da Silva, Júlia F; dos Santos, Deborah A; Vanzolini, Kenia L; de Moraes, Marcela C; Corrêa, Arlene G; Cass, Quezia B

    2016-01-15

    A novel potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor, 3-nitrobenzoyl 9-deazaguanine (LSPN451), was selected from a series of 10 synthetic derivatives. The enzymatic assays were carried out using an on-flow bidimensional liquid chromatography (2D LC) system, which allowed the screening¸ the measurement of the kinetic inhibition constant and the characterization of the inhibition mode. This compound showed a non-competitive inhibition mechanism with more affinity for the enzyme-substrate complex than for the free enzyme, and inhibition constant of 55.1±9.80 nM, about thirty times more potent than allopurinol. Further details of synthesis and enzymatic studies are presented herein.

  16. Identification of azabenzimidazoles as potent JAK1 selective inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vasbinder, Melissa M; Alimzhanov, Marat; Augustin, Martin; Bebernitz, Geraldine; Bell, Kirsten; Chuaqui, Claudio; Deegan, Tracy; Ferguson, Andrew D; Goodwin, Kelly; Huszar, Dennis; Kawatkar, Aarti; Kawatkar, Sameer; Read, Jon; Shi, Jie; Steinbacher, Stefan; Steuber, Holger; Su, Qibin; Toader, Dorin; Wang, Haixia; Woessner, Richard; Wu, Allan; Ye, Minwei; Zinda, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We have identified a class of azabenzimidazoles as potent and selective JAK1 inhibitors. Investigations into the SAR are presented along with the structural features required to achieve selectivity for JAK1 versus other JAK family members. An example from the series demonstrated highly selective inhibition of JAK1 versus JAK2 and JAK3, along with inhibition of pSTAT3 in vivo, enabling it to serve as a JAK1 selective tool compound to further probe the biology of JAK1 selective inhibitors. PMID:26614408

  17. Potent norovirus inhibitors based on the acyclic sulfamide scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Dengfeng; Tiew, Kok-Chuan; Rao Mandadapu, Sivakoteswara; Reddy Gunnam, Mallikarjuna; Alliston, Kevin R.; Kim, Yunjeong; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Groutas, William C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of small molecule therapeutics to combat norovirus infection is of considerable interest from a public health perspective because of the highly contagious nature of noroviruses. A series of amino acid-derived acyclic sulfamide-based norovirus inhibitors has been synthesized and evaluated using a cell-based replicon system. Several compounds were found to display potent anti-norovirus activity, low toxicity, and good aqueous solubility. These compounds are suitable for further optimization of pharmacological and ADMET properties. PMID:22356738

  18. Design of potent substrate-analogue inhibitors of canine renin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, K. Y.; Siragy, H. M.; Haber, E.

    1992-01-01

    Through a systematic study of structure-activity relationships, we designed potent renin inhibitors for use in dog models. In assays against dog plasma renin at neutral pH, we found that, as in previous studies of rat renin inhibitors, the structure at the P2 position appears to be important for potency. The substitution of Val for His at this position increases potency by one order of magnitude. At the P3 position, potency appears to depend on a hydrophobic side chain that does not necessarily have to be aromatic. Our results also support the approach of optimizing potency in a renin inhibitor by introducing a moiety that promotes aqueous solubility (an amino group) at the C-terminus of the substrate analogue. In the design of potent dog plasma renin inhibitors, the influence of the transition-state residue 4(S)-amino-3(S)-hydroxy-5-cyclohexylpentanoic acid (ACHPA)-commonly used as a substitute for the scissile-bond dipeptide to boost potency-is not obvious, and appears to be sequence dependent. The canine renin inhibitor Ac-paF-Pro-Phe-Val-statine-Leu-Phe-paF-NH2 (compound 15; IC50 of 1.7 nM against dog plasma renin at pH 7.4; statine, 4(S)-amino-3(S)-hydroxy-6-methylheptanoic acid; paF, para-aminophenylalanine) had a potent hypotensive effect when infused intravenously into conscious, sodium-depleted, normotensive dogs. Also, compound 15 concurrently inhibited plasma renin activity and had a profound diuretic effect.

  19. Potent, Reversible, and Specific Chemical Inhibitors of Eukaryotic Ribosome Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Shigehiro A; Chen, Zhen; Aoi, Yuki; Patgiri, Anupam; Kobayashi, Yuki; Nurse, Paul; Kapoor, Tarun M

    2016-10-01

    All cellular proteins are synthesized by ribosomes, whose biogenesis in eukaryotes is a complex multi-step process completed within minutes. Several chemical inhibitors of ribosome function are available and used as tools or drugs. By contrast, we lack potent validated chemical probes to analyze the dynamics of eukaryotic ribosome assembly. Here, we combine chemical and genetic approaches to discover ribozinoindoles (or Rbins), potent and reversible triazinoindole-based inhibitors of eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis. Analyses of Rbin sensitivity and resistance conferring mutations in fission yeast, along with biochemical assays with recombinant proteins, provide evidence that Rbins' physiological target is Midasin, an essential ∼540-kDa AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) protein. Using Rbins to acutely inhibit or activate Midasin function, in parallel experiments with inhibitor-sensitive or inhibitor-resistant cells, we uncover Midasin's role in assembling Nsa1 particles, nucleolar precursors of the 60S subunit. Together, our findings demonstrate that Rbins are powerful probes for eukaryotic ribosome assembly.

  20. Discovery of potent wall teichoic acid early stage inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Labroli, Marc A; Caldwell, John P; Yang, Christine; Lee, Sang Ho; Wang, Hao; Koseoglu, Sandra; Mann, Paul; Yang, Shu-Wei; Xiao, Jing; Garlisi, Charles G; Tan, Christopher; Roemer, Terry; Su, Jing

    2016-08-15

    The widespread emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has dramatically eroded the efficacy of current β-lactam antibiotics and created an urgent need for novel treatment options. Using an S. aureus phenotypic screening strategy, we have identified small molecule early stage wall teichoic acid (WTA) pathway-specific inhibitors predicted to be chemically synergistic with β-lactams. These previously disclosed inhibitors, termed tarocins, demonstrate by genetic and biochemical means inhibition of TarO, the first step in WTA biosynthesis. Tarocins demonstrate potent bactericidal synergy in combination with broad spectrum β-lactam antibiotics across diverse clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. The synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a tarocin series will be detailed. Tarocins and other WTA inhibitors may provide a rational strategy to develop Gram-positive bactericidal β-lactam combination agents active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. PMID:27436582

  1. Polyoxometalates--potent and selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yong; Fiene, Amelie; Li, Wenjin; Hanck, Theodor; Brylev, Konstantin A; Fedorov, Vladimir E; Lecka, Joanna; Haider, Ali; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen; Zimmermann, Herbert; Sévigny, Jean; Kortz, Ulrich; Stephan, Holger; Müller, Christa E

    2015-01-15

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are inorganic cluster metal complexes that possess versatile biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antiviral effects. Their mechanisms of action at the molecular level are largely unknown. However, it has been suggested that the inhibition of several enzyme families (e.g., phosphatases, protein kinases or ecto-nucleotidases) by POMs may contribute to their pharmacological properties. Ecto-nucleotidases are cell membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins involved in the hydrolysis of extracellular nucleotides thereby regulating purinergic (and pyrimidinergic) signaling. They comprise four distinct families: ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases), ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatases/phosphodiesterases (NPPs), alkaline phosphatases (APs) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN). In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory potency of a series of polyoxometalates as well as chalcogenide hexarhenium cluster complexes at a broad range of ecto-nucleotidases. [Co4(H2O)2(PW9O34)2](10-) (5, PSB-POM142) was discovered to be the most potent inhibitor of human NTPDase1 described so far (Ki: 3.88 nM). Other investigated POMs selectively inhibited human NPP1, [TiW11CoO40](8-) (4, PSB-POM141, Ki: 1.46 nM) and [NaSb9W21O86](18-) (6, PSB-POM143, Ki: 4.98 nM) representing the most potent and selective human NPP1 inhibitors described to date. [NaP5W30O110](14-) (8, PSB-POM144) strongly inhibited NTPDase1-3 and NPP1 and may therefore be used as a pan-inhibitor to block ATP hydrolysis. The polyoxoanionic compounds displayed a non-competitive mechanism of inhibition of NPPs and eN, but appeared to be competitive inhibitors of TNAP. Future in vivo studies with selected inhibitors identified in the current study are warranted. PMID:25449596

  2. Design of translactam HCMV protease inhibitors as potent antivirals.

    PubMed

    Borthwick, Alan D

    2005-07-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important pathogen for which there is a significant unmet medical need. New HCMV antivirals, active against novel molecular targets, are undoubtedly needed as the currently available drugs ganciclovir, cidofovir, and foscarnet, which are all viral DNA inhibitors, suffer from limited effectiveness, mainly due to the development of drug resistance, poor bioavailability, and toxicity. One of the newer molecular targets that has been exploited in the search for better drug candidates is HCMV protease. Our deltaAla HCMV protease (wild type variant with the internal cleavage site deleted) was cloned and expressed in E. coli. This viral enzyme was used to develop HCMV protease assays to evaluate potential inhibitors. The chirally pure (SRS)-alpha-methyl pyrrolidine-5,5-trans-lactam template was synthesized, which together with the natural substrate requirements of HCMV protease and detailed SAR, was used to design potent and selective mechanism based inhibitors of HCMV protease. The mechanism of action of these inhibitors of HCMV protease was investigated by ESI/MS, and the X-ray crystal structure of the HCMV protease was used to refine our selective viral enzyme inhibitors to obtain plasma stable antivirals. A novel ELISA antiviral assay was developed which, together with a cytotoxicity assay, enabled us to discover anti-HCMV drug candidates equivalent in potency to ganciclovir that had good pharmacokinetics in the dog and good brain and ocular penetration in the guinea pig.

  3. Total synthesis of thapsigargin, a potent SERCA pump inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ball, Matthew; Andrews, Stephen P; Wierschem, Frank; Cleator, Ed; Smith, Martin D; Ley, Steven V

    2007-02-15

    The enantioselective total synthesis of thapsigargin, a potent, selective inhibitor of the Ca2+ pump SERCA, is described. Starting from ketoalcohol 8, key steps involve regioselective introduction of the internal olefin at C4-C5, judicious protecting group choice to allow chelation-controlled reduction at C3, and chemoselective introduction of the angelate ester function at C3-O. A selective esterification approach completes the total synthesis in a total of 42 steps and 0.61% overall yield (88.6% average yield per step). [reaction: see text].

  4. Pyrazolopyridines as potent PDE4B inhibitors: 5-Heterocycle SAR

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Charlotte J.; Ballantine, Stuart P.; Coe, Diane M.; Cook, Caroline M.; Delves, Christopher J.; Dowle, Mike D.; Edlin, Chris D.; Hamblin, J. Nicole; Holman, Stuart; Johnson, Martin R.; Jones, Paul S.; Keeling, Sue E.; Kranz, Michael; Lindvall, Mika; Lucas, Fiona S.; Neu, Margarete; Solanke, Yemisi E.; Somers, Don O.; Trivedi, Naimisha A.; Wiseman, Joanne O.

    2012-05-03

    Following the discovery of 4-(substituted amino)-1-alkyl-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carboxamides as potent and selective phosphodiesterase 4B inhibitors, [Hamblin, J. N.; Angell, T.; Ballentine, S., et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.2008, 18, 4237] the SAR of the 5-position was investigated further. A range of substituted heterocycles showed good potencies against PDE4. Optimisation using X-ray crystallography and computational modelling led to the discovery of 16, with sub-nM inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} production from isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  5. Identification of potent and selective inhibitors of PDGF receptor autophosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Takayuki; Sakai, Teruyuki; Senga, Terufumi; Osawa, Tatsushi; Kubo, Kazuo; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Rika; Yoshino, Tetsuya; Endo, Megumi; Miwa, Atsushi

    2006-04-01

    We report the structure-activity relationship of quinoline and quinazoline derivatives, which include urea, thiourea, urethane, and acylthiourea groups, as inhibitors of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor autophosphorylation. Our previous studies showed that the quinoline and quinazoline derivatives including urea, thiourea, and carbamate groups were highly potent compounds as the PDGF receptor autophosphorylation inhibitor, but these compounds did not exhibit receptor selectivity between the PDGF receptor and the c-kit receptor. As a result of further synthesis and biological evaluation, we have found that the quinoline and quinazoline-acylthiourea derivatives showed not only good inhibitory activity for the PDGF receptor but also receptor selectivity between the PDGF receptor and the c-kit receptor. Furthermore N-{4-[(6,7-dimethoxy-4-quinolyl)oxy]phenyl}-N'-(2-methylbenzoyl)thiourea exhibited potent oral efficacy in in vivo assay using the rat carotid balloon injury model. Therefore, the quinoline and quinazoline-acylthiourea derivatives may be expected to have potential as therapeutic agents for the treatment of restenosis. PMID:16570914

  6. Cyclic amidine sugars as transition-state analogue inhibitors of glycosidases: potent competitive inhibitors of mannosidases.

    PubMed

    Heck, Marie-Pierre; Vincent, Stéphane P; Murray, Brion W; Bellamy, François; Wong, Chi-Huey; Mioskowski, Charles

    2004-02-25

    A series of monocyclic glycoamidines bearing different exocyclic amine, alcohol, or alkyl functionalities and bicyclic amidines derived from D-glucose and D-mannose were synthesized and tested as inhibitors of various glycosidases. All the prepared compounds demonstrated good to excellent inhibition toward glycosidases. In particular, the biscationic D-mannoamidine 9b bearing an exocyclic ethylamine moiety proved to be a selective competitive inhibitor of alpha- and beta-mannosidases (K(i) = 6 nM) making it the most potent inhibitor of these glycosidases reported to date. A favorable B(2,5) boat conformation might explain the selectivity of mannosidase inhibition compared to other glycosidases.

  7. Neuroleptics of the diphenylbutylpiperidine series are potent calcium channel inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Galizzi, J P; Fosset, M; Romey, G; Laduron, P; Lazdunski, M

    1986-01-01

    [3H]Fluspirilene, a neuroleptic molecule of the diphenylbutylpiperidine series, binds to skeletal muscle transverse tubule membranes with a high affinity corresponding to a Kd of 0.11 +/- 0.04 nM, A 1:1 stoichiometry was found between [3H]fluspirilene binding and the binding of (-)-[3H]desmethoxyverapamil [(-)[3H]D888], one of the most potent Ca2+ channel inhibitors. Ca2+ channel inhibitors such as D888, verapamil, gallopamil, bepridil, or diltiazem antagonize [3H]fluspirilene binding besides antagonizing (-)[3H]-D888 binding. Neuroleptics, especially those of the diphenylbutylpiperidine family, also antagonize both (-)[3H]D888 binding and [3H]fluspirilene binding. There is an excellent correlation between affinities found from [3H]fluspirilene binding experiments and those found from (-)[3H]D888 binding experiments. Analysis of the properties of these cross-inhibitions indicates that [3H]fluspirilene binds to a site that is not identical to that for phenylalkylamine derivatives (gallopamil, verapamil, diltiazem, and bepridil). Voltage-clamp experiments have shown that fluspirilene is an efficient inhibitor of the voltage dependent Ca2+ channel, achieving a half-maximal effect near 0.1-0.2 nM and nearly complete blockade at 1 nM. Fluspirilene blockade has little voltage dependence. PMID:2429309

  8. 2-acetylphenol analogs as potent reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Legoabe, Lesetja J; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2015-01-01

    Based on a previous report that substituted 2-acetylphenols may be promising leads for the design of novel monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, a series of C5-substituted 2-acetylphenol analogs (15) and related compounds (two) were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of human MAO-A and MAO-B. Generally, the study compounds exhibited inhibitory activities against both MAO-A and MAO-B, with selectivity for the B isoform. Among the compounds evaluated, seven compounds exhibited IC50 values <0.01 µM for MAO-B inhibition, with the most selective compound being 17,000-fold selective for MAO-B over the MAO-A isoform. Analyses of the structure–activity relationships for MAO inhibition show that substitution on the C5 position of the 2-acetylphenol moiety is a requirement for MAO-B inhibition, and the benzyloxy substituent is particularly favorable in this regard. This study concludes that C5-substituted 2-acetylphenol analogs are potent and selective MAO-B inhibitors, appropriate for the design of therapies for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26203229

  9. 2-acetylphenol analogs as potent reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Legoabe, Lesetja J; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2015-01-01

    Based on a previous report that substituted 2-acetylphenols may be promising leads for the design of novel monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, a series of C5-substituted 2-acetylphenol analogs (15) and related compounds (two) were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of human MAO-A and MAO-B. Generally, the study compounds exhibited inhibitory activities against both MAO-A and MAO-B, with selectivity for the B isoform. Among the compounds evaluated, seven compounds exhibited IC50 values <0.01 µM for MAO-B inhibition, with the most selective compound being 17,000-fold selective for MAO-B over the MAO-A isoform. Analyses of the structure-activity relationships for MAO inhibition show that substitution on the C5 position of the 2-acetylphenol moiety is a requirement for MAO-B inhibition, and the benzyloxy substituent is particularly favorable in this regard. This study concludes that C5-substituted 2-acetylphenol analogs are potent and selective MAO-B inhibitors, appropriate for the design of therapies for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

  10. Some coumarins and benzoxazinones as potent paraoxonase 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Karataş, Mert Olgun; Uslu, Harun; Alıcı, Bülent; Gökçe, Başak; Gencer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of some coumarin and benzoxazinone derivatives on the activity of human PON1. Human serum paraoxonase 1 was purified from fresh human serum blood by two-step procedures that are ammonium sulfate precipitation (60-80%) and then hydrophobic interaction chromatography (Sepharose 4B, L-tyrosine and 1-napthylamine). The enzyme was purified 232-fold with a final specific activity of 27.1 U/mg. In vitro effects of some previously synthesized ionic coumarin or benzoxazinone derivatives (1-21) on purified PON1 activity were investigated. Compound 14 (1-(2,3,4,5,6)-pentamethylbenzyl-3-(6,8-dimethyl-2H-chromen-2-one-4-yl))benzimidazolium chloride was found out as the strongest inhibitor (IC50 = 7.84 μM) for PON1 among the compounds. Kinetic investigation and molecular docking study were evaluated for one of the most active compounds (compound 12) and obtained data showed that this compound is competitive inhibitor of PON1 and interact with Leu262 and Ser263 in the active site of PON1. Moreover, coumarin derivatives were found out as the more potent inhibitors for PON1 than benzoxazinone derivatives. PMID:26887799

  11. Development of potent inhibitors of the coxsackievirus 3C protease

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eui Seung; Lee, Won Gil; Yun, Soo-Hyeon; Rho, Seong Hwan; Im, Isak; Yang, Sung Tae; Sellamuthu, Saravanan; Lee, Yong Jae; Kwon, Sun Jae; Park, Ohkmae K.; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Park, Woo Jin . E-mail: wjpark@gist.ac.kr; Kim, Yong-Chul . E-mail: yongchul@gist.ac.kr

    2007-06-22

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) 3C protease (3CP) plays essential roles in the viral replication cycle, and therefore, provides an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of human diseases caused by CVB3 infection. CVB3 3CP and human rhinovirus (HRV) 3CP have a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity. Comparative modeling of these two 3CPs revealed one prominent distinction; an Asn residue delineating the S2' pocket in HRV 3CP is replaced by a Tyr residue in CVB3 3CP. AG7088, a potent inhibitor of HRV 3CP, was modified by substitution of the ethyl group at the P2' position with various hydrophobic aromatic rings that are predicted to interact preferentially with the Tyr residue in the S2' pocket of CVB3 3CP. The resulting derivatives showed dramatically increased inhibitory activities against CVB3 3CP. In addition, one of the derivatives effectively inhibited the CVB3 proliferation in vitro.

  12. Identification of potent maturation inhibitors against HIV-1 clade C

    PubMed Central

    Timilsina, Uddhav; Ghimire, Dibya; Timalsina, Bivek; Nitz, Theodore J.; Wild, Carl T.; Freed, Eric O.; Gaur, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has led to a profound improvement in the clinical care of HIV-infected patients. However, drug tolerability and the evolution of drug resistance have limited treatment options for many patients. Maturation inhibitors are a new class of antiretroviral agents for treatment of HIV-1. They act by interfering with the maturation of the virus by blocking the last step in Gag processing: the cleavage of the capsid-spacer peptide 1 (CA-SP1) intermediate to mature CA by the viral protease (PR). The first-in-class maturation inhibitor bevirimat (BVM) failed against a subset of HIV-1 isolates in clinical trials due to polymorphisms present in the CA-SP1 region of the Gag protein. Sequence analysis indicated that these polymorphisms are more common in non-clade B strains of HIV-1 such as HIV-1 clade C. Indeed, BVM was found to be ineffective against HIV-1 clade C molecular clones tested in this study. A number of BVM analogs were synthesized by chemical modifications at the C-28 position to improve its activity. The new BVM analogs displayed potent activity against HIV-1 clade B and C and also reduced infectivity of the virus. This study identifies novel and broadly active BVM analogs that may ultimately demonstrate efficacy in the clinic. PMID:27264714

  13. Pyrazolopyrimidines: Potent Inhibitors Targeting the Capsid of Rhino- and Enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Vadim A; Braun, Heike; Richter, Martina; Riabova, Olga B; Kirchmair, Johannes; Kazakova, Elena S; Seidel, Nora; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2015-10-01

    There are currently no drugs available for the treatment of enterovirus (EV)-induced acute and chronic diseases such as the common cold, meningitis, encephalitis, pneumonia, and myocarditis with or without consecutive dilated cardiomyopathy. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of pyrazolopyrimidines, a well-tolerated and potent class of novel EV inhibitors. The compounds inhibit the replication of a broad spectrum of EV in vitro with IC50 values between 0.04 and 0.64 μM for viruses resistant to pleconaril, a known capsid-binding inhibitor, without affecting cytochrome P450 enzyme activity. Using virological and genetics methods, the viral capsid was identified as the target of the most promising, orally bioavailable compound 3-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)amino-6-phenylpyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-4-amine (OBR-5-340). Its prophylactic as well as therapeutic application was proved for coxsackievirus B3-induced chronic myocarditis in mice. The favorable pharmacokinetic, toxicological, and pharmacodynamics profile in mice renders OBR-5-340 a highly promising drug candidate, and the regulatory nonclinical program is ongoing.

  14. Phenolic Amides Are Potent Inhibitors of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B; O'Brien, Thomas J; Stevenson, David M; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposure leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using (13)C-labeled sugars and [(15)N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. The results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals.

  15. Phenolic Amides Are Potent Inhibitors of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B.; O'Brien, Thomas J.; Stevenson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposure leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using 13C-labeled sugars and [15N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. The results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals. PMID:26070680

  16. Toluidine blue O is a potent inhibitor of human cholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Biberoglu, Kevser; Tek, Melike Yuksel; Ghasemi, Seyhan Turk; Tacal, Ozden

    2016-08-15

    In this study, the inhibitory effects of three phenothiazines [toluidine blue O (TBO), thionine (TH) and methylene violet (MV)] were tested on human plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and their inhibitory mechanisms were studied in detail. MV acted as a linear mixed type inhibitor of human BChE with Ki = 0.66 ± 0.06 μM and α = 13.6 ± 3.5. TBO and TH caused nonlinear inhibition of human BChE, compatible to double occupancy. Ki values estimated by nonlinear regression analysis for TBO and TH were 0.008 ± 0.003 μM and 2.1 ± 0.42 μM, respectively. The inhibitory potential of TBO was also tested on human erythrocyte AChE. TBO acted as a linear mixed type inhibitor of human AChE with Ki = 0.041 ± 0.005 μM and α = 1.6 ± 0.007. Using four site-directed BChE mutants, the role of peripheral anionic site residues of human BChE was also investigated in the binding of TBO to BChE. The peripheral anionic site mutants of BChE caused 16-69-fold increase in Ki value of TBO, compared to recombinant wild-type, suggesting that peripheral anionic site residues are involved in the binding of TBO to human BChE. In conclusion, TBO which is a potent inhibitor of human cholinesterases, may be a potential drug candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27296777

  17. Phenolic Amides Are Potent Inhibitors of De Novo Nucleotide Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Jacobson, Tyler B; O'Brien, Thomas J; Stevenson, David M; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    An outstanding challenge toward efficient production of biofuels and value-added chemicals from plant biomass is the impact that lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have on microbial fermentations. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their toxicity is critical for developing strategies to overcome them. Here, using Escherichia coli as a model system, we investigated the metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of feruloyl amide and coumaroyl amide, the predominant phenolic compounds in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates. Using metabolomics, isotope tracers, and biochemical assays, we showed that these two phenolic amides act as potent and fast-acting inhibitors of purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Feruloyl or coumaroyl amide exposure leads to (i) a rapid buildup of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), a key precursor in nucleotide biosynthesis, (ii) a rapid decrease in the levels of pyrimidine biosynthetic intermediates, and (iii) a long-term generalized decrease in nucleotide and deoxynucleotide levels. Tracer experiments using (13)C-labeled sugars and [(15)N]ammonia demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen fluxes into nucleotides and deoxynucleotides are inhibited by these phenolic amides. We found that these effects are mediated via direct inhibition of glutamine amidotransferases that participate in nucleotide biosynthetic pathways. In particular, feruloyl amide is a competitive inhibitor of glutamine PRPP amidotransferase (PurF), which catalyzes the first committed step in de novo purine biosynthesis. Finally, external nucleoside supplementation prevents phenolic amide-mediated growth inhibition by allowing nucleotide biosynthesis via salvage pathways. The results presented here will help in the development of strategies to overcome toxicity of phenolic compounds and facilitate engineering of more efficient microbial producers of biofuels and chemicals. PMID:26070680

  18. Optimization of a series of potent and selective ketone histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pescatore, Giovanna; Kinzel, Olaf; Attenni, Barbara; Cecchetti, Ottavia; Fiore, Fabrizio; Fonsi, Massimiliano; Rowley, Michael; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Serafini, Sergio; Steinkühler, Christian; Jones, Philip

    2008-10-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors offer a promising strategy for cancer therapy and the first generation HDAC inhibitors are currently in the clinic. Herein we describe the optimization of a series of ketone small molecule HDAC inhibitors leading to potent and selective class I HDAC inhibitors with good dog PK.

  19. Nicotinamide is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    UNGERSTEDT, J S; BLOMBÄCK, M; SöDERSTRÖM, T

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigates the modulating effects of nicotinamide on the cytokine response to endotoxin. In an in vitro model of endotoxaemia, human whole blood was stimulated for two hours with endotoxin at 1 ng/ml, achieving high levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα. When coincubating whole blood, endotoxin and the vitamin B3 derivative nicotinamide, all four cytokines measured were inhibited in a dose dependent manner. Inhibition was observed already at a nicotinamide concentration of 2 mmol/l. At a concentration of 40 mmol/l, the IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα responses were reduced by more than 95% and the IL-8 levels reduced by 85%. Endotoxin stimulation activates poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), a nuclear DNA repair enzyme. It has been hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of nicotinamide are due to PARP inhibition. In the present study, the endotoxin induced PARP activation was dose dependently decreased with 4–40 mmol/l nicotinamide or 4–100 µmol/l 6(5H) phenanthridinone, a specific PARP inhibitor. 6(5H)phenanthridinone however, failed to inhibit the proinflammatory cytokines. Thus, the mechanism behind the cytokine inhibition in our model seems not to be due to PARP inhibition. In conclusion, the present study could not only confirm previous reports of a down-regulatory effect on TNFα, but demonstrates that nicotinamide is a potent modulator of several proinflammatory cytokines. These findings demonstrate that nicotinamide has a potent immunomodulatory effect in vitro, and may have great potential for treatment of human inflammatory disease. PMID:12519385

  20. Discovery of two new classes of potent monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors by tricky chemistry.

    PubMed

    Cagide, F; Silva, T; Reis, J; Gaspar, A; Borges, F; Gomes, L R; Low, J N

    2015-02-18

    The discovery of potent and selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors for the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases is still a challenging endeavor. Herein, we report the discovery of two new classes of potent and selective MAO-B inhibitors based on chromane-2,4-dione and chromone-3-carboxamide scaffolds.

  1. Discovery of Potent Non-urea Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuli; Liu, Yidong; Gong, Gangli; Smith, Deborah H.; Yan, Fang; Rinderspacher, Alison; Feng, Yan; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Li, Xiangpo; Deng, Shi-Xian; Branden, Lars; Vidović, Dušica; Chung, Caty; Schürer, Stephan; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Landry, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a novel target for the treatment of hypertension and vascular inflammation. A new class of potent non-urea sEH inhibitors was identified via high throughput screening (HTS) and chemical modification. IC50s of the most potent compounds range from micromolar to low nanomolar. A Class of potent non-Urea inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase was discovered via high throughput screening and SARs-guided modification. PMID:19303288

  2. New, potent P1/P2-morpholinone-based HIV-protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kazmierski, Wieslaw M; Furfine, Eric; Spaltenstein, Andrew; Wright, Lois L

    2006-10-01

    We have developed efficient synthesis of morpholinone-based cyclic mimetics of the P1/P2 portion of the HIV-1 protease inhibitor Amprenavir. This effort led to discovery of allyl- and spiro-cyclopropyl-P2-substituted inhibitors 17 and 31, both 500 times more potent than the parent inhibitor 1. These results support morpholinones as novel mimetics of the P1/P2 portion of Amprenavir and potentially of other HIV-protease inhibitors, and thus provide a novel medicinal chemistry template for optimization toward more potent and drug-like inhibitors. PMID:16904316

  3. Echistatin is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption in culture.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Sardana, M K; Grasser, W A; Garsky, V M; Murray, J M; Gould, R J

    1990-10-01

    The venom protein, s-echistatin, originally derived from the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus, was found to be a potent inhibitor of bone resorption by isolated osteoclasts. This Arg24-Gly25-Asp26-(RGD)-containing protein inhibited the excavation of bone slices by rat osteoclasts (IC50 = 0.1 nM). It also inhibited the release of [3H]proline from labeled bone particles by chicken osteoclasts (IC50 = 100 nM). By comparison, the tetrapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) inhibited resorption by rat or chicken osteoclasts with an IC50 of 0.1 mM while ala24-echistatin was inactive. Video microscopy showed that rat osteoclast attachment to substrate was more sensitive to s-echistatin than was the attachment of mononuclear cells or chicken osteoclasts. The difference in sensitivity of rat and chicken osteoclasts to s-echistatin may be due to differences between receptors on rat and chicken osteoclasts for s-echistatin. Antibody localization of echistatin on these cells showed much greater echistatin binding to rat osteoclasts than to chicken osteoclasts. Laser scanning confocal microscopy after immunohistochemical staining showed that s-echistatin binds to osteoclasts, that s-echistatin receptors are most abundant at the osteoclast/glass interface, and that s-echistatin colocalizes with vinculin. Confocal interference reflection microscopy of osteoclasts incubated with s-echistatin, demonstrated colocalization of s-echistatin with the outer edges of clusters of grey contacts at the tips of some lamellipodia. Identification of the echistatin receptor as an integrin was confirmed by colocalization of echistatin fluorescence with staining for an alpha-like subunit. Attachment of bone particles labeled with [3H]proline to chicken osteoclasts confirmed that the mechanism of action of echistatin was to inhibit osteoclast binding to bone presumably by disrupting adhesion structures. These data demonstrate that osteoclasts bind to bone via an RGD-sequence as an obligatory step in bone

  4. Novel indole-3-sulfonamides as potent HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhijian; Wolkenberg, Scott E.; Lu, Meiqing; Munshi, Vandna; Moyer, Gregory; Feng, Meizhen; Carella, Anthony V.; Ecto, Linda T.; Gabryelski, Lori J.; Lai, Ming-Tain; Prasad, Sridar G.; Yan, Youwei; McGaughey, Georgia B.; Miller, Michael D.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hartman, George D.; Vacca, Joseph P.; Williams, Theresa M.

    2008-09-29

    This Letter describes the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel 3-indole sulfonamides as potent non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) with balanced profiles against common HIV RT mutants K103N and Y181C.

  5. New indolizine-chalcones as potent inhibitors of human farnesyltransferase: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moise, Iuliana-Monica; Ghinet, Alina; Belei, Dalila; Dubois, Joëlle; Farce, Amaury; Bîcu, Elena

    2016-08-01

    A new family of indolizine-chalcones was designed, synthesized and screened for the inhibitory potential on human farnesyltransferase in vitro to identify potent antitumor agents. The most active compound was phenothiazine 2a, exhibiting an IC50 value in the low nanomolar range, similar to that of known FTI-276, highly potent farnesyltransferase inhibitor. The newly synthesized indolizine-chalcones 2a-d constitute the most efficient inhibitors of farnesyltransferase bearing a phenothiazine unit known to date. PMID:27282741

  6. Hydroxychavicol: a potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor obtained from the leaves of betel, Piper betle.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Nakao, Kikuyo; Hirata, Noriko; Namba, Kensuke; Nomi, Takao; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Moriyama, Kenzo; Shintani, Takahiro; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    The screening of Piperaceous plants for xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity revealed that the extract of the leaves of Piper betle possesses potent activity. Activity-guided purification led us to obtain hydroxychavicol as an active principle. Hydroxychavicol is a more potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor than allopurinol, which is clinically used for the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  7. Synthesis, modelling and kinetic assays of potent inhibitors of purple acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Pahmi, Siti Hajar; Hussein, Waleed M; Schenk, Gerhard; McGeary, Ross P

    2011-05-15

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are binuclear metallohydrolases that have been isolated from various mammals, plants, fungi and bacteria. In mammals PAP activity is associated with bone resorption and can lead to bone metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis; thus human PAP is an attractive target to develop anti-osteoporotic drugs. Based on a previous lead compound and rational drug design, acyl derivatives of α-aminonaphthylmethylphosphonic acid were synthesised and tested as PAP inhibitors. Kinetic analysis showed that they are good PAP inhibitors whose potencies improve with increasing acyl chain length. Maximum potency is reached when the number of carbons in the acyl chain is between 12 and 14. The most potent inhibitor of red kidney bean PAP is the dodecyl-derivative with K(ic)=5 μM, while the most potent pig PAP inhibitor is the tetradecyl-derivative with K(ic)=8 μM, the most potent inhibitor of a mammalian PAP yet reported.

  8. Fragment-Based Discovery of Potent and Selective DDR1/2 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christopher W; Berdini, Valerio; Buck, Ildiko M; Carr, Maria E; Cleasby, Anne; Coyle, Joseph E; Curry, Jayne E; Day, James E H; Day, Phillip J; Hearn, Keisha; Iqbal, Aman; Lee, Lydia Y W; Martins, Vanessa; Mortenson, Paul N; Munck, Joanne M; Page, Lee W; Patel, Sahil; Roomans, Susan; Smith, Kirsten; Tamanini, Emiliano; Saxty, Gordon

    2015-07-01

    The DDR1 and DDR2 receptor tyrosine kinases are activated by extracellular collagen and have been implicated in a number of human diseases including cancer. We performed a fragment-based screen against DDR1 and identified fragments that bound either at the hinge or in the back pocket associated with the DFG-out conformation of the kinase. Modeling based on crystal structures of potent kinase inhibitors facilitated the "back-to-front" design of potent DDR1/2 inhibitors that incorporated one of the DFG-out fragments. Further optimization led to low nanomolar, orally bioavailable inhibitors that were selective for DDR1 and DDR2. The inhibitors were shown to potently inhibit DDR2 activity in cells but in contrast to unselective inhibitors such as dasatinib, they did not inhibit proliferation of mutant DDR2 lung SCC cell lines. PMID:26191369

  9. Fragment-Based Discovery of Potent and Selective DDR1/2 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The DDR1 and DDR2 receptor tyrosine kinases are activated by extracellular collagen and have been implicated in a number of human diseases including cancer. We performed a fragment-based screen against DDR1 and identified fragments that bound either at the hinge or in the back pocket associated with the DFG-out conformation of the kinase. Modeling based on crystal structures of potent kinase inhibitors facilitated the “back-to-front” design of potent DDR1/2 inhibitors that incorporated one of the DFG-out fragments. Further optimization led to low nanomolar, orally bioavailable inhibitors that were selective for DDR1 and DDR2. The inhibitors were shown to potently inhibit DDR2 activity in cells but in contrast to unselective inhibitors such as dasatinib, they did not inhibit proliferation of mutant DDR2 lung SCC cell lines. PMID:26191369

  10. Identification of potent and selective MTH1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Petrocchi, Alessia; Leo, Elisabetta; Reyna, Naphtali J; Hamilton, Matthew M; Shi, Xi; Parker, Connor A; Mseeh, Faika; Bardenhagen, Jennifer P; Leonard, Paul; Cross, Jason B; Huang, Sha; Jiang, Yongying; Cardozo, Mario; Draetta, Giulio; Marszalek, Joseph R; Toniatti, Carlo; Jones, Philip; Lewis, Richard T

    2016-03-15

    Structure based design of a novel class of aminopyrimidine MTH1 (MutT homolog 1) inhibitors is described. Optimization led to identification of IACS-4759 (compound 5), a sub-nanomolar inhibitor of MTH1 with excellent cell permeability and good metabolic stability in microsomes. This compound robustly inhibited MTH1 activity in cells and proved to be an excellent tool for interrogation of the utility of MTH1 inhibition in the context of oncology.

  11. Conformationally locked thiosugars as potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitors: synthesis, biochemical and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Sivapriya, K; Hariharaputran, S; Suhas, V L; Chandra, N; Chandrasekaran, S

    2007-09-01

    A series of thiosugar derivatives (thiolevomannosans) derived from mannose were synthesized and their inhibitory activity was tested against alpha-mannosidase (jack bean). These inhibitors were found to be more potent than the well-known inhibitors like kifunensine and deoxymannojirimycin based on docking and biochemical studies. The sulfone derivative 10 was shown to be the best inhibitor of alpha-mannosidase with the K(i) value of 350 nM.

  12. Development of a novel tricyclic class of potent and selective FIXa inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Meng, Dongfang; Andre, Patrick; Bateman, Thomas J; Berger, Richard; Chen, Yi-Heng; Desai, Kunal; Dewnani, Sunita; Ellsworth, Kenneth; Feng, Daming; Geissler, Wayne M; Guo, Liangqin; Hruza, Alan; Jian, Tianying; Li, Hong; Metzger, Joe; Parker, Dann L; Reichert, Paul; Sherer, Edward C; Smith, Cameron J; Sonatore, Lisa M; Tschirret-Guth, Richard; Wu, Jane; Xu, Jiayi; Zhang, Ting; Campeau, Louis-Charles; Orr, Robert; Poirier, Marc; McCabe-Dunn, Jamie; Araki, Kazuto; Nishimura, Teruyuki; Sakurada, Isao; Hirabayashi, Tomokazu; Wood, Harold B

    2015-11-15

    Using structure based drug design, a novel class of potent coagulation factor IXa (FIXa) inhibitors was designed and synthesized. High selectivity over FXa inhibition was achieved. Selected compounds were evaluated in rat IV/PO pharmacokinetic (PK) studies and demonstrated desirable oral PK profiles. Finally, the pharmacodynamics (PD) of this class of molecules were evaluated in thrombin generation assay (TGA) in Corn Trypsin Inhibitor (CTI) citrated human plasma and demonstrated characteristics of a FIXa inhibitor. PMID:26318999

  13. Development of a novel class of potent and selective FIXa inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Andre, Patrick; Bateman, Thomas J; Chen, Yi-Heng; Desai, Kunal; Ellsworth, Kenneth; Geissler, Wayne M; Guo, Liangqin; Hruza, Alan; Jian, Tianying; Meng, Dongfang; Parker, Dann L; Qian, Xiaoxia; Reichert, Paul; Sherer, Edward C; Shu, Min; Smith, Cameron J; Sonatore, Lisa M; Tschirret-Guth, Richard; Nolting, Andrew F; Orr, Robert; Campeau, Louis-Charles; Araki, Kazuto; Nishimura, Teruyuki; Sakurada, Isao; Wood, Harold B

    2015-11-01

    Using structure based drug design (SBDD), a novel class of potent coagulation Factor IXa (FIXa) inhibitors was designed and synthesized. High selectivity over FXa inhibition was achieved. Selected compounds demonstrated oral bioavailability in rat IV/PO pharmacokinetic (PK) studies. Finally, the pharmacodynamics (PD) of this class of molecules was evaluated in Thrombin Generation Assay (TGA) in Corn Trypsin Inhibitor (CTI) citrated human plasma and demonstrated characteristics of a FIXa inhibitor. PMID:25978966

  14. Design of highly potent urea-based, exosite-binding inhibitors selective for glutamate carboxypeptidase II.

    PubMed

    Tykvart, Jan; Schimer, Jiří; Jančařík, Andrej; Bařinková, Jitka; Navrátil, Václav; Starková, Jana; Šrámková, Karolína; Konvalinka, Jan; Majer, Pavel; Šácha, Pavel

    2015-05-28

    We present here a structure-aided design of inhibitors targeting the active site as well as exosites of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), a prostate cancer marker, preparing potent and selective inhibitors that are more than 1000-fold more active toward GCPII than its closest human homologue, glutamate carboxypeptidase III (GCPIII). Additionally, we demonstrate that the prepared inhibitor conjugate can be used for sensitive and selective imaging of GCPII in mammalian cells. PMID:25923815

  15. Characterization of Potent Fusion Inhibitors of Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Rowse, Michael; Qiu, Shihong; Tsao, Jun; Xian, Tongmei; Khawaja, Sarah; Yamauchi, Yohei; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Guoxin; Luo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    New inhibitors of influenza viruses are needed to combat the potential emergence of novel human influenza viruses. We have identified a class of small molecules that inhibit replication of influenza virus at picomolar concentrations in plaque reduction assays. The compound also inhibits replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. Time of addition and dilution experiments with influenza virus indicated that an early time point of infection was blocked and that inhibitor 136 tightly bound to virions. Using fluorescently labeled influenza virus, inhibition of viral fusion to cellular membranes by blocked lipid mixing was established as the mechanism of action for this class of inhibitors. Stabilization of the neutral pH form of hemagglutinin (HA) was ruled out by trypsin digestion studies in vitro and with conformation specific HA antibodies within cells. Direct visualization of 136 treated influenza virions at pH 7.5 or acidified to pH 5.0 showed that virions remain intact and that glycoproteins become disorganized as expected when HA undergoes a conformational change. This suggests that exposure of the fusion peptide at low pH is not inhibited but lipid mixing is inhibited, a different mechanism than previously reported fusion inhibitors. We hypothesize that this new class of inhibitors intercalate into the virus envelope altering the structure of the viral envelope required for fusion to cellular membranes. PMID:25803288

  16. Novel Mps1 Kinase Inhibitors with Potent Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Wengner, Antje M; Siemeister, Gerhard; Koppitz, Marcus; Schulze, Volker; Kosemund, Dirk; Klar, Ulrich; Stoeckigt, Detlef; Neuhaus, Roland; Lienau, Philip; Bader, Benjamin; Prechtl, Stefan; Raschke, Marian; Frisk, Anna-Lena; von Ahsen, Oliver; Michels, Martin; Kreft, Bertolt; von Nussbaum, Franz; Brands, Michael; Mumberg, Dominik; Ziegelbauer, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) has been shown to function as the key kinase that activates the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) to secure proper distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells. Here, we report the structure and functional characterization of two novel selective Mps1 inhibitors, BAY 1161909 and BAY 1217389, derived from structurally distinct chemical classes. BAY 1161909 and BAY 1217389 inhibited Mps1 kinase activity with IC50 values below 10 nmol/L while showing an excellent selectivity profile. In cellular mechanistic assays, both Mps1 inhibitors abrogated nocodazole-induced SAC activity and induced premature exit from mitosis ("mitotic breakthrough"), resulting in multinuclearity and tumor cell death. Both compounds efficiently inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro (IC50 nmol/L range). In vivo, BAY 1161909 and BAY 1217389 achieved moderate efficacy in monotherapy in tumor xenograft studies. However, in line with its unique mode of action, when combined with paclitaxel, low doses of Mps1 inhibitor reduced paclitaxel-induced mitotic arrest by the weakening of SAC activity. As a result, combination therapy strongly improved efficacy over paclitaxel or Mps1 inhibitor monotreatment at the respective MTDs in a broad range of xenograft models, including those showing acquired or intrinsic paclitaxel resistance. Both Mps1 inhibitors showed good tolerability without adding toxicity to paclitaxel monotherapy. These preclinical findings validate the innovative concept of SAC abrogation for cancer therapy and justify clinical proof-of-concept studies evaluating the Mps1 inhibitors BAY 1161909 and BAY 1217389 in combination with antimitotic cancer drugs to enhance their efficacy and potentially overcome resistance. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(4); 583-92. ©2016 AACR.

  17. At Long Last Potent and Selective KDM5 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rotili, Dante; Mattevi, Andrea

    2016-07-21

    Histone lysine demethylase 5 enzymes (KDM5s) have recently been proposed as crucial oncogenic drivers. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Horton et al. (2016) describe results of an extensive structural analysis that reveals how distinct inhibitor chemotypes bind KDM5 and suggest avenues for improving KDM5 inhibitory potency and selectivity. PMID:27447042

  18. Structure-guided, single-point modifications in the phosphinic dipeptide structure yield highly potent and selective inhibitors of neutral aminopeptidases.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, Stamatia; Węglarz-Tomczak, Ewelina; Berlicki, Łukasz; Pawełczak, Małgorzata; Nocek, Bogusław; Mulligan, Rory; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Mucha, Artur

    2014-10-01

    Seven crystal structures of alanyl aminopeptidase from Neisseria meningitides (the etiological agent of meningitis, NmAPN) complexed with organophosphorus compounds were resolved to determine the optimal inhibitor-enzyme interactions. The enantiomeric phosphonic acid analogs of Leu and hPhe, which correspond to the P1 amino acid residues of well-processed substrates, were used to assess the impact of the absolute configuration and the stereospecific hydrogen bond network formed between the aminophosphonate polar head and the active site residues on the binding affinity. For the hPhe analog, an imperfect stereochemical complementarity could be overcome by incorporating an appropriate P1 side chain. The constitution of P1'-extended structures was rationally designed and the lead, phosphinic dipeptide hPhePψ[CH2]Phe, was modified in a single position. Introducing a heteroatom/heteroatom-based fragment to either the P1 or P1' residue required new synthetic pathways. The compounds in the refined structure were low nanomolar and subnanomolar inhibitors of N. meningitides, porcine and human APNs, and the reference leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The unnatural phosphinic dipeptide analogs exhibited a high affinity for monozinc APNs associated with a reasonable selectivity versus dizinc LAP. Another set of crystal structures containing the NmAPN dipeptide ligand were used to verify and to confirm the predicted binding modes; furthermore, novel contacts, which were promising for inhibitor development, were identified, including a π-π stacking interaction between a pyridine ring and Tyr372.

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of selective and potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    N'gompaza-Diarra, Joannah; Bettayeb, Karima; Gresh, Nohad; Meijer, Laurent; Oumata, Nassima

    2012-10-01

    A new series of 2,6,9-trisubstituted purines, structurally related to the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor Roscovitine, has been synthesized. These compounds mainly differ by the substituent on the C-2 position which encompasses a diol group. These compounds were screened for kinase inhibitory activities and antiproliferative effects. They were shown to be potent inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases but also, for some of them of casein kinase 1 (CK1) and dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). The inhibition of kinases was accompanied by an antiproliferative effect against several tumor cell-lines. The most potent derivatives inhibited SH-SY5Y (neuroblastoma) tumor cell line with an IC(50) < 0.5 μM which means approximately a 30 fold increase compared to Roscovitine. A valine ester was also prepared from the most potent inhibitor to serve as a prodrug. PMID:22982525

  20. Discovery of Potent, Orally Bioavailable Inhibitors of Human Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Fader, Lee; Brault, Martine; Desjardins, Jessica; Dansereau, Nathalie; Lamorte, Louie; Tremblay, Sonia; Bilodeau, François; Bordeleau, Josée; Duplessis, Martin; Gorys, Vida; Gillard, James; Gleason, James L; James, Clint; Joly, Marc-André; Kuhn, Cyrille; Llinas-Brunet, Montse; Luo, Laibin; Morency, Louis; Morin, Sébastien; Parisien, Mathieu; Poirier, Maude; Thibeault, Carl; Trinh, Thao; Sturino, Claudio; Srivastava, Sanjay; Yoakim, Christiane; Franti, Michael

    2016-05-12

    A high-throughput screen based on a viral replication assay was used to identify inhibitors of the human cytomegalovirus. Using this approach, hit compound 1 was identified as a 4 μM inhibitor of HCMV that was specific and selective over other herpes viruses. Time of addition studies indicated compound 1 exerted its antiviral effect early in the viral life cycle. Mechanism of action studies also revealed that this series inhibited infection of MRC-5 and ARPE19 cells by free virus and via direct cell-to-cell spread from infected to uninfected cells. Preliminary structure-activity relationships demonstrated that the potency of compound 1 could be improved to a low nanomolar level, but metabolic stability was a key optimization parameter for this series. A strategy focused on minimizing metabolic hydrolysis of the N1-amide led to an alternative scaffold in this series with improved metabolic stability and good pharmacokinetic parameters in rat. PMID:27190604

  1. Antidiabetic Indian plants: a good source of potent amylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Menakshi; Zinjarde, Smita S; Bhargava, Shobha Y; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Joshi, Bimba N

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is known as a multifactorial disease. The treatment of diabetes (Type II) is complicated due to the inherent patho-physiological factors related to this disease. One of the complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG). Glucosidase inhibitors, particularly α-amylase inhibitors are a class of compounds that helps in managing PPHG. Six ethno-botanically known plants having antidiabetic property namely, Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss.; Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel; Ocimum tenuflorum (L.) (syn: Sanctum); Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (syn: Eugenia jambolana); Linum usitatissimum (L.) and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for their ability to inhibit glucosidase activity. The chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from either leaves or seeds of these plants. It was observed that the chloroform extract of O. tenuflorum; B. spectabilis; M. koenigii and S. cumini have significant α-amylase inhibitory property. Plants extracts were further tested against murine pancreatic, liver and small intestinal crude enzyme preparations for glucosidase inhibitory activity. The three extracts of O. tenuflorum and chloroform extract of M. koenigi showed good inhibition of murine pancreatic and intestinal glucosidases as compared with acarbose, a known glucosidase inhibitor. PMID:18955350

  2. A Potent and Orally Efficacious, Hydroxyethylamine-Based Inhibitor of β-Secretase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    β-Secretase inhibitors are potentially disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease. Previous efforts in our laboratory have resulted in hydroxyethylamine-derived inhibitors such as 1 with low nanomolar potency against β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (BACE). When dosed intravenously, compound 1 was also shown to significantly reduce Aβ40 levels in plasma, brain, and cerebral spinal fluid. Herein, we report further optimizations that led to the discovery of inhibitor 16 as a novel, potent, and orally efficacious BACE inhibitor. PMID:24900403

  3. Highly Specific and Broadly Potent Inhibitors of Mammalian Secreted Phospholipases A2

    PubMed Central

    Oslund, Rob C.; Cermak, Nathan; Gelb, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    We report a series of inhibitors of secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) based on substituted indoles, 6,7-benzoindoles, and indolizines derived from LY315920, a well-known indole-based sPLA2 inhibitor. Using the human group X sPLA2 crystal structure, we prepared a highly potent and selective indole-based inhibitor of this enzyme. Also, we report human and mouse group IIA and IIE specific inhibitors and a substituted 6,7-benzoindole that inhibits nearly all human and mouse sPLA2s in the low nanomolar range. PMID:18605714

  4. Substituted tetrahydroquinolines as potent allosteric inhibitors of reverse transcriptase and its key mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Dai-Shi; Lim, John J.; Tinney, Elizabeth; Wan, Bang-Lin; Young, Mary Beth; Anderson, Kenneth D.; Rudd, Deanne; Munshi, Vandna; Bahnck, Carolyn; Felock, Peter J.; Lu, Meiqing; Lai, Ming-Tain; Touch, Sinoeun; Moyer, Gregory; DiStefano, Daniel J.; Flynn, Jessica A.; Liang, Yuexia; Sanchez, Rosa; Prasad, Sridhar; Yan, Youwei; Perlow-Poehnelt, Rebecca; Torrent, Maricel; Miller, Mike; Vacca, Joe P.; Williams, Theresa M.; Anthony, Neville J.; Merck

    2010-09-27

    Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are key elements of multidrug regimens, called HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy), that are used to treat HIV-1 infections. Elucidation of the structure-activity relationships of the thiocarbamate moiety of the previous published lead compound 2 provided a series of novel tetrahydroquinoline derivatives as potent inhibitors of HIV-1 RT with nanomolar intrinsic activity on the WT and key mutant enzymes and potent antiviral activity in infected cells. The SAR optimization, mutation profiles, preparation of compounds, and pharmacokinetic profile of compounds are described.

  5. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of potent 4-fluoro-2-cyanopyrrolidine dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Hiroshi; Hiratate, Akira; Takahashi, Masato; Mikami, Ayako; Saito-Hori, Masako; Munetomo, Eiji; Kitano, Kiyokazu; Chonan, Sumi; Saito, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Akio; Takaoka, Yuji; Yamamoto, Koji

    2008-04-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors are promising antidiabetic drugs, and several drugs are in the developmental stage. We previously reported that the introduction of fluorine to the 4-position of 2-cyanopyrrolidine enhanced the DPP-IV inhibitory effect. In the present report, we examined the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of 2-cyano-4-fluoropyrrolidine with N-substituted glycine at the 1-position. We report the identification of a potent and stable DPP-IV inhibitor (TS-021) with a long-term persistent plasma drug concentration and a potent antihyperglycemic activity.

  6. Adenosine Analog NITD008 Is a Potent Inhibitor of Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Na-Na; Li, Chun-Feng; Tian, Min; Hao, Jia-Nan; Xie, Xu-Ping; Shi, Pei-Yong; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks have raised global concerns due to its unexpected clinical manifestations. Antiviral development is of high priority in response to the ZIKV emergency. In this study, we report that an adenosine analog NITD008 has potent in vitro and in vivo antiviral activity against ZIKV. The compound can effectively inhibit the historical and contemporary ZIKV strains in cultures as well as significantly reduce viremia and prevent mortality in A129 mice. Our results have demonstrated that NITD008 is potent inhibitor of ZIKV and can be used as reference inhibitor for future ZIKV antiviral drug screen and discovery. PMID:27747251

  7. Potent inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor from green tea

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Aica, Isabella; Donà, Massimo; Tonello, Fiorella; Piris, Alejandro; Mock, Michèle; Montecucco, Cesare; Garbisa, Spiridione

    2004-01-01

    The anthrax lethal factor (LF) has a major role in the development of anthrax. LF is delivered by the protective antigen (PA) inside the cell, where it exerts its metalloprotease activity on the N-terminus of MAPK-kinases. PA+LF are cytotoxic to macrophages in culture and kill the Fischer 344 rat when injected intravenously. We describe here the properties of some polyphenols contained in green tea as powerful inhibitors of LF metalloproteolytic activity, and how the main catechin of green tea, (−)epigallocatechin-3-gallate, prevents the LF-induced death of macrophages and Fischer 344 rats. PMID:15031715

  8. Discovery of a Potent, Dual Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the described research effort was to identify a novel serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) with improved norepinephrine transporter activity and acceptable metabolic stability and exhibiting minimal drug–drug interaction. We describe herein the discovery of a series of 3-substituted pyrrolidines, exemplified by compound 1. Compound 1 is a selective SNRI in vitro and in vivo, has favorable ADME properties, and retains inhibitory activity in the formalin model of pain behavior. Compound 1 thus represents a potential new probe to explore utility of SNRIs in central nervous system disorders, including chronic pain conditions. PMID:24900709

  9. Discovery of potent and selective covalent inhibitors of JNK

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tinghu; Inesta-Vaquera, Francisco; Niepel, Mario; Zhang, Jianming; Ficarro, Scott B.; Machleidt, Thomas; Xie, Ting; Marto, Jarrod A.; Kim, NamDoo; Sim, Taebo; Laughlin, John D; Park, Hajeung; LoGrasso, Philip V.; Patricelli, Matt; Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon K.; Sorger, Peter K.; Alessi, Dario R.; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2012-01-01

    The mitogen activated kinases JNK1/2/3 are key enzymes in signaling modules that transduce and integrate extracellular stimuli into coordinated cellular response. Here we report the discovery of the first irreversible inhibitors of JNK1/2/3. We describe two JNK3 co-crystal structures at 2.60 and 2.97 Å resolutions that show the compounds form covalent bonds with a conserved cysteine residue. JNK-IN-8 is a selective JNK inhibitor that inhibits phosphorylation of c-Jun, a direct substrate of JNK kinase, in cells exposed to sub-micromolar drug in a manner that depends on covalent modification of the conserved cysteine residue. Extensive biochemical, cellular and pathway-based profiling establish the selectivity of JNK-IN-8 for JNK and suggest that the compound will be broadly useful as a pharmacological probe of JNK-dependent signal transduction. Potential lead compounds have also been identified for kinases including IRAK1, PIK3C3, PIP4K2C, and PIP5K3. PMID:22284361

  10. Functionalized N,N-Diphenylamines as Potent and Selective EPAC2 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wild, Christopher T; Zhu, Yingmin; Na, Ye; Mei, Fang; Ynalvez, Marcus A; Chen, Haiying; Cheng, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jia

    2016-05-12

    N,N-Diphenylamines were discovered as potent and selective EPAC2 inhibitors. A study was conducted to determine the structure-activity relationships in a series of inhibitors of which several compounds displayed submicromolar potencies. Selectivity over the related EPAC1 protein was also demonstrated. Computational modeling reveals an allosteric site that is distinct from the cAMP binding domain shared by both EPAC isoforms, providing a theory with regards to subtype selectivity. PMID:27190593

  11. Optimisation of a novel series of potent and orally bioavailable azanaphthyridine SYK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Garton, Neil S; Barker, Michael D; Davis, Rob P; Douault, Clement; Hooper-Greenhill, Edward; Jones, Emma; Lewis, Huw D; Liddle, John; Lugo, Dave; McCleary, Scott; Preston, Alex G S; Ramirez-Molina, Cesar; Neu, Margarete; Shipley, Tracy J; Somers, Don O; Watson, Robert J; Wilson, David M

    2016-10-01

    The optimisation of the azanaphthyridine series of Spleen Tyrosine Kinase inhibitors is described. The medicinal chemistry strategy was focused on optimising the human whole blood activity whilst achieving a sufficient margin over hERG activity. A good pharmacokinetic profile was achieved by modification of the pKa. Morpholine compound 32 is a potent SYK inhibitor showing moderate selectivity, good oral bioavailability and good efficacy in the rat Arthus model but demonstrated a genotoxic potential in the Ames assay. PMID:27578246

  12. Hemin as a generic and potent protein misfolding inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yanqin; Carver, John A.; Ho, Lam H.; Elias, Abigail K.; Musgrave, Ian F.; Pukala, Tara L.

    2014-11-14

    Highlights: • Hemin prevents Aβ42, α-synuclein and RCM-κ-casein forming amyloid fibrils. • Hemin inhibits the β-sheet structure formation of Aβ42. • Hemin reduces the cell toxicity caused by fibrillar Aβ42. • Hemin dissociates partially formed Aβ42 fibrils. • Hemin prevents amorphous aggregation by ADH, catalase and γs-crystallin. - Abstract: Protein misfolding causes serious biological malfunction, resulting in diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and cataract. Molecules which inhibit protein misfolding are a promising avenue to explore as therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases. In the present study, thioflavin T fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrated that hemin prevents amyloid fibril formation of kappa-casein, amyloid beta peptide and α-synuclein by blocking β-sheet structure assembly which is essential in fibril aggregation. Further, inhibition of fibril formation by hemin significantly reduces the cytotoxicity caused by fibrillar amyloid beta peptide in vitro. Interestingly, hemin degrades partially formed amyloid fibrils and prevents further aggregation to mature fibrils. Light scattering assay results revealed that hemin also prevents protein amorphous aggregation of alcohol dehydrogenase, catalase and γs-crystallin. In summary, hemin is a potent agent which generically stabilises proteins against aggregation, and has potential as a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for protein misfolding diseases.

  13. Structure-Guided, Single-Point Modifications in the Phosphinic Dipeptide Structure Yield Highly Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Neutral Aminopeptidases

    SciTech Connect

    Vassiliou, Stamatia; Węglarz-Tomczak, Ewelina; Berlicki, Łukasz; Pawełczak, Małgorzata; Nocek, Bogusław; Mulligan, Rory; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Mucha, Artur

    2014-10-09

    Seven crystal structures of alanyl aminopeptidase from Neisseria meningitides (the etiological agent of meningitis, NmAPN) complexed with organophosphorus compounds were resolved to determine the optimal inhibitor–enzyme interactions. The enantiomeric phosphonic acid analogs of Leu and hPhe, which correspond to the P1 amino acid residues of well-processed substrates, were used to assess the impact of the absolute configuration and the stereospecific hydrogen bond network formed between the aminophosphonate polar head and the active site residues on the binding affinity. For the hPhe analog, an imperfect stereochemical complementarity could be overcome by incorporating an appropriate P1 side chain. The constitution of P1'-extended structures was rationally designed and the lead, phosphinic dipeptide hPhePψ[CH2]Phe, was modified in a single position. Introducing a heteroatom/heteroatom-based fragment to either the P1 or P1' residue required new synthetic pathways. The compounds in the refined structure were low nanomolar and subnanomolar inhibitors of N. meningitides, porcine and human APNs, and the reference leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The unnatural phosphinic dipeptide analogs exhibited a high affinity for monozinc APNs associated with a reasonable selectivity versus dizinc LAP. In conclusion, another set of crystal structures containing the NmAPN dipeptide ligand were used to verify and to confirm the predicted binding modes; furthermore, novel contacts, which were promising for inhibitor development, were identified, including a π–π stacking interaction between a pyridine ring and Tyr372.

  14. Discovery of a series of cyclohexylethylamine-containing protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors exhibiting potent cellular activity.

    PubMed

    Henry, K J; Wasicak, J; Tasker, A S; Cohen, J; Ewing, P; Mitten, M; Larsen, J J; Kalvin, D M; Swenson, R; Ng, S C; Saeed, B; Cherian, S; Sham, H; Rosenberg, S H

    1999-11-18

    Synthesis of a library of secondary benzylic amines based on the Sebti-Hamilton type peptidomimetic farnesyltransferase (FTase) inhibitor FTI-276 (1) led to the identification of 6 as a potent enzyme inhibitor (IC(50) of 8 nM) which lacked the problematic thiol residue which had been a common theme in many of the more important FTase inhibitors reported to date. It has previously been disclosed that addition of o-tolyl substitution to FTase inhibitors of the general description 2 had a salutary effect on both FTase inhibition and inhibition of Ras prenylation in whole cells. Combination of these two observations led us to synthesize 7, a potent FTase inhibitor which displayed an IC(50) of 0.16 nM for in vitro inhibition of FTase and an EC(50) of 190 nM for inhibition of whole cell Ras prenylation. Modification of 7 by classical medicinal chemistry led to the discovery of a series of potent FTase inhibitors, culminating in the identification of 25 which exhibited an IC(50) of 0.20 nM and an EC(50) of 4.4 nM. In vivo tests in a nude mouse xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer (MiaPaCa cells) showed that oral dosing of 25 gave rise to impressive attenuation of the growth of this aggressive tumor cell line.

  15. 1,3-Dimethyl Benzimidazolones Are Potent, Selective Inhibitors of the BRPF1 Bromodomain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The BRPF (bromodomain and PHD finger-containing) protein family are important scaffolding proteins for assembly of MYST histone acetyltransferase complexes. Here, we report the discovery, binding mode, and structure–activity relationship (SAR) of the first potent, selective series of inhibitors of the BRPF1 bromodomain. PMID:25408830

  16. Potent, Selective, and CNS-Penetrant Tetrasubstituted Cyclopropane Class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Luckhurst, Christopher A; Breccia, Perla; Stott, Andrew J; Aziz, Omar; Birch, Helen L; Bürli, Roland W; Hughes, Samantha J; Jarvis, Rebecca E; Lamers, Marieke; Leonard, Philip M; Matthews, Kim L; McAllister, George; Pollack, Scott; Saville-Stones, Elizabeth; Wishart, Grant; Yates, Dawn; Dominguez, Celia

    2016-01-14

    Potent and selective class IIa HDAC tetrasubstituted cyclopropane hydroxamic acid inhibitors were identified with high oral bioavailability that exhibited good brain and muscle exposure. Compound 14 displayed suitable properties for assessment of the impact of class IIa HDAC catalytic site inhibition in preclinical disease models.

  17. Potent, Selective, and CNS-Penetrant Tetrasubstituted Cyclopropane Class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Luckhurst, Christopher A; Breccia, Perla; Stott, Andrew J; Aziz, Omar; Birch, Helen L; Bürli, Roland W; Hughes, Samantha J; Jarvis, Rebecca E; Lamers, Marieke; Leonard, Philip M; Matthews, Kim L; McAllister, George; Pollack, Scott; Saville-Stones, Elizabeth; Wishart, Grant; Yates, Dawn; Dominguez, Celia

    2016-01-14

    Potent and selective class IIa HDAC tetrasubstituted cyclopropane hydroxamic acid inhibitors were identified with high oral bioavailability that exhibited good brain and muscle exposure. Compound 14 displayed suitable properties for assessment of the impact of class IIa HDAC catalytic site inhibition in preclinical disease models. PMID:26819662

  18. QSAR Accelerated Discovery of Potent Ice Recrystallization Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Briard, Jennie G; Fernandez, Michael; De Luna, Phil; Woo, Tom K; Ben, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    Ice recrystallization is the main contributor to cell damage and death during the cryopreservation of cells and tissues. Over the past five years, many small carbohydrate-based molecules were identified as ice recrystallization inhibitors and several were shown to reduce cryoinjury during the cryopreservation of red blood cells (RBCs) and hematopoietic stems cells (HSCs). Unfortunately, clear structure-activity relationships have not been identified impeding the rational design of future compounds possessing ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. A set of 124 previously synthesized compounds with known IRI activities were used to calibrate 3D-QSAR classification models using GRid INdependent Descriptors (GRIND) derived from DFT level quantum mechanical calculations. Partial least squares (PLS) model was calibrated with 70% of the data set which successfully identified 80% of the IRI active compounds with a precision of 0.8. This model exhibited good performance in screening the remaining 30% of the data set with 70% of active additives successfully recovered with a precision of ~0.7 and specificity of 0.8. The model was further applied to screen a new library of aryl-alditol molecules which were then experimentally synthesized and tested with a success rate of 82%. Presented is the first computer-aided high-throughput experimental screening for novel IRI active compounds. PMID:27216585

  19. QSAR Accelerated Discovery of Potent Ice Recrystallization Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briard, Jennie G.; Fernandez, Michael; de Luna, Phil; Woo, Tom. K.; Ben, Robert N.

    2016-05-01

    Ice recrystallization is the main contributor to cell damage and death during the cryopreservation of cells and tissues. Over the past five years, many small carbohydrate-based molecules were identified as ice recrystallization inhibitors and several were shown to reduce cryoinjury during the cryopreservation of red blood cells (RBCs) and hematopoietic stems cells (HSCs). Unfortunately, clear structure-activity relationships have not been identified impeding the rational design of future compounds possessing ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. A set of 124 previously synthesized compounds with known IRI activities were used to calibrate 3D-QSAR classification models using GRid INdependent Descriptors (GRIND) derived from DFT level quantum mechanical calculations. Partial least squares (PLS) model was calibrated with 70% of the data set which successfully identified 80% of the IRI active compounds with a precision of 0.8. This model exhibited good performance in screening the remaining 30% of the data set with 70% of active additives successfully recovered with a precision of ~0.7 and specificity of 0.8. The model was further applied to screen a new library of aryl-alditol molecules which were then experimentally synthesized and tested with a success rate of 82%. Presented is the first computer-aided high-throughput experimental screening for novel IRI active compounds.

  20. QSAR Accelerated Discovery of Potent Ice Recrystallization Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Briard, Jennie G.; Fernandez, Michael; De Luna, Phil; Woo, Tom. K.; Ben, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Ice recrystallization is the main contributor to cell damage and death during the cryopreservation of cells and tissues. Over the past five years, many small carbohydrate-based molecules were identified as ice recrystallization inhibitors and several were shown to reduce cryoinjury during the cryopreservation of red blood cells (RBCs) and hematopoietic stems cells (HSCs). Unfortunately, clear structure-activity relationships have not been identified impeding the rational design of future compounds possessing ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. A set of 124 previously synthesized compounds with known IRI activities were used to calibrate 3D-QSAR classification models using GRid INdependent Descriptors (GRIND) derived from DFT level quantum mechanical calculations. Partial least squares (PLS) model was calibrated with 70% of the data set which successfully identified 80% of the IRI active compounds with a precision of 0.8. This model exhibited good performance in screening the remaining 30% of the data set with 70% of active additives successfully recovered with a precision of ~0.7 and specificity of 0.8. The model was further applied to screen a new library of aryl-alditol molecules which were then experimentally synthesized and tested with a success rate of 82%. Presented is the first computer-aided high-throughput experimental screening for novel IRI active compounds. PMID:27216585

  1. QSAR Accelerated Discovery of Potent Ice Recrystallization Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Briard, Jennie G; Fernandez, Michael; De Luna, Phil; Woo, Tom K; Ben, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    Ice recrystallization is the main contributor to cell damage and death during the cryopreservation of cells and tissues. Over the past five years, many small carbohydrate-based molecules were identified as ice recrystallization inhibitors and several were shown to reduce cryoinjury during the cryopreservation of red blood cells (RBCs) and hematopoietic stems cells (HSCs). Unfortunately, clear structure-activity relationships have not been identified impeding the rational design of future compounds possessing ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. A set of 124 previously synthesized compounds with known IRI activities were used to calibrate 3D-QSAR classification models using GRid INdependent Descriptors (GRIND) derived from DFT level quantum mechanical calculations. Partial least squares (PLS) model was calibrated with 70% of the data set which successfully identified 80% of the IRI active compounds with a precision of 0.8. This model exhibited good performance in screening the remaining 30% of the data set with 70% of active additives successfully recovered with a precision of ~0.7 and specificity of 0.8. The model was further applied to screen a new library of aryl-alditol molecules which were then experimentally synthesized and tested with a success rate of 82%. Presented is the first computer-aided high-throughput experimental screening for novel IRI active compounds.

  2. 4-Phenyl-7-azaindoles as potent, selective and bioavailable IKK2 inhibitors demonstrating good in vivo efficacy.

    PubMed

    Liddle, John; Bamborough, Paul; Barker, Michael D; Campos, Sebastien; Chung, Chun-Wa; Cousins, Rick P C; Faulder, Paul; Heathcote, Michelle L; Hobbs, Heather; Holmes, Duncan S; Ioannou, Chris; Ramirez-Molina, Cesar; Morse, Mary A; Osborn, Ruth; Payne, Jeremy J; Pritchard, John M; Rumsey, William L; Tape, Daniel T; Vicentini, Giorgia; Whitworth, Caroline; Williamson, Rick A

    2012-08-15

    The lead optimization of a series of potent azaindole IKK2 inhibitors is described. Optimization of the human whole blood activity and selectivity over IKK1 in parallel led to the discovery of 16, a potent and selective IKK2 inhibitor showing good efficacy in a rat model of neutrophil activation. PMID:22801646

  3. A Potent and Highly Efficacious Bcl-2/Bcl-xL Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    McEachern, Donna; Yang, Chao-Yie; Meagher, Jennifer; Stuckey, Jeanne; Wang, Shaomeng

    2013-01-01

    Our previously reported Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor, 4, effectively inhibited tumor growth but failed to achieve complete regression in vivo. We have now performed extensive modifications on its pyrrole core structure, which has culminated in the discovery of 32 (BM-1074). Compound 32 binds to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins with Ki values of < 1 nM and inhibits cancer cell growth with IC50 values of 1-2 nM in four small-cell lung cancer cell lines sensitive to potent and specific Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitors. Compound 32 is capable of achieving rapid, complete and durable tumor regression in vivo at a well-tolerated dose-schedule. Compound 32 is the most potent and efficacious Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor reported to date. PMID:23448298

  4. Polyvalent Recognition of Biopolymers:The Design of Potent Inhibitors of Anthrax Toxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Ravi

    2007-03-01

    Polyvalency -- the simultaneous binding of multiple ligands on one entity to multiple receptors on another -- is a phenomenon that is ubiquitous in nature. We are using a biomimetic approach, inspired by polyvalency, to design potent inhibitors of anthrax toxin. Since the major symptoms and death from anthrax are due primarily to the action of anthrax toxin, the toxin is a prime target for therapeutic intervention. We describe the design of potent polyvalent anthrax toxin inhibitors, and will discuss the role of pattern matching in polyvalent recognition. Pattern-matched polyvalent inhibitors can neutralize anthrax toxin in vivo, and may enable the successful treatment of anthrax during the later stages of the disease, when antibiotic treatment is ineffective.

  5. Fragment-based discovery of potent inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic MCL-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Petros, Andrew M; Swann, Steven L; Song, Danying; Swinger, Kerren; Park, Chang; Zhang, Haichao; Wendt, Michael D; Kunzer, Aaron R; Souers, Andrew J; Sun, Chaohong

    2014-03-15

    Apoptosis is regulated by the BCL-2 family of proteins, which is comprised of both pro-death and pro-survival members. Evasion of apoptosis is a hallmark of malignant cells. One way in which cancer cells achieve this evasion is thru overexpression of the pro-survival members of the BCL-2 family. Overexpression of MCL-1, a pro-survival protein, has been shown to be a resistance factor for Navitoclax, a potent inhibitor of BCL-2 and BCL-XL. Here we describe the use of fragment screening methods and structural biology to drive the discovery of novel MCL-1 inhibitors from two distinct structural classes. Specifically, cores derived from a biphenyl sulfonamide and salicylic acid were uncovered in an NMR-based fragment screen and elaborated using high throughput analog synthesis. This culminated in the discovery of selective and potent inhibitors of MCL-1 that may serve as promising leads for medicinal chemistry optimization efforts. PMID:24582986

  6. Plasmin substrate binding site cooperativity guides the design of potent peptide aldehyde inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Swedberg, Joakim E; Harris, Jonathan M

    2011-10-01

    Perioperative bleeding is a cause of major blood loss and is associated with increased rates of postoperative morbidity and mortality. To combat this, antifibrinolytic inhibitors of the serine protease plasmin are commonly used to reduce bleeding during surgery. The most effective and previously widely used of these is the broad range serine protease inhibitor aprotinin. However, adverse clinical outcomes have led to use of alternative serine lysine analogues to inhibit plasmin. These compounds suffer from low selectivity and binding affinity. Consequently, a concerted effort to discover potent and selective plasmin inhibitors has developed. This study used a noncombinatorial peptide library to define plasmin's extended substrate specificity and guide the design of potent transition state analogue inhibitors. The various substrate binding sites of plasmin were found to exhibit a higher degree of cooperativity than had previously been appreciated. Peptide sequences capitalizing on these features produced high-affinity inhibitors of plasmin. The most potent of these, Lys-Met(sulfone)-Tyr-Arg-H [KM(O(2))YR-H], inhibited plasmin with a K(i) of 3.1 nM while maintaining 25-fold selectivity over plasma kallikrein. Furthermore, 125 nM (0.16 μg/mL) KM(O(2))YR-H attenuated fibrinolysis in vitro with an efficacy similar to that of 15 nM (0.20 μg/mL) aprotinin. To date, this is the most potent peptide inhibitor of plasmin that exhibits selectivity against plasma kallikrein, making this compound an attractive candidate for further therapeutic development. PMID:21877690

  7. Synthesis of potent inhibitors of anthrax toxin based on poly-L-glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit; Saraph, Arundhati; Poon, Vincent; Mogridge, Jeremy; Kane, Ravi S

    2006-01-01

    We report the synthesis of biodegradable polyvalent inhibitors of anthrax toxin based on poly-L-glutamic acid (PLGA). These biocompatible polyvalent inhibitors are at least 4 orders of magnitude more potent than the corresponding monovalent peptides in vitro and are comparable in potency to polyacrylamide-based inhibitors of anthrax toxin assembly. We have elucidated the influence of peptide density on inhibitory potency and demonstrated that these inhibitory potencies are limited by kinetics, with even higher activities seen when the inhibitors are preincubated with the heptameric receptor-binding subunit of anthrax toxin prior to exposure to cells. These polyvalent inhibitors are also effective at neutralizing anthrax toxin in vivo and represent attractive leads for designing biocompatible anthrax therapeutics.

  8. Synthesis of potent inhibitors of anthrax toxin based on poly-L-glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit; Saraph, Arundhati; Poon, Vincent; Mogridge, Jeremy; Kane, Ravi S

    2006-01-01

    We report the synthesis of biodegradable polyvalent inhibitors of anthrax toxin based on poly-L-glutamic acid (PLGA). These biocompatible polyvalent inhibitors are at least 4 orders of magnitude more potent than the corresponding monovalent peptides in vitro and are comparable in potency to polyacrylamide-based inhibitors of anthrax toxin assembly. We have elucidated the influence of peptide density on inhibitory potency and demonstrated that these inhibitory potencies are limited by kinetics, with even higher activities seen when the inhibitors are preincubated with the heptameric receptor-binding subunit of anthrax toxin prior to exposure to cells. These polyvalent inhibitors are also effective at neutralizing anthrax toxin in vivo and represent attractive leads for designing biocompatible anthrax therapeutics. PMID:16984137

  9. Cloning and Characterization of Two Potent Kunitz Type Protease Inhibitors from Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Shiwanthi L; Fischer, Katja; Zhang, Wenbao; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P

    2015-12-01

    The tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is responsible for cystic echinococcosis (CE), a cosmopolitan disease which imposes a significant burden on the health and economy of affected communities. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms whereby E. granulosus is able to survive in the hostile mammalian host environment, avoiding attack by host enzymes and evading immune responses, but protease inhibitors released by the parasite are likely implicated. We identified two nucleotide sequences corresponding to secreted single domain Kunitz type protease inhibitors (EgKIs) in the E. granulosus genome, and their cDNAs were cloned, bacterially expressed and purified. EgKI-1 is highly expressed in the oncosphere (egg) stage and is a potent chymotrypsin and neutrophil elastase inhibitor that binds calcium and reduced neutrophil infiltration in a local inflammation model. EgKI-2 is highly expressed in adult worms and is a potent inhibitor of trypsin. As powerful inhibitors of mammalian intestinal proteases, the EgKIs may play a pivotal protective role in preventing proteolytic enzyme attack thereby ensuring survival of E. granulosus within its mammalian hosts. EgKI-1 may also be involved in the oncosphere in host immune evasion by inhibiting neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G once this stage is exposed to the mammalian blood system. In light of their key roles in protecting E. granulosus from host enzymatic attack, the EgKI proteins represent potential intervention targets to control CE. This is important as new public health measures against CE are required, given the inefficiencies of available drugs and the current difficulties in its treatment and control. In addition, being a small sized highly potent serine protease inhibitor, and an inhibitor of neutrophil chemotaxis, EgKI-1 may have clinical potential as a novel anti-inflammatory therapeutic.

  10. Cloning and Characterization of Two Potent Kunitz Type Protease Inhibitors from Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Shiwanthi L.; Fischer, Katja; Zhang, Wenbao; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; McManus, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    The tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is responsible for cystic echinococcosis (CE), a cosmopolitan disease which imposes a significant burden on the health and economy of affected communities. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms whereby E. granulosus is able to survive in the hostile mammalian host environment, avoiding attack by host enzymes and evading immune responses, but protease inhibitors released by the parasite are likely implicated. We identified two nucleotide sequences corresponding to secreted single domain Kunitz type protease inhibitors (EgKIs) in the E. granulosus genome, and their cDNAs were cloned, bacterially expressed and purified. EgKI-1 is highly expressed in the oncosphere (egg) stage and is a potent chymotrypsin and neutrophil elastase inhibitor that binds calcium and reduced neutrophil infiltration in a local inflammation model. EgKI-2 is highly expressed in adult worms and is a potent inhibitor of trypsin. As powerful inhibitors of mammalian intestinal proteases, the EgKIs may play a pivotal protective role in preventing proteolytic enzyme attack thereby ensuring survival of E. granulosus within its mammalian hosts. EgKI-1 may also be involved in the oncosphere in host immune evasion by inhibiting neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G once this stage is exposed to the mammalian blood system. In light of their key roles in protecting E. granulosus from host enzymatic attack, the EgKI proteins represent potential intervention targets to control CE. This is important as new public health measures against CE are required, given the inefficiencies of available drugs and the current difficulties in its treatment and control. In addition, being a small sized highly potent serine protease inhibitor, and an inhibitor of neutrophil chemotaxis, EgKI-1 may have clinical potential as a novel anti-inflammatory therapeutic. PMID:26645974

  11. Structure guided design of potent and selective ponatinib-based hybrid inhibitors for RIPK1

    PubMed Central

    Najjar, Malek; Suebsuwong, Chalada; Ray, Soumya S.; Thapa, Roshan J.; Maki, Jenny L.; Nogusa, Shoko; Shah, Saumil; Saleh, Danish; Gough, Peter J.; Bertin, John; Yuan, Junying; Balachandran, Siddharth; Cuny, Gregory D.; Degterev, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Summary RIPK1 and RIPK3, two closely related RIPK family members, have emerged as important regulators of pathologic cell death and inflammation. In the current work, we report that the Bcr-Abl inhibitor and anti-leukemia agent ponatinib is also a first-in-class dual inhibitor of RIPK1 and RIPK3. Ponatinib potently inhibited multiple paradigms of RIPK1- and RIPK3-dependent cell death and inflammatory TNFα gene transcription. We further describe design strategies that utilize the ponatinib scaffold to develop two classes of inhibitors (CS and PN series), each with greatly improved selectivity for RIPK1. In particular, we detail the development of PN10, a highly potent and selective ‘hybrid’ RIPK1 inhibitor, capturing the best properties of two different allosteric RIPK1 inhibitors, ponatinib and necrostatin-1. Finally, we show that RIPK1 inhibitors from both classes are powerful blockers of TNF-induced injury in vivo. Altogether, these findings outline promising candidate molecules and design approaches for targeting RIPK1/3-driven inflammatory pathologies. PMID:25801024

  12. Identification of Selective and Potent Inhibitors of Fibroblast Activation Protein and Prolyl Oligopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Poplawski, Sarah E.; Lai, Jack H.; Li, Youhua; Jin, Zhiping; Liu, Yuxin; Wu, Wengen; Wu, Yong; Zhou, Yuhong; Sudmeier, James L.; Sanford, David G.; Bachovchin, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a serine protease selectively expressed on reactive stromal fibroblasts of epithelial carcinomas. It is widely believed to play a role in tumor invasion and metastasis and therefore to represent a potential new drug target for cancer. Investigation into its biological function, however, has been hampered by the current unavailability of selective inhibitors. The challenge has been in identifying inhibitors that are selective for FAP over both the dipeptidyl peptidases (DPPs), with which it shares exopeptidase specificity, and prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP), with which it shares endopeptidase specificity. Here, we report the first potent FAP inhibitor with selectivity over both the DPPs and PREP, N-(pyridine-4-carbonyl)-d-Ala-boroPro (ARI-3099, 6). We also report a similarly potent and selective PREP inhibitor, N-(pyridine-3-carbonyl)-Val-boroPro (ARI-3531, 22). Both are boronic acid based inhibitors, demonstrating that high selectivity can be achieved using this electrophile. The inhibitors are stable, easy to synthesize, and should prove to be useful in helping to elucidate the biological functions of these two unique and interesting enzymes, as well as their potential as drug targets. PMID:23594271

  13. Discovery and molecular basis of potent noncovalent inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)

    PubMed Central

    Min, Xiaoshan; Thibault, Stephen T.; Porter, Amy C.; Gustin, Darin J.; Carlson, Timothy J.; Xu, Haoda; Lindstrom, Michelle; Xu, Guifen; Uyeda, Craig; Ma, Zhihua; Li, Yihong; Kayser, Frank; Walker, Nigel P. C.; Wang, Zhulun

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an amidase-signature family member, is an integral membrane enzyme that degrades lipid amides including the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide and the sleep-inducing molecule oleamide. Both genetic knock out and pharmacological administration of FAAH inhibitors in rodent models result in analgesic, anxiolytic, and antiinflammatory phenotypes. Targeting FAAH activity, therefore, presents a promising new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain and other neurological-related or inflammatory disorders. Nearly all FAAH inhibitors known to date attain their binding potency through a reversible or irreversible covalent modification of the nucleophile Ser241 in the unusual Ser-Ser-Lys catalytic triad. Here, we report the discovery and mechanism of action of a series of ketobenzimidazoles as unique and potent noncovalent FAAH inhibitors. Compound 2, a representative of these ketobenzimidazoles, was designed from a series of ureas that were identified from high-throughput screening. While urea compound 1 is characterized as an irreversible covalent inhibitor, the cocrystal structure of FAAH complexed with compound 2 reveals that these ketobenzimidazoles, though containing a carbonyl moiety, do not covalently modify Ser241. These inhibitors achieve potent inhibition of FAAH activity primarily from shape complementarity to the active site and through numerous hydrophobic interactions. These noncovalent compounds exhibit excellent selectivity and good pharmacokinetic properties. The discovery of this distinctive class of inhibitors opens a new avenue for modulating FAAH activity through nonmechanism-based inhibition. PMID:21502526

  14. Natural fatty acid synthase inhibitors as potent therapeutic agents for cancers: A review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Sui; Lei, Jie-Ping; Wei, Guo-Qing; Chen, Hui; Ma, Chao-Ying; Jiang, He-Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Context Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is the only mammalian enzyme to catalyse the synthesis of fatty acid. The expression level of FAS is related to cancer progression, aggressiveness and metastasis. In recent years, research on natural FAS inhibitors with significant bioactivities and low side effects has increasingly become a new trend. Herein, we present recent research progress on natural fatty acid synthase inhibitors as potent therapeutic agents. Objective This paper is a mini overview of the typical natural FAS inhibitors and their possible mechanism of action in the past 10 years (2004-2014). Method The information was collected and compiled through major databases including Web of Science, PubMed, and CNKI. Results Many natural products induce cancer cells apoptosis by inhibiting FAS expression, with fewer side effects than synthetic inhibitors. Conclusion Natural FAS inhibitors are widely distributed in plants (especially in herbs and foods). Some natural products (mainly phenolics) possessing potent biological activities and stable structures are available as lead compounds to synthesise promising FAS inhibitors.

  15. Discovery of potent, orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitors of the human CCR2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Julien; Coesemans, Erwin; Boeckx, Staf; Buntinx, Mieke; Hermans, Bart; Van Wauwe, Jean P; Gilissen, Ron A H J; De Groot, Alex H J; Corens, David; Van Lommen, Guy

    2008-04-01

    We recently reported the discovery of a series of 2-thioimidazoles as CCR2 antagonists. The most potent molecules of this series, the 4,5-diesters, were rapidly hydrolyzed to the inactive acids and were found to be metabolically unstable. Herein we describe the synthesis of a number of analogues with heterocyclic bioisosteric replacements of the ester group(s). Small 5-membered heterocyclic substituents at the 4-position gave highly potent CCR2 antagonists. Hydrolysis of the 5-ester is diminished, thus imparting these compounds with sufficient stability and systemic exposure after oral administration to warrant further study of the in vivo pharmacology of these functional CCR2 inhibitors.

  16. Lipophilic Lysine-Spermine Conjugates are Potent Polyamine Transport Inhibitors for use in Combination with a Polyamine Biosynthesis Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Mark R.; Graminski, Gerard F.; Weeks, Reitha S.; Chen, Yan; O’Brien, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer cells can overcome the ability of polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors from completely depleting their internal polyamines by the importation polyamines from external sources. We have developed a group of lipophilic polyamine analogs that potently inhibit the cellular polyamine uptake system and greatly increase the effectiveness of polyamine depletion when used in combination with DFMO, a well-studied polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor. By the attachment of an length-optimized C16 lipophilic substituent to the epsilon-nitrogen atom of our earlier lead compound, d-Lys-Spm (5), we have produced an analog, d-Lys(C16acyl)-Spm (11) with several orders of magnitude more potent cell growth inhibition on a variety of cultured cancer cell types including breast (MDA-MB-231), prostate (PC-3), melanoma (A375) and ovarian (SK-OV-3), among others. We discuss these results in the context of a possible membrane-catalyzed interaction with the extracellular polyamine transport apparatus. The resulting novel two-drug combination therapy targeting cellular polyamine metabolism has shown exceptional efficacy against cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in a transgenic ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) mouse model of skin cancer. A majority (88%) of large, aggressive SCCs exhibited complete or near-complete remission to this combination therapy, while responses to each agent alone were poor. The availability of a potent polyamine transport inhibitor allows, for the first time, for a real test of the hypothesis that starving cells of polyamines will lead to objective clinical response. PMID:19281226

  17. Design and Structural Characterization of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Phosphatidylinositol 4 Kinase IIIβ.

    PubMed

    Rutaganira, Florentine U; Fowler, Melissa L; McPhail, Jacob A; Gelman, Michael A; Nguyen, Khanh; Xiong, Anming; Dornan, Gillian L; Tavshanjian, Brandon; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Shokat, Kevan M; Burke, John E

    2016-03-10

    Type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KIIIβ) is an essential enzyme in mediating membrane trafficking and is implicated in a variety of pathogenic processes. It is a key host factor mediating replication of RNA viruses. The design of potent and specific inhibitors of this enzyme will be essential to define its cellular roles and may lead to novel antiviral therapeutics. We previously reported the PI4K inhibitor PIK93, and this compound has defined key functions of PI4KIIIβ. However, this compound showed high cross reactivity with class I and III PI3Ks. Using structure-based drug design, we have designed novel potent and selective (>1000-fold over class I and class III PI3Ks) PI4KIIIβ inhibitors. These compounds showed antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus. The co-crystal structure of PI4KIIIβ bound to one of the most potent compounds reveals the molecular basis of specificity. This work will be vital in the design of novel PI4KIIIβ inhibitors, which may play significant roles as antiviral therapeutics. PMID:26885694

  18. Engineered cystine knot miniproteins as potent inhibitors of human mast cell tryptase beta.

    PubMed

    Sommerhoff, Christian P; Avrutina, Olga; Schmoldt, Hans-Ulrich; Gabrijelcic-Geiger, Dusica; Diederichsen, Ulf; Kolmar, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the design, chemical and recombinant synthesis, and functional properties of a series of novel inhibitors of human mast cell tryptase beta, a protease of considerable interest as a therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic asthma and inflammatory disorders. These inhibitors are derived from a linear variant of the cyclic cystine knot miniprotein MCoTI-II, originally isolated from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis. A synthetic cyclic miniprotein that bears additional positive charge in the loop connecting the N- and C-termini inhibits all monomers of the tryptase beta tetramer with an overall equilibrium dissociation constant K(i) of 1 nM and thus is one of the most potent proteinaceous inhibitors of tryptase beta described to date. These cystine knot miniproteins may therefore become valuable scaffolds for the design of a new generation of tryptase inhibitors. PMID:19852971

  19. Discovery of a Potent Class I Protein Arginine Methyltransferase Fragment Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ferreira de Freitas, Renato; Eram, Mohammad S; Szewczyk, Magdalena M; Steuber, Holger; Smil, David; Wu, Hong; Li, Fengling; Senisterra, Guillermo; Dong, Aiping; Brown, Peter J; Hitchcock, Marion; Moosmayer, Dieter; Stegmann, Christian M; Egner, Ursula; Arrowsmith, Cheryl; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Vedadi, Masoud; Schapira, Matthieu

    2016-02-11

    Protein methyltransferases (PMTs) are a promising target class in oncology and other disease areas. They are composed of SET domain methyltransferases and structurally unrelated Rossman-fold enzymes that include protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). In the absence of a well-defined medicinal chemistry tool-kit focused on PMTs, most current inhibitors were identified by screening large and diverse libraries of leadlike molecules. So far, no successful fragment-based approach was reported against this target class. Here, by deconstructing potent PRMT inhibitors, we find that chemical moieties occupying the substrate arginine-binding site can act as efficient fragment inhibitors. Screening a fragment library against PRMT6 produced numerous hits, including a 300 nM inhibitor (ligand efficiency of 0.56) that decreased global histone 3 arginine 2 methylation in cells, and can serve as a warhead for the development of PRMT chemical probes.

  20. Engineered cystine knot miniproteins as potent inhibitors of human mast cell tryptase beta.

    PubMed

    Sommerhoff, Christian P; Avrutina, Olga; Schmoldt, Hans-Ulrich; Gabrijelcic-Geiger, Dusica; Diederichsen, Ulf; Kolmar, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the design, chemical and recombinant synthesis, and functional properties of a series of novel inhibitors of human mast cell tryptase beta, a protease of considerable interest as a therapeutic target for the treatment of allergic asthma and inflammatory disorders. These inhibitors are derived from a linear variant of the cyclic cystine knot miniprotein MCoTI-II, originally isolated from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis. A synthetic cyclic miniprotein that bears additional positive charge in the loop connecting the N- and C-termini inhibits all monomers of the tryptase beta tetramer with an overall equilibrium dissociation constant K(i) of 1 nM and thus is one of the most potent proteinaceous inhibitors of tryptase beta described to date. These cystine knot miniproteins may therefore become valuable scaffolds for the design of a new generation of tryptase inhibitors.

  1. Anti-Angiogenic Therapy: Strategies to Develop Potent VEGFR-2 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Future Prospect.

    PubMed

    Shi, Leilei; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wu, Jifeng; Shen, Yuemao; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis has always been a major gap for effective cancer therapy. Interruption of aberrant angiogenesis by specific inhibitors targeting receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has been of great interests to medicinal chemists. Among the factors that are involved in tumor angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is validated as the most closely related factor which can drive angiogenesis through binding with its natural ligand VEGF. The well-validated VEGF-driven VEGFR-2 signaling pathway can stimulate many endothelial responses, including increasing vessel permeability and enhancing endothelial cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Consequently, circumventing angiogenesis by VEGFR-2 inhibitors represents a promising strategy for counteracting various VEGFR-2-mediated disorders as well as drug resistance. Over the past decades, a considerable number of novel small molecular VEGFR-2 inhibitors have been exploited with diverse chemical scaffolds. Especially, recent frequently launched inhibitors have declared their research values and therapeutic potentials in oncology. Still, the antiangiogenesis based treatment remains an ongoing challenge. In this review, a comprehensive retrospective of newly emerged VEGFR-2 inhibitors have been summarized, with the emphasis on the structure-activity relationship (SAR) investigation, and also binding patterns of representative inhibitors with biotargets. On the basis of all of this information, varied strategies for developing potent VEGFR-2 inhibitors and the future prospect of the clinical application of antiangiogenic inhibitors are discussed hereby.

  2. Potent inhibitors of HCV-NS3 protease derived from boronic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatraman, Srikanth; Wu, Wanli; Prongay, Andrew; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George

    2009-07-23

    Chronic hepatitis C infection is the leading causes for cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma, leading to liver failure and liver transplantation. The etiological agent, HCV virus produces a single positive strand of RNA that is processed with the help of serine protease NS3 to produce mature virus. Inhibition of NS3 protease can be potentially used to develop effective drugs for HCV infections. Numerous efforts are now underway to develop potent inhibitors of HCV protease that contain ketoamides as serine traps. Herein we report the synthesis of a series of potent inhibitors that contain a boronic acid as a serine trap. The activity of these compounds were optimized to 200 pM. X-ray structure of compound 17 bound to NS3 protease is also discussed.

  3. Basis Tetrapeptides as Potent Intracellular Inhibitors of type A Botulinum Neurotoxin Protease Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, M.; Swaminathan, S.; Oyler, G.; Ahmed, S. A.

    2011-01-21

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most potent of all toxins that cause flaccid muscle paralysis leading to death. They are also potential biothreat agents. A systematic investigation of various short peptide inhibitors of the BoNT protease domain with a 17-residue peptide substrate led to arginine-arginine-glycine-cysteine having a basic tetrapeptide structure as the most potent inhibitor. When assayed in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT), the inhibitory effect was drastically reduced. Replacing the terminal cysteine with one hydrophobic residue eliminated the DTT effect but with two hydrophobic residues made the pentapeptide a poor inhibitor. Replacing the first arginine with cysteine or adding an additional cysteine at the N terminus did not improve inhibition. When assessed using mouse brain lysates, the tetrapeptides also inhibited BoNT/A cleavage of the endogenous SNAP-25. The peptides penetrated the neuronal cell lines, N2A and BE(2)-M17, without adversely affecting metabolic functions as measured by ATP production and P-38 phosphorylation. Biological activity of the peptides persisted within cultured chick motor neurons and rat and mouse cerebellar neurons for more than 40 h and inhibited BoNT/A protease action inside the neurons in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Our results define a tetrapeptide as the smallest peptide inhibitor in the backdrop of a large substrate protein of 200+ amino acids having multiple interaction regions with its cognate enzyme. The inhibitors should also be valuable candidates for drug development.

  4. Synthesis, biological characterization and molecular modeling insights of spirochromanes as potent HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Florian; Moretti, Loris; Amici, Raffaella; Abate, Agnese; Colombo, Andrea; Carenzi, Giacomo; Fulco, Maria Carmela; Boggio, Roberto; Dondio, Giulio; Gagliardi, Stefania; Minucci, Saverio; Sartori, Luca; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro

    2016-01-27

    In the last decades, inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC) have become an important class of anti-cancer agents. In a previous study we described the synthesis of spiro[chromane-2,4'-piperidine]hydroxamic acid derivatives able to inhibit histone deacetylase enzymes. Herein, we present our exploration for new derivatives by replacing the piperidine moiety with various cycloamines. The goal was to obtain highly potent compounds with a good in vitro ADME profile. In addition, molecular modeling studies unravelled the binding mode of these inhibitors.

  5. Discovery of Pyridinyl Acetamide Derivatives as Potent, Selective, and Orally Bioavailable Porcupine Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dai; Liu, Jun; Han, Dong; Zhang, Guobao; Gao, Wenqi; Hsieh, Mindy H; Ng, Nicholas; Kasibhatla, Shailaja; Tompkins, Celin; Li, Jie; Steffy, Auzon; Sun, Fangxian; Li, Chun; Seidel, H Martin; Harris, Jennifer L; Pan, Shifeng

    2016-07-14

    Blockade of aberrant Wnt signaling is an attractive therapeutic approach in multiple cancers. We developed and performed a cellular high-throughput screen for inhibitors of Wnt secretion and pathway activation. A lead structure (GNF-1331) was identified from the screen. Further studies identified the molecular target of GNF-1331 as Porcupine, a membrane bound O-acyl transferase. Structure-activity relationship studies led to the discovery of a novel series of potent and selective Porcupine inhibitors. Compound 19, GNF-6231, demonstrated excellent pathway inhibition and induced robust antitumor efficacy in a mouse MMTV-WNT1 xenograft tumor model. PMID:27437076

  6. 5-Amino-pyrazoles as potent and selective p38[alpha] inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Jagabandhu; Moquin, Robert V.; Dyckman, Alaric J.; Li, Tianle; Pitt, Sidney; Zhang, Rosemary; Shen, Ding Ren; McIntyre, Kim W.; Gillooly, Kathleen; Doweyko, Arthur M.; Newitt, John A.; Sack, John S.; Zhang, Hongjian; Kiefer, Susan E.; Kish, Kevin; McKinnon, Murray; Barrish, Joel C.; Dodd, John H.; Schieven, Gary L.; Leftheris, Katerina

    2012-02-07

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of p38{alpha} MAP kinase inhibitors based on a 5-amino-pyrazole scaffold are described. These studies led to the identification of compound 2j as a potent and selective inhibitor of p38{alpha} MAP kinase with excellent cellular potency toward the inhibition of TNF{alpha} production. Compound 2j was highly efficacious in vivo in inhibiting TNF{alpha} production in an acute murine model of TNF{alpha} production. X-ray co-crystallography of a 5-amino-pyrazole analog 2f bound to unphosphorylated p38{alpha} is also disclosed.

  7. Pyrazolo-Pyrimidines: A Novel Heterocyclic Scaffold for Potent and Selective p38alpha Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Das,J.; Moquin, R.; Pitt, S.; Zhang, R.; Shen, D.; McIntyre, K.; Gillooly, K.; Doweyko, A.; Sack, J.; et al

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of p38a MAP kinase inhibitors based on a pyrazolo-pyrimidine scaffold are described. These studies led to the identification of compound 2x as a potent and selective inhibitor of p38a MAP kinase with excellent cellular potency toward the inhibition of TNFa production. Compound 2x was highly efficacious in vivo in inhibiting TNFa production in an acute murine model of TNFa production. X-ray co-crystallography of a pyrazolo-pyrimidine analog 2b bound to unphosphorylated p38a is also disclosed.

  8. Design of novel quinazoline derivatives and related analogues as potent and selective ALK5 inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gellibert, F.; Fouchet, M.-H.; Nguyen, V.-L.; Wang, R.; Krysa, G.; de Gouville, A.-C.; Huet, S.; Dodic, N.

    2009-07-23

    Starting from quinazoline 3a, we designed potent and selective ALK5 inhibitors over p38MAP kinase from a rational drug design approach based on co-crystal structures in the human ALK5 kinase domain. The quinazoline 3d exhibited also in vivo activity in an acute rat model of DMN-induced liver fibrosis when administered orally at 5 mg/kg (bid).

  9. Discovery of HDAC Inhibitors with Potent Activity Against Multiple Malaria Parasite Life Cycle Stages

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Finn K.; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D. M.; Stenzel, Katharina; Duffy, Sandra; Meister, Stephan; Marek, Linda; Schmetter, Rebekka; Kuna, Krystina; Hamacher, Alexandra; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Kassack, Matthias U.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Avery, Vicky M.; Andrews, Katherine T.; Kurz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this work we investigated the antiplasmodial activity of a series of HDAC inhibitors containing an alkoxyamide connecting-unit linker region. HDAC inhibitor 1a (LMK235), previously shown to be a novel and specific inhibitor of human HDAC4 and 5, was used as a starting point to rapidly construct a mini-library of HDAC inhibitors using a straightforward solid-phase supported synthesis. Several of these novel HDAC inhibitors were found to have potent in vitro activity against asexual stage P. falciparum malaria parasites. Representative compounds were shown to hyperacetylate P. falciparum histones and to inhibit deacetylase activity of recombinant PfHDAC1 and P. falciparum nuclear extracts. All compounds were also screened in vitro for activity against P. berghei exo-erythrocytic stages and selected compounds were further tested against late stage (IV and V) P. falciparum gametocytes. Of note, some compounds showed nanomolar activity against all three life cycle stages tested (asexual, exo-erythrocytic and gametocyte stages) and several compounds displayed significantly increased parasite selectivity compared to the reference HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). These data suggest that it may be possible to develop HDAC inhibitors that target multiple malaria parasite life cycle stages. PMID:24904967

  10. A crystallographic fragment screen identifies cinnamic acid derivatives as starting points for potent Pim-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Michèle N; Fanghänel, Jörg; Schäfer, Martina; Badock, Volker; Briem, Hans; Boemer, Ulf; Nguyen, Duy; Husemann, Manfred; Hillig, Roman C

    2011-03-01

    A crystallographic fragment screen was carried out to identify starting points for the development of inhibitors of protein kinase Pim-1, a potential target for tumour therapy. All fragment hits identified via soaking in this study turned out to bind to the unusually hydrophobic pocket at the hinge region. The most potent fragments, two cinnamic acid derivatives (with a best IC(50) of 130 µM), additionally form a well defined hydrogen bond. The balance between hydrophobic and polar interactions makes these molecules good starting points for further optimization. Pim-2 inhibitors from a recently reported high-throughput screening campaign also feature a cinnamic acid moiety. Two of these Pim-2 inhibitors were synthesized, their potencies against Pim-1 were determined and their cocrystal structures were elucidated in order to determine to what degree the binding modes identified by fragment screening are conserved in optimized inhibitors. The structures show that the cinnamic acid moieties indeed adopt the same binding mode. Fragment screening thus correctly identified binding modes which are maintained when fragments are grown into larger and higher affinity inhibitors. The high-throughput screening-derived compound (E)-3-{3-[6-(4-aminocyclohexylamino)-pyrazin-2-yl]phenyl}acrylic acid (compound 1) is the most potent inhibitor of the cinnamic acid series for which the three-dimensional binding mode is known (IC(50) = 17 nM, K(d) = 28 nM). The structure reveals the molecular basis for the large gain in potency between the initial fragment hit and this optimized inhibitor.

  11. Structure-Guided Evolution of Potent and Selective CHK1 Inhibitors through Scaffold Morphing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Pyrazolopyridine inhibitors with low micromolar potency for CHK1 and good selectivity against CHK2 were previously identified by fragment-based screening. The optimization of the pyrazolopyridines to a series of potent and CHK1-selective isoquinolines demonstrates how fragment-growing and scaffold morphing strategies arising from a structure-based understanding of CHK1 inhibitor binding can be combined to successfully progress fragment-derived hit matter to compounds with activity in vivo. The challenges of improving CHK1 potency and selectivity, addressing synthetic tractability, and achieving novelty in the crowded kinase inhibitor chemical space were tackled by multiple scaffold morphing steps, which progressed through tricyclic pyrimido[2,3-b]azaindoles to N-(pyrazin-2-yl)pyrimidin-4-amines and ultimately to imidazo[4,5-c]pyridines and isoquinolines. A potent and highly selective isoquinoline CHK1 inhibitor (SAR-020106) was identified, which potentiated the efficacies of irinotecan and gemcitabine in SW620 human colon carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. PMID:22111927

  12. Discovery of Potent and Selective Inhibitors for ADAMTS-4 through DNA-Encoded Library Technology (ELT).

    PubMed

    Ding, Yun; O'Keefe, Heather; DeLorey, Jennifer L; Israel, David I; Messer, Jeffrey A; Chiu, Cynthia H; Skinner, Steven R; Matico, Rosalie E; Murray-Thompson, Monique F; Li, Fan; Clark, Matthew A; Cuozzo, John W; Arico-Muendel, Christopher; Morgan, Barry A

    2015-08-13

    The aggrecan degrading metalloprotease ADAMTS-4 has been identified as a novel therapeutic target for osteoarthritis. Here, we use DNA-encoded Library Technology (ELT) to identify novel ADAMTS-4 inhibitors from a DNA-encoded triazine library by affinity selection. Structure-activity relationship studies based on the selection information led to the identification of potent and highly selective inhibitors. For example, 4-(((4-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)-6-(((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)amino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino)methyl)-N-ethyl-N-(m-tolyl)benzamide has IC50 of 10 nM against ADAMTS-4, with >1000-fold selectivity over ADAMT-5, MMP-13, TACE, and ADAMTS-13. These inhibitors have no obvious zinc ligand functionality. PMID:26288689

  13. Discovery of Potent and Selective Inhibitors for ADAMTS-4 through DNA-Encoded Library Technology (ELT)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aggrecan degrading metalloprotease ADAMTS-4 has been identified as a novel therapeutic target for osteoarthritis. Here, we use DNA-encoded Library Technology (ELT) to identify novel ADAMTS-4 inhibitors from a DNA-encoded triazine library by affinity selection. Structure–activity relationship studies based on the selection information led to the identification of potent and highly selective inhibitors. For example, 4-(((4-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)-6-(((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl)amino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino)methyl)-N-ethyl-N-(m-tolyl)benzamide has IC50 of 10 nM against ADAMTS-4, with >1000-fold selectivity over ADAMT-5, MMP-13, TACE, and ADAMTS-13. These inhibitors have no obvious zinc ligand functionality. PMID:26288689

  14. (R)-2-Phenylpyrrolidine Substituted Imidazopyridazines: A New Class of Potent and Selective Pan-TRK Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated kinase activities of tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) family members have been shown to be associated with tumorigenesis and poor prognosis in a variety of cancer types. In particular, several chromosomal rearrangements involving TRKA have been reported in colorectal, papillary thyroid, glioblastoma, melanoma, and lung tissue that are believed to be the key oncogenic driver in these tumors. By screening the Novartis compound collection, a novel imidazopyridazine TRK inhibitor was identified that served as a launching point for drug optimization. Structure guided drug design led to the identification of (R)-2-phenylpyrrolidine substituted imidazopyridazines as a series of potent, selective, orally bioavailable pan-TRK inhibitors achieving tumor regression in rats bearing KM12 xenografts. From this work the (R)-2-phenylpyrrolidine has emerged as an ideal moiety to incorporate in bicyclic TRK inhibitors by virtue of its shape complementarity to the hydrophobic pocket of TRKs. PMID:26005534

  15. Discovery of Potent Succinate-Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Inhibitors via Pharmacophore-linked Fragment Virtual Screening Approach.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Li; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Hua-Wei; Fu, Yu; Hu, Sheng-Quan; Jiang, Li-Na; Yang, Wen-Chao; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2016-06-22

    Succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is an attractive target for fungicide discovery. Herein, we report the discovery of novel SQR inhibitors using a pharmacophore-linked fragment virtual screening approach, a new drug design method developed in our laboratory. Among newly designed compounds, compound 9s was identified as the most potent inhibitor with a Ki value of 34 nM against porcine SQR, displaying approximately 10-fold higher potency than that of the commercial control penthiopyrad. Further inhibitory kinetics studies revealed that compound 9s is a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate cytochrome c and DCIP. Interestingly, compounds 8a, 9h, 9j, and 9k exhibited good in vivo preventive effects against Rhizoctonia solani. The results obtained from molecular modeling showed that the orientation of the R(2) group had a significant effect on binding with the protein. PMID:27225833

  16. Discovery of highly potent acid ceramidase inhibitors with in vitro tumor chemosensitizing activity

    PubMed Central

    Realini, Natalia; Solorzano, Carlos; Pagliuca, Chiara; Pizzirani, Daniela; Armirotti, Andrea; Luciani, Rosaria; Costi, Maria Paola; Bandiera, Tiziano; Piomelli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The expression of acid ceramidase (AC) – a cysteine amidase that hydrolyses the proapoptotic lipid ceramide – is abnormally high in several human tumors, which is suggestive of a role in chemoresistance. Available AC inhibitors lack, however, the potency and drug-likeness necessary to test this idea. Here we show that the antineoplastic drug carmofur, which is used in the clinic to treat colorectal cancers, is a potent AC inhibitor and that this property is essential to its anti-proliferative effects. Modifications in the chemical scaffold of carmofur yield new AC inhibitors that act synergistically with standard antitumoral drugs to prevent cancer cell proliferation. These findings identify AC as an unexpected target for carmofur, and suggest that this molecule can be used as starting point for the design of novel chemosensitizing agents. PMID:23301156

  17. Discovery of potent and selective sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) inhibitors using a fragment-based approach.

    PubMed

    Cui, Huaqing; Kamal, Zeeshan; Ai, Teng; Xu, Yanli; More, Swati S; Wilson, Daniel J; Chen, Liqiang

    2014-10-23

    Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is one of the sirtuins, a family of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that act on a variety of histone and non-histone substrates. Accumulating biological functions and potential therapeutic applications have drawn interest in the discovery and development of SIRT2 inhibitors. Herein we report our discovery of novel SIRT2 inhibitors using a fragment-based approach. Inspired by the purported close binding proximity of suramin and nicotinamide, we prepared two sets of fragments, namely, the naphthylamide sulfonic acids and the naphthalene-benzamides and -nicotinamides. Biochemical evaluation of these two series provided structure-activity relationship (SAR) information, which led to the design of (5-benzamidonaphthalen-1/2-yloxy)nicotinamide derivatives. Among these inhibitors, one compound exhibited high anti-SIRT2 activity (48 nM) and excellent selectivity for SIRT2 over SIRT1 and SIRT3. In vitro, it also increased the acetylation level of α-tubulin, a well-established SIRT2 substrate, in both concentration- and time-dependent manners. Further kinetic studies revealed that this compound behaves as a competitive inhibitor against the peptide substrate and most likely as a noncompetitive inhibitor against NAD(+). Taken together, these results indicate that we have discovered a potent and selective SIRT2 inhibitor whose novel structure merits further exploration.

  18. Ethynylflavones, Highly Potent, and Selective Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 1A1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The flavone backbone is a well-known pharmacophore present in a number of substrates and inhibitors of various P450 enzymes. In order to find highly potent and novel P450 family I enzyme inhibitors, an acetylene group was incorporated into six different positions of flavone. The introduction of an acetylene group at certain locations of the flavone backbone lead to time-dependent inhibitors of P450 1A1. 3′-Ethynylflavone, 4′-ethynylflavone, 6-ethynylflavone, and 7-ethynylflavone (KI values of 0.035–0.056 μM) show strong time-dependent inhibition of P450 1A1, while 5-ethynylflavone (KI value of 0.51 μM) is a moderate time-dependent inhibitor of this enzyme. Meanwhile, 4′-ethynylflavone and 6-ethynylflavone are highly selective inhibitors toward this enzyme. Especially, 6-ethynylflavone possesses a Ki value of 0.035 μM for P450 1A1 177- and 15-fold lower than those for P450s 1A2 and 1B1, respectively. The docking postures observed in the computational simulations show that the orientation of the acetylene group determines its capability to react with P450s 1A1 and 1A2. Meanwhile, conformational analysis indicates that the shape of an inhibitor determines its inhibitory selectivity toward these enzymes. PMID:25033111

  19. Discovery of a Selective Inhibitor of Oncogenic B-Raf Kinase With Potent Antimelanoma Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, J.; Lee, J.T.; Wang, W.; Zhang, J.; Cho, H.; Mamo, S.; Bremer, R.; Gillette, S.; Kong, J.; Haass, N.K.; Sproesser, K.; Li, L.; Smalley, K.S.M.; Fong, D.; Zhu, Y.-L.; Marimuthu, A.; Nguyen, H.; Lam, B.; Liu, J.; Cheung, I.; Rice, J.

    2009-05-26

    BRAF{sup V600E} is the most frequent oncogenic protein kinase mutation known. Furthermore, inhibitors targeting 'active' protein kinases have demonstrated significant utility in the therapeutic repertoire against cancer. Therefore, we pursued the development of specific kinase inhibitors targeting B-Raf, and the V600E allele in particular. By using a structure-guided discovery approach, a potent and selective inhibitor of active B-Raf has been discovered. PLX4720, a 7-azaindole derivative that inhibits B-Raf{sup V600E} with an IC{sub 50} of 13 nM, defines a class of kinase inhibitor with marked selectivity in both biochemical and cellular assays. PLX4720 preferentially inhibits the active B-Raf{sup V600E} kinase compared with a broad spectrum of other kinases, and potent cytotoxic effects are also exclusive to cells bearing the V600E allele. Consistent with the high degree of selectivity, ERK phosphorylation is potently inhibited by PLX4720 in B-Raf{sup V600E}-bearing tumor cell lines but not in cells lacking oncogenic B-Raf. In melanoma models, PLX4720 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis exclusively in B-Raf{sup V600E}-positive cells. In B-Raf{sup V600E}-dependent tumor xenograft models, orally dosed PLX4720 causes significant tumor growth delays, including tumor regressions, without evidence of toxicity. The work described here represents the entire discovery process, from initial identification through structural and biological studies in animal models to a promising therapeutic for testing in cancer patients bearing B-Raf{sup V600E}-driven tumors.

  20. Phage displayed peptide recognizing porcine aminopeptidase N is a potent small molecule inhibitor of PEDV entry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three phage-displayed peptides designated H, S and F that recognize porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN), the cellular receptor of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) were able to inhibit cell infection by TGEV. These same peptides had no inhibitory effects on infection of Vero cells by po...

  1. The marine cyanobacterial metabolite gallinamide A is a potent and selective inhibitor of human cathepsin L.

    PubMed

    Miller, Bailey; Friedman, Aaron J; Choi, Hyukjae; Hogan, James; McCammon, J Andrew; Hook, Vivian; Gerwick, William H

    2014-01-24

    A number of marine natural products are potent inhibitors of proteases, an important drug target class in human diseases. Hence, marine cyanobacterial extracts were assessed for inhibitory activity to human cathepsin L. Herein, we have shown that gallinamide A potently and selectively inhibits the human cysteine protease cathepsin L. With 30 min of preincubation, gallinamide A displayed an IC50 of 5.0 nM, and kinetic analysis demonstrated an inhibition constant of ki = 9000 ± 260 M(-1) s(-1). Preincubation-dilution and activity-probe experiments revealed an irreversible mode of inhibition, and comparative IC50 values display a 28- to 320-fold greater selectivity toward cathepsin L than closely related human cysteine cathepsin V or B. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to determine the pose of gallinamide in the active site of cathepsin L. These data resulted in the identification of a pose characterized by high stability, a consistent hydrogen bond network, and the reactive Michael acceptor enamide of gallinamide A positioned near the active site cysteine of the protease, leading to a proposed mechanism of covalent inhibition. These data reveal and characterize the novel activity of gallinamide A as a potent inhibitor of human cathepsin L.

  2. Development of ortho-Chlorophenyl Substituted Pyrimidines as Exceptionally Potent Aurora Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Harshani R.; Ozcan, Sevil; Zhu, Jin-Yi; Kendig, Robert; Rodriguez, Mercedes; Elias, Roy; Cheng, Jin Q.; Sebti, Saïd M.; Schonbrunn, Ernst; Lawrence, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    The ortho-carboxylic acid substituted bisanilinopyrimidine 1 was identified as a potent hit (Aurora A IC50 = 6.1 ± 1.0 nM) from in-house screening. Detailed structure activity relationship (SAR) studies indicated that polar substituents at the para position of the B-ring are critical for potent activity. X-ray crystallography studies revealed that compound 1 is a type-I inhibitor that binds the Aurora kinase active site in a DFG-in conformation. Structure activity guided replacement of the A-ring carboxylic acid with halogens and incorporation of fluorine at the pyrimidine 5-position led to highly potent inhibitors of Aurora A that bind in a DFG-out conformation. B-ring modifications were undertaken to improve the solubility and cell permeability. Compounds such as 9m with water-solubilizing moieties at the para-position of the B-ring inhibited the autophosphorylation of Aurora A in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. PMID:22803810

  3. The Marine Cyanobacterial Metabolite Gallinamide A is a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Human Cathepsin L

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bailey; Friedman, Aaron J; Choi, Hyukjae; Hogan, James; McCammon, J. Andrew; Hook, Vivian; Gerwick, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A number of marine natural products are potent inhibitors of proteases, an important drug target class in human diseases. Hence, marine cyanobacterial extracts were assessed for inhibitory activity to human cathepsin L. Herein, we have shown that gallinamide A potently and selectively inhibits the human cysteine protease, cathepsin L. With 30 min of preincubation, gallinamide A displayed an IC50 of 5.0 nM, and kinetic analysis demonstrated an inhibition constant of ki = 9000 ± 260 M−1 s−1. Preincubation-dilution and activity-probe experiments revealed an irreversible mode of inhibition, and comparative IC50 values display a 28- to 320- fold greater selectivity toward cathepsin L than closely related human cysteine cathepsins V or B. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to determine the pose of gallinamide in the active site of cathepsin L. These data resulted in the identification of a pose characterized by high stability, a consistent hydrogen bond network, and the reactive Michael acceptor enamide of gallinamide A positioned near the active site cysteine of the protease, leading to a proposed mechanism of covalent inhibition. These data reveal and characterize the novel activity of gallinamide A as a potent inhibitor of human cathepsin L. PMID:24364476

  4. Discovery and Characterization of a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Aedes aegypti Inward Rectifier Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Raphemot, Rene; Rouhier, Matthew F.; Swale, Daniel R.; Days, Emily; Weaver, C. David; Lovell, Kimberly M.; Konkel, Leah C.; Engers, Darren W.; Bollinger, Sean F.; Hopkins, Corey; Piermarini, Peter M.; Denton, Jerod S.

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases such as dengue fever and malaria, which are transmitted by infected female mosquitoes, affect nearly half of the world's population. The emergence of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations is reducing the effectiveness of conventional insecticides and threatening current vector control strategies, which has created an urgent need to identify new molecular targets against which novel classes of insecticides can be developed. We previously demonstrated that small molecule inhibitors of mammalian Kir channels represent promising chemicals for new mosquitocide development. In this study, high-throughput screening of approximately 30,000 chemically diverse small-molecules was employed to discover potent and selective inhibitors of Aedes aegypti Kir1 (AeKir1) channels heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Of 283 confirmed screening ‘hits’, the small-molecule inhibitor VU625 was selected for lead optimization and in vivo studies based on its potency and selectivity toward AeKir1, and tractability for medicinal chemistry. In patch clamp electrophysiology experiments of HEK293 cells, VU625 inhibits AeKir1 with an IC50 value of 96.8 nM, making VU625 the most potent inhibitor of AeKir1 described to date. Furthermore, electrophysiology experiments in Xenopus oocytes revealed that VU625 is a weak inhibitor of AeKir2B. Surprisingly, injection of VU625 failed to elicit significant effects on mosquito behavior, urine excretion, or survival. However, when co-injected with probenecid, VU625 inhibited the excretory capacity of mosquitoes and was toxic, suggesting that the compound is a substrate of organic anion and/or ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The dose-toxicity relationship of VU625 (when co-injected with probenecid) is biphasic, which is consistent with the molecule inhibiting both AeKir1 and AeKir2B with different potencies. This study demonstrates proof-of-concept that potent and highly selective inhibitors of mosquito Kir channels

  5. Discovery and characterization of a potent and selective inhibitor of Aedes aegypti inward rectifier potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Raphemot, Rene; Rouhier, Matthew F; Swale, Daniel R; Days, Emily; Weaver, C David; Lovell, Kimberly M; Konkel, Leah C; Engers, Darren W; Bollinger, Sean R; Bollinger, Sean F; Hopkins, Corey; Piermarini, Peter M; Denton, Jerod S

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases such as dengue fever and malaria, which are transmitted by infected female mosquitoes, affect nearly half of the world's population. The emergence of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations is reducing the effectiveness of conventional insecticides and threatening current vector control strategies, which has created an urgent need to identify new molecular targets against which novel classes of insecticides can be developed. We previously demonstrated that small molecule inhibitors of mammalian Kir channels represent promising chemicals for new mosquitocide development. In this study, high-throughput screening of approximately 30,000 chemically diverse small-molecules was employed to discover potent and selective inhibitors of Aedes aegypti Kir1 (AeKir1) channels heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Of 283 confirmed screening 'hits', the small-molecule inhibitor VU625 was selected for lead optimization and in vivo studies based on its potency and selectivity toward AeKir1, and tractability for medicinal chemistry. In patch clamp electrophysiology experiments of HEK293 cells, VU625 inhibits AeKir1 with an IC50 value of 96.8 nM, making VU625 the most potent inhibitor of AeKir1 described to date. Furthermore, electrophysiology experiments in Xenopus oocytes revealed that VU625 is a weak inhibitor of AeKir2B. Surprisingly, injection of VU625 failed to elicit significant effects on mosquito behavior, urine excretion, or survival. However, when co-injected with probenecid, VU625 inhibited the excretory capacity of mosquitoes and was toxic, suggesting that the compound is a substrate of organic anion and/or ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The dose-toxicity relationship of VU625 (when co-injected with probenecid) is biphasic, which is consistent with the molecule inhibiting both AeKir1 and AeKir2B with different potencies. This study demonstrates proof-of-concept that potent and highly selective inhibitors of mosquito Kir channels can

  6. Structure-Guided, Single-Point Modifications in the Phosphinic Dipeptide Structure Yield Highly Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Neutral Aminopeptidases

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vassiliou, Stamatia; Węglarz-Tomczak, Ewelina; Berlicki, Łukasz; Pawełczak, Małgorzata; Nocek, Bogusław; Mulligan, Rory; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Mucha, Artur

    2014-10-09

    Seven crystal structures of alanyl aminopeptidase from Neisseria meningitides (the etiological agent of meningitis, NmAPN) complexed with organophosphorus compounds were resolved to determine the optimal inhibitor–enzyme interactions. The enantiomeric phosphonic acid analogs of Leu and hPhe, which correspond to the P1 amino acid residues of well-processed substrates, were used to assess the impact of the absolute configuration and the stereospecific hydrogen bond network formed between the aminophosphonate polar head and the active site residues on the binding affinity. For the hPhe analog, an imperfect stereochemical complementarity could be overcome by incorporating an appropriate P1 side chain. The constitution of P1'-extendedmore » structures was rationally designed and the lead, phosphinic dipeptide hPhePψ[CH2]Phe, was modified in a single position. Introducing a heteroatom/heteroatom-based fragment to either the P1 or P1' residue required new synthetic pathways. The compounds in the refined structure were low nanomolar and subnanomolar inhibitors of N. meningitides, porcine and human APNs, and the reference leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The unnatural phosphinic dipeptide analogs exhibited a high affinity for monozinc APNs associated with a reasonable selectivity versus dizinc LAP. In conclusion, another set of crystal structures containing the NmAPN dipeptide ligand were used to verify and to confirm the predicted binding modes; furthermore, novel contacts, which were promising for inhibitor development, were identified, including a π–π stacking interaction between a pyridine ring and Tyr372.« less

  7. Rational Design of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Seiya; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Niu, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D; Madden, Dean R; Morisseau, Christophe

    2016-05-26

    The virulence factor cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is the founding member of a distinct class of epoxide hydrolases (EHs) that triggers the catalysis-dependent degradation of the CFTR. We describe here the development of a series of potent and selective Cif inhibitors by structure-based drug design. Initial screening revealed 1a (KB2115), a thyroid hormone analog, as a lead compound with low micromolar potency. Structural requirements for potency were systematically probed, and interactions between Cif and 1a were characterized by X-ray crystallography. On the basis of these data, new compounds were designed to yield additional hydrogen bonding with residues of the Cif active site. From this effort, three compounds were identified that are 10-fold more potent toward Cif than our first-generation inhibitors and have no detectable thyroid hormone-like activity. These inhibitors will be useful tools to study the pathological role of Cif and have the potential for clinical application. PMID:27120257

  8. Design, Synthesis, and Protein Crystallography of Biaryltriazoles as Potent Tautomerase Inhibitors of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Pawel; Cisneros, José A.; Robertson, Michael J.; Hare, Alissa A.; Danford, Nadia E.; Baxter, Richard H. G.; Jorgensen, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Optimization is reported for biaryltriazoles as inhibitors of the tautomerase activity of human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and cancer. A combined approach was taken featuring organic synthesis, enzymatic assaying, crystallography, and modeling including free-energy perturbation (FEP) calculations. X-ray crystal structures for 3a and 3b bound to MIF are reported and provided a basis for the modeling efforts. The accommodation of the inhibitors in the binding site is striking with multiple hydrogen bonds and aryl–aryl interactions. Additional modeling encouraged pursuit of 5-phenoxyquinolinyl analogues, which led to the very potent compound 3s. Activity was further enhanced by addition of a fluorine atom adjacent to the phenolic hydroxyl group as in 3w, 3z, 3aa, and 3bb to strengthen a key hydrogen bond. It is also shown that physical properties of the compounds can be modulated by variation of solvent-exposed substituents. Several of the compounds are likely the most potent known MIF tautomerase inhibitors; the most active ones are more than 1000-fold more active than the well-studied (R)-ISO-1 and more than 200-fold more active than the chromen-4-one Orita-13. PMID:25697265

  9. Design of New and Potent Diethyl Thiobarbiturates as Urease Inhibitors: A Computational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wadood, Abdul; Riaz, Muhammad; Mulk, Amir ul; Khan, Momin; Haleem, Sobia Ahsan; Shams, Sulaiman; Gul, Sahib; Ahmed, Ayaz; Qasim, Muhammad; Ali, Farman; Ul-Haq, Zaheer

    2014-01-01

    Urease is an important enzyme both in agriculture and medicine research. Strategies based on urease inhibition is critically considered as the first line treatment of infections caused by urease producing bacteria. Since, urease possess agro-chemical and medicinal importance, thus, it is necessary to search for the novel compounds capable of inhibiting this enzyme. Several computational methods were employed to design novel and potent urease inhibitors in this work. First docking simulations of known compounds consists of a set of arylidine barbiturates (termed as reference) were performed on the Bacillus pasteurii (BP) urease. Subsequently, two fold strategies were used to design new compounds against urease. Stage 1 comprised of the energy minimization of enzyme-ligand complexes of reference compounds and the accurate prediction of the molecular mechanics generalized born (MMGB) interaction energies. In the second stage, new urease inhibitors were then designed by the substitution of different groups consecutively in the aryl ring of the thiobarbiturates and N, N-diethyl thiobarbiturates of the reference ligands.. The enzyme-ligand complexes with lowest interaction energies or energies close to the calculated interaction energies of the reference molecules, were selected for the consequent chemical manipulation. This was followed by the substitution of different groups on the 2 and 5 positions of the aryl ring. As a result, several new and potent diethyl thiobarbiturates were predicted as urease inhibitors. This approach reflects a logical progression for early stage drug discovery that can be exploited to successfully identify potential drug candidates. PMID:24966538

  10. Design of new and potent diethyl thiobarbiturates as urease inhibitors: a computational approach.

    PubMed

    Wadood, Abdul; Riaz, Muhammad; Mulk, Amir Ul; Khan, Momin; Haleem, Sobia Ahsan; Shams, Sulaiman; Gul, Sahib; Ahmed, Ayaz; Qasim, Muhammad; Ali, Farman; Ul-Haq, Zaheer

    2014-01-01

    Urease is an important enzyme both in agriculture and medicine research. Strategies based on urease inhibition is critically considered as the first line treatment of infections caused by urease producing bacteria. Since, urease possess agro-chemical and medicinal importance, thus, it is necessary to search for the novel compounds capable of inhibiting this enzyme. Several computational methods were employed to design novel and potent urease inhibitors in this work. First docking simulations of known compounds consists of a set of arylidine barbiturates (termed as reference) were performed on the Bacillus pasteurii (BP) urease. Subsequently, two fold strategies were used to design new compounds against urease. Stage 1 comprised of the energy minimization of enzyme-ligand complexes of reference compounds and the accurate prediction of the molecular mechanics generalized born (MMGB) interaction energies. In the second stage, new urease inhibitors were then designed by the substitution of different groups consecutively in the aryl ring of the thiobarbiturates and N, N-diethyl thiobarbiturates of the reference ligands.. The enzyme-ligand complexes with lowest interaction energies or energies close to the calculated interaction energies of the reference molecules, were selected for the consequent chemical manipulation. This was followed by the substitution of different groups on the 2 and 5 positions of the aryl ring. As a result, several new and potent diethyl thiobarbiturates were predicted as urease inhibitors. This approach reflects a logical progression for early stage drug discovery that can be exploited to successfully identify potential drug candidates. PMID:24966538

  11. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Indole Derivatives as Deaza Analogues of Potent Human Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Letizia; Schepetkin, Igor A; Ciciani, Giovanna; Giovannoni, Maria Paola; Guerrini, Gabriella; Iacovone, Antonella; Khlebnikov, Andrei I; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Quinn, Mark T; Vergelli, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Preclinical Research A number of N-benzoylindoles were designed and synthesized as deaza analogs of previously reported potent and selective HNE inhibitors with an indazole scaffold. The new compounds containing substituents and functions that were most active in the previous series were active in the micromolar range (the most potent had IC50  = 3.8 μM) or inactive. These results demonstrated the importance of N-2 in the indazole nucleus. Docking studies performed on several compounds containing the same substituents but with an indole or an indazole scaffold, respectively, highlight interesting aspects concerning the molecule orientation and H-bonding interactions, which could help to explain the lower activity of this new series. Drug Dev Res, 2016.   © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27474878

  12. A Novel Potent Oral Series of VEGFR2 Inhibitors Abrogate Tumor Growth by Inhibiting Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bold, Guido; Schnell, Christian; Furet, Pascal; McSheehy, Paul; Brüggen, Josef; Mestan, Jürgen; Manley, Paul W; Drückes, Peter; Burglin, Marion; Dürler, Ursula; Loretan, Jacqueline; Reuter, Robert; Wartmann, Markus; Theuer, Andreas; Bauer-Probst, Beatrice; Martiny-Baron, Georg; Allegrini, Peter; Goepfert, Arnaud; Wood, Jeanette; Littlewood-Evans, Amanda

    2016-01-14

    This paper describes the identification of 6-(pyrimidin-4-yloxy)-naphthalene-1-carboxamides as a new class of potent and selective human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In biochemical and cellular assays, the compounds exhibit single-digit nanomolar potency toward VEGFR2. Compounds of this series show good exposure in rodents when dosed orally. They potently inhibit VEGF-driven angiogenesis in a chamber model and rodent tumor models at daily doses of less than 3 mg/kg by targeting the tumor vasculature as demonstrated by ELISA for TIE-2 in lysates or by immunohistochemical analysis. This novel series of compounds shows a potential for the treatment of solid tumors and other diseases where angiogenesis plays an important role. PMID:26629594

  13. Development of novel ferulic acid derivatives as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Lu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Dong, Jinyun; Gao, Hongping; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Sicen; Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-15

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) offer a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The discovery of potent ferulic acid-based HDACIs with hydroxamic acid or 2-aminobenzamide group as zinc binding group was reported. The halogeno-acetanilide was introduced as novel surface recognition moiety (SRM). The majority of title compounds displayed potent HDAC inhibitory activity. In particular, FA6 and FA16 exhibited significant enzymatic inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 3.94 and 2.82 μM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds showed moderate antiproliferative activity against a panel of human cancer cells. FA17 displayed promising profile as an antitumor candidate. The results indicated that these ferulic acid derivatives could serve as promising lead compounds for further optimization. PMID:24095016

  14. Exploiting an Allosteric Binding Site of PRMT3 Yields Potent and Selective Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Li, Fengling; Ma, Anqi; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Dong, Aiping; Gao, Cen; Korboukh, Ilia; Liu, Jing; Smil, David; Brown, Peter J.; Frye, Stephen V.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Schapira, Matthieu; Vedadi, Masoud; Jin, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) play an important role in diverse biological processes. Among the nine known human PRMTs, PRMT3 has been implicated in ribosomal biosynthesis via asymmetric dimethylation of the 40S ribosomal protein S2 and in cancer via interaction with the DAL-1 tumor suppressor protein. However, few selective inhibitors of PRMTs have been discovered. We recently disclosed the first selective PRMT3 inhibitor, which occupies a novel allosteric binding site and is noncompetitive with both the peptide substrate and cofactor. Here we report comprehensive structure–activity relationship studies of this series, which resulted in the discovery of multiple PRMT3 inhibitors with submicromolar potencies. An X-ray crystal structure of compound 14u in complex with PRMT3 confirmed that this inhibitor occupied the same allosteric binding site as our initial lead compound. These studies provide the first experimental evidence that potent and selective inhibitors can be created by exploiting the allosteric binding site of PRMT3. PMID:23445220

  15. Discovery of the First Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Human dCTP Pyrophosphatase 1

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Sylvain A.; Johansson, Lars; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Claesson, Magnus; Loseva, Olga; Valerie, Nicholas C. K.; Lundbäck, Thomas; Piedrafita, Javier; Maga, Giovanni; Crespan, Emmanuele; Meijer, Laurent; Morón, Estefanía Burgos; Baranczewski, Pawel; Hagbjörk, Ann-Louise; Svensson, Richard; Wiita, Elisee; Almlöf, Ingrid; Visnes, Torkild; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Sigmundsson, Kristmundur; Jensen, Annika Jenmalm; Artursson, Per; Jemth, Ann-Sofie; Stenmark, Pål; Berglund, Ulrika Warpman; Scobie, Martin; Helleday, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The dCTPase pyrophosphatase 1 (dCTPase) regulates the intracellular nucleotide pool through hydrolytic degradation of canonical and noncanonical nucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). dCTPase is highly expressed in multiple carcinomas and is associated with cancer cell stemness. Here we report on the development of the first potent and selective dCTPase inhibitors that enhance the cytotoxic effect of cytidine analogues in leukemia cells. Boronate 30 displays a promising in vitro ADME profile, including plasma and mouse microsomal half-lives, aqueous solubility, cell permeability and CYP inhibition, deeming it a suitable compound for in vivo studies. PMID:26771665

  16. Syntheses of Mycobactin Analogs as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Juárez-Hernández, Raúl E.; Franzblau, Scott G.

    2012-01-01

    Three analogs of mycobactin T, the siderophore secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) were synthesized and screened for their antibiotic activity against Mtb H37Rv and a broad panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The synthetic mycobactins were potent (MIC90 0.02–0.88 μM in 7H12 media) and selective Mtb inhibitors, with no inhibitory activity observed against any other of the microorganisms tested. The maleimide-containing analog 40 represents a versatile platform for the development of mycobactin-drug conjugates, as well as other applications. PMID:22895786

  17. Biological evaluation of some uracil derivatives as potent glutathione reductase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güney, Murat; Ekinci, Deniz; Ćavdar, Huseyin; Şentürk, Murat; Zilbeyaz, Kani

    2016-04-01

    Discovery of glutathione reductase (GR) inhibitors has become very popular recently due to antimalarial and anticancer activities. In this study, GR inhibitory capacities of some uracil derivatives (UDCs) (1-4) were reported. Some commercially available molecules (5-6) were also tested for comparison reasons. The novel UDCs were obtained in high yields using simple chemical procedures and exhibited much potent inhibitory activities against GR at low nanomolar concentrations with IC50 values ranging from 2.68 to 166.6 nM as compared with well-known agents.

  18. Pyrimidine-based tricyclic molecules as potent and orally efficacious inhibitors of wee1 kinase.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yunsong; Torrent, Maricel; Florjancic, Alan S; Bromberg, Kenneth D; Buchanan, Fritz G; Ferguson, Debra C; Johnson, Eric F; Lasko, Loren M; Maag, David; Merta, Philip J; Olson, Amanda M; Osterling, Donald J; Soni, Nirupama; Shoemaker, Alexander R; Penning, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    Aided by molecular modeling, compounds with a pyrimidine-based tricyclic scaffold were designed and confirmed to inhibit Wee1 kinase. Structure-activity studies identified key pharmacophores at the aminoaryl and halo-benzene regions responsible for binding affinity with sub-nM K i values. The potent inhibitors demonstrated sub-μM activities in both functional and mechanism-based cellular assays and also possessed desirable pharmacokinetic profiles. The lead molecule, 31, showed oral efficacy in potentiating the antiproliferative activity of irinotecan, a cytotoxic agent, in a NCI-H1299 mouse xenograft model.

  19. Discovery and crystallography of bicyclic arylaminoazines as potent inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Gil; Frey, Kathleen M; Gallardo-Macias, Ricardo; Spasov, Krasimir A; Chan, Albert H; Anderson, Karen S; Jorgensen, William L

    2015-11-01

    Non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-RT) are reported that incorporate a 7-indolizinylamino or 2-naphthylamino substituent on a pyrimidine or 1,3,5-triazine core. The most potent compounds show below 10 nanomolar activity towards wild-type HIV-1 and variants bearing Tyr181Cys and Lys103Asn/Tyr181Cys resistance mutations. The compounds also feature good aqueous solubility. Crystal structures for two complexes enhance the analysis of the structure-activity data.

  20. Discovery of a Novel Series of Thienopyrimidine as Highly Potent and Selective PI3K Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway provides a promising new approach for cancer therapy. Through a rational design, a novel series of thienopyrimidine was discovered as highly potent and selective PI3K inhibitors. These thienopyrimidine derivatives were demonstrated to bear nanomolar PI3Kα inhibitory potency with over 100-fold selectivity against mTOR kinase. The lead compounds 6g and 6k showed good developability profiles in cell-based proliferation and ADME assays. In this communication, their design, synthesis, structure–activity relationship, selectivity, and some developability properties are described. PMID:25893045

  1. Identification of Potent, Selective, Cell-Active Inhibitors of the Histone Lysine Methyltransferase EZH2.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sharad K; Tian, Xinrong; LaFrance, Louis V; Duquenne, Céline; Suarez, Dominic P; Newlander, Kenneth A; Romeril, Stuart P; Burgess, Joelle L; Grant, Seth W; Brackley, James A; Graves, Alan P; Scherzer, Daryl A; Shu, Art; Thompson, Christine; Ott, Heidi M; Aller, Glenn S Van; Machutta, Carl A; Diaz, Elsie; Jiang, Yong; Johnson, Neil W; Knight, Steven D; Kruger, Ryan G; McCabe, Michael T; Dhanak, Dashyant; Tummino, Peter J; Creasy, Caretha L; Miller, William H

    2012-12-13

    The histone H3-lysine 27 (H3K27) methyltransferase EZH2 plays a critical role in regulating gene expression, and its aberrant activity is linked to the onset and progression of cancer. As part of a drug discovery program targeting EZH2, we have identified highly potent, selective, SAM-competitive, and cell-active EZH2 inhibitors, including GSK926 (3) and GSK343 (6). These compounds are small molecule chemical tools that would be useful to further explore the biology of EZH2. PMID:24900432

  2. The norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine is more potent in treating murine narcoleptic episodes than the serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christian; Leibiger, Judith; Fendt, Markus

    2016-07-15

    One of the major symptoms of narcolepsy is cataplexy, a sudden loss of muscle tone. Despite the advances in understanding the neuropathology of narcolepsy, cataplexy is still treated symptomatically with antidepressants. Here, we investigate in a murine narcolepsy model the hypothesis that the antidepressants specifically blocking norepinephrine reuptake are more potent in treating narcoleptic episodes than the antidepressants blocking of serotonin reuptake. Furthermore, we tested the effects of α1 receptor stimulation and blockade, respectively, on narcoleptic episodes. Orexin-deficient mice were treated with different doses of the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine, the serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram, the α1 receptor agonist cirazoline or the α1 receptor antagonist prazosin. The effect of these treatments on narcoleptic episodes was tested. Additionally, potential treatment effects on locomotor activity in an open-field were tested. Reboxetine (doses ≥0.55mg/kg) as well as escitalopram (doses ≥3.0mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced the number of narcoleptic episodes in orexin-deficient mice. The ED50 for reboxetine (0.012mg/kg) was significantly lower than for escitalopram (0.44mg/kg). Cirazoline and prazosin did not affect narcoleptic episodes. Furthermore, cirazoline but not the other compounds reduced locomotor activity of the mice. The present study strongly supports the hypothesis that a specific blockade of norepinephrine reuptake is more potent in treating cataplexy than a specific blockade of serotonin reuptake. This argues for the development of more specific norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of narcolepsy. PMID:27118715

  3. Lactam based 7-amino suberoylamide hydroxamic acids as potent HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Maurizio; Cini, Elena; Giannotti, Luca; Giannini, Giuseppe; Battistuzzi, Gianfranco; Vignola, Davide; Vesci, Loredana; Cabri, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A series of SAHA-like molecules were prepared introducing different lactam-carboxyamides in position 7 of the suberoylanilide skeleton. The activity against different HDAC isoforms was tested and the data compared with the corresponding linear products, without substituent in position 7. In general, this modification provided an effective reinforcement of in vitro activity. While the lactam size or the CO/NH group orientation did not strongly influence the inhibition, the contemporary modification of the suberoylamide fragment gave vary active variants in the lactam series, with compound 28 (ST8078AA1) that showed IC50 values between 2 and 10nM against all Class I HDAC isoforms, demonstrating it to be a large spectrum pan-inhibitor. This strong affinity with HDAC was also confirmed by the value of IC50=0.5μM against H460 cells, ranking 28 as one of the most potent HDAC inhibitors described so far. PMID:24345446

  4. Discovery and Optimization of Potent, Selective, and in Vivo Efficacious 2-Aryl Benzimidazole BCATm Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hongfeng; Zhou, Jingye; Sundersingh, Flora; Messer, Jeffrey A; Somers, Donald O; Ajakane, Myriam; Arico-Muendel, Christopher C; Beljean, Arthur; Belyanskaya, Svetlana L; Bingham, Ryan; Blazensky, Emily; Boullay, Anne-Benedicte; Boursier, Eric; Chai, Jing; Carter, Paul; Chung, Chun-Wa; Daugan, Alain; Ding, Yun; Herry, Kenny; Hobbs, Clare; Humphries, Eric; Kollmann, Christopher; Nguyen, Van Loc; Nicodeme, Edwige; Smith, Sarah E; Dodic, Nerina; Ancellin, Nicolas

    2016-04-14

    To identify BCATm inhibitors suitable for in vivo study, Encoded Library Technology (ELT) was used to affinity screen a 117 million member benzimidazole based DNA encoded library, which identified an inhibitor series with both biochemical and cellular activities. Subsequent SAR studies led to the discovery of a highly potent and selective compound, 1-(3-(5-bromothiophene-2-carboxamido)cyclohexyl)-N-methyl-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxamide (8b) with much improved PK properties. X-ray structure revealed that 8b binds to the active site of BACTm in a unique mode via multiple H-bond and van der Waals interactions. After oral administration, 8b raised mouse blood levels of all three branched chain amino acids as a consequence of BCATm inhibition. PMID:27096045

  5. Biaryls as potent, tunable dual neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists and serotonin transporter inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Degnan, Andrew P; Tora, George O; Han, Ying; Rajamani, Ramkumar; Bertekap, Robert; Krause, Rudolph; Davis, Carl D; Hu, Joanna; Morgan, Daniel; Taylor, Sarah J; Krause, Kelly; Li, Yu-Wen; Mattson, Gail; Cunningham, Melissa A; Taber, Matthew T; Lodge, Nicholas J; Bronson, Joanne J; Gillman, Kevin W; Macor, John E

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a serious illness that affects millions of patients. Current treatments are associated with a number of undesirable side effects. Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists have recently been shown to potentiate the antidepressant effects of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in a number of animal models. Herein we describe the optimization of a biaryl chemotype to provide a series of potent dual NK1R antagonists/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors. Through the choice of appropriate substituents, the SERT/NK1R ratio could be tuned to afford a range of target selectivity profiles. This effort culminated in the identification of an analog that demonstrated oral bioavailability, favorable brain uptake, and efficacy in the gerbil foot tap model. Ex vivo occupancy studies with compound 58 demonstrated the ability to maintain NK1 receptor saturation (>88% occupancy) while titrating the desired level of SERT occupancy (11-84%) via dose selection. PMID:26048800

  6. The phosphonomethyl analogue of 3-phosphoglycerate is a potent competitive inhibitor of phosphoglycerate mutases.

    PubMed Central

    McAleese, S M; Fothergill-Gilmore, L A; Dixon, H B

    1985-01-01

    The phosphonomethyl analogue of 3-phosphoglycerate (2-hydroxy-4-phosphonobutanoate) is a potent competitive inhibitor of cofactor-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase from yeast and of cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase from wheat germ. For the yeast enzyme Ki is 1.3 mM (Km for substrate is 0.71 mM); for the wheatgerm enzyme Ki is 18 mM (Km for substrate is 0.86 mM). This analogue should be a useful tool for n.m.r. spectroscopic studies on the mechanism of action of the two mutases. The arsonomethyl analogue of 3-phosphoglycerate (4-arsono-2-hydroxybutanoate) was a relatively poor inhibitor. PMID:2996505

  7. Conformation constraint of anilides enabling the discovery of tricyclic lactams as potent MK2 non-ATP competitive inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong; Palani, Anandan; Huang, Xianhai; Sofolarides, Michael; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Xiao; Aslanian, Robert; Guo, Zhuyan; Fossetta, James; Tian, Fang; Trivedi, Prashant; Spacciapoli, Peter; Whitehurst, Charles E; Lundell, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Conformation restriction of linear N-alkylanilide MK2 inhibitors to their E-conformer was developed. This strategy enabled rapid advance in identifying a series of potent non-ATP competitive inhibitors that exhibited cell based activity in anti-TNFα assay.

  8. Triclosan Derivatives: Towards Potent Inhibitors of Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Freundlich, Joel S.; Wang, Feng; Vilchèze, Catherine; Gulten, Gulcin; Langley, Robert; Schiehser, Guy A.; Jacobus, David P.; Jacobs, Jr., William R.; Sacchettini, James C.

    2009-06-30

    Isoniazid (INH) is a frontline antitubercular drug that inhibits the enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase InhA. Novel inhibitors of InhA that are not cross-resistant to INH represent a significant goal in antitubercular chemotherapy. The design, synthesis, and biological activity of a series of triclosan-based inhibitors is reported, including their promising efficacy against INH-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Triclosan has been previously shown to inhibit InhA, an essential enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis, the inhibition of which leads to the lysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Using a structure-based drug design approach, a series of 5-substituted triclosan derivatives was developed. Two groups of derivatives with alkyl and aryl substituents, respectively, were identified with dramatically enhanced potency against purified InhA. The most efficacious inhibitor displayed an IC{sub 50} value of 21 nM, which was 50-fold more potent than triclosan. X-ray crystal structures of InhA in complex with four triclosan derivatives revealed the structural basis for the inhibitory activity. Six selected triclosan derivatives were tested against isoniazid-sensitive and resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Among those, the best inhibitor had an MIC value of 4.7 {mu}g mL{sup -1} (13 {mu}M), which represents a tenfold improvement over the bacteriocidal activity of triclosan. A subset of these triclosan analogues was more potent than isoniazid against two isoniazid-resistant M. tuberculosis strains, demonstrating the significant potential for structure-based design in the development of next generation antitubercular drugs.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of potent inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydrofolate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Schormann, Norbert; Velu, Sadanandan E.; Murugesan, Srinivasan; Senkovich, Olga; Walker, Kiera; Chenna, Bala C.; Shinkre, Bidhan; Desai, Amar; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2010-09-17

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is a potential target for developing drugs to treat Chagas disease. We have undertaken a detailed structure-activity study of this enzyme. We report here synthesis and characterization of six potent inhibitors of the parasitic enzyme. Inhibitory activity of each compound was determined against T. cruzi and human DHFR. One of these compounds, ethyl 4-(5-[(2,4-diamino-6-quinazolinyl)methyl]amino-2-methoxyphenoxy)butanoate (6b) was co-crystallized with the bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase enzyme of T. cruzi and the crystal structure of the ternary enzyme:cofactor:inhibitor complex was determined. Molecular docking was used to analyze the potential interactions of all inhibitors with T. cruzi DHFR and human DHFR. Inhibitory activities of these compounds are discussed in the light of enzyme-ligand interactions. Binding affinities of each inhibitor for the respective enzymes were calculated based on the experimental or docked binding mode. An estimated 60-70% of the total binding energy is contributed by the 2,4-diaminoquinazoline scaffold.

  10. Discovery of a Potent Dihydrooxadiazole Series of Non-ATP-Competitive MK2 (MAPKAPK2) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jun; Dhondi, Pawan; Huang, Xianhai; Aslanian, Robert; Fossetta, James; Tian, Fang; Lundell, Daniel; Palani, Anandan

    2012-02-01

    Inhibition of MK2 has been shown to offer advantages over that of p38 MAPK in the development of cures for inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. P38 MAPK knockout in mice was lethal, whereas MK2-null mice demonstrated strong inhibition of disease progression in collagen-induced arthritis and appeared normal and viable. However, it is challenging to develop ATP-competitive MK2 inhibitors due to high ATP binding affinity to the kinase. Non-ATP-competitive MK2 inhibitors interact and bind to the kinase in a mode independent of ATP concentration, which could provide better selectivity and cellular potency. Therefore, it is desirable to identify non-ATP-competitive MK2 inhibitors. Through structure optimization of lead compound 1, a novel series of dihydrooxadiazoles was discovered. Additional structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of this series led to the identification of compound 38 as a non-ATP-competitive MK2 inhibitor with potent enzymatic activity and good cellular potency. The SAR, synthesis, and biological data of dihydrooxadiazole series are discussed.

  11. Towards the Development of a Potent and Selective Organoruthenium Mammalian Sterile 20 Kinase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Ruchi; Maksimoska, Jasna; Pagano, Nicholas; Wong, Eric Y.; Gimotty, Phyllis A.; Diamond, Scott L.; Meggers, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian sterile 20 (MST1) kinase, a member of the sterile 20 (Ste-20) family of proteins, is a proapoptotic cytosolic kinase that plays an important role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. In this study, we report on the development of a potent and selective MST1 kinase inhibitor based on a ruthenium half-sandwich scaffold. We show that the enantiopure organoruthenium inhibitor, 9E1, has an IC50 value of 45 nM for MST1 and a greater than 25-fold inhibitor selectivity over the related Ste-20 kinases, p21 activated kinase 1 (PAK1), and p21 activated kinase 4 (PAK4) and an almost 10-fold selectivity over the related Thousand and one amino acids kinase 2 (TAO2). Compound 9E1 also displays a promising selectivity profile against unrelated protein kinases, however, the proto-oncogene serine/threonine protein kinase PIM1 (PIM-1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3β) are inhibited with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range. We also show that 9E1 can inhibit MST1 function in cells. A cocrystal structure of a related compound with PIM-1 and a homology model with MST1 reveals the binding mode of this scaffold to MST1 and provides a starting point for the development of improved MST1 kinase inhibitors for possible therapeutic application. PMID:19226137

  12. Synthesis of organic nitrates of luteolin as a novel class of potent aldose reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi-Qin; Cheng, Ning; Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Peng, Sheng-Ming; Zou, Xiao-Qing

    2013-07-15

    Aldose reductase (AR) plays an important role in the design of drugs that prevent and treat diabetic complications. Aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) have received significant attentions as potent therapeutic drugs. Based on combination principles, three series of luteolin derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their AR inhibitory activity and nitric oxide (NO)-releasing capacity in vitro. Eighteen compounds were found to be potent ARIs with IC50 values ranging from (0.099±0.008) μM to (2.833±0.102) μM. O(7)-Nitrooxyethyl-O(3'),O(4')-ethylidene luteolin (La1) showed the most potent AR inhibitory activity [IC50=(0.099±0.008) μM]. All organic nitrate derivatives released low concentrations of NO in the presence of l-cysteine. Structure-activity relationship studies suggested that introduction of an NO donor, protection of the catechol structure, and the ether chain of a 2-carbon spacer as a coupling chain on the luteolin scaffold all help increase the AR inhibitory activity of the resulting compound. This class of NO-donor luteolin derivatives as efficient ARIs offer a new concept for the development and design of new drug for preventive and therapeutic drugs for diabetic complications.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of phosphocitric acid, a potent inhibitor of hydroxylapatite crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Tew, W P; Mahle, C; Benavides, J; Howard, J E; Lehninger, A L

    1980-04-29

    Human urine and extracts of rat liver mitochondria contain apparently identical agents capable of inhibiting the precipitation or crystallization of calcium phosphate. Its general properties, as well as 1H NMR and mass spectra, have suggested that the agent is phosphocitric acid. This paper reports the synthesis of phosphocitric acid via the phosphorylation of triethyl citrate with o-phenylene phosphochloridate, hydrogenolysis of the product to yield triethyl phosphocitrate, hydrolytic removal of the blocking ethyl groups and also chromatographic purification. An enzymatic assay of phosphocitrate is described. Synthetic phosphocitrate was found to be an exceedingly potent inhibitor of the growth of hydroxylapatite seed crystals in a medium supersaturated with respect to Ca2+ and phosphate. Comparative assays showed phosphocitrate to be much more potent than the most active precipitation-crystallization inhibitors previously reported, which include pyrophosphate and ATP. 14C-Labeled phosphocitrate was bound very tightly to hydroxylapatite crystals. Such binding appeared to be essential for its inhibitory activity on crystal growth. Citrate added before but not after, phosphocitrate greatly enhanced the inhibitory potency of the latter. This enhancement effect was not given by other tricarboxylic acids. The monoethyl ester of phosphocitrate had no inhibitory effect on hydroxylapatite crystal growth.

  14. Protozoan Parasite Growth Inhibitors Discovered by Cross-Screening Yield Potent Scaffolds for Lead Discovery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Tropical protozoal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; four in particular (human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and malaria) have an estimated combined burden of over 87 million disability-adjusted life years. New drugs are needed for each of these diseases. Building on the previous identification of NEU-617 (1) as a potent and nontoxic inhibitor of proliferation for the HAT pathogen (Trypanosoma brucei), we have now tested this class of analogs against other protozoal species: T. cruzi (Chagas disease), Leishmania major (cutaneous leishmaniasis), and Plasmodium falciparum (malaria). Based on hits identified in this screening campaign, we describe the preparation of several replacements for the quinazoline scaffold and report these inhibitors’ biological activities against these parasites. In doing this, we have identified several potent proliferation inhibitors for each pathogen, such as 4-((3-chloro-4-((3-fluorobenzyl)oxy)phenyl)amino)-6-(4-((4-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)sulfonyl)phenyl)quinoline-3-carbonitrile (NEU-924, 83) for T. cruzi and N-(3-chloro-4-((3-fluorobenzyl)oxy)phenyl)-7-(4-((4-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)sulfonyl)phenyl)cinnolin-4-amine (NEU-1017, 68) for L. major and P. falciparum. PMID:26087257

  15. Design and synthesis of potent and multifunctional aldose reductase inhibitors based on quinoxalinones.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiangyu; Hao, Xin; Han, Hui; Zhu, Shaojuan; Yang, Yanchun; Wu, Bobin; Hussain, Saghir; Parveen, Shagufta; Jing, Chaojun; Ma, Bing; Zhu, Changjin

    2015-02-12

    Quinoxalin-2(1H)-one based design and synthesis produced several series of aldose reductase (ALR2) inhibitor candidates. In particular, phenolic structure was installed in the compounds for the combination of antioxidant activity and strengthening the ability to fight against diabetic complications. Most of the series 6 showed potent and selective effects on ALR2 inhibition with IC50 values in the range of 0.032-0.468 μM, and 2-(3-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-fluoro-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid (6e) was the most active. More significantly, most of the series 8 revealed not only good activity in the ALR2 inhibition but also potent antioxidant activity, and 2-(3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxystyryl)-2-oxoquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetic acid (8d) was even as strong as the well-known antioxidant Trolox at a concentration of 100 μM, verifying the C3 p-hydroxystyryl side chain as the key structure for alleviating oxidative stress. These results therefore suggest an achievement of multifunctional ALR2 inhibitors having both potency for ALR2 inhibition and as antioxidants. PMID:25602762

  16. Discovery of XEN445: a potent and selective endothelial lipase inhibitor raises plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaoyi; Dean, Richard; Jia, Qi; Zenova, Alla; Zhong, Jing; Grayson, Celene; Xie, Clark; Lindgren, Andrea; Samra, Pritpaul; Sojo, Luis; van Heek, Margaret; Lin, Linus; Percival, David; Fu, Jian-Min; Winther, Michael D; Zhang, Zaihui

    2013-12-15

    Endothelial lipase (EL) activity has been implicated in HDL metabolism and in atherosclerotic plaque development; inhibitors are proposed to be efficacious in the treatment of dyslipidemia related cardiovascular disease. We describe here the discovery of a novel class of anthranilic acids EL inhibitors. XEN445 (compound 13) was identified as a potent and selective EL inhibitor, that showed good ADME and PK properties, and demonstrated in vivo efficacy in raising plasma HDLc concentrations in mice. PMID:24211162

  17. Novel Potent Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Serine Protease Inhibitors Derived from Proline-Based Macrocycles

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kevin X.; Njoroge, F. George; Arasappan, Ashok; Venkatraman, Srikanth; Vibulbhan, Bancha; Yang, Weiying; Parekh, Tejal N.; Pichardo, John; Prongay, Andrew; Cheng, Kuo-Chi; Butkiewicz, Nancy; Yao, Nanhua; Madison, Vincent; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor

    2008-06-30

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease is essential for viral replication. It has been a target of choice for intensive drug discovery research. On the basis of an active pentapeptide inhibitor, 1, we envisioned that macrocyclization from the P2 proline to P3 capping could enhance binding to the backbone Ala156 residue and the S4 pocket. Thus, a number of P2 proline-based macrocyclic {alpha}-ketoamide inhibitors were prepared and investigated in an HCV NS3 serine protease continuous assay (K*{sub i}). The biological activity varied substantially depending on factors such as the ring size, number of amino acid residues, number of methyl substituents, type of heteroatom in the linker, P3 residue, and configuration at the proline C-4 center. The pentapeptide inhibitors were very potent, with the C-terminal acids and amides being the most active ones (24, K*{sub i} = 8 nM). The tetrapeptides and tripeptides were less potent. Sixteen- and seventeen-membered macrocyclic compounds were equally potent, while fifteen-membered analogues were slightly less active. gem-Dimethyl substituents at the linker improved the potency of all inhibitors (the best compound was 45, K*{sub i} = 6 nM). The combination of tert-leucine at P3 and dimethyl substituents at the linker in compound 47 realized a selectivity of 307 against human neutrophil elastase. Compound 45 had an IC{sub 50} of 130 nM in a cellular replicon assay, while IC{sub 50} for 24 was 400 nM. Several compounds had excellent subcutaneous AUC and bioavailability in rats. Although tripeptide compound 40 was 97% orally bioavailable, larger pentapeptides generally had low oral bioavailability. The X-ray crystal structure of compounds 24 and 45 bound to the protease demonstrated the close interaction of the macrocycle with the Ala156 methyl group and S4 pocket. The strategy of macrocyclization has been proved to be successful in improving potency (>20-fold greater than that of 1) and in structural depeptization.

  18. Molecular docking simulation studies on potent butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors obtained from microbial transformation of dihydrotestosterone

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biotransformation is an effective technique for the synthesis of libraries of bioactive compounds. Current study on microbial transformation of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (1) was carried out to produce various functionalized metabolites. Results Microbial transformation of DHT (1) by using two fungal cultures resulted in potent butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors. Biotransformation with Macrophomina phaseolina led to the formation of two known products, 5α-androstan-3β,17β-diol (2), and 5β-androstan-3α,17β-diol (3), while biotransformation with Gibberella fujikuroi yielded six known metabolites, 11α,17β-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one (4), androst-1,4-dien-3,17-dione (5), 11α-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3,17-dione (6), 11α-hydroxyandrost-1,4-dien-3,17-dione (7), 12β-hydroxyandrost-1,4-dien-3,17-dione (8), and 16α-hydroxyandrost-1,4-dien-3,17-dione (9). Metabolites 2 and 3 were found to be inactive, while metabolite 4 only weakly inhibited the enzyme. Metabolites 5–7 were identified as significant inhibitors of BChE. Furthermore, predicted results from docking simulation studies were in complete agreement with experimental data. Theoretical results were found to be helpful in explaining the possible mode of action of these newly discovered potent BChE inhibitors. Compounds 8 and 9 were not evaluated for enzyme inhibition activity both in vitro and in silico, due to lack of sufficient quantities. Conclusion Biotransformation of DHT (1) with two fungal cultures produced eight known metabolites. Metabolites 5–7 effectively inhibited the BChE activity. Cholinesterase inhibition is among the key strategies in the management of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The experimental findings were further validated by in silico inhibition studies and possible modes of action were deduced. PMID:24103815

  19. Furafylline is a potent and selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450IA2 in man.

    PubMed Central

    Sesardic, D; Boobis, A R; Murray, B P; Murray, S; Segura, J; de la Torre, R; Davies, D S

    1990-01-01

    1. Furafylline (1,8-dimethyl-3-(2'-furfuryl)methylxanthine) is a methylxanthine derivative that was introduced as a long-acting replacement for theophylline in the treatment of asthma. Administration of furafylline was associated with an elevation in plasma levels of caffeine, due to inhibition of caffeine oxidation, a reaction catalysed by one or more hydrocarbon-inducible isoenzymes of P450. We have now investigated the selectivity of inhibition of human monooxygenase activities by furafylline. 2. Furafylline was a potent, non-competitive inhibitor of high affinity phenacetin O-deethylase activity of microsomal fractions of human liver, a reaction catalysed by P450IA2, with an IC50 value of 0.07 microM. 3. Furafylline had either very little or no effect on human monooxygenase activities catalysed by other isoenzymes of P450, including P450IID1, P450IIC, P450IIA. Of particular interest, furafylline did not inhibit P450IA1, assessed from aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity of placental samples from women who smoked cigarettes. 4. It is concluded that furafylline is a highly selective inhibitor of P450IA2 in man. 5. Furafylline was a potent inhibitor of the N3-demethylation of caffeine and of a component of the N1- and N7-demethylation. This confirms earlier suggestions that caffeine is a selective substrate of a hydrocarbon-inducible isoenzyme of P450 in man, and identifies this as P450IA2. Thus, caffeine N3-demethylation should provide a good measure of the activity of P450IA in vivo in man. 6. Although furafylline selectively inhibited P450IA2, relative to P450IA1, in the rat, this was at 1000-times the concentration required to inhibit the human isoenzyme, suggesting a major difference in the active site geometry between the human and the rat orthologues of P50IA2. PMID:2378786

  20. Yucasin is a potent inhibitor of YUCCA, a key enzyme in auxin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Suzuki, Hiromi; Gyohda, Atsuko; Takaoka, Chihiro; Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Sachiko; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Tatsuya; Kato, Jun-Ichi; Kamiya, Yuji; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2014-02-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), an auxin plant hormone, is biosynthesized from tryptophan. The indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway, involving the tryptophan aminotransferase TAA1 and YUCCA (YUC) enzymes, was recently found to be a major IAA biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis. TAA1 catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to IPyA, and YUC produces IAA from IPyA. Using a chemical biology approach with maize coleoptiles, we identified 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (yucasin) as a potent inhibitor of IAA biosynthesis in YUC-expressing coleoptile tips. Enzymatic analysis of recombinant AtYUC1-His suggested that yucasin strongly inhibited YUC1-His activity against the substrate IPyA in a competitive manner. Phenotypic analysis of Arabidopsis YUC1 over-expression lines (35S::YUC1) demonstrated that yucasin acts in IAA biosynthesis catalyzed by YUC. In addition, 35S::YUC1 seedlings showed resistance to yucasin in terms of root growth. A loss-of-function mutant of TAA1, sav3-2, was hypersensitive to yucasin in terms of root growth and hypocotyl elongation of etiolated seedlings. Yucasin combined with the TAA1 inhibitor l-kynurenine acted additively in Arabidopsis seedlings, producing a phenotype similar to yucasin-treated sav3-2 seedlings, indicating the importance of IAA biosynthesis via the IPyA pathway in root growth and leaf vascular development. The present study showed that yucasin is a potent inhibitor of YUC enzymes that offers an effective tool for analyzing the contribution of IAA biosynthesis via the IPyA pathway to plant development and physiological processes. PMID:24299123

  1. Crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa complexed with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mochalkin, Igor; Knafels, John D; Lightle, Sandra

    2008-03-01

    The cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria is surrounded by an outer membrane comprised of charged lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules that prevent entry of hydrophobic agents into the cell and protect the bacterium from many antibiotics. The hydrophobic anchor of LPS is lipid A, the biosynthesis of which is essential for bacterial growth and viability. UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is an essential zinc-dependant enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine and acetate in the biosynthesis of lipid A, and for this reason, LpxC is an attractive target for antibacterial drug discovery. Here we disclose a 1.9 A resolution crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (paLpxC) in a complex with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor. To our knowledge, this is the first crystal structure of LpxC with a small-molecule inhibitor that shows antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens. Accordingly, this structure can provide important information for lead optimization and rational design of the effective small-molecule LpxC inhibitors for successful treatment of Gram-negative infections. PMID:18287278

  2. Demethoxycurcumin Is A Potent Inhibitor of P-Type ATPases from Diverse Kingdoms of Life.

    PubMed

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Sehgal, Pankaj; Tung, Truong Thanh; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nielsen, John; Palmgren, Michael; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases catalyze the active transport of cations and phospholipids across biological membranes. Members of this large family are involved in a range of fundamental cellular processes. To date, a substantial number of P-type ATPase inhibitors have been characterized, some of which are used as drugs. In this work a library of natural compounds was screened and we first identified curcuminoids as plasma membrane H+-ATPases inhibitors in plant and fungal cells. We also found that some of the commercial curcumins contain several curcuminoids. Three of these were purified and, among the curcuminoids, demethoxycurcumin was the most potent inhibitor of all tested P-type ATPases from fungal (Pma1p; H+-ATPase), plant (AHA2; H+-ATPase) and animal (SERCA; Ca2+-ATPase) cells. All three curcuminoids acted as non-competitive antagonist to ATP and hence may bind to a highly conserved allosteric site of these pumps. Future research on biological effects of commercial preparations of curcumin should consider the heterogeneity of the material. PMID:27644036

  3. Design and Evaluation of 3-(Benzylthio)benzamide Derivatives as Potent and Selective SIRT2 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of sirtuin-2 (SIRT2) deacetylase have been shown to be protective in various models of Huntington’s disease (HD) by decreasing polyglutamine aggregation, a hallmark of HD pathology. The present study was directed at optimizing the potency of SIRT2 inhibitors containing the 3-(benzylsulfonamido)benzamide scaffold and improving their metabolic stability. Molecular modeling and docking studies revealed an unfavorable role of the sulfonamide moiety for SIRT2 binding. This prompted us to replace the sulfonamide with thioether, sulfoxide, or sulfone groups. The thioether analogues were the most potent SIRT2 inhibitors with a two- to three-fold increase in potency relative to their corresponding sulfonamide analogues. The newly synthesized compounds also demonstrated higher SIRT2 selectivity over SIRT1 and SIRT3. Two thioether-derived compounds (17 and 18) increased α-tubulin acetylation in a dose-dependent manner in at least one neuronal cell line, and 18 was found to inhibit polyglutamine aggregation in PC12 cells. PMID:26005542

  4. Crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa complexed with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalkin, Igor; Knafels, John D.; Lightle, Sandra

    2008-04-02

    The cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria is surrounded by an outer membrane comprised of charged lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules that prevent entry of hydrophobic agents into the cell and protect the bacterium from many antibiotics. The hydrophobic anchor of LPS is lipid A, the biosynthesis of which is essential for bacterial growth and viability. UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is an essential zinc-dependant enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine and acetate in the biosynthesis of lipid A, and for this reason, LpxC is an attractive target for antibacterial drug discovery. Here we disclose a 1.9 A resolution crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (paLpxC) in a complex with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor. To our knowledge, this is the first crystal structure of LpxC with a small-molecule inhibitor that shows antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens. Accordingly, this structure can provide important information for lead optimization and rational design of the effective small-molecule LpxC inhibitors for successful treatment of Gram-negative infections.

  5. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitors from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2012-05-01

    As part of the search for naturally derived α-glucosidase inhibitors, the chemical components isolated from safflower seed (Carthamus tinctorius L.) were evaluated. The compounds active as α-glucosidase inhibitors were serotonin derivatives (e.g. N-p-coumaroyl serotonin (1) and N-feruloyl serotonin (2)). These compounds showed a potent inhibitory activity, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) values were calculated as 47.2 µm (1) and 99.8 µm (2) while that of the reference drugs acarbose and 1-deoxynojirimycin were evaluated as 907.5 µm and 278.0 µm, respectively. Regarding the structure of the serotonin derivative, the existence of the hydroxyl group at 5-position in the serotonin moiety and the linkage of cinnamic acid and serotonin are essential for α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. These results are helpful for the proper use of safflower seed as traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes, moreover, it could serve to develop medicinal preparations as supplements and functional foods for diabetes. In particular, the serotonin compounds could be used as a lead compound for a new potential α-glucosidase inhibitor derived from the plant.

  6. Crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa complexed with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Mochalkin, Igor; Knafels, John D.; Lightle, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria is surrounded by an outer membrane comprised of charged lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules that prevent entry of hydrophobic agents into the cell and protect the bacterium from many antibiotics. The hydrophobic anchor of LPS is lipid A, the biosynthesis of which is essential for bacterial growth and viability. UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is an essential zinc-dependant enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine and acetate in the biosynthesis of lipid A, and for this reason, LpxC is an attractive target for antibacterial drug discovery. Here we disclose a 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of LpxC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (paLpxC) in a complex with the potent BB-78485 inhibitor. To our knowledge, this is the first crystal structure of LpxC with a small-molecule inhibitor that shows antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens. Accordingly, this structure can provide important information for lead optimization and rational design of the effective small-molecule LpxC inhibitors for successful treatment of Gram-negative infections. PMID:18287278

  7. The 2′-Trifluoromethyl Analogue of Indomethacin Is a Potent and Selective COX-2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Indomethacin is a potent, time-dependent, nonselective inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2). Deletion of the 2′-methyl group of indomethacin produces a weak, reversible COX inhibitor, leading us to explore functionality at that position. Here, we report that substitution of the 2′-methyl group of indomethacin with trifluoromethyl produces CF3–indomethacin, a tight-binding inhibitor with kinetic properties similar to those of indomethacin and unexpected COX-2 selectivity (IC50 mCOX-2 = 267 nM; IC50 oCOX-1 > 100 μM). Studies with site-directed mutants reveal that COX-2 selectivity results from insertion of the CF3 group into a small hydrophobic pocket formed by Ala-527, Val-349, Ser-530, and Leu-531 and projection of the methoxy group toward a side pocket bordered by Val-523. CF3–indomethacin inhibited COX-2 activity in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells and exhibited in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model with similar potency to that of indomethacin. PMID:23687559

  8. A potent and selective inhibitor for the UBLCP1 proteasome phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    He, Yantao; Guo, Xing; Yu, Zhi-Hong; Wu, Li; Gunawan, Andrea M.; Zhang, Yan; Dixon, Jack E.; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitin-like domain-containing C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (UBLCP1) has been implicated as a negative regulator of the proteasome, a key mediator in the ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. Small molecule inhibitors that block UBLCP1 activity would be valuable as research tools and potential therapeutics for human diseases caused by the cellular accumulation of misfold/damaged proteins. We report a salicylic acid fragment-based library approach aimed at targeting both the phosphatase active site and its adjacent binding pocket for enhanced affinity and selectivity. Screening of the focused libraries led to the identification of the first potent and selective UBLCP1 inhibitor 13. Compound 13 exhibits an IC50 of 1.0 μM for UBLCP1 and greater than 5-fold selectivity against a large panel of protein phosphatases from several distinct families. Importantly, the inhibitor possesses efficacious cellular activity and is capable of inhibiting UBLCP1 function in cells, which in turn up-regulates nuclear proteasome activity. These studies set the groundwork for further developing compound 13 into chemical probes or potential therapeutic agents targeting the UBLCP1 phosphatase. PMID:25907364

  9. Demethoxycurcumin Is A Potent Inhibitor of P-Type ATPases from Diverse Kingdoms of Life

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Trong Tuan; Sehgal, Pankaj; Tung, Truong Thanh; Møller, Jesper Vuust; Nielsen, John; Palmgren, Michael; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases catalyze the active transport of cations and phospholipids across biological membranes. Members of this large family are involved in a range of fundamental cellular processes. To date, a substantial number of P-type ATPase inhibitors have been characterized, some of which are used as drugs. In this work a library of natural compounds was screened and we first identified curcuminoids as plasma membrane H+-ATPases inhibitors in plant and fungal cells. We also found that some of the commercial curcumins contain several curcuminoids. Three of these were purified and, among the curcuminoids, demethoxycurcumin was the most potent inhibitor of all tested P-type ATPases from fungal (Pma1p; H+-ATPase), plant (AHA2; H+-ATPase) and animal (SERCA; Ca2+-ATPase) cells. All three curcuminoids acted as non-competitive antagonist to ATP and hence may bind to a highly conserved allosteric site of these pumps. Future research on biological effects of commercial preparations of curcumin should consider the heterogeneity of the material. PMID:27644036

  10. A highly potent and selective Vps34 inhibitor alters vesicle trafficking and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ronan, Baptiste; Flamand, Odile; Vescovi, Lionel; Dureuil, Christine; Durand, Laurence; Fassy, Florence; Bachelot, Marie-France; Lamberton, Annabelle; Mathieu, Magali; Bertrand, Thomas; Marquette, Jean-Pierre; El-Ahmad, Youssef; Filoche-Romme, Bruno; Schio, Laurent; Garcia-Echeverria, Carlos; Goulaouic, Hélène; Pasquier, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    Vps34 is a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) class III isoform that has attracted major attention over the recent years because of its role in autophagy. Herein we describe the biological characterization of SAR405, which is a low-molecular-mass kinase inhibitor of Vps34 (KD 1.5 nM). This compound has an exquisite protein and lipid kinase selectivity profile that is explained by its unique binding mode and molecular interactions within the ATP binding cleft of human Vps34. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first potent and specific Vps34 inhibitor described so far. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of Vps34 kinase activity by SAR405 affects both late endosome-lysosome compartments and prevents autophagy. Moreover, we show that the concomitant inhibition of Vps34 and mTOR, with SAR405 and the US Food and Drug Administration-approved mTOR inhibitor everolimus, results in synergistic antiproliferative activity in renal tumor cell lines, indicating a potential clinical application in cancer.

  11. Converting potent indeno[1,2-b]indole inhibitors of protein kinase CK2 into selective inhibitors of the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2.

    PubMed

    Jabor Gozzi, Gustavo; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Winter, Evelyn; Daflon-Yunes, Nathalia; Aichele, Dagmar; Nacereddine, Abdelhamid; Marminon, Christelle; Valdameri, Glaucio; Zeinyeh, Waël; Bollacke, Andre; Guillon, Jean; Lacoudre, Aline; Pinaud, Noël; Cadena, Silvia M; Jose, Joachim; Le Borgne, Marc; Di Pietro, Attilio

    2015-01-01

    A series of indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione derivatives were synthesized as human casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors. The most potent inhibitors contained a N(5)-isopropyl substituent on the C-ring. The same series of compounds was found to also inhibit the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2 but with totally different structure-activity relationships: a N(5)-phenethyl substituent was critical, and additional hydrophobic substituents at position 7 or 8 of the D-ring or a methoxy at phenethyl position ortho or meta also contributed to inhibition. The best ABCG2 inhibitors, such as 4c, 4h, 4i, 4j, and 4k, behaved as very weak inhibitors of CK2, whereas the most potent CK2 inhibitors, such as 4a, 4p, and 4e, displayed limited interaction with ABCG2. It was therefore possible to convert, through suitable substitutions of the indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione scaffold, potent CK2 inhibitors into selective ABCG2 inhibitors and vice versa. In addition, some of the best ABCG2 inhibitors, which displayed a very low cytotoxicity, thus giving a high therapeutic ratio, and appeared not to be transported, constitute promising candidates for further investigations.

  12. 2-Alkoxy-3-(sulfonylarylaminomethylene)-chroman-4-ones as potent and selective inhibitors of ectonucleotidases.

    PubMed

    al-Rashida, Mariya; Batool, Gazala; Sattar, Almas; Ejaz, Syeda Abida; Khan, Samiullah; Lecka, Joanna; Sévigny, Jean; Hameed, Abdul; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2016-06-10

    A facile method for the modulation of 2-alkoxy side chain of 3-formylchromone enamines has been exploited for the synthesis of a series of 2-alkoxy-3-(sulfonylarylaminomethylene)-chroman-4-ones. This modulation was achieved by simply changing the alcoholic reaction media from methanol to ethanol, iso-propanol and n-butanol while reacting various 3-formylchromones with aminobenzenesulfonamides. Alcohols are sufficiently nucleophilic and add into the C2-C3 olefinic bond of 3-formylchromones without causing any ring cleavage. The resulting 2-alkoxy-3-(sulfonylarylaminomethylene)-chroman-4-ones were found to be potent and selective inhibitors of ecto-5'-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphatases (TNAP and IAP). Detailed enzyme kinetics studies revealed competitive inhibition against alkaline phosphatases and un-competitive inhibition against rat and human ecto-5'-nucleotidase. The most active TNAP inhibitor 23 (Ki = 0.078 ± 0.001 μM), exhibited 28 times more selectivity for TNAP over IAP (Ki = 2.18 ± 0.12 μM). Compound 9 was most active IAP inhibitor (Ki = 0.24 ± 0.01 μM), and was 300 times more selective towards IAP than TNAP (Ki = 72.9 ± 1.68 μM). Compound 40 was most active human ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitor exhibiting inhibition in low nanomolar range (Ki = 14 nM). PMID:27054295

  13. A Potent Gelatinase Inhibitor with Anti-Tumor-Invasive Activity and its Metabolic Disposition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mijoon; Celenza, Giuseppe; Boggess, Bill; Blase, Jennifer; Shi, Qicun; Toth, Marta; Bernardo, M. Margarida; Wolter, William R.; Suckow, Mark A.; Hesek, Dusan; Noll, Bruce C.; Fridman, Rafael; Mobashery, Shahriar; Chang, Mayland

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic tumors lead to more than 90% fatality. Despite the importance of invasiveness of tumors to poor disease outcome, no anti-invasive compounds have been commercialized. We describe herein the synthesis and evaluation of 4-(4-(thiiranylmethylsulfonyl)phenoxy)-phenyl methane-sulfonate (compound 2) as a potent and selective inhibitor of gelatinases (matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9), two enzymes implicated in invasiveness of tumors. It was demonstrated that compound 2 significantly attenuated the invasiveness of human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080). The metabolism of compound 2 involved hydroxylation at the a-methylene, which generates sulfinic acid, thiirane ring-opening, followed by methylation and oxidation, and cysteine conjugation of both the thiirane and phenyl rings. PMID:19207421

  14. Dithiocarbamate-based coordination compounds as potent proteasome inhibitors in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Buac, Daniela; Schmitt, Sara; Ventro, George; Kona, Fathima Rani; Dou, Q Ping

    2012-10-01

    Dithiocarbamates are a class of metal-chelating compounds with various applications in medicine. They have been used for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections, possible treatment of AIDS, and most recently cancer. Their anti-tumor effects can in part be attributed to their ability to complex tumor cellular copper, leading to binding to and inhibition of the proteasome and in turn initiating tumor cell-specific apoptosis. Current chemotherapeutic agents are highly toxic and therefore their efficacy in the eradication of tumors is greatly limited. As a result many scientists have joined the quest for novel targeted therapies in hopes of reducing toxicity while maximizing potency and proteasome inhibition has become an attractive therapy in this regard. Here we discuss the origins, mechanism, and evolution of dithiocarbamates as potent proteasome inhibitors and therefore anti-cancer agents. PMID:22931591

  15. Dithiocarbamate-Based Coordination Compounds as Potent Proteasome Inhibitors in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Buac, Daniela; Schmitt, Sara; Ventro, George; Kona, Fathima Rani; Dou, Q. Ping

    2013-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates are a class of metal-chelating compounds with various applications in medicine. They have been used for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections, possible treatment of AIDS, and most recently cancer. Their anti-tumor effects can in part be attributed to their ability to complex tumor cellular copper, leading to binding to and inhibition of the proteasome and in turn initiating tumor cell-specific apoptosis. Current chemotherapeutic agents are highly toxic and therefore their efficacy in the eradication of tumors is greatly limited. As a result many scientists have joined the quest for novel targeted therapies in hopes of reducing toxicity while maximizing potency and proteasome inhibition has become an attractive therapy in this regard. Here we discuss the origins, mechanism, and evolution of dithiocarbamates as potent proteasome inhibitors and therefore anti-cancer agents. PMID:22931591

  16. Benzoxazolone Carboxamides: Potent and Systemically Active Inhibitors of Intracellular Acid Ceramidase**

    PubMed Central

    Pizzirani, Daniela; Bach, Anders; Realini, Natalia; Armirotti, Andrea; Mengatto, Luisa; Bauer, Inga; Girotto, Stefania; Pagliuca, Chiara; De Vivo, Marco; Summa, Maria; Ribeiro, Alison; Piomelli, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The ceramides are a family of bioactive lipid-derived messengers involved in the control of cellular senescence, inflammation, and apoptosis. Ceramide hydrolysis by acid ceramidase (AC) stops the biological activity of these substances and influences survival and function of normal and neoplastic cells. Because of its central role in the ceramide metabolism, AC may offer a novel molecular target in disorders with dysfunctional ceramide-mediated signaling. Here, a class of benzoxazolone carboxamides is identified as the first potent and systemically active inhibitors of AC. Prototype members of this class inhibit AC with low nanomolar potency by covalent binding to the catalytic cysteine. Their metabolic stability and high in vivo efficacy suggest that these compounds may be used as probes to investigate the roles of ceramide in health and disease, and that this scaffold may represent a promising starting point for the development of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:25395373

  17. Repositioning tolcapone as a potent inhibitor of transthyretin amyloidogenesis and associated cellular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Anna, Ricardo; Gallego, Pablo; Robinson, Lei Z.; Pereira-Henriques, Alda; Ferreira, Nelson; Pinheiro, Francisca; Esperante, Sebastian; Pallares, Irantzu; Huertas, Oscar; Rosário Almeida, Maria; Reixach, Natàlia; Insa, Raul; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Reverter, David; Reig, Núria; Ventura, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a plasma homotetrameric protein implicated in fatal systemic amyloidoses. TTR tetramer dissociation precedes pathological TTR aggregation. Native state stabilizers are promising drugs to treat TTR amyloidoses. Here we repurpose tolcapone, an FDA-approved molecule for Parkinson's disease, as a potent TTR aggregation inhibitor. Tolcapone binds specifically to TTR in human plasma, stabilizes the native tetramer in vivo in mice and humans and inhibits TTR cytotoxicity. Crystal structures of tolcapone bound to wild-type TTR and to the V122I cardiomyopathy-associated variant show that it docks better into the TTR T4 pocket than tafamidis, so far the only drug on the market to treat TTR amyloidoses. These data indicate that tolcapone, already in clinical trials for familial amyloid polyneuropathy, is a strong candidate for therapeutic intervention in these diseases, including those affecting the central nervous system, for which no small-molecule therapy exists. PMID:26902880

  18. Lead Optimization of Spiropyrazolopyridones: A New and Potent Class of Dengue Virus Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Spiropyrazolopyridone 1 was identified, as a novel dengue virus (DENV) inhibitor, from a DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) high-throughput phenotypic screen. As a general trend within this chemical class, chiral resolution of the racemate revealed that R enantiomer was significantly more potent than the S. Cell-based lead optimization of the spiropyrazolopyridones focusing on improving the physicochemical properties is described. As a result, an optimal compound 14a, with balanced in vitro potency and pharmacokinetic profile, achieved about 1.9 log viremia reduction at 3 × 50 mg/kg (bid) or 3 × 100 mg/kg (QD) oral doses in the dengue in vivo mouse efficacy model. PMID:25878766

  19. Discovery of Potent VEGFR-2 Inhibitors based on Furopyrimidine and Thienopyrimidne Scaffolds as Cancer Targeting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Marwa A.; Serya, Rabah A. T.; Lasheen, Deena S.; Abdel-Aziz, Amal Kamal; Esmat, Ahmed; Mansour, Ahmed M.; Singab, Abdel Nasser B.; Abouzid, Khaled A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) plays a crucial role in cancer angiogenesis. In this study, a series of novel furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine and thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine based-derivatives were designed and synthesized as VEGFR-2 inhibitors, in accordance to the structure activity relationship (SAR) studies of known type II VEGFR-2 inhibitors. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their ability to in vitro inhibit VEGFR-2 kinase enzyme. Seven compounds (15b, 16c, 16e, 21a, 21b, 21c and 21e) demonstrated highly potent dose-related VEGFR-2 inhibition with IC50 values in nanomolar range, of which the thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine based-derivatives (21b, 21c and 21e) exhibited IC50 values of 33.4, 47.0 and 21 nM respectively. Moreover, furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-based derivative (15b) showed the strongest inhibition of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation with 99.5% inhibition at 10 μM concentration. Consistent with our in vitro findings, compounds (21b and 21e) orally administered at 5 and 10 mg/kg/day for 8 consecutive days demonstrated potent anticancer activity in Erhlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) solid tumor murine model. Such compounds blunted angiogenesis in EAC as evidenced by reduced percent microvessel via decreasing VEGFR-2 phosphorylation with subsequent induction of apoptotic machinery. Furthermore, Miles vascular permeability assay confirmed their antiangiogenic effects in vivo. Intriguingly, such compounds showed no obvious toxicity. PMID:27080011

  20. Discovery of Potent VEGFR-2 Inhibitors based on Furopyrimidine and Thienopyrimidne Scaffolds as Cancer Targeting Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Marwa A.; Serya, Rabah A. T.; Lasheen, Deena S.; Abdel-Aziz, Amal Kamal; Esmat, Ahmed; Mansour, Ahmed M.; Singab, Abdel Nasser B.; Abouzid, Khaled A. M.

    2016-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) plays a crucial role in cancer angiogenesis. In this study, a series of novel furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine and thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine based-derivatives were designed and synthesized as VEGFR-2 inhibitors, in accordance to the structure activity relationship (SAR) studies of known type II VEGFR-2 inhibitors. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their ability to in vitro inhibit VEGFR-2 kinase enzyme. Seven compounds (15b, 16c, 16e, 21a, 21b, 21c and 21e) demonstrated highly potent dose-related VEGFR-2 inhibition with IC50 values in nanomolar range, of which the thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine based-derivatives (21b, 21c and 21e) exhibited IC50 values of 33.4, 47.0 and 21 nM respectively. Moreover, furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-based derivative (15b) showed the strongest inhibition of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation with 99.5% inhibition at 10 μM concentration. Consistent with our in vitro findings, compounds (21b and 21e) orally administered at 5 and 10 mg/kg/day for 8 consecutive days demonstrated potent anticancer activity in Erhlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) solid tumor murine model. Such compounds blunted angiogenesis in EAC as evidenced by reduced percent microvessel via decreasing VEGFR-2 phosphorylation with subsequent induction of apoptotic machinery. Furthermore, Miles vascular permeability assay confirmed their antiangiogenic effects in vivo. Intriguingly, such compounds showed no obvious toxicity.

  1. CD4-Specific Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins Are Novel Potent HIV Entry Inhibitors with Unique Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Andreas; Rusert, Peter; Berlinger, Livia; Ruprecht, Claudia R.; Mann, Axel; Corthésy, Stéphanie; Turville, Stuart G.; Aravantinou, Meropi; Fischer, Marek; Robbiani, Melissa; Amstutz, Patrick; Trkola, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Here, we describe the generation of a novel type of HIV entry inhibitor using the recently developed Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARPin) technology. DARPin proteins specific for human CD4 were selected from a DARPin DNA library using ribosome display. Selected pool members interacted specifically with CD4 and competed with gp120 for binding to CD4. DARPin proteins derived in the initial selection series inhibited HIV in a dose-dependent manner, but showed a relatively high variability in their capacity to block replication of patient isolates on primary CD4 T cells. In consequence, a second series of CD4-specific DARPins with improved affinity for CD4 was generated. These 2nd series DARPins potently inhibit infection of genetically divergent (subtype B and C) HIV isolates in the low nanomolar range, independent of coreceptor usage. Importantly, the actions of the CD4 binding DARPins were highly specific: no effect on cell viability or activation, CD4 memory cell function, or interference with CD4-independent virus entry was observed. These novel CD4 targeting molecules described here combine the unique characteristics of DARPins—high physical stability, specificity and low production costs—with the capacity to potently block HIV entry, rendering them promising candidates for microbicide development. PMID:18654624

  2. Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation by prenylated flavones: artelastin as a potent inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, F; Cordeiro-da-Silva, A; Araújo, N; Cidade, H; Kijjoa, A; Nascimento, M S J

    2003-09-19

    Eight natural prenylated flavones, previously isolated from Artocarpus elasticus, were evaluated for their effect on the mitogenic response of human lymphocytes to PHA. They all exhibited a dose-dependent suppression effect. An interesting relationship was observed between their antiproliferative activity and their chemical structure. Indeed, the most potent flavones possessed a 3,3-dymethylallyl group (prenyl) at C-8, such as artelastin, which exhibited the highest antiproliferative activity. Studies of the mechanism underlying its effect revealed that artelastin had an irreversible inhibitory effect on the PHA-induced lymphocyte proliferation and could affect the course of the ongoing mitogenic response either at the initial induction phase or at the late phase of proliferation. This prenylated flavone was also shown to be a potent inhibitor of both T- and B-lymphocyte mitogen induced proliferation although B-mitogenic response was the more sensitive one. Artelastin did not affect either the basal levels of the early marker of activation CD69 on non-stimulated splenocytes or its expression on ConA- or LPS-stimulated splenocytes. However, it decreased the production of IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in ConA-stimulated splenocytes. Furthermore, artelastin had no effect on apoptosis of splenocytes.

  3. Small molecules as potent protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors documented in patents from 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Jun; Jiang, Bo; Wu, Ning; Wang, Shuai-Yu; Shi, Da-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (2-DM) are the main threats to human health in the worldwide. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a promising molecular level legitimate therapeutic target in the effective management of 2-DM. For the search of potent PTP1B inhibitors, much investigation has revealed a large number of small-molecule compounds obtained from natural sources or prepared by synthesis/semi-synthesis with various skeletons and promising anti-PTP1B activities in the treatment of 2-DM. Although some reviews on the development of PTP1B inhibitors have been published, they were mainly concentrated on the results reported in journal articles. In this review, we will provide an overview of the developments of the potent PTP1B inhibitors claimed in recent patents during the past five years (2009-2013) with their structural features and biological features, as well as the structure-activity relationships (SARs) and strategies for finding potent and specific PTP1B inhibitors. This paper will provide valuable information for understanding the current anti-PTP1B investigation and developing potent PTP1B inhibitors as treating 2-DM drugs. PMID:25643610

  4. Structure-Based Design of Potent and Selective 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Kinase-1 (PDK1) Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, Jesus R.; Becker, Christopher J.; Blackledge, Charles W.; Duquenne, Celine; Feng, Yanhong; Grant, Seth W.; Heerding, Dirk; Li, William H.; Miller, William H.; Romeril, Stuart P.; Scherzer, Daryl; Shu, Arthur; Bobko, Mark A.; Chadderton, Antony R.; Dumble, Melissa; Gardiner, Christine M.; Gilbert, Seth; Liu, Qi; Rabindran, Sridhar K.; Sudakin, Valery; Xiang, Hong; Brady, Pat G.; Campobasso, Nino; Ward, Paris; Axten, Jeffrey M.

    2014-10-02

    Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1(PDK1) is a master regulator of the AGC family of kinases and an integral component of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. As this pathway is among the most commonly deregulated across all cancers, a selective inhibitor of PDK1 might have utility as an anticancer agent. Herein we describe our lead optimization of compound 1 toward highly potent and selective PDK1 inhibitors via a structure-based design strategy. The most potent and selective inhibitors demonstrated submicromolar activity as measured by inhibition of phosphorylation of PDK1 substrates as well as antiproliferative activity against a subset of AML cell lines. In addition, reduction of phosphorylation of PDK1 substrates was demonstrated in vivo in mice bearing OCl-AML2 xenografts. These observations demonstrate the utility of these molecules as tools to further delineate the biology of PDK1 and the potential pharmacological uses of a PDK1 inhibitor.

  5. Discovery and Optimization of Quinazolinone-pyrrolopyrrolones as Potent and Orally Bioavailable Pan-Pim Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Liping H; Andrews, Kristin L; Booker, Shon K; Chen, Jie; Cee, Victor J; Chavez, Frank; Chen, Yuping; Eastwood, Heather; Guerrero, Nadia; Herberich, Bradley; Hickman, Dean; Lanman, Brian A; Laszlo, Jimmy; Lee, Matthew R; Lipford, J Russell; Mattson, Bethany; Mohr, Christopher; Nguyen, Yen; Norman, Mark H; Powers, David; Reed, Anthony B; Rex, Karen; Sastri, Christine; Tamayo, Nuria; Wang, Paul; Winston, Jeffrey T; Wu, Bin; Wu, Tian; Wurz, Ryan P; Xu, Yang; Zhou, Yihong; Tasker, Andrew S; Wang, Hui-Ling

    2016-07-14

    The high expression of proviral insertion site of Moloney murine leukemia virus kinases (Pim-1, -2, and -3) in cancers, particularly the hematopoietic malignancies, is believed to play a role in promoting cell survival and proliferation while suppressing apoptosis. The three isoforms of Pim protein appear largely redundant in their oncogenic functions. Thus, a pan-Pim kinase inhibitor is highly desirable. However, cell active pan-Pim inhibitors have proven difficult to develop because Pim-2 has a low Km for ATP and therefore requires a very potent inhibitor to effectively block the kinase activity at cellular ATP concentrations. Herein, we report a series of quinazolinone-pyrrolopyrrolones as potent and selective pan-Pim inhibitors. In particular, compound 17 is orally efficacious in a mouse xenograft model (KMS-12 BM) of multiple myeloma, with 93% tumor growth inhibition at 50 mg/kg QD upon oral dosing. PMID:27285051

  6. Sangivamycin, a nucleoside analogue, is a potent inhibitor of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Loomis, C R; Bell, R M

    1988-02-01

    Protein kinase C functions prominently in cell regulation via its pleiotropic role in signal transduction processes. Certain oncogene products resemble elements involved in transmembrane signaling, elevate cellular sn-1,2-diacylglycerol second messenger levels, and activate protein kinase C. Sangivamycin was unique among the nucleoside compounds tested in its ability to potently inhibit protein kinase C activity. Inhibition was competitive with respect to ATP for both protein kinase C and the catalytic fragment of protein kinase C prepared by trypsin digestion. Sangivamycin was a noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to histone and lipid cofactors (phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol). Sangivamycin inhibited native protein kinase C and the catalytic fragment identically, with apparent Ki values of 11 and 15 microM, respectively. Sangivamycin was an effective an inhibitor of protein kinase C as H-7, an isoquinolinsulfonamide. Sangivamycin did not inhibit [3H]phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate binding to protein kinase C. Sangivamycin did not exert its action through the lipid binding/regulatory domain; inhibition was not affected by the presence of lipid or detergent. Unlike H-7, sangivamycin selectively inhibited protein kinase C compared to cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The discovery that protein kinase C is inhibited by sangivamycin and other antitumor agents suggests that protein kinase C may be a target for rational design of antitumor compounds. PMID:3338987

  7. Nigericin is a potent inhibitor of the early stage of vaccinia virus replication.

    PubMed

    Myskiw, Chad; Piper, Jessica; Huzarewich, Rhiannon; Booth, Tim F; Cao, Jingxin; He, Runtao

    2010-12-01

    Poxviruses remain a significant public health concern due to their potential use as bioterrorist agents and the spread of animal borne poxviruses, such as monkeypox virus, to humans. Thus, the identification of small molecule inhibitors of poxvirus replication is warranted. Vaccinia virus is the prototypic member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which also includes variola and monkeypox virus. In this study, we demonstrate that the carboxylic ionophore nigericin is a potent inhibitor of vaccinia virus replication in several human cell lines. In HeLa cells, we found that the 50% inhibitory concentration of nigericin against vaccinia virus was 7.9 nM, with a selectivity index of 1038. We present data demonstrating that nigericin targets vaccinia virus replication at a post-entry stage. While nigericin moderately inhibits both early vaccinia gene transcription and translation, viral DNA replication and intermediate and late gene expression are severely compromised in the presence of nigericin. Our results demonstrate that nigericin has the potential to be further developed into an effective antiviral to treat poxvirus infections. PMID:20951746

  8. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that potently and specifically block human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication.

    PubMed Central

    Romero, D L; Busso, M; Tan, C K; Reusser, F; Palmer, J R; Poppe, S M; Aristoff, P A; Downey, K M; So, A G; Resnick, L

    1991-01-01

    Certain bis(heteroaryl)piperazines (BHAPs) are potent inhibitors of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) at concentrations lower by 2-4 orders of magnitude than that which inhibits normal cellular DNA polymerase activity. Combination of a BHAP with nucleoside analog HIV-1 RT inhibitors suggested that together these compounds inhibited RT synergistically. In three human lymphocytic cell systems using several laboratory and clinical HIV-1 isolates, the BHAPs blocked HIV-1 replication with potencies nearly identical to those of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine or 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine; in primary cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, concentrations of these antiviral agents were lower by at least 3-4 orders of magnitude than cytotoxic levels. The BHAPs do not inhibit replication of HIV-2, the simian or feline immunodeficiency virus, or Rauscher murine leukemia virus in culture. Evaluation of a BHAP in HIV-1-infected SCID-hu mice (severe combined immunodeficient mice implanted with human fetal lymph node) showed that the compound could block HIV-1 replication in vivo. The BHAPs are readily obtained synthetically and have been extensively characterized in preclinical evaluations. These compounds hold promise for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Images PMID:1717988

  9. A Novel, Potent, Small Molecule AKT Inhibitor Exhibits Efficacy against Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dinavahi, Saketh S.; Prasanna, Rajagopalan; Dharmarajan, Sriram; Perumal, Yogeeswari; Viswanadha, Srikant

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anomalies of Akt regulation, including overexpression in lung cancer, impart resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiation, thereby implicating this kinase as a therapeutic intervention point. A novel scaffold of Akt inhibitors was developed through virtual screening of chemical databases available at Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Hyderabad, based on docking studies using Maestro. A benzothienopyrimidine derivative (BIA-6) was identified as a potential lead molecule that inhibited Akt1 enzyme activity with an IC50 of 256 nM. Materials and Methods BIA-6 was tested for in vitro Akt1 inhibition using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer kit. Anti-proliferative activity was tested in NCI-H460, A549, NCI-H1975, and NCI-H2170 cell lines. The effect of the compound on p-Akt (S473) was estimated. Results BIA-6 allosterically caused a dose dependent reduction of growth of cell lines with a half maximal growth inhibition (GI50) range of 0.49 μM to 6.6 μM. Cell cycle analysis indicated that BIA-6 caused a G1 phase arrest at < 100 nM but led to apoptosis at higher doses. BIA-6 also exhibited synergism with standard chemotherapeutic agents. Conclusion BIA-6 is a novel, allosteric Akt inhibitor with potent anti-cancer activity in lung cancer cell lines, that effectively blocks the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt pathway with a high margin selectivity towards normal cells. PMID:25687876

  10. Identification and Structure-Activity Relationships of Diarylhydrazides as Novel Potent and Selective Human Enterovirus Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Han, Xin; Sun, Ningyuan; Wu, Haoming; Guo, Deyin; Tien, Po; Dong, Chune; Wu, Shuwen; Zhou, Hai-Bing

    2016-03-10

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) plays an important role in hand-foot-and-mouth disease. In this study, a series of diarylhydrazide analogues was synthesized, and the systematic exploration of SAR led to potent enterovirus inhibitors, of which compound 15 exhibits significant improvements in inhibition potency with an EC50 value of 0.02 μM against EV71. It is very interesting that this class of diarylhydrazides exhibits activities against a series of human enteroviruses at the picomolar level, including EV71 and Coxsackieviruses B1 (CVB1), CVB2, CVB3, CVB4, CVB5, and CVB6 (EC50 as low as 0.5 nM). Compared with the reference antienterovirus drug 1 (enviroxime) and known inhibitor 5 (WIN 51711), the four highly selective compounds 15, 27, 41 and 47 inhibited EV71 replication with EC50 values of 0.17-0.02 μM and SI values in a range of 978.4-12338. A preliminary mechanistic study indicated that VP1 might be the target site for this type of compound.

  11. Low Molecular Weight Amidoximes that Act as Potent Inhibitors of Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1

    PubMed Central

    Hazeldine, Stuart; Pachaiyappan, Boobalan; Steinbergs, Nora; Nowotarski, Shannon; Hanson, Allison S.; Casero, Robert A.; Woster, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    The recently discovered enzyme lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) plays an important role in the epigenetic control of gene expression, and aberrant gene silencing secondary to LSD1 dysregulation is thought to contribute to the development of cancer. We reported that (bis)guanidines, (bis)biguanides and their urea- and thiourea isosteres are potent inhibitors of LSD1, and induce the re-expression of aberrantly silenced tumor suppressor genes in tumor cells in vitro. We now report a series of small molecule amidoximes that are moderate inhibitors of recombinant LSD1, but that produce dramatic changes in methylation at the histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) chromatin mark, a specific target of LSD1, in Calu-6 lung carcinoma cells. In addition, these analogues increase cellular levels of secreted frizzle-related protein (SFRP) 2, H-cadherin (HCAD) and transcription factor GATA4. These compounds represent leads for an important new series of drug-like epigenetic modulators with the potential for use as antitumor agents. PMID:22876979

  12. Discovery of a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable pyridinyl-pyrimidine phthalazine aurora kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cee, Victor J; Schenkel, Laurie B; Hodous, Brian L; Deak, Holly L; Nguyen, Hanh N; Olivieri, Philip R; Romero, Karina; Bak, Annette; Be, Xuhai; Bellon, Steve; Bush, Tammy L; Cheng, Alan C; Chung, Grace; Coats, Steve; Eden, Patrick M; Hanestad, Kelly; Gallant, Paul L; Gu, Yan; Huang, Xin; Kendall, Richard L; Lin, Min-Hwa Jasmine; Morrison, Michael J; Patel, Vinod F; Radinsky, Robert; Rose, Paul E; Ross, Sandra; Sun, Ji-Rong; Tang, Jin; Zhao, Huilin; Payton, Marc; Geuns-Meyer, Stephanie D

    2010-09-01

    The discovery of aurora kinases as essential regulators of cell division has led to intense interest in identifying small molecule aurora kinase inhibitors for the potential treatment of cancer. A high-throughput screening effort identified pyridinyl-pyrimidine 6a as a moderately potent dual inhibitor of aurora kinases -A and -B. Optimization of this hit resulted in an anthranilamide lead (6j) that possessed improved enzyme and cellular activity and exhibited a high level of kinase selectivity. However, this anthranilamide and subsequent analogues suffered from a lack of oral bioavailability. Converting the internally hydrogen-bonded six-membered pseudo-ring of the anthranilamide to a phthalazine (8a-b) led to a dramatic improvement in oral bioavailability (38-61%F) while maintaining the potency and selectivity characteristics of the anthranilamide series. In a COLO 205 tumor pharmacodynamic assay measuring phosphorylation of the aurora-B substrate histone H3 at serine 10 (p-histone H3), oral administration of 8b at 50 mg/kg demonstrated significant reduction in tumor p-histone H3 for at least 6 h.

  13. Identification and characterization of potent small molecule inhibitor of hemorrhagic fever New World arenaviruses.

    PubMed

    Bolken, Tove C; Laquerre, Sylvie; Zhang, Yuanming; Bailey, Thomas R; Pevear, Daniel C; Kickner, Shirley S; Sperzel, Lindsey E; Jones, Kevin F; Warren, Travis K; Amanda Lund, S; Kirkwood-Watts, Dana L; King, David S; Shurtleff, Amy C; Guttieri, Mary C; Deng, Yijun; Bleam, Maureen; Hruby, Dennis E

    2006-02-01

    Category A arenaviruses as defined by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) are human pathogens that could be weaponized by bioterrorists. Many of these deadly viruses require biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) containment for all laboratory work, which limits traditional laboratory high-throughput screening (HTS) for identification of small molecule inhibitors. For those reasons, a related BSL-2 New World arenavirus, Tacaribe virus, 67-78% identical to Junín virus at the amino acid level, was used in a HTS campaign where approximately 400,000 small molecule compounds were screened in a Tacaribe virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) assay. Compounds identified in this screen showed antiviral activity and specificity against not only Tacaribe virus, but also the Category A New World arenaviruses (Junín, Machupo, and Guanarito). Drug resistant variants were isolated, suggesting that these compounds act through inhibition of a viral protein, the viral glycoprotein (GP2), and not through cellular toxicity mechanisms. A lead compound, ST-294, has been chosen for drug development. This potent and selective compound, with good bioavailability, demonstrated protective anti-viral efficacy in a Tacaribe mouse challenge model. This series of compounds represent a new class of inhibitors that may warrant further development for potential inclusion in a strategic stockpile.

  14. Discovery of Novel Putative Inhibitors of UDP-GlcNAc 2-Epimerase as Potent Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Brenning, Benjamin; Clifford, Adrianne; Vollmer, David; Bearss, Jared; Jones, Carissa; McCarthy, Virgil; Shi, Chongtie; Wolfe, Bradley; Aavula, Bhasker; Warner, Steve; Bearss, David J; McCullar, Michael V; Schuch, Raymond; Pelzek, Adam; Bhaskaran, Shyam S; Stebbins, C Erec; Goldberg, Allan R; Fischetti, Vincent A; Vankayalapati, Hariprasad

    2013-12-12

    We present the discovery and optimization of a novel series of inhibitors of bacterial UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (called 2-epimerase in this paper). Starting from virtual screening hits, the activity of various inhibitory molecules was optimized using a combination of structure-based and rational design approaches. We successfully designed and identified a 2-epimerase inhibitor (compound 12-ES-Na, that we named Epimerox) which blocked the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at 3.9 μM MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and showed potent broad-range activity against all Gram-positive bacteria that were tested. Additionally a microplate coupled assay was performed to further confirm that the 2-epimerase inhibition of Epimerox was through a target-specific mechanism. Furthermore, Epimerox demonstrated in vivo efficacy and had a pharmacokinetic profile that is consonant with it being developed into a promising new antibiotic agent for treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:24443700

  15. Potent, metabolically stable benzopyrimido-pyrrolo-oxazine-dione (BPO) CFTR inhibitors for polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Snyder, David S; Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Yao, Chenjuan; Kurth, Mark J; Verkman, A S

    2011-08-11

    We previously reported the discovery of pyrimido-pyrrolo-quinoxalinedione (PPQ) inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel and showed their efficacy in an organ culture model of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) (J. Med. Chem. 2009, 52, 6447-6455). Here, we report related benzopyrimido-pyrrolo-oxazinedione (BPO) CFTR inhibitors. To establish structure-activity relationships and select lead compound(s) with improved potency, metabolic stability, and aqueous solubility compared to the most potent prior compound 8 (PPQ-102, IC(50) ∼ 90 nM), we synthesized 16 PPQ analogues and 11 BPO analogues. The analogues were efficiently synthesized in 5-6 steps and 11-61% overall yield. Modification of 8 by bromine substitution at the 5-position of the furan ring, replacement of the secondary amine with an ether bridge, and carboxylation, gave 6-(5-bromofuran-2-yl)-7,9-dimethyl-8,10-dioxo-11-phenyl-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[b]pyrimido [4',5':3,4]pyrrolo [1,2-d][1,4]oxazine-2-carboxylic acid 42 (BPO-27), which fully inhibited CFTR with IC(50) ∼ 8 nM and, compared to 8, had >10-fold greater metabolic stability and much greater polarity/aqueous solubility. In an embryonic kidney culture model of PKD, 42 prevented cyst growth with IC(50) ∼ 100 nM. Benzopyrimido-pyrrolo-oxazinediones such as 42 are potential development candidates for antisecretory therapy of PKD.

  16. Development of highly potent and selective diaminothiazole inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    Schonbrunn, Ernst; Betzi, Stephane; Alam, Riazul; Martin, Mathew P.; Becker, Andreas; Han, Huijong; Francis, Rawle; Chakrasali, Ramappa; Jakkaraj, Sudhakar; Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Sebti, Said M.; Cubitt, Christopher L.; Gebhard, Anthony W.; Hazlehurst, Lori A.; Tash, Joseph S.; Georg, Gunda I.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases that act as key regulatory elements in cell cycle progression. We describe the development of highly potent diaminothiazole inhibitors of CDK2 (IC50 = 0.0009 – 0.0015 µM) from a single hit compound with weak inhibitory activity (IC50 = 15 µM), discovered by high-throughput screening. Structure-based design was performed using 35 co-crystal structures of CDK2 liganded with distinct analogues of the parent compound. The profiling of compound 51 against a panel of 339 kinases revealed high selectivity for CDKs, with preference for CDK2 and CDK5 over CDK9, CDK1, CDK4 and CDK6. Compound 51 inhibited the proliferation of 13 out of 15 cancer cell lines with IC50 values between 0.27 and 6.9 µM, which correlated with the complete suppression of retinoblastoma phosphorylation and the onset of apoptosis. Combined, the results demonstrate the potential of this new inhibitors series for further development into CDK-specific chemical probes or therapeutics. PMID:23600925

  17. Discovery of potent, selective and orally bioavailable imidazo[1,5-a]pyrazine derived ACK1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meizhong; Wang, Jing; Kleinberg, Andrew; Kadalbajoo, Mridula; Siu, Kam W; Cooke, Andrew; Bittner, Mark A; Yao, Yan; Thelemann, April; Ji, Qunsheng; Bhagwat, Shripad; Mulvihill, Kristen M; Rechka, Josef A; Pachter, Jonathan A; Crew, Andrew P; Epstein, David; Mulvihill, Mark J

    2013-02-15

    This Letter describes the medicinal chemistry effort towards a series of novel imidazo[1,5-a]pyrazine derived inhibitors of ACK1. Virtual screening led to the discovery of the initial hit, and subsequent exploration of structure-activity relationships and optimization of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic properties led to the identification of potent, selective and orally bioavailable ACK1 inhibitors. PMID:23317569

  18. Characterization of the Mode of Action of a Potent Dengue Virus Capsid Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Scaturro, Pietro; Trist, Iuni Margaret Laura; Paul, David; Kumar, Anil; Acosta, Eliana G.; Byrd, Chelsea M.; Jordan, Robert; Brancale, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue viruses (DV) represent a significant global health burden, with up to 400 million infections every year and around 500,000 infected individuals developing life-threatening disease. In spite of attempts to develop vaccine candidates and antiviral drugs, there is a lack of approved therapeutics for the treatment of DV infection. We have previously reported the identification of ST-148, a small-molecule inhibitor exhibiting broad and potent antiviral activity against DV in vitro and in vivo (C. M. Byrd et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57:15–25, 2013, doi:10 .1128/AAC.01429-12). In the present study, we investigated the mode of action of this promising compound by using a combination of biochemical, virological, and imaging-based techniques. We confirmed that ST-148 targets the capsid protein and obtained evidence of bimodal antiviral activity affecting both assembly/release and entry of infectious DV particles. Importantly, by using a robust bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assay, we observed an ST-148-dependent increase of capsid self-interaction. These results were corroborated by molecular modeling studies that also revealed a plausible model for compound binding to capsid protein and inhibition by a distinct resistance mutation. These results suggest that ST-148-enhanced capsid protein self-interaction perturbs assembly and disassembly of DV nucleocapsids, probably by inducing structural rigidity. Thus, as previously reported for other enveloped viruses, stabilization of capsid protein structure is an attractive therapeutic concept that also is applicable to flaviviruses. IMPORTANCE Dengue viruses are arthropod-borne viruses representing a significant global health burden. They infect up to 400 million people and are endemic to subtropical and tropical areas of the world. Currently, there are neither vaccines nor approved therapeutics for the prophylaxis or treatment of DV infections, respectively. This study reports the

  19. The novel flavone tetramethoxyluteolin is a potent inhibitor of human mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Zuyi; Patel, Arti B.; Panagiotidou, Smaro; Theoharides, Theoharis C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mast cells (MCs) are hemopoietic cells that mature in tissues and are involved in allergy, immunity and inflammation by secreting multiple mediators. The natural flavone luteolin (lut) has anti-inflammatory actions and inhibits human MCs. Objective To investigate the ability of lut, and its novel structural analog 3’,4’,5,7-tetramethoxyluteolin (methlut), to inhibit human MCs mediator expression and release in vitro and in vivo. Methods Human LAD2 cells and primary human umbilical cord-blood derived cultured MC (hCBMCs) were stimulated by substance P (SP) or IgE/anti-IgE with or without pre-incubation with lut, methlut or cromolyn (1–100 μM) for 2 or 24 hr following which a mediator secretion was measured. The effect of the compound on MC intracellular calcium levels and NF-κB activation was also investigated. Pretreatment with methlut was also studied in mice passively sensitized with dinotrophenol-human serum albumin (DNP-HSA) and challenged intradermally. Results Methlut is a more potent inhibitor than lut or cromolyn for beta-hexosaminidase (β-hex) and histamine secretion from LAD2 cells stimulated by either SP or IgE/anti-IgE, but only methlut and lut significantly inhibit preformed tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secretion. Methlut is also a more potent inhibitor than lut of de novo synthesized TNF from LAD2, and of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) from hCBMCs. The mechanism of action from methlut may be due to its ability to inhibit intracellular calcium increase, as well as NF-κB induction at both the transcriptional and translational levels in LAD2 cells stimulated by SP without affecting cell viability. Treatment (ip) with methlut significantly decreases skin vascular permeability of Evans blue in mice passively sensitized to DNP-HAS and challenged intradermaly. Conclusion Methlut is a promising MC inhibitor for the treatment of allergic and inflammatory conditions. PMID:25498791

  20. Potent inhibitors of CDK5 derived from roscovitine: synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modelling.

    PubMed

    Demange, Luc; Abdellah, Fatma Nait; Lozach, Olivier; Ferandin, Yoan; Gresh, Nohad; Meijer, Laurent; Galons, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) family. CDK5 is involved in numerous neuronal diseases (including Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases, stroke, traumatic brain injury), pain signaling and cell migration. In the present Letter, we describe syntheses and biological evaluations of new 2,6,9-trisubstituted purines, structurally related to roscovitine, a promising CDK inhibitor currently in clinical trials (CDK1/Cyclin B, IC(50)=350 nM; CDK5/p25, IC(50)=200 nM). These new molecules were synthesized using an original Buchwald-Hartwig catalytic procedure; several compounds (3j, 3k, 3l, 3e, 4k, 6b, 6c) displayed potent kinase inhibitory potencies against CDK5 (IC(50) values ranging from 17 to 50 nM) and showed significant cell death inducing activities (IC(50) values ranging from 2 to 9 μM on SH-SY5Y). The docking of the inhibitors into the ATP binding domain of the CDK5 catalytic site highlighted the discriminatory effect of a hydrogen bond involving the CDK5 Lys-89. In addition, the calculated final energy balances for complexation measured for several inhibitors is consistent with the ranking of the IC(50) values. Lastly, we observed that several compounds exhibit submicromolar activities against DYRK1A (dual specificity, tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), a kinase involved in Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease (3g, 3h, 4m; IC(50) values ranging from 300 to 400 nM). PMID:23218601

  1. Discovery and pharmacological characterization of a novel potent inhibitor of diacylglycerol-sensitive TRPC cation channels

    PubMed Central

    Maier, T; Follmann, M; Hessler, G; Kleemann, H-W; Hachtel, S; Fuchs, B; Weissmann, N; Linz, W; Schmidt, T; Löhn, M; Schroeter, K; Wang, L; Rütten, H; Strübing, C

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The cation channel transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) 6 has been associated with several pathologies including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension and ischaemia reperfusion-induced lung oedema. We set out to discover novel inhibitors of TRPC6 channels and investigate the therapeutic potential of these agents. Experimental Approach A library of potential TRPC channel inhibitors was designed and synthesized. Activity of the compounds was assessed by measuring intracellular Ca2+ levels. The lead compound SAR7334 was further characterized by whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. The effects of SAR7334 on acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and systemic BP were investigated. Key Results SAR7334 inhibited TRPC6, TRPC3 and TRPC7-mediated Ca2+ influx into cells with IC50s of 9.5, 282 and 226 nM, whereas TRPC4 and TRPC5-mediated Ca2+ entry was not affected. Patch-clamp experiments confirmed that the compound blocked TRPC6 currents with an IC50 of 7.9 nM. Furthermore, SAR7334 suppressed TRPC6-dependent acute HPV in isolated perfused lungs from mice. Pharmacokinetic studies of SAR7334 demonstrated that the compound was suitable for chronic oral administration. In an initial short-term study, SAR7334 did not change mean arterial pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Conclusions and Implications Our results confirm the role of TRPC6 channels in hypoxic pulmonary vasoregulation and indicate that these channels are unlikely to play a major role in BP regulation in SHR. SAR7334 is a novel, highly potent and bioavailable inhibitor of TRPC6 channels that opens new opportunities for the investigation of TRPC channel function in vivo. PMID:25847402

  2. CTEP: a novel, potent, long-acting, and orally bioavailable metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Lothar; Jaeschke, Georg; Michalon, Aubin; Vieira, Eric; Honer, Michael; Spooren, Will; Porter, Richard; Hartung, Thomas; Kolczewski, Sabine; Büttelmann, Bernd; Flament, Christophe; Diener, Catherine; Fischer, Christophe; Gatti, Silvia; Prinssen, Eric P; Parrott, Neil; Hoffmann, Gerhard; Wettstein, Joseph G

    2011-11-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) is a glutamate-activated class C G protein-coupled receptor widely expressed in the central nervous system and clinically investigated as a drug target for a range of indications, including depression, Parkinson's disease, and fragile X syndrome. Here, we present the novel potent, selective, and orally bioavailable mGlu5 negative allosteric modulator with inverse agonist properties 2-chloro-4-((2,5-dimethyl-1-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine (CTEP). CTEP binds mGlu5 with low nanomolar affinity and shows >1000-fold selectivity when tested against 103 targets, including all known mGlu receptors. CTEP penetrates the brain with a brain/plasma ratio of 2.6 and displaces the tracer [(3)H]3-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-ylethynyl)-cyclohex-2-enone-O-methyl-oxime (ABP688) in vivo in mice from brain regions expressing mGlu5 with an average ED(50) equivalent to a drug concentration of 77.5 ng/g in brain tissue. This novel mGlu5 inhibitor is active in the stress-induced hyperthermia procedure in mice and the Vogel conflict drinking test in rats with minimal effective doses of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively, reflecting a 30- to 100-fold higher in vivo potency compared with 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) and fenobam. CTEP is the first reported mGlu5 inhibitor with both long half-life of approximately 18 h and high oral bioavailability allowing chronic treatment with continuous receptor blockade with one dose every 48 h in adult and newborn animals. By enabling long-term treatment through a wide age range, CTEP allows the exploration of the full therapeutic potential of mGlu5 inhibitors for indications requiring chronic receptor inhibition. PMID:21849627

  3. Phenyl Esters Are Potent Inhibitors of Caseinolytic Protease P and Reveal a Stereogenic Switch for Deoligomerization.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Mathias W; Lakemeyer, Markus; Dahmen, Maria; Glaser, Manuel; Pahl, Axel; Lorenz-Baath, Katrin; Menzel, Thomas; Sievers, Sonja; Böttcher, Thomas; Antes, Iris; Waldmann, Herbert; Sieber, Stephan A

    2015-07-01

    Caseinolytic protease P (ClpP) represents a central bacterial degradation machinery that is involved in cell homeostasis and pathogenicity. The functional role of ClpP has been studied by genetic knockouts and through the use of beta-lactones, which remain the only specific inhibitors of ClpP discovered to date. Beta-lactones have served as chemical tools to manipulate ClpP in several organisms; however, their potency, selectivity and stability is limited. Despite detailed structural insights into the composition and conformational flexibility of the ClpP active site, no rational efforts to design specific non-beta-lactone inhibitors have been reported to date. In this work, an unbiased screen of more than 137 000 compounds was used to identify five phenyl ester compounds as highly potent ClpP inhibitors that were selective for bacterial, but not human ClpP. The potency of phenyl esters largely exceeded that of beta-lactones in ClpP peptidase and protease inhibition assays and displayed unique target selectivity in living S. aureus cells. Analytical studies revealed that while phenyl esters are cleaved like native peptide substrates, they remain covalently trapped as acyl-enzyme intermediates in the active site. The synthesis of 36 derivatives and subsequent structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies provided insights into conserved structural elements that are important for inhibition potency and acylation reactivity. Moreover, the stereochemistry of a methyl-substituent at the alpha position to the ester, resembling amino acid side chains in peptide substrates, impacted ClpP complex stability, causing either dissociation into heptamers or retention of the tetradecameric state. Mechanistic insights into this intriguing stereo switch and the phenyl ester binding mode were obtained by molecular docking experiments.

  4. Potent Host-Directed Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Myxovirus RNA-Dependent RNA-Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Stefanie A.; Ndungu, J. Maina; Yoon, Jeong-Joong; Dochow, Melanie; Sun, Aiming; Natchus, Michael; Snyder, James P.; Plemper, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting of host cell factors required for virus replication rather than of pathogen components opens new perspectives to counteract virus infections. Anticipated advantages of this approach include a heightened barrier against the development of viral resistance and a broadened pathogen target spectrum. Myxoviruses are predominantly associated with acute disease and thus are particularly attractive for this approach since treatment time can be kept limited. To identify inhibitor candidates, we have analyzed hit compounds that emerged from a large-scale high-throughput screen for their ability to block replication of members of both the orthomyxovirus and paramyxovirus families. This has returned a compound class with broad anti-viral activity including potent inhibition of different influenza virus and paramyxovirus strains. After hit-to-lead chemistry, inhibitory concentrations are in the nanomolar range in the context of immortalized cell lines and human PBMCs. The compound shows high metabolic stability when exposed to human S-9 hepatocyte subcellular fractions. Antiviral activity is host-cell species specific and most pronounced in cells of higher mammalian origin, supporting a host-cell target. While the compound induces a temporary cell cycle arrest, host mRNA and protein biosynthesis are largely unaffected and treated cells maintain full metabolic activity. Viral replication is blocked at a post-entry step and resembles the inhibition profile of a known inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) activity. Direct assessment of RdRp activity in the presence of the reagent reveals strong inhibition both in the context of viral infection and in reporter-based minireplicon assays. In toto, we have identified a compound class with broad viral target range that blocks host factors required for viral RdRp activity. Viral adaptation attempts did not induce resistance after prolonged exposure, in contrast to rapid adaptation to a pathogen

  5. Discovery of a potent class I selective ketone histone deacetylase inhibitor with antitumor activity in vivo and optimized pharmacokinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Kinzel, Olaf; Llauger-Bufi, Laura; Pescatore, Giovanna; Rowley, Michael; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Monteagudo, Edith; Fonsi, Massimiliano; Gonzalez Paz, Odalys; Fiore, Fabrizio; Steinkühler, Christian; Jones, Philip

    2009-06-11

    The optimization of a potent, class I selective ketone HDAC inhibitor is shown. It possesses optimized pharmacokinetic properties in preclinical species, has a clean off-target profile, and is negative in a microbial mutagenicity (Ames) test. In a mouse xenograft model it shows efficacy comparable to that of vorinostat at a 10-fold reduced dose.

  6. 3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines: A Novel Class of Potent, Selective, and Orally Active GlyT1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Emmanuel; Alberati, Daniela; Alvarez-Sanchez, Ruben; Brom, Virginie; Burner, Serge; Fischer, Holger; Hauser, Nicole; Kolczewski, Sabine; Lengyel, Judith; Mory, Roland; Saladin, Christian; Schulz-Gasch, Tanja; Stalder, Henri

    2014-04-10

    3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines were discovered as a novel structural class of GlyT1 inhibitors. The structure-activity relationship, which was developed, led to the identification of highly potent compounds exhibiting excellent selectivity against the GlyT2 isoform, drug-like properties, and in vivo activity after oral administration.

  7. 3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines: A Novel Class of Potent, Selective, and Orally Active GlyT1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines were discovered as a novel structural class of GlyT1 inhibitors. The structure–activity relationship, which was developed, led to the identification of highly potent compounds exhibiting excellent selectivity against the GlyT2 isoform, drug-like properties, and in vivo activity after oral administration. PMID:24900853

  8. Discovery and Optimization of Macrocyclic Quinoxaline-pyrrolo-dihydropiperidinones as Potent Pim-1/2 Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cee, Victor J; Chavez, Frank; Herberich, Bradley; Lanman, Brian A; Pettus, Liping H; Reed, Anthony B; Wu, Bin; Wurz, Ryan P; Andrews, Kristin L; Chen, Jie; Hickman, Dean; Laszlo, Jimmy; Lee, Matthew R; Guerrero, Nadia; Mattson, Bethany K; Nguyen, Yen; Mohr, Christopher; Rex, Karen; Sastri, Christine E; Wang, Paul; Wu, Qiong; Wu, Tian; Xu, Yang; Zhou, Yihong; Winston, Jeffrey T; Lipford, J Russell; Tasker, Andrew S; Wang, Hui-Ling

    2016-04-14

    The identification of Pim-1/2 kinase overexpression in B-cell malignancies suggests that Pim kinase inhibitors will have utility in the treatment of lymphoma, leukemia, and multiple myeloma. Starting from a moderately potent quinoxaline-dihydropyrrolopiperidinone lead, we recognized the potential for macrocyclization and developed a series of 13-membered macrocycles. The structure-activity relationships of the macrocyclic linker were systematically explored, leading to the identification of 9c as a potent, subnanomolar inhibitor of Pim-1 and -2. This molecule also potently inhibited Pim kinase activity in KMS-12-BM, a multiple myeloma cell line with relatively high endogenous levels of Pim-1/2, both in vitro (pBAD IC50 = 25 nM) and in vivo (pBAD EC50 = 30 nM, unbound), and a 100 mg/kg daily dose was found to completely arrest the growth of KMS-12-BM xenografts in mice. PMID:27096050

  9. Discovery and Optimization of Macrocyclic Quinoxaline-pyrrolo-dihydropiperidinones as Potent Pim-1/2 Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cee, Victor J; Chavez, Frank; Herberich, Bradley; Lanman, Brian A; Pettus, Liping H; Reed, Anthony B; Wu, Bin; Wurz, Ryan P; Andrews, Kristin L; Chen, Jie; Hickman, Dean; Laszlo, Jimmy; Lee, Matthew R; Guerrero, Nadia; Mattson, Bethany K; Nguyen, Yen; Mohr, Christopher; Rex, Karen; Sastri, Christine E; Wang, Paul; Wu, Qiong; Wu, Tian; Xu, Yang; Zhou, Yihong; Winston, Jeffrey T; Lipford, J Russell; Tasker, Andrew S; Wang, Hui-Ling

    2016-04-14

    The identification of Pim-1/2 kinase overexpression in B-cell malignancies suggests that Pim kinase inhibitors will have utility in the treatment of lymphoma, leukemia, and multiple myeloma. Starting from a moderately potent quinoxaline-dihydropyrrolopiperidinone lead, we recognized the potential for macrocyclization and developed a series of 13-membered macrocycles. The structure-activity relationships of the macrocyclic linker were systematically explored, leading to the identification of 9c as a potent, subnanomolar inhibitor of Pim-1 and -2. This molecule also potently inhibited Pim kinase activity in KMS-12-BM, a multiple myeloma cell line with relatively high endogenous levels of Pim-1/2, both in vitro (pBAD IC50 = 25 nM) and in vivo (pBAD EC50 = 30 nM, unbound), and a 100 mg/kg daily dose was found to completely arrest the growth of KMS-12-BM xenografts in mice.

  10. Discovery of Novel Tricyclic Heterocycles as Potent and Selective DPP-4 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Lian; Hao, Jinsong; Domalski, Martin; Burnett, Duane A; Pissarnitski, Dmitri; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Stamford, Andrew; Scapin, Giovanna; Gao, Ying-Duo; Soriano, Aileen; Kelly, Terri M; Yao, Zuliang; Powles, Mary Ann; Chen, Shiying; Mei, Hong; Hwa, Joyce

    2016-05-12

    In our efforts to develop second generation DPP-4 inhibitors, we endeavored to identify distinct structures with long-acting (once weekly) potential. Taking advantage of X-ray cocrystal structures of sitagliptin and other DPP-4 inhibitors, such as alogliptin and linagliptin bound to DPP-4, and aided by molecular modeling, we designed several series of heterocyclic compounds as initial targets. During their synthesis, an unexpected chemical transformation provided a novel tricyclic scaffold that was beyond our original design. Capitalizing on this serendipitous discovery, we have elaborated this scaffold into a very potent and selective DPP-4 inhibitor lead series, as highlighted by compound 17c. PMID:27190600

  11. Methylated trivalent arsenicals are potent inhibitors of glucose stimulated insulin secretion by murine pancreatic islets

    SciTech Connect

    Douillet, Christelle; Currier, Jenna; Saunders, Jesse; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2013-02-15

    Epidemiologic evidence has linked chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Laboratory studies have identified several mechanisms by which iAs can impair glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown that micromolar concentrations of arsenite (iAs{sup III}) or its methylated trivalent metabolites, methylarsonite (MAs{sup III}) and dimethylarsinite (DMAs{sup III}), inhibit the insulin-activated signal transduction pathway, resulting in insulin resistance in adipocytes. Our present study examined effects of the trivalent arsenicals on insulin secretion by intact pancreatic islets isolated from C57BL/6 mice. We found that 48-hour exposures to low subtoxic concentrations of iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but not basal insulin secretion. MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} were more potent than iAs{sup III} as GSIS inhibitors with estimated IC{sub 50} ≤ 0.1 μM. The exposures had little or no effects on insulin content of the islets or on insulin expression, suggesting that trivalent arsenicals interfere with mechanisms regulating packaging of the insulin transport vesicles or with translocation of these vesicles to the plasma membrane. Notably, the inhibition of GSIS by iAs{sup III}, MAs{sup III} or DMAs{sup III} could be reversed by a 24-hour incubation of the islets in arsenic-free medium. These results suggest that the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are among the targets for iAs exposure and that the inhibition of GSIS by low concentrations of the methylated metabolites of iAs may be the key mechanism of iAs-induced diabetes. - Highlights: ► Trivalent arsenicals inhibit glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. ► MAs{sup III} and DMAs{sup III} are more potent inhibitors than arsenite with IC{sub 50} ∼ 0.1 μM. ► The arsenicals have little or no effects on insulin expression in pancreatic islets. ► The inhibition of

  12. Characterization of GSK′963: a structurally distinct, potent and selective inhibitor of RIP1 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Berger, SB; Harris, P; Nagilla, R; Kasparcova, V; Hoffman, S; Swift, B; Dare, L; Schaeffer, M; Capriotti, C; Ouellette, M; King, BW; Wisnoski, D; Cox, J; Reilly, M; Marquis, RW; Bertin, J; Gough, PJ

    2015-01-01

    Necroptosis and signaling regulated by RIP1 kinase activity is emerging as a key driver of inflammation in a variety of disease settings. A significant amount has been learned about how RIP1 regulates necrotic cell death through the use of the RIP1 kinase inhibitor Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). Nec-1 has been a transformational tool for exploring the function of RIP1 kinase activity; however, its utility is somewhat limited by moderate potency, off-target activity against indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and poor pharmacokinetic properties. These limitations of Nec-1 have driven an effort to identify next-generation tools to study RIP1 function, and have led to the identification of 7-Cl-O-Nec-1 (Nec-1s), which has improved pharmacokinetic properties and lacks IDO inhibitory activity. Here we describe the characterization of GSK′963, a chiral small-molecule inhibitor of RIP1 kinase that is chemically distinct from both Nec-1 and Nec-1s. GSK′963 is significantly more potent than Nec-1 in both biochemical and cellular assays, inhibiting RIP1-dependent cell death with an IC50 of between 1 and 4 nM in human and murine cells. GSK′963 is >10 000-fold selective for RIP1 over 339 other kinases, lacks measurable activity against IDO and has an inactive enantiomer, GSK′962, which can be used to confirm on-target effects. The increased in vitro potency of GSK′963 also translates in vivo, where GSK′963 provides much greater protection from hypothermia at matched doses to Nec-1, in a model of TNF-induced sterile shock. Together, we believe GSK′963 represents a next-generation tool for examining the function of RIP1 in vitro and in vivo, and should help to clarify our current understanding of the role of RIP1 in contributing to disease pathogenesis. PMID:27551444

  13. U-90152, a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication.

    PubMed Central

    Dueweke, T J; Poppe, S M; Romero, D L; Swaney, S M; So, A G; Downey, K M; Althaus, I W; Reusser, F; Busso, M; Resnick, L

    1993-01-01

    Bisheteroarylpiperazines are potent inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT). We describe a novel bisheteroarylpiperazine, U-90152 [1-(5-methanesulfonamido-1H-indol-2-yl-carbonyl)-4-[3-(1-methyl eth yl-amino)pyridinyl]piperazine], which inhibited recombinant HIV-1 RT at a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.26 microM (compared with IC50s of > 440 microM for DNA polymerases alpha and delta). U-90152 blocked the replication in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 25 primary HIV-1 isolates, including variants that were highly resistant to 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) or 2',3'-dideoxyinosine, with a mean 50% effective dose of 0.066 +/- 0.137 microM. U-90152 had low cellular cytotoxicity, causing less than 8% reduction in peripheral blood lymphocyte viability at 100 microM. In experiments assessing inhibition of the spread of HIV-1IIIB in cell cultures, U-90152 was much more effective than AZT. When approximately 500 HIV-1IIIB-infected MT-4 cells were mixed 1:1,000 with uninfected cells, 3 microM AZT delayed the evidence of rapid viral growth for 7 days. In contrast, 3 microM U-90152 totally prevented the spread of HIV-1, and death and/or dilution of the original inoculum of infected cells prevented renewed viral growth after U-90152 was removed at day 24. The combination of U-90152 and AZT, each at 0.5 microM, also totally prevented viral spread. Finally, although the RT amino acid substitutions K103N (lysine 103 to asparagine) and Y181C (tyrosine 181 to cysteine), which confer cross-resistance to several nonnucleoside inhibitors, also decrease the potency of U-90152, this drug retains significant activity against these mutant RTs in vitro (IC50s, approximately 8 microgramM). PMID:7685995

  14. A novel RET inhibitor with potent efficacy against medullary thyroid cancer in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Abbas K.; Mukerji, Ridhwi; Shah, Anuj; Timmermann, Barbara N.; Cohen, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Most medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) recur or progress despite optimal surgical resection. Current targeted-therapies show promise but lack durable efficacy and tolerability. The purpose of this study was to build upon previous in vitro work and evaluate Withaferin A (WA), a novel RET inhibitor, in a metastatic murine model of MTC. Methods 5 million DRO-81-1 human MTC-cells injected in the left posterior neck of Nu/Nu mice uniformly generated metastases to the liver, spleen, and/or lungs. Treatment with WA (8mg/kg/day i.p.×21 days) was started for tumors >100 mm3. Endpoints were survival, tumor>1500 mm3, decreased bodyweight, or body score (all measured thrice weekly). Results All controls (saline; n=5) died or deteriorated from metastatic disease by 7 weeks post injection. All treated animals were alive,(WA; n=5), having tumor regression and growth-delay without toxicity or weight-loss at 6 wks post treatment; p<0.01. Tumor cells treated with WA demonstrated inhibition of total and phospho-RET levels by Western-Blot analysis in a dose-dependent manner (almost complete inhibition with 5uM WA treatment) as well as potent inhibition of phospho-ERK and phospho-AKT levels. Conclusions Withaferin A is a novel natural-product RET-inhibitor with efficacy in a metastatic murine model of MTC. Further long-term efficacy/toxicity studies are warranted to evaluate this compound for clinical translation. PMID:21134556

  15. A Potent Peptidomimetic Inhibitor of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype a Has a Very Different Conformation Than SNAP-25 Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Zuniga, J.E.; Schmidt, J.J.; Fenn, T.; Burnett, J.C.; Arac, D.; Gussio, R.; Stafford, R.G.; Badie, S.S.; Bavari, S.; Brunger, A.T.

    2009-05-28

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A is the most lethal of all known toxins. Here, we report the crystal structure, along with SAR data, of the zinc metalloprotease domain of BoNT/A bound to a potent peptidomimetic inhibitor (Ki = 41 nM) that resembles the local sequence of the SNAP-25 substrate. Surprisingly, the inhibitor adopts a helical conformation around the cleavage site, in contrast to the extended conformation of the native substrate. The backbone of the inhibitor's P1 residue displaces the putative catalytic water molecule and concomitantly interacts with the 'proton shuttle' E224. This mechanism of inhibition is aided by residue contacts in the conserved S1' pocket of the substrate binding cleft, and the induction of new hydrophobic pockets, which are not present in the apo form, especially for the P2' residue of the inhibitor. Our inhibitor is specific for BoNT/A as it does not inhibit other BoNT serotypes or thermolysin.

  16. Fellutamide B is a Potent Inhibitor of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, G.; Li, D; Chidawanyika, T; Nathan, C; Li, H

    2010-01-01

    Via high-throughput screening of a natural compound library, we have identified a lipopeptide aldehyde, fellutamide B (1), as the most potent inhibitor of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteasome tested to date. Kinetic studies reveal that 1 inhibits both Mtb and human proteasomes in a time-dependent manner under steady-state condition. Remarkably, 1 inhibits the Mtb proteasome in a single-step binding mechanism with K{sub i} = 6.8 nM, whereas it inhibits the human proteasome {beta}5 active site following a two-step mechanism with K{sub i} = 11.5 nM and K*{sub i} = 0.93 nM. Co-crystallization of 1 bound to the Mtb proteasome revealed a structural basis for the tight binding of 1 to the active sites of the Mtb proteasome. The hemiacetal group of 1 in the Mtb proteasome takes the (R)-configuration, whereas in the yeast proteasome it takes the (S)-configuration, indicating that the pre-chiral CHO group of 1 binds to the active site Thr1 in a different orientation. Re-examination of the structure of the yeast proteasome in complex with 1 showed significant conformational changes at the substrate-binding cleft along the active site. These structural differences are consistent with the different kinetic mechanisms of 1 against Mtb and human proteasomes.

  17. Salinosporamide Natural Products: Potent 20S Proteasome Inhibitors as Promising Cancer Chemotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gulder, Tobias A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors are rapidly evolving as potent treatment options in cancer therapy. One of the most promising drug candidates of this type is salinosporamide A from the bacterium Salinispora tropica. This marine natural product possesses a complex, densely functionalized γ-lactam-β-lactone pharmacophore, which is responsible for its irreversible binding to its target, the β subunit of the 20S proteasome. Salinosporamide A entered phase I clinical trials for the treatment of multiple myeloma only three years after its discovery. The strong biological activity and the challenging structure of this compound have fueled intense academic and industrial research in recent years, which has led to the development of more than ten syntheses, the elucidation of its biosynthetic pathway, and the generation of promising structure–activity relationships and oncological data. Salinosporamide A thus serves as an intriguing example of the successful interplay of modern drug discovery and biomedical research, medicinal chemistry and pharmacology, natural product synthesis and analysis, as well as biosynthesis and bioengineering. PMID:20927786

  18. Flunarizine is a highly potent inhibitor of cardiac hERG potassium current.

    PubMed

    Trepakova, Elena S; Dech, Spencer J; Salata, Joseph J

    2006-02-01

    Flunarizine has been widely used for the management of a variety of disorders such as peripheral vascular diseases, migraine, and epilepsy. The majority of its beneficial effects have been attributed to its ability to inhibit voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the low micromolar range, albeit non-selectively, as flunarizine has been shown to inhibit a variety of ion channels. We examined the effects of flunarizine on potassium currents through cardiac channels encoded by the human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) stably expressed in CHO cells. In this study, we have characterized the effect of flunarizine on biophysical properties of hERG potassium currents with standard whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques. Notably, flunarizine is a highly potent inhibitor of hERG current with an IC50 value of 5.7 nM. The effect of flunarizine on hERG potassium current is concentration and time dependent, and displays voltage dependence over the voltage range between -40 and 0 mV. At concentrations near or above the IC50, flunarizine causes a negative shift in the voltage dependence of hERG current activation and accelerates tail current deactivation. Flunarizine preferentially blocks the activated state of the channel and displays weak frequency dependence of inhibition. Flunarizine also inhibits KCNQ1/KCNE1 channel current with an IC50 of 0.76 microM. PMID:16495758

  19. Novel amino-β-lactam derivatives as potent cholesterol absorption inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dražić, Tonko; Molčanov, Krešimir; Sachdev, Vinay; Malnar, Martina; Hećimović, Silva; Patankar, Jay V.; Obrowsky, Sascha; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Habuš, Ivan; Kratky, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Two new trans-(3R,4R)-amino-β-lactam derivatives and their diastereoisomeric mixtures were synthesized as ezetimibe bioisosteres and tested in in vitro and in vivo experiments as novel β-lactam cholesterol absorption inhibitors. Both compounds exhibited low cytotoxicity in MDCKII, hNPC1L1/MDCKII, and HepG2 cell lines and potent inhibitory effect in hNPC1L1/MDCKII cells. In addition, these compounds markedly reduced cholesterol absorption in mice, resulting in reduced cholesterol concentrations in plasma, liver, and intestine. We determined the crystal structure of one amino-β-lactam derivative to establish unambiguously both the absolute and relative configuration at the new stereogenic centre C17, which was assigned to be S. The pKa values for both compounds are 9.35, implying that the amino-β-lactam derivatives and their diastereoisomeric mixtures are in form of ammonium salt in blood and the intestine. The IC50 value for the diastereoisomeric mixture is 60 μM. In vivo, it efficiently inhibited cholesterol absorption comparable to ezetimibe. PMID:25305716

  20. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor dinaciclib potently synergizes with cisplatin in preclinical models of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiu-Jie; Lin, Feng; Pan, Shi-Shi; Gong, Li-Hua; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Jiang, Qi-Wei; Mei, Xiao-Long; Xue, You-Qiu; Qin, Wu-Ming; Shi, Zhi; Yan, Xiao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal of woman cancers, and its clinical therapeutic outcome currently is unsatisfied. Dinaciclib, a novel small molecule inhibitor of CDK1, CDK2, CDK5 and CDK9, is assessed in clinical trials for the treatment of several types of cancers. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects and mechanisms of dinaciclib alone or combined with cisplatin in ovarian cancer. Dinaciclib alone actively induced cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis with the increased intracellular ROS levels, which were accompanied by obvious alterations of related proteins such as CDKs, Cyclins, Mcl-1, XIAP and survivin. Pretreatment with N-acety-L-cysteine significantly blocked ROS generation but only partially rescued apoptosis triggered by dinaciclib. Moreover, the combination of dinaciclib with cisplatin synergistically promoted cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibited the subcutaneous xenograft growth of ovarian cancer in nude mice. Altogether, dinaciclib potently synergizes with cisplatin in preclinical models of ovarian cancer, indicating this beneficial combinational therapy may be a promising strategy for treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25962959

  1. Chinese herb derived-Rocaglamide A is a potent inhibitor of pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baochun; Li, Yixiong; Tan, Fengbo; Xiao, Zhanxiang

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer ranks No.1 in mortality rate worldwide. This study aims to identify the novel anti-pancreatic cancer drugs. Human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines were purchased from ATCC. CPE-based screening assay was used to examine the cell viability. Patient derived tumor xenografts in SCID mice was established. The Caspase-3 and 7 activities were measured using the Caspase Glo 3/7 Assay kit. Soft agar colony formation assay was used to evaluate the colony formation. Wound healing assay was employed to determine the cell migration. We screened a Chinese herbal product library and found three “hits” that kill cancer cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations. One of these compounds, rocaglamide, was found to be potent inhibitors of a wide spectrum of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Furthermore, Rocaglamide reduced the tumor size in a patient-derived pancreatic cancer xenograft mouse model without noticeable toxicity in vivo. Rocaglamide also inhibits pancreatic cancer cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, these data support that Rocaglamide may be a promising anti-pancreatic cancer drug. PMID:27158390

  2. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor dinaciclib potently synergizes with cisplatin in preclinical models of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Xiu; Xie, Feng-Feng; Zhu, Xiu-Jie; Lin, Feng; Pan, Shi-Shi; Gong, Li-Hua; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Jiang, Qi-Wei; Mei, Xiao-Long; Xue, You-Qiu; Qin, Wu-Ming; Shi, Zhi; Yan, Xiao-Jian

    2015-06-20

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal of woman cancers, and its clinical therapeutic outcome currently is unsatisfied. Dinaciclib, a novel small molecule inhibitor of CDK1, CDK2, CDK5 and CDK9, is assessed in clinical trials for the treatment of several types of cancers. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects and mechanisms of dinaciclib alone or combined with cisplatin in ovarian cancer. Dinaciclib alone actively induced cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis with the increased intracellular ROS levels, which were accompanied by obvious alterations of related proteins such as CDKs, Cyclins, Mcl-1, XIAP and survivin. Pretreatment with N-acety-L-cysteine significantly blocked ROS generation but only partially rescued apoptosis triggered by dinaciclib. Moreover, the combination of dinaciclib with cisplatin synergistically promoted cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibited the subcutaneous xenograft growth of ovarian cancer in nude mice. Altogether, dinaciclib potently synergizes with cisplatin in preclinical models of ovarian cancer, indicating this beneficial combinational therapy may be a promising strategy for treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25962959

  3. Dietary (-)-epicatechin as a potent inhibitor of βγ-secretase amyloid precursor protein processing.

    PubMed

    Cox, Carla J; Choudhry, Fahd; Peacey, Eleanor; Perkinton, Michael S; Richardson, Jill C; Howlett, David R; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F; Francis, Paul T; Williams, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, a group of dietary polyphenols have been shown to possess cognitive health benefits. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that they could play a role in risk reduction in dementia. Amyloid precursor protein processing and the subsequent generation of amyloid beta (Aβ) are central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, as soluble, oligomeric Aβ is thought to be the toxic species driving disease progression. We undertook an in vitro screen to identify flavonoids with bioactivity at βγ-mediated amyloid precursor protein processing, which lead to identification of a number of flavonoids bioactive at 100 nM. Because of known bioavailability, we investigated the catechin family further and identified epigallocatechin and (-)-epicatechin as potent (nanomolar) inhibitors of amyloidogenic processing. Supporting this finding, we have shown reduced Aβ pathology and Aβ levels following short term, a 21-day oral delivery of (-)-epicatechin in 7-month-old TASTPM mice. Further, in vitro mechanistic studies suggest this is likely because of indirect BACE1 inhibition. Taken together, our results suggest that orally delivered (-)-epicatechin may be a potential prophylactic for Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Meridianin derivatives as potent Dyrk1A inhibitors and neuroprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rammohan R; Sharma, Sadhana; Joshi, Prashant; Wani, Abubakar; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Kumar, Ajay; Bharate, Sandip B

    2015-08-01

    Meridianins are a group of marine-derived indole alkaloids which are reported to possess kinase inhibitory activities. In the present Letter, we report synthesis of N1-substituted and C-ring modified meridianin derivatives and their evaluation as Dyrk1A inhibitors and neuroprotective agents. Among the library of 52 compounds screened, morpholinoyl linked derivative 26b and 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethyl phenyl sulfonyl derivative 29v displayed potent inhibition of Dyrk1A with IC50 values of 0.5 and 0.53 μM, respectively. The derivative 26b also inhibited Dyrk2 and Dyrk3 with IC50 values of 1.4 and 2.2 μM, respectively showing 2.2 and 4.4 fold selectivity for Dyrk1A with respect to Dyrk2 and Dyrk3. The compound 26b was not cytotoxic to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells (IC50>100 μM) and it displayed significant neuroprotection against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in these cells at 10 μM. Molecular modelling studies of compound 26b led to identification of key interactions in the binding site of Dyrk1A and the possible reasons for observed Dyrk1A selectivity over Dyrk2. PMID:26048785

  5. Potent bivalent inhibition of human tryptase-beta by a synthetic inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Selwood, Trevor; Elrod, Kyle C; Schechter, Norman M

    2003-12-01

    Human tryptase-beta (HTbeta) is a unique serine protease exhibiting a frame-like tetramer structure with four active sites directed toward a central pore. Potent inhibition of HTbeta has been attained using CRA-2059. This compound has two phenylguanidinium head groups connected via a linker capable of spanning between two active sites. The properties of the CRA-2059:HTbeta interaction were defined in this study. Tight-binding reversible inhibition was observed with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 620 pM, an association rate constant of 7x10(7) M(-1) s(-1) and a relatively slow dissociation rate constant of 0.04 s(-1). Bivalent inhibition was demonstrated by displacement of p-aminobenzamidine from the primary specificity pocket with a stoichiometry, [CRA-2059]0/[HTbeta]0, of 0.5. The potency of the bivalent interaction was illustrated by CRA-2059 inhibition of HTbeta, 24% or 53% inhibited by pre-incubation with an irreversible inhibitor. Two interactions were observed consistent with mono- and bi-valent binding; the Ki value for bivalent inhibition was at least 10(4)-fold lower than that for monovalent inhibition. Comparison of the affinities of CRA-2059 and phenylguanidine for HTbeta finds an approximate doubling of the free energy change upon bivalent binding. This doubling suggests that the linker portion minimally hinders the binding of CRA-2059 to HTbeta. The potency of CRA-2059 is thus attributable to effective bivalent binding. PMID:14719803

  6. Synthesis of giant globular multivalent glycofullerenes as potent inhibitors in a model of Ebola virus infection.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Antonio; Sigwalt, David; Illescas, Beatriz M; Luczkowiak, Joanna; Rodríguez-Pérez, Laura; Nierengarten, Iwona; Holler, Michel; Remy, Jean-Serge; Buffet, Kevin; Vincent, Stéphane P; Rojo, Javier; Delgado, Rafael; Nierengarten, Jean-François; Martín, Nazario

    2016-01-01

    The use of multivalent carbohydrate compounds to block cell-surface lectin receptors is a promising strategy to inhibit the entry of pathogens into cells and could lead to the discovery of novel antiviral agents. One of the main problems with this approach, however, is that it is difficult to make compounds of an adequate size and multivalency to mimic natural systems such as viruses. Hexakis adducts of [60]fullerene are useful building blocks in this regard because they maintain a globular shape at the same time as allowing control over the size and multivalency. Here we report water-soluble tridecafullerenes decorated with 120 peripheral carbohydrate subunits, so-called 'superballs', that can be synthesized efficiently from hexakis adducts of [60]fullerene in one step by using copper-catalysed azide–alkyne cycloaddition click chemistry. Infection assays show that these superballs are potent inhibitors of cell infection by an artificial Ebola virus with half-maximum inhibitory concentrations in the subnanomolar range.

  7. Synthesis of giant globular multivalent glycofullerenes as potent inhibitors in a model of Ebola virus infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Antonio; Sigwalt, David; Illescas, Beatriz M.; Luczkowiak, Joanna; Rodríguez-Pérez, Laura; Nierengarten, Iwona; Holler, Michel; Remy, Jean-Serge; Buffet, Kevin; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Rojo, Javier; Delgado, Rafael; Nierengarten, Jean-François; Martín, Nazario

    2016-01-01

    The use of multivalent carbohydrate compounds to block cell-surface lectin receptors is a promising strategy to inhibit the entry of pathogens into cells and could lead to the discovery of novel antiviral agents. One of the main problems with this approach, however, is that it is difficult to make compounds of an adequate size and multivalency to mimic natural systems such as viruses. Hexakis adducts of [60]fullerene are useful building blocks in this regard because they maintain a globular shape at the same time as allowing control over the size and multivalency. Here we report water-soluble tridecafullerenes decorated with 120 peripheral carbohydrate subunits, so-called ‘superballs’, that can be synthesized efficiently from hexakis adducts of [60]fullerene in one step by using copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click chemistry. Infection assays show that these superballs are potent inhibitors of cell infection by an artificial Ebola virus with half-maximum inhibitory concentrations in the subnanomolar range.

  8. Lipophilic bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of Plasmodium liver-stage growth.

    PubMed

    Singh, Agam Prasad; Zhang, Yonghui; No, Joo-Hwan; Docampo, Roberto; Nussenzweig, Victor; Oldfield, Eric

    2010-07-01

    Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, drugs used to treat bone resorption diseases, also have activity against a broad range of protists, including blood-stage Plasmodium spp. Here, we show that new-generation "lipophilic" bisphosphonates designed as anticancer agents that block protein prenylation also have potent activity against Plasmodium liver stages, with a high (>100) therapeutic index. Treatment of mice with the bisphosphonate BPH-715 and challenge with Plasmodium berghei sporozoites revealed complete protection (no blood-stage parasites after 28 days). There was also activity against blood-stage forms in vitro and a 4-day delay in the prepatent period in vivo. The lipophilic bisphosphonates have activity against a Plasmodium geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS), as well as low nM activity against human farnesyl and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases. The most active inhibitor in vitro and in vivo had enzyme inhibitory activity similar to that of the other, less active compounds but was more lipophilic. Lipophilic bisphosphonates are thus promising leads for novel antimalarials that target liver-stage infection.

  9. λ-Carrageenan P32 Is a Potent Inhibitor of Rabies Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhaochen; Tian, Dayong; Zhou, Ming; Xiao, Wenjie; Zhang, Yachun; Li, Mingming; Sui, Baokun; Wang, Wei; Guan, Huashi; Chen, Huanchun; Fu, Zhen F.; Zhao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Rabies, caused by rabies virus (RABV), is an acute, fatal encephalitic disease that affects many warm-blooded mammals. Currently, post-exposure prophylaxis regimens are effective for most rabies cases, but once the clinical signs of the disease appear, current treatment options become ineffective. Carrageenan has been reported as a potent inhibitor of many viruses. In this study, the λ-carrageenan (λ-CG) P32 was investigated for its potential role in inhibiting RABV infection. Our results show that P32 specifically inhibits the replication of several RABV strains but not vesicular stomatitis virus in multiple cell lines and shows low cytotoxicity. P32 mainly abrogated viral replication during the early stage of the post-adsorption period. Further studies demonstrated that P32 could affect not only viral internalization but also viral uncoating by blocking cell fusion mediated by RABV glycoprotein. Moreover, P32 can fully inhibit RABV infection in vitro during the post-adsorption period, whereas heparin and heparan sulfate, which possess similar structures to P32, showed significant but not complete inhibition of RABV infectivity. Collectively, our results indicate that λ-CG P32 is a promising agent that can inhibit RABV infection mainly by inhibiting viral internalization and glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion and can be used for the development of novel anti-RABV drugs. PMID:26465753

  10. Potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: Synthesis, biological assay and docking study of nitro acridone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Mehtab; Aslam, Afroz; Nami, Shahab A A; Malla, Ali Mohammed; Alam, Mahboob; Lee, Dong-Ung; Rehman, Sumbul; Silva, P S Pereira; Silva, M Ramos

    2016-08-01

    The reaction of o-halobenzoic acid with aniline derivatives and their subsequent cyclization reaction yielded the acridone derivatives. The series of nitro acridone derivatives were prepared by Ullmann condensation in presence of copper as catalyst and were characterized by FTIR, (1)H, (13)C NMR and mass spectra. The structure of 5-nitro-(2-phenyl amino) benzoic acid (4) was confirmed by X-ray crystallography and was found to crystallize in P21/c space group. The in vitro efficacy of the compounds for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antimicrobial inhibitory activities have been evaluated against the standard drugs Ampicillin and Gentamicin against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. 1,7-Dinitroacridone was found to be the most potent AChE inhibitor (IC50=0.22μM). Moreover, the compounds have been screened for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH assay. Also, docking study results were found to be in good agreement with the results obtained through in vitro experiments. The docking study further predicted possible binding conformation. PMID:27295412

  11. Evaluation of the analgesic effects of ammoxetine, a novel potent serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting-ting; Xue, Rui; Zhu, Lei; Li, Juan; Fan, Qiong-yin; Zhong, Bo-hua; Li, Yun-feng; Ye, Cai-ying; Zhang, You-zhi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The selective serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are commonly used for the treatment of neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. Ammoxetine ((±)-3-(benzo[d] [1,3]dioxol-4-yloxy)-N-methyl-3-(thiophen-2-yl)propan-1-amine) has been identified as a novel potent SNRI. In this study, we evaluated the acute analgesic properties of ammoxetine in different animal models of pain, and examined the involvement of monoamines in its analgesic actions. Methods: The analgesic effects of ammoxetine were assayed using models of acetic acid- and formalin-induced pain in mice, neuropathic pain induced by sciatic nerve injury (SNI), chronic constriction injury (CCI) and reserpine-induced fibromyalgia pain in rats. The contents of 5-HT and NE in brain regions of fibromyalgia rats were measured using HPLC-ECD. In all the experiments, duloxetine was used as a positive control drug. Results: Oral administration of ammoxetine (0.625–10 mg/kg) or duloxetine (2.5–40 mg/kg) dose-dependently decreased the number of acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced first phase and second phase paw licking time in mice. Oral administration of ammoxetine (2.5–10 mg/kg) or duloxetine (10 mg/kg) alleviated mechanical allodynia in SNI and CCI rats and thermal hyperalgesia in CCI rats. The antiallodynic effect of ammoxetine in CCI rats was abolished by pretreatment with para-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA, a 5-HT synthesis inhibitor) or α-methyl-para-tyrosine methylester (AMPT, a catecholamine synthesis inhibitor). Oral administration of ammoxetine (30 mg/kg) or duloxetine (50 mg/kg) significantly attenuated tactile allodynia in rats with reserpine-induced fibromyalgia. In the fibromyalgia rats, administration of ammoxetine (10, 30 mg/kg) or duloxetine (30, 50 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased the levels of 5-HT and NE, and decreased the metabolite ratio of 5-HT (5-HIAA/5-HT) in the spinal cord, hypothalamus, thalamus and prefrontal cortex

  12. Understanding the structural basis of substrate recognition by Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin V to aid in the design of potent inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Rajiv K; Patel, Chandan; Mishra, Vandana; Xiao, Huogen; Yada, Rickey Y; Bhaumik, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin V (PfPMV) is an essential aspartic protease required for parasite survival, thus, considered as a potential drug target. This study reports the first detailed structural analysis and molecular dynamics simulation of PfPMV as an apoenzyme and its complexes with the substrate PEXEL as well as with the inhibitor saquinavir. The presence of pro-peptide in PfPMV may not structurally hinder the formation of a functionally competent catalytic active site. The structure of PfPMV-PEXEL complex shows that the unique positions of Glu179 and Gln222 are responsible for providing the specificity of PEXEL substrate with arginine at P3 position. The structural analysis also reveals that the S4 binding pocket in PfPMV is occupied by Ile94, Ala98, Phe370 and Tyr472, and therefore, does not allow binding of pepstatin, a potent inhibitor of most pepsin-like aspartic proteases. Among the screened inhibitors, the HIV-1 protease inhibitors and KNI compounds have higher binding affinities for PfPMV with saquinavir having the highest value. The presence of a flexible group at P2 and a bulky hydrophobic group at P3 position of the inhibitor is preferred in the PfPMV substrate binding pocket. Results from the present study will aid in the design of potent inhibitors of PMV. PMID:27531685

  13. Understanding the structural basis of substrate recognition by Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin V to aid in the design of potent inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Rajiv K.; Patel, Chandan; Mishra, Vandana; Xiao, Huogen; Yada, Rickey Y.; Bhaumik, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin V (PfPMV) is an essential aspartic protease required for parasite survival, thus, considered as a potential drug target. This study reports the first detailed structural analysis and molecular dynamics simulation of PfPMV as an apoenzyme and its complexes with the substrate PEXEL as well as with the inhibitor saquinavir. The presence of pro-peptide in PfPMV may not structurally hinder the formation of a functionally competent catalytic active site. The structure of PfPMV-PEXEL complex shows that the unique positions of Glu179 and Gln222 are responsible for providing the specificity of PEXEL substrate with arginine at P3 position. The structural analysis also reveals that the S4 binding pocket in PfPMV is occupied by Ile94, Ala98, Phe370 and Tyr472, and therefore, does not allow binding of pepstatin, a potent inhibitor of most pepsin-like aspartic proteases. Among the screened inhibitors, the HIV-1 protease inhibitors and KNI compounds have higher binding affinities for PfPMV with saquinavir having the highest value. The presence of a flexible group at P2 and a bulky hydrophobic group at P3 position of the inhibitor is preferred in the PfPMV substrate binding pocket. Results from the present study will aid in the design of potent inhibitors of PMV. PMID:27531685

  14. A Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Binding to Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Crystal Structures for Complexes of Two Potent Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is both a keto–enol tautomerase and a cytokine associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and cancer. Consistent with observed correlations between inhibition of the enzymatic and biological activities, discovery of MIF inhibitors has focused on monitoring the tautomerase activity using l-dopachrome methyl ester or 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvic acid as substrates. The accuracy of these assays is compromised by several issues including substrate instability, spectral interference, and short linear periods for product formation. In this work, we report the syntheses of fluorescently labeled MIF inhibitors and their use in the first fluorescence polarization-based assay to measure the direct binding of inhibitors to the active site. The assay allows the accurate and efficient identification of competitive, noncompetitive, and covalent inhibitors of MIF in a manner that can be scaled for high-throughput screening. The results for 22 compounds show that the most potent MIF inhibitors bind with Kd values of ca. 50 nM; two are from our laboratory, and the other is a compound from the patent literature. X-ray crystal structures for two of the most potent compounds bound to MIF are also reported here. Striking combinations of protein–ligand hydrogen bonding, aryl–aryl, and cation−π interactions are responsible for the high affinities. A new chemical series was then designed using this knowledge to yield two more strong MIF inhibitors/binders. PMID:27299179

  15. A Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Binding to Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Crystal Structures for Complexes of Two Potent Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, José A; Robertson, Michael J; Valhondo, Margarita; Jorgensen, William L

    2016-07-13

    Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is both a keto-enol tautomerase and a cytokine associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and cancer. Consistent with observed correlations between inhibition of the enzymatic and biological activities, discovery of MIF inhibitors has focused on monitoring the tautomerase activity using l-dopachrome methyl ester or 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvic acid as substrates. The accuracy of these assays is compromised by several issues including substrate instability, spectral interference, and short linear periods for product formation. In this work, we report the syntheses of fluorescently labeled MIF inhibitors and their use in the first fluorescence polarization-based assay to measure the direct binding of inhibitors to the active site. The assay allows the accurate and efficient identification of competitive, noncompetitive, and covalent inhibitors of MIF in a manner that can be scaled for high-throughput screening. The results for 22 compounds show that the most potent MIF inhibitors bind with Kd values of ca. 50 nM; two are from our laboratory, and the other is a compound from the patent literature. X-ray crystal structures for two of the most potent compounds bound to MIF are also reported here. Striking combinations of protein-ligand hydrogen bonding, aryl-aryl, and cation-π interactions are responsible for the high affinities. A new chemical series was then designed using this knowledge to yield two more strong MIF inhibitors/binders. PMID:27299179

  16. A novel p38 MAPK docking groove-targeted compound is a potent inhibitor of inflammatory hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Willemen, Hanneke L.D.M.; Campos, Pedro M.; Lucas, Elisa; Morreale, Antonio; Gil-Redondo, Rubén; Agut, Juan; González, Florenci V.; Ramos, Paula; Heijnen, Cobi; Mayor, Federico; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Murga, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 is an important mediator of inflammation and of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We recently described that docking-groove dependent interactions are important for p38 MAPK-mediated signal transduction. Thus, virtual screening was performed to identify putative docking groove-targeted p38 MAPK inhibitors. Several compounds of the benzooxadiazol family were identified with low micromolar inhibitory activity both in a p38 MAPK activity assay, and in THP-1 human monocytes acting as inhibitors of LPS-induced TNFα secretion. Positions 2 and 5 in the phenyl ring are essential for the described inhibitory activity with a chloride in position 5 and a methyl-group in position 2 yielding the best results with an IC50 of 1.8 μM (FGA-19 compound). Notably, FGA-19 exerted a potent and long-lasting analgesic effect in vivo when tested in a mouse model of inflammatory hyperalgesia. A single intrathecal injection of FGA-19 completely resolved hyperalgesia, being ten times as potent and displaying longer lasting effects than the established p38 MAPK inhibitor SB239063. FGA-19 also reversed persistent pain in a model of post-inflammatory hyperalgesia (in LysM-GRK2+/− mice). These potent in vivo effects put forward p38 MAPK docking-site targeted inhibitors as a potential novel strategy for the treatment of inflammatory pain. PMID:24517375

  17. Discovery of Cyclic Acylguanidines as Highly Potent and Selective β-Site Amyloid Cleaving Enzyme (BACE) Inhibitors: Part I-Inhibitor Design and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhaoning; Sun, Zhong-Yue; Ye, Yuanzan; Voigt, Johannes; Strickland, Corey; Smith, Elizabeth M; Cumming, Jared; Wang, Lingyan; Wong, Jesse; Wang, Yu-Sen; Wyss, Daniel F; Chen, Xia; Kuvelkar, Reshma; Kennedy, Matthew E; Favreau, Leonard; Parker, Eric; McKittrick, Brian A; Stamford, Andrew; Czarniecki, Michael; Greenlee, William; Hunter, John C

    2010-10-18

    A number of novel amidine containing heterocycles were designed to reproduce the unique interaction pattern, revealed by X-ray crystallography, between the BACE-1 catalytic diad and a weak NMR screening hit (3), with special attention paid to maintaining the appropriate basicity and limiting the number of H-bonding donors of these scaffolds. The iminohydantoin cores (10 and 23) were examined first and found to interact with the catalytic diad in one of two binding modes (A and B), each with the iminohydantoin core flipped 180º in relation to the other. The amidine structural motif within each core forms a bidentate interaction with a different aspartic acid of the catalytic diad. Both modes reproduced a highly conserved interaction pattern between the inhibitors and the catalytic aspartates, as revealed by 3. Potent iminohydantoin BACE-1 inhibitors have been obtained, validating the molecular design as aspartyl protease catalytic site inhibitors. Brain penetrant small molecule BACE inhibitors with high ligand efficiencies have been discovered, enabling multiple strategies for further development of these inhibitors into highly potent, selective and in vivo efficacious BACE inhibitors.

  18. Discovery of Cyclic Acylguanidines as Highly Potent and Selective β-Site Amyloid Cleaving Enzyme (BACE) Inhibitors: Part I–Inhibitor Design and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhaoning; Sun, Zhong-Yue; Ye, Yuanzan; Voigt, Johannes; Strickland, Corey; Smith, Elizabeth M.; Cumming, Jared; Wang, Lingyan; Wong, Jesse; Wang, Yu-Sen; Wyss, Daniel F.; Chen, Xia; Kuvelkar, Reshma; Kennedy, Matthew E.; Favreau, Leonard; Parker, Eric; McKittrick, Brian A.; Stamford, Andrew; Czarniecki, Michael; Greenlee, William; Hunter, John C.

    2013-11-20

    A number of novel amidine containing heterocycles were designed to reproduce the unique interaction pattern, revealed by X-ray crystallography, between the BACE-1 catalytic diad and a weak NMR screening hit, with special attention paid to maintaining the appropriate basicity and limiting the number of H-bonding donors of these scaffolds. The iminohydantoin cores were examined first and found to interact with the catalytic diad in one of two binding modes (A and B), each with the iminohydantoin core flipped 180° in relation to the other. The amidine structural motif within each core forms a bidentate interaction with a different aspartic acid of the catalytic diad. Both modes reproduced a highly conserved interaction pattern between the inhibitors and the catalytic aspartates. Potent iminohydantoin BACE-1 inhibitors have been obtained, validating the molecular design as aspartyl protease catalytic site inhibitors. Brain penetrant small molecule BACE inhibitors with high ligand efficiencies have been discovered, enabling multiple strategies for further development of these inhibitors into highly potent, selective and in vivo efficacious BACE inhibitors.

  19. The PETT series, a new class of potent nonnucleoside inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed Central

    Ahgren, C; Backro, K; Bell, F W; Cantrell, A S; Clemens, M; Colacino, J M; Deeter, J B; Engelhardt, J A; Hogberg, M; Jaskunas, S R

    1995-01-01

    To identify the minimal structural elements necessary for biological activity, the rigid tricyclic nucleus of the known human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor tetrahydroimidazobenzodiazepinthione was subjected to systematic bond disconnection to obtain simpler structures. A rational selection and testing of modeled analogs containing these potential pharmacophoric moieties led to the discovery of a new series of nonnucleoside inhibitors of RT. The lead compound of this new PETT series of nonnucleoside RT inhibitors, N-(2-phenylethyl)-N'-(2-thiazolyl)thiourea (LY73497), was found to inhibit HIV-1 but not HIV-2 or simian immunodeficiency virus in cell culture at micromolar concentrations. This derivative was also found to inhibit HIV-1 RT. Through an integrated effort involving synthesis and molecular modeling, compounds with nanomolar potency against HIV-1 in cell culture were developed. In these studies, LY300046-HCl was identified as a potent nonnucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 RT possessing favorable pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:7574525

  20. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of pyrazolylaminoquinazoline derivatives as highly potent pan-fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Dai, Yang; Shao, Jingwei; Peng, Xia; Wang, Chen; Cao, Sufen; Zhao, Bin; Ai, Jing; Geng, Meiyu; Duan, Wenhu

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are important oncology targets due to the dysregulation of this signaling pathway in a wide variety of human cancers. We identified a series of pyrazolylaminoquinazoline derivatives as potent FGFR inhibitors with low nanomolar potency. The representative compound 29 strongly inhibited FGFR1-3 kinase activity and suppressed FGFR signaling transduction in FGFR-addicted cancer cells; FGFRs-driven cell proliferation was also strongly inhibited regardless of mechanistic complexity implicated in FGFR activation, which further confirmed that 29 was a potent pan-FGFR inhibitor. The flexibility of our structure offered the potential to preserve good affinity for mutant FGFR, which is important for developing TKIs with long-term efficacy.

  1. Discovery of Novel 3-Quinoline Carboxamides as Potent, Selective, and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitors of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) Kinase.

    PubMed

    Degorce, Sébastien L; Barlaam, Bernard; Cadogan, Elaine; Dishington, Allan; Ducray, Richard; Glossop, Steven C; Hassall, Lorraine A; Lach, Franck; Lau, Alan; McGuire, Thomas M; Nowak, Thorsten; Ouvry, Gilles; Pike, Kurt G; Thomason, Andrew G

    2016-07-14

    A novel series of 3-quinoline carboxamides has been discovered and optimized as selective inhibitors of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. From a modestly potent HTS hit (4), we identified molecules such as 6-[6-(methoxymethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-{[(1R)-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)ethyl]amino}-3-quinolinecarboxamide (72) and 7-fluoro-6-[6-(methoxymethyl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-{[(1S)-1-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)ethyl]amino}quinoline-3-carboxamide (74) as potent and highly selective ATM inhibitors with overall ADME properties suitable for oral administration. 72 and 74 constitute excellent oral tools to probe ATM inhibition in vivo. Efficacy in combination with the DSB-inducing agent irinotecan was observed in a disease relevant model. PMID:27259031

  2. Discovery of AZD3147: a potent, selective dual inhibitor of mTORC1 and mTORC2.

    PubMed

    Pike, Kurt G; Morris, Jeff; Ruston, Linette; Pass, Sarah L; Greenwood, Ryan; Williams, Emma J; Demeritt, Julie; Culshaw, Janet D; Gill, Kristy; Pass, Martin; Finlay, M Raymond V; Good, Catherine J; Roberts, Craig A; Currie, Gordon S; Blades, Kevin; Eden, Jonathan M; Pearson, Stuart E

    2015-03-12

    High throughput screening followed by a lead generation campaign uncovered a novel series of urea containing morpholinopyrimidine compounds which act as potent and selective dual inhibitors of mTORC1 and mTORC2. We describe the continued compound optimization campaign for this series, in particular focused on identifying compounds with improved cellular potency, improved aqueous solubility, and good stability in human hepatocyte incubations. Knowledge from empirical SAR investigations was combined with an understanding of the molecular interactions in the crystal lattice to improve both cellular potency and solubility, and the composite parameters of LLE and pIC50-pSolubility were used to assess compound quality and progress. Predictive models were employed to efficiently mine the attractive chemical space identified resulting in the discovery of 42 (AZD3147), an extremely potent and selective dual inhibitor of mTORC1 and mTORC2 with physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties suitable for development as a potential clinical candidate.

  3. The potent BACE1 inhibitor LY2886721 elicits robust central Aβ pharmacodynamic responses in mice, dogs, and humans.

    PubMed

    May, Patrick C; Willis, Brian A; Lowe, Stephen L; Dean, Robert A; Monk, Scott A; Cocke, Patrick J; Audia, James E; Boggs, Leonard N; Borders, Anthony R; Brier, Richard A; Calligaro, David O; Day, Theresa A; Ereshefsky, Larry; Erickson, Jon A; Gevorkyan, Hykop; Gonzales, Celedon R; James, Douglas E; Jhee, Stanford S; Komjathy, Steven F; Li, Linglin; Lindstrom, Terry D; Mathes, Brian M; Martényi, Ferenc; Sheehan, Scott M; Stout, Stephanie L; Timm, David E; Vaught, Grant M; Watson, Brian M; Winneroski, Leonard L; Yang, Zhixiang; Mergott, Dustin J

    2015-01-21

    BACE1 is a key protease controlling the formation of amyloid β, a peptide hypothesized to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, the development of potent and selective inhibitors of BACE1 has been a focus of many drug discovery efforts in academia and industry. Herein, we report the nonclinical and early clinical development of LY2886721, a BACE1 active site inhibitor that reached phase 2 clinical trials in AD. LY2886721 has high selectivity against key off-target proteases, which efficiently translates in vitro activity into robust in vivo amyloid β lowering in nonclinical animal models. Similar potent and persistent amyloid β lowering was observed in plasma and lumbar CSF when single and multiple doses of LY2886721 were administered to healthy human subjects. Collectively, these data add support for BACE1 inhibition as an effective means of amyloid lowering and as an attractive target for potential disease modification therapy in AD. PMID:25609634

  4. The potent BACE1 inhibitor LY2886721 elicits robust central Aβ pharmacodynamic responses in mice, dogs, and humans.

    PubMed

    May, Patrick C; Willis, Brian A; Lowe, Stephen L; Dean, Robert A; Monk, Scott A; Cocke, Patrick J; Audia, James E; Boggs, Leonard N; Borders, Anthony R; Brier, Richard A; Calligaro, David O; Day, Theresa A; Ereshefsky, Larry; Erickson, Jon A; Gevorkyan, Hykop; Gonzales, Celedon R; James, Douglas E; Jhee, Stanford S; Komjathy, Steven F; Li, Linglin; Lindstrom, Terry D; Mathes, Brian M; Martényi, Ferenc; Sheehan, Scott M; Stout, Stephanie L; Timm, David E; Vaught, Grant M; Watson, Brian M; Winneroski, Leonard L; Yang, Zhixiang; Mergott, Dustin J

    2015-01-21

    BACE1 is a key protease controlling the formation of amyloid β, a peptide hypothesized to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, the development of potent and selective inhibitors of BACE1 has been a focus of many drug discovery efforts in academia and industry. Herein, we report the nonclinical and early clinical development of LY2886721, a BACE1 active site inhibitor that reached phase 2 clinical trials in AD. LY2886721 has high selectivity against key off-target proteases, which efficiently translates in vitro activity into robust in vivo amyloid β lowering in nonclinical animal models. Similar potent and persistent amyloid β lowering was observed in plasma and lumbar CSF when single and multiple doses of LY2886721 were administered to healthy human subjects. Collectively, these data add support for BACE1 inhibition as an effective means of amyloid lowering and as an attractive target for potential disease modification therapy in AD.

  5. Ani9, A Novel Potent Small-Molecule ANO1 Inhibitor with Negligible Effect on ANO2.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yohan; Lee, Ho K; Park, Jinhong; Jeon, Dong-Kyu; Jo, Sungwoo; Jo, Minjae; Namkung, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Anoctamin1 (ANO1)/transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), is involved in many physiological functions such as fluid secretion, smooth muscle contraction, nociception and cancer progression. To date, only a few ANO1 inhibitors have been described, and these have low potency and selectivity for ANO1. Here, we performed a high-throughput screening to identify highly potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of ANO1. Three novel ANO1 inhibitors were discovered from screening of 54,400 synthetic small molecules, and they were found to fully block ANO1 channel activity with an IC50 < 3 μM. Electrophysiological analysis revealed that the most potent inhibitor, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methylideneamino]-acetamide (Ani9), completely inhibited ANO1 chloride current with submicromolar potency. Notably, unlike previous small-molecule ANO1 inhibitors identified to date, Ani9 displayed high selectivity for ANO1 as compared to ANO2, which shares a high amino acid homology to ANO1. In addition, Ani9 did not affect the intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR chloride channel activity. Our results suggest that Ani9 may be a useful pharmacological tool for studying ANO1 and a potential development candidate for drug therapy of cancer, hypertension, pain, diarrhea and asthma. PMID:27219012

  6. Structure–Activity Relationship Study Reveals ML240 and ML241 as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of p97 ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Tsui-Fen; Li, Kelin; Frankowski, Kevin J; Schoenen, Frank J; Deshaies, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    To discover more potent p97 inhibitors, we carried out a structure–activity relationship study of the quinazoline scaffold previously identified from our HTS campaigns. Two improved inhibitors, ML240 and ML241, inhibit p97 ATPase with IC50 values of 100 nm. Both compounds inhibited degradation of a p97-dependent but not a p97-independent proteasome substrate in a dual-reporter cell line. They also impaired the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Unexpectedly, ML240 potently stimulated accumulation of LC3-II within minutes, inhibited cancer cell growth, and rapidly mobilized the executioner caspases 3 and 7, whereas ML241 did not. The behavior of ML240 suggests that disruption of the protein homeostasis function of p97 leads to more rapid activation of apoptosis than is observed with a proteasome inhibitor. Further characterization revealed that ML240 has broad antiproliferative activity toward the NCI-60 panel of cancer cell lines, but slightly lower activity toward normal cells. ML240 also synergizes with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 to kill multiple colon cancer cell lines. Meanwhile, both probes have low off-target activity toward a panel of protein kinases and central nervous system targets. Our results nominate ML240 as a promising starting point for the development of a novel agent for the chemotherapy of cancer, and provide a rationale for developing pathway-specific p97 inhibitors. PMID:23316025

  7. Ani9, A Novel Potent Small-Molecule ANO1 Inhibitor with Negligible Effect on ANO2

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yohan; Lee, Ho K.; Park, Jinhong; Jeon, Dong-kyu; Jo, Sungwoo; Jo, Minjae; Namkung, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Anoctamin1 (ANO1)/transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), is involved in many physiological functions such as fluid secretion, smooth muscle contraction, nociception and cancer progression. To date, only a few ANO1 inhibitors have been described, and these have low potency and selectivity for ANO1. Here, we performed a high-throughput screening to identify highly potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of ANO1. Three novel ANO1 inhibitors were discovered from screening of 54,400 synthetic small molecules, and they were found to fully block ANO1 channel activity with an IC50 < 3 μM. Electrophysiological analysis revealed that the most potent inhibitor, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methylideneamino]-acetamide (Ani9), completely inhibited ANO1 chloride current with submicromolar potency. Notably, unlike previous small-molecule ANO1 inhibitors identified to date, Ani9 displayed high selectivity for ANO1 as compared to ANO2, which shares a high amino acid homology to ANO1. In addition, Ani9 did not affect the intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR chloride channel activity. Our results suggest that Ani9 may be a useful pharmacological tool for studying ANO1 and a potential development candidate for drug therapy of cancer, hypertension, pain, diarrhea and asthma. PMID:27219012

  8. para-Substituted 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-ones as potent and selective tankyrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Haikarainen, Teemu; Koivunen, Jarkko; Narwal, Mohit; Venkannagari, Harikanth; Obaji, Ezeogo; Joensuu, Päivi; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Lehtiö, Lari

    2013-12-01

    Human tankyrases are attractive drug targets, especially for the treatment of cancer. We identified a set of highly potent tankyrase inhibitors based on a 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-one scaffold. Substitutions at the para position of the scaffold's phenyl group were evaluated as a strategy to increase potency and improve selectivity. The best compounds displayed single-digit nanomolar potencies, and profiling against several human diphtheria-toxin-like ADP-ribosyltransferases revealed that a subset of these compounds are highly selective tankyrase inhibitors. The compounds also effectively inhibit Wnt signaling in HEK293 cells. The binding mode of all inhibitors was studied by protein X-ray crystallography. This allowed us to establish a structural basis for the development of highly potent and selective tankyrase inhibitors based on the 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-one scaffold and outline a rational approach to the modification of other inhibitor scaffolds that bind to the nicotinamide site of the catalytic domain. PMID:24130191

  9. Discovery of SCH 900229, a Potent Presenilin 1 Selective γ-Secretase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Lian; Domalski, Martin; Burnett, Duane A; Josien, Hubert; Bara, Thomas; Rajagopalan, Murali; Xu, Ruo; Clader, John; Greenlee, William J; Brunskill, Andrew; Hyde, Lynn A; Del Vecchio, Robert A; Cohen-Williams, Mary E; Song, Lixin; Lee, Julie; Terracina, Giuseppe; Zhang, Qi; Nomeir, Amin; Parker, Eric M; Zhang, Lili

    2012-11-01

    An exploration of the SAR of the side chain of a novel tricyclic series of γ-secretase inhibitors led to the identification of compound (-)-16 (SCH 900229), which is a potent and PS1 selective inhibitor of γ-secretase (Aβ40 IC50 = 1.3 nM). Compound (-)-16 demonstrated excellent lowering of Aβ after oral administration in preclinical animal models and was advanced to human clinical trials for further development as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24900404

  10. 8-THP-DHI analogs as potent Type I dual TIE-2/VEGF-R2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hudkins, Robert L; Zulli, Allison L; Underiner, Ted L; Angeles, Thelma S; Aimone, Lisa D; Meyer, Sheryl L; Pauletti, Daniel; Chang, Hong; Fedorov, Elena V; Almo, Steven C; Fedorov, Alexander A; Ruggeri, Bruce A

    2010-06-01

    A novel series of 8-(2-tetrahydropyranyl)-12,13-dihydroindazolo[5,4-a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazoles (THP-DHI) was synthesized and evaluated as dual TIE-2 and VEGF-R2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Development of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) with the support of X-ray crystallography led to identification of 7f and 7g as potent, selective dual TIE-2/VEGF-R2 inhibitors with excellent cellular potency and acceptable pharmacokinetic properties. Compounds 7f and 7g were orally active in tumor models with no observed toxicity.

  11. Identification of quaternary ammonium compounds as potent inhibitors of hERG potassium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Menghang; Shahane, Sampada A.; Huang, Ruili; Titus, Steven A.; Shum, Enoch; Zhao Yong; Southall, Noel; Zheng, Wei; Witt, Kristine L.; Tice, Raymond R.; Austin, Christopher P.

    2011-05-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel, a member of a family of voltage-gated potassium (K{sup +}) channels, plays a critical role in the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. The reduction of hERG channel activity as a result of adverse drug effects or genetic mutations may cause QT interval prolongation and potentially leads to acquired long QT syndrome. Thus, screening for hERG channel activity is important in drug development. Cardiotoxicity associated with the inhibition of hERG channels by environmental chemicals is also a public health concern. To assess the inhibitory effects of environmental chemicals on hERG channel function, we screened the National Toxicology Program (NTP) collection of 1408 compounds by measuring thallium influx into cells through hERG channels. Seventeen compounds with hERG channel inhibition were identified with IC{sub 50} potencies ranging from 0.26 to 22 {mu}M. Twelve of these compounds were confirmed as hERG channel blockers in an automated whole cell patch clamp experiment. In addition, we investigated the structure-activity relationship of seven compounds belonging to the quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) series on hERG channel inhibition. Among four active QAC compounds, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide was the most potent with an IC{sub 50} value of 260 nM in the thallium influx assay and 80 nM in the patch clamp assay. The potency of this class of hERG channel inhibitors appears to depend on the number and length of their aliphatic side-chains surrounding the charged nitrogen. Profiling environmental compound libraries for hERG channel inhibition provides information useful in prioritizing these compounds for cardiotoxicity assessment in vivo.

  12. Molecular mechanism of viral resistance to a potent non-nucleoside inhibitor unveiled by molecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Asthana, Shailendra; Shukla, Saumya; Ruggerone, Paolo; Vargiu, Attilio V

    2014-11-11

    Recently, we reported on a potent benzimidazole derivative (227G) that inhibits the growth of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cell-based and enzyme assays at nanomolar concentrations. The target of 227G is the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and the I261M mutation located in motif I of the RdRp finger domain was found to induce drug resistance. Here we propose a molecular mechanism for the retained functionality of the enzyme in the presence of the inhibitor, on the basis of a thorough computational study of the apo and holo forms of the BVDV RdRp either in the wild type (wt) or in the form carrying the I261M mutation. Our study shows that although the mutation affects to some extent the structure of the apoenzyme, the functional dynamics of the protein appear to be largely maintained, which is consistent with the retained functionality of this natural mutant. Despite the binding site of 227G not collapsing or undergoing drastic structural changes upon introduction of the I261M substitution, these alterations reflect crucially on the binding mode of 227G, which is significantly different from that found in wt RdRp. In particular, while in the wt system the four loops lining the template entrance site embrace 227G and close the template passageway, in the I261M variant the template entrance is only marginally occluded, allowing in principle the translocation of the template to the interior of the enzyme. In addition, the mutated enzyme in the presence of 227G retains several characteristics of the wt apoprotein. Our work provides an original molecular picture of a resistance mechanism that is consistent with published experimental data.

  13. Scabies mite inactive serine proteases are potent inhibitors of the human complement lectin pathway.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Simone L; Pike, Robert N; Mika, Angela; Blom, Anna M; Hofmann, Andreas; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C; Kemp, Dave; Fischer, Katja

    2014-05-01

    Scabies is an infectious skin disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and has been classified as one of the six most prevalent epidermal parasitic skin diseases infecting populations living in poverty by the World Health Organisation. The role of the complement system, a pivotal component of human innate immunity, as an important defence against invading pathogens has been well documented and many parasites have an arsenal of anti-complement defences. We previously reported on a family of scabies mite proteolytically inactive serine protease paralogues (SMIPP-Ss) thought to be implicated in host defence evasion. We have since shown that two family members, SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have the ability to bind the human complement components C1q, mannose binding lectin (MBL) and properdin and are capable of inhibiting all three human complement pathways. This investigation focused on inhibition of the lectin pathway of complement activation as it is likely to be the primary pathway affecting scabies mites. Activation of the lectin pathway relies on the activation of MBL, and as SMIPP-S D1 and I1 have previously been shown to bind MBL, the nature of this interaction was examined using binding and mutagenesis studies. SMIPP-S D1 bound MBL in complex with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs) and released the MASP-2 enzyme from the complex. SMIPP-S I1 was also able to bind MBL in complex with MASPs, but MASP-1 and MASP-2 remained in the complex. Despite these differences in mechanism, both molecules inhibited activation of complement components downstream of MBL. Mutagenesis studies revealed that both SMIPP-Ss used an alternative site of the molecule from the residual active site region to inhibit the lectin pathway. We propose that SMIPP-Ss are potent lectin pathway inhibitors and that this mechanism represents an important tool in the immune evasion repertoire of the parasitic mite and a potential target for therapeutics. PMID:24854034

  14. Discovery of Aryl Aminoquinazoline Pyridones as Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious Inhibitors of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase c-Kit

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Essa; Tasker, Andrew; White, Ryan D.; Kunz, Roxanne K.; Human, Jason; Chen, Ning; Bürli, Roland; Hungate, Randall; Novak, Perry; Itano, Andrea; Zhang, Xuxia; Yu, Violeta; Nguyen, Yen; Tudor, Yanyan; Plant, Matthew; Flynn, Shaun; Xu, Yang; Meagher, Kristin L.; Whittington, Douglas A.; Ng, Gordon Y.

    2008-12-09

    Inhibition of c-Kit has the potential to treat mast cell associated fibrotic diseases. We report the discovery of several aminoquinazoline pyridones that are potent inhibitors of c-Kit with greater than 200-fold selectivity against KDR, p38, Lck, and Src. In vivo efficacy of pyridone 16 by dose-dependent inhibition of histamine release was demonstrated in a rodent pharmacodynamic model of mast cell activation.

  15. From triclosan toward the clinic: discovery of nonbiocidal, potent FabI inhibitors for the treatment of resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gerusz, Vincent; Denis, Alexis; Faivre, Fabien; Bonvin, Yannick; Oxoby, Mayalen; Briet, Sophia; LeFralliec, Géraldine; Oliveira, Chrystelle; Desroy, Nicolas; Raymond, Cédric; Peltier, Laëtitia; Moreau, François; Escaich, Sonia; Vongsouthi, Vanida; Floquet, Stéphanie; Drocourt, Elodie; Walton, Armelle; Prouvensier, Laure; Saccomani, Marc; Durant, Lionel; Genevard, Jean-Marie; Sam-Sambo, Vanessa; Soulama-Mouze, Coralie

    2012-11-26

    In this paper, we present some elements of our optimization program to decouple triclosan's specific FabI effect from its nonspecific cytotoxic component. The implementation of this strategy delivered highly specific, potent, and nonbiocidal new FabI inhibitors. We also disclose some preclinical data of one of their representatives, 83, a novel antibacterial compound active against resistant staphylococci and some clinically relevant Gram negative bacteria that is currently undergoing clinical trials.

  16. Modification of marine natural product ningalin B and SAR study lead to potent P-glycoprotein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Wong, Iris L K; Jin, Wen Bin; Jiang, Tao; Chow, Larry M C; Wan, Sheng Biao

    2014-10-01

    In this study, new marine ningalin B analogues containing a piperazine or a benzoloxy group at ring C have been synthesized and evaluated on their P-gp modulating activity in human breast cancer and leukemia cell lines. Their structure-activity relationship was preliminarily studied. Compounds 19 and 20 are potent P-gp inhibitors. These two synthetic analogues of permethyl ningalin B may be potentially used as effective modulators of P-gp-mediated drug resistance in cancer cells. PMID:25329704

  17. Total synthesis of (29S,37S)-isomer of malevamide E, a potent ion-channel inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Gajula, Praveen Kumar; Sharma, Shrikant; Ampapathi, Ravi Sankar; Chakraborty, Tushar Kanti

    2013-01-14

    The first total synthesis of (29S,37S)-malevamide E (1), a potent ion channel inhibitor, has been achieved in a convergent fashion involving Julia-Kocienski olefination, Urpi acetal aldol and Shiina macrolactonization reactions as the key steps. The strategy developed herein is amenable for the synthesis of the other possible isomers in search for the correct stereoisomer of the naturally occurring molecule.

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of novel azetidine analogs as potent inhibitors of vesicular [3H]dopamine uptake

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Derong; Nickell, Justin R.; Deaciuc, Agripina G.; Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Crooks, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Lobelane analogs that incorporate a central piperidine or pyrrolidine moiety have previously been reported by our group as potent inhibitors of VMAT2 function. Further central ring size reduction of the piperidine moiety in lobelane to a four-membered heterocyclic ring has been carried out in the current study to afford novel cis- and trans-azetidine analogs. These azetidine analogs (15a–15c and 22a–22c) potently inhibited [3H]dopamine (DA) uptake into isolated synaptic vesicles (Ki≤66 nM). The cis-4-methoxy analog 22b was the most potent inhibitor (Ki=24 nM), and was 2-fold more potent that either lobelane (2a, Ki=45 nM) or norlobelane (2b, Ki=43 nM). The trans-methylenedioxy analog, 15c (Ki=31 nM), was equipotent with the cis-analog, 22b, in this assay. Thus, cis- and trans-azetidine analogs 22b and 15c represent potential leads in the discovery of new clinical candidates for the treatment of methamphetamine abuse. PMID:23993667

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of novel azetidine analogs as potent inhibitors of vesicular [3H]dopamine uptake.

    PubMed

    Ding, Derong; Nickell, Justin R; Deaciuc, Agripina G; Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2013-11-01

    Lobelane analogs that incorporate a central piperidine or pyrrolidine moiety have previously been reported by our group as potent inhibitors of VMAT2 function. Further central ring size reduction of the piperidine moiety in lobelane to a four-membered heterocyclic ring has been carried out in the current study to afford novel cis-and trans-azetidine analogs. These azetidine analogs (15a-15c and 22a-22c) potently inhibited [(3)H]dopamine (DA) uptake into isolated synaptic vesicles (Ki⩽66nM). The cis-4-methoxy analog 22b was the most potent inhibitor (Ki=24nM), and was twofold more potent that either lobelane (2a, Ki=45nM) or norlobelane (2b, Ki=43nM). The trans-methylenedioxy analog, 15c (Ki=31nM), was equipotent with the cis-analog, 22b, in this assay. Thus, cis- and trans-azetidine analogs 22b and 15c represent potential leads in the discovery of new clinical candidates for the treatment of methamphetamine abuse.

  20. Aza-peptidyl Michael acceptor and epoxide inhibitors--potent and selective inhibitors of Schistosoma mansoni and Ixodes ricinus legumains (asparaginyl endopeptidases).

    PubMed

    Ovat, Asli; Muindi, Fanuel; Fagan, Crystal; Brouner, Michelle; Hansell, Elizabeth; Dvorák, Jan; Sojka, Daniel; Kopácek, Petr; McKerrow, James H; Caffrey, Conor R; Powers, James C

    2009-11-26

    Aza-peptide Michael acceptors and epoxides with the general structure of YCO-Ala-Ala-AAsn-trans-CH horizontal lineCHCOR and YCO-Ala-Ala-AAsn-EP-COR, respectively, are shown to be potent inhibitors of asparaginyl endopeptidases (legumains) from the bloodfluke, Schistosoma mansoni (SmAE), and the hard tick, Ixodes ricinus (IrAE). Structure-activity relationships (SARs) were determined for a set of 41 aza-peptide Michael acceptors and eight aza-peptide epoxides. Both enzymes prefer disubstituted amides to monosubstituted amides in the P1' position, and potency increased as we increased the hydrophobicity of the inhibitor in this position. Extending the inhibitor to P5 resulted in increased potency, especially against IrAE, and both enzymes prefer small over large hydrophobic residues at P2. Aza-peptide Michael acceptor inhibitors are more potent than aza-peptide epoxide inhibitors, and for some of these compounds, second-order inhibiton rate constants are the fastest yet discovered. Given the central functions of these enzymes in both parasites, the data presented here may facilitate the eventual design of selective antiparasitic drugs.

  1. Propargyl-Linked Antifolates Are Potent Inhibitors of Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hajian, Behnoush; Keshipeddy, Santosh; Shoen, Carolyn; Krucinska, Jolanta; Cynamon, Michael; Anderson, Amy C.; Wright, Dennis L.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to cause widespread, life-threatening disease. In the last decade, this threat has grown dramatically as multi- and extensively-drug resistant (MDR and XDR) bacteria have spread globally and the number of agents that effectively treat these infections is significantly reduced. We have been developing the propargyl-linked antifolates (PLAs) as potent inhibitors of the essential enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from bacteria and recently found that charged PLAs with partial zwitterionic character showed improved mycobacterial cell permeability. Building on a hypothesis that these PLAs may penetrate the outer membrane of M. tuberculosis and inhibit the essential cytoplasmic DHFR, we screened a group of PLAs for antitubercular activity. In this work, we identified several PLAs as potent inhibitors of the growth of M. tuberculosis with several of the compounds exhibiting minimum inhibition concentrations equal to or less than 1 μg/mL. Furthermore, two of the compounds were very potent inhibitors of MDR and XDR strains. A high resolution crystal structure of one PLA bound to DHFR from M. tuberculosis reveals the interactions of the ligands with the target enzyme. PMID:27580226

  2. Propargyl-Linked Antifolates Are Potent Inhibitors of Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hajian, Behnoush; Scocchera, Eric; Keshipeddy, Santosh; G-Dayanandan, Narendran; Shoen, Carolyn; Krucinska, Jolanta; Reeve, Stephanie; Cynamon, Michael; Anderson, Amy C; Wright, Dennis L

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to cause widespread, life-threatening disease. In the last decade, this threat has grown dramatically as multi- and extensively-drug resistant (MDR and XDR) bacteria have spread globally and the number of agents that effectively treat these infections is significantly reduced. We have been developing the propargyl-linked antifolates (PLAs) as potent inhibitors of the essential enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from bacteria and recently found that charged PLAs with partial zwitterionic character showed improved mycobacterial cell permeability. Building on a hypothesis that these PLAs may penetrate the outer membrane of M. tuberculosis and inhibit the essential cytoplasmic DHFR, we screened a group of PLAs for antitubercular activity. In this work, we identified several PLAs as potent inhibitors of the growth of M. tuberculosis with several of the compounds exhibiting minimum inhibition concentrations equal to or less than 1 μg/mL. Furthermore, two of the compounds were very potent inhibitors of MDR and XDR strains. A high resolution crystal structure of one PLA bound to DHFR from M. tuberculosis reveals the interactions of the ligands with the target enzyme. PMID:27580226

  3. TMC647055, a Potent Nonnucleoside Hepatitis C Virus NS5B Polymerase Inhibitor with Cross-Genotypic Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Devogelaere, Benoit; Berke, Jan Martin; Vijgen, Leen; Dehertogh, Pascale; Fransen, Els; Cleiren, Erna; van der Helm, Liesbet; Nyanguile, Origène; Tahri, Abdellah; Amssoms, Katie; Lenz, Oliver; Cummings, Maxwell D.; Clayton, Reginald F.; Vendeville, Sandrine; Raboisson, Pierre; Simmen, Kenneth A.; Fanning, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global health burden and is associated with an increased risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There remains an unmet medical need for efficacious and safe direct antivirals with complementary modes of action for combination in treatment regimens to deliver a high cure rate with a short duration of treatment for HCV patients. Here we report the in vitro inhibitory activity, mode of action, binding kinetics, and resistance profile of TMC647055, a novel and potent nonnucleoside inhibitor of the HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In vitro combination studies with an HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor demonstrated potent suppression of HCV RNA replication, confirming the potential for combination of these two classes in the treatment of chronic HCV infection. TMC647055 is a potent nonnucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitor of HCV replication with a promising in vitro biochemical, kinetic, and virological profile that is currently undergoing clinical evaluation. PMID:22710121

  4. TMC647055, a potent nonnucleoside hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase inhibitor with cross-genotypic coverage.

    PubMed

    Devogelaere, Benoit; Berke, Jan Martin; Vijgen, Leen; Dehertogh, Pascale; Fransen, Els; Cleiren, Erna; van der Helm, Liesbet; Nyanguile, Origène; Tahri, Abdellah; Amssoms, Katie; Lenz, Oliver; Cummings, Maxwell D; Clayton, Reginald F; Vendeville, Sandrine; Raboisson, Pierre; Simmen, Kenneth A; Fanning, Gregory C; Lin, Tse-I

    2012-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global health burden and is associated with an increased risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There remains an unmet medical need for efficacious and safe direct antivirals with complementary modes of action for combination in treatment regimens to deliver a high cure rate with a short duration of treatment for HCV patients. Here we report the in vitro inhibitory activity, mode of action, binding kinetics, and resistance profile of TMC647055, a novel and potent nonnucleoside inhibitor of the HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In vitro combination studies with an HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor demonstrated potent suppression of HCV RNA replication, confirming the potential for combination of these two classes in the treatment of chronic HCV infection. TMC647055 is a potent nonnucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitor of HCV replication with a promising in vitro biochemical, kinetic, and virological profile that is currently undergoing clinical evaluation.

  5. Jak2 inhibitor--a jackpot for pharmaceutical industries: a comprehensive computational method in the discovery of new potent Jak2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kh Dhanachandra; Naveena, Queen; Karthikeyan, Muthusamy

    2014-08-01

    A potent Jak2 inhibitor could solve numerous diseases including hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, myeloproliferative neoplasms, polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, primary myelofibrosis, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. So, identifying potent Jak2 inhibitors is of great interest to researchers and pharmaceutical companies. Virtual screening and molecular docking are important tools for structure based drug discovery but selecting an appropriate method to calculate the electrostatic potential is critical. In this study, four semi empirical (AM1, RM1, PM3, and MNDO) and two empirical (DFT, HF) charges were investigated for their performance on the prediction of docking pose using Glide XP. The result shows that AM1 has the best charge model for our study. Further, we performed a 3D-quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) study of 76 decaene derivatives. Since 3D-QSAR methods are known to be highly sensitive to ligand conformation and alignment method, we did a comparative 3D-QSAR study of AM1 charge docked pose alignment based QSAR (structure based) and pharmacophore based QSAR. We found a better QSAR model in the structure based method. Hence, the results clearly demonstrate that selecting an appropriate method to calculate the electrostatic potential for docking studies and a good alignment of the ligand for 3D-QSAR is critical. Finally, extensive pharmacophore and e-pharmacophore based virtual screening followed by subsequent docking studies identified 27 lead molecules which could be potent Jak2 inhibitors.

  6. Pharmacological Characterization of a Potent Inhibitor of Autotaxin in Animal Models of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Thirunavukkarasu, Kannan; Tan, Bailin; Swearingen, Craig A; Rocha, Guilherme; Bui, Hai H; McCann, Denis J; Jones, Spencer B; Norman, Bryan H; Pfeifer, Lance A; Saha, Joy K

    2016-10-01

    Autotaxin is a secreted enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of lysophosphatidyl choline into the bioactive lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). It is the primary enzyme responsible for LPA production in plasma. It is upregulated in inflammatory conditions and inhibition of autotaxin may have anti-inflammatory activity in a variety of inflammatory diseases. To determine the role of autotaxin and LPA in the pathophysiology of inflammatory disease states, we used a potent and orally bioavailable inhibitor of autotaxin that we have recently identified, and characterized it in mouse models of inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and visceral pain. Compound-1, a potent inhibitor of autotaxin with an IC50 of ∼2 nM, has good oral pharmacokinetic properties in mice and results in a substantial inhibition of plasma LPA that correlates with drug exposure levels. Treatment with the inhibitor resulted in significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in the carrageenan-induced paw inflammation and acetic acid-induced visceral pain tests, respectively. Compound-1 also significantly inhibited disease activity score in the dextran sodium sulfate-induced model of IBD, and in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of MS. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of a novel inhibitor of autotaxin that may serve as a therapeutic option for IBD, MS, and pain associated with inflammatory states.

  7. Structure-Based Approach to the Development of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Dihydrofolate Reductase from Cryptosporidium

    PubMed Central

    Bolstad, David B.; Bolstad, Erin S. D.; Frey, Kathleen M.; Wright, Dennis L.; Anderson, Amy C.

    2008-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is an emerging infectious disease that can be life-threatening in an immune-compromised individual and causes gastrointestinal distress lasting up to 2 weeks in an immune-competent individual. There are few therapeutics available for effectively treating this disease. We have been exploring dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) as a potential target in Cryptosporidium. On the basis of the structure of the DHFR enzyme from C. hominis, we have developed a novel scaffold that led to the discovery of potent (38 nM) and efficient inhibitors of this enzyme. Recently, we have advanced these inhibitors to the next stage of development. Using the structures of both the protozoal and human enzymes, we have developed inhibitors with nanomolar potency (1.1 nM) against the pathogenic enzyme and high levels (1273-fold) of selectivity over the human enzyme. PMID:18834108

  8. Development and characterization of novel potent and stable inhibitors of endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15.

    PubMed Central

    Shrimpton, C N; Abbenante, G; Lew, R A; Smith, I

    2000-01-01

    Solid-phase synthesis was used to prepare a series of modifications to the selective and potent inhibitor of endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15 (EP24.15), N-[1(R, S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-Ala-Tyr-p-aminobenzoate (cFP), which is degraded at the Ala-Tyr bond, thus severely limiting its utility in vivo. Reducing the amide bond between the Ala and Tyr decreased the potency of the inhibitor to 1/1000. However, the replacement of the second alanine residue immediately adjacent to the tyrosine with alpha-aminoisobutyric acid gave a compound (JA-2) that was equipotent with cFP, with a K(i) of 23 nM. Like cFP, JA-2 inhibited the closely related endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.16 1/20 to 1/30 as potently as it did EP24.15, and did not inhibit the other thermolysin-like endopeptidases angiotensin-converting enzyme, endothelin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase. The biological stability of JA-2 was investigated by incubation with a number of membrane and soluble sheep tissue extracts. In contrast with cFP, JA-2 remained intact after 48 h of incubation with all tissues examined. Further modifications to the JA-2 compound failed to improve the potency of this inhibitor. Hence JA-2 is a potent, EP24.15-preferential and biologically stable inhibitor, therefore providing a valuable tool for further assessing the biological functions of EP24.15. PMID:10620512

  9. Development of potent ALK inhibitor and its molecular inhibitory mechanism against NSCLC harboring EML4-ALK proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Chung Hyo; Yun, Jeong In; Lee, Kwangho; Lee, Chong Ock; Lee, Heung Kyoung; Yun, Chang-Soo; Hwang, Jong Yeon; Cho, Sung Yun; Jung, Heejung; Kim, Pilho; Ha, Jae Du; Jeon, Jeong Hee; Choi, Sang Un; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Kim, Hyoung Rae; Park, Chi Hoon

    2015-08-28

    Here, we show the newly synthesized and potent ALK inhibitor having similar scaffold to KRCA-0008, which was reported previously, and its molecular mechanism against cancer cells harboring EML4-ALK fusion protein. Through ALK wild type enzyme assay, we selected two compounds, KRCA-0080 and KRCA-0087, which have trifluoromethyl instead of chloride in R2 position. We characterized these newly synthesized compounds by in vitro and in vivo assays. Enzyme assay shows that KRCA-0080 is more potent against various ALK mutants, including L1196M, G1202R, T1151-L1152insT, and C1156Y, which are seen in crizotinib-resistant patients, than KRCA-0008 is. Cell based assays demonstrate our compounds downregulate the cellular signaling, such as Akt and Erk, by suppressing ALK activity to inhibit the proliferation of the cells harboring EML4-ALK. Interestingly, our compounds induced strong G1/S arrest in H3122 cells leading to the apoptosis, which is proved by PARP-1 cleavage. In vivo H3122 xenograft assay, we found that KRCA-0080 shows significant reduction in tumor size compared to crizotinib and KRCA-0008 by 15–20%. Conclusively, we report a potent ALK inhibitor which shows significant in vivo efficacy as well as excellent inhibitory activity against various ALK mutants. - Highlights: • We synthesized KRCA-0008 derivatives having trifluoromethyl instead of chloride. • KRCA-0080 shows superior activity against several ALK mutants to KRCA-0008. • Cellular assays show our ALK inhibitors suppress only EML4-ALK positive cells. • Our ALK inhibitors induce G1/S arrest to lead apoptosis in H3122 cells. • KRCA-0080 has superior in vivo efficacy to crizotinib and KRCA-0008 by 15–20%.

  10. Identification of a Potent Inhibitor of CREB-Mediated Gene Transcription with Efficacious in Vivo Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that nuclear transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) is overexpressed in many different types of cancers. Therefore, CREB has been pursued as a novel cancer therapeutic target. Naphthol AS-E and its closely related derivatives have been shown to inhibit CREB-mediated gene transcription and cancer cell growth. Previously, we identified naphthamide 3a as a different chemotype to inhibit CREB’s transcription activity. In a continuing effort to discover more potent CREB inhibitors, a series of structural congeners of 3a was designed and synthesized. Biological evaluations of these compounds uncovered compound 3i (666-15) as a potent and selective inhibitor of CREB-mediated gene transcription (IC50 = 0.081 ± 0.04 μM). 666-15 also potently inhibited cancer cell growth without harming normal cells. In an in vivo MDA-MB-468 xenograft model, 666-15 completely suppressed the tumor growth without overt toxicity. These results further support the potential of CREB as a valuable cancer drug target. PMID:26023867

  11. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of pyripyropene A derivatives as potent and selective acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) inhibitors: part 1.

    PubMed

    Ohtawa, Masaki; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Ohte, Satoshi; Matsuda, Daisuke; Ohshiro, Taichi; Rudel, Lawrence L; Omura, Satoshi; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Nagamitsu, Tohru

    2013-03-01

    In an effort to develop potent and selective inhibitors toward ACAT2, structure-activity relationship studies were carried out using derivatives based on pyripyropene A (PPPA, 1). We have successfully developed novel PPPA derivatives with a 7-O-substituted benzoyl substituent that significantly exhibit more potent ACAT2 inhibitory activity and higher ACAT2 isozyme selectivity than 1. PMID:23369538

  12. Endowing indole-based tubulin inhibitors with an anchor for derivatization: highly potent 3-substituted indolephenstatins and indoleisocombretastatins.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Raquel; Puebla, Pilar; Díaz, J Fernando; Bento, Ana C; García-Navas, Rósula; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Mollinedo, Faustino; Andreu, José Manuel; Medarde, Manuel; Peláez, Rafael

    2013-04-11

    Colchicine site ligands with indole B rings are potent tubulin polymerization inhibitors. Structural modifications at the indole 3-position of 1-methyl-5-indolyl-based isocombretastatins (1,1-diarylethenes) and phenstatins endowed them with anchors for further derivatization and resulted in highly potent compounds. The substituted derivatives displayed potent cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines due to tubulin inhibition, as shown by cell cycle analysis, confocal microscopy, and tubulin polymerization inhibitory activity studies and promoted cell killing mediated by caspase-3 activation. Binding at the colchicine site was confirmed by means of fluorescence measurements of MTC displacement. Molecular modeling suggests that the tropolone-binding region of the colchicine site of tubulin can adapt to hosting small polar substituents. Isocombretastatins accepted substitutions better than phenstatins, and the highest potencies were achieved for the cyano and hydroxyiminomethyl substituents, with TPI values in the submicromolar range and cytotoxicities in the subnanomolar range. A 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ring usually afforded more potent derivatives than a 2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl ring.

  13. Development of potent autophagy inhibitors that sensitize oncogenic BRAF V600E mutant melanoma tumor cells to vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Goodall, Megan L; Wang, Tong; Martin, Katie R; Kortus, Matthew G; Kauffman, Audra L; Trent, Jeffrey M; Gately, Stephen; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P

    2014-06-01

    Autophagy is a dynamic cell survival mechanism by which a double-membrane vesicle, or autophagosome, sequesters portions of the cytosol for delivery to the lysosome for recycling. This process can be inhibited using the antimalarial agent chloroquine (CQ), which impairs lysosomal function and prevents autophagosome turnover. Despite its activity, CQ is a relatively inadequate inhibitor that requires high concentrations to disrupt autophagy, highlighting the need for improved small molecules. To address this, we screened a panel of antimalarial agents for autophagy inhibition and chemically synthesized a novel series of acridine and tetrahydroacridine derivatives. Structure-activity relationship studies of the acridine ring led to the discovery of VATG-027 as a potent autophagy inhibitor with a high cytotoxicity profile. In contrast, the tetrahydroacridine VATG-032 showed remarkably little cytotoxicity while still maintaining autophagy inhibition activity, suggesting that both compounds act as autophagy inhibitors with differential effects on cell viability. Further, knockdown of autophagy-related genes showed no effect on cell viability, demonstrating that the ability to inhibit autophagy is separate from the compound cytotoxicity profiles. Next, we determined that both inhibitors function through lysosomal deacidification mechanisms and ultimately disrupt autophagosome turnover. To evaluate the genetic context in which these lysosomotropic inhibitors may be effective, they were tested in patient-derived melanoma cell lines driven by oncogenic BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B). We discovered that both inhibitors sensitized melanoma cells to the BRAF V600E inhibitor vemurafenib. Overall, these autophagy inhibitors provide a means to effectively block autophagy and have the potential to sensitize mutant BRAF melanomas to first-line therapies.

  14. Development of potent autophagy inhibitors that sensitize oncogenic BRAF V600E mutant melanoma tumor cells to vemurafenib

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Megan L; Wang, Tong; Martin, Katie R; Kortus, Matthew G; Kauffman, Audra L; Trent, Jeffrey M; Gately, Stephen; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a dynamic cell survival mechanism by which a double-membrane vesicle, or autophagosome, sequesters portions of the cytosol for delivery to the lysosome for recycling. This process can be inhibited using the antimalarial agent chloroquine (CQ), which impairs lysosomal function and prevents autophagosome turnover. Despite its activity, CQ is a relatively inadequate inhibitor that requires high concentrations to disrupt autophagy, highlighting the need for improved small molecules. To address this, we screened a panel of antimalarial agents for autophagy inhibition and chemically synthesized a novel series of acridine and tetrahydroacridine derivatives. Structure-activity relationship studies of the acridine ring led to the discovery of VATG-027 as a potent autophagy inhibitor with a high cytotoxicity profile. In contrast, the tetrahydroacridine VATG-032 showed remarkably little cytotoxicity while still maintaining autophagy inhibition activity, suggesting that both compounds act as autophagy inhibitors with differential effects on cell viability. Further, knockdown of autophagy-related genes showed no effect on cell viability, demonstrating that the ability to inhibit autophagy is separate from the compound cytotoxicity profiles. Next, we determined that both inhibitors function through lysosomal deacidification mechanisms and ultimately disrupt autophagosome turnover. To evaluate the genetic context in which these lysosomotropic inhibitors may be effective, they were tested in patient-derived melanoma cell lines driven by oncogenic BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B). We discovered that both inhibitors sensitized melanoma cells to the BRAF V600E inhibitor vemurafenib. Overall, these autophagy inhibitors provide a means to effectively block autophagy and have the potential to sensitize mutant BRAF melanomas to first-line therapies. PMID:24879157

  15. Structure-guided discovery of potent and dual-acting human parainfluenza virus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Patrice; Dirr, Larissa; El-Deeb, Ibrahim M; Winger, Moritz; Bailly, Benjamin; Haselhorst, Thomas; Dyason, Jeffrey C; von Itzstein, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs) cause upper and lower respiratory tract disease in children that results in a significant number of hospitalizations and impacts health systems worldwide. To date, neither antiviral drugs nor vaccines are approved for clinical use against parainfluenza virus, which reinforces the urgent need for new therapeutic discovery strategies. Here we use a multidisciplinary approach to develop potent inhibitors that target a structural feature within the hPIV type 3 haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hPIV-3 HN). These dual-acting designer inhibitors represent the most potent designer compounds and efficiently block both hPIV cell entry and virion progeny release. We also define the binding mode of these inhibitors in the presence of whole-inactivated hPIV and recombinantly expressed hPIV-3 HN by Saturation Transfer Difference NMR spectroscopy. Collectively, our study provides an antiviral preclinical candidate and a new direction towards the discovery of potential anti-parainfluenza drugs. PMID:25327774

  16. Bafilolides, potent inhibitors of the motility and development of the free-living stages of parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lacey, E; Gill, J H; Power, M L; Rickards, R W; O'Shea, M G; Rothschild, J M

    1995-03-01

    Three Streptomyces isolates were identified as producing macrolide antibiotics of the bafilomycin or leucanicidin types during an evaluation of Australian actinomyces for the production of inhibitors of larval development in the parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus. Bafilomycins A1, B1, C1, and D were obtained from culture A239 and the 2-O-methyl-L-rhamnosyl derivative of bafilomycin A1, leucanicidin, from cultures A223 and A240. All these 'bafilolides' gave similar patterns of inhibition typified by an initial paralysis of newly hatched L1 larvae and a lethal toxicity within 24 h. LD50 values for inhibition of larval development of McMaster H. contortus ranged from 0.23 micrograms ml-1 for leucanicidin to 2.5 micrograms ml-1 for bafilomycin D. The bafilolides had broad spectrum nematocidal activity, being equi-potent as inhibitors of H. contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Ostertagia circumcincta larval development. Further, all bafilolides caused some inhibition of H. contortus L3 motility, with the semi-synthetic analogue, bafilomycin B2, the most potent inhibitor (LP50 against McMaster H. contortus 1.9 microgram ml-1). Nematode strains resistant to the known benzimidazole, levamisole and avermectin anthelmintics showed no cross resistance to the bafilolides, supporting the hypothesis that the bafilolides act by an independent mechanism.

  17. Inhibition of thrombin-mediated cellular effects by triabin, a highly potent anion-binding exosite thrombin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Glusa, E; Bretschneider, E; Daum, J; Noeske-Jungblut, C

    1997-06-01

    Triabin, a 17 kDa protein from the saliva of the assassin bug Triatoma pallidipennis is a potent thrombin inhibitor interfering with the anion-binding exosite of the enzyme. The recombinant protein, produced by the baculovirus/insect cell system, was used to study the inhibitory effect on thrombin-mediated cellular responses. The thrombin (1 nM)-stimulated aggregation of washed human platelets and the rise in cytoplasmic calcium in platelets were inhibited by triabin at nanomolar concentrations. In contrast, the rise in calcium induced by the thrombin receptor-activating peptide (10 microM) was not suppressed by triabin. In isolated porcine pulmonary arteries, preconstricted with PGF 2 alpha thrombin (2 nM) elicited an endothelium-dependent relaxation which was inhibited by triabin in the same concentration range as found for the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Higher concentrations of triabin were required to diminish the contractile response of endotheliumdenuded pulmonary vessels to thrombin (10 nM). In cultured bovine coronary smooth muscle cells, the mitogenic activity of thrombin (3 nM), measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation, was also suppressed by triabin. In all these assays, the inhibitory effect of triabin was dependent on the thrombin concentration used. These studies suggest that the new anion-binding exosite thrombin inhibitor triabin is one of the most potent inhibitors of thrombin-mediated cellular effects. PMID:9241757

  18. Toward Highly Potent Cancer Agents by Modulating the C-2 Group of the Arylthioindole Class of Tubulin Polymerization Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Di Cesare, Erica; Coluccia, Antonio; Piscitelli, Francesco; Famiglini, Valeria; Reggio, Alessia; Nalli, Marianna; Pelliccia, Sveva; Pozzo, Eleonora Da; Costa, Barbara; Granata, Ilaria; Porta, Amalia; Maresca, Bruno; Soriani, Alessandra; Iannitto, Maria Luisa; Santoni, Angela; Li, Junjie; Cona, Marlein Miranda; Chen, Feng; Ni, Yicheng; Brancale, Andrea; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Martini, Claudia; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Novellino, Ettore; Silvestri, Romano

    2013-01-01

    New arylthioindole derivatives having different cyclic substituents at position 2 of the indole were synthesized as anticancer agents. Several compounds inhibited tubulin polymerization at submicromolar concentration and inhibited cell growth at low nanomolar concentrations. Compounds 18 and 57 were superior to the previously synthesized 5. Compound 18 was exceptionally potent as an inhibitor of cell growth: it showed IC50 = 1.0 nM in MCF-7 cells, and it was uniformly active in the whole panel of cancer cells and superior to colchicine and combretastatin A-4. Compounds 18, 20, 55, and 57 were notably more potent than vinorelbine, vinblastine, and paclitaxel in the NCI/ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5 cell lines, which overexpress P-glycoprotein. Compounds 18 and 57 showed initial vascular disrupting effects in a tumor model of liver rhabdomyosarcomas at 15 mg/kg intravenous dosage. Derivative 18 showed water solubility and higher metabolic stability than 5 in human liver microsomes. PMID:23214452

  19. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Diarylpyridines and Diarylanilines as Potent Non-nucleoside HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xingtao; Qin, Bingjie; Wu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Hong; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Chen, Chin Ho; Jiang, Shibo; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Xie, Lan

    2010-01-01

    Based on the structures and activities of our previously identified non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), we designed and synthesized two sets of derivatives, diarylpyridines (A) and diarylanilines (B), and tested their anti-HIV-1 activity against infection by HIV-1 NL4-3 and IIIB in TZM-bl and MT-2 cells, respectively. The results showed that most compounds exhibited potent anti-HIV-1 activity with low nanomolar EC50 values, and some of them, such as 13m, 14c, and 14e, displayed high potency with subnanomolar EC50 values, which were more potent than etravirine (TMC125, 1) in the same assays. Notably, these compounds were also highly effective against infection by multi-RTI-resistant strains, suggesting a high potential to further develop these compounds as a novel class of NNRTIs with improved antiviral efficacy and resistance profile. PMID:21049929

  20. Discovery of Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine TTK Inhibitors: CFI-402257 is a Potent, Selective, Bioavailable Anticancer Agent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Laufer, Radoslaw; Patel, Narendra Kumar; Ng, Grace; Sampson, Peter B; Li, Sze-Wan; Lang, Yunhui; Feher, Miklos; Brokx, Richard; Beletskaya, Irina; Hodgson, Richard; Plotnikova, Olga; Awrey, Donald E; Qiu, Wei; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y; Mason, Jacqueline M; Wei, Xin; Lin, Dan Chi-Chia; Che, Yi; Kiarash, Reza; Fletcher, Graham C; Mak, Tak W; Bray, Mark R; Pauls, Henry W

    2016-07-14

    This work describes a scaffold hopping exercise that begins with known imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines, briefly explores pyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazines, and ultimately yields pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines as a novel class of potent TTK inhibitors. An X-ray structure of a representative compound is consistent with 1(1)/2 type inhibition and provides structural insight to aid subsequent optimization of in vitro activity and physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Incorporation of polar moieties in the hydrophobic and solvent accessible regions modulates physicochemical properties while maintaining potency. Compounds with enhanced oral exposure were identified for xenograft studies. The work culminates in the identification of a potent (TTK K i = 0.1 nM), highly selective, orally bioavailable anticancer agent (CFI-402257) for IND enabling studies.

  1. Discovery of Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine TTK Inhibitors: CFI-402257 is a Potent, Selective, Bioavailable Anticancer Agent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Laufer, Radoslaw; Patel, Narendra Kumar; Ng, Grace; Sampson, Peter B; Li, Sze-Wan; Lang, Yunhui; Feher, Miklos; Brokx, Richard; Beletskaya, Irina; Hodgson, Richard; Plotnikova, Olga; Awrey, Donald E; Qiu, Wei; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y; Mason, Jacqueline M; Wei, Xin; Lin, Dan Chi-Chia; Che, Yi; Kiarash, Reza; Fletcher, Graham C; Mak, Tak W; Bray, Mark R; Pauls, Henry W

    2016-07-14

    This work describes a scaffold hopping exercise that begins with known imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazines, briefly explores pyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazines, and ultimately yields pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines as a novel class of potent TTK inhibitors. An X-ray structure of a representative compound is consistent with 1(1)/2 type inhibition and provides structural insight to aid subsequent optimization of in vitro activity and physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Incorporation of polar moieties in the hydrophobic and solvent accessible regions modulates physicochemical properties while maintaining potency. Compounds with enhanced oral exposure were identified for xenograft studies. The work culminates in the identification of a potent (TTK K i = 0.1 nM), highly selective, orally bioavailable anticancer agent (CFI-402257) for IND enabling studies. PMID:27437075

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel benzyl-substituted (S)-phenylalanine derivatives as potent dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Si, Meimei; Tang, Li; Shangguan, Shihao; Wu, Haoshu; Li, Jia; Wu, Peng; Ma, Xiaodong; Liu, Tao; Hu, Yongzhou

    2013-09-15

    A series of novel benzyl-substituted (S)-phenylalanine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitory activity and selectivity. It was found that most synthesized target compounds were potent DPP-4 inhibitors with IC50 values in 3.79-25.52 nM, which were significantly superior to that of the marketed drug sitagliptin. Furthermore, the 4-fluorobenzyl substituted phenylalanine derivative 6g not only displayed the potent DPP-4 inhibition with an IC50 value of 3.79 nM, but also showed better selectivity against DPP-4 over other related enzymes including DPP-7, DPP-8, and DPP-9. In an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal Sprague Dawley rats, compound 6g reduced blood glucose excursion in a dose-dependent manner.

  3. A proposal of potent inhibitor for cancer metastasis blocking the pocket of urokinase receptor: ab initio molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasumi, Tomoyo; Araki, Kohta; Mizushima, Tatsuroh; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2013-04-01

    Recent biochemical experiments have elucidated that a variety of proteases play important roles in cancer invasion and metastasis. In particular, binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) to uPA receptor (uPAR) existing on the surface of a cancer cell is considered to be a trigger for cancer invasions. Therefore, the blocking of the binding is expected to inhibit cancer invasion. In previous experiments, several peptides of amino acids were proposed as a potent inhibitor for blocking the binding. In the present study, we obtained stable structures of the solvated complexes with uPAR and the peptides and investigated the specific interactions between uPAR and the peptides by ab initio molecular simulations. Base on these results, we clarified which peptide can bind more strongly to uPAR and proposed a novel potent peptide which can inhibit the uPAR-uPA binding efficiently.

  4. Characterization of 3,3-dimethyl substituted N-aryl piperidines as potent microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kuklish, Steven L; Antonysamy, Stephen; Bhattachar, Shobha N; Chandrasekhar, Srinivasan; Fisher, Matthew J; Fretland, Adrian J; Gooding, Karen; Harvey, Anita; Hughes, Norman E; Luz, John G; Manninen, Peter R; McGee, James E; Navarro, Antonio; Norman, Bryan H; Partridge, Katherine M; Quimby, Steven J; Schiffler, Matthew A; Sloan, Ashley V; Warshawsky, Alan M; York, Jeremy S; Yu, Xiao-Peng

    2016-10-01

    Here we report on novel, potent 3,3-dimethyl substituted N-aryl piperidine inhibitors of microsomal prostaglandin E synthases-1(mPGES-1). Example 14 potently inhibited PGE2 synthesis in an ex vivo human whole blood (HWB) assay with an IC50 of 7nM. In addition, 14 had no activity in human COX-1 or COX-2 assays at 30μM, and failed to inhibit human mPGES-2 at 62.5μM in a microsomal prep assay. These data are consistent with selective mPGES-1-mediated reduction of PGE2. In dog, 14 had oral bioavailability (74%), clearance (3.62mL/(min*kg)) and volume of distribution (Vd,ss=1.6L/kg) values within our target ranges. For these reasons, 14 was selected for further study. PMID:27554445

  5. The potent Cdc7-Dbf4 (DDK) kinase inhibitor XL413 has limited activity in many cancer cell lines and discovery of potential new DDK inhibitor scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sasi, Nanda Kumar; Tiwari, Kanchan; Soon, Fen-Fen; Bonte, Dorine; Wang, Tong; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric; Weinreich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cdc7-Dbf4 kinase or DDK (Dbf4-dependent kinase) is required to initiate DNA replication by phosphorylating and activating the replicative Mcm2-7 DNA helicase. DDK is overexpressed in many tumor cells and is an emerging chemotherapeutic target since DDK inhibition causes apoptosis of diverse cancer cell types but not of normal cells. PHA-767491 and XL413 are among a number of potent DDK inhibitors with low nanomolar IC50 values against the purified kinase. Although XL413 is highly selective for DDK, its activity has not been extensively characterized on cell lines. We measured anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of XL413 on a panel of tumor cell lines compared to PHA-767491, whose activity is well characterized. Both compounds were effective biochemical DDK inhibitors but surprisingly, their activities in cell lines were highly divergent. Unlike PHA-767491, XL413 had significant anti-proliferative activity against only one of the ten cell lines tested. Since XL413 did not effectively inhibit DDK in multiple cell lines, this compound likely has limited bioavailability. To identify potential leads for additional DDK inhibitors, we also tested the cross-reactivity of ∼400 known kinase inhibitors against DDK using a DDK thermal stability shift assay (TSA). We identified 11 compounds that significantly stabilized DDK. Several inhibited DDK with comparable potency to PHA-767491, including Chk1 and PKR kinase inhibitors, but had divergent chemical scaffolds from known DDK inhibitors. Taken together, these data show that several well-known kinase inhibitors cross-react with DDK and also highlight the opportunity to design additional specific, biologically active DDK inhibitors for use as chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. The Potent Cdc7-Dbf4 (DDK) Kinase Inhibitor XL413 Has Limited Activity in Many Cancer Cell Lines and Discovery of Potential New DDK Inhibitor Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Sasi, Nanda Kumar; Tiwari, Kanchan; Soon, Fen-Fen; Bonte, Dorine; Wang, Tong; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric; Weinreich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cdc7-Dbf4 kinase or DDK (Dbf4-dependent kinase) is required to initiate DNA replication by phosphorylating and activating the replicative Mcm2-7 DNA helicase. DDK is overexpressed in many tumor cells and is an emerging chemotherapeutic target since DDK inhibition causes apoptosis of diverse cancer cell types but not of normal cells. PHA-767491 and XL413 are among a number of potent DDK inhibitors with low nanomolar IC50 values against the purified kinase. Although XL413 is highly selective for DDK, its activity has not been extensively characterized on cell lines. We measured anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of XL413 on a panel of tumor cell lines compared to PHA-767491, whose activity is well characterized. Both compounds were effective biochemical DDK inhibitors but surprisingly, their activities in cell lines were highly divergent. Unlike PHA-767491, XL413 had significant anti-proliferative activity against only one of the ten cell lines tested. Since XL413 did not effectively inhibit DDK in multiple cell lines, this compound likely has limited bioavailability. To identify potential leads for additional DDK inhibitors, we also tested the cross-reactivity of ∼400 known kinase inhibitors against DDK using a DDK thermal stability shift assay (TSA). We identified 11 compounds that significantly stabilized DDK. Several inhibited DDK with comparable potency to PHA-767491, including Chk1 and PKR kinase inhibitors, but had divergent chemical scaffolds from known DDK inhibitors. Taken together, these data show that several well-known kinase inhibitors cross-react with DDK and also highlight the opportunity to design additional specific, biologically active DDK inhibitors for use as chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25412417

  7. Structure-based Design of Potent HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors with Modified P1 - Biphenyl Ligands: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Enzyme-inhibitor X-ray Structural studies

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Yu, Xufen; Osswald, Heather L.; Agniswamy, Johnson; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Amano, Masayuki; Weber, Irene T.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We report the design, synthesis, X-ray structural studies, and biological evaluation of a novel series of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. We designed a variety of functionalized biphenyl derivatives to make enhanced van der Waals interactions in the S1 subsite of HIV-1 protease. These biphenyl derivatives were conveniently synthesized using a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction as the key step. We examined the potential of these functionalized biphenyl-derived P1 ligands in combination with 3-(S)-tetrahydrofuranyl urethane and bis-tetrahydrofuranyl urethane as the P2 ligands. Inhibitor 21e, with a 2-methoxy-1, 1’-biphenyl derivative as P1 ligand and bis-THF as the P2 ligand, displayed the most potent enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity. This inhibitor also exhibited potent activity against a panel of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants. A high resolution X-ray crystal structure of related Boc-derivative 17a-bound HIV-1 protease provided important molecular insight into the ligand-binding site interactions of the biphenyl core in the S1 subsite of HIV-1 protease. PMID:26107245

  8. Design and synthesis of disubstituted (4-piperidinyl)-piperazine derivatives as potent acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chonan, Tomomichi; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Yashiro, Miyoko; Oi, Takahiro; Wakasugi, Daisuke; Ohoka-Sugita, Ayumi; Io, Fusayo; Koretsune, Hiroko; Hiratate, Akira

    2010-07-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs), the rate limiting enzymes in de novo lipid synthesis, play important roles in modulating energy metabolism. The inhibition of ACC has demonstrated promising therapeutic potential for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in transgenic mice and preclinical animal models. We describe herein the structure-based design and synthesis of a novel series of disubstituted (4-piperidinyl)-piperazine derivatives as ACC inhibitors. Our structure-based approach led to the discovery of the indole derivatives 13i and 13j, which exhibited potent in vitro ACC inhibitory activity.

  9. Novel optimization of valmerins (tetrahydropyrido[1,2-a]isoindolones) as potent dual CDK5/GSK3 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ouach, Aziz; Boulahjar, Rajâa; Vala, Christine; Bourg, Stéphane; Bonnet, Pascal; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Ravache, Myriam; Le Guevel, Rémy; Lozach, Olivier; Lazar, Saïd; Troin, Yves; Meijer, Laurent; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Akssira, Mohamed; Guillaumet, Gérald; Routier, Sylvain

    2016-06-10

    An efficient synthetic strategy able to modulate the structure of the tetrahydropyridine isoindolone (Valmerin) skeleton was developed. A library of more than 30 novel final structures was generated. Biological activities on CDK5 and GSK3 as well as cellular effects on cancer cell lines were measured for each novel compound. Additionally to support the SAR, a docking study was performed. A potent GSK3/CDK5 dual inhibitor (37, IC50 CDK5/GSK3 35/7 nM) was obtained. Best antiproliferative effects were obtained on lung and prostate cell lines with IC50 = 20 nM. PMID:27019296

  10. Cobicistat (GS-9350): A Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Human CYP3A as a Novel Pharmacoenhancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cobicistat (3, GS-9350) is a newly discovered, potent, and selective inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes. In contrast to ritonavir, 3 is devoid of anti-HIV activity and is thus more suitable for use in boosting anti-HIV drugs without risking selection of potential drug-resistant HIV variants. Compound 3 shows reduced liability for drug interactions and may have potential improvements in tolerability over ritonavir. In addition, 3 has high aqueous solubility and can be readily coformulated with other agents. PMID:24900196

  11. Substituted N-aryl-6-pyrimidinones: A new class of potent, selective, and orally active p38 MAP kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Devadas, Balekudru; Selness, Shaun R.; Xing, Li; Madsen, Heather M.; Marrufo, Laura D.; Shieh, Huey; Messing, Dean M.; Yang, Jerry Z.; Morgan, Heidi M.; Anderson, Gary D.; Webb, Elizabeth G.; Zhang, Jian; Devraj, Rajesh V.; Monahan, Joseph B.

    2012-02-28

    A novel series of highly potent and selective p38 MAP kinase inhibitors was developed originating from a substituted N-aryl-6-pyrimidinone scaffold. SAR studies coupled with in vivo evaluations in rat arthritis model culminated in the identification of 10 with excellent oral efficacy. Compound 10 exhibited a significantly enhanced dissolution rate compared to 1, translating to a high oral bioavailability (>90%) in rat. In animal studies 10 inhibited LPS-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} in a dose-dependent manner and demonstrated robust efficacy comparable to dexamethasone in a rat streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis model.

  12. Isatin sulfonamides: potent caspases-3 and -7 inhibitors, and promising PET and SPECT radiotracers for apoptosis imaging.

    PubMed

    Limpachayaporn, Panupun; Schäfers, Michael; Haufe, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Caspases-3 and -7 play an essential role in apoptosis. Isatin sulfonamides have been identified as potent inhibitors of these executing caspases. Besides pharmacological application, these compounds can also serve as recognition units to target caspases using positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) when labeled with a positron or a gamma emitter. Fluorinated, alkylated, arylated isatin derivatives, in addition to derivatives modified with heterocycles, have been prepared in order to improve their binding potency, selectivity and metabolic stability. Structural optimization has led to stable, highly active inhibitors, which after labeling have been applied in PET studies in tumor mouse models and for first preclinical and clinical investigations with healthy human volunteers. The results support further development of such radiotracers for clinical apoptosis imaging. PMID:26132525

  13. Ellagic acid and polyhydroxylated urolithins are potent catalytic inhibitors of human topoisomerase II: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Furlanetto, Valentina; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Pasquale, Riccardo; Moro, Stefano; Gatto, Barbara

    2012-09-12

    Ellagic acid (EA), a natural polyphenol abundant in fruits and common in our diet, is under intense investigation for its chemopreventive activity resulting from multiple effects. EA inhibits topoisomerase II, but the effects on the human enzyme of urolithins, its monolactone metabolites, are not known. Therefore, the action of several synthetic urolithins toward topoisomerases II was evaluated, showing that polyhydroxylated urolithins, EA, and EA-related compounds are potent inhibitors of the α and β isoforms of human topoisomerase II at submicromolar concentrations. Competition tests demonstrate a dose-dependent relationship between ATP and the inhibition of the enzyme. Docking experiments show that the active compounds bind the ATP pocket of the human enzyme, thus supporting the hypothesis that EA and polyhydroxylated urolithins act as ATP-competitive inhibitors of human topoisomerase II.

  14. Development of Unsymmetrical Dyads As Potent Noncarbohydrate-Based Inhibitors against Human β-N-Acetyl-d-hexosaminidase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase has gained much attention due to its roles in several pathological processes and been considered as potential targets for disease therapy. A novel and efficient skeleton, which was an unsymmetrical dyad containing naphthalimide and methoxyphenyl moieties with an alkylamine spacer linkage as a noncarbohydrate-based inhibitor, was synthesized, and the activities were valuated against human β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase. The most potent inhibitor exhibits high inhibitory activity with Ki values of 0.63 μM. The straightforward synthetic manners of these unsymmetrical dyads and understanding of the binding model could be advantageous for further structure optimization and development of new therapeutic agents for Hex-related diseases. PMID:24900704

  15. Discovery of novel, high potent, ABC type PTP1B inhibitors with TCPTP selectivity and cellular activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peihong; Du, Yongli; Song, Lianhua; Shen, Jingkang; Li, Qunyi

    2016-08-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a key negative regulator of both insulin and leptin receptor pathways has been an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. With the goal of enhancing potency and selectivity of the PTP1B inhibitors, a series of methyl salicylate derivatives as ABC type PTP1B inhibitors (P1-P7) were discovered. More importantly, compound P6 exhibited high potent inhibitory activity (IC50 = 50 nM) for PTP1B with 15-fold selectivity over T-cell PTPase (TCPTP). Further studies on cellular activities revealed that compound P6 could enhance insulin-mediated insulin receptor β (IRβ) phosphorylation and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. PMID:27123900

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2-phenoxyacetamide analogues, a novel class of potent and selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Yu, Shian; Zhang, Jiaming; Jia, Weizheng; Zhu, Qing

    2014-11-14

    Monoamine oxidases (EC 1.4.3.4; MAOs), a family of FAD-containing enzymes, is an important target for antidepressant drugs. In this paper, a series of 2-phenoxyacetamide analogues were synthesized, and their inhibitory potency towards monoamine oxidases A (MAO-A) and B (MAO-B) were evaluated using enzyme and cancer cell lysate. 2-(4-Methoxyphenoxy)acetamide (compound 12) (SI=245) and (2-(4-((prop-2-ynylimino)methyl)phenoxy)acetamide (compound 21) (IC50MAO-A=0.018 μM, IC50MAO-B=0.07 μM) were successfully identified as the most specific MAO-A inhibitor, and the most potent MAO-A/-B inhibitor, respectively. The inhibitory activities of these two compounds in living cells were also further evaluated utilizing HepG2 and SHSY-5Y cell lysates.

  17. Identification of potent orally active factor Xa inhibitors based on conjugation strategy and application of predictable fragment recommender system.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Tsukasa; Koga, Yuji; Iwatsuki, Yoshiyuki; Hirayama, Fukushi

    2015-01-15

    Anticoagulant agents have emerged as a promising class of therapeutic drugs for the treatment and prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. We investigated a series of novel orally active factor Xa inhibitors designed using our previously reported conjugation strategy to boost oral anticoagulant effect. Structural optimization of anthranilamide derivative 3 as a lead compound with installation of phenolic hydroxyl group and extensive exploration of the P1 binding element led to the identification of 5-chloro-N-(5-chloro-2-pyridyl)-3-hydroxy-2-{[4-(4-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)benzoyl]amino}benzamide (33, AS1468240) as a potent factor Xa inhibitor with significant oral anticoagulant activity. We also reported a newly developed Free-Wilson-like fragment recommender system based on the integration of R-group decomposition with collaborative filtering for the structural optimization process.

  18. Discovery of GSK2126458, a Highly Potent Inhibitor of PI3K and the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Steven D.; Adams, Nicholas D.; Burgess, Joelle L.; Chaudhari, Amita M.; Darcy, Michael G.; Donatelli, Carla A.; Luengo, Juan I.; Newlander, Ken A.; Parrish, Cynthia A.; Ridgers, Lance H.; Sarpong, Martha A.; Schmidt, Stanley J.; Aller, Glenn S.Van; Carson, Jeffrey D.; Diamond, Melody A.; Elkins, Patricia A.; Gardiner, Christine M.; Garver, Eric; Gilbert, Seth A.; Gontarek, Richard R.; Jackson, Jeffrey R.; Kershner, Kevin L.; Luo, Lusong; Raha, Kaushik; Sherk, Christian S.; Sung, Chiu-Mei; Sutton, David; Tummino, Peter J.; Wegrzyn, Ronald J.; Auger, Kurt R.; Dhanak, Dashyant

    2010-09-30

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase {alpha} (PI3K{alpha}) is a critical regulator of cell growth and transformation, and its signaling pathway is the most commonly mutated pathway in human cancers. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a class IV PI3K protein kinase, is also a central regulator of cell growth, and mTOR inhibitors are believed to augment the antiproliferative efficacy of PI3K/AKT pathway inhibition. 2,4-Difluoro-N-{l_brace}2-(methyloxy)-5-[4-(4-pyridazinyl)-6-quinolinyl]-3-pyridinyl{r_brace}benzenesulfonamide (GSK2126458, 1) has been identified as a highly potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of PI3K{alpha} and mTOR with in vivo activity in both pharmacodynamic and tumor growth efficacy models. Compound 1 is currently being evaluated in human clinical trials for the treatment of cancer.

  19. Development of Unsymmetrical Dyads As Potent Noncarbohydrate-Based Inhibitors against Human β-N-Acetyl-d-hexosaminidase.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Chen, Qi; Liu, Tian; Xu, Lin; Yang, Qing; Qian, Xuhong

    2013-06-13

    Human β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase has gained much attention due to its roles in several pathological processes and been considered as potential targets for disease therapy. A novel and efficient skeleton, which was an unsymmetrical dyad containing naphthalimide and methoxyphenyl moieties with an alkylamine spacer linkage as a noncarbohydrate-based inhibitor, was synthesized, and the activities were valuated against human β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidase. The most potent inhibitor exhibits high inhibitory activity with K i values of 0.63 μM. The straightforward synthetic manners of these unsymmetrical dyads and understanding of the binding model could be advantageous for further structure optimization and development of new therapeutic agents for Hex-related diseases. PMID:24900704

  20. Discovery and in Vivo Evaluation of Potent Dual CYP11B2 (Aldosterone Synthase) and CYP11B1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Erik L; Ksander, Gary; Monovich, Lauren G; Papillon, Julien P N; Liu, Qian; Miranda, Karl; Morris, Patrick; Rao, Chang; Burgis, Robin; Capparelli, Michael; Hu, Qi-Ying; Singh, Alok; Rigel, Dean F; Jeng, Arco Y; Beil, Michael; Fu, Fumin; Hu, Chii-Whei; LaSala, Daniel

    2013-12-12

    Aldosterone is a key signaling component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and as such has been shown to contribute to cardiovascular pathology such as hypertension and heart failure. Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is responsible for the final three steps of aldosterone synthesis and thus is a viable therapeutic target. A series of imidazole derived inhibitors, including clinical candidate 7n, have been identified through design and structure-activity relationship studies both in vitro and in vivo. Compound 7n was also found to be a potent inhibitor of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), which is responsible for cortisol production. Inhibition of CYP11B1 is being evaluated in the clinic for potential treatment of hypercortisol diseases such as Cushing's syndrome. PMID:24900631

  1. Potent microRNA suppression by RNA Pol II-transcribed ‘Tough Decoy’ inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Rasmus O.; Hollensen, Anne Kruse; Primo, Maria Nascimento; Sørensen, Camilla Darum; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression and modulators of diverse biological pathways. Analyses of miRNA function as well as therapeutic managing of miRNAs rely on cellular administration of miRNA inhibitors which may be achieved by the use of viral vehicles. This study explores the miRNA-suppressive capacity of inhibitors expressed intracellularly from lentivirus-derived gene vectors. Superior activity of two decoy-type inhibitors, a “Bulged Sponge” with eight miRNA recognition sites and a hairpin-shaped “Tough Decoy” containing two miRNA recognition sites, is demonstrated in a side-by-side comparison of seven types of miRNA inhibitors transcribed as short RNAs from an RNA Pol III promoter. We find that lentiviral vectors expressing Tough Decoy inhibitors are less vulnerable than Bulged Sponge-encoding vectors to targeting by the cognate miRNA and less prone, therefore, to reductions in transfer efficiency. Importantly, it is demonstrated that Tough Decoy inhibitors retain their miRNA suppression capacity in the context of longer RNA transcripts expressed from an RNA Pol II promoter. Such RNA Pol II-transcribed Tough Decoy inhibitors are new tools in managing of miRNAs and may have potential for temporal and spatial regulation of miRNA activity as well as for therapeutic targeting of miRNAs that are aberrantly expressed in human disease. PMID:23249752

  2. Finding Potent Sirt Inhibitor in Coffee: Isolation, Confirmation and Synthesis of Javamide-II (N-Caffeoyltryptophan) as Sirt1/2 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae B

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that Sirt inhibition may have beneficial effects on several human diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Coffee is one of most popular beverages with several positive health effects. Therefore, in this paper, potential Sirt inhibitors were screened using coffee extract. First, HPLC was utilized to fractionate coffee extract, then screened using a Sirt1/2 inhibition assay. The screening led to the isolation of a potent Sirt1/2 inhibitor, whose structure was determined as javamide-II (N-caffeoyltryptophan) by NMR. For confirmation, the amide was chemically synthesized and its capacity of inhibiting Sirt1/2 was also compared with the isolated amide. Javamide-II inhibited Sirt2 (IC50; 8.7 μM) better than Sirt1(IC50; 34μM). Since javamide-II is a stronger inhibitor for Sirt2 than Sirt1. The kinetic study was performed against Sirt2. The amide exhibited noncompetitive Sirt2 inhibition against the NAD+ (Ki = 9.8 μM) and showed competitive inhibition against the peptide substrate (Ki = 5.3 μM). Also, a docking simulation showed stronger binding pose of javamide-II to Sirt2 than AGK2. In cellular levels, javamide-II was able to increase the acetylation of total lysine, cortactin and histone H3 in neuronal NG108-15 cells. In the same cells, the amide also increased the acetylation of lysine (K382) in p53, but not (K305). This study suggests that Javamide-II found in coffee may be a potent Sirt1/2 inhibitor, probably with potential use in some conditions of human diseases. PMID:26986569

  3. Finding Potent Sirt Inhibitor in Coffee: Isolation, Confirmation and Synthesis of Javamide-II (N-Caffeoyltryptophan) as Sirt1/2 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that Sirt inhibition may have beneficial effects on several human diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Coffee is one of most popular beverages with several positive health effects. Therefore, in this paper, potential Sirt inhibitors were screened using coffee extract. First, HPLC was utilized to fractionate coffee extract, then screened using a Sirt1/2 inhibition assay. The screening led to the isolation of a potent Sirt1/2 inhibitor, whose structure was determined as javamide-II (N-caffeoyltryptophan) by NMR. For confirmation, the amide was chemically synthesized and its capacity of inhibiting Sirt1/2 was also compared with the isolated amide. Javamide-II inhibited Sirt2 (IC50; 8.7μM) better than Sirt1(IC50; 34μM). Since javamide-II is a stronger inhibitor for Sirt2 than Sirt1. The kinetic study was performed against Sirt2. The amide exhibited noncompetitive Sirt2 inhibition against the NAD+ (Ki = 9.8 μM) and showed competitive inhibition against the peptide substrate (Ki = 5.3 μM). Also, a docking simulation showed stronger binding pose of javamide-II to Sirt2 than AGK2. In cellular levels, javamide-II was able to increase the acetylation of total lysine, cortactin and histone H3 in neuronal NG108-15 cells. In the same cells, the amide also increased the acetylation of lysine (K382) in p53, but not (K305). This study suggests that Javamide-II found in coffee may be a potent Sirt1/2 inhibitor, probably with potential use in some conditions of human diseases. PMID:26986569

  4. Finding Potent Sirt Inhibitor in Coffee: Isolation, Confirmation and Synthesis of Javamide-II (N-Caffeoyltryptophan) as Sirt1/2 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae B

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that Sirt inhibition may have beneficial effects on several human diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Coffee is one of most popular beverages with several positive health effects. Therefore, in this paper, potential Sirt inhibitors were screened using coffee extract. First, HPLC was utilized to fractionate coffee extract, then screened using a Sirt1/2 inhibition assay. The screening led to the isolation of a potent Sirt1/2 inhibitor, whose structure was determined as javamide-II (N-caffeoyltryptophan) by NMR. For confirmation, the amide was chemically synthesized and its capacity of inhibiting Sirt1/2 was also compared with the isolated amide. Javamide-II inhibited Sirt2 (IC50; 8.7 μM) better than Sirt1(IC50; 34μM). Since javamide-II is a stronger inhibitor for Sirt2 than Sirt1. The kinetic study was performed against Sirt2. The amide exhibited noncompetitive Sirt2 inhibition against the NAD+ (Ki = 9.8 μM) and showed competitive inhibition against the peptide substrate (Ki = 5.3 μM). Also, a docking simulation showed stronger binding pose of javamide-II to Sirt2 than AGK2. In cellular levels, javamide-II was able to increase the acetylation of total lysine, cortactin and histone H3 in neuronal NG108-15 cells. In the same cells, the amide also increased the acetylation of lysine (K382) in p53, but not (K305). This study suggests that Javamide-II found in coffee may be a potent Sirt1/2 inhibitor, probably with potential use in some conditions of human diseases.

  5. Combined 3D-QSAR and Molecular Docking Study for Identification of Diverse Natural Products as Potent Pf ENR Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Preeti; Saha, Debasmita; Sharma, Anuj

    2015-01-01

    An in-house library of 200 molecules from natural plant products was designed in order to evaluate their binding to Plasmodium ACP enoyl reductase (ENR), a promising biological target for antimalarial chemotherapeutics. The binding site of PfENR was explored computationally and the molecules were docked using AutoDock. Furthermore, the top-ranked scaffolds from docking studies were also compared with known PfENR inhibitors using 3D-QSAR. To this effect, a 3D-QSAR model was derived from a set of experimentally established PfENR inhibitors, using Comparative Molecular Force Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA). The best optimum CoMFA model exhibited a leave-one-out correlation coefficient (q2) and a noncross- validated correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.630 and 0.911, respectively. The result of this cumulative approach proposed five structurally distinct natural products as potent PfENR inhibitors. This study may lay a stepping stone towards Functional oriented synthesis (FOS) of novel PfENR inhibitors in future. PMID:26517356

  6. Novel 2,4-Disubstituted Pyrimidines as Potent, Selective, and Cell-Permeable Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Selective inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an important therapeutic approach to target neurodegenerative disorders. However, the majority of the nNOS inhibitors developed are arginine mimetics and, therefore, suffer from poor bioavailability. We designed a novel strategy to combine a more pharmacokinetically favorable 2-imidazolylpyrimidine head with promising structural components from previous inhibitors. In conjunction with extensive structure–activity studies, several highly potent and selective inhibitors of nNOS were discovered. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals that these type II inhibitors utilize the same hydrophobic pocket to gain strong inhibitory potency (13), as well as high isoform selectivity. Interestingly, select compounds from this series (9) showed good permeability and low efflux in a Caco-2 assay, suggesting potential oral bioavailability, and exhibited minimal off-target binding to 50 central nervous system receptors. Furthermore, even with heme-coordinating groups in the molecule, modifying other pharmacophoric fragments minimized undesirable inhibition of cytochrome P450s from human liver microsomes. PMID:25489882

  7. Design and Synthesis of Potent N-Acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing Acid Amidase (NAAA) Inhibitor as Anti-Inflammatory Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Zhu, Chenggang; Huang, Rui; Zheng, Xiao; Qiu, Yan; Fu, Jin

    2012-01-01

    N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) is a lysosomal enzyme involved in biological deactivation of N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), which exerts anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects through the activation of nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α). To develop selective and potent NAAA inhibitors, we designed and synthesized a series of derivatives of 1-pentadecanyl-carbonyl pyrrolidine (compound 1), a general amidase inhibitor. Structure activity relationship (SAR) studies have identified a compound 16, 1-(2-Biphenyl-4-yl)ethyl-carbonyl pyrrolidine, which has shown the highest inhibition on NAAA activity (IC50 = 2.12±0.41 µM) and is characterized as a reversible and competitive NAAA inhibitor. Computational docking analysis and mutagenesis study revealed that compound 16 interacted with Asparagine 209 (Asn209) residue flanking the catalytic pocket of NAAA so as to block the substrate entrance. In vitro pharmacological studies demonstrated that compound 16 dose-dependently reduced mRNA expression levels of iNOS and IL-6, along with an increase of intracellular PEA levels, in mouse macrophages with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced inflammation. Our study discovered a novel NAAA inhibitor, compound 16, that could serve as a potential anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:22916199

  8. Design and synthesis of potent inhibitors of the malaria parasite dihydroorotate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Timo; Ramsey, Christopher; Davies, Matthew; Galtier, Christophe; Stead, Andrew M W; Johnson, A Peter; Fishwick, Colin W G; Boa, Andrew N; McConkey, Glenn A

    2007-01-25

    Pyrimidine biosynthesis presents an attractive drug target in malaria parasites due to the absence of a pyrimidine salvage pathway. A set of compounds designed to inhibit the Plasmodium falciparum pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) was synthesized. PfDHODH-specific inhibitors with low nanomolar binding affinities were identified that bind in the N-terminal hydrophobic channel of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, the presumed site of ubiquinone binding during oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate. These compounds also prevented growth of cultured parasites at low micromolar concentrations. Models that suggest the mode of inhibitor binding is based on shape complementarity, matching hydrophobic regions of inhibitor and enzyme, and interaction of inhibitors with amino acid residues F188, H185, and R265 are supported by mutagenesis data. These results further highlight PfDHODH as a promising new target for chemotherapeutic intervention in prevention of malaria and provide better understanding of the factors that determine specificity over human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase.

  9. TCPs: privileged scaffolds for identifying potent LSD1 inhibitors for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi-Chao; Yu, Bin; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Liu, Ying; Liu, Hong-Min

    2016-05-01

    Since the first lysine-specific demethylase (KDM), lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), was characterized in 2004, several families of KDMs have been identified. LSD1 can specifically demethylate H3K4me1/2, H3K9me1/2 as well as some nonhistone substrates. It has been demonstrated to be an oncogene as well as a drug target. Hence, tens of small-molecule LSD1 inhibitors have been designed, synthesized and applied for cancer treatment. However, the two LSD1 inhibitors that have been advanced into early phase clinical trials are trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (TCP) derivatives, which indicate that TCP is a druggable scaffold for LSD1 inhibitor. Here, we review the design, synthesis and properties of reported TCP-based LSD1 inhibitors as well as their biological roles. PMID:27102879

  10. TCPs: privileged scaffolds for identifying potent LSD1 inhibitors for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi-Chao; Yu, Bin; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Liu, Ying; Liu, Hong-Min

    2016-05-01

    Since the first lysine-specific demethylase (KDM), lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), was characterized in 2004, several families of KDMs have been identified. LSD1 can specifically demethylate H3K4me1/2, H3K9me1/2 as well as some nonhistone substrates. It has been demonstrated to be an oncogene as well as a drug target. Hence, tens of small-molecule LSD1 inhibitors have been designed, synthesized and applied for cancer treatment. However, the two LSD1 inhibitors that have been advanced into early phase clinical trials are trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (TCP) derivatives, which indicate that TCP is a druggable scaffold for LSD1 inhibitor. Here, we review the design, synthesis and properties of reported TCP-based LSD1 inhibitors as well as their biological roles.

  11. Potent bivalent Smac mimetics: effect of the linker on binding to inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiying; Liu, Liu; Lu, Jianfeng; Bai, Longchuan; Li, Xiaoqin; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; McEachern, Donna; Yang, Chao-Yie; Qiu, Su; Yi, Han; Sun, Duxin; Wang, Shaomeng

    2011-05-12

    We have synthesized and evaluated a series of nonpeptidic, bivalent Smac mimetics as antagonists of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins and new anticancer agents. All these bivalent Smac mimetics bind to full-length XIAP with low nanomolar affinities and function as ultrapotent antagonists of XIAP. While these Smac mimetics bind to cIAP1/2 with similar low nanomolar affinities, their potencies to induce degradation of cIAP1/2 proteins in cells differ by more than 100-fold. The most potent bivalent Smac mimetics inhibit cell growth with IC(50) from 1 to 3 nM in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line and are 100 times more potent than the least potent compounds. Determination of intracellular concentrations for several representative compounds showed that the linkers in these bivalent Smac mimetics significantly affect their intracellular concentrations and hence the overall cellular activity. Compound 27 completely inhibits tumor growth in the MDA-MB-231 xenografts while causing no signs of toxicity in the animals.

  12. Hydrophobic substituents increase the potency of salacinol, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor from Ayurvedic traditional medicine 'Salacia'.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Genzoh; Xie, Weijia; Balakishan, Gorre; Amer, Mumen F A; Tsutsui, Nozomi; Takemura, Haruka; Nakamura, Shinya; Akaki, Junji; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Morikawa, Toshio; Nakanishi, Isao; Muraoka, Osamu

    2016-08-15

    Using an in silico method, seven analogs bearing hydrophobic substituents (8a: Me, 8b: Et, 8c: n-Pent, 8d: n-Hept, 8e: n-Tridec, 8f: isoBu and 8g: neoPent) at the 3'-O-position in salacinol (1), a highly potent natural α-glucosidase inhibitor from Ayurvedic traditional medicine 'Salacia', were designed and synthesized. In order to verify the computational SAR assessments, their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated in vitro. All analogs (8a-8g) exhibited an equal or considerably higher level of inhibitory activity against rat small intestinal α-glucosidases compared with the original sulfonate (1), and were as potent as or higher in potency than the clinically used anti-diabetics, voglibose, acarbose or miglitol. Their activities against human maltase exhibited good relationships to the results obtained with enzymes of rat origin. Among the designed compounds, the one with a 3'-O-neopentyl moiety (8g) was most potent, with an approximately ten fold increase in activity against human maltase compared to 1. PMID:27325449

  13. Water fraction of edible medicinal fern Stenochlaena palustris is a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor with concurrent antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Kwek, Meng-Tee; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Wong, Fai-Chu

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to isolate a potent antiglucosidase and antioxidant fraction from Stenochlaena palustris. Extraction was performed with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. Antiglucosidase, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays found methanol extract (ME) to be the most active. Water fraction (WF) of ME was a stronger α-glucosidase inhibitor (EC50 2.9 μg/mL) than quercetin, with weak antiamylase activity. WF was a competitive α-glucosidase inhibitor. DPPH scavenging activity of WF (EC50 7.7 μg/mL) was weaker than quercetin. WF (EC50 364 μg/mL) was a stronger hydrogen peroxide scavenger than gallic acid (EC50 838 μg/mL) and was equally strong as quercetin in scavenging superoxide. WF possessed moderate copper chelating activity. WF was enriched in total phenolics (TP) and hydroxycinnamic acids (THC). TP correlated with antioxidant activity (R(2) > 0.76). Only THC correlated with antiglucosidase activity (R(2) = 0.86). Overall, WF demonstrated concurrent, potent antiglucosidase and antioxidant activities.

  14. Discovery of potent KIFC1 inhibitors using a method of integrated high-throughput synthesis and screening.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Lamb, Michelle L; Zhang, Tao; Hennessy, Edward J; Grewal, Gurmit; Sha, Li; Zambrowski, Mark; Block, Michael H; Dowling, James E; Su, Nancy; Wu, Jiaquan; Deegan, Tracy; Mikule, Keith; Wang, Wenxian; Kaspera, Rüdiger; Chuaqui, Claudio; Chen, Huawei

    2014-12-11

    KIFC1 (HSET), a member of the kinesin-14 family of motor proteins, plays an essential role in centrosomal bundling in cancer cells, but its function is not required for normal diploid cell division. To explore the potential of KIFC1 as a therapeutic target for human cancers, a series of potent KIFC1 inhibitors featuring a phenylalanine scaffold was developed from hits identified through high-throughput screening (HTS). Optimization of the initial hits combined both design-synthesis-test cycles and an integrated high-throughput synthesis and biochemical screening method. An important aspect of this integrated method was the utilization of DMSO stock solutions of compounds registered in the corporate compound collection as synthetic reactants. Using this method, over 1500 compounds selected for structural diversity were quickly assembled in assay-ready 384-well plates and were directly tested after the necessary dilutions. Our efforts led to the discovery of a potent KIFC1 inhibitor, AZ82, which demonstrated the desired centrosome declustering mode of action in cell studies.

  15. Discovery of potent KIFC1 inhibitors using a method of integrated high-throughput synthesis and screening.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Lamb, Michelle L; Zhang, Tao; Hennessy, Edward J; Grewal, Gurmit; Sha, Li; Zambrowski, Mark; Block, Michael H; Dowling, James E; Su, Nancy; Wu, Jiaquan; Deegan, Tracy; Mikule, Keith; Wang, Wenxian; Kaspera, Rüdiger; Chuaqui, Claudio; Chen, Huawei

    2014-12-11

    KIFC1 (HSET), a member of the kinesin-14 family of motor proteins, plays an essential role in centrosomal bundling in cancer cells, but its function is not required for normal diploid cell division. To explore the potential of KIFC1 as a therapeutic target for human cancers, a series of potent KIFC1 inhibitors featuring a phenylalanine scaffold was developed from hits identified through high-throughput screening (HTS). Optimization of the initial hits combined both design-synthesis-test cycles and an integrated high-throughput synthesis and biochemical screening method. An important aspect of this integrated method was the utilization of DMSO stock solutions of compounds registered in the corporate compound collection as synthetic reactants. Using this method, over 1500 compounds selected for structural diversity were quickly assembled in assay-ready 384-well plates and were directly tested after the necessary dilutions. Our efforts led to the discovery of a potent KIFC1 inhibitor, AZ82, which demonstrated the desired centrosome declustering mode of action in cell studies. PMID:25458601

  16. Potent dual inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum M1 and M17 aminopeptidases through optimization of S1 pocket interactions.

    PubMed

    Drinkwater, Nyssa; Vinh, Natalie B; Mistry, Shailesh N; Bamert, Rebecca S; Ruggeri, Chiara; Holleran, John P; Loganathan, Sasdekumar; Paiardini, Alessandro; Charman, Susan A; Powell, Andrew K; Avery, Vicky M; McGowan, Sheena; Scammells, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Malaria remains a global health problem, and though international efforts for treatment and eradication have made some headway, the emergence of drug-resistant parasites threatens this progress. Antimalarial therapeutics acting via novel mechanisms are urgently required. Plasmodium falciparum M1 and M17 are neutral aminopeptidases which are essential for parasite growth and development. Previous work in our group has identified inhibitors capable of dual inhibition of PfA-M1 and PfA-M17, and revealed further regions within the protease S1 pockets that could be exploited in the development of ligands with improved inhibitory activity. Herein, we report the structure-based design and synthesis of novel hydroxamic acid analogues that are capable of potent inhibition of both PfA-M1 and PfA-M17. Furthermore, the developed compounds potently inhibit Pf growth in culture, including the multi-drug resistant strain Dd2. The ongoing development of dual PfA-M1/PfA-M17 inhibitors continues to be an attractive strategy for the design of novel antimalarial therapeutics.

  17. Water fraction of edible medicinal fern Stenochlaena palustris is a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor with concurrent antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Kwek, Meng-Tee; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Wong, Fai-Chu

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to isolate a potent antiglucosidase and antioxidant fraction from Stenochlaena palustris. Extraction was performed with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. Antiglucosidase, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays found methanol extract (ME) to be the most active. Water fraction (WF) of ME was a stronger α-glucosidase inhibitor (EC50 2.9 μg/mL) than quercetin, with weak antiamylase activity. WF was a competitive α-glucosidase inhibitor. DPPH scavenging activity of WF (EC50 7.7 μg/mL) was weaker than quercetin. WF (EC50 364 μg/mL) was a stronger hydrogen peroxide scavenger than gallic acid (EC50 838 μg/mL) and was equally strong as quercetin in scavenging superoxide. WF possessed moderate copper chelating activity. WF was enriched in total phenolics (TP) and hydroxycinnamic acids (THC). TP correlated with antioxidant activity (R(2) > 0.76). Only THC correlated with antiglucosidase activity (R(2) = 0.86). Overall, WF demonstrated concurrent, potent antiglucosidase and antioxidant activities. PMID:25976787

  18. Discovery of alpha,gamma-diketo acids as potent selective and reversible inhibitors of hepatitis C virus NS5b RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Summa, Vincenzo; Petrocchi, Alessia; Pace, Paola; Matassa, Victor G; De Francesco, Raffaele; Altamura, Sergio; Tomei, Licia; Koch, Uwe; Neuner, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    alpha,gamma-Diketo acids (DKA) were discovered from screening as selective and reversible inhibitors of hepatitis C virus NS5b RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The diketo acid moiety proved essential for activity, while substitution on the gamma position was necessary for selectivity and potency. Optimization led to the identification of a DKA inhibitor of NS5b polymerase with IC(50) = 45 nM, one of the most potent HCV NS5b polymerase inhibitors reported.

  19. N-Benzyl-indolo carboxylic acids: Design and synthesis of potent and selective adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (A-FABP) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Barf, Tjeerd; Lehmann, Fredrik; Hammer, Kristin; Haile, Saba; Axen, Eva; Medina, Carmen; Uppenberg, Jonas; Svensson, Stefan; Rondahl, Lena; Lundbäck, Thomas

    2009-03-15

    Small molecule inhibitors of adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (A-FABP) have gained renewed interest following the recent publication of pharmacologically beneficial effects of such inhibitors. Despite the potential utility of selective A-FABP inhibitors within the fields of metabolic disease, inflammation and atherosclerosis, there are few examples of useful A-FABP inhibitors in the public domain. Herein, we describe the optimization of N-benzyl-tetrahydrocarbazole derivatives through the use of co-crystal structure guided medicinal chemistry efforts. This led to the identification of a potent and selective class of A-FABP inhibitors as illustrated by N-benzyl-hexahydrocyclohepta[b]indole 30. PMID:19217286

  20. Discovery of potent heterodimeric antagonists of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) with sustained antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Perez, Heidi L; Chaudhry, Charu; Emanuel, Stuart L; Fanslau, Caroline; Fargnoli, Joseph; Gan, Jinping; Kim, Kyoung S; Lei, Ming; Naglich, Joseph G; Traeger, Sarah C; Vuppugalla, Ragini; Wei, Donna D; Vite, Gregory D; Talbott, Randy L; Borzilleri, Robert M

    2015-02-12

    The prominent role of IAPs in controlling cell death and their overexpression in a variety of cancers has prompted the development of IAP antagonists as potential antitumor therapies. We describe the identification of a series of heterodimeric antagonists with highly potent antiproliferative activities in cIAP- and XIAP-dependent cell lines. Compounds 15 and 17 further demonstrate curative efficacy in human melanoma and lung cancer xenograft models and are promising candidates for advanced studies.

  1. Identification of crypto- and neochlorogenic lactones as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors in roasted coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Honda, Sari; Miura, Yukari; Masuda, Akiko; Masuda, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity has been found in boiling water extracts from roasted coffee beans. Therefore, assay-guided purification of the extracts was performed using size-exclusion column chromatography, and subsequently with reversed phase HPLC to afford lactone derivatives of chlorogenic acids. Among the tested lactones, crypto- and neochlorogenic lactones showed potent XO inhibitory activities compared with three major chlorogenic acids found in coffee beans. These XO inhibitory lactones may ameliorate gout and hyperuricemia in humans who drink coffee.

  2. Elaboration of a fragment library hit produces potent and selective aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, Bharani; Bhansali, Pravin; Viola, Ronald E

    2015-10-15

    Aspartate-β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) lies at the first branch point in the aspartate metabolic pathway which leads to the biosynthesis of several essential amino acids and some important metabolites. This pathway is crucial for many metabolic processes in plants and microbes like bacteria and fungi, but is absent in mammals. Therefore, the key microbial enzymes involved in this pathway are attractive potential targets for development of new antibiotics with novel modes of action. The ASADH enzyme family shares the same substrate binding and active site catalytic groups; however, the enzymes from representative bacterial and fungal species show different inhibition patterns when previously screened against low molecular weight inhibitors identified from fragment library screening. In the present study several approaches, including fragment based drug discovery (FBDD), inhibitor docking, kinetic, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have been used to guide ASADH inhibitor development. Elaboration of a core structure identified by FBDD has led to the synthesis of low micromolar inhibitors of the target enzyme, with high selectivity introduced between the Gram-negative and Gram-positive orthologs of ASADH. This new set of structures open a novel direction for the development of inhibitors against this validated drug-target enzyme.

  3. O-Hydroxyacetamide Carbamates as a Highly Potent and Selective Class of Endocannabinoid Hydrolase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The two major endocannabinoid transmitters, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are degraded by distinct enzymes in the nervous system, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. FAAH and MAGL inhibitors cause elevations in brain AEA and 2-AG levels, respectively, and reduce pain, anxiety, and depression in rodents without causing the full spectrum of psychotropic behavioral effects observed with direct cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) agonists. These findings have inspired the development of several classes of endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors, most of which have been optimized to show specificity for either FAAH or MAGL or, in certain cases, equipotent activity for both enzymes. Here, we investigate an unusual class of O-hydroxyacetamide carbamate inhibitors and find that individual compounds from this class can serve as selective FAAH or dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors in vivo across a dose range (0.125–12.5 mg kg–1) suitable for behavioral studies. Competitive and click chemistry activity-based protein profiling confirmed that the O-hydroxyacetamide carbamate SA-57 is remarkably selective for FAAH and MAGL in vivo, targeting only one other enzyme in brain, the additional 2-AG hydrolase ABHD6. These data designate O-hydroxyacetamide carbamates as a versatile chemotype for creating endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors that display excellent in vivo activity and tunable selectivity for FAAH-anandamide versus MAGL (and ABHD6)-2-AG pathways. PMID:22860211

  4. Crystal Structure of Checkpoint Kinase 2 in Complex with Nsc 109555, a Potent and Selective Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lountos, George T.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Zhang, Di; Jobson, Andrew G.; Pommier, Yves; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Waugh, David S.

    2009-03-05

    Checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), a ser/thr kinase involved in the ATM-Chk2 checkpoint pathway, is activated by genomic instability and DNA damage and results in either arrest of the cell cycle to allow DNA repair to occur or apoptosis if the DNA damage is severe. Drugs that specifically target Chk2 could be beneficial when administered in combination with current DNA-damaging agents used in cancer therapy. Recently, a novel inhibitor of Chk2, NSC 109555, was identified that exhibited high potency (IC{sub 50} = 240 nM) and selectivity. This compound represents a new chemotype and lead for the development of novel Chk2 inhibitors that could be used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer. To facilitate the discovery of new analogs of NSC 109555 with even greater potency and selectivity, we have solved the crystal structure of this inhibitor in complex with the catalytic domain of Chk2. The structure confirms that the compound is an ATP-competitive inhibitor, as the electron density clearly reveals that it occupies the ATP-binding pocket. However, the mode of inhibition differs from that of the previously studied structure of Chk2 in complex with debromohymenialdisine, a compound that inhibits both Chk1 and Chk2. A unique hydrophobic pocket in Chk2, located very close to the bound inhibitor, presents an opportunity for the rational design of compounds with higher binding affinity and greater selectivity.

  5. Elaboration of a fragment library hit produces potent and selective aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, Bharani; Bhansali, Pravin; Viola, Ronald E

    2015-10-15

    Aspartate-β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) lies at the first branch point in the aspartate metabolic pathway which leads to the biosynthesis of several essential amino acids and some important metabolites. This pathway is crucial for many metabolic processes in plants and microbes like bacteria and fungi, but is absent in mammals. Therefore, the key microbial enzymes involved in this pathway are attractive potential targets for development of new antibiotics with novel modes of action. The ASADH enzyme family shares the same substrate binding and active site catalytic groups; however, the enzymes from representative bacterial and fungal species show different inhibition patterns when previously screened against low molecular weight inhibitors identified from fragment library screening. In the present study several approaches, including fragment based drug discovery (FBDD), inhibitor docking, kinetic, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have been used to guide ASADH inhibitor development. Elaboration of a core structure identified by FBDD has led to the synthesis of low micromolar inhibitors of the target enzyme, with high selectivity introduced between the Gram-negative and Gram-positive orthologs of ASADH. This new set of structures open a novel direction for the development of inhibitors against this validated drug-target enzyme. PMID:26404410

  6. Structural basis of sialidase in complex with geranylated flavonoids as potent natural inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngjin; Ryu, Young Bae; Youn, Hyung-Seop; Cho, Jung Keun; Kim, Young Min; Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Woo Song; Park, Ki Hun; Eom, Soo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Sialidase catalyzes the removal of a terminal sialic acid from glycoconjugates and plays a pivotal role in nutrition, cellular interactions and pathogenesis mediating various infectious diseases including cholera, influenza and sepsis. An array of antiviral sialidase agents have been developed and are commercially available, such as zanamivir and oseltamivir for treating influenza. However, the development of bacterial sialidase inhibitors has been much less successful. Here, natural polyphenolic geranylated flavonoids which show significant inhibitory effects against Cp-NanI, a sialidase from Clostridium perfringens, are reported. This bacterium causes various gastrointestinal diseases. The crystal structure of the Cp-NanI catalytic domain in complex with the best inhibitor, diplacone, is also presented. This structure explains how diplacone generates a stable enzyme–inhibitor complex. These results provide a structural framework for understanding the interaction between sialidase and natural flavonoids, which are promising scaffolds on which to discover new anti-sialidase agents. PMID:24816104

  7. Design and synthesis of novel chalcones as potent selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hammuda, Arwa; Shalaby, Raed; Rovida, Stefano; Edmondson, Dale E; Binda, Claudia; Khalil, Ashraf

    2016-05-23

    A novel series of substituted chalcones were designed and synthesized to be evaluated as selective human MAO-B inhibitors. A combination of either methylsulfonyl or trifluoromethyl substituents on the aromatic ketone moiety with a benzodioxol ring on the other end of the chalcone scaffold was investigated. The compounds were tested for their inhibitory activities on both human MAO-A and B. All compounds appeared to be selective MAO-B inhibitors with Ki values in the micromolar to submicromolar range. Molecular modeling studies have been performed to get insight into the binding mode of the synthesized compounds to human MAO-B active site. PMID:26974383

  8. Identification and evaluation of a potent novel ATR inhibitor, NU6027, in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Peasland, A; Wang, L-Z; Rowling, E; Kyle, S; Chen, T; Hopkins, A; Cliby, W A; Sarkaria, J; Beale, G; Edmondson, R J; Curtin, N J

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related kinase (ATR) has a key role in the signalling of stalled replication forks and DNA damage to cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair. It has long been recognised as an important target for cancer therapy but inhibitors have proved elusive. As NU6027, originally developed as a CDK2 inhibitor, potentiated cisplatin in a CDK2-independent manner we postulated that it may inhibit ATR. Methods: Cellular ATR kinase activity was determined by CHK1 phosphorylation in human fibroblasts with inducible dominant-negative ATR-kinase dead expression and human breast cancer MCF7 cells. Cell cycle effects and chemo- and radiopotentiation by NU6027 were determined in MCF7 cells and the role of mismatch repair and p53 was determined in isogenically matched ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Results: NU6027 is a potent inhibitor of cellular ATR activity (IC50=6.7 μ) and enhanced hydroxyurea and cisplatin cytotoxicity in an ATR-dependent manner. NU6027 attenuated G2/M arrest following DNA damage, inhibited RAD51 focus formation and increased the cytotoxicity of the major classes of DNA-damaging anticancer cytotoxic therapy but not the antimitotic, paclitaxel. In A2780 cells sensitisation to cisplatin was greatest in cells with functional p53 and mismatch repair (MMR) and sensitisation to temozolomide was greatest in p53 mutant cells with functional MMR. Importantly, NU6027 was synthetically lethal when DNA single-strand break repair is impaired either through poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition or defects in XRCC1. Conclusion: NU6027 inhibits ATR, impairing G2/M arrest and homologous recombination thus increasing sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and PARP inhibitors. It provides proof of concept data for clinical development of ATR inhibitors. PMID:21730979

  9. Potent sub-MIC effect of GSK1322322 and other peptide deformylase inhibitors on in vitro growth of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Butler, Deborah; Chen, Dongzhao; O'Dwyer, Karen; Lewandowski, Thomas; Aubart, Kelly; Zalacain, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF), a clinically unexploited antibacterial target, plays an essential role in protein maturation. PDF inhibitors, therefore, represent a new antibiotic class with a unique mode of action that provides an alternative therapy for the treatment of infections caused by drug-resistant pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). GSK1322322 is a novel PDF inhibitor that is in phase II clinical development for the treatment of lower respiratory tract and skin infections. We have discovered that PDF inhibitors can prevent S. aureus in vitro growth for up to 6 h at concentrations 8- to 32-fold below their MICs. This phenomenon seems specific to PDF inhibitors, as none of the antimicrobial agents with alternative mechanisms of action tested show such a potent and widespread effect. It also appears limited to S. aureus, as PDF inhibitors do not show such an inhibition of growth at sub-MIC levels in Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae. Analysis of the effect of GSK1322322 on the early growth of 100 randomly selected S. aureus strains showed that concentrations equal to or below 1/8× MIC inhibited growth of 91% of the strains tested for 6 h, while the corresponding amount of moxifloxacin or linezolid only affected the growth of 1% and 6% of strains, respectively. Furthermore, the sub-MIC effect demonstrated by GSK1322322 appears more substantial on those strains at the higher end of the MIC spectrum. These effects may impact the clinical efficacy of GSK1322322 in serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant S. aureus.

  10. Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors as potent novel anti-cancer agents: suppression of hormone-dependent breast cancer by the oxidosqualene cyclase inhibitor RO 48-8071.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yayun; Besch-Williford, Cynthia; Aebi, Johannes D; Mafuvadze, Benford; Cook, Matthew T; Zou, Xiaoqin; Hyder, Salman M

    2014-07-01

    In most human breast cancers, tumor cell proliferation is estrogen dependent. Although hormone-responsive tumors initially respond to anti-estrogen therapies, most of them eventually develop resistance. Our goal was to identify alternative targets that might be regulated to control breast cancer progression. Sulforhodamine B assay was used to measure the viability of cultured human breast cancer cell lines exposed to various inhibitors. Protein expression in whole-cell extracts was determined by Western blotting. BT-474 tumor xenografts in nude mice were used for in vivo studies of tumor progression. RO 48-8071 ([4'-[6-(Allylmethylamino)hexyloxy]-4-bromo-2'-fluorobenzophenone fumarate]; RO), a small-molecule inhibitor of oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis), potently reduced breast cancer cell viability. In vitro exposure of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast cancer cells to pharmacological levels of RO or a dose close to the IC50 for OSC (nM) reduced cell viability. Administration of RO to mice with BT-474 tumor xenografts prevented tumor growth, with no apparent toxicity. RO degraded ERα while concomitantly inducing the anti-proliferative protein ERβ. Two other cholesterol-lowering drugs, Fluvastatin and Simvastatin, were less effective in reducing breast cancer cell viability and were found not to induce ERβ. ERβ inhibition or knockdown prevented RO-dependent loss of cell viability. Importantly, RO had no effect on the viability of normal human mammary cells. RO is a potent inhibitor of hormone-dependent human breast cancer cell proliferation. The anti-tumor properties of RO appear to be in part due to an off-target effect that increases the ratio of ERβ/ERα in breast cancer cells.

  11. Computer aided screening of potent inhibitor compounds against inhibitor resistant TEM β-lactamase mutants from traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qifeng; Yin, Yanxia; Liu, Hanjie; Tian, Jinhong

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) type β-lactamase mutation is largely known. Therefore, it is of interest to identify new yet improved leads against IRT from traditional Chinese medicine. Hence, we screened more than 10,000 compounds from Chinese medicine (tcm@taiwan database) with mutant molecular IRT models through docking techniques. This exercise identified compounds affeic acid, curcumin, salvianolic acid E, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid with high binding score with the mutants. This was further validated in vitro where salvianolic acid E combined with cefoperazone and sulbactam effectively inhibit the R244S mutant. PMID:25670878

  12. Synthesis and biodistribution studies of technetium-99m-labeled aminopeptidase N inhibitor conjugates.

    PubMed

    Pathuri, Gopal; Hedrick, Andria F; Disch, Bryan C; Ihnat, Michael A; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Gali, Hariprasad

    2012-07-15

    Probestin is a potent aminopeptidase N (APN) inhibitor. Four probestin conjugates containing a tripeptide chelator (N(3)S) and a PEG(2) linker were synthesized and radiolabeled with Tc-99m. The number of -COOH groups on the chelator was altered to increase the excretion of the radiotracer from blood stream via the renal-urinary pathway and to decrease its hepatobiliary uptake. Biodistribution of the radiolabeled conjugates was evaluated in healthy CF-1™ mice at 1h post-injection. The results revealed that the Tc-99m labeled probestin conjugate preferentially (>85% injected dose) excreted via the renal route when an aspartic acid residue was added to the linker (conjugate 4). These results suggest that the pharmacokinetic properties of probestin-based APN-targeted agents could be optimized by adding an appropriate amino acid residue in between the linker and the payload.

  13. Discovery of novel potent imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine PDE10a inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Meegalla, Sanath K; Huang, Hui; Illig, Carl R; Parks, Daniel J; Chen, Jinsheng; Lee, Yu-Kai; Wilson, Kenneth J; Patel, Sharmila K; Cheung, Wing S; Lu, Tianbao; Kirchner, Thomas; Askari, Hossein B; Geisler, John; Patch, Raymond J; Gibbs, Alan C; Rady, Brian; Connelly, Margery; Player, Mark R

    2016-09-01

    Design and optimization of a novel series of imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine PDE10a inhibitors are described. Compound 31 displays excellent pharmacokinetic properties and was also evaluated as an insulin secretagogue in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27491708

  14. Discovery of Potent and Specific Dihydroisoxazole Inhibitors of Human Transglutaminase 2

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme that catalyzes the posttranslational modification of glutamine residues on protein or peptide substrates. A growing body of literature has implicated aberrantly regulated activity of TG2 in the pathogenesis of various human inflammatory, fibrotic, and other diseases. Taken together with the fact that TG2 knockout mice are developmentally and reproductively normal, there is growing interest in the potential use of TG2 inhibitors in the treatment of these conditions. Targeted-covalent inhibitors based on the weakly electrophilic 3-bromo-4,5-dihydroisoxazole (DHI) scaffold have been widely used to study TG2 biology and are well tolerated in vivo, but these compounds have only modest potency, and their selectivity toward other transglutaminase homologues is largely unknown. In the present work, we first profiled the selectivity of existing inhibitors against the most pertinent TG isoforms (TG1, TG3, and FXIIIa). Significant cross-reactivity of these small molecules with TG1 was observed. Structure–activity and −selectivity analyses led to the identification of modifications that improved potency and isoform selectivity. Preliminary pharmacokinetic analysis of the most promising analogues was also undertaken. Our new data provides a clear basis for the rational selection of dihydroisoxazole inhibitors as tools for in vivo biological investigation. PMID:25333388

  15. Discovery of a Potent and Selective ROMK Inhibitor with Pharmacokinetic Properties Suitable for Preclinical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A new subseries of ROMK inhibitors exemplified by 28 has been developed from the initial screening hit 1. The excellent selectivity for ROMK inhibition over related ion channels and pharmacokinetic properties across preclinical species support further preclinical evaluation of 28 as a new mechanism diuretic. Robust pharmacodynamic effects in both SD rats and dogs have been demonstrated. PMID:26191360

  16. Absolute configuration of acremoxanthone C, a potent calmodulin inhibitor from Purpureocillium lilacinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an extract prepared from the culture medium and mycelium of Purpureocillium lilacinum allowed the isolation of two calmodulin (CaM) inhibitors, namely, acremoxanthone C (1) and acremonidin A (2). The absolute configuration of 1 was established as 2R, 3R, 1'S, 11'S, ...

  17. Novel Anthraquinone-based Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors for Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Stasevych, M.; Zvarych, V.; Lunin, V.; Halenova, T.; Savchuk, O.; Dudchak, O.; Vovk, M.; Novikov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of new derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone with benzoylthiourea, thiazole, triazole and amino acid fragments on the activity of membrane-associated tyrosine kinases was investigated. Inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinase activity of the membrane fraction, as promising agents to search for new potential anticancer agents among the studied compounds, were discovered. PMID:26798182

  18. 2-Amino-7-substituted benzoxazole analogs as potent RSK2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Costales, Abran; Mathur, Michelle; Ramurthy, Savithri; Lan, Jiong; Subramanian, Sharadha; Jain, Rama; Atallah, Gordana; Setti, Lina; Lindvall, Mika; Appleton, Brent A; Ornelas, Elizabeth; Feucht, Paul; Warne, Bob; Doyle, Laura; Basham, Stephen E; Aronchik, Ida; Jefferson, Anne B; Shafer, Cynthia M

    2014-03-15

    2-Amino-7-substituted benzoxazole analogs were identified by HTS as inhibitors of RSK2. Molecular modeling and medicinal chemistry techniques were employed to explore the SAR for this series with a focus of improving in vitro and target modulation potency and physicochemical properties.

  19. 5-Substituted 3-chlorokenpaullone derivatives are potent inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms.

    PubMed

    Orban, Oliver C F; Korn, Ricarda S; Benítez, Diego; Medeiros, Andrea; Preu, Lutz; Loaëc, Nadège; Meijer, Laurent; Koch, Oliver; Comini, Marcelo A; Kunick, Conrad

    2016-08-15

    Trypanothione synthetase is an essential enzyme for kinetoplastid parasites which cause highly disabling and fatal diseases in humans and animals. Inspired by the observation that N(5)-substituted paullones inhibit the trypanothione synthetase from the related parasite Leishmania infantum, we designed and synthesized a series of new derivatives. Although none of the new compounds displayed strong inhibition of Trypanosoma brucei trypanothione synthetase, several of them caused a remarkable growth inhibition of cultivated Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms. The most potent congener 3a showed antitrypanosomal activity in double digit nanomolar concentrations and a selectivity index of three orders of magnitude versus murine macrophage cells. PMID:27349574

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel thiadiazole amides as potent Cdc25B and PTP1B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjun; Yu, Yang; Jin, Kun; Gao, Lixin; Luo, Tongchuan; Sheng, Li; Shao, Xin; Li, Jia

    2014-09-01

    A series of novel thiadiazole amide derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory activities against Cdc25B and PTP1B. Most of them showed inhibitory activities against Cdc25B (IC50=1.18-8.01 μg/mL) and PTP1B (IC50=0.85-8.75 μg/mL), respectively. Moreover, compounds 5b and 4l were most potent with IC50 values of 1.18 and 0.85 μg/mL for Cdc25B and PTP1B, respectively, compared with reference drugs Na3VO4 (IC50=0.93 μg/mL) and oleanolic acid (IC50=0.85 μg/mL). The results of selectivity experiments showed that the target compounds were selective inhibitors against PTP1B and Cdc25B. Enzyme kinetic experiments demonstrated that compound 5k was a specific inhibitor with the typical characteristics of a mixed inhibitor. PMID:25124112

  1. Rational Development of a Potent 15-Lipoxygenase-1 Inhibitor with in Vitro and ex Vivo Anti-inflammatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos; Neochoritis, Constantinos G; Leus, Niek G J; van der Wouden, Petra E; Dömling, Alexander; Dekker, Frank J

    2015-10-01

    Human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (h-15-LOX-1) is a mammalian lipoxygenase and plays an important role in several inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma, COPD, and chronic bronchitis. Novel potent inhibitors of h-15-LOX-1 are required to explore the role of this enzyme further and to enable drug discovery efforts. In this study, we applied an approach in which we screened a fragment collection that is focused on a diverse substitution pattern of nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as indoles, quinolones, pyrazoles, and others. We denoted this approach substitution-oriented fragment screening (SOS) because it focuses on the identification of novel substitution patterns rather than on novel scaffolds. This approach enabled the identification of hits with good potency and clear structure-activity relationships (SAR) for h-1-5-LOX-1 inhibition. Molecular modeling enabled the rationalization of the observed SAR and supported structure-based design for further optimization to obtain inhibitor 14 d that binds with a Ki of 36 nM to the enzyme. In vitro and ex vivo biological evaluations of our best inhibitor demonstrate a significant increase of interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene expression, which indicates its anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26331552

  2. One novel quinoxaline derivative as a potent human cyclophilin A inhibitor shows highly inhibitory activity against mouse spleen cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Li; Wang, Feng; Gui, Chunshan; Zhang, Li; Qin, Yu; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Hong; Nan, Fajun; Shen, Jingkang; Bai, Donglu; Chen, Kaixian; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang

    2006-08-15

    Cyclophilin A (CypA) is a ubiquitous cellular enzyme playing critical roles in many biological processes, and its inhibitor has been reported to have potential immunosuppressive activity. In this work, we reported a novel quinoxaline derivative, 2,3-di(furan-2-yl)-6-(3-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-piperidino)carbonylamino quinoxaline (DC838, 3), which was confirmed to be a potent inhibitor against human CypA. By using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence titration techniques, the kinetic analysis of CypA/DC838 interaction was quantitatively performed. CypA peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity inhibition assay showed that DC838 demonstrated highly CypA PPIase inhibitory activity. In vivo assay results showed that DC838 could inhibit mouse spleen cell proliferation induced by concanavalin A (Con A). Molecular docking simulation further elucidated the specific DC838 binding to CypA at the atomic level. The current work should provide useful information in the discovery of immunosuppressor based on CypA inhibitor.

  3. Computational Study Exploring the Interaction Mechanism of Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potent Cattle Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinghui; Yang, Yinfeng; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-07-27

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections are prevailing in cattle populations on a worldwide scale. The BVDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), as a promising target for new anti-BVDV drug development, has attracted increasing attention. To explore the interaction mechanism of 65 benzimidazole scaffold-based derivatives as BVDV inhibitors, presently, a computational study was performed based on a combination of 3D-QSAR, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The resultant optimum CoMFA and CoMSIA models present proper reliabilities and strong predictive abilities (with Q(2) = 0. 64, R(2)ncv = 0.93, R(2)pred = 0.80 and Q(2) = 0. 65, R(2)ncv = 0.98, R(2)pred = 0.86, respectively). In addition, there was good concordance between these models, molecular docking, and MD results. Moreover, the MM-PBSA energy analysis reveals that the major driving force for ligand binding is the polar solvation contribution term. Hopefully, these models and the obtained findings could offer better understanding of the interaction mechanism of BVDV inhibitors as well as benefit the new discovery of more potent BVDV inhibitors. PMID:27355875

  4. Discovery of raltegravir, a potent, selective orally bioavailable HIV-integrase inhibitor for the treatment of HIV-AIDS infection.

    PubMed

    Summa, Vincenzo; Petrocchi, Alessia; Bonelli, Fabio; Crescenzi, Benedetta; Donghi, Monica; Ferrara, Marco; Fiore, Fabrizio; Gardelli, Cristina; Gonzalez Paz, Odalys; Hazuda, Daria J; Jones, Philip; Kinzel, Olaf; Laufer, Ralph; Monteagudo, Edith; Muraglia, Ester; Nizi, Emanuela; Orvieto, Federica; Pace, Paola; Pescatore, Giovanna; Scarpelli, Rita; Stillmock, Kara; Witmer, Marc V; Rowley, Michael

    2008-09-25

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) integrase is one of the three virally encoded enzymes required for replication and therefore a rational target for chemotherapeutic intervention in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. We report here the discovery of Raltegravir, the first HIV-integrase inhibitor approved by FDA for the treatment of HIV infection. It derives from the evolution of 5,6-dihydroxypyrimidine-4-carboxamides and N-methyl-4-hydroxypyrimidinone-carboxamides, which exhibited potent inhibition of the HIV-integrase catalyzed strand transfer process. Structural modifications on these molecules were made in order to maximize potency as HIV-integrase inhibitors against the wild type virus, a selection of mutants, and optimize the selectivity, pharmacokinetic, and metabolic profiles in preclinical species. The good profile of Raltegravir has enabled its progression toward the end of phase III clinical trials for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and culminated with the FDA approval as the first HIV-integrase inhibitor for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

  5. Potent and Selective α-Ketoheterocycle-Based Inhibitors of the Anandamide and Oleamide Catabolizing Enzyme, Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Romero, F. Anthony; Du, Wu; Hwang, Inkyu; Rayl, Thomas J.; Kimball, F. Scott; Leung, Donmienne; Hoover, Heather S.; Apodaca, Richard L.; Breitenbucher, J. Guy; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Boger, Dale L.

    2008-01-01

    A study of the structure–activity relationships (SAR) of 2f (OL-135), a potent inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is detailed targeting the 5-position of the oxazole. Examination of a series of substituted benzene derivatives (12–14) revealed that the optimal position for substitution was the meta-position with selected members approaching or exceeding the potency of 2f. Concurrent with these studies, the effect of substitution on the pyridine ring of 2f was also examined. A series of small, non-aromatic C5-substituents was also explored and revealed that the Ki follows a well-defined correlation with the Hammett σp constant (ρ = 3.01, R2 = 0.91) in which electron-withdrawing substituents enhance potency leading to inhibitors with Ki’s as low as 400 pM (20n). Proteomic-wide screening of the inhibitors revealed that most are exquisitely selective for FAAH over all other mammalian proteases reversing the 100-fold preference of 20a (C5 substituent = H) for the enzyme TGH. PMID:17279740

  6. Structure-activity relationship of Garcinia xanthones analogues: Potent Hsp90 inhibitors with cytotoxicity and antiangiogenesis activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoli; Wu, Yue; Hu, Mingyang; Li, Xiang; Gu, Congying; You, Qidong; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2016-10-01

    Hsp90 has long been recognized as an attractive and crucial molecular target for cancer therapy. Gambogic acid (GA), the main active compound of Gamboge hanburyi, has been reported as a natural inhibitor of Hsp90. Here, we present the structure-activity relationship of Garcinia xanthones analogues as Hsp90 inhibitors and identify that compound 25, with a simplified skeleton, had an improved inhibitory effect toward Hsp90. Compound 25 inhibited the ATPase activity of Hsp90 with an IC50 value of 3.68±0.18μM. It also exhibited potent antiproliferative activities in some solid tumor cells. In SK-BR-3 cells with high Hsp90 expression, compound 25 induced the degradation of Hsp90 client proteins including Akt and Erk1/2 without causing the heat shock response. Additionally, compound 25 inhibited angiogenesis in HUVEC cells through Hsp90 regulation of the HIF-1α pathway. These results demonstrate that compound 25 as an Hsp90 inhibitor with a new structure could be further studied for the development of tumor therapy. PMID:27527413

  7. Design and Synthesis of Highly Potent and Isoform Selective JNK3 Inhibitors: SAR Studies on Aminopyrazole Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The c-jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) is expressed primarily in the brain. Numerous reports have shown that inhibition of JNK3 is a promising strategy for treatment of neurodegeneration. The optimization of aminopyrazole-based JNK3 inhibitors with improved potency, isoform selectivity, and pharmacological properties by structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies utilizing biochemical and cell-based assays, and structure-based drug design is reported. These inhibitors had high selectivity over JNK1 and p38α, minimal cytotoxicity, potent inhibition of 6-OHDA-induced mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and ROS generation, and good drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) properties for iv dosing. 26n was profiled against 464 kinases and was found to be highly selective hitting only seven kinases with >80% inhibition at 10 μM. Moreover, 26n showed good solubility, good brain penetration, and good DMPK properties. Finally, the crystal structure of 26k in complex with JNK3 was solved at 1.8 Å to explore the binding mode of aminopyrazole based JNK3 inhibitors. PMID:25393557

  8. Rational development of a potent 15-lipoxygenase-1 inhibitor with in vitro and ex vivo anti-inflammatory properties

    PubMed Central

    Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos; Neochoritis, Constantinos G.; Leus, Niek G.J.; van der Wouden, Petra E.; Dömling, Alexander; Dekker, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (h-15-LOX-1) is an important mammalian lipoxygenase and plays an important role in several inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma, COPD and chronic bronchitis. Novel potent inhibitors of h-15-LOX-1 are required to explore the role of this enzyme further and to enable drug discovery efforts. In this study, we applied an approach in which we screened a fragment collection that is focused on a diverse substitution pattern of nitrogen containing heterocycles such as indoles, quinolones, pyrazoles etc. We denoted this approach Substitution Oriented fragment Screening (SOS), because it is focuses on identification of novel substitution patterns rather than on novel scaffolds. This approach enabled the identification of hits with good potency and clear structure activity relationships (SAR) for h-1-5-LOX-1 inhibition. A molecular modeling enabled the rationalization of the observed SAR and supported structure-based design for further optimization to obtain inhibitor 14d that binds with a Ki of 36 nM to the enzyme. In vitro and ex vivo biological evaluations of our best inhibitor demonstrate significant increase of interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene expression, which indicates anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26331552

  9. The Binding Mode of Second-Generation Sulfonamide Inhibitors of MurD: Clues for Rational Design of Potent MurD Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Simčič, Mihael; Sosič, Izidor; Hodošček, Milan; Barreteau, Hélène; Blanot, Didier; Gobec, Stanislav; Grdadolnik, Simona Golič

    2012-01-01

    A series of optimized sulfonamide derivatives was recently reported as novel inhibitors of UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine:D-glutamate ligase (MurD). These are based on naphthalene-N-sulfonyl-D-glutamic acid and have the D-glutamic acid replaced with rigidified mimetics. Here we have defined the binding site of these novel ligands to MurD using 1H/13C heteronuclear single quantum correlation. The MurD protein was selectively 13C-labeled on the methyl groups of Ile (δ1 only), Leu and Val, and was isolated and purified. Crucial Ile, Leu and Val methyl groups in the vicinity of the ligand binding site were identified by comparison of chemical shift perturbation patterns among the ligands with various structural elements and known binding modes. The conformational and dynamic properties of the bound ligands and their binding interactions were examined using the transferred nuclear Overhauser effect and saturation transfer difference. In addition, the binding mode of these novel inhibitors was thoroughly examined using unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations. Our results reveal the complex dynamic behavior of ligand–MurD complexes and its influence on ligand–enzyme contacts. We further present important findings for the rational design of potent Mur ligase inhibitors. PMID:23285193

  10. Nonhuman Primate IFITM Proteins Are Potent Inhibitors of HIV and SIV

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Jordan; Zheng, Yi-Min; Yu, Jingyou; Liang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are potent antiviral factors shown to restrict the infection of many enveloped viruses, including HIV. Here we report cloning and characterization of a panel of nonhuman primate IFITMs. We show that, similar to human IFITM, nonhuman primate IFITM proteins inhibit HIV and other primate lentiviruses. While some nonhuman primate IFITM proteins are more potent than human counterparts to inhibit HIV-1, they are generally not effective against HIV-2 similar to that of human IFITMs. Notably, depending on SIV strains and also IFITM species tested, nonhuman primate IFITM proteins exhibit distinct activities against SIVs; no correlation was found to support the notion that IFITM proteins are most active in non-natural primate hosts. Consistent with our recent findings for human IFITMs, nonhuman primate IFITM proteins interact with HIV-1 Env and strongly act in viral producer cells to impair viral infectivity and block cell-to-cell transmission. Accordingly, knockdown of primate IFITM3 increases HIV-1 replication in nohuman primate cells. Interestingly, analysis of DNA sequences of human and nonhuman primate IFITMs suggest that IFITM proteins have been undergoing purifying selection, rather than positive selection typical for cellular restriction factors. Overall, our study reveals some new and unexpected features of IFITMs in restricting primate lentiviruses, which enhances our understanding of virus-host interaction and AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:27257969

  11. Discovery of Potent Inhibitors of Schistosoma mansoni NAD⁺ Catabolizing Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Sylvain A; Kuhn, Isabelle; Koniev, Oleksandr; Schuber, Francis; Lund, Frances E; Wagner, Alain; Muller-Steffner, Hélène; Kellenberger, Esther

    2015-04-23

    The blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni is the causative agent of the intestinal form of schistosomiasis (or bilharzia). Emergence of Schistosoma mansoni with reduced sensitivity to praziquantel, the drug currently used to treat this neglected disease, has underlined the need for development of new strategies to control schistosomiasis. Our ability to screen drug libraries for antischistosomal compounds has been hampered by the lack of validated S. mansoni targets. In the present work, we describe a virtual screening approach to identify inhibitors of S. mansoni NAD(+) catabolizing enzyme (SmNACE), a receptor enzyme suspected to be involved in immune evasion by the parasite at the adult stage. Docking of commercial libraries into a homology model of the enzyme has led to the discovery of two in vitro micromolar inhibitors. Further structure-activity relationship studies have allowed a 3-log gain in potency, accompanied by a largely enhanced selectivity for the parasitic enzyme over the human homologue CD38.

  12. Development of N-(Functionalized benzoyl)-homocycloleucyl-glycinonitriles as Potent Cathepsin K Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Borišek, Jure; Vizovišek, Matej; Sosnowski, Piotr; Turk, Boris; Turk, Dušan; Mohar, Barbara; Novič, Marjana

    2015-09-10

    Cathepsin K is a major drug target for osteoporosis and related-bone disorders. Using a combination of virtual combinatorial chemistry, QSAR modeling, and molecular docking studies, a series of cathepsin K inhibitors based on N-(functionalized benzoyl)-homocycloleucyl-glycinonitrile scaffold was developed. In order to avoid previous problems of cathepsin K inhibitors associated with lysosomotropism of compounds with basic character that resulted in off-target effects, a weakly- to nonbasic moiety was incorporated into the P3 position. Compounds 5, 6, and 9 were highly selective for cathepsin K when compared with cathepsins L and S, with the Ki values in the 10-30 nM range. The kinetic studies revealed that the new compounds exhibited reversible tight binding to cathepsin K, while the X-ray structural studies showed covalent and noncovalent binding between the nitrile group and the catalytic cysteine (Cys25) site.

  13. Quinolinyl Pyrimidines: Potent Inhibitors of NDH-2 as a Novel Class of Anti-TB Agents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    NDH-2 is an essential respiratory enzyme in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which plays an important role in the physiology of Mtb. Herein, we present a target-based effort to identify a new structural class of inhibitors for NDH-2. High-throughput screening of the AstraZeneca corporate collection resulted in the identification of quinolinyl pyrimidines as the most promising class of NDH-2 inhibitors. Structure–activity relationship studies showed improved enzyme inhibition (IC50) against the NDH-2 target, which in turn translated into cellular activity against Mtb. Thus, the compounds in this class show a good correlation between enzyme inhibition and cellular potency. Furthermore, early ADME profiling of the best compounds showed promising results and highlighted the quinolinyl pyrimidine class as a potential lead for further development. PMID:24900541

  14. Discovery of 3,5-substituted 6-azaindazoles as potent pan-Pim inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiyong; Wang, Xiaojing; Chan, Grace Ka Yan; Chang, Jae H; Do, Steven; Drummond, Jake; Ebens, Allen; Lee, Wendy; Ly, Justin; Lyssikatos, Joseph P; Murray, Jeremy; Moffat, John G; Chao, Qi; Tsui, Vickie; Wallweber, Heidi; Kolesnikov, Aleksandr

    2015-11-15

    Pim kinase inhibitors are promising cancer therapeutics. Pim-2, among the three Pim isoforms, plays a critical role in multiple myeloma yet inhibition of Pim-2 is challenging due to its high affinity for ATP. A co-crystal structure of a screening hit 1 bound to Pim-1 kinase revealed the key binding interactions of its indazole core within the ATP binding site. Screening of analogous core fragments afforded 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine (6-azaindazole) as a core for the development of pan-Pim inhibitors. Fragment and structure based drug design led to identification of the series with picomolar biochemical potency against all three Pim isoforms. Desirable cellular potency was also achieved.

  15. A Novel and Potent Inhibitor of Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase: A Modulator of Cardiovascular Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Ghebremariam, Yohannes T.; Erlanson, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    PD 404182 [6H-6-imino-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyrimido)[1,2-c]-[1,3]benzothiazine], a heterocyclic iminobenzothiazine derivative, is a member of the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) that is reported to possess antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we used biochemical assays to screen LOPAC against human dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase isoform 1 (DDAH1), an enzyme that physiologically metabolizes asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous and competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. We discovered that PD 404182 directly and dose-dependently inhibits DDAH. Moreover, PD 404182 significantly increased intracellular levels of ADMA in cultured primary human vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in these cells, suggesting its therapeutic potential in septic shock–induced vascular collapse. In addition, PD 404182 abrogated the formation of tube-like structures by ECs in an in vitro angiogenesis assay, indicating its antiangiogenic potential in diseases characterized by pathologically excessive angiogenesis. Furthermore, we investigated the potential mechanism of inhibition of DDAH by this small molecule and found that PD 404182, which has striking structural similarity to ADMA, could be competed by a DDAH substrate, suggesting that it is a competitive inhibitor. Finally, our enzyme kinetics assay showed time-dependent inhibition, and our inhibitor dilution assay showed that the enzymatic activity of DDAH did not recover significantly after dilution, suggesting that PD 404182 might be a tightly bound, covalent, or an irreversible inhibitor of human DDAH1. This proposal is supported by mass spectrometry studies with PD 404182 and glutathione. PMID:24135074

  16. Discovery of ravidasvir (PPI-668) as a potent pan-genotypic HCV NS5A inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Min; Peng, Eric; Huang, Ningwu; Huang, Qi; Huq, Anja; Lau, Meiyen; Colonno, Richard; Li, Leping

    2016-09-15

    This Letter describes the synthesis, representative structure activity relationship (SAR), activity and PK profiles of a series of functionalized benzimidazole-naphthylene-imidazole derivatives as HCV NS5A inhibitors. This effort successfully led to the discovery of ravidasvir (PPI-668), which has been well tolerated and shown high sustained viral response rates as a key component in all-oral combination regimens in multiple human clinical trials.

  17. Discovery of ravidasvir (PPI-668) as a potent pan-genotypic HCV NS5A inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Min; Peng, Eric; Huang, Ningwu; Huang, Qi; Huq, Anja; Lau, Meiyen; Colonno, Richard; Li, Leping

    2016-09-15

    This Letter describes the synthesis, representative structure activity relationship (SAR), activity and PK profiles of a series of functionalized benzimidazole-naphthylene-imidazole derivatives as HCV NS5A inhibitors. This effort successfully led to the discovery of ravidasvir (PPI-668), which has been well tolerated and shown high sustained viral response rates as a key component in all-oral combination regimens in multiple human clinical trials. PMID:27506559

  18. Identification of ML251, a Potent Inhibitor of T. brucei and T. cruzi Phosphofructokinase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a severe, often fatal disease caused by the parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei. The glycolytic pathway has been identified as the sole mechanism for ATP generation in the infective stage of these organisms, and several glycolytic enzymes, phosphofructokinase (PFK) in particular, have shown promise as potential drug targets. Herein, we describe the discovery of ML251, a novel nanomolar inhibitor of T. brucei PFK, and the structure–activity relationships within the series. PMID:24900769

  19. Biochemical, Cellular, and Biophysical Characterization of a Potent Inhibitor of Mutant Isocitrate Dehydrogenase IDH1*

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mindy I.; Gross, Stefan; Shen, Min; Straley, Kimberly S.; Pragani, Rajan; Lea, Wendy A.; Popovici-Muller, Janeta; DeLaBarre, Byron; Artin, Erin; Thorne, Natasha; Auld, Douglas S.; Li, Zhuyin; Dang, Lenny; Boxer, Matthew B.; Simeonov, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Two mutant forms (R132H and R132C) of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) have been associated with a number of cancers including glioblastoma and acute myeloid leukemia. These mutations confer a neomorphic activity of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) production, and 2-HG has previously been implicated as an oncometabolite. Inhibitors of mutant IDH1 can potentially be used to treat these diseases. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of a newly discovered inhibitor, ML309, using biochemical, cellular, and biophysical approaches. Substrate binding and product inhibition studies helped to further elucidate the IDH1 R132H catalytic cycle. This rapidly equilibrating inhibitor is active in both biochemical and cellular assays. The (+) isomer is active (IC50 = 68 nm), whereas the (−) isomer is over 400-fold less active (IC50 = 29 μm) for IDH1 R132H inhibition. IDH1 R132C was similarly inhibited by (+)-ML309. WT IDH1 was largely unaffected by (+)-ML309 (IC50 >36 μm). Kinetic analyses combined with microscale thermophoresis and surface plasmon resonance indicate that this reversible inhibitor binds to IDH1 R132H competitively with respect to α-ketoglutarate and uncompetitively with respect to NADPH. A reaction scheme for IDH1 R132H inhibition by ML309 is proposed in which ML309 binds to IDH1 R132H after formation of the IDH1 R132H NADPH complex. ML309 was also able to inhibit 2-HG production in a glioblastoma cell line (IC50 = 250 nm) and had minimal cytotoxicity. In the presence of racemic ML309, 2-HG levels drop rapidly. This drop was sustained until 48 h, at which point the compound was washed out and 2-HG levels recovered. PMID:24668804

  20. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues as potent and selective inhibitors of cathepsin L.

    PubMed

    Parker, Erica N; Song, Jiangli; Kishore Kumar, G D; Odutola, Samuel O; Chavarria, Gustavo E; Charlton-Sevcik, Amanda K; Strecker, Tracy E; Barnes, Ashleigh L; Sudhan, Dhivya R; Wittenborn, Thomas R; Siemann, Dietmar W; Horsman, Michael R; Chaplin, David J; Trawick, Mary Lynn; Pinney, Kevin G

    2015-11-01

    Upregulation of cathepsin L in a variety of tumors and its ability to promote cancer cell invasion and migration through degradation of the extracellular matrix suggest that cathepsin L is a promising biological target for the development of anti-metastatic agents. Based on encouraging results from studies on benzophenone thiosemicarbazone cathepsin inhibitors, a series of fourteen benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against cathepsins L and B. Thiosemicarbazone inhibitors 3-benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone 1, 1,3-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene thiosemicarbazone 8, and 1,3-bis(2-fluorobenzoyl)-5-bromobenzene thiosemicarbazone 32 displayed the greatest potency against cathepsin L with low IC50 values of 9.9 nM, 14.4 nM, and 8.1 nM, respectively. The benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone analogues evaluated were selective in their inhibition of cathepsin L compared to cathepsin B. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 32 inhibited invasion through Matrigel of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by 70% at 10 μM. Thiosemicarbazone analogue 8 significantly inhibited the invasive potential of PC-3ML prostate cancer cells by 92% at 5 μM. The most active cathepsin L inhibitors from this benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone series (1, 8, and 32) displayed low cytotoxicity toward normal primary cells [in this case human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs)]. In an initial in vivo study, 3-benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone (1) was well-tolerated in a CDF1 mouse model bearing an implanted C3H mammary carcinoma, and showed efficacy in tumor growth delay. Low cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell invasion, and in vivo tolerability are desirable characteristics for anti-metastatic agents functioning through an inhibition of cathepsin L. Active members of this structurally diverse group of benzoylbenzophenone thiosemicarbazone cathepsin L inhibitors show promise as potential anti-metastatic, pre

  1. Novel tricyclics (e.g., GSK945237) as potent inhibitors of bacterial type IIA topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Miles, Timothy J; Hennessy, Alan J; Bax, Ben; Brooks, Gerald; Brown, Barry S; Brown, Pamela; Cailleau, Nathalie; Chen, Dongzhao; Dabbs, Steven; Davies, David T; Esken, Joel M; Giordano, Ilaria; Hoover, Jennifer L; Jones, Graham E; Kusalakumari Sukmar, Senthill K; Markwell, Roger E; Minthorn, Elisabeth A; Rittenhouse, Steve; Gwynn, Michael N; Pearson, Neil D

    2016-05-15

    During the course of our research on the lead optimisation of the NBTI (Novel Bacterial Type II Topoisomerase Inhibitors) class of antibacterials, we discovered a series of tricyclic compounds that showed good Gram-positive and Gram-negative potency. Herein we will discuss the various subunits that were investigated in this series and report advanced studies on compound 1 (GSK945237) which demonstrates good PK and in vivo efficacy properties. PMID:27055939

  2. Swapped domain constructs of the glycoprotein-41 ectodomain are potent inhibitors of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Shidong; Kaur, Hardeep; Nemati, Ariana; Walsh, Joseph D.; Partida, Vivian; Zhang, Shao-Qing; Gochin, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The conformational rearrangement of N-and C-heptad repeats (NHR, CHR) of the HIV-1 glycoprotein-41 (gp41) ectodomain into a trimer of hairpins triggers virus – cell fusion by bringing together membrane-spanning N- and C-terminal domains. Peptides derived from the NHR and CHR inhibit fusion by targeting a prehairpin intermediate state of gp41. Typically, peptides derived from the CHR are low nM inhibitors, while peptides derived from the NHR are low μM inhibitors. Here we describe the inhibitory activity of swapped domain gp41 mimics of the form CHR-loop-NHR, which were designed to form reverse hairpin trimers exposing NHR grooves. We observed low nM inhibition of HIV fusion in constructs that possessed the following properties: an extended NHR C-terminus, an exposed conserved hydrophobic pocket on the NHR, high helical content and trimer stability. Low nM activity was independent of CHR length. CD studies in membrane mimetic dodecylphosphocholine micelles suggested that bioactivity could be related to the ability of the inhibitors to interact with a membrane-associated prehairpin intermediate. The swapped domain design resolves the problem of unstable and weakly active NHR peptides, and suggests a different mechanism of action from that of CHR peptides in inhibition of HIV-1 fusion. PMID:25646644

  3. Iodine atoms: a new molecular feature for the design of potent transthyretin fibrillogenesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mairal, Teresa; Nieto, Joan; Pinto, Marta; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Gales, Luis; Ballesteros, Alfredo; Barluenga, José; Pérez, Juan J; Vázquez, Jesús T; Centeno, Nuria B; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Damas, Ana M; Planas, Antoni; Arsequell, Gemma; Valencia, Gregorio

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid hormone and retinol transporter protein known as transthyretin (TTR) is in the origin of one of the 20 or so known amyloid diseases. TTR self assembles as a homotetramer leaving a central hydrophobic channel with two symmetrical binding sites. The aggregation pathway of TTR into amiloid fibrils is not yet well characterized but in vitro binding of thyroid hormones and other small organic molecules to TTR binding channel results in tetramer stabilization which prevents amyloid formation in an extent which is proportional to the binding constant. Up to now, TTR aggregation inhibitors have been designed looking at various structural features of this binding channel others than its ability to host iodine atoms. In the present work, greatly improved inhibitors have been designed and tested by taking into account that thyroid hormones are unique in human biochemistry owing to the presence of multiple iodine atoms in their molecules which are probed to interact with specific halogen binding domains sitting at the TTR binding channel. The new TTR fibrillogenesis inhibitors are based on the diflunisal core structure because diflunisal is a registered salicylate drug with NSAID activity now undergoing clinical trials for TTR amyloid diseases. Biochemical and biophysical evidence confirms that iodine atoms can be an important design feature in the search for candidate drugs for TTR related amyloidosis. PMID:19125186

  4. Iodine Atoms: A New Molecular Feature for the Design of Potent Transthyretin Fibrillogenesis Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Marta; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Gales, Luis; Ballesteros, Alfredo; Barluenga, José; Pérez, Juan J.; Vázquez, Jesús T.; Centeno, Nuria B.; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Damas, Ana M.; Planas, Antoni; Arsequell, Gemma; Valencia, Gregorio

    2009-01-01

    The thyroid hormone and retinol transporter protein known as transthyretin (TTR) is in the origin of one of the 20 or so known amyloid diseases. TTR self assembles as a homotetramer leaving a central hydrophobic channel with two symmetrical binding sites. The aggregation pathway of TTR into amiloid fibrils is not yet well characterized but in vitro binding of thyroid hormones and other small organic molecules to TTR binding channel results in tetramer stabilization which prevents amyloid formation in an extent which is proportional to the binding constant. Up to now, TTR aggregation inhibitors have been designed looking at various structural features of this binding channel others than its ability to host iodine atoms. In the present work, greatly improved inhibitors have been designed and tested by taking into account that thyroid hormones are unique in human biochemistry owing to the presence of multiple iodine atoms in their molecules which are probed to interact with specific halogen binding domains sitting at the TTR binding channel. The new TTR fibrillogenesis inhibitors are based on the diflunisal core structure because diflunisal is a registered salicylate drug with NSAID activity now undergoing clinical trials for TTR amyloid diseases. Biochemical and biophysical evidence confirms that iodine atoms can be an important design feature in the search for candidate drugs for TTR related amyloidosis. PMID:19125186

  5. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Inhibitors as Potent Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Because the current therapies only lead to temporary, limited improvement and have severe side effects, new approaches to treat PD need to be developed. To discover new targets for potential therapeutic intervention, a chemical genetic approach involving the use of small molecules as pharmacological tools has been implemented. First, a screening of an in-house chemical library on a well-established cellular model of PD was done followed by a detailed pharmacological analysis of the hits. Here, we report the results found for the small heterocyclic derivative called SC001, which after different enzymatic assays was revealed to be a new glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor with IC50 = 3.38 ± 0.08 μM. To confirm that GSK-3 could be a good target for PD, the evaluation of a set of structurally diverse GSK-3 inhibitors as neuroprotective agents for PD was performed. Results show that inhibitors of GSK-3 have neuroprotective effects in vitro representing a new pharmacological option for the disease-modifying treatment of PD. Furthermore, we show that SC001 is able to cross the blood–brain barrier, protects dopaminergic neurons, and reduces microglia activation in in vivo models of Parkinson disease, being a good candidate for further drug development. PMID:23421686

  6. Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Human Reticulocyte 12/15-Lipoxygenase as Anti-Stroke Therapies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A key challenge facing drug discovery today is variability of the drug target between species, such as with 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX), which contributes to ischemic brain injury, but its human and rodent isozymes have different inhibitor specificities. In the current work, we have utilized a quantitative high-throughput (qHTS) screen to identify compound 1 (ML351), a novel chemotype for 12/15-LOX inhibition that has nanomolar potency (IC50 = 200 nM) against human 12/15-LOX and is protective against oxidative glutamate toxicity in mouse neuronal HT22 cells. In addition, it exhibited greater than 250-fold selectivity versus related LOX isozymes, was a mixed inhibitor, and did not reduce the active-site ferric ion. Lastly, 1 significantly reduced infarct size following permanent focal ischemia in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. As such, this represents the first report of a selective inhibitor of human 12/15-LOX with demonstrated in vivo activity in proof-of-concept mouse models of stroke. PMID:24684213

  7. DL-a-Monofluoromethylputrescine is a potent irreversible inhibitor of Escherichia coli ornithine decarboxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, A; McCann, P P; Bey, P

    1982-01-01

    DL-alpha-Monofluoromethylputrescine (compound R.M.I. 71864) is an enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitor of the biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase from Escherichia coli. This compound, however, has much less effect in vitro on ornithine decarboxylase obtained from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These findings are in contrast with those previously found with the substrate analogue DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine (compound R.M.I. 71782). The K1 of the DL-alpha-monofluoromethylputrescine for the E. coli ornithine decarboxylase is 110 microM, and the half-life (t1/2) calculated for an infinite concentration of inhibitor is 2.1 min. When DL-alpha-monofluoromethylputrescine is used in combination with DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (R.M.I. 71897), an irreversible inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase, in vivo in E. coli, both decarboxylase activities are inhibited (greater than 95%) but putrescine levels are only decreased to about one-third of control values and spermidine levels are slightly increased. PMID:6812566

  8. The anti-inflammatory compound BAY-11-7082 is a potent inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Navasona; Bencze, Gyula; Cohen, Philip; Tonks, Nicholas K

    2013-06-01

    The families of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) function in a coordinated manner to regulate signal transduction events that are critical for cellular homeostasis. Aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation, resulting from disruption of either PTP or PTK function, has been shown to be the cause of major human diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Consequently, the characterization of small-molecule inhibitors of these kinases and phosphatases may not only provide molecular probes with which to define the significance of particular signaling events, but also may have therapeutic implications. BAY-11-7082 is an anti-inflammatory compound that has been reported to inhibit IκB kinase activity. The compound has an α,β-unsaturated electrophilic center, which confers the property of being a Michael acceptor; this suggests that it may react with nucleophilic cysteine-containing proteins, such as PTPs. In this study, we demonstrated that BAY-11-7082 was a potent, irreversible inhibitor of PTPs. Using mass spectrometry, we have shown that BAY-11-7082 inactivated PTPs by forming a covalent adduct with the active-site cysteine. Administration of the compound caused an increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation in RAW 264 macrophages, similar to the effects of the generic PTP inhibitor sodium orthovanadate. These data illustrate that BAY-11-7082 is an effective pan-PTP inhibitor with cell permeability, revealing its potential as a new probe for chemical biology approaches to the study of PTP function. Furthermore, the data suggest that inhibition of PTP function may contribute to the many biological effects of BAY-11-7082 that have been reported to date.

  9. The anti-inflammatory compound BAY-11-7082 is a potent inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Navasona; Bencze, Gyula; Cohen, Philip; Tonks, Nicholas K

    2013-06-01

    The families of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) function in a coordinated manner to regulate signal transduction events that are critical for cellular homeostasis. Aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation, resulting from disruption of either PTP or PTK function, has been shown to be the cause of major human diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Consequently, the characterization of small-molecule inhibitors of these kinases and phosphatases may not only provide molecular probes with which to define the significance of particular signaling events, but also may have therapeutic implications. BAY-11-7082 is an anti-inflammatory compound that has been reported to inhibit IκB kinase activity. The compound has an α,β-unsaturated electrophilic center, which confers the property of being a Michael acceptor; this suggests that it may react with nucleophilic cysteine-containing proteins, such as PTPs. In this study, we demonstrated that BAY-11-7082 was a potent, irreversible inhibitor of PTPs. Using mass spectrometry, we have shown that BAY-11-7082 inactivated PTPs by forming a covalent adduct with the active-site cysteine. Administration of the compound caused an increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation in RAW 264 macrophages, similar to the effects of the generic PTP inhibitor sodium orthovanadate. These data illustrate that BAY-11-7082 is an effective pan-PTP inhibitor with cell permeability, revealing its potential as a new probe for chemical biology approaches to the study of PTP function. Furthermore, the data suggest that inhibition of PTP function may contribute to the many biological effects of BAY-11-7082 that have been reported to date. PMID:23578302

  10. The anti-inflammatory compound BAY 11-7082 is a potent inhibitor of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Navasona; Bencze, Gyula; Cohen, Philip; Tonks, Nicholas K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The families of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) function in a coordinated manner to regulate signal transduction events that are critical for cellular homeostasis. Aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation, resulting from disruption of either PTP or PTK function, has been shown to be the cause of major human diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Consequently, the characterization of small molecule inhibitors of these kinases and phosphatases may not only provide molecular probes with which to define the significance of particular signalling events, but also may have therapeutic implications. BAY 11-7082 is an anti-inflammatory compound that has been reported to inhibit IκB kinase activity. The compound has an α,β-unsaturated electrophilic center, which confers the property of being a Michael acceptor; this suggests that it may react with nucleophilic cysteine-containing proteins, such as PTPs. In this study, we demonstrated that BAY 11-7082 was a potent, irreversible inhibitor of PTPs. Using mass spectrometry, we have shown that BAY 11-7082 inactivated PTPs by forming a covalent adduct with the active site cysteine. Administration of the compound caused an increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation in RAW 264 macrophages, similar to the effects of the generic PTP inhibitor sodium orthovanadate. These data illustrate that BAY 11-7082 is an effective pan-PTP inhibitor with cell permeability, revealing its potential as a new probe for chemical biology approaches to the study of PTP function. Furthermore, the data suggest that inhibition of PTP function may contribute to the many biological effects of BAY 11-7082 that have been reported to date. PMID:23578302

  11. Novel arylalkenylpropargylamines as neuroprotective, potent, and selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitors for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Huleatt, Paul B; Khoo, Mui Ling; Chua, Yi Yuan; Tan, Tiong Wei; Liew, Rou Shen; Balogh, Balázs; Deme, Ruth; Gölöncsér, Flóra; Magyar, Kalman; Sheela, David P; Ho, Han Kiat; Sperlágh, Beáta; Mátyus, Péter; Chai, Christina L L

    2015-02-12

    To develop novel neuroprotective agents, a library of novel arylalkenylpropargylamines was synthesized and tested for inhibitory activities against monoamine oxidases. From this, a number of highly potent and selective monoamine oxidase B inhibitors were identified. Selected compounds were also tested for neuroprotection in in vitro studies with PC-12 cells treated with 6-OHDA and rotenone, respectively. It was observed that some of the compounds tested yielded a marked increase in survival in PC-12 cells treated with the neurotoxins. This indicates that these propargylamines are able to confer protection against the effects of the toxins and may also be considered as novel disease-modifying anti-Parkinsonian agents, which are much needed for the therapy of Parkinson's disease.

  12. Synthesis and in vitro/in vivo Evaluation of the Antitrypanosomal Activity of 3-Bromoacivicin, a Potent CTP Synthetase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Paola; Pinto, Andrea; Wong, Pui E; Major, Louise L; Tamborini, Lucia; Iannuzzi, Maria C; De Micheli, Carlo; Barrett, Michael P; Smith, Terry K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The first convenient synthesis of enantiomerically pure (αS,5S)-α-amino-3-bromo-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-5-yl acetic acid (3-bromoacivicin) is described. We demonstrate that 3-bromoacivicin is a CTP synthetase inhibitor three times as potent as its 3-chloro analogue, the natural antibiotic acivicin. Because CTP synthetase was suggested to be a potential drug target in African trypanosomes, the in vitro/in vivo antitrypanosomal activity of 3-bromoacivicin was assessed in comparison with acivicin. Beyond expectation, we observed a 12-fold enhancement in the in vitro antitrypanosomal activity, while toxicity against mammalian cells remained unaffected. Despite its good in vitro activity and selectivity, 3-bromoacivicin proved to be trypanostatic and failed to completely eradicate the infection when tested in vivo at its maximum tolerable dose. PMID:21275056

  13. Polymerized liposomes containing C-glycosides of sialic acid: Potent inhibitors of influenza virus in vitro infectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Spevak, W.; Bednarski, M.D.; Nagy, J.O.; Charych, D.H ); Schaefer, M.E.; Gilbert, J.H. )

    1993-02-10

    The surface lectin of the influenza virus, hemagglutinin, binds to terminal [alpha]-glycosides of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) on cell-surface glycoproteins and glycolipids. Viral binding to cells expression terminal NeuAc residues can be inhibited by [alpha]-O-glycosides of NeuAc (O-sialosides). Recently, dramatic enhancements in the inhibition of viral adhesion to erythrocytes have been achieved using synthetic polyvalent sialosides. In this communication, the authors report that polymerized liposomes containing [alpha]-C-glycosides of sialic acid are potent inhibitors of influenza virus in vitro infectivity. Their results also indicate that the capacity to inhibit hemagglutination does not necessarily reflect the capacity to inhibit in vitro infectivity. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel N-arylidenequinoline-3-carbohydrazides as potent β-glucuronidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Taha, Muhammad; Sultan, Sadia; Nuzar, Herizal Ali; Rahim, Fazal; Imran, Syahrul; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Naz, Humera; Ullah, Hayat

    2016-08-15

    Thirty N-arylidenequinoline-3-carbohydrazides (1-30) have been synthesized and evaluated against β-glucuronidase inhibitory potential. Twenty four analogs showed outstanding β-glucuronidase activity having IC50 values ranging between 2.11±0.05 and 46.14±0.95 than standard d-saccharic acid 1,4 lactone (IC50=48.4±1.25μM). Six analogs showed good β-glucuronidase activity having IC50 values ranging between 49.38±0.90 and 80.10±1.80. Structure activity relationship and the interaction of the active compounds and enzyme active site with the help of docking studies were established. Our study identifies novel series of potent β-glucuronidase inhibitors for further investigation. PMID:27312423

  15. Potent and selective inhibitors of class A β-lactamase: 7-prenyloxy coumarins.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Hadi; Neshani, Alireza; Sadeghian, Ali; Ebrahimi, Masoomeh; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Sadeghian, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Class A and D β-lactamases are the main causes of resistance against β-lactam antibiotics, especially the penam group, in Staphylococcus aureus. On the basis of the potentiator property of ethanolic extracts of Ferula szowitsiana root on penicillin, MIC values observed for resistant S. aureus, the main naturally occurring compounds in these extracts, auraptene, umbelliprenin and galbanic acid, were evaluated for β-lactamase inhibitory activity. Amongst them auraptene showed the most potent inhibitory activity (IC50=21±1.5 μM) toward class A β-lactamase, whereas no inhibition was observed for class D β-lactamase. To obtain the structure activity relationship of the mentioned compounds and rationalize the enzyme inhibitory results, docking analysis was performed for both groups of β-lactamases. Docking analysis showed that the compounds have 100-500-fold lower bonding affinity toward the class D β-lactamase than toward the class A enzyme.

  16. Ivermectin is a potent inhibitor of flavivirus replication specifically targeting NS3 helicase activity: new prospects for an old drug

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, Eloise; Pezzullo, Margherita; De Burghgraeve, Tine; Kaptein, Suzanne; Pastorino, Boris; Dallmeier, Kai; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Neyts, Johan; Hanson, Alicia M.; Frick, David N.; Bolognesi, Martino; Milani, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Infection with yellow fever virus (YFV), the prototypic mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes severe febrile disease with haemorrhage, multi-organ failure and a high mortality. Moreover, in recent years the Flavivirus genus has gained further attention due to re-emergence and increasing incidence of West Nile, dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Potent and safe antivirals are urgently needed. Methods Starting from the crystal structure of the NS3 helicase from Kunjin virus (an Australian variant of West Nile virus), we identified a novel, unexploited protein site that might be involved in the helicase catalytic cycle and could thus in principle be targeted for enzyme inhibition. In silico docking of a library of small molecules allowed us to identify a few selected compounds with high predicted affinity for the new site. Their activity against helicases from several flaviviruses was confirmed in in vitro helicase/enzymatic assays. The effect on the in vitro replication of flaviviruses was then evaluated. Results Ivermectin, a broadly used anti-helminthic drug, proved to be a highly potent inhibitor of YFV replication (EC50 values in the sub-nanomolar range). Moreover, ivermectin inhibited, although less efficiently, the replication of several other flaviviruses, i.e. dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Ivermectin exerts its effect at a timepoint that coincides with the onset of intracellular viral RNA synthesis, as expected for a molecule that specifically targets the viral helicase. Conclusions The well-tolerated drug ivermectin may hold great potential for treatment of YFV infections. Furthermore, structure-based optimization may result in analogues exerting potent activity against flaviviruses other than YFV. PMID:22535622

  17. Preclinical pharmacology, antitumor activity and development of pharmacodynamic markers for the novel, potent AKT inhibitor CCT128930

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Timothy A.; Walton, Mike I.; Hunter, Lisa-Jane K.; Valenti, Melanie; de Haven Brandon, Alexis; Eve, Paul D.; Ruddle, Ruth; Heaton, Simon P.; Henley, Alan; Pickard, Lisa; Vijayaraghavan, Gowri; Caldwell, John J.; Thompson, Neil T.; Aherne, Wynne; Raynaud, Florence I.; Eccles, Suzanne A.; Workman, Paul; Collins, Ian; Garrett, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    AKT is frequently deregulated in cancer, making it an attractive anticancer drug target. CCT128930 is a novel ATP-competitive AKT inhibitor discovered using fragment and structure-based approaches. It is a potent, advanced lead pyrrolopyrimidine compound exhibiting selectivity for AKT over PKA, achieved by targeting a single amino acid difference. CCT128930 exhibited marked antiproliferative activity and inhibited the phosphorylation of a range of AKT substrates in multiple tumor cell lines in vitro, consistent with AKT inhibition. CCT128930 caused a G1 arrest in PTEN-null U87MG human glioblastoma cells, consistent with AKT pathway blockade. Pharmacokinetic studies established that potentially active concentrations of CCT128930 could be achieved in human tumor xenografts. Furthermore, CCT128930 also blocked the phosphorylation of several downstream AKT biomarkers in U87MG tumor xenografts, indicating AKT inhibition in vivo. Antitumor activity was observed with CCT128930 in U87MG and HER2-positive, PIK3CA-mutant BT474 human breast cancer xenografts, consistent with its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. A quantitative immunofluorescence assay to measure the phosphorylation and total protein expression of the AKT substrate PRAS40 in hair follicles is presented. Significant decreases in pThr246 PRAS40 occurred in CCT128930-treated mouse whisker follicles in vivo and human hair follicles treated ex vivo, with minimal changes in total PRAS40. In conclusion, CCT128930 is a novel, selective and potent AKT inhibitor, which blocks AKT activity in vitro and in vivo and induces marked antitumor responses. We have also developed a novel biomarker assay for the inhibition of AKT in human hair follicles, which is currently being employed in clinical trials. PMID:21191045

  18. Preclinical pharmacology, antitumor activity, and development of pharmacodynamic markers for the novel, potent AKT inhibitor CCT128930.

    PubMed

    Yap, Timothy A; Walton, Mike I; Hunter, Lisa-Jane K; Valenti, Melanie; de Haven Brandon, Alexis; Eve, Paul D; Ruddle, Ruth; Heaton, Simon P; Henley, Alan; Pickard, Lisa; Vijayaraghavan, Gowri; Caldwell, John J; Thompson, Neil T; Aherne, Wynne; Raynaud, Florence I; Eccles, Suzanne A; Workman, Paul; Collins, Ian; Garrett, Michelle D

    2011-02-01

    AKT is frequently deregulated in cancer, making it an attractive anticancer drug target. CCT128930 is a novel ATP-competitive AKT inhibitor discovered using fragment- and structure-based approaches. It is a potent, advanced lead pyrrolopyrimidine compound exhibiting selectivity for AKT over PKA, achieved by targeting a single amino acid difference. CCT128930 exhibited marked antiproliferative activity and inhibited the phosphorylation of a range of AKT substrates in multiple tumor cell lines in vitro, consistent with AKT inhibition. CCT128930 caused a G(1) arrest in PTEN-null U87MG human glioblastoma cells, consistent with AKT pathway blockade. Pharmacokinetic studies established that potentially active concentrations of CCT128930 could be achieved in human tumor xenografts. Furthermore, CCT128930 also blocked the phosphorylation of several downstream AKT biomarkers in U87MG tumor xenografts, indicating AKT inhibition in vivo. Antitumor activity was observed with CCT128930 in U87MG and HER2-positive, PIK3CA-mutant BT474 human breast cancer xenografts, consistent with its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. A quantitative immunofluorescence assay to measure the phosphorylation and total protein expression of the AKT substrate PRAS40 in hair follicles is presented. Significant decreases in pThr246 PRAS40 occurred in CCT128930-treated mouse whisker follicles in vivo and human hair follicles treated ex vivo, with minimal changes in total PRAS40. In conclusion, CCT128930 is a novel, selective, and potent AKT inhibitor that blocks AKT activity in vitro and in vivo and induces marked antitumor responses. We have also developed a novel biomarker assay for the inhibition of AKT in human hair follicles, which is currently being used in clinical trials. PMID:21191045

  19. Highly potent oxathiin carboxanilide derivatives with efficacy against nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant human immunodeficiency virus isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Buckheit, R W; Snow, M J; Fliakas-Boltz, V; Kinjerski, T L; Russell, J D; Pallansch, L A; Brouwer, W G; Yang, S S

    1997-01-01

    The structure-activity relationships of a series of compounds related to the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NNRTI) oxathiin carboxanilide have been described (R. W. Buckheit, Jr., T. L. Kinjerski, V. Fliakas-Boltz, J. D. Russell, T. L. Stup, L. A. Pallansch, W. G. Brouwer, D. C. Dao, W. A. Harrison, R. J. Schultz, J. P. Bader, and S. S. Yang, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:2718-2727, 1996). From these studies, the furanyl-containing analog UC10 was identified as the most potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and a promising candidate for further development. Three new UC analogs (UC040, UC82, and UC781) have been determined to inhibit laboratory-derived and low-passage-number, primary virus isolates at low nanomolar concentrations in both established and fresh human cells. Each of the compounds synergistically interacted with the nucleoside analogs zidovudine, dideoxyinosine, dideoxycytosine, and lamivudine to inhibit HIV-1 replication. As a group, the UC compounds were found to be less active against viruses with the L100I, K103N, and Y181C amino acid changes in the RT and, upon in vitro selection, yielded resistant virus with the Y181C mutation in the RT. The most potent of the three new compounds, UC781, contains a furanyl side chain, similar to UC10, but differs in having an extended ether side chain instead of an oxime chain. The broad therapeutic index of UC781 (>62,000) resulted in effective inhibition of NNRTI-resistant virus isolates at high nanomolar concentrations. Furthermore, UC781 and the NNRTI costatolide were able to synergistically inhibit HIV-1 replication when used in combination, suggesting that UC781 may interact with the RT differently than the other UC analogs. The favorable anti-HIV properties of the UC compounds suggest they should be considered for further clinical development. PMID:9087499

  20. 1,4-Diphenalkylpiperidines: A new scaffold for the design of potent inhibitors of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Justin R; Culver, John P; Janganati, Venumadhav; Zheng, Guangrong; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2016-07-01

    A series of 1,4-diphenalkylpiperidine analogs were synthesized and evaluated for their affinity and inhibitory potency at the [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) binding site and [(3)H]dopamine (DA) uptake site on the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2). Results revealed that translocation of the phenethyl side chains of lobelane from C2 and C6 to C1 and C4 around the central piperidine ring slightly reduces affinity and inhibitory potency at VMAT2 with respect to lobelane. However, methoxy and fluoro-substitution of either phenyl ring of these 1,4-diphenethyl analogs afforded VMAT2 inhibition comparable or higher (5-fold) affinity at the DTBZ binding and DA uptake sites relative to lobelane, whereas replacement of the 4-phenethyl moiety in these analogs with a 4-phenmethyl moiety markedly reduced affinity for the DTBZ binding and DA uptake sites by 3- and 5-fold, respectively. Among the twenty five 1,4-diphenethylpiperidine analogs evaluated, compounds containing a 4-(2-methoxyphenethyl) moiety exhibited the most potent inhibition of DTBZ binding and vesicular DA uptake. From this subgroup, analogs 8h, 8j and 8m exhibited Ki values of 9.3nM, 13nM and 13nM, respectively, for inhibition of [(3)H]DA uptake by VMAT2, and represent some of the most potent inhibitors of VMAT2 function reported thus far.

  1. Discovery of the First N-Hydroxycinnamamide-Based Histone Deacetylase 1/3 Dual Inhibitors with Potent Oral Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we designed and synthesized a novel series of N-hydroxycinnamamide-based HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs), among which the representative compound 14a exhibited promising HDACs inhibition and antitumor activity. In this current study, we report the development of a more potent class of N-hydroxycinnamamide-based HDACIs, using 14a as lead, among which, compound 11r gave IC50 values of 11.8, 498.1, 3.9, 2000.8, 5700.4, 308.2, and 900.4 nM for the inhibition of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, HDAC8, HDAC4, HDAC6, and HDAC11, exhibiting dual HDAC1/3 selectivity. Compounds 11e, 11r, 11w, and 11y showed excellent growth inhibition in multiple tumor cell lines. In vivo antitumor assay in U937 xenograft model identified compound 11r as a potent, orally active HDACI. To the best of our knowledge, this work constitutes the first report of oral active N-hydroxycinnamamide-based HDACIs with dual HDAC1/3 selectivity. PMID:24694055

  2. Structural optimization and biological evaluation of 1,5-disubstituted pyrazole-3-carboxamines as potent inhibitors of human 5-lipoxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Mingyue; Zheng, Shuli; Jiang, Chunyi; Zhou, Xiaomei; Zhang, Dong; Zhao, Jihui; Ye, Deju; Zheng, Mingfang; Jiang, Hualiang; Liu, Dongxiang; Cheng, Jian; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is a well-validated drug target and its inhibitors are potential drugs for treating leukotriene-related disorders. Our previous work on structural optimization of the hit compound 2 from our in-house collection identified two lead compounds, 3a and 3b, exhibiting a potent inhibitory profile against 5-LOX with IC50 values less than 1 µmol/L in cell-based assays. Here, we further optimized these compounds to prepare a class of novel pyrazole derivatives by opening the fused-ring system. Several new compounds exhibited more potent inhibitory activity than the lead compounds against 5-LOX. In particular, compound 4e not only suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in brain inflammatory cells and protected neurons from oxidative toxicity, but also significantly decreased infarct damage in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia. Molecular docking analysis further confirmed the consistency of our theoretical results and experimental data. In conclusion, the excellent in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activities of these compounds against 5-LOX suggested that these novel chemical structures have a promising therapeutic potential to treat leukotriene-related disorders. PMID:26904397

  3. Discovery of Potent and Selective Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitors Derived from [beta]-Aminoamides Bearing Subsituted Triazolopiperazines

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dooseop; Kowalchick, Jennifer E.; Brockunier, Linda L.; Parmee, Emma R.; Eiermann, George J.; Fisher, Michael H.; He, Huaibing; Leiting, Barbara; Lyons, Kathryn; Scapin, Giovanna; Patel, Sangita B.; Petrov, Aleksandr; Pryor, KellyAnn D.; Roy, Ranabir Sinha; Wu, Joseph K.; Zhang, Xiaoping; Wyvratt, Matthew J.; Zhang, Bei B.; Zhu, Lan; Thornberry, Nancy A.; Weber, Ann E.

    2008-06-30

    A series of {beta}-aminoamides bearing triazolopiperazines have been discovered as potent, selective, and orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors by extensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies around the triazolopiperazine moiety. Among these, compound 34b with excellent in vitro potency (IC{sub 50} = 4.3 nM) against DPP-4, high selectivity over other enzymes, and good pharmacokinetic profiles exhibited pronounced in vivo efficacy in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in lean mice. On the basis of these properties, compound 34b has been profiled in detail. Further refinement of the triazolopiperazines resulted in the discovery of a series of extremely potent compounds with subnanomolar activity against DPP-4 (42b-49b), that is, 4-fluorobenzyl-substituted compound 46b, which is notable for its superior potency (IC{sub 50} = 0.18 nM). X-ray crystal structure determination of compounds 34b and 46b in complex with DPP-4 enzyme revealed that (R)-stereochemistry at the 8-position of triazolopiperazines is strongly preferred over (S) with respect to DPP-4 inhibition.

  4. Structure-Based Identification of a Potent Inhibitor Targeting Stp1-Mediated Virulence Regulation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weihao; Cai, Xiaodan; Xie, Mingsheng; Liang, Yujie; Wang, Tao; Li, Zigang

    2016-08-18

    The increasing threats of antibiotic resistance urge the need for developing new strategies against bacterial infections. Targeting eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr phosphatase Stp1-mediated virulence regulation represents a promising approach for combating staphylococcal infection yet to be explored. Here, we report the 2.32-Å resolution crystal structure of Stp1. Stp1 binds an unexpected fourth metal ion, which is important for Stp1's enzymatic activity as demonstrated by amino acid substitution studies. Inspired by the structural details of Stp1, we identified a potent and selective Stp1 inhibitor, aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA). Transcriptome analysis and biochemical studies supported Stp1 as the target of ATA inhibition within the pathogen, preventing upregulation of virulence genes. Notably, ATA did not affect in vitro growth of Staphylococcus aureus, while simultaneously attenuating staphylococcal virulence in mice. Our findings demonstrate that ATA is a potent anti-virulence compound against staphylococcal infection, laying the foundation for further developing new scaffolds for Stp1-targeted small molecules. PMID:27499528

  5. Isoliquiritigenin is a potent inhibitor of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroe; Nagai, Yoshinori; Matsunaga, Takayuki; Okamoto, Naoki; Watanabe, Yasuharu; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Fujii, Isao; Ikutani, Masashi; Hirai, Yoshikatsu; Muraguchi, Atsushi; Takatsu, Kiyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Inflammasome activation initiates the development of many inflammatory diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, agents that target discrete activation steps could represent very important drugs. We reported previously that ILG, a chalcone from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, inhibits LPS-induced NF-κB activation. Here, we show that ILG potently inhibits the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, and the effect is independent of its inhibitory potency on TLR4. The inhibitory effect of ILG was stronger than that of parthenolide, a known inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome. GL, a triterpenoid from G. uralensis, had similar inhibitory effects on NLRP3 activity, but high concentrations of GL were required. In contrast, activation of the AIM2 inflammasome was inhibited by GL but not by ILG. Moreover, GL inhibited NLRP3- and AIM2-activated ASC oligomerization, whereas ILG inhibited NLRP3-activated ASC oligomerization. Low concentrations of ILG were highly effective in IAPP-induced IL-1β production compared with the sulfonylurea drug glyburide. In vivo analyses revealed that ILG potently attenuated HFD-induced obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and insulin resistance. Furthermore, ILG treatment improved HFD-induced macrovesicular steatosis in the liver. Finally, ILG markedly inhibited diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation and IL-1β and caspase-1 production in white adipose tissue in ex vivo culture. These results suggest that ILG is a potential drug target for treatment of NLRP3 inflammasome-associated inflammatory diseases. PMID:25210146

  6. Structure-Based Design of Potent Bcl-2/Bcl-xL Inhibitors with Strong in Vivo Antitumor Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Haibin; Aguilar, Angelo; Chen, Jianfang; Bai, Longchuan; Liu, Liu; Meagher, Jennifer L.; Yang, Chao-Yie; McEachern, Donna; Cong, Xin; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Wang, Shaomeng

    2012-08-21

    Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL are key apoptosis regulators and attractive cancer therapeutic targets. We have designed and optimized a class of small-molecule inhibitors of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL containing a 4,5-diphenyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid core structure. A 1.4 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a lead compound, 12, complexed with Bcl-xL has provided a basis for our optimization. The most potent compounds, 14 and 15, bind to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL with subnanomolar K{sub i} values and are potent antagonists of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL in functional assays. Compounds 14 and 15 inhibit cell growth with low nanomolar IC{sub 50} values in multiple small-cell lung cancer cell lines and induce robust apoptosis in cancer cells at concentrations as low as 10 nM. Compound 14 also achieves strong antitumor activity in an animal model of human cancer.

  7. Discovery of Novel Antitumor Dibenzocyclooctatetraene Derivatives and Related Biphenyls as Potent Inhibitors of NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fang-Lin; He, Xiao-Yang; Gu, Chunping; Ohkoshi, Emika; Wang, Li-Ting; Wang, Sheng-Biao; Lai, Chin-Yu; Yu, Le; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Liu, Shuwen; Xie, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Several dibenzocyclooctatetraene derivatives (5-7) and related biphenyls (8-11) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for inhibition of cancer cell growth and the NF-κB signaling pathway. Compound 5a, a dibenzocyclooctatetraene succinimide, was discovered as a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway with significant antitumor activity against several human tumor cell lines (GI50 1.38–1.45 μM) and was more potent than paclitaxel against the drug-resistant KBvin cell line. Compound 5a also inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation in RAW264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 0.52 μM, prevented IκB-α degradation and p65 nuclear translocation, and suppressed LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner. The antitumor data in cellular assays indicated that relative positions and types of substituents on the dibenzocyclooctatetraene or acyclic biphenyl as well as torsional angles between the two phenyls are of primary importance to antitumor activity. PMID:24315191

  8. Discovery of novel, potent, selective and cellular active ADC type PTP1B inhibitors via fragment-docking-oriented de novel design.

    PubMed

    Du, Yongli; Ling, Hao; Zhang, Meng; Shen, Jingkang; Li, Qunyi

    2015-08-01

    Fragment-docking-oriented de novel design for both the catalytic site and the C phosphotyrosine binding site led to the discovery of novel scaffold and chemical easy N-(2,5-diethoxy-phenyl)-methanesulfonamide based phosphotyrosine mimetics that when incorporated into ureas are high potent and selective inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B. Among them, compound 15 was shown to be the most potent PTP1B inhibitor with great selectivity over the highly homologous T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase. PMID:26100442

  9. Design, synthesis and molecular docking of α,β-unsaturated cyclohexanone analogous of curcumin as potent EGFR inhibitors with antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun-Yun; Cao, Yi; Ma, Hailkuo; Li, Huan-Qiu; Ao, Gui-Zhen

    2013-01-15

    A type of novel α,β-unsaturated cyclohexanone analogous, which designed based on the curcumin core structure, have been discovered as potential EGFR inhibitors. These compounds exhibit potent antiproliferative activity in two human tumor cell lines (Hep G2 and B16-F10). Among them, compounds I(3) and I(12) displayed the most potent EGFR inhibitory activity (IC(50) = 0.43 μM and 1.54 μM, respectively). Molecular docking of I(12) into EGFR TK active site was also performed. This inhibitor nicely fitting the active site might well explain its excellent inhibitory activity.

  10. Identification of Diet-Derived Constituents as Potent Inhibitors of Intestinal Glucuronidation

    PubMed Central

    Gufford, Brandon T.; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2014-01-01

    Drug-metabolizing enzymes within enterocytes constitute a key barrier to xenobiotic entry into the systemic circulation. Furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice are cornerstone examples of diet-derived xenobiotics that perpetrate interactions with drugs via mechanism-based inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4. Relative to intestinal CYP3A4-mediated inhibition, alternate mechanisms underlying dietary substance–drug interactions remain understudied. A working systematic framework was applied to a panel of structurally diverse diet-derived constituents/extracts (n = 15) as inhibitors of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs) to identify and characterize additional perpetrators of dietary substance–drug interactions. Using a screening assay involving the nonspecific UGT probe substrate 4-methylumbelliferone, human intestinal microsomes, and human embryonic kidney cell lysates overexpressing gut-relevant UGT1A isoforms, 14 diet-derived constituents/extracts inhibited UGT activity by >50% in at least one enzyme source, prompting IC50 determination. The IC50 values of 13 constituents/extracts (≤10 μM with at least one enzyme source) were well below intestinal tissue concentrations or concentrations in relevant juices, suggesting that these diet-derived substances can inhibit intestinal UGTs at clinically achievable concentrations. Evaluation of the effect of inhibitor depletion on IC50 determination demonstrated substantial impact (up to 2.8-fold shift) using silybin A and silybin B, two key flavonolignans from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) as exemplar inhibitors, highlighting an important consideration for interpretation of UGT inhibition in vitro. Results from this work will help refine a working systematic framework to identify dietary substance–drug interactions that warrant advanced modeling and simulation to inform clinical assessment. PMID:25008344

  11. Inhibitors of methionyl-tRNA synthetase have potent activity against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Ranae M; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Gillespie, J Robert; Shibata, Sayaka; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Hol, Wim G J; Fan, Erkang; Buckner, Frederick S

    2015-11-01

    The methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) is a novel drug target for the protozoan pathogen Giardia intestinalis. This protist contains a single MetRS that is distinct from the human cytoplasmic MetRS. A panel of MetRS inhibitors was tested against recombinant Giardia MetRS, Giardia trophozoites, and mammalian cell lines. The best compounds inhibited trophozoite growth at 500 nM (metronidazole did so at ∼5,000 nM) and had low cytotoxicity against mammalian cells, indicating excellent potential for further development as anti-Giardia drugs. PMID:26324270

  12. Cyclopentyl-pyrimidine based analogues as novel and potent IGF-1R inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Aware, Valmik; Gaikwad, Nitin; Chavan, Sambhaji; Manohar, Sonal; Bose, Julie; Khanna, Smriti; B-Rao, Chandrika; Dixit, Neeta; Singh, Kishori Sharan; Damre, Anagha; Sharma, Rajiv; Patil, Sambhaji; Roychowdhury, Abhijit

    2015-03-01

    A series of novel 2-amino-4-pyrazolecyclopentylpyrimidines have been prepared and evaluated as IGF-1R tyrosin kinase inhibitors. The in vitro activity was found to depend strongly on the substitution pattern in the 2- amino ring, 4-pyrazolo moieties and size of fused saturated ring with the central pyrimidine core. A stepwise optimization by combination of active fragments led to discovery of compound 6f and 6k, two structures with IGF-1R IC50 of 20 nM and 10 nM, respectively. 6f was further profiled for its anti cancer activity across various cell lines and pharmacokinetic studies in Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:25559205

  13. Discovery of Novel Benzimidazoles as Potent Inhibitors of TIE-2 and VEGFR-2 Tyrosine Kinase Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Masaichi; Nishigaki, Naohiko; Washio, Yoshiaki; Kano, Kazuya; Harris, Philip A.; Sato, Hideyuki; Mori, Ichiro; West, Rob I.; Shibahara, Megumi; Toyoda, Hiroko; Wang, Liping; Nolte, Robert T.; Veal, James M.; Cheung, Mui

    2008-09-12

    We herein disclose a novel chemical series of benzimidazole-ureas as inhibitors of VEGFR-2 and TIE-2 kinase receptors, both of which are implicated in angiogenesis. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies elucidated a critical role for the N1 nitrogen of both the benzimidazole (segment E) and urea (segment B) moieties. The SAR results were also supported by the X-ray crystallographic elucidation of the role of the N1 nitrogen and the urea moiety when the benzimidazole-urea compounds were bound to the VEGFR-2 enzyme. The left side phenyl ring (segment A) occupies the backpocket where a 3-hydrophobic substituent was favored for TIE-2 activity.

  14. Potent Allosteric Dengue Virus NS5 Polymerase Inhibitors: Mechanism of Action and Resistance Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Siew Pheng; Noble, Christian Guy; Seh, Cheah Chen; Soh, Tingjin Sherryl; El Sahili, Abbas; Chan, Grace Kar Yarn; Lescar, Julien; Arora, Rishi; Benson, Timothy; Nilar, Shahul; Manjunatha, Ujjini; Wan, Kah Fei; Dong, Hongping; Xie, Xuping; Yokokawa, Fumiaki

    2016-01-01

    Flaviviruses comprise major emerging pathogens such as dengue virus (DENV) or Zika virus (ZIKV). The flavivirus RNA genome is replicated by the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain of non-structural protein 5 (NS5). This essential enzymatic activity renders the RdRp attractive for antiviral therapy. NS5 synthesizes viral RNA via a “de novo” initiation mechanism. Crystal structures of the flavivirus RdRp revealed a “closed” conformation reminiscent of a pre-initiation state, with a well ordered priming loop that extrudes from the thumb subdomain into the dsRNA exit tunnel, close to the “GDD” active site. To-date, no allosteric pockets have been identified for the RdRp, and compound screening campaigns did not yield suitable drug candidates. Using fragment-based screening via X-ray crystallography, we found a fragment that bound to a pocket of the apo-DENV RdRp close to its active site (termed “N pocket”). Structure-guided improvements yielded DENV pan-serotype inhibitors of the RdRp de novo initiation activity with nano-molar potency that also impeded elongation activity at micro-molar concentrations. Inhibitors exhibited mixed inhibition kinetics with respect to competition with the RNA or GTP substrate. The best compounds have EC50 values of 1–2 μM against all four DENV serotypes in cell culture assays. Genome-sequencing of compound-resistant DENV replicons, identified amino acid changes that mapped to the N pocket. Since inhibitors bind at the thumb/palm interface of the RdRp, this class of compounds is proposed to hinder RdRp conformational changes during its transition from initiation to elongation. This is the first report of a class of pan-serotype and cell-active DENV RdRp inhibitors. Given the evolutionary conservation of residues lining the N pocket, these molecules offer insights to treat other serious conditions caused by flaviviruses. PMID:27500641

  15. Cyclopentyl-pyrimidine based analogues as novel and potent IGF-1R inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Aware, Valmik; Gaikwad, Nitin; Chavan, Sambhaji; Manohar, Sonal; Bose, Julie; Khanna, Smriti; B-Rao, Chandrika; Dixit, Neeta; Singh, Kishori Sharan; Damre, Anagha; Sharma, Rajiv; Patil, Sambhaji; Roychowdhury, Abhijit

    2015-03-01

    A series of novel 2-amino-4-pyrazolecyclopentylpyrimidines have been prepared and evaluated as IGF-1R tyrosin kinase inhibitors. The in vitro activity was found to depend strongly on the substitution pattern in the 2- amino ring, 4-pyrazolo moieties and size of fused saturated ring with the central pyrimidine core. A stepwise optimization by combination of active fragments led to discovery of compound 6f and 6k, two structures with IGF-1R IC50 of 20 nM and 10 nM, respectively. 6f was further profiled for its anti cancer activity across various cell lines and pharmacokinetic studies in Sprague Dawley rats.

  16. Discovery of potent inhibitors of pseudomonal quorum sensing via pharmacophore modeling and in silico screening.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mutasem O; Al-Bakri, Amal G; Zalloum, Waleed A

    2006-11-15

    HipHop-Refine was employed to derive a binding hypothesis for pseudomonal quorum sensing (QS) antagonists. The model was employed as 3D search query to screen the National Cancer Institute (NCI) database. One of the hits illustrated nanomolar QS inhibitory activity. The fact that this compound contained tetravalent lead (Pb) prompted us to evaluate the activities of phenyl mercuric nitrate and thimerosal, both fit the binding pharmacophore. The two mercurials illustrated nanomolar to low micromolar IC50 inhibitory values against pseudomonal QS. The three compounds represent a new class of QS inhibitors. PMID:16945524

  17. Discovery of potent inhibitors of pseudomonal quorum sensing via pharmacophore modeling and in silico screening.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mutasem O; Al-Bakri, Amal G; Zalloum, Waleed A

    2006-11-15

    HipHop-Refine was employed to derive a binding hypothesis for pseudomonal quorum sensing (QS) antagonists. The model was employed as 3D search query to screen the National Cancer Institute (NCI) database. One of the hits illustrated nanomolar QS inhibitory activity. The fact that this compound contained tetravalent lead (Pb) prompted us to evaluate the activities of phenyl mercuric nitrate and thimerosal, both fit the binding pharmacophore. The two mercurials illustrated nanomolar to low micromolar IC50 inhibitory values against pseudomonal QS. The three compounds represent a new class of QS inhibitors.

  18. Potent Allosteric Dengue Virus NS5 Polymerase Inhibitors: Mechanism of Action and Resistance Profiling.

    PubMed

    Lim, Siew Pheng; Noble, Christian Guy; Seh, Cheah Chen; Soh, Tingjin Sherryl; El Sahili, Abbas; Chan, Grace Kar Yarn; Lescar, Julien; Arora, Rishi; Benson, Timothy; Nilar, Shahul; Manjunatha, Ujjini; Wan, Kah Fei; Dong, Hongping; Xie, Xuping; Shi, Pei-Yong; Yokokawa, Fumiaki

    2016-08-01

    Flaviviruses comprise major emerging pathogens such as dengue virus (DENV) or Zika virus (ZIKV). The flavivirus RNA genome is replicated by the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain of non-structural protein 5 (NS5). This essential enzymatic activity renders the RdRp attractive for antiviral therapy. NS5 synthesizes viral RNA via a "de novo" initiation mechanism. Crystal structures of the flavivirus RdRp revealed a "closed" conformation reminiscent of a pre-initiation state, with a well ordered priming loop that extrudes from the thumb subdomain into the dsRNA exit tunnel, close to the "GDD" active site. To-date, no allosteric pockets have been identified for the RdRp, and compound screening campaigns did not yield suitable drug candidates. Using fragment-based screening via X-ray crystallography, we found a fragment that bound to a pocket of the apo-DENV RdRp close to its active site (termed "N pocket"). Structure-guided improvements yielded DENV pan-serotype inhibitors of the RdRp de novo initiation activity with nano-molar potency that also impeded elongation activity at micro-molar concentrations. Inhibitors exhibited mixed inhibition kinetics with respect to competition with the RNA or GTP substrate. The best compounds have EC50 values of 1-2 μM against all four DENV serotypes in cell culture assays. Genome-sequencing of compound-resistant DENV replicons, identified amino acid changes that mapped to the N pocket. Since inhibitors bind at the thumb/palm interface of the RdRp, this class of compounds is proposed to hinder RdRp conformational changes during its transition from initiation to elongation. This is the first report of a class of pan-serotype and cell-active DENV RdRp inhibitors. Given the evolutionary conservation of residues lining the N pocket, these molecules offer insights to treat other serious conditions caused by flaviviruses. PMID:27500641

  19. Fragment-based drug discovery of potent and selective MKK3/6 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark; Kobayashi, Toshitake; Lawson, J David; Saitoh, Morihisa; Shimokawa, Kenichiro; Bigi, Simone V; Hixon, Mark S; Smith, Christopher R; Tatamiya, Takayuki; Goto, Masayuki; Russo, Joseph; Grimshaw, Charles E; Swann, Steven

    2016-02-01

    The MAPK signaling cascade, comprised of several linear and intersecting pathways, propagates signaling into the nucleus resulting in cytokine and chemokine release. The Map Kinase Kinase isoforms 3 and 6 (MKK3 and MKK6) are responsible for the phosphorylation and activation of p38, and are hypothesized to play a key role in regulating this pathway without the redundancy seen in downstream effectors. Using FBDD, we have discovered efficient and selective inhibitors of MKK3 and MKK6 that can serve as tool molecules to help further understand the role of these kinases in MAPK signaling, and the potential impact of inhibiting kinases upstream of p38. PMID:26704264

  20. Design and synthesis of chalcone derivatives as potent tyrosinase inhibitors and their structural activity relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Sakeh, Nurshafika M.; Zareen, Seema; Gul, Sana; Lo, Kong Mun; Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Shah, Syed Adnan Ali; Ahmad, Syahida

    2015-04-01

    Browning of fruits and vegetables is a serious issue in the food industry, as it damages the organoleptic properties of the final products. Overproduction of melanin causes aesthetic problems such as melisma, freckles and lentigo. In this study, a series of chalcones (1-10) have been synthesized and examined for their tryrosinase inhibitory activity. The results showed that flavokawain B (1), flavokawain A (2) and compound 3 were found to be potential tyrosinase inhibitors, indicating IC50 14.20-14.38 μM values. This demonstrates that 4-substituted phenolic compound especially at ring A exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibition. Additionally, molecular docking results showed a strong binding affinity for compounds 1-3 through chelation between copper metal and ligands. The detailed molecular docking and SARs studies correlate well with the tyrosinase inhibition studies in vitro. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and single X-ray crystallographic techniques. These findings could lead to design and discover of new tyrosinase inhibitors to control the melanine overproduction and overcome the economic loss of food industry.

  1. Discovery of potent N-(isoxazol-5-yl)amides as HSP90 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Danqi; Shen, Aijun; Li, Jian; Shi, Feng; Chen, Wuyan; Ren, Jing; Liu, Hongchun; Xu, Yechun; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xinying; Sun, Yiming; Yang, Min; He, Jianhua; Wang, Yueqin; Zhang, Liping; Huang, Min; Geng, Meiyu; Xiong, Bing; Shen, Jingkang

    2014-11-24

    HSP90 is ubiquitously overexpressed in a broad spectrum of human cancers and has been recognized as an attractive target for cancer treatment. Here, we described the fragment screening, synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of small molecule inhibitors with 4,5-diarylisoxazole scaffold targeting HSP90. Among them, the compound N-(3-(2,4-dihydroxy-5-isopropylphenyl)-4-(4-((4-morpholinopiperidin-1-yl)methyl)phenyl)isoxazol-5-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide (108) showed high affinity for binding to HSP90 (FP binding assay, IC50 = 0.030 μM) and inhibited the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines with averaging GI50 about 88 nM. Compound 108 exhibited its functional inhibition of HSP90 by depleting key signaling pathways and concomitantly elevating of HSP70 and HSP27 in U-87MG cells. Further in vivo studies showed that compound 108 strongly suppressed the tumor growth of human glioblastoma xenograft model U-87MG with T/C = 18.35% at 50 mg/kg q3w/2.5w. Moreover, compound 108 also exhibited good pharmacokinetic properties. Together, our study implicates that compound 108 is a promising candidate of HSP90 inhibitor and is currently advanced to preclinical study.

  2. Discovery of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Human Platelet type 12-Lipoxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Victor; Rai, Ganesha; Jadhav, Ajit; Schultz, Lena; Armstrong, Michelle; Jameson, J. Brian; Perry, Steven; Joshi, Netra; Bougie, James M.; Leister, William; Taylor-Fishwick, David A.; Nadler, Jerry L.; Holinstat, Michael; Simeonov, Anton; Maloney, David J.; Holman, Theodore R.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of novel small molecule inhibitors of platelet type 12-human lipoxygenase, which display nanomolar activity against the purified enzyme, using a quantitative high throughput screen (qHTS) on a library of 153,607 compounds. These compounds also exhibit excellent specificity, >50-fold selectivity vs. the paralogs, 5-human lipoxygenase, reticulocyte 15-human lipoxygenase type-1, and epithelial 15-human lipoxygenase type-2, and >100-fold selectivity vs. ovine cyclooxygenase-1 and human cyclooxygenase-2. Kinetic experiments indicate this chemotype is a non-competitive inhibitor that does not reduce the active site iron. Moreover, chiral HPLC separation of two of the racemic lead molecules revealed a strong preference for the (–)-enantiomers (IC50 of 0.43 +/- 0.04 and 0.38 +/- 0.05 μM) compared to the (+)-enantiomers (IC50 of >25 μM for both), indicating a fine degree of selectivity in the active site due to chiral geometry. In addition, these compounds demonstrate efficacy in cellular models, which underscores their relevance to disease modification. PMID:21739938

  3. Antidiabetic Activity of Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera: Potent Amylase and Glucosidase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sougata; Ahire, Mehul; Patil, Sumersing; Jabgunde, Amit; Bhat Dusane, Meenakshi; Joshi, Bimba N.; Pardesi, Karishma; Jachak, Sanjay; Dhavale, Dilip D.; Chopade, Balu A.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting about 220 million people worldwide. One of the most critical complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyper-glycemia (PPHG). Glucosidase inhibitor and α-amylase inhibitors are class of compounds that help in managing PPHG. Low-cost herbal treatment is recommended due to their lesser side effect for treatment of diabetes. Two plants with significant traditional therapeutic potential, namely, Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera, were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Stem, leaf, and flower of G. glauca and bulb of D. bulbifera were sequentially extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol as well as separately with 70% ethanol. Petroleum ether extract of flower of G. glauca was found to inhibit α-amylase significantly (78.56%). Extracts were further tested against crude murine pancreatic, small intestinal, and liver glucosidase enzyme which revealed excellent inhibitory properties. α-glucosidase inhibition provided a strong in vitro evidence for confirmation of both G. glauca and D. bulbifera as excellent antidiabetic remedy. This is the first report of its kind that provides a strong biochemical basis for management of type II diabetes using G. glauca and D. bulbifera. These results provide intense rationale for further in vivo and clinical study. PMID:21785651

  4. The Design of Potent Liposome-Based Inhibitors of Anthrax Toxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Prakash; Padala, Chakradhar; Poon, Vincent; Saraph, Arundhati; Basha, Saleem; Kate, Sandesh; Tao, Kevin; Mogridge, Jeremy; Kane, Ravi

    2006-03-01

    Several biological processes involve the recognition of a specific pattern of binding sites on a target surface. Theoreticians have predicted that endowing synthetic biomimetic structures with statistical pattern matching capabilities may impact the development of sensors and separation processes. We demonstrated for the first time that statistical pattern matching significantly enhances the potency of a polyvalent therapeutic -- an anthrax toxin inhibitor. We functionalized liposomes with an inhibitory peptide at different densities and observed a transition in potency at an inter-peptide separation that matches the distance between ligand-binding sites on the heptameric subunit of anthrax toxin. Pattern-matched polyvalent liposomes neutralized anthrax toxin in vitro at concentrations four orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding monovalent peptide. We also showed that polyvalent liposome-based inhibitors can neutralize a microbial toxin in vivo. Statistical pattern matching represents a facile strategy to enhance the potency of therapeutics targeting toxins or pathogens. Our results also illuminate other fundamental aspects of polyvalent recognition --specifically we found that the efficiency of polyvalent inhibition is influenced by the competition between the rates of ligand dissociation and diffusion.

  5. Novel phospholipase A2 inhibitors from python serum are potent peptide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Thwin, Maung Maung; Stiles, Brad G; Satyanarayana-Jois, Seetharama; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M E; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Sikka, Sakshi; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina Hsiu Kim

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a vital role in defense against resistant bacteria. In this study, eight different AMPs synthesized from Python reticulatus serum protein were tested for bactericidal activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW and TES strains), and Proteus vulgaris) using a disc-diffusion method (20 μg/disc). Among the tested peptides, phospholipase A2 inhibitory peptide (PIP)-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], D-Ala66-PNT.II, and D60,65E-PIP[59-67] displayed the most potent bactericidal activity against all tested pathogens in a dose-dependent manner (100-6.8 μg/ml), with a remarkable activity noted against S. aureus at 6.8 μg/ml dose within 6 h of incubation. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by a micro-broth dilution method at 100-3.125 μg/ml revealed that PIP-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides exerted a potent inhibitory effect against S. aureus and B. pseudomallei (KHW) (MICs 3.125 μg/ml), while a much less inhibitory potency (MICs 12.5 μg/ml) was noted for β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides against B. pseudomallei (TES). Higher doses of peptides had no effect on the other two strains (i.e., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Overall, PIP-18[59-76] possessed higher antimicrobial activity than that of chloramphenicol (CHL), ceftazidime (CF) and streptomycin (ST) (30 μg/disc). When the two most active peptides, PIP-18[59-76] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], were applied topically at a 150 mg/kg dose for testing wound healing activity in a mouse model of S. aureus infection, the former accelerates faster wound healing than the latter peptide at 14 days post-treatment. The western blot data suggest that the topical application of peptides (PIP-18[59-67] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67]) modulates NF-kB mediated wound repair in mice with relatively little haemolytic (100-1.56 μg/ml) and cytotoxic (1000

  6. Discovery of two classes of potent glycomimetic inhibitors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LecB with distinct binding modes.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Dirk; Joachim, Ines; Frommeyer, Benjamin; Varrot, Annabelle; Philipp, Bodo; Möller, Heiko M; Imberty, Anne; Exner, Thomas E; Titz, Alexander

    2013-08-16

    The treatment of infections due to the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is often difficult, as a consequence of bacterial biofilm formation. Such a protective environment shields the bacterium from host defense and antibiotic treatment and secures its survival. One crucial factor for maintenance of the biofilm architecture is the carbohydrate-binding lectin LecB. Here, we report the identification of potent mannose-based LecB inhibitors from a screening of four series of mannosides in a novel competitive binding assay for LecB. Cinnamide and sulfonamide derivatives are inhibitors of bacterial adhesion with up to a 20-fold increase in affinity to LecB compared to the natural ligand methyl mannoside. Because many lectins of the host require terminal saccharides (e.g., fucosides), such capped structures as reported here may offer a beneficial selectivity profile for the pathogenic lectin. Both classes of compounds show distinct binding modes at the protein, offering the advantage of a simultaneous development of two new lead structures as anti-pseudomonadal drugs with an anti-virulence mode of action.

  7. Discovery of Potent Myeloid Cell Leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) Inhibitors Using Fragment-Based Methods and Structure-Based Design

    SciTech Connect

    Friberg, Anders; Vigil, Dominico; Zhao, Bin; Daniels, R. Nathan; Burke, Jason P.; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M.; Camper, DeMarco; Chauder, Brian A.; Lee, Taekyu; Olejniczak, Edward T.; Fesik, Stephen W.

    2012-12-17

    Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), a member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, is overexpressed and amplified in various cancers and promotes the aberrant survival of tumor cells that otherwise would undergo apoptosis. Here we describe the discovery of potent and selective Mcl-1 inhibitors using fragment-based methods and structure-based design. NMR-based screening of a large fragment library identified two chemically distinct hit series that bind to different sites on Mcl-1. Members of the two fragment classes were merged together to produce lead compounds that bind to Mcl-1 with a dissociation constant of <100 nM with selectivity for Mcl-1 over Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. Structures of merged compounds when complexed to Mcl-1 were obtained by X-ray crystallography and provide detailed information about the molecular recognition of small-molecule ligands binding Mcl-1. The compounds represent starting points for the discovery of clinically useful Mcl-1 inhibitors for the treatment of a wide variety of cancers.

  8. Identification of green tea catechins as potent inhibitors of the polo-box domain of polo-like kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hong-Mei; Shi, Yanxia; Quan, Junmin

    2015-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) plays crucial functions in multiple stages of mitosis and is considered to be a potential drug target for cancer therapy. The functions of PLK1 are mediated by its N-terminal kinase domain and C-terminal polo-box domain (PBD). Most inhibitors targeting the kinase domain of PLK1 have a selectivity issue because of a high degree of structural conservation within kinase domains of all protein kinases. Here, we combined virtual and experimental screenings to identify green tea catechins as potent inhibitors of the PLK1 PBD. Initially, (-)-epigallocatechin, one of the main components of green tea polyphenols, was found to significantly block the binding of fluorescein-labeled phosphopeptide to the PBD at a concentration of 10 μm. Next, additional catechins were evaluated for their dose-dependent inhibition of the PBD and preliminary structure-activity relationships were derived. Cellular analysis further showed that catechins interfere with the proper subcellular localization of PLK1, lead to cell-cycle arrest in the S and G2M phases, and induce growth inhibition of several human cancer cell types, such as breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), lung adenocarcinoma (A549), and cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa). Our data provides new insight into understanding the anticancer activities of green tea catechins.

  9. Synthesis and bioevaluation of 2-phenyl-4-methyl-1,3-selenazole-5-carboxylic acids as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qi; Cheng, Zengjin; Ma, Xiaoxue; Wang, Lijie; Feng, Dongjie; Cui, Yuanhang; Bao, Kai; Wu, Lan; Zhang, Weige

    2014-10-01

    A series of 2-phenyl-4-methyl-1,3-selenazole-5-carboxylic acid derivatives (8a-f, 9a-m) were synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Structure-activity relationship analyses have also been presented. Most of the target compounds exhibited potency levels in the nanomolar range. Compound 9e emerged as the most potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor (IC50 = 5.5 nM) in comparison to febuxostat (IC50 = 18.6 nM). Steady-state kinetics measurements with the bovine milk enzyme indicated a mixed type inhibition with Ki and Ki' values of 0.9 and 2.3 nM, respectively. A molecular modeling study on compounds 9e was performed to gain an insight into its binding mode with xanthine oxidase, and to provide the basis for further structure-guided design of new non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitors related with 2-phenyl-4-methyl-1,3-selenazole-5-carboxylic acid scaffold.

  10. Chemically modified, non-anticoagulant heparin derivatives are potent galectin-3 binding inhibitors and inhibit circulating galectin-3-promoted metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sindrewicz, Paulina; Hughes, Ashley J.; French, Neil S.; Lian, Lu-Yun; Yates, Edwin A.; Pritchard, D. Mark; Rhodes, Jonathan M.; Turnbull, Jeremy E.; Yu, Lu-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of circulating galectin-3, a metastasis promoter, are greatly increased in cancer patients. Here we show that 2- or 6-de-O-sulfated, N-acetylated heparin derivatives are galectin-3 binding inhibitors. These chemically modified heparin derivatives inhibited galectin-3-ligand binding and abolished galectin-3-mediated cancer cell-endothelial adhesion and angiogenesis. Unlike standard heparin, these modified heparin derivatives and their ultra-low molecular weight sub-fractions had neither anticoagulant activity nor effects on E-, L- or P-selectin binding to their ligands nor detectable cytotoxicity. Intravenous injection of such heparin derivatives (with cancer cells pre-treated with galectin-3 followed by 3 subcutaneous injections of the derivatives) abolished the circulating galectin-3-mediated increase in lung metastasis of human melanoma and colon cancer cells in nude mice. Structural analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopies showed that the modified heparin derivatives bind to the galectin-3 carbohydrate-recognition domain. Thus, these chemically modified, non-anticoagulant, low-sulfated heparin derivatives are potent galectin-3 binding inhibitors with substantial potential as anti-metastasis/cancer drugs. PMID:26160844

  11. COH-203, a novel microtubule inhibitor, exhibits potent anti-tumor activity via p53-dependent senescence in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qi, Huan; Zuo, Dai-Ying; Bai, Zhao-Shi; Xu, Jing-Wen; Li, Zeng-Qiang; Shen, Qi-Rong; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Wei-Ge; Wu, Ying-Liang

    2014-12-12

    5-(3-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3H-1,2-dithiol-3-one (COH-203) is a novel synthesized analogue of combretastatin A-4 that can be classified as a microtubule inhibitor. In this study, we evaluated the anti-hepatoma effect of COH-203 in vitro and in vivo and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. COH-203 was shown to be more effective in inhibiting the proliferation of liver cancer cells compared with normal liver cells. COH-203 also displayed potent anti-tumor activity in a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model without significant toxicity. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that treatment with COH-203 induced mitotic arrest by inhibiting tubulin polymerization in BEL-7402 liver cancer cells. Long-term COH-203 treatment in BEL-7402 cells led to mitotic slippage followed by senescence via the p14(Arf)-p53-p21 and p16(INK4α)-Rb pathways. Furthermore, suppression of p53 via pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor) and p53-siRNA attenuated COH-203-induced senescence in BEL-7402 cells, suggesting that COH-203 induced senescence p53-dependently. In conclusion, we report for the first time that COH-203, one compound in the combretastatin family, promotes anti-proliferative activity through the induction of p-53 dependent senescence. Our findings will provide a molecular rationale for the development of COH-203 as a promising anti-tumor agent.

  12. Chemically modified, non-anticoagulant heparin derivatives are potent galectin-3 binding inhibitors and inhibit circulating galectin-3-promoted metastasis.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Carrie A; Guimond, Scott E; Sindrewicz, Paulina; Hughes, Ashley J; French, Neil S; Lian, Lu-Yun; Yates, Edwin A; Pritchard, D Mark; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Turnbull, Jeremy E; Yu, Lu-Gang

    2015-09-15

    Concentrations of circulating galectin-3, a metastasis promoter, are greatly increased in cancer patients. Here we show that 2- or 6-de-O-sulfated, N-acetylated heparin derivatives are galectin-3 binding inhibitors. These chemically modified heparin derivatives inhibited galectin-3-ligand binding and abolished galectin-3-mediated cancer cell-endothelial adhesion and angiogenesis. Unlike standard heparin, these modified heparin derivatives and their ultra-low molecular weight sub-fractions had neither anticoagulant activity nor effects on E-, L- or P-selectin binding to their ligands nor detectable cytotoxicity. Intravenous injection of such heparin derivatives (with cancer cells pre-treated with galectin-3 followed by 3 subcutaneous injections of the derivatives) abolished the circulating galectin-3-mediated increase in lung metastasis of human melanoma and colon cancer cells in nude mice. Structural analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopies showed that the modified heparin derivatives bind to the galectin-3 carbohydrate-recognition domain. Thus, these chemically modified, non-anticoagulant, low-sulfated heparin derivatives are potent galectin-3 binding inhibitors with substantial potential as anti-metastasis/cancer drugs. PMID:26160844

  13. P1-Substituted Symmetry-Based Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors with Potent Antiviral Activity against Drug-Resistant Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    DeGoey, David A.; Grampovnik, David J.; Chen, Hui-Ju; Flosi, William J.; Klein, Larry L.; Dekhtyar, Tatyana; Stoll, Vincent; Mamo, Mulugeta; Molla, Akhteruzzaman; Kempf, Dale J.

    2013-03-07

    Because there is currently no cure for HIV infection, patients must remain on long-term drug therapy, leading to concerns over potential drug side effects and the emergence of drug resistance. For this reason, new and safe antiretroviral agents with improved potency against drug-resistant strains of HIV are needed. A series of HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) with potent activity against both wild-type (WT) virus and drug-resistant strains of HIV was designed and synthesized. The incorporation of substituents with hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups at the P1 position of our symmetry-based inhibitor series resulted in significant potency improvements against the resistant mutants. By this approach, several compounds, such as 13, 24, and 29, were identified that demonstrated similar or improved potencies compared to 1 against highly mutated strains of HIV derived from patients who previously failed HIV PI therapy. Overall, compound 13 demonstrated the best balance of potency against drug resistant strains of HIV and oral bioavailability in pharmacokinetic studies. X-ray analysis of an HIV PI with an improved resistance profile bound to WT HIV protease is also reported.

  14. Design and synthesis of a potent inhibitor of class 1 DYRK kinases as a suppressor of adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Masaki, So; Kii, Isao; Sumida, Yuto; Kato-Sumida, Tomoe; Ogawa, Yasushi; Ito, Nobutoshi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sonamoto, Rie; Kataoka, Naoyuki; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2015-08-01

    Dysregulation of dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) has been demonstrated in several pathological conditions, including Alzheimer's disease and cancer progression. It has been recently reported that a gain of function-mutation in the human DYRK1B gene exacerbates metabolic syndrome by enhancing obesity. In the previous study, we developed an inhibitor of DYRK family kinases (INDY) and demonstrated that INDY suppresses the pathological phenotypes induced by overexpression of DYRK1A or DYRK1B in cellular and animal models. In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel inhibitor of DYRK family kinases based on the crystal structure of the DYRK1A/INDY complex by replacing the phenol group of INDY with dibenzofuran to produce a derivative, named BINDY. This compound exhibited potent and selective inhibitory activity toward DYRK family kinases in an in vitro assay. Furthermore, treatment of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes with BINDY hampered adipogenesis by suppressing gene expression of the critical transcription factors PPARγ and C/EBPα. This study indicates the possibility of BINDY as a potential drug for metabolic syndrome. PMID:26145823

  15. A potent and selective small molecule inhibitor of sirtuin 1 promotes differentiation of pluripotent P19 cells into functional neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom Seok; Lee, Chang-Hee; Chang, Gyeong-Eon; Cheong, Eunji; Shin, Injae

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is known to suppress differentiation of pluripotent/multipotent cells and neural progenitor cells into neurons by blocking activation of transcription factors critical for neurogenesis. EX-527 is a highly selective and potent inhibitor against SIRT1 and has been used as a chemical probe that modulates SIRT1-associated biological processes. However, the effect of EX-527 on neuronal differentiation in pluripotent cells has not been well elucidated. Here, we report an examination of EX-527 effects on neurogenesis of pluripotent P19 cells. The results showed that EX-527 greatly accelerated differentiation of P19 cells into neurons without generation of cardiac cells and astrocytes. Importantly, neurons derived from P19 cells treated with EX-527 generated voltage-dependent sodium currents and depolarization-induced action potentials. The findings indicate that the differentiated cells have electrophysiological properties. The present study suggests that the selective SIRT1 inhibitor could have the potential of being employed as a chemical inducer to generate functionally active neurons. PMID:27680533

  16. Chemically modified, non-anticoagulant heparin derivatives are potent galectin-3 binding inhibitors and inhibit circulating galectin-3-promoted metastasis.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Carrie A; Guimond, Scott E; Sindrewicz, Paulina; Hughes, Ashley J; French, Neil S; Lian, Lu-Yun; Yates, Edwin A; Pritchard, D Mark; Rhodes, Jonathan M; Turnbull, Jeremy E; Yu, Lu-Gang

    2015-09-15

    Concentrations of circulating galectin-3, a metastasis promoter, are greatly increased in cancer patients. Here we show that 2- or 6-de-O-sulfated, N-acetylated heparin derivatives are galectin-3 binding inhibitors. These chemically modified heparin derivatives inhibited galectin-3-ligand binding and abolished galectin-3-mediated cancer cell-endothelial adhesion and angiogenesis. Unlike standard heparin, these modified heparin derivatives and their ultra-low molecular weight sub-fractions had neither anticoagulant activity nor effects on E-, L- or P-selectin binding to their ligands nor detectable cytotoxicity. Intravenous injection of such heparin derivatives (with cancer cells pre-treated with galectin-3 followed by 3 subcutaneous injections of the derivatives) abolished the circulating galectin-3-mediated increase in lung metastasis of human melanoma and colon cancer cells in nude mice. Structural analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopies showed that the modified heparin derivatives bind to the galectin-3 carbohydrate-recognition domain. Thus, these chemically modified, non-anticoagulant, low-sulfated heparin derivatives are potent galectin-3 binding inhibitors with substantial potential as anti-metastasis/cancer drugs.

  17. Discovery of potent myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl 1) inhibitors using fragment based methods and structure based design

    PubMed Central

    Friberg, Anders; Vigil, Dominico; Zhao, Bin; Daniels, R. Nathan; Burke, Jason P.; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M.; Camper, DeMarco; Chauder, Brian A.; Lee, Taekyu; Olejniczak, Edward T.; Fesik, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), a member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, is overexpressed and amplified in various cancers and promotes the aberrant survival of tumor cells that otherwise would undergo apoptosis. Here we describe the discovery of potent and selective Mcl-1 inhibitors using fragment-based methods and structure-based design. NMR-based screening of a large fragment library identified two chemically distinct hit series that bind to different sites on Mcl-1. Members of the two fragment classes were merged together to produce lead compounds that bind to Mcl-1 with a dissociation constant of <100 nM with selectivity for Mcl-1 over Bcl-xL and Bcl-2. Structures of merged compounds when complexed to Mcl-1 were obtained by X-ray crystallography and provide detailed information about the molecular recognition of small-molecule ligands binding Mcl-1. The compounds represent starting points for the discovery of clinically useful Mcl-1 inhibitors for the treatment of a wide variety of cancers. PMID:23244564

  18. Discovery of potent competitive inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase with in vivo pharmacodynamic activity and efficacy in a mouse melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Yue, Eddy W; Douty, Brent; Wayland, Brian; Bower, Michael; Liu, Xiangdong; Leffet, Lynn; Wang, Qian; Bowman, Kevin J; Hansbury, Michael J; Liu, Changnian; Wei, Min; Li, Yanlong; Wynn, Richard; Burn, Timothy C; Koblish, Holly K; Fridman, Jordan S; Metcalf, Brian; Scherle, Peggy A; Combs, Andrew P

    2009-12-10

    A hydroxyamidine chemotype has been discovered as a key pharmacophore in novel inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Optimization led to the identification of 5l, which is a potent (HeLa IC(50) = 19 nM) competitive inhibitor of IDO. Testing of 5l in mice demonstrated pharmacodynamic inhibition of IDO, as measured by decreased kynurenine levels (>50%) in plasma and dose dependent efficacy in mice bearing GM-CSF-secreting B16 melanoma tumors.

  19. Design and synthesis of potent amido- and benzyl-substituted cis-3-amino-4-(2-cyanopyrrolidide)pyrrolidinyl DPP-IV inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Corbett, J W; Dirico, K; Song, W; Boscoe, B P; Doran, S D; Boyer, D; Qiu, X; Ammirati, M; Vanvolkenburg, M A; McPherson, R K; Parker, J C; Cox, E D

    2007-12-15

    The cis-3-amino-4-(2-cyanopyrrolidide)-pyrrolidine template has been shown to afford low nanomolar inhibitors of human DPP-IV that exhibit a robust PK/PD profile. An X-ray co-crystal structure of 5 confirmed the proposed mode of binding. The potent single digit DPP-IV inhibitor 53 exhibited a preferred PK/PD profile in preclinical animal models and was selected for additional profiling.

  20. Discovery of 5-Phenyl-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-2-(pyrimidin-5-yl)quinazolin-4-amine as a Potent I Kur Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Heather J; Johnson, James A; Lloyd, John L; Jiang, Ji; Neels, James; Gunaga, Prashantha; Banerjee, Abhisek; Dhondi, Naveen; Chimalakonda, Anjaneya; Mandlekar, Sandhya; Conder, Mary Lee; Sale, Harinath; Xing, Dezhi; Levesque, Paul; Wexler, Ruth R

    2016-09-01

    A new series of phenylquinazoline inhibitors of Kv 1.5 is disclosed. The series was optimized for Kv 1.5 potency, selectivity versus hERG, pharmacokinetic exposure, and pharmacodynamic potency. 5-Phenyl-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-2-(pyrimidin-5-yl)quinazolin-4-amine (13k) was identified as a potent and ion channel selective inhibitor with robust efficacy in the preclinical rat ventricular effective refractory period (VERP) model and the rabbit atrial effective refractory period (AERP) model.

  1. Structure-based design of a benzodiazepine scaffold yields a potent allosteric inhibitor of hepatitis C NS5B RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Vandyck, Koen; Cummings, Maxwell D; Nyanguile, Origène; Boutton, Carlo W; Vendeville, Sandrine; McGowan, David; Devogelaere, Benoit; Amssoms, Katie; Last, Stefaan; Rombauts, Klara; Tahri, Abdellah; Lory, Pedro; Hu, Lili; Beauchamp, Derek A; Simmen, Kenny; Raboisson, Pierre

    2009-07-23

    HCV NS5B polymerase, an essential and virus-specific enzyme, is an important target for drug discovery. Using structure-based design, we optimized a 1,5-benzodiazepine NS5B polymerase inhibitor chemotype into a new sulfone-containing scaffold. The design yielded potent inhibitor (S)-4c (K(D) = 0.79 nM), which has approximately 20-fold greater affinity for NS5B than its carbonyl analogue (R)-2c.

  2. Discovery of disubstituted piperidines and homopiperidines as potent dual NK1 receptor antagonists-serotonin reuptake transporter inhibitors for the treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Jin; He, Huan; Bertekap, Robert; Westphal, Ryan; Lelas, Snjezana; Newton, Amy; Wallace, Tanya; Taber, Matthew; Davis, Carl; Macor, John E; Bronson, Joanne

    2013-04-15

    This report describes the synthesis, structure-activity relationships and activity of piperidine, homopiperidine, and azocane derivatives combining NK1 receptor (NK1R) antagonism and serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) inhibition. Our studies culminated in the discovery of piperidine 2 and homopiperidine 8 as potent dual NK1R antagonists-SERT inhibitors. Compound 2 demonstrated significant activity in the gerbil forced swimming test, suggesting that dual NK1R antagonists-SERT inhibitors may be useful in treating depression disorders. PMID:23477943

  3. Sterculic Acid and Its Analogues Are Potent Inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Pan; Alaraj, Intisar Q. M.; Dulayymi, Juma’a R. Al; Baird, Mark S.; Liu, Jing; Liu, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a serious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, one of the most widespread parasites in the world. Lipid metabolism is important in the intracellular stage of T. gondii. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), a key enzyme for the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid is predicted to exist in T. gondii. Sterculic acid has been shown to specifically inhibit SCD activity. Here, we examined whether sterculic acid and its methyl ester analogues exhibit anti-T. gondii effects in vitro. T. gondii-infected Vero cells were disintegrated at 36 hr because of the propagation and egress of intracellular tachyzoites. All test compounds inhibited tachyzoite propagation and egress, reducing the number of ruptured Vero cells by the parasites. Sterculic acid and the methyl esters also inhibited replication of intracellular tachyzoites in HFF cells. Among the test compounds, sterculic acid showed the most potent activity against T. gondii, with an EC50 value of 36.2 μM, compared with EC50 values of 248-428 μM for the methyl esters. Our study demonstrated that sterculic acid and its analogues are effective in inhibition of T. gondii growth in vitro, suggesting that these compounds or analogues targeting SCD could be effective agents for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:27180571

  4. The root extract of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is a potent HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs.

  5. 3D-QSAR and docking studies of flavonoids as potent Escherichia coli inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yajing; Lu, Yulin; Zang, Xixi; Wu, Ting; Qi, XiaoJuan; Pan, Siyi; Xu, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are potential antibacterial agents. However, key substituents and mechanism for their antibacterial activity have not been fully investigated. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and molecular docking of flavonoids relating to potent anti-Escherichia coli agents were investigated. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were developed by using the pIC50 values of flavonoids. The cross-validated coefficient (q2) values for CoMFA (0.743) and for CoMSIA (0.708) were achieved, illustrating high predictive capabilities. Selected descriptors for the CoMFA model were ClogP (logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient), steric and electrostatic fields, while, ClogP, electrostatic and hydrogen bond donor fields were used for the CoMSIA model. Molecular docking results confirmed that half of the tested flavonoids inhibited DNA gyrase B (GyrB) by interacting with adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) pocket in a same orientation. Polymethoxyl flavones, flavonoid glycosides, isoflavonoids changed their orientation, resulting in a decrease of inhibitory activity. Moreover, docking results showed that 3-hydroxyl, 5-hydroxyl, 7-hydroxyl and 4-carbonyl groups were found to be crucial active substituents of flavonoids by interacting with key residues of GyrB, which were in agreement with the QSAR study results. These results provide valuable information for structure requirements of flavonoids as antibacterial agents. PMID:27049530

  6. 3D-QSAR and docking studies of flavonoids as potent Escherichia coli inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yajing; Lu, Yulin; Zang, Xixi; Wu, Ting; Qi, XiaoJuan; Pan, Siyi; Xu, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are potential antibacterial agents. However, key substituents and mechanism for their antibacterial activity have not been fully investigated. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and molecular docking of flavonoids relating to potent anti-Escherichia coli agents were investigated. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were developed by using the pIC50 values of flavonoids. The cross-validated coefficient (q(2)) values for CoMFA (0.743) and for CoMSIA (0.708) were achieved, illustrating high predictive capabilities. Selected descriptors for the CoMFA model were ClogP (logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient), steric and electrostatic fields, while, ClogP, electrostatic and hydrogen bond donor fields were used for the CoMSIA model. Molecular docking results confirmed that half of the tested flavonoids inhibited DNA gyrase B (GyrB) by interacting with adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) pocket in a same orientation. Polymethoxyl flavones, flavonoid glycosides, isoflavonoids changed their orientation, resulting in a decrease of inhibitory activity. Moreover, docking results showed that 3-hydroxyl, 5-hydroxyl, 7-hydroxyl and 4-carbonyl groups were found to be crucial active substituents of flavonoids by interacting with key residues of GyrB, which were in agreement with the QSAR study results. These results provide valuable information for structure requirements of flavonoids as antibacterial agents. PMID:27049530

  7. Dihydroxypyrimidine-4-carboxamides as novel potent and selective HIV integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pace, Paola; Di Francesco, M Emilia; Gardelli, Cristina; Harper, Steven; Muraglia, Ester; Nizi, Emanuela; Orvieto, Federica; Petrocchi, Alessia; Poma, Marco; Rowley, Michael; Scarpelli, Rita; Laufer, Ralph; Gonzalez Paz, Odalys; Monteagudo, Edith; Bonelli, Fabio; Hazuda, Daria; Stillmock, Kara A; Summa, Vincenzo

    2007-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) integrase, one of the three constitutive viral enzymes required for replication, is a rational target for chemotherapeutic intervention in the treatment of AIDS that has also recently been confirmed in the clinical setting. We report here on the design and synthesis of N-benzyl-5,6-dihydroxypyrimidine-4-carboxamides as a class of agents which exhibits potent inhibition of the HIV-integrase-catalyzed strand transfer process. In the current study, structural modifications on these molecules were made in order to examine effects on HIV-integrase inhibitory potencies. One of the most interesting compounds for this series is 2-[1-(dimethylamino)-1-methylethyl]-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-5,6-dihydroxypyrimidine-4-carboxamide 38, with a CIC95 of 78 nM in the cell-based assay in the presence of serum proteins. The compound has favorable pharmacokinetic properties in preclinical species (rats, dogs, and monkeys) and shows no liabilities in several counterscreening assays, highlighting its potential as a clinically useful antiviral agent.

  8. The root extract of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is a potent HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923

  9. Graphene-Iodine Nanocomposites: Highly Potent Bacterial Inhibitors that are Bio-compatible with Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Some, Surajit; Sohn, Ji Soo; Kim, Junmoo; Lee, Su-Hyun; Lee, Su Chan; Lee, Jungpyo; Shackery, Iman; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, So Hyun; Choi, Nakwon; Cho, Il-Joo; Jung, Hyo-Il; Kang, Shinill; Jun, Seong Chan

    2016-01-01

    Graphene-composites, capable of inhibiting bacterial growth which is also bio-compatible with human cells have been highly sought after. Here we report for the first time the preparation of new graphene-iodine nano-composites via electrostatic interactions between positively charged graphene derivatives and triiodide anions. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, UV-spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy. The antibacterial potential of these graphene-iodine composites against Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirobilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and E. coli was investigated. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the nanocomposite with human cells [human white blood cells (WBC), HeLa, MDA-MB-231, Fibroblast (primary human keratinocyte) and Keratinocyte (immortalized fibroblast)], was assessed. DGO (Double-oxidizes graphene oxide) was prepared by the additional oxidation of GO (graphene oxide). This generates more oxygen containing functional groups that can readily trap more H+, thus generating a positively charged surface area under highly acidic conditions. This step allowed bonding with a greater number of anionic triiodides and generated the most potent antibacterial agent among graphene-iodine and as-made povidone-iodine (PVP-I) composites also exhibited nontoxic to human cells culture. Thus, these nano-composites can be used to inhibit the growth of various bacterial species. Importantly, they are also very low-cytotoxic to human cells culture. PMID:26843066

  10. The Root Extract of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides Is a Potent HIV-1 Attachment Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923

  11. Hippuristanol - A potent steroid inhibitor of eukaryotic initiation factor 4A.

    PubMed

    Cencic, Regina; Pelletier, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis and its regulatory signaling pathways play essential roles in the initiation and maintenance of the cancer phenotype. Insight obtained over the last 3 decades on the mechanisms regulating translation in normal and transformed cells have revealed that perturbed control in cancer cells may offer an Achilles' heel for the development of novel anti-neoplastic agents. Several small molecule inhibitors have been identified and characterized that target translation initiation - more specifically, the rate-limiting step where ribosomes are recruited to mRNA templates. Among these, hippuristanol, a polyhydroxysteroid from the gorgonian Isis hippuris has been found to inhibit translation initiation by blocking the activity of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4A, an essential RNA helicase involved in this process. Herein, we highlight the biological properties of this compound, its potential development as an anti-cancer agent, and its use to validate eIF4A as an anti-neoplastic target. PMID:27335721

  12. Discovery of Potent Carbonic Anhydrase and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: 2-Aminoindan β-Lactam Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Genç, Hayriye; Kalin, Ramazan; Köksal, Zeynep; Sadeghian, Nastaran; Kocyigit, Umit M.; Zengin, Mustafa; Gülçin, İlhami; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    β-Lactams are pharmacologically important compounds because of their various biological uses, including antibiotic and so on. β-Lactams were synthesized from benzylidene-inden derivatives and acetoxyacetyl chloride. The inhibitory effect of these compounds was examined for human carbonic anhydrase I and II (hCA I, and II) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The results reveal that β-lactams are inhibitors of hCA I, II and AChE. The Ki values of β-lactams (2a–k) were 0.44–6.29 nM against hCA I, 0.93–8.34 nM against hCA II, and 0.25–1.13 nM against AChE. Our findings indicate that β-lactams (2a–k) inhibit both carbonic anhydrases (CA) isoenzymes and AChE at low nanomolar concentrations. PMID:27775608

  13. Novel synthetic organic compounds inspired from antifeedant marine alkaloids as potent bacterial biofilm inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rane, Rajesh A; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar; Naphade, Shital S; Bangalore, Pavankumar; Shaikh, Mahamadhanif; Hampannavar, Girish

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we have reported seventeen novel synthetic organic compounds derived from marine bromopyrrole alkaloids, exhibiting potential inhibition of biofilm produced by Gram-positive bacteria. Compound 5f with minimumbiofilm inhibitory concentration(MBIC) of 0.39, 0.78 and 3.125 μg/mL against MSSA, MRSA and SE respectively, emerged as promising anti-biofilm lead compounds. In addition, compounds 5b, 5c, 5d, 5e, 5f, 5h, 5i and 5j revealed equal potency as that of the standard drug Vancomycin (MBIC = 3.125 μg/mL) against Streptococcus epidermidis. Notably, most of the synthesized compounds displayed better potency than Vancomycin indicating their potential as inhibitors of bacterial biofilm. The cell viability assay for the most active hybrid confirms its anti-virulence properties which need to be further researched.

  14. The discovery of potent glycine transporter type-2 inhibitors: design and synthesis of phenoxymethylbenzamide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eiki; Arai, Tadamasa; Akahira, Masato; Nakajima, Mayumi; Nishimura, Kazumi; Omori, Yu; Kumagai, Hiroki; Suzuki, Tomohiko; Hayashi, Ryoji

    2014-09-15

    We describe the discovery of phenoxymethylbenzamide derivatives as a novel class of glycine transporter type-2 (GlyT-2) inhibitors. We found hit compound 1 (human GlyT-2, IC50=4040 nM) in our library and converted its 1-(1-(naphthalen-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl group to an 1-(N,N-dimethylaminopropyl)piperidyl group and its tert-butyl group to a trifluoromethyl group to obtain N-(1-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)piperidin-4-yl)-4-((4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy)methyl)benzamide (20). Compound 20 showed good inhibitory activity against human GlyT-2 (IC50=15.3 nM) and exhibited anti-allodynia effects in a mouse neuropathic pain model. PMID:25176190

  15. Organocatalyzed Novel Synthetic Methodology for Highly Functionalized Piperidines as Potent α-Glucosidase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Ariba; Shahazadi, Lubna; Bajda, Marek; Ullah, Nisar; Rauf, Abdul; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Khan, Ather Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Yar, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    An efficient atom-economic one-pot synthesis of highly functionalized piperidines was achieved by catalytic multicomponent reaction. A wide range of heterogeneous and homogenous catalysts were explored; however, promising results were achieved when a β-keto-ester was reacted with selected aromatic aldehydes and anilines by using N-acetyl glycine (NAG) as catalyst. The implication of this methodology is straightforward since the products were precipitated out from the reaction solution, eliminating the need of column chromatography purifications. The synthesized piperidines were screened against α-glucosidase inhibition, which revealed that these compounds were very active inhibitors, and some of the compounds showed even better inhibition than the reference compound, at low micromolar concentrations. In silico molecular modeling was also performed to investigate the binding modes of the compounds into the active sites of the target protein. PMID:27489132

  16. The farnesyl transferase inhibitor, tipifarnib, is a potent inhibitor of the MDR1 gene product, P-glycoprotein, and demonstrates significant cytotoxic synergism against human leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, B C; Landau, H J; Morrow, M; Lockerbie, R O; Pitts, T; Eckhardt, S G

    2007-04-01

    Farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs) target signal-transduction pathways responsible for the proliferation and survival of hematologic malignancies, including acute myelogenous leukemias (AML). Lonafarnib has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of Pgp-mediated drug efflux. On the basis of these findings, we examined the Pgp-inhibitory properties of tipifarnib and assessed its activity when combined with anthracyclines. The effects of tipifarnib on cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of Pgp-mediated anthracycline efflux were analyzed in two human leukemia cell lines overexpressing Pgp (CCRF-CEM and KG1a). Measurement of residual daunorubicin (DNR)-mediated fluorescence after incubation with DNR and tipifarnib demonstrated that tipifarnib significantly inhibited DNR efflux in CCRF-CEM with an IC(50) value less than 0.5 microM. Proliferation and apoptosis assays after exposure to DNR in the presence or absence of tipifarnib demonstrated synergistic inhibition of cellular proliferation, and induction of apoptosis with the combination of tipifarnib and DNR. Similar data was obtained with an enantiomer of tipifarnib that possesses no FTI activity. Incubation with tipifarnib and DNR did not interfere with inhibition of the post-translational processing of HDJ-2. These data suggest that tipifarnib possesses Pgp-inhibitory activity in addition to its FTI activity. In high risk and refractory patients these properties may be exploited as a dual targeting mechanism in the therapy of AML.

  17. Isolation, Co-Crystallization and Structure-Based Characterization of Anabaenopeptins as Highly Potent Inhibitors of Activated Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFIa)

    PubMed Central

    Schreuder, Herman; Liesum, Alexander; Lönze, Petra; Stump, Heike; Hoffmann, Holger; Schiell, Matthias; Kurz, Michael; Toti, Luigi; Bauer, Armin; Kallus, Christopher; Klemke-Jahn, Christine; Czech, Jörg; Kramer, Dan; Enke, Heike; Niedermeyer, Timo H. J.; Morrison, Vincent; Kumar, Vasant; Brönstrup, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Mature thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa) is a carboxypeptidase that stabilizes fibrin clots by removing C-terminal arginines and lysines from partially degraded fibrin. Inhibition of TAFIa stimulates the degradation of fibrin clots and may help to prevent thrombosis. Applying a lead finding approach based on literature-mining, we discovered that anabaenopeptins, cyclic peptides produced by cyanobacteria, were potent inhibitors of TAFIa with IC50 values as low as 1.5 nM. We describe the isolation and structure elucidation of 20 anabaenopeptins, including 13 novel congeners, as well as their pronounced structure-activity relationships (SAR) with respect to inhibition of TAFIa. Crystal structures of the anabaenopeptins B, C and F bound to the surrogate protease carboxypeptidase B revealed the binding modes of these large (~850 Da) compounds in detail and explained the observed SAR, i.e. the strong dependence of the potency on a basic (Arg, Lys) exocyclic residue that addressed the S1’ binding pocket, and a broad tolerance towards substitutions in the pentacyclic ring that acted as a plug of the active site. PMID:27604544

  18. Isolation, Co-Crystallization and Structure-Based Characterization of Anabaenopeptins as Highly Potent Inhibitors of Activated Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFIa).

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Herman; Liesum, Alexander; Lönze, Petra; Stump, Heike; Hoffmann, Holger; Schiell, Matthias; Kurz, Michael; Toti, Luigi; Bauer, Armin; Kallus, Christopher; Klemke-Jahn, Christine; Czech, Jörg; Kramer, Dan; Enke, Heike; Niedermeyer, Timo H J; Morrison, Vincent; Kumar, Vasant; Brönstrup, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Mature thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa) is a carboxypeptidase that stabilizes fibrin clots by removing C-terminal arginines and lysines from partially degraded fibrin. Inhibition of TAFIa stimulates the degradation of fibrin clots and may help to prevent thrombosis. Applying a lead finding approach based on literature-mining, we discovered that anabaenopeptins, cyclic peptides produced by cyanobacteria, were potent inhibitors of TAFIa with IC50 values as low as 1.5 nM. We describe the isolation and structure elucidation of 20 anabaenopeptins, including 13 novel congeners, as well as their pronounced structure-activity relationships (SAR) with respect to inhibition of TAFIa. Crystal structures of the anabaenopeptins B, C and F bound to the surrogate protease carboxypeptidase B revealed the binding modes of these large (~850 Da) compounds in detail and explained the observed SAR, i.e. the strong dependence of the potency on a basic (Arg, Lys) exocyclic residue that addressed the S1' binding pocket, and a broad tolerance towards substitutions in the pentacyclic ring that acted as a plug of the active site. PMID:27604544

  19. Novel STAT3 phosphorylation inhibitors exhibit potent growth suppressive activity in pancreatic and breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li; Hutzen, Brian; Zuo, Mingxin; Ball, Sarah; Deangelis, Stephanie; Foust, Elizabeth; Pandit, Bulbul; Ihnat, Michael A.; Shenoy, Satyendra S.; Kulp, Samuel; Li, Pui-Kai; Li, Chenglong; Fuchs, James; Lin, Jiayuh

    2010-01-01

    The constitutive activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently detected in most types of human cancer where it plays important roles in survival, drug-resistance, angiogenesis, and other functions. Targeting constitutive STAT3 signaling is thus an attractive therapeutic approach for these cancers. We have recently developed novel small molecule STAT3 inhibitors known as FLLL31 and FLLL32, which are derived from curcumin (the primary bioactive compound of turmeric). These compounds are designed to bind selectively to Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) and the STAT3 SH2 domain, which serves crucial roles in STAT3 dimerization and signal transduction. Here we show that FLLL31 and FLLL32 are effective inhibitors of STAT3 phosphorylation, DNA binding activity, and transactivation in vitro, leading to the impediment of multiple oncogenic processes and the induction of apoptosis in pancreatic and breast cancer cell lines. FLLL31 and FLLL32 also inhibit colony formation in soft agar, cell invasion, and exhibit synergy with the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin against breast cancer cells. In addition, we show that FLLL32 can inhibit the induction of STAT3 phosphorylation by Interferon-α (IFNα) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in breast cancer cells. We also demonstrate that administration of FLLL32 can inhibit tumor growth and vascularity in chicken embryo xenografts as well as substantially reduce tumor volumes in mouse xenografts. Our findings highlight the potential of these new compounds and their efficacy in targeting pancreatic and breast cancers that exhibit constitutive STAT3 signaling. PMID:20215512

  20. CC-223, a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of mTOR Kinase: In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Deborah S; Fultz, Kimberly E; Xu, Shuichan; Xu, Weiming; Packard, Garrick; Khambatta, Godrej; Gamez, James C; Leisten, Jim; Zhao, Jingjing; Apuy, Julius; Ghoreishi, Kamran; Hickman, Matt; Narla, Rama Krishna; Bissonette, Rene; Richardson, Samantha; Peng, Sophie X; Perrin-Ninkovic, Sophie; Tran, Tam; Shi, Tao; Yang, Wen Qing; Tong, Zeen; Cathers, Brian E; Moghaddam, Mehran F; Canan, Stacie S; Worland, Peter; Sankar, Sabita; Raymon, Heather K

    2015-06-01

    mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cell growth, metabolism, proliferation, and survival. mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2) are critical mediators of the PI3K-AKT pathway, which is frequently mutated in many cancers, leading to hyperactivation of mTOR signaling. Although rapamycin analogues, allosteric inhibitors that target only the mTORC1 complex, have shown some clinical activity, it is hypothesized that mTOR kinase inhibitors, blocking both mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling, will have expanded therapeutic potential. Here, we describe the preclinical characterization of CC-223. CC-223 is a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of mTOR kinase, demonstrating inhibition of mTORC1 (pS6RP and p4EBP1) and mTORC2 [pAKT(S473)] in cellular systems. Growth inhibitory activity was demonstrated in hematologic and solid tumor cell lines. mTOR kinase inhibition in cells, by CC-223, resulted in more complete inhibition of the mTOR pathway biomarkers and improved antiproliferative activity as compared with rapamycin. Growth inhibitory activity and apoptosis was demonstrated in a panel of hematologic cancer cell lines. Correlative analysis revealed that IRF4 expression level associates with resistance, whereas mTOR pathway activation seems to associate with sensitivity. Treatment with CC-223 afforded in vivo tumor biomarker inhibition in tumor-bearing mice, after a single oral dose. CC-223 exhibited dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition in multiple solid tumor xenografts. Significant inhibition of mTOR pathway markers pS6RP and pAKT in CC-223-treated tumors suggests that the observed antitumor activity of CC-223 was mediated through inhibition of both mTORC1 and mTORC2. CC-223 is currently in phase I clinical trials.

  1. Beryllium is an inhibitor of cellular GSK-3β that is 1,000-fold more potent than lithium.

    PubMed

    Mudireddy, Swapna R; Abdul, Ataur Rahman Mohammed; Gorjala, Priyatham; Gary, Ronald K

    2014-12-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) is a key regulator in signaling networks that control cell proliferation, metabolism, development, and other processes. Lithium chloride is a GSK-3 family inhibitor that has been a mainstay of in vitro and in vivo studies for many years. Beryllium salt has the potential to act as a lithium-like inhibitor of GSK-3, but it is not known whether this agent is effective under physiologically relevant conditions. Here we show that BeSO4 inhibits endogenous GSK-3β in cultured human cells. Exposure to 10 µM Be(2+) produced a decrease in GSK-3β kinase activity that was comparable to that produced by 10 mM Li(+), indicating that beryllium is about 1,000-fold more potent than the classical inhibitor when treating intact cells. There was a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction in specific activity of GSK-3β immunoprecipitated from cells that had been treated with either agent. Lithium inhibited GSK-3β kinase activity directly, and it also caused GSK-3β in cells to become phosphorylated at serine-9 (Ser-9), a post-translational modification that occurs as part of a well-known positive feedback loop that suppresses the kinase activity. Beryllium also inhibited the kinase directly, but unlike lithium it had little effect on Ser-9 phosphorylation in the cell types tested, suggesting that alternative modes of feedback inhibition may be elicited by this agent. These results indicate that beryllium, like lithium, can induce perturbations in the GSK-3β signaling network of treated cells.

  2. TM-02IDENTIFICATION OF THE AZOLE CLASS OF ANTIFUNGALS AS POTENT INHIBITORS OF HEXOKINASE II MEDIATED TUMOUR METABOLISM IN GLIOBLASTOMA

    PubMed Central

    Agnihotri, Sameer; Vartanian, Alenoush; Burrell, Kelly; Singh, Sanjay; Alamsahebpour, Amir; Aldape, Kenneth; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly proliferating tumour cells preferentially use aerobic glycolysis over oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to support growth and survive unfavorable microenvironment conditions. This metabolic reprogramming is referred to as the “Warburg effect” and offers a novel way to target cancer cells including glioblastoma (GBM), the most common malignant brain tumor. Here we demonstrate that Hexokinase 2 (HK2) but not HK1 or HK3 is a critical mediator of metabolic reprograming in GBMs and its inhibition is a potential therapeutic strategy for sensitization of GBM tumors to radiation (RAD) and temozolomide (TMZ). In GBM xenografts, conditional HK2 loss sensitizes tumors to concomitant RAD/TMZ and results in a significant survival benefit. Loss of HK2 resulted in increased necrosis, hypoxia, inflammatory infiltration and reduced vascularization. Currently, no direct inhibitor of HK2 exists so we explored whether a system biology approach to identify gene networks associated with HK2 could lead to the identification of HK2 inhibitors. Using HK2 knockdown in established GBM cell lines and primary cultures we established gene signatures and networks associated with HK2 expression. Loss of HK2 led to attenuation of several pro GBM signaling pathways affecting tumour cell invasion, glucose metabolism and proliferation. Using a small drug screen targeting potential HK2 regulated gene expression networks we identified the azole class of antifungals as inhibitors of tumour metabolism by reducing proliferation, lactate production, glucose uptake in GBM cells but not primary normal human astrocytes or normal neural stem cells. Interestingly, several azole compounds were more potent at killing GBM cells in hypoxic conditions. Azoles in combination with further HK2 knockdown, RT or in combination with other metabolic therapeutics including pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM) activators led to synergistic tumour cell death. In summary, the azole class of antifungals may represent a new way

  3. Silychristin, a Flavonolignan Derived From the Milk Thistle, Is a Potent Inhibitor of the Thyroid Hormone Transporter MCT8.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Jörg; Jayarama-Naidu, Roopa; Meyer, Franziska; Wirth, Eva Katrin; Schweizer, Ulrich; Schomburg, Lutz; Köhrle, Josef; Renko, Kostja

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are charged and iodinated amino acid derivatives that need to pass the cell membrane facilitated by thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters (THTT) to exert their biological function. The importance of functional THTT is affirmed by the devastating effects of mutations in the human monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 8, leading to a severe form of psychomotor retardation. Modulation of THTT function by pharmacological or environmental compounds might disturb TH action on a tissue-specific level. Therefore, it is important to identify compounds with relevant environmental exposure and THTT-modulating activity. Based on a nonradioactive TH uptake assay, we performed a screening of 13 chemicals, suspicious for TH receptor interaction, to test their potential effects on THTT in MCT8-overexpressing MDCK1-cells. We identified silymarin, an extract of the milk thistle, to be a potent inhibitor of T3 uptake by MCT8. Because silymarin is a complex mixture of flavonolignan substances, we further tested its individual components and identified silychristin as the most effective one with an IC50 of approximately 100 nM. The measured IC50 value is at least 1 order of magnitude below those of other known THTT inhibitors. This finding was confirmed by T3 uptake in primary murine astrocytes expressing endogenous Mct8 but not in MCT10-overexpressing MDCK1-cells, indicating a remarkable specificity of the inhibitor toward MCT8. Because silymarin is a frequently used adjuvant therapeutic for hepatitis C infection and chronic liver disease, our observations raise questions regarding its safety with respect to unwanted effects on the TH axis.

  4. Discovery of a novel class of highly potent inhibitors of the p53-MDM2 interaction by structure-based design starting from a conformational argument.

    PubMed

    Furet, Pascal; Masuya, Keiichi; Kallen, Joerg; Stachyra-Valat, Thérèse; Ruetz, Stephan; Guagnano, Vito; Holzer, Philipp; Mah, Robert; Stutz, Stefan; Vaupel, Andrea; Chène, Patrick; Jeay, Sébastien; Schlapbach, Achim

    2016-10-01

    The p53-MDM2 interaction is an anticancer drug target under investigation in the clinic. Our compound NVP-CGM097 is one of the small molecule inhibitors of this protein-protein interaction currently evaluated in cancer patients. As part of our effort to identify new classes of p53-MDM2 inhibitors that could lead to additional clinical candidates, we report here the design of highly potent inhibitors having a pyrazolopyrrolidinone core structure. The conception of these new inhibitors originated in a consideration on the MDM2 bound conformation of the dihydroisoquinolinone class of inhibitors to which NVP-CGM097 belongs. This work forms the foundation of the discovery of HDM201, a second generation p53-MDM2 inhibitor that recently entered phase I clinical trial.

  5. A lectin isolated from bananas is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Michael D; Winter, Harry C; Goldstein, Irwin J; Markovitz, David M

    2010-03-19

    BanLec is a jacalin-related lectin isolated from the fruit of bananas, Musa acuminata. This lectin binds to high mannose carbohydrate structures, including those found on viruses containing glycosylated envelope proteins such as human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Therefore, we hypothesized that BanLec might inhibit HIV-1 through binding of the glycosylated HIV-1 envelope protein, gp120. We determined that BanLec inhibits primary and laboratory-adapted HIV-1 isolates of different tropisms and subtypes. BanLec possesses potent anti-HIV activity, with IC(50) values in the low nanomolar to picomolar range. The mechanism for BanLec-mediated antiviral activity was investigated by determining if this lectin can directly bind the HIV-1 envelope protein and block entry of the virus into the cell. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed direct binding of BanLec to gp120 and indicated that BanLec can recognize the high mannose structures that are recognized by the monoclonal antibody 2G12. Furthermore, BanLec is able to block HIV-1 cellular entry as indicated by temperature-sensitive viral entry studies and by the decreased levels of the strong-stop product of early reverse transcription seen in the presence of BanLec. Thus, our data indicate that BanLec inhibits HIV-1 infection by binding to the glycosylated viral envelope and blocking cellular entry. The relative anti-HIV activity of BanLec compared favorably to other anti-HIV lectins, such as snowdrop lectin and Griffithsin, and to T-20 and maraviroc, two anti-HIV drugs currently in clinical use. Based on these results, BanLec is a potential component for an anti-viral microbicide that could be used to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV-1.

  6. Potent In Vitro Antiproliferative Synergism of Combinations of Ergosterol Biosynthesis Inhibitors against Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    de Macedo-Silva, S T; Visbal, G; Urbina, J A; de Souza, W; Rodrigues, J C F

    2015-10-01

    Leishmaniases comprise a spectrum of diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. Treatments available have limited safety and efficacy, high costs, and difficult administration. Thus, there is an urgent need for safer and more-effective therapies. Most trypanosomatids have an essential requirement for ergosterol and other 24-alkyl sterols, which are absent in mammalian cells. In previous studies, we showed that Leishmania amazonensis is highly susceptible to aryl-quinuclidines, such as E5700, which inhibit squalene synthase, and to the azoles itraconazole (ITZ) and posaconazole (POSA), which inhibit C-14α-demethylase. Herein, we investigated the antiproliferative, ultrastructural, and biochemical effects of combinations of E5700 with ITZ and POSA against L. amazonensis. Potent synergistic antiproliferative effects were observed against promastigotes, with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) ratios of 0.0525 and 0.0162 for combinations of E5700 plus ITZ and of E5700 plus POSA, respectively. Against intracellular amastigotes, FIC values were 0.175 and 0.1125 for combinations of E5700 plus ITZ and E5700 plus POSA, respectively. Marked alterations of the ultrastructure of promastigotes treated with the combinations were observed, in particular mitochondrial swelling, which was consistent with a reduction of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species. We also observed the presence of vacuoles similar to autophagosomes in close association with mitochondria and an increase in the number of lipid bodies. Both growth arrest and ultrastructural/biochemical alterations were strictly associated with the depletion of the 14-desmethyl endogenous sterol pool. These results suggest the possibility of a novel combination therapy for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:26239973

  7. Potent In Vitro Antiproliferative Synergism of Combinations of Ergosterol Biosynthesis Inhibitors against Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo-Silva, S. T.; Visbal, G.; Urbina, J. A.; de Souza, W.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniases comprise a spectrum of diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. Treatments available have limited safety and efficacy, high costs, and difficult administration. Thus, there is an urgent need for safer and more-effective therapies. Most trypanosomatids have an essential requirement for ergosterol and other 24-alkyl sterols, which are absent in mammalian cells. In previous studies, we showed that Leishmania amazonensis is highly susceptible to aryl-quinuclidines, such as E5700, which inhibit squalene synthase, and to the azoles itraconazole (ITZ) and posaconazole (POSA), which inhibit C-14α-demethylase. Herein, we investigated the antiproliferative, ultrastructural, and biochemical effects of combinations of E5700 with ITZ and POSA against L. amazonensis. Potent synergistic antiproliferative effects were observed against promastigotes, with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) ratios of 0.0525 and 0.0162 for combinations of E5700 plus ITZ and of E5700 plus POSA, respectively. Against intracellular amastigotes, FIC values were 0.175 and 0.1125 for combinations of E5700 plus ITZ and E5700 plus POSA, respectively. Marked alterations of the ultrastructure of promastigotes treated with the combinations were observed, in particular mitochondrial swelling, which was consistent with a reduction of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species. We also observed the presence of vacuoles similar to autophagosomes in close association with mitochondria and an increase in the number of lipid bodies. Both growth arrest and ultrastructural/biochemical alterations were strictly associated with the depletion of the 14-desmethyl endogenous sterol pool. These results suggest the possibility of a novel combination therapy for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:26239973

  8. Structural Insight into Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins Recognition by a Potent Divalent Smac-Mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Vachette, Patrice; Malvezzi, Francesca; Grassi, Serena; Lecis, Daniele; Delia, Domenico; Drago, Carmelo; Seneci, Pierfausto; Bolognesi, Martino; Mastrangelo, Eloise

    2012-01-01

    Genetic alterations enhancing cell survival and suppressing apoptosis are hallmarks of cancer that significantly reduce the efficacy of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family hosts conserved proteins in the apoptotic pathway whose over-expression, frequently found in tumours, potentiates survival and resistance to anticancer agents. In humans, IAPs comprise eight members hosting one or more structural Baculoviral IAP Repeat (BIR) domains. Cellular IAPs (cIAP1 and 2) indirectly inhibit caspase-8 activation, and regulate both the canonical and the non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathways. In contrast to cIAPs, XIAP (X chromosome-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein) inhibits directly the effector caspases-3 and -7 through its BIR2 domain, and initiator caspase-9 through its BIR3 domain; molecular docking studies suggested that Smac/DIABLO antagonizes XIAP by simultaneously targeting both BIR2 and BIR3 domains. Here we report analytical gel filtration, crystallographic and SAXS experiments on cIAP1-BIR3, XIAP-BIR3 and XIAP-BIR2BIR3 domains, alone and in the presence of compound 9a, a divalent homodimeric Smac mimetic. 9a is shown to bind two BIR domains inter- (in the case of two BIR3) and intra-molecularly (in the case of XIAP-BIR2BIR3), with higher affinity for cIAP1-BIR3, relative to XIAP-BIR3. Despite the different crystal lattice packing, 9a maintains a right handed helical conformation in both cIAP1-BIR3 and XIAP-BIR3 crystals, that is likely conserved in solution as shown by SAXS data. Our structural results demonstrate that the 9a linker length, its conformational degrees of freedom and its hydrophobicity, warrant an overall compact structure with optimal solvent exposure of its two active moieties for IAPs binding. Our results show that 9a is a good candidate for pre-clinical and clinical studies, worth of further investigations in the field of cancer therapy. PMID:23166698

  9. Discovery of a novel [3.2.1] benzo fused bicyclic sulfonamide-pyrazoles as potent, selective and efficacious γ-secretase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaocong M; Konradi, Andrei W; Sun, Minghua; Yuan, Shendong; Aubele, Danielle L; Dappen, Michael; Dressen, Darren; Garofalo, Albert W; Jagodzinski, Jacek J; Latimer, Lee; Probst, Gary D; Sham, Hing L; Wone, David; Xu, Ying-zi; Ness, Daniel; Brigham, Elizabeth; Kwong, Grace T; Willtis, Chris; Tonn, George; Goldbach, Erich; Quinn, Kevin P; Zhang, Hongbin H; Sauer, John-Michael; Bova, Michael; Basi, Guriqbal S

    2013-02-15

    Structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a novel, potent and metabolically stable series of benzo [3.2.1] bicyclic sulfonamide-pyrazoles as γ-secretase inhibitors are described. Compounds that are efficacious in reducing the cortical Aβx-40 levels in FVB mice via oral dose, as well as those with high selectivity over Notch, are highlighted. PMID:23312944

  10. Novel 1H-imidazol-2-amine derivatives as potent and orally active vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) inhibitors for diabetic macular edema treatment.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takayuki; Morita, Masataka; Tojo, Takashi; Nagashima, Akira; Moritomo, Ayako; Miyake, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    Novel thiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) inhibitors. Although we previously identified a compound (2) with potent VAP-1 inhibitory activity in rats, the human activity was relatively weak. Here, to improve the human VAP-1 inhibitory activity of compound 2, we first evaluated the structure-activity relationships of guanidine bioisosteres as simple small molecules and identified a 1H-benzimidazol-2-amine (5) with potent activity compared to phenylguanidine (1). Based on the structure of compound 5, we synthesized a highly potent VAP-1 inhibitor (37b; human IC50=0.019 μM, rat IC50=0.0051 μM). Orally administered compound 37b also markedly inhibited ocular permeability in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after oral administration, suggesting it is a promising compound for the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

  11. Discovery of a potent and orally available acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor as an anti-atherosclerotic agent: (4-phenylcoumarin)acetanilide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Masaki; Fukui, Seiji; Nakada, Yoshihisa; Tokunoh, Ryosuke; Itokawa, Shigekazu; Kakoi, Yuichi; Nishimura, Satoshi; Sanada, Tsukasa; Fuse, Hiromitsu; Kubo, Kazuki; Wada, Takeo; Marui, Shogo

    2011-01-01

    Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes cholesterol esterification. ACAT inhibitors are expected to be potent therapeutic agents for the treatment of atherosclerosis. A series of potent ACAT inhibitors based on an (4-phenylcoumarin)acetanilide scaffold was identified. Evaluation of the structure-activity relationships of a substituent on this scaffold, with an emphasis on improving the pharmacokinetic profile led to the discovery of 2-[7-chloro-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl]-N-[4-chloro-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]acetamide (23), which exhibited potent ACAT inhibitory activity (IC50=12 nM) and good pharmacokinetic profile in mice. Compound 23 also showed regressive effects on atherosclerotic plaques in apolipoprotein (apo)E knock out (KO) mice at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg per os (p.o.). PMID:21963637

  12. The rationale and strategy used to develop a series of highly potent, irreversible, inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor family of tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Bridges, A J

    1999-09-01

    The Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (EGFr) was one of the first oncogenes identified, and it, or its ligands Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Transforming Growth Factor a (TGFa) are overexpressed in most clinical tumours. As EGF and TGFa are potent mitogens, it appeared that inhibition of EGFr signaling would be a viable anti-proliferative strategy. Screening found several classes of EGFr inhibitor, one of which, the indolinethiones was developed. The SAR, in common with that of other first generation tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors was flat, and potency was poor. Rescreening in presence of a thiol, to remove chemically reactive species, identified only two leads, a pyridopyrimidine and a quinazoline. These were developed into a very broad class of EGFr inhibitors, with great potency and selectivity for EGFr, but poor physicochemical properties, and little if any in vivo anti-tumour activity. Meanwhile the complex role of other members of the EGFr TK family in oncogenesis, was becoming apparent, suggesting that the whole EGFr family should be inhibited. The difficulty of finding potent compounds with acceptable pharmacokinetics also suggested that irreversible inhibitors of the TK might produce better in vivo profiles. Modeling suggested that the unusual Cys773 residue might be reached from the 6/7-positions of quinazoline and pyridopyrimidine inhibitors. Inhibitors with acrylamides at these positions proved to be irreversible alkylating agents for both EGFr and erbB-2 with cellular inhibitory activities in the low nanomolar range, and very potent in vivo antitumour activity. Optimized inhibitors had exceptionally potent oral antitumour activity, with negligible cytotoxicity.

  13. Commentary on "Proteasome Inhibitors: A Novel Class of Potent and Effective Antitumor Agents".

    PubMed

    Tew, Kenneth D

    2016-09-01

    The relatively recent clinical success of bortezomib, particularly in multiple myeloma, has established the validity of the proteasome as a viable target for anticancer drug development. This highly cited 1999 Cancer Research article from Adams and colleagues was published during the period when this drug was transitioning from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trial status. Their results detail structure-activity analyses using a series of boronic acid proteasome inhibitors and correlate cytotoxicity with inhibition of proteasome activity. In and of itself, the recognition that interference with proteasome functions represented a novel therapeutic approach likely underlies the popularity of this article. In addition, the provision of in vitro (at that time using the NCI 60 cell line panel) and in vivo antitumor activity, toxicology, and mouse pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data provided a solid basis for establishing the future credentials for bortezomib to gain initial FDA approval in 2003. Cancer Res; 76(17); 4916-7. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Adams et al., Cancer Res 1999;59:2615-22Visit the Cancer Research 75(th) Anniversary timeline. PMID:27587650

  14. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, potent nitric oxide inhibitors from the marine microalga Tetraselmis chui.

    PubMed

    Banskota, Arjun H; Gallant, Pamela; Stefanova, Roumiana; Melanson, Ronald; O'Leary, Stephen J B

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of some marine and freshwater microalgae were tested for their nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Among the tested extracts, Tetraselmis chui extract showed the strongest NO inhibitory activity, thus selected for further study. NO inhibitory activity guided isolation led to identification of two monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDGs) (2S)-1-O-(6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z-octadecatetranoyl)-2-O-(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z-hexadecatetranoyl)-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosylglycerol (1) and (2S)-1-O-(9Z,12Z,15Z-octadecatrinoyl)-2-O-(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z-hexadecatetranoyl)-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosylglycerol (2) from the MeOH extract of T. chui. The stereo-chemistry of 1 was elucidated by classical degradation method. MGDGs 1 and 2 showed strong NO inhibitory activity compared to N(G)-methyl-L-arginine acetate salt, a well known NO inhibitor used as a positive control. Isolated MGDGs suppressed NO production through down-regulation of inducible NO synthase protein. A structure activity relationship study suggested that the polyunsaturated fatty acids of the MGDGs are responsible for NO inhibition. Moreover, increasing unsaturation on the fatty acid side chains enhanced the NO inhibitory potency of the MGDGs. PMID:22973805

  15. Identification of potent inhibitors against snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) using molecular docking and molecular dynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Chinnasamy, Sathishkumar; Chinnasamy, Selvakkumar; Nagamani, Selvaraman; Muthusamy, Karthikeyan

    2015-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) (Echis coloratus (Carpet viper) is a multifunctional enzyme that is involved in producing several symptoms that follow a snakebite, such as severe local hemorrhage, nervous system effects and tissue necrosis. Because the three-dimensional (3D) structure of SVMP is not known, models were constructed, and the best model was selected based on its stereo-chemical quality. The stability of the modeled protein was analyzed through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies. Structure-based virtual screening was performed, and 15 potential molecules with the highest binding energies were selected. Further analysis was carried out with induced fit docking, Prime/MM-GBSA (ΔGBind calculations), quantum-polarized ligand docking, and density functional theory calculations. Further, the stability of the lead molecules in the SVMP-active site was examined using MD simulation. The results showed that the selected lead molecules were highly stable in the active site of SVMP. Hence, these molecules could potentially be selective inhibitors of SVMP. These lead molecules can be experimentally validated, and their backbone structural scaffold could serve as building blocks in designing drug-like molecules for snake antivenom.

  16. Discovery of potent carbonic anhydrase and acetylcholine esterase inhibitors: novel sulfamoylcarbamates and sulfamides derived from acetophenones.

    PubMed

    Akıncıoğlu, Akın; Akıncıoğlu, Hülya; Gülçin, İlhami; Durdagi, Serdar; Supuran, Claudiu T; Göksu, Süleyman

    2015-07-01

    In this study, several novel sulfamides were synthesized and evaluated for their acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and human carbonic anhydrase I, and II isoenzymes (hCA I and II) inhibition profiles. Reductive amination of methoxyacetophenones was used for the synthesis of amines. Amines were converted to sulfamoylcarbamates with chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) in the presence of BnOH. Pd-C catalyzed hydrogenolysis of sulfamoylcarbamates afforded sulfamides. These novel compounds were good inhibitors of the cytosolic hCA I, and hCA II with Ki values in the range of 45.9±8.9-687.5±84.3 pM for hCA I, and 48.80±8.2-672.2±71.9pM for hCA II. The inhibitory effects of the synthesized novel compounds on AChE were also investigated. The Ki values of these compounds were in the range of 4.52±0.61-38.28±6.84pM for AChE. These results show that hCA I, II, and AChE were effectively inhibited by the novel sulfamoylcarbamates 17-21 and sulfamide derivatives 22-26. All investigated compounds were docked within the active sites of the corresponding enzymes revealing the reasons of the effective inhibitory activity. PMID:25921269

  17. Design and synthesis of bicyclic pyrimidinones as potent and orally bioavailable HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Muraglia, Ester; Kinzel, Olaf; Gardelli, Cristina; Crescenzi, Benedetta; Donghi, Monica; Ferrara, Marco; Nizi, Emanuela; Orvieto, Federica; Pescatore, Giovanna; Laufer, Ralph; Gonzalez-Paz, Odalys; Di Marco, Annalise; Fiore, Fabrizio; Monteagudo, Edith; Fonsi, Massimiliano; Felock, Peter J; Rowley, Michael; Summa, Vincenzo

    2008-02-28

    HIV integrase is one of the three enzymes encoded by HIV genome and is essential for viral replication, but integrase inhibitors as marketed drugs have just very recently started to emerge. In this study, we show the evolution from the N-methylpyrimidinone structure to bicyclic pyrimidinones. Introduction of a suitably substituted amino moiety modulated the physical-chemical properties of the molecules and conferred nanomolar activity in the inhibition of spread of HIV-1 infection in cell culture. An extensive SAR study led to sulfamide (R)- 22b, which inhibited the strand transfer with an IC50 of 7 nM and HIV infection in MT4 cells with a CIC95 of 44 nM, and ketoamide (S)- 28c that inhibited strand transfer with an IC50 of 12 nM and the HIV infection in MT4 cells with a CIC95 of 13 nM and exhibited a good pharmacokinetic profile when dosed orally to preclinical species.

  18. Antidepressant-like Effects of LPM580153, A Novel Potent Triple Reuptake Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangxi; Shao, Jing; Tian, Jingwei; Zhong, Yan; Ye, Liang; Meng, Xiangjing; Liu, Qiaofeng; Wang, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel compound, 4-[2-(dimethylamino)-1-(1-hydroxycyclohexyl) ethyl] phenyl 3-nitrophenyl ether, designated LPM580153. We used several well-validated animal models of depression to assess the antidepressant-like activity of LPM580153, followed by a neurotransmitter uptake assay and a corticosterone-induced cell injury model to explore its mechanism of action. In mice, LPM580153 reduced immobility time in the tail suspension test, and in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress it reversed reductions in body weight gain and ameliorated anhedonia. The neurotransmitter uptake assay results demonstrated that LPM580153 inhibited the uptake of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. Furthermore, LPM580153 protected the SH-SY5Y cells against the cytotoxic activity of corticosterone, an action that might be related to the role of LPM580153 in increasing the protein levels of BDNF, p-ERK1/2, p-AKT, p-CREB and p-mTOR. Together, these findings indicate that LPM580153 is a novel triple reuptake inhibitor with robust antidepressant-like effects. PMID:27052887

  19. A lysophosphatidic acid analogue is revealed as a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine synthesis, inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, Geneviéve; Granci, Virginie; Rogalle, Pierre; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Wilson, Michéle; Klaébé, Alain; Tercé, François; Chap, Hugues; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Simon, Marie-Françoise; Gaits, Frédérique

    2002-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that cross-desensitization experiments performed with the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) analogues (R)- and (S)-N-palmitoyl-norleucinol 1-phosphate (PNPAs) inhibited LPA-induced platelet aggregation without any stereospecificity. Here we report opposite biological effects of the two enantiomers on mitogenesis of IMR-90 fibroblasts in relation to their respective metabolism. (R)PNPA was proliferative, while (S)PNPA induced apoptosis by specifically inhibiting phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis at the last step of the CDP-choline pathway controlled by cholinephosphotransferase. This effect was not direct but required dephosphorylation of PNPAs by ecto-lipid phosphate phosphatase before cellular uptake of the generated N-palmitoyl-norleucinols (PNOHs). Inhibition of cholinephosphotransferase by the derivative (S)PNOH was confirmed by an in vitro assay. (S)PNPA proapoptotic effects led us to clarify the mechanism linking cholinephosphotransferase inhibition to apoptosis. Three proapoptotic responses were observed: the activation of caspase-3, the production of ceramides from newly synthesized pools (as demonstrated by the inhibitor Fumonisin B1) and finally the activation of stress-activated protein kinase, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2, as a result of ceramide increase. Thus our data demonstrate that synthetic analogues of LPA might display stereospecific effects leading to apoptosis independently of classical LPA-activated pathways. PMID:12197836

  20. Structural elements that govern Sec14-like PITP sensitivities to potent small molecule inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Khan, Danish; McGrath, Kaitlyn R; Dorosheva, Oleksandra; Bankaitis, Vytas A; Tripathi, Ashutosh

    2016-04-01

    Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITPs) play important biological functions in integrating multiple aspects of intracellular lipid metabolism with phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate signaling. As such, these proteins offer new opportunities for highly selective chemical interference with specific phosphoinositide pathways in cells. The first and best characterized small molecule inhibitors of the yeast PITP, Sec14, are nitrophenyl(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)methanones (NPPMs), and a hallmark feature of NPPMs is their exquisite targeting specificities for Sec14 relative to other closely related Sec14-like PITPs. Our present understanding of Sec14::NPPM binding interactions is based on computational docking and rational loss-of-function approaches. While those approaches have been informative, we still lack an adequate understanding of the basis for the high selectivity of NPPMs among closely related Sec14-like PITPs. Herein, we describe a Sec14 motif, which we term the VV signature, that contributes significantly to the NPPM sensitivity/resistance of Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) transfer proteins. The data not only reveal previously unappreciated determinants that govern Sec14-like PITP sensitivities to NPPMs, but enable predictions of which Sec14-like PtdIns/PtdCho transfer proteins are likely to be NPPM resistant or sensitive based on primary sequence considerations. Finally, the data provide independent evidence in support of previous studies highlighting the importance of Sec14 residue Ser173 in the mechanism by which NPPMs engage and inhibit Sec14-like PITPs.

  1. Commentary on "Proteasome Inhibitors: A Novel Class of Potent and Effective Antitumor Agents".

    PubMed

    Tew, Kenneth D

    2016-09-01

    The relatively recent clinical success of bortezomib, particularly in multiple myeloma, has established the validity of the proteasome as a viable target for anticancer drug development. This highly cited 1999 Cancer Research article from Adams and colleagues was published during the period when this drug was transitioning from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trial status. Their results detail structure-activity analyses using a series of boronic acid proteasome inhibitors and correlate cytotoxicity with inhibition of proteasome activity. In and of itself, the recognition that interference with proteasome functions represented a novel therapeutic approach likely underlies the popularity of this article. In addition, the provision of in vitro (at that time using the NCI 60 cell line panel) and in vivo antitumor activity, toxicology, and mouse pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data provided a solid basis for establishing the future credentials for bortezomib to gain initial FDA approval in 2003. Cancer Res; 76(17); 4916-7. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Adams et al., Cancer Res 1999;59:2615-22Visit the Cancer Research 75(th) Anniversary timeline.

  2. 2-Benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone analogs as potent dual inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Leong, Sze Wei; Abas, Faridah; Lam, Kok Wai; Shaari, Khozirah; Lajis, Nordin H

    2016-08-15

    In the present study, a series of 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for their anti-cholinesterase activity. Among the forty-one analogs, four compounds (38, 39, 40 and 41) have been identified as lead compounds due to their highest inhibition on both AChE and BChE activities. Compounds 39 and 40 in particular exhibited highest inhibition on both AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 1.6μM and 0.6μM, respectively. Further structure-activity relationship study suggested that presence of a long-chain heterocyclic in one of the rings played a critical role in the dual enzymes' inhibition. The Lineweaver-Burk plots and docking results suggest that both compounds could simultaneously bind to the PAS and CAS regions of the enzyme. ADMET analysis further confirmed the therapeutic potential of both compounds based upon their high BBB-penetrating. Thus, 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone containing long-chain heterocyclic amine analogs represent a new class of cholinesterase inhibitor, which deserve further investigation for their development into therapeutic agents for cognitive diseases such as Alzheimer. PMID:27328658

  3. Echistatin. A potent platelet aggregation inhibitor from the venom of the viper, Echis carinatus.

    PubMed

    Gan, Z R; Gould, R J; Jacobs, J W; Friedman, P A; Polokoff, M A

    1988-12-25

    A 49-residue protein, echistatin, which inhibits platelet aggregation, was purified from the venom of the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus. The purification procedure included gel filtration on Sephadex G-50, cation-exchange chromatography on Mono S, and C18 reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. The purified protein was homogeneous as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography, and NH2-terminal sequence analysis. Echistatin is a single-chain polypeptide with a molecular weight of 5400 and a native isoelectric point of 8.3. The most abundant amino acid, cysteine, accounts for 8 of the 49 residues in the protein. A 10-residue segment of echistatin shows 90% identity to a portion of the sequence of trigramin, a platelet aggregation inhibitor from the green tree viper Trimereserus gramineus (Huang, T.-F., Holt, J. C., Lukasiewicz, H., and Niewiarowski, S. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 16157-16163). Echistatin contains the sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid, which is common to proteins which bind to the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex. It also contains the sequence proline-arginine-asparagine-proline, which is found in the A alpha chain of human fibrinogen at position 267-270. The purified protein inhibits fibrinogen-dependent platelet aggregation initiated by ADP with an IC50 of 3 x 10(-8) M and also prevents aggregation initiated by thrombin, epinephrine, collagen, or platelet-activating factor. Reduction of echistatin abolished its inhibitory activity. PMID:3198653

  4. Explaining why Gleevec is a specific and potent inhibitor of Abl kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Lin; Meng, Yilin; Jiang, Wei; Roux, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases present attractive drug targets for specific types of cancers. Gleevec, a well-known therapeutic agent against chronic myelogenous leukemia, is an effective inhibitor of Abl tyrosine kinase. However, Gleevec fails to inhibit closely homologous tyrosine kinases, such as c-Src. Because many structural features of the binding site are conserved, the molecular determinants responsible for binding specificity are not immediately apparent. Some have attributed the difference in binding specificity of Gleevec to subtle variations in ligand–protein interactions (binding affinity control), whereas others have proposed that it is the conformation of the DFG motif, in which ligand binding is only accessible to Abl and not to c-Src (conformational selection control). To address this issue, the absolute binding free energy was computed using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent. The results of the free energy simulations are in good agreement with experiments, thereby enabling a meaningful decomposition of the binding free energy to elucidate the factors controlling Gleevec’s binding specificity. The latter is shown to be controlled by a conformational selection mechanism and also by differences in key van der Waals interactions responsible for the stabilization of Gleevec in the binding pocket of Abl. PMID:23319661

  5. Bromo-deaza-SAH: a potent and selective DOT1L inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Tempel, Wolfram; Fedorov, Oleg; Nguyen, Kong T.; Bolshan, Yuri; Al-Awar, Rima; Knapp, Stefan; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Vedadi, Masoud; Brown, Peter J.; Schapira, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Chemical inhibition of proteins involved in chromatin-mediated signaling is an emerging strategy to control chromatin compaction with the aim to reprogram expression networks to alter disease states. Protein methyltransferases constitute one of the protein families that participate in epigenetic control of gene expression, and represent a novel therapeutic target class. Recruitment of the protein lysine methyltransferase DOT1L at aberrant loci is a frequent mechanism driving acute lymphoid and myeloid leukemias, particularly in infants, and pharmacological inhibition of DOT1L extends survival in a mouse model of mixed lineage leukemia. A better understanding of the structural chemistry of DOT1L inhibition would accelerate the development of improved compounds. Here, we report that the addition of a single halogen atom at a critical position in the cofactor product S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH, an inhibitor of SAM-dependent methyltransferases) results in an 8-fold increase in potency against DOT1L, and reduced activities against other protein and non-protein methyltransferases. We solved the crystal structure of DOT1L in complex with Bromo-deaza-SAH and rationalized the observed effects. This discovery reveals a simple strategy to engineer selectivity and potency towards DOT1L into the adenosine scaffold of the cofactor shared by all methyltransferases, and can be exploited towards the development of clinical candidates against mixed lineage leukemia. PMID:23433670

  6. Rhamnazin, a novel inhibitor of VEGFR2 signaling with potent antiangiogenic activity and antitumor efficacy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yao; Cai, Wei; Pei, Chong-gang; Shao, Yi

    2015-03-20

    Anti-angiogenesis targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) has emerged as an important tool for cancer therapy. The identification of new drugs from natural products has a long and successful history. In this study, we described a novel VEGFR2 inhibitor, rhamnazin, which inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth. Rhamnazin significantly inhibited proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro as well as inhibited sprouts formation of rat aorta ring. In addition, it inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling regulator in HUVECs. Moreover, rhamnazin could directly inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 in vitro and in vivo. Oral administration of rhamnazin at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day could markedly inhibited human tumor xenograft growth and decreased microvessel densities (MVD) in tumor sections. Taken together, these preclinical evaluations suggest that rhamnazin inhibits angiogenesis and may be a promising anticancer drug candidate. - Highlights: • Rhamnazin inhibits the response of HUVECs to VEGF in vitro. • Rhamnazin inhibits VEGFR2 kinase activity and its downstream signaling. • Rhamnazin prevents the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumor and reduces micro-vessel density in vivo.

  7. The Design and Synthesis of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 for the Treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a genetically validated drug target for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called African sleeping sickness. We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of aminopyrazole derivatives as Trypanosoma brucei GSK3 short inhibitors. Low nanomolar inhibitors, which had high selectivity over the off-target human CDK2 and good selectivity over human GSK3β enzyme, have been prepared. These potent kinase inhibitors demonstrated low micromolar levels of inhibition of the Trypanosoma brucei brucei parasite grown in culture. PMID:25198388

  8. Metformin is a potent inhibitor of endometrial cancer cell proliferation – implications for a novel treatment strategy1

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Leigh A.; Zhou, Chunxiao; Mendivil, Alberto; Malloy, Kimberly M.; Gehrig, Paola A.; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Obesity and diabetes are strong risk factors that drive the development of type I endometrial cancers. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that metformin may lower cancer risk and reduce rates of cancer deaths among diabetic patients. In order to better understand metformin's anti-tumorigenic potential, our goal was to assess the effect of metformin on proliferation and expression of key targets of metformin cell signaling in endometrial cancer cell lines. Methods The endometrial cancer cell lines, ECC-1 and Ishikawa, were used. Cell proliferation was assessed after exposure to metformin. Cell cycle progression was evaluated by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was assessed by ELISA for caspase-3 activity. hTERT expression was determined by real-time RT-PCR. Western immunoblotting was performed to determine the expression of the downstream targets of metformin. Results Metformin potently inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner in both cell lines (IC50 of 1 mM). Treatment with metformin resulted in G1 arrest, induction of apoptosis and decreased hTERT expression. Western immunoblot analysis demonstrated that metformin induced phosphorylation of AMPK, its immediate downstream mediator, within 24 hours of exposure. In parallel, treatment with metformin decreased phosphorylation of S6 protein, a key target of the mTOR pathway. Conclusions We find that metformin is a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation in endometrial cancer cell lines. This effect is partially mediated through AMPK activation and subsequent inhibition of the mTOR pathway. This work should provide the scientific foundation for future investigation of metformin as a strategy for endometrial cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:19822355

  9. A Novel Inhibitor of Gyrase B Is a Potent Drug Candidate for Treatment of Tuberculosis and Nontuberculosis Mycobacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Steven M.; Hanzelka, Brian L.; Perola, Emanuele; Shoen, Carolyn M.; Cynamon, Michael H.; Ngwane, Andile H.; Wiid, Ian J.; van Helden, Paul D.; Betoudji, Fabrice; Nuermberger, Eric L.; Thomson, John A.

    2014-01-01

    New drugs to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis are urgently needed. Extensively drug-resistant and probably the totally drug-resistant tuberculosis strains are resistant to fluoroquinolones like moxifloxacin, which target gyrase A, and most people infected with these strains die within a year. In this study, we found that a novel aminobenzimidazole, VXc-486, which targets gyrase B, potently inhibits multiple drug-sensitive isolates and drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro (MICs of 0.03 to 0.30 μg/ml and 0.08 to 5.48 μg/ml, respectively) and reduces mycobacterial burdens in lungs of infected mice in vivo. VXc-486 is active against drug-resistant isolates, has bactericidal activity, and kills intracellular and dormant M. tuberculosis bacteria in a low-oxygen environment. Furthermore, we found that VXc-486 inhibits the growth of multiple strains of Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium avium complex, and Mycobacterium kansasii (MICs of 0.1 to 2.0 μg/ml), as well as that of several strains of Nocardia spp. (MICs of 0.1 to 1.0 μg/ml). We made a direct comparison of the parent compound VXc-486 and a phosphate prodrug of VXc-486 and showed that the prodrug of VXc-486 had more potent killing of M. tuberculosis than did VXc-486 in vivo. In combination with other antimycobacterial drugs, the prodrug of VXc-486 sterilized M. tuberculosis infection when combined with rifapentine-pyrazinamide and bedaquiline-pyrazinamide in a relapse infection study in mice. Furthermore, the prodrug of VXc-486 appeared to perform at least as well as the gyrase A inhibitor moxifloxacin. These findings warrant further development of the prodrug of VXc-486 for the treatment of tuberculosis and nontuberculosis mycobacterial infections. PMID:25534737

  10. New potent and selective inhibitor of Pim-1/3 protein kinases sensitizes human colon carcinoma cells to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Pascale; Dezhenkova, Lyubov G; Anizon, Fabrice; Nauton, Lionel; Thery, Vincent; Liang, Shuguang; Kaluzhny, Dmitry N; Shtil, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    The Pim protein kinases (provirus insertion site of Moloney murine leukemia virus) have been identified as important actors involved in tumor cell survival, proliferation, migration and invasion. Therefore, inhibition of Pim activity by low molecular weight compounds is under investigation as a part of anticancer therapeutic strategies. We have synthesized a series of pyrrolo[2,3-a]carbazole derivatives that significantly inhibited Pim protein kinases at submicromolar concentrations. Particularly, benzodiazocine derivative 1 potently inhibited Pim-1 and -3 isoforms in in vitro kinase assays (IC50 8 nM and 13 nM, respectively), whereas Pim-2 activity was less affected (IC50 350 nM). We show here that no inhibitory effect of 1 was detectable at 1 µM against other 22 serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases. In addition, 1, possessing a planar pyrrolocarbazole scaffold, demonstrated no significant binding to DNA, nor was it a potent topoisomerase I inhibitor, suggesting that 1 is likely to be highly selective for Pim-1 and -3. Importantly, whereas 1 exerted a negligible cytotoxicity for human colon carcinoma HCT116 cell line at concentrations >10 µM within 72 h of cell exposure, it synergized at nontoxic concentrations with the antitumor drug doxorubicin (Dox) in killing HCT116 cells: IC50 of Dox alone and Dox+1 were ~200 nM and ~25 nM, respectively. These data strongly suggest that 1 emerges as a prospective antitumor drug candidate due to its selectivity to individual Pim protein kinases and the ability to potentiate the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutics. PMID:25175798

  11. QSAR modeling and molecular interaction analysis of natural compounds as potent neuraminidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiaying; Mei, Hu

    2016-04-26

    Different QSAR models of 40 natural compounds as neuraminidase inhibitors (NIs) are developed to comprehend chemical-biological interactions and predict activities against neuraminidase (NA) from Clostridium perfringens. Based on the constitutional, topological and conformational descriptors, R(2) and Q(2) values of the obtained SRA model are 0.931 and 0.856. The R(2) and Q(2) values of the constructed HQSAR and almond models are 0.903 and 0.767, 0.904 and 0.511, respectively. Based on the pharmacophore alignment, R(2) and Q(2) values of the optimal CoMSIA model are 0.936 and 0.654. Moreover, Rtest(2) and Qext(2) of values of SRA, HQSAR, almond and CoMSIA models are 0.611 and 0.565, 0.753 and 0.750, 0.612 and 0.582, 0.582 and 0.571, respectively. So, QSAR models have good predictive capability. They can be further used to evaluate and screen new compounds. Moreover, hydrogen bonds and electrostatic factors have high contributions to activities. To understand molecular interactions between natural compounds and NA from Clostridium perfringens, molecular docking is investigated. The docking results elucidate that Arg266, Asp291, Asp328, Tyr485, Glu493, Arg555, Arg615 and Tyr655 are especially the key residues in the active site of 2bf6. Hydrogen bonds and electrostatics are key factors, which impact the interactions between NIs and NA. So, the influential factors of interactions between NIs and NA in the docking results are in agreement with the QSAR results. PMID:27008437

  12. Pharmacological profile of FK881(ASP6537), a novel potent and selective cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Junko; Morita, Yoshiaki; Yoshimi, Eiji; Kuroda, Kanae; Masunaga, Tomoko; Yamagami, Kaoru; Kuno, Masako; Hamachi, Emi; Aoki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Fumie; Nakamura, Katsuya; Miyata, Susumu; Ohkubo, Yoshitaka; Mutoh, Seitaro

    2011-10-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are now understood to fall into one of two agent classes in clinical use. Traditional NSAIDs inhibit both cyclooxygenases-1 and 2 (COX-1, 2), which act as key enzymes catalyzing the same reaction in the production of prostaglandins (PGs), while the second class of NSAIDs selectively inhibit COX-2. Inhibition of the inducible COX-2 isoform is believed to be responsible for the therapeutic effects of NSAIDs, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects, while COX-1 inhibition results in side-effects on the gastrointestinal (GI) system. In the present study, however, we changed this notion that inhibiting only COX-1 causes adverse effects. We discovered FK881, a specific COX-1 inhibitor which exhibits a 650-fold ratio for human whole blood COX-1/COX-2 and rats in vivo. In rats, FK881 dose dependently inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema (ED30: 22 mg/kg; diclofenac ED30: 3.6 mg/kg, rofecoxib ED30: 26 mg/kg) and paw swelling associated with adjuvant arthritis (ED50: 17 mg/kg; diclofenac ED50: 1.4 mg/kg, rofecoxib ED50: 1.8 mg/kg). Further, FK881 dose dependently inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing in mice (ED50: 19 mg/kg; diclofenac ED50: 14 mg/kg, rofecoxib ED50: >100mg/kg) and adjuvant arthritis hyperalgesia in rats (ED50: 1.8 mg/kg; diclofenac ED50: 1.0mg/kg, rofecoxib ED50: 0.8mg/kg). However, unlike traditional NSAIDs, GI tolerability was improved, although the antipyretic effect of FK881 was weak (NOEL: >320 mg/kg; diclofenac NOEL: <1mg/kg, rofecoxib NOEL: 100 mg/kg). These results suggest that FK881 may be useful in treating symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

  13. EBI-907, a novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitor, has potent oral anti-tumor activity and a broad kinase selectivity profile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayin; Lu, Biao; Liu, Dong; Shen, Ru; Yan, Yinfa; Yang, Liuqing; Zhang, Minsheng; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Guoqing; Cao, Hu; Fu, Beibei; Gong, Aishen; Sun, Qiming; Wan, Hong; Zhang, Lianshan; Tao, Weikang; Cao, Jingsong

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic mutation of BRAF(V600E) has been found in approximately 8% of all human cancers, including more than 60% of melanoma and 10% of colorectal cancers. The clinical proof of concept in treating BRAF(V600E)-driving melanoma patients with the BRAF inhibitors has been well established. We have sought to identify and develop novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitors with more favorable profiles. Our chemistry effort has led to the discovery of EBI-907 as a novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitor with potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In a LanthaScreen BRAF(V600E) kinase assay, EBI-907 showed an IC50 of 4.8 nM, which is >10 -fold more potent than Vemurafenib (IC50 = 58.5 nM). In addition, EBI-907 showed a broader kinase selectivity profile, with potent activity against a number of important oncogenic kinases including FGFR1-3, RET, c-Kit, and PDGFRb. Concomitant with such properties, EBI-907 exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity against a broader range of BRAF(V600E)-dependent cell lines including certain colorectal cancer cell lines with innate resistance to Vemurafenib. In BRAF(V600E)-dependent human Colo-205 and A375 tumor xenograft mouse models, EBI-907 caused a marked tumor regression in a dose-dependent manner, with superior efficacy to Vemurafenib. Our results also showed that combination with EGFR or MEK inhibitor enhanced the potency of EBI-907 in cell lines with innate or acquired resistance to BRAF inhibition alone. Our findings present EBI-907 as a potent and promising BRAF inhibitor, which might be useful in broader indications. PMID:26810733

  14. EBI-907, a novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitor, has potent oral anti-tumor activity and a broad kinase selectivity profile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayin; Lu, Biao; Liu, Dong; Shen, Ru; Yan, Yinfa; Yang, Liuqing; Zhang, Minsheng; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Guoqing; Cao, Hu; Fu, Beibei; Gong, Aishen; Sun, Qiming; Wan, Hong; Zhang, Lianshan; Tao, Weikang; Cao, Jingsong

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic mutation of BRAF(V600E) has been found in approximately 8% of all human cancers, including more than 60% of melanoma and 10% of colorectal cancers. The clinical proof of concept in treating BRAF(V600E)-driving melanoma patients with the BRAF inhibitors has been well established. We have sought to identify and develop novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitors with more favorable profiles. Our chemistry effort has led to the discovery of EBI-907 as a novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitor with potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In a LanthaScreen BRAF(V600E) kinase assay, EBI-907 showed an IC50 of 4.8 nM, which is >10 -fold more potent than Vemurafenib (IC50 = 58.5 nM). In addition, EBI-907 showed a broader kinase selectivity profile, with potent activity against a number of important oncogenic kinases including FGFR1-3, RET, c-Kit, and PDGFRb. Concomitant with such properties, EBI-907 exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity against a broader range of BRAF(V600E)-dependent cell lines including certain colorectal cancer cell lines with innate resistance to Vemurafenib. In BRAF(V600E)-dependent human Colo-205 and A375 tumor xenograft mouse models, EBI-907 caused a marked tumor regression in a dose-dependent manner, with superior efficacy to Vemurafenib. Our results also showed that combination with EGFR or MEK inhibitor enhanced the potency of EBI-907 in cell lines with innate or acquired resistance to BRAF inhibition alone. Our findings present EBI-907 as a potent and promising BRAF inhibitor, which might be useful in broader indications.

  15. Sphingosine and FTY720 are potent inhibitors of the transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) channels

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xin; Yue, Zhichao; Sun, Baonan; Yang, Wenzhong; Xie, Jia; Ni, Eric; Feng, Yi; Mahmood, Rafat; Zhang, Yanhui; Yue, Lixia

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a unique channel kinase which is crucial for various physiological functions. However, the mechanism by which TRPM7 is gated and modulated is not fully understood. To better understand how modulation of TRPM7 may impact biological processes, we investigated if TRPM7 can be regulated by the phospholipids sphingosine (SPH) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), two potent bioactive sphingolipids that mediate a variety of physiological functions. Moreover, we also tested the effects of the structural analogues of SPH, N,N-dimethyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (DMS), ceramides and FTY720 on TRPM7. Experimental Approach HEK293 cells stably expressing TRPM7 were used for whole-cell, single-channel and macropatch current recordings. Cardiac fibroblasts were used for native TRPM7 current recording. Key Results SPH potently inhibited TRPM7 in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas S1P and other ceramides did not produce noticeable effects. DMS also markedly inhibited TRPM7. Moreover, FTY720, an immunosuppressant and the first oral drug for treatment of multiple sclerosis, inhibited TRPM7 with a similar potency to that of SPH. In contrast, FTY720-P has no effect on TRPM7. It appears that SPH and FTY720 inhibit TRPM7 by reducing channel open probability. Furthermore, endogenous TRPM7 in cardiac fibroblasts was markedly inhibited by SPH, DMS and FTY720. Conclusions and Implications This is the first study demonstrating that SPH and FTY720 are potent inhibitors of TRPM7. Our results not only provide a new modulation mechanism of TRPM7, but also suggest that TRPM7 may serve as a direct target of SPH and FTY720, thereby mediating S1P-independent physiological/pathological functions of SPH and FTY720. Linked Article This article is commented on by Rohacs, pp. 1291–1293 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12070 PMID:23145923

  16. Discovery of 3-phenyl-1H-5-pyrazolylamine derivatives containing a urea pharmacophore as potent and efficacious inhibitors of FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3).

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Hsing; Hsu, John T-A; Hsieh, Shu-Yi; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Song, Jen-Shin; Yen, Shih-Chieh; Hsu, Tsu; Lu, Cheng-Tai; Chen, Chun-Hwa; Chou, Ling-Hui; Yang, Yung-Ning; Chiu, Ching-Hui; Chen, Ching-Ping; Tseng, Ya-Ju; Yen, Kuei-Jung; Yeh, Ching-Fang; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Yeh, Teng-Kuang; Jiaang, Weir-Torn

    2013-06-01

    Preclinical investigations and early clinical trials suggest that FLT3 inhibitors are a viable therapy for acute myeloid leukemia. However, early clinical data have been underwhelming due to incomplete inhibition of FLT3. We have developed 3-phenyl-1H-5-pyrazolylamine as an efficient template for kinase inhibitors. Structure-activity relationships led to the discovery of sulfonamide, carbamate and urea series of FLT3 inhibitors. Previous studies showed that the sulfonamide 4 and carbamate 5 series were potent and selective FLT3 inhibitors with good in vivo efficacy. Herein, we describe the urea series, which we found to be potent inhibitors of FLT3 and VEGFR2. Some inhibited growth of FLT3-mutated MOLM-13 cells more strongly than the FLT3 inhibitors sorafenib (2) and ABT-869 (3). In preliminary in vivo toxicity studies of the four most active compounds, 10f was found to be the least toxic. A further in vivo efficacy study demonstrated that 10f achieved complete tumor regression in a higher proportion of MOLM-13 xenograft mice than 4 and 5 (70% vs 10% and 40%). These results show that compound 10f possesses improved pharmacologic and selectivity profiles and could be more effective than previously disclosed FLT3 inhibitors in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of a novel, potent and selective phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, DMPPO: in vitro and in vivo characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Delpy, E.; le Monnier de Gouville, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of a novel, potent and specific phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE 5) inhibitor, 1,3 dimethyl-6-(2-propoxy-5-methane sulphonylamidophenyl)-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-(5H)-one (DMPPO) in phenylephrine-precontracted rat aortic rings and different in vivo rat preparations. 2. DMPPO elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of rat aortic rings with functional endothelium. DMPPO-induced relaxation was abolished by endothelium removal or pretreatment with the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, methylene blue (10 microM). 3. In aortic rings without endothelium, the potency (pD2= -log10 EC50) of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) to induce relaxation increased from 8.13 +/- 0.05 in the absence of DMPPO, to 8.32 +/- 0.05 and 8.52 +/- 0.08 in the presence of 30 nM and 100 nM DMPPO, respectively. Similarly, the potency of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in inducing relaxation increased from 7.38 +/- 0.07 in the absence of the PDE 5 inhibitor to 8.07 +/- 0.11 and 8.15 +/- 0.08 in the presence of 30 nM and 100 nM DMPPO, respectively. In contrast, relaxation to the adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, was unchanged by DMPPO (100 nM). 4. In rings without endothelium, DMPPO (100 nM) increased by 2.5 fold intracellular levels of guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP). Moreover, DMPPO (100 nM) potentiated the increases in cyclic GMP levels induced by ANP (30 nM) by 3 fold and SNP (30 nM) by 2.7 fold. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels were not modified by DMPPO. 5. In anaesthetized normotensive or spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), DMPPO (2 and 5 mg kg-1, i.v.) lowered blood pressure without affecting heart rate. Similarly, in conscious SHR, orally administered DMPPO (5 mg kg-1) induced a 25 mmHg decrease in blood pressure for at least 7 h without modifying heart rate. Meanwhile, urinary cyclic GMP was increased by 50% whereas cyclic AMP remained unchanged. 6. In normotensive

  18. Antitumor activity of a potent MEK inhibitor, TAK-733, against colorectal cancer cell lines and patient derived xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Lieu, Christopher H.; Klauck, Peter J.; Henthorn, Patrick K.; Tentler, John J.; Tan, Aik-Choon; Spreafico, Anna; Selby, Heather M.; Britt, Blair C.; Bagby, Stacey M.; Arcaroli, John J.; Messersmith, Wells A.; Pitts, Todd M.; Eckhardt, S. Gail

    2015-01-01

    Background CRC is a significant cause of cancer mortality, and new therapies are needed for patients with advanced disease. TAK-733 is a highly potent and selective investigational novel MEK allosteric site inhibitor. Materials and Methods In a preclinical study of TAK-733, a panel of CRC cell lines were exposed to varying concentrations of the agent for 72 hours followed by a sulforhodamine B assay. Twenty patient-derived colorectal cancer xenografts were then treated with TAK-733 in vivo. Tumor growth inhibition index (TGII) was assessed to evaluate the sensitivity of the CRC explants to TAK-733 while linear regression was utilized to investigate the predictive effects of genotype on the TGII of explants. Results Fifty-four CRC cell lines were exposed to TAK-733, while 42 cell lines were deemed sensitive across a broad range of mutations. Eighty-two percent of the cell lines within the sensitive subset were BRAF or KRAS/NRAS mutant, whereas 80% of the cell lines within the sensitive subset were PIK3CA WT. Twenty patient-derived human tumor CRC explants were then treated with TAK-733. In total, 15 primary human tumor explants were found to be sensitive to TAK-733 (TGII ≤ 20%), including 9 primary human tumor explants that exhibited tumor regression (TGII > 100%). Explants with a BRAF/KRAS/NRAS mutant and PIK3CA wild-type genotype demonstrated increased sensitivity to TAK-733 with a median TGII of −6%. MEK-response gene signatures also correlated with responsiveness to TAK-733 in KRAS-mutant CRC. Conclusions The MEK inhibitor TAK-733 demonstrated robust antitumor activity against CRC cell lines and patient-derived tumor explants. While the preclinical activity observed in this study was considerable, single-agent efficacy in the clinic has been limited in CRC, supporting the use of these models in an iterative manner to elucidate resistance mechanisms that can guide rational combination strategies. PMID:26439693

  19. LLY-507, a Cell-active, Potent, and Selective Inhibitor of Protein-lysine Methyltransferase SMYD2*

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hannah; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Antonysamy, Stephen; Chang, Shawn; Chen, Lisa Hong; Curtis, Carmen; Emtage, Spencer; Fan, Li; Gheyi, Tarun; Li, Fengling; Liu, Shichong; Martin, Joseph R.; Mendel, David; Olsen, Jonathan B.; Pelletier, Laura; Shatseva, Tatiana; Wu, Song; Zhang, Feiyu Fred; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Brown, Peter J.; Campbell, Robert M.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Mader, Mary; Vedadi, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    SMYD2 is a lysine methyltransferase that catalyzes the monomethylation of several protein substrates including p53. SMYD2 is overexpressed in a significant percentage of esophageal squamous primary carcinomas, and that overexpression correlates with poor patient survival. However, the mechanism(s) by which SMYD2 promotes oncogenesis is not understood. A small molecule probe for SMYD2 would allow for the pharmacological dissection of this biology. In this report, we disclose LLY-507, a cell-active, potent small molecule inhibitor of SMYD2. LLY-507 is >100-fold selective for SMYD2 over a broad range of methyltransferase and non-methyltransferase targets. A 1.63-Å resolution crystal structure of SMYD2 in complex with LLY-507 shows the inhibitor binding in the substrate peptide binding pocket. LLY-507 is active in cells as measured by reduction of SMYD2-induced monomethylation of p53 Lys370 at submicromolar concentrations. We used LLY-507 to further test other potential roles of SMYD2. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics showed that cellular global histone methylation levels were not significantly affected by SMYD2 inhibition with LLY-507, and subcellular fractionation studies indicate that SMYD2 is primarily cytoplasmic, suggesting that SMYD2 targets a very small subset of histones at specific chromatin loci and/or non-histone substrates. Breast and liver cancers were identified through in silico data mining as tumor types that display amplification and/or overexpression of SMYD2. LLY-507 inhibited the proliferation of several esophageal, liver, and breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that LLY-507 serves as a valuable chemical probe to aid in the dissection of SMYD2 function in cancer and other biological processes. PMID:25825497

  20. Difluoromethyl ketones: Potent inhibitors of wild type and carbamate-insensitive G119S mutant Anopheles gambiae acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Camerino, Eugene; Wong, Dawn M; Tong, Fan; Körber, Florian; Gross, Aaron D; Islam, Rafique; Viayna, Elisabet; Mutunga, James M; Li, Jianyong; Totrov, Maxim M; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Carlier, Paul R

    2015-10-15

    Malaria is a devastating disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and current vector control measures are threatened by emerging resistance mechanisms. With the goal of developing new, selective, resistance-breaking insecticides we explored α-fluorinated methyl ketones as reversible covalent inhibitors of Anopheles gambiae acetylcholinesterase (AgAChE). Trifluoromethyl ketones 5 demonstrated remarkable volatility in microtiter plate assays, but 5c,e-h exhibited potent (1-100 nM) inhibition of wild type (WT) AgAChE and weak inhibition of resistant mutant G119S mutant AgAChE. Fluoromethyl ketones 10c-i exhibited submicromolar to micromolar inhibition of WT AgAChE, but again only weakly inhibited G119S AgAChE. Interestingly, difluoromethyl ketone inhibitors 9c and 9g had single digit nanomolar inhibition of WT AgAChE, and 9g had excellent potency against G119S AgAChE. Approach to steady-state inhibition was quite slow, but after 23 h incubation an IC50 value of 25.1 ± 1.2 nM was measured. We attribute the slow, tight-binding G119S AgAChE inhibition of 9g to a balance of steric size and electrophilicity. However, toxicities of 5g, 9g, and 10g to adult A. gambiae in tarsal contact, fumigation, and injection assays were lower than expected based on WT AgAChE inhibition potency and volatility. Potential toxicity-limiting factors are discussed. PMID:26386602

  1. COH-203, a novel microtubule inhibitor, exhibits potent anti-tumor activity via p53-dependent senescence in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Huan; Zuo, Dai-Ying; Bai, Zhao-Shi; Xu, Jing-Wen; Li, Zeng-Qiang; Shen, Qi-Rong; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Wei-Ge; Wu, Ying-Liang

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • COH-203 exhibits anti-hepatoma effects in vitro and in vivo with low toxicity. • COH-203 inhibits tubulin polymerization. • COH-203 induces mitotic arrest followed by mitotic slippage in BEL-7402 cells. • COH-203 induces p53-dependent senescence in BEL-7402 cells. - Abstract: 5-(3-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3H-1, 2-dithiol-3-one (COH-203) is a novel synthesized analogue of combretastatin A-4 that can be classified as a microtubule inhibitor. In this study, we evaluated the anti-hepatoma effect of COH-203 in vitro and in vivo and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. COH-203 was shown to be more effective in inhibiting the proliferation of liver cancer cells compared with normal liver cells. COH-203 also displayed potent anti-tumor activity in a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model without significant toxicity. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that treatment with COH-203 induced mitotic arrest by inhibiting tubulin polymerization in BEL-7402 liver cancer cells. Long-term COH-203 treatment in BEL-7402 cells led to mitotic slippage followed by senescence via the p14{sup Arf}–p53–p21 and p16{sup INK4α}–Rb pathways. Furthermore, suppression of p53 via pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor) and p53-siRNA attenuated COH-203-induced senescence in BEL-7402 cells, suggesting that COH-203 induced senescence p53-dependently. In conclusion, we report for the first time that COH-203, one compound in the combretastatin family, promotes anti-proliferative activity through the induction of p-53 dependent senescence. Our findings will provide a molecular rationale for the development of COH-203 as a promising anti-tumor agent.

  2. Synthetic peptides derived from the prosegments of proprotein convertase 1/3 and furin are potent inhibitors of both enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Ajoy; Lazure, Claude

    2003-01-01

    Proprotein convertases (PCs) are Ca(2+)-dependent serine proteases of the subtilisin/kexin family which are known specifically to cleave propeptide and proprotein substrates at the C-terminal of R-X-(K/R)-R/ to generate the relevant biologically active peptides. PCs are initially synthesized as enzymically inactive proenzyme forms where the prosegments play an important inhibitory role to the respective enzymes. Here we investigated whether synthetic peptides derived from the pro-region could also represent specific and potent inhibitors. Based upon sequence alignment, secondary structure analysis and hydrophilicity plot, a number of peptides ranging from 8 to 33 residues were selected. These included segments encompassing residues 55-62, 50-62, 39-62, 50-83, 55-83, 64-83 and 74-83 in the pro-mouse PC1/3 sequence and residues 54-62, 48-62 and 39-62 of the pro-human furin sequence. All peptides were prepared by solid-phase FastMoc chemistry, purified by reversed-phase HPLC and characterized by MS and amino acid analysis. These peptides were tested in vitro for inhibitory activity towards recombinant mouse PC1/3 and human furin. Progress-curve and end-time kinetic analysis demonstrated that a number of these peptides, particularly those containing both the primary and the secondary processing sites, displayed strong inhibition of both enzymes with inhibition constants (K (i)) in the high nanomolar range. Unlike the whole propeptide, these small synthetic peptide inhibitors exhibited either true competitive or mixed competitive inhibition, depending on the sequence. Our data revealed further the critical role of the last two basic amino acid residues (e.g. Lys(82)-Arg(83) for the mouse PC1/3 sequence) of the prodomain in imparting a strong anti-convertase activity. The study also establishes the inhibitory potential of certain regions contained within the prosegment of the two convertases. PMID:12662153

  3. Identification of a novel multiple kinase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity against influenza virus by reducing viral polymerase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Yutaka; Kakisaka, Michinori; Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Tajima, Shigeru; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko; Aida, Yoko

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Screening of 50,000 compounds and subsequent lead optimization identified WV970. • WV970 has antiviral effects against influenza A, B and highly pathogenic viral strains. • WV970 inhibits viral genome replication and transcription. • A target database search suggests that WV970 may bind to a number of kinases. • KINOMEscan screening revealed that WV970 has inhibitory effects on 15 kinases. - Abstract: Neuraminidase inhibitors are the only currently available influenza treatment, although resistant viruses to these drugs have already been reported. Thus, new antiviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action are urgently required. In this study, we identified a novel antiviral compound, WV970, through cell-based screening of a 50,000 compound library and subsequent lead optimization. This compound exhibited potent antiviral activity with nanomolar IC{sub 50} values against both influenza A and B viruses but not non-influenza RNA viruses. Time-of-addition and indirect immunofluorescence assays indicated that WV970 acted at an early stage of the influenza life cycle, but likely after nuclear entry of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP). Further analyses of viral RNA expression and viral polymerase activity indicated that WV970 inhibited vRNP-mediated viral genome replication and transcription. Finally, structure-based virtual screening and comprehensive human kinome screening were used to demonstrate that WV970 acts as a multiple kinase inhibitor, many of which are associated with influenza virus replication. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that WV970 is a promising anti-influenza drug candidate and that several kinases associated with viral replication are promising drug targets.

  4. Toward very potent, non-covalent organophosphonate inhibitors of cathepsin C and related enzymes by 2-amino-1-hydroxy-alkanephosphonates dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Drąg, Marcin; Wieczerzak, Ewa; Pawełczak, Małgorzata; Berlicki, Łukasz; Grzonka, Zbigniew; Kafarski, Paweł

    2013-08-01

    Cathepsins play an important role in several human disorders and therefore the design and synthesis of their inhibitors attracts considerable interest in current medicinal chemistry approaches. Due to the presence of a strong sulphydryl nucleophile in the active center of the cysteine type cathepsins, most strategies to date have yielded covalent inhibitors. Here we present a series of non-covalent β-amino-α-hydroxyalkanephosphonate dipeptidic inhibitors of cathepsin C, ranking amongst the best low-molecular weight inhibitors of this enzyme. Their binding modes determined by molecular modelling indicate that the hydroxymethyl fragment of the molecule, not the phosphonate moiety, acts as a transition state analogue of peptide bond hydrolysis. These dipeptide mimetics appear also to be potent inhibitors of other cysteine proteases such as papain, cathepsin B and cathepsin K, thus providing new leading structures for these medicinally important enzymes.

  5. Olive Oil-derived Oleocanthal as Potent Inhibitor of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin: Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Studies

    PubMed Central

    Khanfar, Mohammad A.; Bardaweel, Sanaa K.; Akl, Mohamed R.; El Sayed, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    The established anticancer and neuroprotective properties of oleocanthal combined with the reported role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in cancer and Alzheimer’s disease development encouraged us to examine the possibility that oleocanthal inhibits mTOR. To validate this hypothesis, we docked oleocanthal into the adenosine triphosphate binding pocket of a close mTOR protein homologue, namely, PI3K-γ. Apparently, oleocanthal shared nine out of ten critical binding interactions with a potent dual PIK3-γ/mTOR natural inhibitor. Subsequent experimental validation indicated that oleocanthal indeed inhibited the enzymatic activity of mTOR with an IC50 value of 708 nM. Oleocanthal inhibits the growth of several breast cancer cell lines at low micromolar concentration in a dose-dependent manner. Oleocanthal treatment caused a marked downregulation of phosphorylated mTOR in metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). These results strongly indicate that mTOR inhibition is at least one of the factors of the reported anticancer and neuroprotective properties of oleocanthal. PMID:26248874

  6. Preclinical profile of a potent gamma-secretase inhibitor targeting notch signaling with in vivo efficacy and pharmacodynamic properties.

    PubMed

    Luistro, Leopoldo; He, Wei; Smith, Melissa; Packman, Kathryn; Vilenchik, Maria; Carvajal, Daisy; Roberts, John; Cai, James; Berkofsky-Fessler, Windy; Hilton, Holly; Linn, Michael; Flohr, Alexander; Jakob-Røtne, Roland; Jacobsen, Helmut; Glenn, Kelli; Heimbrook, David; Boylan, John F

    2009-10-01

    Notch signaling is an area of great interest in oncology. RO4929097 is a potent and selective inhibitor of gamma-secretase, producing inhibitory activity of Notch signaling in tumor cells. The RO4929097 IC50 in cell-free and cellular assays is in the low nanomolar range with >100-fold selectivity with respect to 75 other proteins of various types (receptors, ion channels, and enzymes). RO4929097 inhibits Notch processing in tumor cells as measured by the reduction of intracellular Notch expression by Western blot. This leads to reduced expression of the Notch transcriptional target gene Hes1. RO4929097 does not block tumor cell proliferation or induce apoptosis but instead produces a less transformed, flattened, slower-growing phenotype. RO4929097 is active following oral dosing. Antitumor activity was shown in 7 of 8 xenografts tested on an intermittent or daily schedule in the absence of body weight loss or Notch-related toxicities. Importantly, efficacy is maintained after dosing is terminated. Angiogenesis reverse transcription-PCR array data show reduced expression of several key angiogenic genes. In addition, comparative microarray analysis suggests tumor cell differentiation as an additional mode of action. These preclinical results support evaluation of RO4929097 in clinical studies using an intermittent dosing schedule. A multicenter phase I dose escalation study in oncology is under way. PMID:19773430

  7. Pharmacological characterization of a novel sulfonylureid-pyrazole derivative, SM-19712, a potent nonpeptidic inhibitor of endothelin converting enzyme.

    PubMed

    Umekawa, K; Hasegawa, H; Tsutsumi, Y; Sato, K; Matsumura, Y; Ohashi, N

    2000-09-01

    We describe the pharmacological characteristics of SM-19712 (4-chloro-N-[[(4-cyano-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)amino]carbonyl] benzenesulfonamide, monosodium salt). SM-19712 inhibited endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) solubilized from rat lung microsomes with an IC50 value of 42 nM and, at 10 - 100 microM, had no effect on other metalloproteases such as neutral endopeptidase 24.11 and angiotensin converting enzyme, showing a high specificity for ECE. In cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells, SM-19712 at 1 - 100 microM concentration-dependently inhibited the endogenous conversion of big endothelin-1 (ET-1) to ET-1 with an IC50 value of 31 microM. In anesthetized rats, either intravenous (1-30 mg/kg) or oral (10-30 mg/kg) administration of SM-19712 dose-dependently suppressed the pressor responses induced by big ET-1. In acute myocardial infarction of rabbits subjected to coronary occlusion and reperfusion, SM-19712 reduced the infarct size, the increase in serum concentration of ET-1 and the serum activity of creatinine phosphokinase. The present study demonstrates that SM-19712 is a structurally novel, nonpeptide, potent and selective inhibitor of ECE, and SM-19712 is a valuable new tool for elucidating the pathophysiological role of ECE. PMID:11043447

  8. Olive Oil-derived Oleocanthal as Potent Inhibitor of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin: Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Studies.

    PubMed

    Khanfar, Mohammad A; Bardaweel, Sanaa K; Akl, Mohamed R; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2015-11-01

    The established anticancer and neuroprotective properties of oleocanthal combined with the reported role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in cancer and Alzheimer's disease development encouraged us to examine the possibility that oleocanthal inhibits mTOR. To validate this hypothesis, we docked oleocanthal into the adenosine triphosphate binding pocket of a close mTOR protein homologue, namely, PI3K-γ. Apparently, oleocanthal shared nine out of ten critical binding interactions with a potent dual PIK3-γ/mTOR natural inhibitor. Subsequent experimental validation indicated that oleocanthal indeed inhibited the enzymatic activity of mTOR with an IC50 value of 708 nM. Oleocanthal inhibits the growth of several breast cancer cell lines at low micromolar concentration in a dose-dependent manner. Oleocanthal treatment caused a marked downregulation of phosphorylated mTOR in metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). These results strongly indicate that mTOR inhibition is at least one of the factors of the reported anticancer and neuroprotective properties of oleocanthal. PMID:26248874

  9. Preclinical evaluation of MKC-442, a highly potent and specific inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Baba, M; Shigeta, S; Yuasa, S; Takashima, H; Sekiya, K; Ubasawa, M; Tanaka, H; Miyasaka, T; Walker, R T; De Clercq, E

    1994-01-01

    MKC-442 (6-benzyl-1-ethoxymethyl-5-isopropyluracil or I-EBU) has recently been identified as a highly potent and specific inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase. Since the compound has favorable pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles in vivo, we have evaluated MKC-442 for its inhibitory effect on the replication of HIV-1 in various cell cultures, including human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocyte-macrophages. The 50 and 90% effective concentrations for HIV-1 (HTLV-IIIB strain) replication in MT-4 cells were 15 and 98 nM, respectively. MKC-442 was also inhibitory to HIV-1 replication in peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocyte-macrophages as determined by the production of p24 antigens in the culture supernatant. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed that MKC-442 was equally active against zidovudine-resistant mutants and zidovudine-susceptible strains. Furthermore, combinations of MKC-442 with either 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine, or 2',3'-dideoxyinosine synergistically inhibited the replication of HIV-1. Thus, MKC-442 has been considered as a candidate for clinical efficacy studies. PMID:7518216

  10. Versatility of the Curcumin Scaffold: Discovery of Potent and Balanced Dual BACE-1 and GSK-3β Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Rita Maria Concetta; De Simone, Angela; Andrisano, Vincenza; Bisignano, Paola; Bisi, Alessandra; Gobbi, Silvia; Rampa, Angela; Fato, Romana; Bergamini, Christian; Perez, Daniel I; Martinez, Ana; Bottegoni, Giovanni; Cavalli, Andrea; Belluti, Federica

    2016-01-28

    The multitarget approach has gained increasing acceptance as a useful tool to address complex and multifactorial maladies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The concurrent inhibition of the validated AD targets β-secretase (BACE-1) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) by attacking both β-amyloid and tau protein cascades has been identified as a promising AD therapeutic strategy. In our study, curcumin was identified as a lead compound for the simultaneous inhibition of both targets; therefore, synthetic efforts were dedicated to obtaining a small library of novel curcumin-based analogues, and a number of potent and balanced dual-target inhibitors were obtained. In particular, 2, 6, and 7 emerged as promising drug candidates endowed with neuroprotective potential and brain permeability. Notably, for some new compounds the symmetrical diketo and the β-keto-enol tautomeric forms were purposely isolated and tested in vitro, allowing us to gain insight into the key requirements for BACE-1 and GSK-3β inhibition. PMID:26696252

  11. Intracellular screening of a peptide library to derive a potent peptide inhibitor of α-synuclein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Cheruvara, Harish; Allen-Baume, Victoria L; Kad, Neil M; Mason, Jody M

    2015-03-20

    Aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) into toxic fibrils is a pathogenic hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD). Studies have focused largely on residues 71-82, yet most early-onset mutations are located between residues 46 and 53. A semirationally designed 209,952-member library based entirely on this region was constructed, containing all wild-type residues and changes associated with early-onset PD. Intracellular cell survival screening and growth competition isolated a 10-residue peptide antagonist that potently inhibits α-syn aggregation and associated toxicity at a 1:1 stoichiometry. This was verified using continuous growth measurements and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cytotoxicity studies. Atomic force microscopy and circular dichroism on the same samples showed a random-coil structure and no oligomers. A new region of α-syn for inhibitor targeting has been highlighted, together with the approach of using a semirational design and intracellular screening. The peptides can then be used as candidates for modification in drugs capable of slowing or even preventing the onset of PD.

  12. Discovery of a Potent Inhibitor of Replication Protein A Protein-Protein Interactions Using a Fragment-Linking Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Andreas O.; Feldkamp, Michael D.; Kennedy, J. Phillip; Waterson, Alex G.; Pelz, Nicholas F.; Patrone, James D.; Vangamudi, Bhavatarini; Camper, DeMarco V.; Rossanese, Olivia W.; Chazin, Walter J.; Fesik, Stephen W.

    2013-10-22

    Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein, is involved in nearly all cellular DNA transactions. The RPA N-terminal domain (RPA70N) is a recruitment site for proteins involved in DNA-damage response and repair. Selective inhibition of these protein–protein interactions has the potential to inhibit the DNA-damage response and to sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents without affecting other functions of RPA. To discover a potent, selective inhibitor of the RPA70N protein–protein interactions to test this hypothesis, we used NMR spectroscopy to identify fragment hits that bind to two adjacent sites in the basic cleft of RPA70N. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures of RPA70N–ligand complexes revealed how these fragments bind to RPA and guided the design of linked compounds that simultaneously occupy both sites. We have synthesized linked molecules that bind to RPA70N with submicromolar affinity and minimal disruption of RPA’s interaction with ssDNA.

  13. Dietary (−)-epicatechin as a potent inhibitor of βγ-secretase amyloid precursor protein processing☆

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Carla J.; Choudhry, Fahd; Peacey, Eleanor; Perkinton, Michael S.; Richardson, Jill C.; Howlett, David R.; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F.; Francis, Paul T.; Williams, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, a group of dietary polyphenols have been shown to possess cognitive health benefits. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that they could play a role in risk reduction in dementia. Amyloid precursor protein processing and the subsequent generation of amyloid beta (Aβ) are central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, as soluble, oligomeric Aβ is thought to be the toxic species driving disease progression. We undertook an in vitro screen to identify flavonoids with bioactivity at βγ-mediated amyloid precursor protein processing, which lead to identification of a number of flavonoids bioactive at 100 nM. Because of known bioavailability, we investigated the catechin family further and identified epigallocatechin and (−)-epicatechin as potent (nanomolar) inhibitors of amyloidogenic processing. Supporting this finding, we have shown reduced Aβ pathology and Aβ levels following short term, a 21-day oral delivery of (−)-epicatechin in 7-month-old TASTPM mice. Further, in vitro mechanistic studies suggest this is likely because of indirect BACE1 inhibition. Taken together, our results suggest that orally delivered (−)-epicatechin may be a potential prophylactic for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25316600

  14. Preclinical profile of a potent gamma-secretase inhibitor targeting notch signaling with in vivo efficacy and pharmacodynamic properties.

    PubMed

    Luistro, Leopoldo; He, Wei; Smith, Melissa; Packman, Kathryn; Vilenchik, Maria; Carvajal, Daisy; Roberts, John; Cai, James; Berkofsky-Fessler, Windy; Hilton, Holly; Linn, Michael; Flohr, Alexander; Jakob-Røtne, Roland; Jacobsen, Helmut; Glenn, Kelli; Heimbrook, David; Boylan, John F

    2009-10-01

    Notch signaling is an area of great interest in oncology. RO4929097 is a potent and selective inhibitor of gamma-secretase, producing inhibitory activity of Notch signaling in tumor cells. The RO4929097 IC50 in cell-free and cellular assays is in the low nanomolar range with >100-fold selectivity with respect to 75 other proteins of various types (receptors, ion channels, and enzymes). RO4929097 inhibits Notch processing in tumor cells as measured by the reduction of intracellular Notch expression by Western blot. This leads to reduced expression of the Notch transcriptional target gene Hes1. RO4929097 does not block tumor cell proliferation or induce apoptosis but instead produces a less transformed, flattened, slower-growing phenotype. RO4929097 is active following oral dosing. Antitumor activity was shown in 7 of 8 xenografts tested on an intermittent or daily schedule in the absence of body weight loss or Notch-related toxicities. Importantly, efficacy is maintained after dosing is terminated. Angiogenesis reverse transcription-PCR array data show reduced expression of several key angiogenic genes. In addition, comparative microarray analysis suggests tumor cell differentiation as an additional mode of action. These preclinical results support evaluation of RO4929097 in clinical studies using an intermittent dosing schedule. A multicenter phase I dose escalation study in oncology is under way.

  15. Intracellular Screening of a Peptide Library to Derive a Potent Peptide Inhibitor of α-Synuclein Aggregation*

    PubMed Central

    Cheruvara, Harish; Allen-Baume, Victoria L.; Kad, Neil M.; Mason, Jody M.

    2015-01-01

    Aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) into toxic fibrils is a pathogenic hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD). Studies have focused largely on residues 71–82, yet most early-onset mutations are located between residues 46 and 53. A semirationally designed 209,952-member library based entirely on this region was constructed, containing all wild-type residues and changes associated with early-onset PD. Intracellular cell survival screening and growth competition isolated a 10-residue peptide antagonist that potently inhibits α-syn aggregation and associated toxicity at a 1:1 stoichiometry. This was verified using continuous growth measurements and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cytotoxicity studies. Atomic force microscopy and circular dichroism on the same samples showed a random-coil structure and no oligomers. A new region of α-syn for inhibitor targeting has been highlighted, together with the approach of using a semirational design and intracellular screening. The peptides can then be used as candidates for modification in drugs capable of slowing or even preventing the onset of PD. PMID:25616660

  16. Expedient synthesis of highly potent antagonists of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) with unique selectivity for ML-IAP.

    PubMed

    Vamos, Mitchell; Welsh, Kate; Finlay, Darren; Lee, Pooi San; Mace, Peter D; Snipas, Scott J; Gonzalez, Monica L; Ganji, Santhi Reddy; Ardecky, Robert J; Riedl, Stefan J; Salvesen, Guy S; Vuori, Kristiina; Reed, John C; Cosford, Nicholas D P

    2013-04-19

    A series of novel, potent antagonists of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) were synthesized in a highly convergent and rapid fashion (≤6 steps) using the Ugi four-component reaction as the key step, thus enabling rapid optimization of binding potency. These IAP antagonists compete with caspases 3, 7, and 9 for inhibition by X chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP) and bind strongly (nanomolar binding constants) to several crucial members of the IAP family of cancer pro-survival proteins to promote apoptosis, with a particularly unique selectivity for melanoma IAP (ML-IAP). Experiments in cell culture revealed powerful cancer cell growth inhibitory activity in multiple (breast, ovarian, and prostate) cell lines with single agent toxicity at low nanomolar levels against SKOV-3 human ovarian carcinoma cells. Administration of the compounds to human foreskin fibroblast cells revealed no general toxicity to normal cells. Furthermore, computational modeling was performed, revealing key contacts between the IAP proteins and antagonists, suggesting a structural basis for the observed potency.

  17. Rational Design of Highly Potent and Slow-Binding Cytochrome bc1 Inhibitor as Fungicide by Computational Substitution Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ge-Fei; Yang, Sheng-Gang; Huang, Wei; Wang, Le; Shen, Yan-Qing; Tu, Wen-Long; Li, Hui; Huang, Li-Shar; Wu, Jia-Wei; Berry, Edward A.; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Hit to lead (H2L) optimization is a key step for drug and agrochemical discovery. A critical challenge for H2L optimization is the low efficiency due to the lack of predictive method with high accuracy. We described a new computational method called Computational Substitution Optimization (CSO) that has allowed us to rapidly identify compounds with cytochrome bc1 complex inhibitory activity in the nanomolar and subnanomolar range. The comprehensively optimized candidate has proved to be a slow binding inhibitor of bc1 complex, ~73-fold more potent (Ki = 4.1 nM) than the best commercial fungicide azoxystrobin (AZ; Ki = 297.6 nM) and shows excellent in vivo fungicidal activity against downy mildew and powdery mildew disease. The excellent correlation between experimental and calculated binding free-energy shifts together with further crystallographic analysis confirmed the prediction accuracy of CSO method. To the best of our knowledge, CSO is a new computational approach to substitution-scanning mutagenesis of ligand and could be used as a general strategy of H2L optimisation in drug and agrochemical design.

  18. Studies of metabolism and disposition of potent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase inhibitors using 19F-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, E; Pesci, S; Taliani, M; Fiore, F; Petrocchi, A; Nizi, E; Rowley, M; Laufer, R; Summa, V

    2007-09-01

    (19)F-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been extensively used in a drug-discovery programme to support the selection of candidates for further development. Data on an early lead compound, N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-5-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-(4-methylmorpholin-3-yl)-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-4-carboxamide (compound A (+)), and MK-0518 (N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-5-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-(1-methyl-1-{[(5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)carbonyl]amino}ethyl)-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyrimidine-4-carboxamide), a potent inhibitor of this series currently in phase III clinical trials, are described. The metabolic fate and excretion balance of compound A (+) and MK-0518 were investigated in rats and dogs following intravenous and oral dosing using a combination of (19)F-NMR-monitored enzyme hydrolysis and solid-phase extraction chromatography and NMR spectroscopy (SPEC-NMR). Dosing with the (3)H-labelled compound A (+) enabled the comparison of standard radiochemical analysis with (19)F-NMR spectroscopy to obtain quantitative metabolism and excretion data. Both compounds were eliminated mainly by metabolism. The major metabolite identified in rat urine and bile and in dog urine was the 5-O-glucuronide.

  19. (S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine, a potent and selective inhibitor of human cytomegalovirus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Snoeck, R; Sakuma, T; De Clercq, E; Rosenberg, I; Holy, A

    1988-01-01

    From a series of phosphonylmethoxyalkylpurine and -pyrimidine derivatives, (S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine [(S)-HPMPC] emerged as a particularly potent and selective inhibitor of the replication of human cytomegalovirus (CMV). Its potency against CMV was similar to that of the structurally related adenine derivative (S)-HPMPA but higher than that of the reference compounds phosphonoformate and 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (DHPG). The minimum concentrations of phosphonoformate, DHPG, (S)-HPMPA, and (S)-HPMPC required to inhibit CMV plaque formation by 50% were 15, 0.7, 0.1, and 0.07 microgram/ml, respectively. The selectivity indices of phosphonoformate, DHPG, (S)-HPMPA, and (S)-HPMPC, as determined by the ratio of the 50% inhibitory concentration for cell growth to the 50% inhibitory concentration for plaque formation for CMV (AD-169 strain), were 14, 150, 200 and 1,500, respectively. Corresponding values for the CMV Davis strain were 20, 200, 100, and 1,000, respectively. (S)-HPMPC was inhibitory to CMV plaque formation even when added to the cells at 24 or 48 h postinfection. When (S)-HPMPC was added immediately postinfection, a 24- or 48-h incubation time sufficed to obtain a marked inhibitory effect on CMV replication. Such limited incubation time was insufficient for DHPG to achieve any protection against CMV. PMID:2854454

  20. An internally quenched fluorogenic substrate of prohormone convertase 1 and furin leads to a potent prohormone convertase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Jean, F; Basak, A; DiMaio, J; Seidah, N G; Lazure, C

    1995-01-01

    Based upon the observed cleavage of various peptidyl substrates by the recombinant prohormone convertases PC1 and furin, an intramolecularly quenched fluorogenic peptidyl substrate, (o-aminobenzoyl)-Lys-Glu-Arg-Ser-Lys-Arg-Ser-Ala-Leu-Arg-Asp-(3-nitro)Ty r-Ala, was synthesized. In spite of the distance (approx. 33 A) separating the fluorescent donor/acceptor pair, the highly fluorescent o-aminobenzoyl group is efficiently quenched by long-range resonance energy transfer to the (3-nitro)Tyr moiety. Both recombinant human PC1 and human furin recognize and cleave specifically this substrate at the expected Arg-Ser site in a sensitive manner. The Km values for human PC1 and human furin were 17 microM and 30 microM respectively, with Vmax. values of 6.4 microM/h and 18 microM/h. These values differ significantly from those obtained when using a 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-containing pentapeptidyl substrate where, for similar Km values, the Vmax. values were much lower. The peptide sequence was used to synthesize another peptide incorporating a ketomethylene arginyl pseudopeptide bond. This compound proved to be a potent competitive inhibitor of both human PC1 and human furin, displaying Ki values of 7.2 microM and 2.4 microM respectively. PMID:7741698