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Sample records for potent orally active

  1. Discovery and Characterization of 2-Aminooxazolines as Highly Potent, Selective, and Orally Active TAAR1 Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    2-Aminooxazolines were discovered as a novel structural class of TAAR1 ligands. Starting from a known adrenergic compound 1, structural modifications were made to obtain highly potent and selective TAAR1 ligands such as 12 (RO5166017), 18 (RO5256390), 36 (RO5203648), and 48 (RO5263397). These compounds exhibit drug-like physicochemical properties, have good oral bioavailability, and display in vivo activity in a variety of animal models relevant for psychiatric diseases and addiction. PMID:26985297

  2. Novel, potent and selective inhibitors of protein kinase C show oral anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Nixon, J S; Bishop, J; Bradshaw, D; Davis, P D; Hill, C H; Elliott, L H; Kumar, H; Lawton, G; Lewis, E J; Mulqueen, M

    1991-01-01

    Clarification of the precise role of protein kinase C (PKC) in cellular functional responses has been hampered by a lack of potent, selective inhibitors. The structural lead provided by staurosporine, a potent but non-selective protein kinase (PK) inhibitor, was used to derive a series of bis(indolyl)maleimides of which the most potent, Ro 31-8425 (I50: PKC = 8 nM) showed 350-fold selectivity for PKC over cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ro 31-8425 antagonised cellular processes triggered by phorbol esters (potent, specific PKC activators) and inhibited the allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction, suggesting a role for PKC in T-cell activation. Methylation of the primary amine in Ro 31-8425 produced an analogue. Ro 31-8830 which, when administered orally, produced a dose-dependent inhibition of a phorbol ester-induced paw oedema in mice (minimum effective dose = 15 mg/kg). Ro 31-8830 also selectively inhibited the secondary inflammation in a developing adjuvant arthritis model in the rat. The results presented here suggest that these selective inhibitors of PKC may have therapeutic value in the treatment of T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  3. Discovery of TAK-272: A Novel, Potent, and Orally Active Renin Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Imaeda, Yasuhiro; Tokuhara, Hidekazu; Fukase, Yoshiyuki; Kanagawa, Ray; Kajimoto, Yumiko; Kusumoto, Keiji; Kondo, Mitsuyo; Snell, Gyorgy; Behnke, Craig A; Kuroita, Takanobu

    2016-10-13

    The aspartic proteinase renin is an attractive target for the treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular/renal disease such as chronic kidney disease and heart failure. We introduced an S1' site binder into the lead compound 1 guided by structure-based drug design (SBDD), and further optimization of physicochemical properties led to the discovery of benzimidazole derivative 10 (1-(4-methoxybutyl)-N-(2-methylpropyl)-N-[(3S,5R)-5-(morpholin-4-yl)carbonylpiperidin-3-yl]-1H-benzimidazole-2-carboxamide hydrochloride, TAK-272) as a highly potent and orally active renin inhibitor. Compound 10 demonstrated good oral bioavailability (BA) and long-lasting efficacy in rats. Compound 10 is currently in clinical trials.

  4. Triazolopyridine ethers as potent, orally active mGlu2 positive allosteric modulators for treating schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Mendi A; Marcin, Lawrence R; Christopher Zusi, F; Gentles, Robert; Ding, Min; Pearce, Bradley C; Easton, Amy; Kostich, Walter A; Seager, Matthew A; Bourin, Clotilde; Bristow, Linda J; Johnson, Kim A; Miller, Regina; Hogan, John; Whiterock, Valerie; Gulianello, Michael; Ferrante, Meredith; Huang, Yanling; Hendricson, Adam; Alt, Andrew; Macor, John E; Bronson, Joanne J

    2017-01-15

    Triazolopyridine ethers with mGlu2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) activity are disclosed. The synthesis, in vitro activity, and metabolic stability data for a series of analogs is provided. The effort resulted in the discovery of a potent, selective, and brain penetrant lead molecule BMT-133218 ((+)-7m). After oral administration at 10mg/kg, BMT-133218 demonstrated full reversal of PCP-stimulated locomotor activity and prevented MK-801-induced working memory deficits in separate mouse models. Also, reversal of impairments in executive function were observed in rat set-shifting studies at 3 and 10mg/kg (p.o.). Extensive plasma protein binding as the result of high lipophilicity likely limited activity at lower doses. Optimized triazolopyridine ethers offer utility as mGlu2 PAMs for the treatment of schizophrenia and merit further preclinical investigation.

  5. A novel, potent, oral active and safe antinociceptive pyrazole targeting kappa opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Gabriela; Rossato, Mateus F; Walker, Cristiani I B; Oliveira, Sara M; Rosa, Fernanda; Tonello, Raquel; Silva, Cássia R; Machado, Pablo; Boligon, Aline A; Martins, Marcos A P; Zanatta, Nilo; Bonacorso, Hélio G; Athayde, Margareth L; Rubin, Maribel A; Calixto, João B; Ferreira, Juliano

    2013-10-01

    Pyrazole compounds are an intriguing class of compounds with potential analgesic activity; however, their mechanism of action remains unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to explore the antinociceptive potential, safety and mechanism of action of novel 1-pyrazole methyl ester derivatives, which were designed by molecular simplification, using in vivo and in vitro methods in mice. First, tree 1-pyrazole methyl ester derivatives (DMPE, MPFE, and MPCIE) were tested in the capsaicin test and all presented antinociceptive effect; however the MPClE (methyl 5-trichloromethyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazole-1-carboxylate) was the most effective. Thus, we selected this compound to assess the effects and mechanisms in subsequent pain models. MPCIE produced antinociception when administered by oral, intraperitoneal, intrathecal and intraplantar routes and was effective in the capsaicin and the acetic acid-induced nociception tests. Moreover, this compound reduced the hyperalgesia in diverse clinically-relevant pain models, including postoperative, inflammatory, and neuropathic nociception in mice. The antinociception produced by orally administered MPClE was mediated by κ-opioid receptors, since these effects were prevented by systemically pre-treatment with naloxone and the κ-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. Moreover, MPCIE prevented binding of the κ-opioid ligand [(3)H]-CI-977 in vitro (IC₅₀ of 0.68 (0.32-1.4) μM), but not the TRPV1 ([(3)H]-resiniferatoxin) or the α₂-adrenoreceptor ([(3)H]-idazoxan) binding. Regarding the drug-induced side effects, oral administration of MPClE did not produce sedation, constipation or motor impairment at its active dose. In addition, MPCIE was readily absorbed after oral administration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MPClE is a novel, potent, orally active and safe analgesic drug that targets κ-opioid receptors.

  6. Synthesis and SAR studies of benzyl ether derivatives as potent orally active S1P₁ agonists.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takashi; Suzuki, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Taiji; Sekiguchi, Yukiko; Ikeda, Takuya; Fukuda, Takeshi; Takemoto, Toshiyasu; Mizuno, Yumiko; Kimura, Takako; Kawase, Yumi; Nara, Futoshi; Kagari, Takashi; Shimozato, Takaichi; Yahara, Chizuko; Inaba, Shinichi; Honda, Tomohiro; Izumi, Takashi; Tamura, Masakazu; Nishi, Takahide

    2014-08-01

    We report herein the synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a series of benzyl ether compounds as an S1P₁ receptor modulator. From our SAR studies, the installation of substituents onto the central benzene ring of 2a was revealed to potently influence the S1P₁ and S1P₃ agonistic activities, in particular, an ethyl group on the 2-position afforded satisfactory S1P₁/S1P₃ selectivity. These changes of the S1P₁ and S1P₃ agonistic activities caused by the alteration of substituents on the 2-position were reasonably explained by a docking study using an S1P₁ X-ray crystal structure and S1P₃ homology modeling. We found that compounds 2b and 2e had a potent in vivo immunosuppressive efficacy along with acceptable S1P₁/S1P₃ selectivity, and confirmed that these compounds had less in vivo bradycardia risk through the evaluation of heart rate change after oral administration of the compounds (30 mg/kg, p.o.) in rats.

  7. Novel 3-Oxazolidinedione-6-aryl-pyridinones as Potent, Selective, and Orally Active EP3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian; Morales-Ramos, Angel; Eidam, Patrick; Mecom, John; Li, Yue; Brooks, Carl; Hilfiker, Mark; Zhang, David; Wang, Ning; Shi, Dongchuan; Tseng, Pei-San; Wheless, Karen; Budzik, Brian; Evans, Karen; Jaworski, Jon-Paul; Jugus, Jack; Leon, Lisa; Wu, Charlene; Pullen, Mark; Karamshi, Bhumika; Rao, Parvathi; Ward, Emma; Laping, Nicholas; Evans, Christopher; Leach, Colin; Holt, Dennis; Su, Xin; Morrow, Dwight; Fries, Harvey; Thorneloe, Kevin; Edwards, Richard

    2010-10-14

    High-throughput screening and subsequent optimization led to the discovery of novel 3-oxazolidinedione-6-aryl-pyridinones exemplified by compound 2 as potent and selective EP3 antagonists with excellent pharmacokinetic properties. Compound 2 was orally active and showed robust in vivo activities in overactive bladder models. To address potential bioactivation liabilities of compound 2, further optimization resulted in compounds 9 and 10, which maintained excellent potency, selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties and showed no bioactivation liability in glutathione trapping studies. These highly potent, selective, and orally active EP3 antagonists are excellent tool compounds for investigating and validating potential therapeutic benefits from selectively inhibiting the EP3 receptor.

  8. 3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines: A Novel Class of Potent, Selective, and Orally Active GlyT1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Emmanuel; Alberati, Daniela; Alvarez-Sanchez, Ruben; Brom, Virginie; Burner, Serge; Fischer, Holger; Hauser, Nicole; Kolczewski, Sabine; Lengyel, Judith; Mory, Roland; Saladin, Christian; Schulz-Gasch, Tanja; Stalder, Henri

    2014-04-10

    3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines were discovered as a novel structural class of GlyT1 inhibitors. The structure-activity relationship, which was developed, led to the identification of highly potent compounds exhibiting excellent selectivity against the GlyT2 isoform, drug-like properties, and in vivo activity after oral administration.

  9. 3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines: A Novel Class of Potent, Selective, and Orally Active GlyT1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    3-Amido-3-aryl-piperidines were discovered as a novel structural class of GlyT1 inhibitors. The structure–activity relationship, which was developed, led to the identification of highly potent compounds exhibiting excellent selectivity against the GlyT2 isoform, drug-like properties, and in vivo activity after oral administration. PMID:24900853

  10. Optimization of 2-Anilino 4-Amino Substituted Quinazolines into Potent Antimalarial Agents with Oral in Vivo Activity.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Paul R; Tan, Cyrus; Jarman, Kate E; Lowes, Kym N; Curtis, Joan M; Nguyen, William; Di Rago, Adrian E; Bullen, Hayley E; Prinz, Boris; Duffy, Sandra; Baell, Jonathan B; Hutton, Craig A; Jousset Subroux, Helene; Crabb, Brendan S; Avery, Vicky M; Cowman, Alan F; Sleebs, Brad E

    2017-02-09

    Novel antimalarial therapeutics that target multiple stages of the parasite lifecycle are urgently required to tackle the emerging problem of resistance with current drugs. Here, we describe the optimization of the 2-anilino quinazoline class as antimalarial agents. The class, identified from publicly available antimalarial screening data, was optimized to generate lead compounds that possess potent antimalarial activity against P. falciparum parasites comparable to the known antimalarials, chloroquine and mefloquine. During the optimization process, we defined the functionality necessary for activity and improved in vitro metabolism and solubility. The resultant lead compounds possess potent activity against a multidrug resistant strain of P. falciparum and arrest parasites at the ring phase of the asexual stage and also gametocytogensis. Finally, we show that the lead compounds are orally efficacious in a 4 day murine model of malaria disease burden.

  11. Activity of Potent and Selective Host Defense Peptide Mimetics in Mouse Models of Oral Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lisa K.; Freeman, Katie B.; Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Falkovsky, Klaudia; Aloyouny, Ashwag; Markowitz, Kenneth; Hise, Amy G.; Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Scott, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong need for new broadly active antifungal agents for the treatment of oral candidiasis that not only are active against many species of Candida, including drug-resistant strains, but also evade microbial countermeasures which may lead to resistance. Host defense peptides (HDPs) can provide a foundation for the development of such agents. Toward this end, we have developed fully synthetic, small-molecule, nonpeptide mimetics of the HDPs that improve safety and other pharmaceutical properties. Here we describe the identification of several HDP mimetics that are broadly active against C. albicans and other species of Candida, rapidly fungicidal, and active against yeast and hyphal cultures and that exhibit low cytotoxicity for mammalian cells. Importantly, specificity for Candida over commensal bacteria was also evident, thereby minimizing potential damage to the endogenous microbiome which otherwise could favor fungal overgrowth. Three compounds were tested as topical agents in two different mouse models of oral candidiasis and were found to be highly active. Following single-dose administrations, total Candida burdens in tongues of infected animals were reduced up to three logs. These studies highlight the potential of HDP mimetics as a new tool in the antifungal arsenal for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:24752272

  12. Pharmacological profile of the abeorphine 201-678, a potent orally active and long lasting dopamine agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Jaton, A.L.; Giger, R.K.A.; Vigouret, J.M.; Enz, A.; Frick, W.; Closse, A.; Markstein, R.

    1986-01-13

    The central dopaminergic effects of an abeorphine derivative 201-678 were compared to those of apomorphine and bromocriptine in different model systems. After oral administration, this compound induced contralateral turning in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced nigral lesions and exhibited strong anti-akinetic properties in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced hypothalamic lesions. It decreased dopamine metabolism in striatum and cortex, but did not modify noradrenaline and serotonin metabolism in the rat brain. 201-678 counteracted the in vivo increase of tyrosine hydroxylase activity induced by ..gamma..-butyrolactone. In vitro it stimulated DA-sensitive adenylate cyclase and inhibited acetylcholine release from rat striatal slices. This compound had high affinity for /sup 3/H-dopamine and /sup 3/H-clonidine binding sites. These results indicate that 201-678 is a potent, orally active dopamine agonist with a long duration of action. Furthermore it appears more selective than other dopaminergic drugs. 29 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Characterization of SR 121463A, a highly potent and selective, orally active vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed Central

    Serradeil-Le Gal, C; Lacour, C; Valette, G; Garcia, G; Foulon, L; Galindo, G; Bankir, L; Pouzet, B; Guillon, G; Barberis, C; Chicot, D; Jard, S; Vilain, P; Garcia, C; Marty, E; Raufaste, D; Brossard, G; Nisato, D; Maffrand, J P; Le Fur, G

    1996-01-01

    SR 121463A, a potent and selective, orally active, nonpeptide vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, has been characterized in several in vitro and in vivo models. This compound displayed highly competitive and selective affinity for V2 receptors in rat, bovine and human kidney (0.6 < or = Ki [nM] < or = 4.1). In this latter preparation, SR 121463A potently antagonized arginine vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity (Ki = 0.26+/-0.04 nM) without any intrinsic agonistic effect. In autoradiographic experiments performed in rat kidney sections, SR 121463A displaced [3H]AVP labeling especially in the medullo-papillary region and confirmed that it is a suitable tool for mapping V2 receptors. In comparison, the nonpeptide V2 antagonist, OPC-31260, showed much lower affinity for animal and human renal V2 receptors and lower efficacy to inhibit vasopressin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (Ki in the 10 nanomolar range). Moreover, OPC-31260 exhibited a poor V2 selectivity profile and can be considered as a V2/V1a ligand. In normally hydrated conscious rats, SR 121463A induced powerful aquaresis after intravenous (0.003-0.3 mg/kg) or oral (0.03-10 mg/kg) administration. The effect was dose-dependent and lasted about 6 hours at the dose of 3 mg/kg p.o. OPC-31260 had a similar aquaretic profile but with markedly lower oral efficacy. The action of SR 121463A was purely aquaretic with no changes in urine Na+ and K+ excretions unlike that of known diuretic agents such as furosemide or hydrochlorothiazide. In addition, no antidiuretic properties have been detected with SR 121463A in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats. Thus, SR 121463A is the most potent and selective, orally active V2 antagonist yet described and could be a powerful tool for exploring V2 receptors and the therapeutical usefulness of V2 blocker aquaretic agents in water-retaining diseases. PMID:8981918

  14. Development of novel potent orally bioavailable oseltamivir derivatives active against resistant influenza A.

    PubMed

    Schade, Dennis; Kotthaus, Joscha; Riebling, Lukas; Kotthaus, Jürke; Müller-Fielitz, Helge; Raasch, Walter; Koch, Oliver; Seidel, Nora; Schmidtke, Michaela; Clement, Bernd

    2014-02-13

    With the emergence of oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses and in view of a highly pathogenic flu pandemic, it is important to develop new anti-influenza agents. Here, the development of neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors that were designed to overcome resistance mechanisms along with unfavorable pharmacokinetic (PK) properties is described. Several 5-guanidino- and 5-amidino-based oseltamivir derivatives were synthesized and profiled for their anti-influenza activity and in vitro and in vivo PK properties. Amidine 6 and guanidine 7 were comparably effective against a panel of different A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains and also inhibited mutant A/H1N1 neuraminidase. Among different prodrug strategies pursued, a simple amidoxime ethyl ester (9) exhibited a superior PK profile with an oral bioavailability of 31% (rats), which is comparable to oseltamivir (36%). Thus, bioisosteric replacement of the 5-guanidine with an acetamidine-in the form of its N-hydroxy prodrug-successfully tackled the two key limitations of currently used NA inhibitors, as exemplified with oseltamivir.

  15. Novel 1H-imidazol-2-amine derivatives as potent and orally active vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) inhibitors for diabetic macular edema treatment.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takayuki; Morita, Masataka; Tojo, Takashi; Nagashima, Akira; Moritomo, Ayako; Miyake, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    Novel thiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) inhibitors. Although we previously identified a compound (2) with potent VAP-1 inhibitory activity in rats, the human activity was relatively weak. Here, to improve the human VAP-1 inhibitory activity of compound 2, we first evaluated the structure-activity relationships of guanidine bioisosteres as simple small molecules and identified a 1H-benzimidazol-2-amine (5) with potent activity compared to phenylguanidine (1). Based on the structure of compound 5, we synthesized a highly potent VAP-1 inhibitor (37b; human IC50=0.019 μM, rat IC50=0.0051 μM). Orally administered compound 37b also markedly inhibited ocular permeability in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after oral administration, suggesting it is a promising compound for the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

  16. Design of Potent and Orally Active GPR119 Agonists for the Treatment of Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the design and synthesis of a series of potent and selective GPR119 agonists. Our objective was to develop a GPR119 agonist with properties that were suitable for fixed-dose combination with a DPP4 inhibitor. Starting from a phenoxy analogue (1), medicinal chemistry efforts directed toward reducing half-life and increasing solubility led to the synthesis of a series of benzyloxy analogues. Compound 28 was chosen for further profiling because of its favorable physicochemical properties and excellent GPR119 potency across species. This compound exhibited a clean off-target profile in counterscreens and good in vivo efficacy in mouse oGTT. PMID:26288697

  17. Substituted N-aryl-6-pyrimidinones: A new class of potent, selective, and orally active p38 MAP kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Devadas, Balekudru; Selness, Shaun R.; Xing, Li; Madsen, Heather M.; Marrufo, Laura D.; Shieh, Huey; Messing, Dean M.; Yang, Jerry Z.; Morgan, Heidi M.; Anderson, Gary D.; Webb, Elizabeth G.; Zhang, Jian; Devraj, Rajesh V.; Monahan, Joseph B.

    2012-02-28

    A novel series of highly potent and selective p38 MAP kinase inhibitors was developed originating from a substituted N-aryl-6-pyrimidinone scaffold. SAR studies coupled with in vivo evaluations in rat arthritis model culminated in the identification of 10 with excellent oral efficacy. Compound 10 exhibited a significantly enhanced dissolution rate compared to 1, translating to a high oral bioavailability (>90%) in rat. In animal studies 10 inhibited LPS-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} in a dose-dependent manner and demonstrated robust efficacy comparable to dexamethasone in a rat streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis model.

  18. Design and synthesis of a tetrahydroisoquinoline-based hydroxamate derivative (ZYJ-34v), an oral active histone deacetylase inhibitor with potent antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Chunxi; Chou, C James; Wang, Xuejian; Jia, Yuping; Xu, Wenfang

    2013-08-01

    In our previous study, we developed a novel series of tetrahydroisoquinoline-based hydroxamic acid derivatives as histone deacetylase inhibitors (Bioorg Med Chem, 2010, 18, 1761-1772; J Med Chem, 2011, 54, 2823-2838), among which, compound ZYJ-34c (1) was identified and validated as the most potent one with marked in vitro and in vivo antitumor potency (J Med Chem, 2011, 54, 5532-5539.). Herein, further modification in 1 afforded another oral active analog ZYJ-34v (2) with simplified structure and lower molecular weight. Biological evaluation of compound 2 showed efficacious inhibition against histone deacetylase 1, 2, 3, and 6, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis results. Most importantly, compound 2 exhibited similar even more potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities relative to the approved histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA.

  19. Pharmacological profile of valsartan: a potent, orally active, nonpeptide antagonist of the angiotensin II AT1-receptor subtype.

    PubMed Central

    Criscione, L.; de Gasparo, M.; Bühlmayer, P.; Whitebread, S.; Ramjoué, H. P.; Wood, J.

    1993-01-01

    1. The pharmacological profile of valsartan, (S)-N-valeryl-N-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]-methyl)-vali ne, a potent, highly selective, and orally active antagonist at the angiotensin II (AII) AT1-receptor, was studied in vitro and in vivo. 2. Valsartan competed with [125I]-AII at its specific binding sites in rat aortic smooth muscle cell membranes (AT1-receptor subtype) with a Ki of 2.38 nM, but was about 30,000 times less active in human myometrial membranes (AT2-receptor subtype). 3. In rabbit aortic rings incubated for 5 min with valsartan, at concentrations of 2, 20 and 200 nM, the concentration-response curve of AII was displaced to the right and the maximum response was reduced by 33%, 36% and 40%, respectively. Prolongation of the incubation time with valsartan to 1 h or 3 h, further reduced the maximum response by 48% or 59% (after 20 nM) and by 59% or 60% (after 200 nM) respectively. After 3 h incubation an apparent pKb value of 9.26 was calculated. Contractions induced by noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, or potassium chloride were not affected by valsartan. No agonistic effects were observed in the rabbit aorta at concentrations of valsartan up to 2 microM. 4. In bovine adrenal glomerulosa, valsartan inhibited AII-stimulated aldosterone release without affecting the maximum response (pA2 8.4). 5. In the pithed rat, oral administration of valsartan (10 mg kg-1) shifted the AII-induced pressor response curves to the right, without affecting responses induced by the electrical stimulation of the sympathetic outflow or by noradrenaline. Animals treated with valsartan 24 h before pithing also showed significant inhibition of the response to AII. 6. In conscious, two-kidney, one-clip renal hypertensive rats (2K1C), valsartan decreased blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner after single i.v. or oral administration. The respective ED30 values were 0.06 mg kg-1 (i.v.) and 1.4 mg kg-1 (p.o.). The antihypertensive effect lasted for at least 24 h

  20. Discovery of a Potent and Orally Bioavailable CCR2 and CCR5 Dual Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the discovery of a potent, orally bioavailable CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) antagonist which, while optimized for CCR2 potency, also had potent CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) activity.

  1. Discovery of [7-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-5-methylbenzo [1,2,4]triazin-3-yl]-[4-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethoxy)phenyl]amine--a potent, orally active Src kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor activity in preclinical assays.

    PubMed

    Noronha, Glenn; Barrett, Kathy; Boccia, Antonio; Brodhag, Tessa; Cao, Jianguo; Chow, Chun P; Dneprovskaia, Elena; Doukas, John; Fine, Richard; Gong, Xianchang; Gritzen, Colleen; Gu, Hong; Hanna, Ehab; Hood, John D; Hu, Steven; Kang, Xinshan; Key, Jann; Klebansky, Boris; Kousba, Ahmed; Li, Ge; Lohse, Dan; Mak, Chi Ching; McPherson, Andrew; Palanki, Moorthy S S; Pathak, Ved P; Renick, Joel; Shi, Feng; Soll, Richard; Splittgerber, Ute; Stoughton, Silva; Tang, Suhan; Yee, Shiyin; Zeng, Binqi; Zhao, Ningning; Zhu, Hong

    2007-02-01

    We describe the identification of [7-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-5-methylbenzo [1,2,4]triazin-3-yl]-[4-(2-pyrrolidin-1-ylethoxy)phenyl]amine (3), a potent, orally active Src inhibitor with desirable PK properties, demonstrated activity in human tumor cell lines and in animal models of tumor growth.

  2. Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties of PGLa-AM1, CPF-AM1, and magainin-AM1: potent activity against oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    McLean, Denise T F; McCrudden, Maelíosa T C; Linden, Gerard J; Irwin, Christopher R; Conlon, J Michael; Lundy, Fionnuala T

    2014-11-01

    Cationic amphipathic α-helical peptides are intensively studied classes of host defence peptides (HDPs). Three peptides, peptide glycine-leucine-amide (PGLa-AM1), caerulein-precursor fragment (CPF-AM1) and magainin-AM1, originally isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the African volcano frog Xenopus amieti (Pipidae), were studied for their antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities against oral and respiratory pathogens. Minimal effective concentrations (MECs), determined by radial diffusion assay, were generally lower than minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined by microbroth dilution. PGLa-AM1 and CPF-AM1 were particularly active against Streptococcus mutans and all three peptides were effective against Fusobacterium nucleatum, whereas Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans proved to be relatively resistant micro-organisms. A type strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be more susceptible than the clinical isolate studied. PGLa-AM1 displayed the greatest propensity to bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa and Porphyromonas gingivalis. All three peptides showed less binding to P. gingivalis LPS than to LPS from the other species studied. Oral fibroblast viability was unaffected by 50 μM peptide treatments. Production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 by oral fibroblasts was significantly increased following treatment with 1 or 10 μM magainin-AM1 but not following treatment with PGLa-AM1 or CPF-AM1. In conclusion, as well as possessing potent antimicrobial actions, the X. amieti peptides bound to LPS from three human pathogens and had no effect on oral fibroblast viability. CPF-AM1 and PGLa-AM1 show promise as templates for the design of novel analogues for the treatment of oral and dental diseases associated with bacteria or fungi.

  3. Discovery of benzoylisoindolines as a novel class of potent, selective and orally active GlyT1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Emmanuel; Alberati, Daniela; Bender, Markus; Borroni, Edilio; Brom, Virginie; Burner, Serge; Fischer, Holger; Hainzl, Dominik; Halm, Remy; Hauser, Nicole; Jolidon, Synèse; Lengyel, Judith; Marty, Hans-Peter; Meyer, Thierry; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Mory, Roland; Narquizian, Robert; Norcross, Roger D; Schmid, Philipp; Wermuth, Roger; Zimmerli, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Benzoylisoindolines were discovered as a novel structural class of GlyT1 inhibitors. SAR studies and subsequent lead optimization efforts focused primarily on addressing hERG liability and on improving in vivo efficacy resulted in the identification of potent GlyT1 inhibitors displaying excellent selectivity and in vivo PD and PK profiles.

  4. Flavonoids of Cynara scolymus possess potent xanthinoxidase inhibitory activity in vitro but are devoid of hypouricemic effects in rats after oral application.

    PubMed

    Sarawek, Sasiporn; Feistel, Bjoern; Pischel, Ivo; Butterweck, Veronika

    2008-02-01

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaves have been historically used for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout, however whether artichoke is truly efficacious for this indication, is still a matter of debate. Thus, the goal of the present study was first to examine the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of an artichoke leaf extract (ALE) and some of its main compounds in vitro and then further test potentially active substances for possible hypouricemic effects using an in vivo rat model. The in vitro study showed that ALE inhibited XO with only minimal inhibitory action (< 5 %) at 100 microg/mL. However, when selected compounds were tested, the caffeic acid derivatives revealed a weak XO inhibitory effect with IC (50) > 100 microM. From the tested flavones the aglycone luteolin potently inhibited XO with an IC (50) value of 1.49 microM. Luteolin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 7-O-glucuronide showed lower XO inhibition activities with IC (50) values of 19.90 microM and 20.24 microM, respectively. However, oral administration of an aqueous ALE, luteolin, and luteolin 7-O-glucoside did not produce any observable hypouricemic effects after acute oral treatment in potassium oxonate-treated rats. After intraperitoneal injection of luteolin a decrease in uric acid levels was detected suggesting that the hypouricemic effects of luteolin are due to its original form rather than its metabolites produced by the gut flora. In conclusion, an aqueous ALE, caffeic acid derivatives and flavones exerted XO inhibitory effects in vitro but a hypouricemic activity could not be confirmed after oral administration.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orally administered acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyanoenone), a highly potent Nrf2 activator with a reversible covalent mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Kostov, Rumen V.; Knatko, Elena V.; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Henderson, Colin J.; Zheng, Suqing; Huang, Jeffrey T.-J.; Honda, Tadashi; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.

    2015-09-25

    The acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyanoenone) TBE-31 is a highly potent cysteine targeting compound with a reversible covalent mode of action; its best-characterized target being Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), the cellular sensor for oxidants and electrophiles. TBE-31 reacts with cysteines of Keap1, impairing its ability to target nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) for degradation. Consequently, Nrf2 accumulates and orchestrates cytoprotective gene expression. In this study we investigated the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of TBE-31 in C57BL/6 mice. After a single oral dose of 10 μmol/kg (∼200 nmol/animal), the concentration of TBE-31 in blood exhibited two peaks, at 22.3 nM and at 15.5 nM, 40 min and 4 h after dosing, respectively, as determined by a quantitative stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method. The AUC{sub 0–24h} was 195.5 h/nmol/l, the terminal elimination half-life was 10.2 h, and the k{sub el} was 0.068 h{sup −1}. To assess the pharmacodynamics of Nrf2 activation by TBE-31, we determined the enzyme activity of its prototypic target, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and found it elevated by 2.4- and 1.5-fold in liver and heart, respectively. Continuous feeding for 18 days with diet delivering the same daily doses of TBE-31 under conditions of concurrent treatment with the immunosuppressive agent azathioprine had a similar effect on Nrf2 activation without any indications of toxicity. Together with previous reports showing the cytoprotective effects of TBE-31 in animal models of carcinogenesis, our results demonstrate the high potency, efficacy and suitability for chronic administration of cysteine targeting reversible covalent drugs. - Highlights: • TBE-31 is a cysteine targeting compound with a reversible covalent mode of action. • After a single oral dose, the blood concentration of TBE-31 exhibits two peaks. • Oral TBE-31 is a potent activator of Nrf2-dependent enzymes in

  6. Discovery of Potent Anticancer Agent HJC0416, an Orally Bioavailable Small Molecule Inhibitor of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haijun; Yang, Zhengduo; Ding, Chunyong; Xiong, Ailian; Wild, Christopher; Wang, Lili; Ye, Na; Cai, Guoshuai; Flores, Rudolfo M.; Ding, Ye; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Jia

    2014-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop orally bioavailable small-molecule STAT3 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for human cancer, a series of novel diversified analogues based on our identified lead compound HJC0149 (1) (5-chloro-N-(1,1-dioxo-1H-1λ6-benzo[b]thiophen-6-yl)-2-hydroxybenzamide, Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2013, 62, 498–507) have been rationally designed, synthesized, and pharmacologically evaluated. Molecular docking studies and biological characterization supported our earlier findings that the O-alkylamino-tethered side chain on the hydroxyl group is an effective and essential structural determinant for improving biological activities and druglike properties of these molecules. Compounds with such modifications exhibited potent antiproliferative effects against breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines with IC50 values from low micromolar to nanomolar range. Among them, the newly discovered STAT3 inhibitor 12 (HJC0416) displayed an intriguing anticancer profile both in vitro and in vivo (i.p. & p.o.). More importantly, HJC0416 is an orally bioavailable anticancer agent as a promising candidate for further development. PMID:24904966

  7. Discovery of Brigatinib (AP26113), a Phosphine Oxide-Containing, Potent, Orally Active Inhibitor of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Sheng; Liu, Shuangying; Zou, Dong; Thomas, Mathew; Wang, Yihan; Zhou, Tianjun; Romero, Jan; Kohlmann, Anna; Li, Feng; Qi, Jiwei; Cai, Lisi; Dwight, Timothy A; Xu, Yongjin; Xu, Rongsong; Dodd, Rory; Toms, Angela; Parillon, Lois; Lu, Xiaohui; Anjum, Rana; Zhang, Sen; Wang, Frank; Keats, Jeffrey; Wardwell, Scott D; Ning, Yaoyu; Xu, Qihong; Moran, Lauren E; Mohemmad, Qurish K; Jang, Hyun Gyung; Clackson, Tim; Narasimhan, Narayana I; Rivera, Victor M; Zhu, Xiaotian; Dalgarno, David; Shakespeare, William C

    2016-05-26

    In the treatment of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive (ALK+) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), secondary mutations within the ALK kinase domain have emerged as a major resistance mechanism to both first- and second-generation ALK inhibitors. This report describes the design and synthesis of a series of 2,4-diarylaminopyrimidine-based potent and selective ALK inhibitors culminating in identification of the investigational clinical candidate brigatinib. A unique structural feature of brigatinib is a phosphine oxide, an overlooked but novel hydrogen-bond acceptor that drives potency and selectivity in addition to favorable ADME properties. Brigatinib displayed low nanomolar IC50s against native ALK and all tested clinically relevant ALK mutants in both enzyme-based biochemical and cell-based viability assays and demonstrated efficacy in multiple ALK+ xenografts in mice, including Karpas-299 (anaplastic large-cell lymphomas [ALCL]) and H3122 (NSCLC). Brigatinib represents the most clinically advanced phosphine oxide-containing drug candidate to date and is currently being evaluated in a global phase 2 registration trial.

  8. Chemical, biochemical, pharmacokinetic, and biological properties of L-680,833: a potent, orally active monocyclic beta-lactam inhibitor of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase.

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, J B; Shah, S K; Finke, P E; Dorn, C P; Hagmann, W K; Hale, J J; Kissinger, A L; Thompson, K R; Brause, K; Chandler, G O

    1993-01-01

    A series of potent and highly selective time-dependent monocyclic beta-lactam inhibitors of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase (PMNE, EC 3.4.21.37) is described. The intrinsic potency of these compounds, as exemplified by L-680,833 (k(inactivation)/K(i) of 622,000 M-1.s-1), is reflected at the cellular level where it inhibits generation of the specific N-terminal cleavage product A alpha-(1-21) from the A alpha chain of fibrinogen by enzyme released from isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated with fMet-Leu-Phe with an IC50 of 0.06 microM. The inhibitory activity of L-680,833 is also apparent in whole blood stimulated with A23187, where it inhibits formation of A alpha-(1-21) and PMNE-alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor complex formation with IC50 values of 9 microM. Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that after oral dosing L-680,833 is bioavailable in rats and rhesus monkeys. This oral bioavailability is reflected by the inhibition (i) of tissue damage elicited in hamster lungs by intratracheal instillation of human PMNE and (ii) enzyme released from human PMN stimulated after their transfer into the pleural cavity of mice. The properties of L-680,833 allow it to effectively supplement the activity of natural inhibitors of PMNE in vivo, suggesting that this type of low-molecular-weight synthetic inhibitor could have therapeutic value in diseases where PMNE damages tissue. PMID:8378355

  9. Attenuation of rodent neuropathic pain by an orally active peptide, RAP-103, which potently blocks CCR2- and CCR5-mediated monocyte chemotaxis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Padi, Satyanarayana S V; Shi, Xiang Q; Zhao, Yuan Q; Ruff, Michael R; Baichoo, Noel; Pert, Candace B; Zhang, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Chemokine signaling is important in neuropathic pain, with microglial cells expressing CCR2 playing a well-established key role. DAPTA, a HIV gp120-derived CCR5 entry inhibitor, has been shown to inhibit CCR5-mediated monocyte migration and to attenuate neuroinflammation. We report here that as a stabilized analog of DAPTA, the short peptide RAP-103 exhibits potent antagonism for both CCR2 (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 4.2 pM) and CCR5 (IC50 0.18 pM) in monocyte chemotaxis. Oral administration of RAP-103 (0.05-1 mg/kg) for 7 days fully prevents mechanical allodynia and inhibits the development of thermal hyperalgesia after partial ligation of the sciatic nerve in rats. Administered from days 8 to 12, RAP-103 (0.2-1 mg/kg) reverses already established hypersensitivity. RAP-103 relieves behavioral hypersensitivity, probably through either or both CCR2 and CCR5 blockade, because by using genetically deficient animals, we demonstrated that in addition to CCR2, CCR5 is also required for the development of neuropathic pain. Moreover, RAP-103 is able to reduce spinal microglial activation and monocyte infiltration, and to inhibit inflammatory responses evoked by peripheral nerve injury that cause chronic pain. Our findings suggest that targeting CCR2/CCR5 should provide greater efficacy than targeting CCR2 or CCR5 alone, and that dual CCR2/CCR5 antagonist RAP-103 has the potential for broad clinical use in neuropathic pain treatment.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of CS-2100, a potent, orally active and S1P(3)- sparing S1P(1) agonist.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Asano, Masayoshi; Sekiguchi, Yukiko; Mizuno, Yumiko; Tamaki, Kazuhiko; Nara, Futoshi; Kawase, Yumi; Yabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakai, Daisuke; Kamiyama, Emi; Urasaki-Kaneno, Yoko; Shimozato, Takaichi; Doi-Komuro, Hiromi; Kagari, Takashi; Tomisato, Wataru; Inoue, Ryotaku; Nagasaki, Miyuki; Yuita, Hiroshi; Oguchi-Oshima, Keiko; Kaneko, Reina; Nishi, Takahide

    2012-05-01

    Modulators of sphingosine phosphate receptor-1 (S1P(1)) have recently been focused as a suppressant of autoimmunity. We have discovered a 4-ethylthiophene-based S1P(1) agonist 1-({4-Ethyl-5-[5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-2-thienyl}methyl)azetidine-3-carboxylic acid (CS-2100, 8) showing potent S1P(1) agonist activity against S1P(3) and an excellent in vivo potency. We report herein the synthesis of CS-2100 (8) and pharmacological effects such as S1P(1) and S1P(3) agonist activity in vitro, peripheral blood lymphocyte lowering effects and the suppressive effects on adjuvant-induced arthritis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in animal models. The pharmacokinetic data were also reported. CS-2100 (8) had >5000-fold greater agonist activity for human S1P(1) (EC(50); 4.0 nM) relative to S1P(3) (EC(50); >20,000 nM). Following administration of single oral doses of 0.1 and 1 mg/kg of CS-2100 (8) in rats, lymphocyte counts decreased significantly, with a nadir at 8 and/or 12 h post-dose and recovery to vehicle control levels by 24-48 h post-dose. CS-2100 (8) is efficacious in the adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats (ID(50); 0.44 mg/kg). In the EAE model compared to the vehicle-treated group, significant decreases in the cumulative EAE scores were observed for 0.3 and 1 mg/kg CS-2100 (8) groups in mice. While CS-2100 (8) showed potent efficacy in various animal disease models, it was also revealed that the central 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring of CS-2100 (8) was decomposed by enterobacteria in intestine of rats and monkeys, implicating the latent concern about an external susceptibility in its metabolic process in the upcoming clinical studies.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of orally administered acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyanoenone), a highly potent Nrf2 activator with a reversible covalent mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Kostov, Rumen V.; Knatko, Elena V.; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Henderson, Colin J.; Zheng, Suqing; Huang, Jeffrey T.-J.; Honda, Tadashi; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.

    2015-01-01

    The acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyanoenone) TBE-31 is a highly potent cysteine targeting compound with a reversible covalent mode of action; its best-characterized target being Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), the cellular sensor for oxidants and electrophiles. TBE-31 reacts with cysteines of Keap1, impairing its ability to target nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) for degradation. Consequently, Nrf2 accumulates and orchestrates cytoprotective gene expression. In this study we investigated the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of TBE-31 in C57BL/6 mice. After a single oral dose of 10 μmol/kg (∼200 nmol/animal), the concentration of TBE-31 in blood exhibited two peaks, at 22.3 nM and at 15.5 nM, 40 min and 4 h after dosing, respectively, as determined by a quantitative stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method. The AUC0–24h was 195.5 h/nmol/l, the terminal elimination half-life was 10.2 h, and the kel was 0.068 h−1. To assess the pharmacodynamics of Nrf2 activation by TBE-31, we determined the enzyme activity of its prototypic target, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and found it elevated by 2.4- and 1.5-fold in liver and heart, respectively. Continuous feeding for 18 days with diet delivering the same daily doses of TBE-31 under conditions of concurrent treatment with the immunosuppressive agent azathioprine had a similar effect on Nrf2 activation without any indications of toxicity. Together with previous reports showing the cytoprotective effects of TBE-31 in animal models of carcinogenesis, our results demonstrate the high potency, efficacy and suitability for chronic administration of cysteine targeting reversible covalent drugs. PMID:26265043

  12. EBI-907, a novel BRAFV600E inhibitor, has potent oral anti-tumor activity and a broad kinase selectivity profile

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiayin; Lu, Biao; Liu, Dong; Shen, Ru; Yan, Yinfa; Yang, Liuqing; Zhang, Minsheng; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Guoqing; Cao, Hu; Fu, Beibei; Gong, Aishen; Sun, Qiming; Wan, Hong; Zhang, Lianshan; Tao, Weikang; Cao, Jingsong

    2016-01-01

    abstract The oncogenic mutation of BRAFV600E has been found in approximately 8% of all human cancers, including more than 60% of melanoma and 10% of colorectal cancers. The clinical proof of concept in treating BRAFV600E-driving melanoma patients with the BRAF inhibitors has been well established. We have sought to identify and develop novel BRAFV600E inhibitors with more favorable profiles. Our chemistry effort has led to the discovery of EBI-907 as a novel BRAFV600E inhibitor with potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In a LanthaScreen BRAFV600E kinase assay, EBI-907 showed an IC50 of 4.8 nM, which is >10 -fold more potent than Vemurafenib (IC50 = 58.5 nM). In addition, EBI-907 showed a broader kinase selectivity profile, with potent activity against a number of important oncogenic kinases including FGFR1-3, RET, c-Kit, and PDGFRb. Concomitant with such properties, EBI-907 exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity against a broader range of BRAFV600E-dependent cell lines including certain colorectal cancer cell lines with innate resistance to Vemurafenib. In BRAFV600E-dependent human Colo-205 and A375 tumor xenograft mouse models, EBI-907 caused a marked tumor regression in a dose-dependent manner, with superior efficacy to Vemurafenib. Our results also showed that combination with EGFR or MEK inhibitor enhanced the potency of EBI-907 in cell lines with innate or acquired resistance to BRAF inhibition alone. Our findings present EBI-907 as a potent and promising BRAF inhibitor, which might be useful in broader indications. PMID:26810733

  13. Novel, potent, selective, and orally bioavailable human betaII-tryptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sperandio, David; Tai, Vincent W-F; Lohman, Julia; Hirschbein, Bernie; Mendonca, Rohan; Lee, Chang-Sun; Spencer, Jeffrey R; Janc, James; Nguyen, Margaret; Beltman, Jerlyn; Sprengeler, Paul; Scheerens, Heleen; Lin, Tong; Liu, Liang; Gadre, Ashwini; Kellogg, Alisha; Green, Michael J; McGrath, Mary E

    2006-08-01

    The synthesis of novel [1,2,4]oxadiazoles and their structure-activity relationship (SAR) for the inhibition of tryptase and related serine proteases is presented. Elaboration of the P'-side afforded potent, selective, and orally bioavailable tryptase inhibitors.

  14. Anxiolytic and side-effect profile of LY354740: a potent, highly selective, orally active agonist for group II metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Helton, D R; Tizzano, J P; Monn, J A; Schoepp, D D; Kallman, M J

    1998-02-01

    LY354740 is a conformationally constrained analog of glutamate which is a potent agonist for group II cAMP coupled metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). The discovery of this novel pharmacological agent has allowed the exploration of the functional consequences of activating group II mGluRs in vivo. In an effort to evaluate the clinical utility of LY354740 as an anxiolytic, we examined its effects in the fear potentiated startle and elevated plus maze models of anxiety and compared the results with the clinically prescribed anxiolytic diazepam. In the fear potentiated startle and elevated plus maze models, both LY354740 and diazepam produced significant anxiolytic activity (ED50 values of 0.3 and 0.4 mg/kg p. o. for fear potentiated startle and 0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg for the elevated plus maze, respectively). The duration of pharmacological effect for LY354740 in the efficacy models was 4 to 8 hr. In contrast to diazepam, acute administration of LY354740 did not produce sedation, cause deficits in neuromuscular coordination, interact with central nervous system depressants, produce memory impairment or change convulsive thresholds at doses 100- to 1000-fold the efficacious doses in animal models of anxiety. Thus, LY354740 has anxiolytic activity in animal models that are sensitive to benzodiazepines such as diazepam. However, at anxiolytic doses in these models, LY354740 produced none of the unwanted secondary pharmacology associated with diazepam. These data indicate a functional role for group II mGluRs in fear/anxiety responses in animals and suggest that compounds in this class may be beneficial in the treatment of anxiety-related disorders in humans without the side effects seen with currently prescribed medications.

  15. UNC2025, a Potent and Orally Bioavailable MER/FLT3 Dual Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported a potent small molecule Mer tyrosine kinase inhibitor UNC1062. However, its poor PK properties prevented further assessment in vivo. We report here the sequential modification of UNC1062 to address DMPK properties and yield a new potent and highly orally bioavailable Mer inhibitor, 11, capable of inhibiting Mer phosphorylation in vivo, following oral dosing as demonstrated by pharmaco-dynamic (PD) studies examining phospho-Mer in leukemic blasts from mouse bone marrow. Kinome profiling versus more than 300 kinases in vitro and cellular selectivity assessments demonstrate that 11 has similar subnanomolar activity against Flt3, an additional important target in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), with pharmacologically useful selectivity versus other kinases examined. PMID:25068800

  16. UNC2025, a potent and orally bioavailable MER/FLT3 dual inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihe; DeRyckere, Deborah; Hunter, Debra; Liu, Jing; Stashko, Michael A; Minson, Katherine A; Cummings, Christopher T; Lee, Minjung; Glaros, Trevor G; Newton, Dianne L; Sather, Susan; Zhang, Dehui; Kireev, Dmitri; Janzen, William P; Earp, H Shelton; Graham, Douglas K; Frye, Stephen V; Wang, Xiaodong

    2014-08-28

    We previously reported a potent small molecule Mer tyrosine kinase inhibitor UNC1062. However, its poor PK properties prevented further assessment in vivo. We report here the sequential modification of UNC1062 to address DMPK properties and yield a new potent and highly orally bioavailable Mer inhibitor, 11, capable of inhibiting Mer phosphorylation in vivo, following oral dosing as demonstrated by pharmaco-dynamic (PD) studies examining phospho-Mer in leukemic blasts from mouse bone marrow. Kinome profiling versus more than 300 kinases in vitro and cellular selectivity assessments demonstrate that 11 has similar subnanomolar activity against Flt3, an additional important target in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), with pharmacologically useful selectivity versus other kinases examined.

  17. Discovery of DS-1558: A Potent and Orally Bioavailable GPR40 Agonist

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    GPR40 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is predominantly expressed in pancreatic β-cells. GPR40 agonists stimulate insulin secretion in the presence of high glucose concentration. On the basis of this mechanism, GPR40 agonists are possible novel insulin secretagogues with reduced or no risk of hypoglycemia. The improvement of in vitro activity and metabolic stability of compound 1 led to the discovery of 13, (3S)-3-ethoxy-3-(4-{[(1R)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl]oxy}phenyl)propanoic acid, as a potent and orally available GPR40 agonist. Compound 13 (DS-1558) was found to have potent glucose lowering effects during an oral glucose tolerance test in ZDF rats. PMID:25815144

  18. Maraviroc (UK-427,857), a potent, orally bioavailable, and selective small-molecule inhibitor of chemokine receptor CCR5 with broad-spectrum anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity.

    PubMed

    Dorr, Patrick; Westby, Mike; Dobbs, Susan; Griffin, Paul; Irvine, Becky; Macartney, Malcolm; Mori, Julie; Rickett, Graham; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Napier, Carolyn; Webster, Rob; Armour, Duncan; Price, David; Stammen, Blanda; Wood, Anthony; Perros, Manos

    2005-11-01

    Maraviroc (UK-427,857) is a selective CCR5 antagonist with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and favorable pharmacological properties. Maraviroc is the product of a medicinal chemistry effort initiated following identification of an imidazopyridine CCR5 ligand from a high-throughput screen of the Pfizer compound file. Maraviroc demonstrated potent antiviral activity against all CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses tested, including 43 primary isolates from various clades and diverse geographic origin (geometric mean 90% inhibitory concentration of 2.0 nM). Maraviroc was active against 200 clinically derived HIV-1 envelope-recombinant pseudoviruses, 100 of which were derived from viruses resistant to existing drug classes. There was little difference in the sensitivity of the 200 viruses to maraviroc, as illustrated by the biological cutoff in this assay (= geometric mean plus two standard deviations [SD] of 1.7-fold). The mechanism of action of maraviroc was established using cell-based assays, where it blocked binding of viral envelope, gp120, to CCR5 to prevent the membrane fusion events necessary for viral entry. Maraviroc did not affect CCR5 cell surface levels or associated intracellular signaling, confirming it as a functional antagonist of CCR5. Maraviroc has no detectable in vitro cytotoxicity and is highly selective for CCR5, as confirmed against a wide range of receptors and enzymes, including the hERG ion channel (50% inhibitory concentration, >10 microM), indicating potential for an excellent clinical safety profile. Studies in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models predicted maraviroc to have human pharmacokinetics consistent with once- or twice-daily dosing following oral administration. Clinical trials are ongoing to further investigate the potential of using maraviroc for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and AIDS.

  19. Novel tetracyclic benzo[b]carbazolones as highly potent and orally bioavailable ALK inhibitors: design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Ji; Ai, Jing; Song, Zilan; Peng, Xia; Xing, Li; Xi, Yong; Guo, Junfeng; Yao, Qizheng; Ding, Jian; Geng, Meiyu; Zhang, Ao

    2015-11-13

    Four series of tetracyclic benzo[b]carbazolone compounds possessing more rotatable bonds and higher molecular flexibility were designed by either inserting a linker within the C8-side chain or by opening the middle ketone ring on the basis of compound 5 (Alectinib, CH5424802). Compound 15b was identified showing nearly identical high potency against both wild-type and the gatekeeper mutant ALK kinase (3.4 vs 3.9 nM). This compound has favorable PK profile with an oral bioavailability of 67.1% in rats. Moreover, compound 15b showed significant growth inhibition against ALK driven cancer cells and KARPAS-299 xenograft model.

  20. Discovery of Potent and Orally Active Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) Inhibitors as a Potential Therapy for Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinde; Wang, Kai; Xu, Wenwei; Ma, Quanxin; Chen, Minli; Du, Lili; Mo, Mingguang; Wang, Yiping; Shen, Jianhua

    2016-03-24

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is considered to be a promising therapeutic target for several inflammation-associated diseases. Herein, we describe the discovery of a series of pyrimidone derivatives as Lp-PLA2 inhibitors. Systematic structural modifications led to the identification of several pyrimidone compounds with promising in vitro inhibitory potency and pharmacokinetic properties. Compound 14c, selected for in vivo evaluation, demonstrated decent pharmacokinetic profiles and robust inhibitory potency against Lp-PLA2 in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Furthermore, 14c significantly inhibited retinal thickening in STZ-induced diabetic SD rats as a model of diabetic macular edema (DME) after oral dosing for 4 weeks. Taken together, these results suggested that 14c can serve as a valuable lead in the search for new Lp-PLA2 inhibitors for prevention and/or treatment of DME.

  1. Addressing phototoxicity observed in a novel series of biaryl derivatives: discovery of potent, selective and orally active phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor ASP9436.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Wataru; Masuda, Naoyuki; Miyamoto, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Shigetoshi; Narazaki, Fumie; Shiina, Yasuhiro; Seo, Ryushi; Amano, Yasushi; Mihara, Takuma; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Kouji

    2015-07-01

    We synthesized several biaryl derivatives as PDE10A inhibitors to prevent phototoxicity of 2-[4-({[1-methyl-4-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]oxy}methyl)phenyl]quinoline (1) and found that the energy difference between the energy-minimized conformation and the coplanar conformation of the biaryl moiety helped facilitate prediction of the phototoxic potential of biaryl compounds. Replacement of the quinoline ring of 1 with N-methyl benzimidazole increased this energy difference and prevented phototoxicity in the 3T3 NRU test. Further optimization identified 1-methyl-5-(1-methyl-3-{[4-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-4-yl)phenoxy]methyl}-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyridin-2(1H)-one (38b). Compound 38b exhibited good selectivity against other PDEs, and oral administration of 38b improved visual-recognition memory deficit in mice at doses of 0.001 and 0.003mg/kg in the novel object recognition test. ASP9436 (sesquiphosphate of 38b) may therefore be used for the treatment of schizophrenia with a low risk of phototoxicity.

  2. Biostable multi-Aib analogs of tachykinin-related peptides demonstrate potent oral aphicidal activity in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae).

    PubMed

    Nachman, Ronald J; Mahdian, Kamran; Nässel, Dick R; Isaac, R Elwyn; Pryor, Nan; Smagghe, Guy

    2011-03-01

    The tachykinin-related peptides (TRPs) are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). Two new biostable TRP analogs containing multiple, sterically hindered Aib residues were synthesized and found to exhibit significantly enhanced resistance to hydrolysis by angiotensin converting enzyme and neprilysin, membrane-bound enzymes that degrade and inactivate natural TRPs. The two biostable analogs were also found to retain significant myostimulatory activity in an isolated cockroach hindgut preparation, the bioassay used to isolate and identify the first members of the TRP family. Indeed one of the analogs (Leuma-TRP-Aib-1) matched the potency and efficacy of the natural, parent TRP peptide in this myotropic bioassay. The two biostable TRP analogs were further fed in solutions of artificial diet to the pea aphid over a period of 3 days and evaluated for antifeedant and aphicidal activity and compared with the effect of treatment with three natural, unmodified TRPs. The two biostable multi-Aib TRP analogs were observed to elicit aphicidal effects within the first 24 h. In contrast natural, unmodified TRPs, including two that are native to the pea aphid, demonstrated little or no activity. The most active analog, double-Aib analog Leuma-TRP-Aib-1 (pEA[Aib]SGFL[Aib]VR-NH(2)), featured aphicidal activity calculated at an LC(50) of 0.0083 nmol/μl (0.0087 μg/μl) and an LT(50) of 1.4 days, matching or exceeding the potency of commercially available aphicides. The mechanism of this activity has yet to be established. The aphicidal activity of the biostable TRP analogs may result from disruption of digestive processes by interfering with gut motility patterns and/or with fluid cycling in the gut; processes shown to be regulated by the TRPs in other insects. These active TRP analogs and/or second generation analogs offer potential as environmentally friendly pest aphid control agents.

  3. SL-01, an oral gemcitabine derivative, inhibited human cancer growth more potently than gemcitabine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Cuirong; Yue, Bin; Liu, Huiping; Sun, Cuicui; Li, Wenbao; Qu, Xianjun

    2012-08-01

    SL-01, an oral gemcitabine derivative, was synthesized by introducing the moiety of 3-(dodecyloxycarbonyl)pyrazine-2-carbonyl at the N4-position on the cytidine ring of gemcitabine. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of SL-01 on the growth of human cancers with gemcitabine as control. Experiments were performed on human non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 and colon cancer HCT-116 both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro assays, SL-01 significantly inhibited the growth of cancer cells as determined by the 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Further studies indicated that SL-01 induced the cancer cells to apoptosis showing chromatin condensation and externalization of phosphatidylserine. In in vivo studies, we evaluated the efficacy of SL-01 in nude mice bearing human cancer xenografts. SL-01 effectively delayed the growth of NCI-H460 and HCT-116 without significant loss of body weight. Molecular analysis indicated that the high efficacy of SL-01 was associated with its ability to induce apoptosis as evidenced by increase of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining cells, activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) in tumor tissues. SL-01 also increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in cancer cells. These biological activities of SL-01 were more potential than that of gemcitabine. Based on these in vitro and in vivo results, SL-01 is proposed as a potent oral anticancer agent that may supplant the use of gemcitabine in the clinic. -- Highlights: ► An oral gemcitabine derivative SL-01 was synthesized. ► The effects of SL-01 were evaluated and its efficacy was compared with gemcitabine. ► The biological activities of SL-01 were more potent than that of gemcitabine. ► SL-01 could replace gemcitabine for clinical use.

  4. (3,3-Difluoro-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-[(2S,4S)-(4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-yl]-methanone: A potent, selective, orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Ammirati, Mark J.; Andrews, Kim M.; Boyer, David D.; Brodeur, Anne M.; Danley, Dennis E.; Doran, Shawn D.; Hulin, Bernard; Liu, Shenping; McPherson, R. Kirk; Orena, Stephen J.; Parker, Janice C.; Polivkova, Jana; Qiu, Xiayang; Soglia, Carolyn B.; Treadway, Judith L.; VanVolkenburg, Maria A.; Wilder, Donald C.; Piotrowski, David W.; Pfizer

    2010-10-01

    A series of 4-substituted proline amides was synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl pepdidase IV for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (3,3-Difluoro-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-[(2S,4S)-(4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-yl]-methanone (5) emerged as a potent (IC{sub 50} = 13 nM) and selective compound, with high oral bioavailability in preclinical species and low plasma protein binding. Compound 5, PF-00734200, was selected for development as a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes.

  5. Discovery of a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable pyridinyl-pyrimidine phthalazine aurora kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cee, Victor J; Schenkel, Laurie B; Hodous, Brian L; Deak, Holly L; Nguyen, Hanh N; Olivieri, Philip R; Romero, Karina; Bak, Annette; Be, Xuhai; Bellon, Steve; Bush, Tammy L; Cheng, Alan C; Chung, Grace; Coats, Steve; Eden, Patrick M; Hanestad, Kelly; Gallant, Paul L; Gu, Yan; Huang, Xin; Kendall, Richard L; Lin, Min-Hwa Jasmine; Morrison, Michael J; Patel, Vinod F; Radinsky, Robert; Rose, Paul E; Ross, Sandra; Sun, Ji-Rong; Tang, Jin; Zhao, Huilin; Payton, Marc; Geuns-Meyer, Stephanie D

    2010-09-09

    The discovery of aurora kinases as essential regulators of cell division has led to intense interest in identifying small molecule aurora kinase inhibitors for the potential treatment of cancer. A high-throughput screening effort identified pyridinyl-pyrimidine 6a as a moderately potent dual inhibitor of aurora kinases -A and -B. Optimization of this hit resulted in an anthranilamide lead (6j) that possessed improved enzyme and cellular activity and exhibited a high level of kinase selectivity. However, this anthranilamide and subsequent analogues suffered from a lack of oral bioavailability. Converting the internally hydrogen-bonded six-membered pseudo-ring of the anthranilamide to a phthalazine (8a-b) led to a dramatic improvement in oral bioavailability (38-61%F) while maintaining the potency and selectivity characteristics of the anthranilamide series. In a COLO 205 tumor pharmacodynamic assay measuring phosphorylation of the aurora-B substrate histone H3 at serine 10 (p-histone H3), oral administration of 8b at 50 mg/kg demonstrated significant reduction in tumor p-histone H3 for at least 6 h.

  6. Discovery and Evaluation of BMS-708163, a Potent, Selective and Orally Bioavailable γ-Secretase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    During the course of our research efforts to develop a potent and selective γ-secretase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, we investigated a series of carboxamide-substituted sulfonamides. Optimization based on potency, Notch/amyloid-β precursor protein selectivity, and brain efficacy after oral dosing led to the discovery of 4 (BMS-708163). Compound 4 is a potent inhibitor of γ-secretase (Aβ40 IC50 = 0.30 nM), demonstrating a 193-fold selectivity against Notch. Oral administration of 4 significantly reduced Aβ40 levels for sustained periods in brain, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid in rats and dogs. PMID:24900185

  7. Potent and orally efficacious benzothiazole amides as TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Besidski, Yevgeni; Brown, William; Bylund, Johan; Dabrowski, Michael; Dautrey, Sophie; Harter, Magali; Horoszok, Lucy; Hu, Yin; Johnson, Dean; Johnstone, Shawn; Jones, Paul; Leclerc, Sandrine; Kolmodin, Karin; Kers, Inger; Labarre, Maryse; Labrecque, Denis; Laird, Jennifer; Lundström, Therese; Martino, John; Maudet, Mickaël; Munro, Alexander; Nylöf, Martin; Penwell, Andrea; Rotticci, Didier; Slaitas, Andis; Sundgren-Andersson, Anna; Svensson, Mats; Terp, Gitte; Villanueva, Huascar; Walpole, Christopher; Zemribo, Ronald; Griffin, Andrew M

    2012-10-01

    Benzothiazole amides were identified as TRPV1 antagonists from high throughput screening using recombinant human TRPV1 receptor and structure-activity relationships were explored to pinpoint key pharmacophore interactions. By increasing aqueous solubility, through the attachment of polar groups to the benzothiazole core, and enhancing metabolic stability, by blocking metabolic sites, the drug-like properties and pharmokinetic profiles of benzothiazole compounds were sufficiently optimized such that their therapeutic potential could be verified in rat pharmacological models of pain.

  8. (2R)-4-Oxo-4[3-(Trifluoromethyl)-5,6-diihydro:1,2,4}triazolo[4,3-a}pyrazin-7(8H)-y1]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine: A Potent, Orally Active Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitor for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.; Wang, L.; Beconi, M.; Eiermann, G.; Fisher, M.; He, H.; Hickey, G.; Kowalchick, Jennifer; Leiting, Barbara; Lyons, K.; Marsilio, F.; McCann, F.; Patel, R.; Petrov, A.; Scapin, G.; Patel, S.; Roy, R.; Wu, J.; Wyvratt, M.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, L.; Thornberry, N.; Weber, A.

    2010-11-10

    A novel series of {beta}-amino amides incorporating fused heterocycles, i.e., triazolopiperazines, were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (2R)-4-Oxo-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine (1) is a potent, orally active DPP-IV inhibitor (IC{sub 50} = 18 nM) with excellent selectivity over other proline-selective peptidases, oral bioavailability in preclinical species, and in vivo efficacy in animal models. MK-0431, the phosphate salt of compound 1, was selected for development as a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes.

  9. Discovery of 4-((3'R,4'S,5'R)-6″-Chloro-4'-(3-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)-1'-ethyl-2″-oxodispiro[cyclohexane-1,2'-pyrrolidine-3',3″-indoline]-5'-carboxamido)bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1-carboxylic Acid (AA-115/APG-115): A Potent and Orally Active Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2) Inhibitor in Clinical Development.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Angelo; Lu, Jianfeng; Liu, Liu; Du, Ding; Bernard, Denzil; McEachern, Donna; Przybranowski, Sally; Li, Xiaoqin; Luo, Ruijuan; Wen, Bo; Sun, Duxin; Wang, Hengbang; Wen, Jianfeng; Wang, Guangfeng; Zhai, Yifan; Guo, Ming; Yang, Dajun; Wang, Shaomeng

    2017-04-13

    We previously reported the design of spirooxindoles with two identical substituents at the carbon-2 of the pyrrolidine core as potent MDM2 inhibitors. In this paper we describe an extensive structure-activity relationship study of this class of MDM2 inhibitors, which led to the discovery of 60 (AA-115/APG-115). Compound 60 has a very high affinity to MDM2 (Ki < 1 nM), potent cellular activity, and an excellent oral pharmacokinetic profile. Compound 60 is capable of achieving complete and long-lasting tumor regression in vivo and is currently in phase I clinical trials for cancer treatment.

  10. The discovery of Polo-like kinase 4 inhibitors: identification of (1R,2S).2-(3-((E).4-(((cis).2,6-dimethylmorpholino)methyl)styryl). 1H.indazol-6-yl)-5'-methoxyspiro[cyclopropane-1,3'-indolin]-2'-one (CFI-400945) as a potent, orally active antitumor agent.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Peter B; Liu, Yong; Forrest, Bryan; Cumming, Graham; Li, Sze-Wan; Patel, Narendra Kumar; Edwards, Louise; Laufer, Radoslaw; Feher, Miklos; Ban, Fuqiang; Awrey, Donald E; Mao, Guodong; Plotnikova, Olga; Hodgson, Richard; Beletskaya, Irina; Mason, Jacqueline M; Luo, Xunyi; Nadeem, Vincent; Wei, Xin; Kiarash, Reza; Madeira, Brian; Huang, Ping; Mak, Tak W; Pan, Guohua; Pauls, Henry W

    2015-01-08

    Previous publications from our laboratory have introduced novel inhibitors of Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), a mitotic kinase identified as a potential target for cancer therapy. The search for potent and selective PLK4 inhibitors yielded (E)-3-((1Hindazol-6-yl)methylene)indolin-2-ones, which were superseded by the bioisosteric 2-(1H-indazol-6-yl)spiro[cyclopropane-1,3'-indolin]-2'-ones, e.g., 3. The later scaffold confers improved drug-like properties and incorporates two stereogenic centers. This work reports the discovery of a novel one-pot double SN2 displacement reaction for the stereoselective installation of the desired asymmetric centers and confirms the stereochemistry of the most potent stereoisomer, e.g., 44. Subsequent work keys on the optimization of the oral exposure of nanomolar PLK4 inhibitors with potent cancer cell growth inhibitory activity. A short list of compounds with superior potency and pharmacokinetic properties in rodents and dogs was studied in mouse models of tumor growth. We conclude with the identification of compound 48 (designated CFI-400945) as a novel clinical candidate for cancer therapy.

  11. [Oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis].

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, O F; Abramova, E S

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of examination of oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral mucosa disbiosis was evaluated. Thirty-seven patients were included in complex clinical and laboratory studies. The patients were divided in two groups: main group (30 patients exhibiting various grades of oral mucosa disbiosis) and control group (7 patients with no signs of oral disbiosis). The oral fluid bacteriocidal activity was examined by means of laser flow cytometry. Study results proved oral fluid bacteriocidal activity increase to correlate with the grade of oral mucosa disbiosis thus confirming the usefulness of the method in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis.

  12. Structure-based design of novel guanidine/benzamidine mimics: potent and orally bioavailable factor Xa inhibitors as novel anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Lam, Patrick Y S; Clark, Charles G; Li, Renhua; Pinto, Donald J P; Orwat, Michael J; Galemmo, Robert A; Fevig, John M; Teleha, Christopher A; Alexander, Richard S; Smallwood, Angela M; Rossi, Karen A; Wright, Matthew R; Bai, Stephen A; He, Kan; Luettgen, Joseph M; Wong, Pancras C; Knabb, Robert M; Wexler, Ruth R

    2003-10-09

    As part of an ongoing effort to prepare orally active factor Xa inhibitors using structure-based drug design techniques and molecular recognition principles, a systematic study has been performed on the pharmacokinetic profile resulting from replacing the benzamidine in the P1 position with less basic benzamidine mimics or neutral residues. It is demonstrated that lowering the pK(a) of the P1 ligand resulted in compounds (3-benzylamine, 15a; 1-aminoisoquinoline, 24a; 3-aminobenzisoxazole, 23a; 3-phenylcarboxamide, 22b; and 4-methoxyphenyl, 22a) with improved pharmacokinetic features mainly as a result of decreased clearance, increased volume of distribution, and enhanced oral absorption. This work resulted in a series of potent and orally bioavailable factor Xa inhibitors that ultimately led to the discovery of SQ311, 24a. SQ311, which utilizes a 1-aminoisoquinoline as the P1 ligand, inhibits factor Xa with a K(i) of 0.33 nM and demonstrates both good in vivo antithrombotic efficacy and oral bioavailability.

  13. Potent and Orally Bioavailable Antiplatelet Agent, PLD-301, with the Potential of Overcoming Clopidogrel Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyu; Wang, Michael Zhiyan

    2016-01-01

    PLD-301, a phosphate prodrug of clopidogrel thiolactone discovered by Prelude Pharmaceuticals with the aim to overcome clopidogrel resistance, was evaluated for its in vivo inhibitory effect on ADP-induced platelet aggregation in rats. The potency of PLD-301 was similar to that of prasugrel, but much higher than that of clopidogrel. The results of pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the oral bioavailability of clopidogrel thiolactone converted from PLD-301 was 4- to 5-fold higher than that of the one converted from clopidogrel, suggesting that in comparison with clopidogrel, lower doses of PLD-301 could be used clinically. In summary, PLD-301 presents a potent and orally bioavailable antiplatelet agent that might have some advantages over clopidogrel, such as overcoming clopidogrel resistance for CYP2C19-allele loss-of-function carriers, and lowering dose-related toxicity due to a much lower effective dose. PMID:27594816

  14. Garcinia xanthones as orally active antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojin; Li, Xiang; Sun, Haopeng; Wang, Xiaojian; Zhao, Li; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shenglie; Wang, Yanyan; Yang, Yingrui; Zeng, Su; Guo, Qinglong; You, Qidong

    2013-01-10

    Using a newly developed strategy whose key step is the regioselective propargylation of hydroxyxanthone substrates, 99 structurally diverse Garcinia natural-product-like xanthones based on gambogic acid were designed and synthesized and their in vitro antitumor activity was evaluated. A set of 40 related compounds was chosen for determination of their physicochemical properties including polar surface area, log D₇.₄, aqueous solubility, and permeability at pH 7.4. In the light of the in vitro antitumor activity and the physicochemical properties, two compounds were advanced into in vivo efficacy experiments. The antitumor activity of compound 112, administered po, showed more potent in vivo oral antitumor activity than gambogic acid.

  15. Optimization of 5-pyridazin-3-one phenoxypropylamines as potent, selective histamine H₃ receptor antagonists with potent cognition enhancing activity.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ming; Aimone, Lisa D; Huang, Zeqi; Mathiasen, Joanne; Raddatz, Rita; Lyons, Jacquelyn; Hudkins, Robert L

    2012-01-12

    Previous studies have shown that (5-{4-[3-(R)-2-methylpyrrolin-1-yl-propoxy]phenyl}-2H-pyridazin-3-one) 2 had high affinity for both the human (hH(3)R K(i) = 2.8 nM) and rat H(3)Rs (rH(3)R K(i) = 8.5 nM) but displayed low oral bioavailability in the rat. Optimization of the 5-pyridazin-3-one R(2) and R(6) positions to improve the pharmacokinetic properties over 2 led to the identification of 5-{4-[3-(R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)propoxy]phenyl}-2-pyridin-2-yl-2H-pyridazin-3-one 29. Compound 29 displayed high affinity for both human and rat H(3)Rs (hH(3)R K(i) = 1.7 nM, rH(3)R K(i) = 3.7 nM) with a greater than 1000-fold selectivity over the other histamine receptor subtypes and favorable pharmacokinetic properties across species (F = 78% rat, 92% dog, 96% monkey). It showed low binding to human plasma proteins, weakly inhibited cytochrome P450 isoforms, and displayed an excellent safety profile for a CNS-active compound. 29 displayed potent H(3)R antagonist activity in the brain in a rat dipsogenia model and demonstrated enhancement of cognitive function in a rat social recognition model at low doses. However, the development of compound 29 was discontinued because of genotoxicity.

  16. Discovery of 3-[2-(imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazin-3-yl)ethynyl]-4-methyl-N-{4-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl}benzamide (AP24534), a potent, orally active pan-inhibitor of breakpoint cluster region-abelson (BCR-ABL) kinase including the T315I gatekeeper mutant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Sheng; Metcalf, Chester A; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Wang, Yihan; Zou, Dong; Thomas, R Mathew; Zhu, Xiaotian; Cai, Lisi; Wen, David; Liu, Shuangying; Romero, Jan; Qi, Jiwei; Chen, Ingrid; Banda, Geetha; Lentini, Scott P; Das, Sasmita; Xu, Qihong; Keats, Jeff; Wang, Frank; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Snodgrass, Joseph T; Broudy, Marc I; Russian, Karin; Zhou, Tianjun; Commodore, Lois; Narasimhan, Narayana I; Mohemmad, Qurish K; Iuliucci, John; Rivera, Victor M; Dalgarno, David C; Sawyer, Tomi K; Clackson, Tim; Shakespeare, William C

    2010-06-24

    In the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with BCR-ABL kinase inhibitors, the T315I gatekeeper mutant has emerged as resistant to all currently approved agents. This report describes the structure-guided design of a novel series of potent pan-inhibitors of BCR-ABL, including the T315I mutation. A key structural feature is the carbon-carbon triple bond linker which skirts the increased bulk of Ile315 side chain. Extensive SAR studies led to the discovery of development candidate 20g (AP24534), which inhibited the kinase activity of both native BCR-ABL and the T315I mutant with low nM IC(50)s, and potently inhibited proliferation of corresponding Ba/F3-derived cell lines. Daily oral administration of 20g significantly prolonged survival of mice injected intravenously with BCR-ABL(T315I) expressing Ba/F3 cells. These data, coupled with a favorable ADME profile, support the potential of 20g to be an effective treatment for CML, including patients refractory to all currently approved therapies.

  17. Discovery of Potent, Orally Bioavailable, Small-Molecule Inhibitors of WNT Signaling from a Cell-Based Pathway Screen

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    WNT signaling is frequently deregulated in malignancy, particularly in colon cancer, and plays a key role in the generation and maintenance of cancer stem cells. We report the discovery and optimization of a 3,4,5-trisubstituted pyridine 9 using a high-throughput cell-based reporter assay of WNT pathway activity. We demonstrate a twisted conformation about the pyridine–piperidine bond of 9 by small-molecule X-ray crystallography. Medicinal chemistry optimization to maintain this twisted conformation, cognisant of physicochemical properties likely to maintain good cell permeability, led to 74 (CCT251545), a potent small-molecule inhibitor of WNT signaling with good oral pharmacokinetics. We demonstrate inhibition of WNT pathway activity in a solid human tumor xenograft model with evidence for tumor growth inhibition following oral dosing. This work provides a successful example of hypothesis-driven medicinal chemistry optimization from a singleton hit against a cell-based pathway assay without knowledge of the biochemical target. PMID:25680029

  18. A ceramic drug delivery vehicle for oral administration of highly potent opioids.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, Johan; Jämstorp, Erik; Bredenberg, Susanne; Engqvist, Håkan; Strømme, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Pellets composed of the ceramic material Halloysite and microcrystalline cellulose were synthesized with the aim of producing a drug delivery vehicle for sustained release of the opioid Fentanyl with low risk for dose dumping at oral intake of the highly potent drug. Drug release profiles of intact and crushed pellets, to simulate swallowing without or with chewing, in pH 6.8, pH 1, and in 48% ethanol were recorded in order to replicate the conditions in the small intestines, in the stomach, as well as cointake of the drug with alcohol. The drug release was analyzed by employing the Weibull equation, which showed that the release profiles were either governed by fickian diffusion (intact pellets in pH 6.8 and in ethanol) or by diffusion in a fractal or disordered pore network (intact pellets in pH 1 and crushed pellets in all solutions). A sustained release for approximately 3-4 h was obtained in all studied solutions from intact pellets, whereas crushed pellets released the drug content during approximately 2-3 h. The finding that a sustained release profile could be obtained both in alcohol and after crushing of the pellets, shows that the ceramic carrier under investigation, at least to some extent, hampers dose dumping, and may thus be a promising material in future developments of new opioid containing oral dosage forms.

  19. Breast milk immune complexes are potent inducers of oral tolerance in neonates and prevent asthma development.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, E; Rekima, A; Seitz-Polski, B; Kanda, A; Fleury, S; Tissandie, E; Monteiro, R; Dombrowicz, D D; Julia, V; Glaichenhaus, N; Verhasselt, V

    2010-09-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic lung disease resulting from an inappropriate T helper (Th)-2 response to environmental antigens. Early tolerance induction is an attractive approach for primary prevention of asthma. Here, we found that breastfeeding by antigen-sensitized mothers exposed to antigen aerosols during lactation induced a robust and long-lasting antigen-specific protection from asthma. Protection was more profound and persistent than the one induced by antigen-exposed non-sensitized mothers. Milk from antigen-exposed sensitized mothers contained antigen-immunoglobulin (Ig) G immune complexes that were transferred to the newborn through the neonatal Fc receptor resulting in the induction of antigen-specific FoxP3(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells. The induction of oral tolerance by milk immune complexes did not require the presence of transforming growth factor-beta in milk in contrast to tolerance induced by milk-borne free antigen. Furthermore, neither the presence of IgA in milk nor the expression of the inhibitory FcgammaRIIb in the newborn was required for tolerance induction. This study provides new insights on the mechanisms of tolerance induction in neonates and highlights that IgG immune complexes found in breast milk are potent inducers of oral tolerance. These observations may pave the way for the identification of key factors for primary prevention of immune-mediated diseases such as asthma.

  20. Surface-associated proteins from Staphylococcus aureus demonstrate potent bone resorbing activity.

    PubMed

    Nair, S; Song, Y; Meghji, S; Reddi, K; Harris, M; Ross, A; Poole, S; Wilson, M; Henderson, B

    1995-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections are associated with rapid bone destruction in conditions such as osteomyelitis, bacterial arthritis, and infected orthopedic implant failure. How this bacterium induces bone destruction has not been defined. In studies of the role of oral Gram-negative bacteria in periodontal pathology, we have established that cell surface-associated proteins (SAPs) are potent stimulators of bone resorption. The surface-associated components from S. aureus have now been isolated and demonstrated to be extremely potent stimulators of bone resorption in the murine calvarial bone resorption assay. Bone resorption appears to be due to proteins, is not the result of contamination with lipoteichoic acid or muramyl dipeptide, and is potently inhibited by indomethacin and can be completely blocked by high concentrations of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist or TN3-19.12, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to murine TNF. The SAP fraction can stimulate fibroblasts or monocytes to release osteolytic cytokines, but only at high concentrations. Fractionation of the SAPs by high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that a number of fractions were osteolytically active. The most active contained a heterodimeric protein of molecular weight 32-36 kD. The presence of this osteolytically active surface-associated fraction may account for the bone resorption associated with local infection with S. aureus.

  1. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Summary 3. DATES COVERED 1 JUL 2013 - 30 JUN 2014 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with... 4 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………… 5 References……………………………………………………………………………. 6 Appendices...metabolite from dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA ) and a precursor of testosterone, has an intrinsic androgenic activity which was not completely antagonized by

  3. Oral insecticidal activity of plant-associated pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Ruffner, Beat; Péchy-Tarr, Maria; Ryffel, Florian; Hoegger, Patrik; Obrist, Christian; Rindlisbacher, Alfred; Keel, Christoph; Maurhofer, Monika

    2013-03-01

    Biocontrol pseudomonads are most known to protect plants from fungal diseases and to increase plant yield, while intriguing aspects on insecticidal activity have been discovered only recently. Here, we demonstrate that Fit toxin producing pseudomonads, in contrast to a naturally Fit-deficient strain, exhibit potent oral activity against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis, Heliothis virescens and Plutella xylostella, all major insect pests of agricultural crops. Spraying plant leaves with suspensions containing only 1000 Pseudomonas cells per ml was sufficient to kill 70-80% of Spodoptera and Heliothis larvae. Monitoring survival kinetics and bacterial titres in parallel, we demonstrate that Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391, two bacteria harbouring the Fit gene cluster colonize and kill insects via oral infection. Using Fit mutants of CHA0 and PCL1391, we show that production of the Fit toxin contributes substantially to oral insecticidal activity. Furthermore, the global regulator GacA is required for full insecticidal activity. Our findings demonstrate the lethal oral activity of two root-colonizing pseudomonads so far known as potent antagonists of fungal plant pathogens. This adds insecticidal activity to the existing biocontrol repertoire of these bacteria and opens new perspectives for applications in crop pest control and in research on their ecological behaviour.

  4. Discovery of 3-Substituted Aminocyclopentanes as Potent and Orally Bioavailable NR2B Subtype-Selective NMDA Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A series of 3-substituted aminocyclopentanes has been identified as highly potent and selective NR2B receptor antagonists. Incorporation of a 1,2,4-oxadiazole linker and substitution of the pendant phenyl ring led to the discovery of orally bioavailable analogues that showed efficient NR2B receptor occupancy in rats. Unlike nonselective NMDA antagonists, the NR2B-selective antagonist 22 showed no adverse affects on motor coordination in the rotarod assay at high dose. Compound 22 was efficacious following oral administration in a spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain and in an acute model of Parkinson’s disease in a dose dependent manner. PMID:22816022

  5. Plants from Brazilian Cerrado with Potent Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Paula Monteiro; Elias, Silvia Taveira; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; de Paula, José Elias; Gomes, Sueli Maria; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva; Fonseca, Yris Maria; Silva, Elton Clementino; Silveira, Dâmaris; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plant species from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p<0.05) tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC50 value of 11.88 µg/mL, compared to kojic acid (IC50 value of 13.14 µg/mL). Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 30.01 µg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations. PMID:23173036

  6. Novel Gallate Triphenylphosphonium Derivatives with Potent Antichagasic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Leonel A.; Castro, Lorena; Pesce, Bárbara; Maya, Juan D.; Ferreira, Jorge; Castro-Castillo, Vicente; Parra, Eduardo; Jara, José A.; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most neglected tropical diseases in the world, affecting nearly 15 million people, primarily in Latin America. Only two drugs are used for the treatment of this disease, nifurtimox and benznidazole. These drugs have limited efficacy and frequently induce adverse effects, limiting their usefulness. Consequently, new drugs must be found. In this study, we demonstrated the in vitro trypanocidal effects of a series of four gallic acid derivatives characterized by a gallate group linked to a triphenylphosphonium (TPP+) moiety (a delocalized cation) via a hydrocarbon chain of 8, 10, 11, or 12 atoms (TPP+-C8, TPP+-C10, TPP+-C11, and TPP+-C12, respectively). We analyzed parasite viability in isolated parasites (by MTT reduction and flow cytometry) and infected mammalian cells using T. cruzi Y strain trypomastigotes. Among the four derivatives, TPP+-C10 and TPP+-C12 were the most potent in both models, with EC50 values (in isolated parasites) of 1.0 ± 0.6 and 1.0 ± 0.7 μM, respectively, and were significantly more potent than nifurtimox (EC50 = 4.1 ± 0.6 μM). At 1 μM, TPP+-C10 and TPP+-C12 induced markers of cell death, such as phosphatidylserine exposure and propidium iodide permeabilization. In addition, at 1 μM, TPP+-C10 and TPP+-C12 significantly decreased the number of intracellular amastigotes (TPP+-C10: 24.3%, TPP+-C12: 19.0% of control measurements, as measured by DAPI staining) and the parasite’s DNA load (C10: 10%, C12: 13% of control measurements, as measured by qPCR). Based on the previous mode of action described for these compounds in cancer cells, we explored their mitochondrial effects in isolated trypomastigotes. TPP+-C10 and TPP+-C12 were the most potent compounds, significantly altering mitochondrial membrane potential at 1 μM (measured by JC-1 fluorescence) and inducing mitochondrial transition pore opening at 5 μM. Taken together, these results indicate that the TPP+-C10 and TPP+-C12 derivatives of gallic acid are

  7. Novel Gallate Triphenylphosphonium Derivatives with Potent Antichagasic Activity.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Leonel A; Castro, Lorena; Pesce, Bárbara; Maya, Juan D; Ferreira, Jorge; Castro-Castillo, Vicente; Parra, Eduardo; Jara, José A; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    disease is one of the most neglected tropical diseases in the world, affecting nearly 15 million people, primarily in Latin America. Only two drugs are used for the treatment of this disease, nifurtimox and benznidazole. These drugs have limited efficacy and frequently induce adverse effects, limiting their usefulness. Consequently, new drugs must be found. In this study, we demonstrated the in vitro trypanocidal effects of a series of four gallic acid derivatives characterized by a gallate group linked to a triphenylphosphonium (TPP(+)) moiety (a delocalized cation) via a hydrocarbon chain of 8, 10, 11, or 12 atoms (TPP(+)-C8, TPP(+)-C10, TPP(+)-C11, and TPP(+)-C12, respectively). We analyzed parasite viability in isolated parasites (by MTT reduction and flow cytometry) and infected mammalian cells using T. cruzi Y strain trypomastigotes. Among the four derivatives, TPP(+)-C10 and TPP(+)-C12 were the most potent in both models, with EC50 values (in isolated parasites) of 1.0 ± 0.6 and 1.0 ± 0.7 μM, respectively, and were significantly more potent than nifurtimox (EC50 = 4.1 ± 0.6 μM). At 1 μM, TPP(+)-C10 and TPP(+)-C12 induced markers of cell death, such as phosphatidylserine exposure and propidium iodide permeabilization. In addition, at 1 μM, TPP(+)-C10 and TPP(+)-C12 significantly decreased the number of intracellular amastigotes (TPP(+)-C10: 24.3%, TPP(+)-C12: 19.0% of control measurements, as measured by DAPI staining) and the parasite's DNA load (C10: 10%, C12: 13% of control measurements, as measured by qPCR). Based on the previous mode of action described for these compounds in cancer cells, we explored their mitochondrial effects in isolated trypomastigotes. TPP(+)-C10 and TPP(+)-C12 were the most potent compounds, significantly altering mitochondrial membrane potential at 1 μM (measured by JC-1 fluorescence) and inducing mitochondrial transition pore opening at 5 μM. Taken together, these results indicate that the TPP(+)-C10 and TPP(+)-C12

  8. Discovery of potent imidazole and cyanophenyl containing farnesyltransferase inhibitors with improved oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yunsong; Lin, Nan-Horng; Wang, Le; Hasvold, Lisa; Wang, Weibo; Leonard, Nicholas; Li, Tongmei; Li, Qun; Cohen, Jerry; Gu, Wen-Zhen; Zhang, Haiying; Stoll, Vincent; Bauch, Joy; Marsh, Kennan; Rosenberg, Saul H; Sham, Hing L

    2003-05-05

    A pyridyl moiety was introduced into a previously developed series of farnesyltransferase inhibitors containing imidazole and cyanophenyl (such as 4), resulting in potent inhibitors with improved pharmacokinetics.

  9. Potent, selective, and orally efficacious antagonists of melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Francis X; Al-Barazanji, Kamal A; Bigham, Eric C; Bishop, Michael J; Britt, Christy S; Carlton, David L; Feldman, Paul L; Goetz, Aaron S; Grizzle, Mary K; Guo, Yu C; Handlon, Anthony L; Hertzog, Donald L; Ignar, Diane M; Lang, Daniel G; Ott, Ronda J; Peat, Andrew J; Zhou, Hui-Qiang

    2006-11-30

    The high expression of MCH in the hypothalamus with the lean hypophagic phenotype coupled with increased resting metabolic rate and resistance to high fat diet-induced obesity of MCH KO mice has spurred considerable efforts to develop small molecule MCHR1 antagonists. Starting from a lead thienopyrimidinone series, structure-activity studies at the 3- and 6-positions of the thienopyrimidinone core afforded potent and selective MCHR1 antagonists with representative examples having suitable pharmacokinetic properties. Based on structure-activity relationships, a structural model for MCHR1 was constructed to explain the binding mode of these antagonists. In general, a good correlation was observed between pKas and activity in the right-hand side of the template, with Asp123 playing an important role in the enhancement of binding affinity. A representative example when evaluated chronically in diet-induced obese mice resulted in good weight loss effects. These antagonists provide a viable lead series in the discovery of new therapies for the treatment of obesity.

  10. Potent Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activities of Oxidosqualene Cyclase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Frederick S.; Griffin, John H.; Wilson, Aaron J.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2001-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the protozoan agent that causes Chagas' disease, a major health problem in Latin America. Better drugs are needed to treat infected individuals. The sterol biosynthesis pathway is a potentially excellent target for drug therapy against T. cruzi. In this study, we investigated the antitrypanosomal activities of a series of compounds designed to inhibit a key enzyme in sterol biosynthesis, oxidosqualene cyclase. This enzyme converts 2,3-oxidosqualene to the tetracyclic product, lanosterol. The lead compound, N-(4E,8E)-5,9, 13-trimethyl-4,8, 12-tetradecatrien-1-ylpyridinium, is an electron-poor aromatic mimic of a monocyclized transition state or high-energy intermediate formed from oxidosqualene. This compound and 27 related compounds were tested against mammalian-stage T. cruzi, and 12 inhibited growth by 50% at concentrations below 25 nM. The lead compound was shown to cause an accumulation of oxidosqualene and decreased production of lanosterol and ergosterol, consistent with specific inhibition of the oxidosqualene cyclase. The data demonstrate potent anti-T. cruzi activity associated with inhibition of oxidosqualene cyclase. PMID:11257036

  11. Discovery of a Selective Inhibitor of Oncogenic B-Raf Kinase With Potent Antimelanoma Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, J.; Lee, J.T.; Wang, W.; Zhang, J.; Cho, H.; Mamo, S.; Bremer, R.; Gillette, S.; Kong, J.; Haass, N.K.; Sproesser, K.; Li, L.; Smalley, K.S.M.; Fong, D.; Zhu, Y.-L.; Marimuthu, A.; Nguyen, H.; Lam, B.; Liu, J.; Cheung, I.; Rice, J.

    2009-05-26

    BRAF{sup V600E} is the most frequent oncogenic protein kinase mutation known. Furthermore, inhibitors targeting 'active' protein kinases have demonstrated significant utility in the therapeutic repertoire against cancer. Therefore, we pursued the development of specific kinase inhibitors targeting B-Raf, and the V600E allele in particular. By using a structure-guided discovery approach, a potent and selective inhibitor of active B-Raf has been discovered. PLX4720, a 7-azaindole derivative that inhibits B-Raf{sup V600E} with an IC{sub 50} of 13 nM, defines a class of kinase inhibitor with marked selectivity in both biochemical and cellular assays. PLX4720 preferentially inhibits the active B-Raf{sup V600E} kinase compared with a broad spectrum of other kinases, and potent cytotoxic effects are also exclusive to cells bearing the V600E allele. Consistent with the high degree of selectivity, ERK phosphorylation is potently inhibited by PLX4720 in B-Raf{sup V600E}-bearing tumor cell lines but not in cells lacking oncogenic B-Raf. In melanoma models, PLX4720 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis exclusively in B-Raf{sup V600E}-positive cells. In B-Raf{sup V600E}-dependent tumor xenograft models, orally dosed PLX4720 causes significant tumor growth delays, including tumor regressions, without evidence of toxicity. The work described here represents the entire discovery process, from initial identification through structural and biological studies in animal models to a promising therapeutic for testing in cancer patients bearing B-Raf{sup V600E}-driven tumors.

  12. Structure-antitussive activity relationships of naltrindole derivatives. Identification of novel and potent antitussive agents.

    PubMed

    Sakami, Satoshi; Maeda, Masayuki; Kawai, Koji; Aoki, Takumi; Kawamura, Kuniaki; Fujii, Hideaki; Hasebe, Ko; Nakajima, Mayumi; Endo, Takashi; Ueno, Shinya; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Kamei, Junzo; Nagase, Hiroshi

    2008-08-14

    We have previously reported antitussive effects of naltrindole (NTI), a typical delta opioid receptor antagonist, in a rat model. The ED50 values of NTI by intraperitoneal and peroral injections were 104 microg/kg and 1840 microg/kg, respectively, comparable to those of codeine. Codeine, one of the most reliable centrally acting antitussive drugs, has micro agonist activity and thus the same side effects as morphine, e.g., constipation, dependency, and respiratory depression. Because NTI is a delta opioid antagonist, its derivatives have potential as highly potent antitussives, free from the mu opioid agonist side effects. We attempted to optimize the NTI derivatives to develop novel antitussive agents. On the basis of the studies of structure-antitussive activity relationships of alkyl substituted NTI derivatives, we designed NTI derivatives with extra ring fused structures. As a clinical candidate, we identified a highly potent new compound, (5R,9R,13S,14S)-17-cyclopropylmethyl-6,7-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-5',6'-dihydro-3-methoxy-4'H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinolino[2',1':6,7]morphinan-14-ol (5b) methanesulfonate (TRK-850) which was effective even by oral administration (ED50 6.40 microg/kg).

  13. Potent, Highly Selective, and Orally Bioavailable Gem-Difluorinated Monocationic Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Fengtian; Li, Huiying; Delker, Silvia L.; Fang, Jianguo; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    In our efforts to discover neuronal isoform selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors we have developed a series of compounds containing a pyrrolidine ring with two stereogenic centers. The enantiomerically pure compounds, (S,S) vs. (R,R), exhibited two different binding orientations, with (R,R) inhibitors showing much better potency and selectivity. To improve the bioavailability of these inhibitors we have introduced a CF2 moiety geminal to an amino group in the long tail of one of these inhibitors, which reduced its basicity, resulting in compounds with monocationic character under physiological pH conditions. Biological evaluations have led to a nNOS inhibitor with a Ki of 36 nM and high selectivity for nNOS over eNOS (3800-fold) and iNOS (1400-fold). MM-PBSA calculations indicated that the low pKa NH is, at least, partially protonated when bound to the active site. A comparison of rat oral bioavailability of the difluorinated compound to the parent molecule shows 22% for the difluorinated compound versus essentially no oral bioavailability for the parent compound. This indicates that the goal of this research to make compounds with only one protonated nitrogen atom at physiological pH to allow for membrane permeability, but which can become protonated when bound to NOS, has been accomplished. PMID:20843082

  14. Synthetic galactomannans with potent anti-HIV activity.

    PubMed

    Budragchaa, Davaanyam; Bai, Shiming; Kanamoto, Taisei; Nakashima, Hideki; Han, Shuqin; Yoshida, Takashi

    2015-10-05

    Ring-opening polymerization of a new 1,6-anhydro disaccharide monomer, 1, 6-anhydro-2, 3-di-O-benzyl-4-O-(2', 3', 4', 6'-tetra-O-benzyl-α-d-galactopyranosyl)-α-d-mannopyranose, was carried out using PF5 as a catalyst under high vacuum at -60°C to give galactose branched mannopyranan (synthetic galactomannan), 4-O-α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-d-mannopyranan, after debenzylation with Na in liquid NH3. The ring-opening copolymerization with 1, 6-anhydro-tri-O-benzyl-α-d-mannopyranose in various feeds was also performed to give synthetic galactomannans with various proportions of galactose branches. After sulfation, sulfated synthetic galactomannans were found to have anti-HIV activity and cytotoxicity as high and low as those of standard curdlan and dextran sulfates, respectively, which are potent anti-HIV sulfated polysaccharides with low cytotoxicity. The anti-HIV mechanism of sulfated synthetic galactomannans used by poly-l-lysine as a model peptide of the HIV surface protein was estimated by using SPR, DSL, and zeta potential measurements, revealing the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged sulfate groups and positively charged amino groups.

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    July 2011 - 30 June 2012 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity 5a...Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 1 Body………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 Key Research Accomplishments………………………………………….…….. 4 ...Reportable Outcomes……………………………………………………………… 4 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………… 8 References……………………………………………………………………………. 9

  16. Discovery of PF-04457845: A Highly Potent, Orally Bioavailable, and Selective Urea FAAH Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Douglas S; Stiff, Cory; Lazerwith, Scott E; Kesten, Suzanne R; Fay, Lorraine K; Morris, Mark; Beidler, David; Liimatta, Marya B; Smith, Sarah E; Dudley, David T; Sadagopan, Nalini; Bhattachar, Shobha N; Kesten, Stephen J; Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon K; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Ahn, Kay

    2011-02-10

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an integral membrane serine hydrolase that degrades the fatty acid amide family of signaling lipids, including the endocannabinoid anandamide. Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of FAAH leads to analgesic and anti-inflammatory phenotypes in rodents without showing the undesirable side effects observed with direct cannabinoid receptor agonists, indicating that FAAH may represent an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory pain and other nervous system disorders. Herein, we report the discovery and characterization of a highly efficacious and selective FAAH inhibitor PF-04457845 (23). Compound 23 inhibits FAAH by a covalent, irreversible mechanism involving carbamylation of the active-site serine nucleophile of FAAH with high in vitro potency (k(inact)/K(i) and IC(50) values of 40300 M(-1) s(-1) and 7.2 nM, respectively, for human FAAH). Compound 23 has exquisite selectivity for FAAH relative to other members of the serine hydrolase superfamily as demonstrated by competitive activity-based protein profiling. Oral administration of 23 at 0.1 mg/kg results in efficacy comparable to that of naproxen at 10 mg/kg in a rat model of inflammatory pain. Compound 23 is being evaluated in human clinical trials.

  17. SD0006: A Potent, Selective and Orally Available Inhibitor of p38 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Burnette, Barry L.; Selness, Shaun; Devraj, Raj; Jungbluth, Gail; Kurumbail, Ravi; Stillwell, Loreen; Anderson, Gary; Mnich, Stephen; Hirsch, Jeffrey; Compton, Robert; De Ciechi, Pamela; Hope, Heidi; Hepperle, Michael; Keith, Robert H.; Naing, Win; Shieh, Huey; Portanova, Joseph; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Leimgruber, Richard M.; Monahan, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    SD0006 is a diarylpyrazole that was prepared as an inhibitor of p38 kinase-α (p38α). In vitro, SD0006 was selective for p38α kinase over 50 other kinases screened (including p38γ and p38δ with modest selectivity over p38β). Crystal structures with p38α show binding at the ATP site with additional residue interactions outside the ATP pocket unique to p38α that can confer advantages over other ATP competitive inhibitors. Direct correlation between inhibition of p38α activity and that of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated TNFα release was established in cellular models and in vivo, including a phase 1 clinical trial. Potency (IC50) for inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) release, in vitro and in vivo, was <200 nmol/l. In vivo, SD0006 was effective in the rat streptococcal-cell-wall-induced arthritis model, with dramatic protective effects on paw joint integrity and bone density as shown by radiographic analysis. In the murine collagen-induced arthritis model, equivalence was demonstrated to anti-TNFα treatment. SD0006 also demonstrated good oral anti-inflammatory efficacy with excellent cross-species correlation between the rat, cynomolgus monkey, and human. SD0006 suppressed expression of multiple proinflammatory proteins at both the transcriptional and translational levels. These properties suggest SD0006 could provide broader therapeutic efficacy than cytokine-targeted monotherapeutics. PMID:19590255

  18. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres: a potent oral delivery system to elicit systemic immune response against inactivated rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Ramya, R; Verma, P C; Chaturvedi, V K; Gupta, P K; Pandey, K D; Madhanmohan, M; Kannaki, T R; Sridevi, R; Anukumar, B

    2009-03-26

    Rabies is an endemic, fatal zoonotic disease in the developing countries. Oral vaccination strategies are suitable for rabies control in developing countries. Studies were performed to investigate the suitability of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microspheres as an oral delivery system for beta-propiolactone inactivated concentrated rabies virus (CRV). Immune responses induced by encapsulated (PLG+CRV) and un-encapsulated inactivated rabies virus after oral and intraperitoneal route administrations were compared. The anti-rabies virus IgG antibody titer, virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) titers obtained by mouse neutralization test (MNT) and IgG2a and IgG1 titers of mice group immunized orally with PLG+CRV showed significantly (p<0.001) higher response than the group immunized orally with un-encapsulated CRV. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between groups inoculated by intraperitoneal route. The stimulation index (SI) obtained by lymphoproliferation assay of PLG+CRV oral group also showed significantly (p<0.001) higher response than the group immunized orally with un-encapsulated CRV, suggesting that oral immunization activates Th1-mediated cellular immunity. Immunized mice of all experimental groups were challenged intracerebrally with a lethal dose of virulent rabies virus Challenge Virus Standard (CVS). The survival rates of mice immunized orally with PLG+CRV and CRV alone were 75% and 50%, respectively, whereas intraperitoneally immunized groups showed 100% protection. The overall results of humoral, cellular immune response and survival rates of mice immunized orally with PLG+CRV were significantly (p<0.001) higher than those of mice immunized orally with CRV alone. These data suggest that the PLG encapsulated inactivated rabies virus can be used for oral immunization against rabies.

  19. Cell Active Hydroxylactam Inhibitors of Human Lactate Dehydrogenase with Oral Bioavailability in Mice.

    PubMed

    Purkey, Hans E; Robarge, Kirk; Chen, Jinhua; Chen, Zhongguo; Corson, Laura B; Ding, Charles Z; DiPasquale, Antonio G; Dragovich, Peter S; Eigenbrot, Charles; Evangelista, Marie; Fauber, Benjamin P; Gao, Zhenting; Ge, Hongxiu; Hitz, Anna; Ho, Qunh; Labadie, Sharada S; Lai, Kwong Wah; Liu, Wenfeng; Liu, Yajing; Li, Chiho; Ma, Shuguang; Malek, Shiva; O'Brien, Thomas; Pang, Jodie; Peterson, David; Salphati, Laurent; Sideris, Steve; Ultsch, Mark; Wei, BinQing; Yen, Ivana; Yue, Qin; Zhang, Huihui; Zhou, Aihe

    2016-10-13

    A series of trisubstituted hydroxylactams was identified as potent enzymatic and cellular inhibitors of human lactate dehydrogenase A. Utilizing structure-based design and physical property optimization, multiple inhibitors were discovered with <10 μM lactate IC50 in a MiaPaca2 cell line. Optimization of the series led to 29, a potent cell active molecule (MiaPaca2 IC50 = 0.67 μM) that also possessed good exposure when dosed orally to mice.

  20. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    or 9), although these compounds still showed anti-DHT effects (lanes 2 vs. 6, 8, or 10). Figure 4 . The effects of DHEA derivatives on PSA...2009 - 30 JUN 2010 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER with Marginal Agonist...words) We hypothesized that dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA ) metabolites or their synthetic derivatives are able to bind to the androgen receptor with

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of novel 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carboxamide derivatives as potent and orally efficacious immunomodulators targeting JAK3.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yutaka; Inoue, Takayuki; Nakai, Kazuo; Mukoyoshi, Koichiro; Hamaguchi, Hisao; Hatanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akira; Takahashi, Fumie; Kunikawa, Shigeki; Usuda, Hiroyuki; Moritomo, Ayako; Higashi, Yasuyuki; Inami, Masamichi; Shirakami, Shohei

    2015-08-01

    Janus kinases (JAKs) regulate various inflammatory and immune responses and are targets for the treatment of inflammatory and immune diseases. As a novel class of immunomodulators targeting JAK3, 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carboxamide derivatives are promising candidates for treating such diseases. In chemical modification of lead compound 2, the substitution of a cycloalkyl ring for an N-cyanopyridylpiperidine in C4-position was effective for increasing JAK3 inhibitory activity. In addition, modulation of physical properties such as molecular lipophilicity and basicity was important for reducing human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) inhibitory activity. Our optimization study gave compound 31, which exhibited potent JAK3 inhibitory activity as well as weak hERG inhibitory activity. In cellular assay, 31 exhibited potent immunomodulating effect on IL-2-stimulated T cell proliferation. In a pharmacokinetic study, good metabolic stability and oral bioavailability of 31 were achieved in rats, dogs, and monkeys. Further, 31 prolonged graft survival in an in vivo rat heterotopic cardiac transplant model.

  2. Discovery and SAR of PF-4693627, a potent, selective and orally bioavailable mPGES-1 inhibitor for the potential treatment of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Arhancet, Graciela B; Walker, Daniel P; Metz, Sue; Fobian, Yvette M; Heasley, Steven E; Carter, Jeffrey S; Springer, John R; Jones, Darin E; Hayes, Michael J; Shaffer, Alexander F; Jerome, Gina M; Baratta, Michael T; Zweifel, Ben; Moore, William M; Masferrer, Jaime L; Vazquez, Michael L

    2013-02-15

    Inhibition of mPGES-1, the terminal enzyme in the arachidonic acid/COX pathway to regulate the production of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin PGE2, is considered an attractive new therapeutic target for safe and effective anti-inflammatory drugs. The discovery of a novel series of orally active, selective benzoxazole piperidinecarboxamides as mPGES-1 inhibitors is described. Structure-activity optimization of lead 5 with cyclohexyl carbinols resulted in compound 12, which showed excellent in vitro potency and selectivity against COX-2, and reasonable pharmacokinetic properties. Further SAR studies of the benzoxazole ring substituents lead to a novel series of highly potent compounds with improved PK profile, including 23, 26, and 29, which were effective in a carrageenan-stimulated guinea pig air pouch model of inflammation. Based on its excellent in vitro and in vivo pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and safety profile and ease of synthesis, compound 26 (PF-4693627) was advanced to clinical studies.

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    DATES COVERED 01 July 2012 – 30 June 2013 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist...Page Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 1 Body………………………………………………………………………………….. 1- 4 Key Research...In addition, we previously found that androstenediol (Adiol), a physiological metabolite from dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA ) and a precursor of

  4. Classroom Activities: Oral Proficiency in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Sidney; Michaelis, Joyce

    It is important to introduce and facilitate oral activities in the second language classroom with enthusiasm in a climate of mutual support and cooperation. Students should understand that mistakes are inevitable but not fatal, and that each attempt will build greater ease and confidence in using the language for communication. Oral proficiency…

  5. Oral delivery of a potent anti-angiogenic heparin conjugate by chemical conjugation and physical complexation using deoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Alam, Farzana; Al-Hilal, Taslim A; Chung, Seung Woo; Seo, Donghyun; Mahmud, Foyez; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Sang Yoon; Byun, Youngro

    2014-08-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, plays a pivotal role in tumor progression and for this reason angiogenesis inhibitors are an important class of therapeutics for cancer treatment. Heparin-based angiogenesis inhibitors have been newly developed as one of such classes of therapeutics and possess a great promise in the clinical context. Taurocholate conjugated low molecular weight heparin derivative (LHT7) has been proven to be a potent, multi-targeting angiogenesis inhibitor against broad-spectrum angiogenic tumors. However, major limitations of LHT7 are its poor oral bioavailability, short half-life, and frequent parenteral dosing schedule. Addressing these issues, we have developed an oral formulation of LHT7 by chemically conjugating LHT7 with a tetrameric deoxycholic acid named LHTD4, and then physically complexing it with deoxycholylethylamine (DCK). The resulting LHTD4/DCK complex showed significantly enhanced oral bioavailability (34.3 ± 2.89%) and prolonged the mean residence time (7.5 ± 0.5 h). The LHTD4/DCK complex was mostly absorbed in the intestine by transcellular pathway via its interaction with apical sodium bile acid transporter. In vitro, the VEGF-induced sprouting of endothelial spheroids was significantly blocked by LHTD4. LHTD4/DCK complex significantly regressed the total vessel fractions of tumor (77.2 ± 3.9%), as analyzed by X-ray microCT angiography, thereby inhibiting tumor growth in vivo. Using the oral route of administration, we showed that LHTD4/DCK complex could be effective and chronically administered as angiogenesis inhibitor.

  6. Antimicrobial Peptides Containing Unnatural Amino Acid Exhibit Potent Bactericidal Activity against ESKAPE Pathogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides containing unnatural amino acid exhibit potent bactericidal activity against ESKAPE pathogens R. P. Hicks a, J. J. Abercrombie...tic classes, membrane-disruptors and non -membrane-disrup- tors.30,31 Five different mechanisms have been proposed at one time or another to explain...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Antimicrobial Peptides Containing Unnatural Amino Acid Exhibit Potent Bactericidal Activity Against

  7. Discovery of Aryl Aminoquinazoline Pyridones as Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious Inhibitors of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase c-Kit

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Essa; Tasker, Andrew; White, Ryan D.; Kunz, Roxanne K.; Human, Jason; Chen, Ning; Bürli, Roland; Hungate, Randall; Novak, Perry; Itano, Andrea; Zhang, Xuxia; Yu, Violeta; Nguyen, Yen; Tudor, Yanyan; Plant, Matthew; Flynn, Shaun; Xu, Yang; Meagher, Kristin L.; Whittington, Douglas A.; Ng, Gordon Y.

    2008-12-09

    Inhibition of c-Kit has the potential to treat mast cell associated fibrotic diseases. We report the discovery of several aminoquinazoline pyridones that are potent inhibitors of c-Kit with greater than 200-fold selectivity against KDR, p38, Lck, and Src. In vivo efficacy of pyridone 16 by dose-dependent inhibition of histamine release was demonstrated in a rodent pharmacodynamic model of mast cell activation.

  8. Halogenated pyrrolopyrimidine analogues of adenosine from marine organisms: pharmacological activities and potent inhibition of adenosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Davies, L P; Jamieson, D D; Baird-Lambert, J A; Kazlauskas, R

    1984-02-01

    Two novel halogenated pyrrolopyrimidine analogues of adenosine, isolated from marine sources, have been examined for pharmacological and biochemical activities. 4-Amino-5-bromo-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine, from a sponge of the genus Echinodictyum, had bronchodilator activity at least as potent as theophylline but with a different biochemical profile; unlike theophylline it had no antagonist activity at CNS adenosine receptors and it was quite a potent inhibitor of adenosine uptake and adenosine kinase in brain tissue. 5'-Deoxy-5-iodotubercidin, isolated from the red alga Hypnea valentiae, caused potent muscle relaxation and hypothermia when injected into mice. This compound was a very potent inhibitor of adenosine uptake into rat and guinea-pig brain slices and an extremely potent inhibitor of adenosine kinase from guinea-pig brain and rat brain and liver. Neither of these two pyrrolopyrimidine analogues was a substrate for, or an inhibitor of, adenosine deaminase. Neither compound appeared to have any direct agonist activity on guinea-pig brain adenosine-stimulated adenylate cyclase (A2 adenosine receptors). 5'-Deoxy-5-iodotubercidin is unique in two respects: it appears to be the first naturally-occurring example of a 5'-deoxyribosyl nucleoside and is the first example of a specifically iodinated nucleoside from natural sources. It may be the most potent adenosine kinase inhibitor yet described and, by virtue of its structure, may prove to be the most specific.

  9. Peracetic Acid Treatment Generates Potent Inactivated Oral Vaccines from a Broad Range of Culturable Bacterial Species

    PubMed Central

    Moor, Kathrin; Wotzka, Sandra Y.; Toska, Albulena; Diard, Médéric; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Slack, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Our mucosal surfaces are the main sites of non-vector-borne pathogen entry, as well as the main interface with our commensal microbiota. We are still only beginning to understand how mucosal adaptive immunity interacts with commensal and pathogenic microbes to influence factors such as infectivity, phenotypic diversity, and within-host evolution. This is in part due to difficulties in generating specific mucosal adaptive immune responses without disrupting the mucosal microbial ecosystem itself. Here, we present a very simple tool to generate inactivated mucosal vaccines from a broad range of culturable bacteria. Oral gavage of 1010 peracetic acid-inactivated bacteria induces high-titer-specific intestinal IgA in the absence of any measurable inflammation or species invasion. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that this technique is sufficient to provide fully protective immunity in the murine model of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonellosis, even in the face of severe innate immune deficiency. PMID:26904024

  10. Design and optimization of (3-aryl-1H-indazol-6-yl)spiro[cyclopropane-1,3'-indolin]-2'-ones as potent PLK4 inhibitors with oral antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Li, Sze-Wan; Liu, Yong; Sampson, Peter B; Patel, Narendra Kumar; Forrest, Bryan T; Edwards, Louise; Laufer, Radoslaw; Feher, Miklos; Ban, Fuqiang; Awrey, Donald E; Hodgson, Richard; Beletskaya, Irina; Mao, Guodong; Mason, Jacqueline M; Wei, Xin; Luo, Xunyi; Kiarash, Reza; Green, Erin; Mak, Tak W; Pan, Guohua; Pauls, Henry W

    2016-10-01

    Previous efforts from our laboratory demonstrated that (E)-3-((3-(E)-vinylaryl)-1H-indazol-6-yl)methylene)-indolin-2-ones are potent PLK4 inhibitors with in vivo anticancer efficacy upon IP dosing. As part of a continued effort to develop selective and orally efficacious inhibitors, we examined variations on this theme wherein 'directly-linked' aromatics, pendant from the indazole core, replace the arylvinyl moiety. Herein, we describe the design and optimization of this series which was ultimately superseded by (3-aryl-1H-indazol-6-yl)spiro[cyclopropane-1,3'-indolin]-2'-ones. The latter compounds are potent and selective inhibitors of PLK4 with oral exposure in rodents and in vivo anticancer activity. Compound 13b, in particular, has a bioavailability of 22% and achieved a 96% tumor growth inhibition in an MDA-MB-468 xenograft study.

  11. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  12. Design, synthesis and potent cytotoxic activity of novel podophyllotoxin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qun; Wang, Xu-Li; Qian, Keduo; Liu, Ying-Qian; Wang, Chih-Ya; Yang, Liu; Tian, Jin; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Zhou, Xing-Wen; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2013-04-15

    Twenty new acyl thiourea derivatives of podophyllotoxin and 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin were prepared and screened for their cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines, A-549, DU-145, KB, and KBvin. With IC50 values of 0.098-1.13 μM, compounds 13b, 13c, and 13o displayed much better cytotoxic activity than the control etoposide. Most importantly, 13b and 13o exhibited promising cytotoxicity against the drug resistant tumor cell line KBvin with IC50 values of 0.098 and 0.13 μM, respectively, while etoposide lost activity completely. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations of the new derivatives have been established. Compounds 13b and 13o merit further development as a new generation of epipodophyllotoxin-derived antitumor clinical trial candidates.

  13. Allosteric inhibitors of hepatitis C polymerase: discovery of potent and orally bioavailable carbon-linked dihydropyrones.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Linton, Angelica; Tatlock, John; Gonzalez, Javier; Borchardt, Allen; Abreo, Mel; Jewell, Tanya; Patel, Leena; Drowns, Matthew; Ludlum, Sarah; Goble, Mike; Yang, Michele; Blazel, Julie; Rahavendran, Ravi; Skor, Heather; Shi, Stephanie; Lewis, Cristina; Fuhrman, Shella

    2007-08-23

    The discovery and optimization of a novel class of carbon-linked dihydropyrones as allosteric HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitors are presented. Replacement of the sulfur linker atom with carbon reduced compound acidity and greatly increased cell permeation. Further structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies led to the identification of compounds, exemplified by 23 and 24, with significantly improved antiviral activities in the cell-based replicon assay and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles.

  14. Characterization of the biological activity of a potent small molecule Hec1 inhibitor TAI-1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hec1 (NDC80) is an integral part of the kinetochore and is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, making it an attractive molecular target for the design of novel anticancer therapeutics. A highly potent first-in-class compound targeting Hec1, TAI-1, was identified and is characterized in this study to determine its potential as an anticancer agent for clinical utility. Methods The in vitro potency, cancer cell specificity, synergy activity, and markers for response of TAI-1 were evaluated with cell lines. Mechanism of action was confirmed with western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. The in vivo potency of TAI-1 was evaluated in three xenograft models in mice. Preliminary toxicity was evaluated in mice. Specificity to the target was tested with a kinase panel. Cardiac safety was evaluated with hERG assay. Clinical correlation was performed with human gene database. Results TAI-1 showed strong potency across a broad spectrum of tumor cells. TAI-1 disrupted Hec1-Nek2 protein interaction, led to Nek2 degradation, induced significant chromosomal misalignment in metaphase, and induced apoptotic cell death. TAI-1 was effective orally in in vivo animal models of triple negative breast cancer, colon cancer and liver cancer. Preliminary toxicity shows no effect on the body weights, organ weights, and blood indices at efficacious doses. TAI-1 shows high specificity to cancer cells and to target and had no effect on the cardiac channel hERG. TAI-1 is synergistic with doxorubicin, topotecan and paclitaxel in leukemia, breast and liver cancer cells. Sensitivity to TAI-1 was associated with the status of RB and P53 gene. Knockdown of RB and P53 in cancer cells increased sensitivity to TAI-1. Hec1-overexpressing molecular subtypes of human lung cancer were identified. Conclusions The excellent potency, safety and synergistic profiles of this potent first-in-class Hec1-targeted small molecule TAI-1 show its potential for clinically utility in anti

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens With Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    of the molecules, which was only marginally suppressed by the steroid derivatives. Figure 4 . The effects of DHEA derivatives on expression of...DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...physiological metabolite from dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA ) and a precursor of testosterone, has an intrinsic androgenic activity which was not

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    figure not shown). Figure 4. The effects of DHEA derivatives on the expression of PSA (A), AR ( B ), bFGF (C), VEGF (D), IL-6 (E), and MMP-9 ( F ...induced bladder carcinogenesis. Mol Carcinogen 52(2): 94-102, 2013. PMID: 22086872 10. Li Y, Zheng Y, Izumi K, Ishiguro H, Ye B , Li F , Miyamoto H...Ishiguro H, Ye B , Li F , Miyamoto H: Androgen activates β-catenin signaling in bladder cancer cells. Endocr-Relat Cancer 20(3): 293-304, 2013. 11. Izumi K

  17. Potent Antimalarial Activity of Acriflavine In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Malaria continues to be a major health problem globally. There is an urgent need to find new antimalarials. Acriflavine (ACF) is known as an antibacterial agent and more recently as an anticancer agent. Here, we report that ACF inhibits the growth of asexual stages of both chloroquine (CQ) sensitive and resistant strains of human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum in vitro at nanomolar concentration. ACF clears the malaria infection in vivo from the bloodstreams of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Interestingly, ACF is accumulated only in the parasitized red blood cells (RBCs) and parasite specific transporters may have role in this specific drug accumulation. We further show that ACF impairs DNA replication foci formation in the parasites and affects the enzymatic activities of apicoplast specific Gyrase protein. We thus establish ACF as a potential antimalarial amidst the widespread incidences of drug resistant Plasmodium strains. PMID:25089658

  18. Potent cough suppression by physiologically active substance in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Akaike, Norio; Ito, Yushi; Ogawa, Sachie K; Maeda, Megumi; Wakita, Masahito; Takahama, Kazuo; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Kamei, Shintaro; Hamamoto, Takayoshi; Umehashi, Misako; Maeda, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma contains wide variety of bioactive proteins that have proved essential in therapeutic discovery. However many human plasma proteins remain orphans with unknown biological functions. Evidences suggest that some plasma components target the respiratory system. In the present study we adapted heparin affinity chromatography to fractionate human plasma for functional bioassay. Fractions from pooled human plasma yielded particular plasma fractions with strong cough suppressing effects. Purification yielded a fraction that was finally identified as an activated blood coagulation factor fXIa using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS). The fraction almost completely suppressed coughs induced by either chemical or mechanical stimulation applied to larynx or bifurcation of guinea-pig trachea. Cough suppressing effect of the fraction and commercially available fXIa were one million times stronger than codeine and codeine only partially suppressed the mechanically triggered coughing in animal model. Recent reviews highlighted prominent shortcomings of current available antitussives, including narcotic opioids such as codeine and their unpleasant or intolerable side effects. Therefore, safer and more effective cough suppressants would be welcome, and present findings indicate that fXIa in human plasma as a very promising, new therapeutic candidate for effective antitussive action.

  19. Potent in vivo anti-malarial activity and representative snapshot pharmacokinetic evaluation of artemisinin-quinoline hybrids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Because Plasmodium falciparum displays increase tolerance against the recommended artemisinin combination therapies (ACT), new classes of anti-malarial drugs are urgently required. Previously synthesized artemisinin-aminoquinoline hybrids were evaluated to ascertain whether the potent low nanomolar in vitro anti-plasmodial activity would carry over in vivo against Plasmodium vinckei. A snapshot pharmacokinetic analysis was carried out on one of the hybrids to obtain an indication of the pharmacokinetic properties of this class of anti-malarial drugs. Methods In vitro activity of hybrids 2 and 3 were determined against the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum. Plasmodium vinckei-infected mice were treated with hybrids 1 – 3 for four days at a dosage of 0.8 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip), or orally (per os) with 2.7 mg/kg, 8.3 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg. Artesunate was used as reference drug. A snapshot oral and IV pharmacokinetic study was performed on hybrid 2. Results Hybrids 1 – 3 displayed potent in vivo anti-malarial activity with ED50 of 1.1, 1.4 and <0.8 mg/kg by the ip route and 12, 16 and 13 mg/kg per os, respectively. Long-term monitoring of parasitaemia showed a complete cure of mice (without recrudescence) at 15 mg/kg via ip route and at 50 mg/kg by oral route for hybrid 1 and 2, whereas artesunate was only able to provide a complete cure at 30 mg/kg ip and 80 mg/kg per os. Conclusions These compounds provide a new class of desperately needed anti-malarial drug. Despite a short half-life and moderate oral bioavailability, this class of compounds was able to cure malaria in mice at very low dosages. The optimum linker length for anti-malarial activity was found to be a diaminoalkyl chain consisting of two carbon atoms either methylated or unmethylated. PMID:23433124

  20. Retroviral nucleocapsid proteins possess potent nucleic acid strand renaturation activity.

    PubMed Central

    Dib-Hajj, F.; Khan, R.; Giedroc, D. P.

    1993-01-01

    The nucleocapsid protein (NC) is the major genomic RNA binding protein that plays integral roles in the structure and replication of all animal retroviruses. In this report, select biochemical properties of recombinant Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) and HIV-1 NCs are compared. Evidence is presented that two types of saturated Zn2 NC-polynucleotide complexes can be formed under conditions of low [NaCl] that differ in apparent site-size (n = 8 vs. n = 14). The formation of one or the other complex appears dependent on the molar ratio of NC to RNA nucleotide with the putative low site-size mode apparently predominating under conditions of protein excess. Both MPMV and HIV-1 NCs kinetically facilitate the renaturation of two complementary DNA strands, suggesting that this is a general property of retroviral NCs. NC proteins increase the second-order rate constant for renaturation of a 149-bp DNA fragment by more than four orders of magnitude over that obtained in the absence of protein at 37 degrees C. The protein-assisted rate is 100-200-fold faster than that obtained at 68 degrees C, 1 M NaCl, solution conditions considered to be optimal for strand renaturation. Provided that sufficient NC is present to coat all strands, the presence of 400-1,000-fold excess nonhomologous DNA does not greatly affect the reaction rate. The HIV-1 NC-mediated renaturation reaction functions stoichiometrically, requiring a saturated strand of DNA nucleotide:NC ratio of about 7-8, rather than 14. Under conditions of less protein, the rate acceleration is not realized. The finding of significant nucleic acid strand renaturation activity may have important implications for various events of reverse transcription particularly in initiation and cDNA strand transfer. PMID:8443601

  1. Cerecidins, Novel Lantibiotics from Bacillus cereus with Potent Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Li; Teng, Kunling; Sun, Shutao; Sun, Zhizeng

    2014-01-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified antimicrobial peptides that are widely produced by Gram-positive bacteria, including many species of the Bacillus group. In the present study, one novel gene cluster coding lantibiotic cerecidins was unveiled in Bacillus cereus strain As 1.1846 through genomic mining and PCR screening. The designated cer locus is different from that of conventional class II lantibiotics in that it included seven tandem precursor cerA genes, one modification gene (cerM), two processing genes (cerT and cerP), one orphan regulator gene (cerR), and two immunity genes (cerF and cerE). In addition, one unprecedented quorum sensing component, comQXPA, was inserted between cerM and cerR. The expression of cerecidins was not detected in this strain of B. cereus, which might be due to repressed transcription of cerM. We constitutively coexpressed cerA genes and cerM in Escherichia coli, and purified precerecidins were proteolytically processed with the endoproteinase GluC and a truncated version of putative serine protease CerP. Thus, two natural variants of cerecidins A1 and A7 were obtained which contained two terminal nonoverlapping thioether rings rarely found in lantibiotics. Both cerecidins A1 and A7 were active against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria. Cerecidin A7, especially its mutant Dhb13A, showed remarkable efficacy against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), and even Streptomyces. PMID:24532070

  2. Preclinical profile of VX-950, a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of hepatitis C virus NS3-4A serine protease.

    PubMed

    Perni, Robert B; Almquist, Susan J; Byrn, Randal A; Chandorkar, Gurudatt; Chaturvedi, Pravin R; Courtney, Lawrence F; Decker, Caroline J; Dinehart, Kirk; Gates, Cynthia A; Harbeson, Scott L; Heiser, Angela; Kalkeri, Gururaj; Kolaczkowski, Elaine; Lin, Kai; Luong, Yu-Ping; Rao, B Govinda; Taylor, William P; Thomson, John A; Tung, Roger D; Wei, Yunyi; Kwong, Ann D; Lin, Chao

    2006-03-01

    VX-950 is a potent, selective, peptidomimetic inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-4A serine protease, and it demonstrated excellent antiviral activity both in genotype 1b HCV replicon cells (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 354 nM) and in human fetal hepatocytes infected with genotype 1a HCV-positive patient sera (IC50 = 280 nM). VX-950 forms a covalent but reversible complex with the genotype 1a HCV NS3-4A protease in a slow-on, slow-off process with a steady-state inhibition constant (K(i)*) of 7 nM. Dissociation of the covalent enzyme-inhibitor complex of VX-950 and genotype 1a HCV protease has a half-life of almost an hour. A >4-log10 reduction in the HCV RNA levels was observed after a 2-week incubation of replicon cells with VX-950, with no rebound of viral RNA observed after withdrawal of the inhibitor. In several animal species, VX-950 exhibits a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with high exposure in the liver. In a recently developed HCV protease mouse model, VX-950 showed excellent inhibition of HCV NS3-4A protease activity in the liver. Therefore, the overall preclinical profile of VX-950 supports its candidacy as a novel oral therapy against hepatitis C.

  3. Preclinical Profile of VX-950, a Potent, Selective, and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus NS3-4A Serine Protease

    PubMed Central

    Perni, Robert B.; Almquist, Susan J.; Byrn, Randal A.; Chandorkar, Gurudatt; Chaturvedi, Pravin R.; Courtney, Lawrence F.; Decker, Caroline J.; Dinehart, Kirk; Gates, Cynthia A.; Harbeson, Scott L.; Heiser, Angela; Kalkeri, Gururaj; Kolaczkowski, Elaine; Lin, Kai; Luong, Yu-Ping; Rao, B. Govinda; Taylor, William P.; Thomson, John A.; Tung, Roger D.; Wei, Yunyi; Kwong, Ann D.; Lin, Chao

    2006-01-01

    VX-950 is a potent, selective, peptidomimetic inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-4A serine protease, and it demonstrated excellent antiviral activity both in genotype 1b HCV replicon cells (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 354 nM) and in human fetal hepatocytes infected with genotype 1a HCV-positive patient sera (IC50 = 280 nM). VX-950 forms a covalent but reversible complex with the genotype 1a HCV NS3-4A protease in a slow-on, slow-off process with a steady-state inhibition constant (Ki*) of 7 nM. Dissociation of the covalent enzyme-inhibitor complex of VX-950 and genotype 1a HCV protease has a half-life of almost an hour. A >4-log10 reduction in the HCV RNA levels was observed after a 2-week incubation of replicon cells with VX-950, with no rebound of viral RNA observed after withdrawal of the inhibitor. In several animal species, VX-950 exhibits a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with high exposure in the liver. In a recently developed HCV protease mouse model, VX-950 showed excellent inhibition of HCV NS3-4A protease activity in the liver. Therefore, the overall preclinical profile of VX-950 supports its candidacy as a novel oral therapy against hepatitis C. PMID:16495249

  4. Activity of antimicrobial peptide mimetics in the oral cavity: I. Activity against biofilms of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hua, J; Yamarthy, R; Felsenstein, S; Scott, R W; Markowitz, K; Diamond, G

    2010-12-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides hold promise as therapeutic agents against oral pathogens such as Candida albicans but numerous difficulties have slowed their development. Synthetic, non-peptidic analogs that mimic the properties of these peptides have many advantages and exhibit potent, selective antimicrobial activity. Several series of mimetics (with molecular weight < 1000) were developed and screened against oral Candida strains as a proof-of-principle for their antifungal properties. One phenylalkyne and several arylamide compounds with reduced mammalian cytotoxicities were found to be active against C. albicans. These compounds demonstrated rapid fungicidal activity in liquid culture even in the presence of saliva, and demonstrated synergy with standard antifungal agents. When assayed against biofilms grown on denture acrylic, the compounds exhibited potent fungicidal activity as measured by metabolic and fluorescent viability assays. Repeated passages in sub-minimum inhibitory concentration levels did not lead to resistant Candida, in contrast to fluconazole. Our results demonstrate the proof-of principle for the use of these compounds as anti-Candida agents, and their further testing is warranted as novel anti-Candida therapies.

  5. Discovery of highly selective 7-chloroquinoline-thiohydantoins with potent antimalarial activity.

    PubMed

    Raj, Raghu; Mehra, Vishu; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J; Wicht, Kathryn J; Egan, Timothy J; Hopper, Melissa; Wrischnik, Lisa A; Land, Kirkwood M; Kumar, Vipan

    2014-09-12

    A series of C-3 thiourea functionalized β-lactams, β-lactam-7-chloroquinoline conjugates and 7-chloroquinoline-thiohydantoin derivatives were prepared with the aim of probing antimalarial structure-activity relationships. 7-Chlorquinoline-thiohydantoin derivatives were found to be potent inhibitors of cultured Plasmodium falciparum, with the most potent and non-cytotoxic compound exhibiting an IC50 of 39.8 nM. Studies of β-hematin formation suggested that inhibition of haemozoin formation could be primary mechanism of action, with IC50 values comparable to those of chloroquine. Evaluation of cytotoxicity against HeLa cells demonstrated high selective indices.

  6. Potent complement C3a receptor agonists derived from oxazole amino acids: Structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranee; Reed, Anthony N; Chu, Peifei; Scully, Conor C G; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Suen, Jacky Y; Durek, Thomas; Reid, Robert C; Fairlie, David P

    2015-12-01

    Potent ligands for the human complement C3a receptor (C3aR) were developed from the almost inactive tripeptide Leu-Ala-Arg corresponding to the three C-terminal residues of the endogenous peptide agonist C3a. The analogous Leu-Ser-Arg was modified by condensing the serine side chain with the leucine carbonyl with elimination of water to form leucine-oxazole-arginine. Subsequent elaboration with a variety of N-terminal amide capping groups produced agonists as potent as human C3a itself in stimulating Ca(2+) release from human macrophages. Structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  7. Discovery of indole-based tetraarylimidazoles as potent inhibitors of urease with low antilipoxygenase activity.

    PubMed

    Naureen, Sadia; Chaudhry, Faryal; Asif, Nadia; Munawar, Munawar Ali; Ashraf, Muhammad; Nasim, Faizul Hassan; Arshad, Humera; Khan, Misbahul Ain

    2015-09-18

    A series of tetraarylimidazoles (5A-5O) were prepared by one pot four component condensation reactions of 2-arylindole-3-carbaldehydes, substituted anilines, benzil and ammonium acetate in acetic acid. The synthesized compounds exhibited potent antiurease activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.12 ± 0.06 μM to 29.12 ± 0.18 μM as compared with thiourea. However, low inhibition profiles were observed for lipoxygenase. The data show that tetraarylimidazoles containing a substituted 2-penylindole have emerged as a new class of potent inhibitors of urease enzyme.

  8. Tear gasses CN, CR, and CS are potent activators of the human TRPA1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Brone, Bert; Peeters, Pieter J.; Marrannes, Roger; Mercken, Marc; Nuydens, Ronny; Meert, Theo; Gijsen, Harrie J.M.

    2008-09-01

    The TRPA1 channel is activated by a number of pungent chemicals, such as allylisothiocyanate, present in mustard oil and thiosulfinates present in garlic. Most of the known activating compounds contain reactive, electrophilic chemical groups, reacting with cysteine residues in the active site of the TRPA1 channel. This covalent modification results in activation of the channel and has been shown to be reversible for several ligands. Commonly used tear gasses CN, CR and CS are also pungent chemicals, and in this study we show that they are extremely potent and selective activators of the human TRPA1 receptor. To our knowledge, these are the most potent TRPA1 agonists known to date. The identification of the molecular target for these tear gasses may open up possibilities to alleviate the effects of tear gasses via treatment with TRPA1 antagonists. In addition these results may contribute to the basic knowledge of the TRPA1 channel that is gaining importance as a pharmacological target.

  9. Metabolism and disposition of a potent and selective JNK inhibitor [14C]tanzisertib following oral administration to rats, dogs and humans.

    PubMed

    Atsriku, Christian; Hoffmann, Matthew; Ye, Ying; Kumar, Gondi; Surapaneni, Sekhar

    2015-05-01

    1. The disposition of tanzisertib [(1S,4R)-4-(9-((S)tetrahydrofuran-3-yl)-8-(2,4,6-trifluorophenylamino)-9H-purin-2-ylamino) cyclohexanol], a potent, orally active c-Jun amino-terminal kinase inhibitor intended for treatment of fibrotic diseases was studied in rats, dogs and humans following a single oral dose of [(14)C]tanzisertib (Independent Investigational Review Board Inc., Plantation, FL). 2. Administered dose was quantitatively recovered in all species and feces/bile was the major route of elimination. Tanzisertib was rapidly absorbed (Tmax: 1-2 h) across all species with unchanged tanzisertib representing >83% of plasma radioactivity in dogs and humans, whereas <34% was observed in rats. Variable amounts of unchanged tanzisertib (1.5-32% of dose) was recovered in urine/feces across all species, the highest in human feces. 3. Metabolic profiling revealed that tanzisertib was primarily metabolized via oxidation and conjugation pathways, but extensively metabolized in rats relative to dogs/humans. CC-418424 (S-cis isomer of tanzisertib) was the major plasma metabolite in rats (38.4-46.4% of plasma radioactivity), while the predominant plasma metabolite in humans and dogs was M18 (tanzisertib-/CC-418424 glucuronide), representing 7.7 and 3.2% of plasma radioactivity, respectively. Prevalent biliary metabolite in rats and dogs, M18 represented 16.8 and 17.1% of dose, respectively. 4. In vitro studies using liver subcellular fractions and expressed enzymes characterized involvement of novel human aldo-keto reductases for oxido-reduction and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases for conjugation pathways.

  10. A novel small molecule agent displays potent anti-myeloma activity by inhibiting the JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingyu; Xu, Yujia; Wang, Siyu; Xu, Xin; Ji, Peng; Yu, Yang; Cao, Biyin; Han, Kunkun; Hou, Tingjun; Xu, Zhuan; Kong, Yan; Jiang, Gaofeng; Tang, Xiaowen; Qiao, Chunhua; Mao, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic STAT3 signaling pathway is emerging as a promising target for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). In the present study, we identified a novel STAT3 inhibitor SC99 in a target-based high throughput screen. SC99 inhibited JAK2-STAT3 activation but had no effects on other transcription factors such as NF-κB, and kinases such as AKT, ERK, and c-Src that are in association with STAT3 signaling pathway. Furthermore, SC99 downregulated the expression of STAT3-modulated genes, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, VEGF, cyclin D2, and E2F-1. By inhibiting the STAT3 signaling, SC99 induced MM cell apoptosis which could be partly abolished by the ectopic expression of STAT3. Furthermore, SC99 displayed potent anti-MM activity in two independent MM xenograft models in nude mice. Oral administration of SC99 led to marked decrease of tumor growth within 10 days at a daily dosage of 30 mg/kg, but did not raise toxic effects. Taken together, this study identified a novel oral JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor that could be developed as an anti-myeloma agent. PMID:26814430

  11. Spirotetrahydro beta-carbolines (spiroindolones): a new class of potent and orally efficacious compounds for the treatment of malaria.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Bryan K S; Zou, Bin; Rottmann, Matthias; Lakshminarayana, Suresh B; Ang, Shi Hua; Leong, Seh Yong; Tan, Jocelyn; Wong, Josephine; Keller-Maerki, Sonja; Fischli, Christoph; Goh, Anne; Schmitt, Esther K; Krastel, Philipp; Francotte, Eric; Kuhen, Kelli; Plouffe, David; Henson, Kerstin; Wagner, Trixie; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Petersen, Frank; Brun, Reto; Dartois, Veronique; Diagana, Thierry T; Keller, Thomas H

    2010-07-22

    The antiplasmodial activity of a series of spirotetrahydro beta-carbolines is described. Racemic spiroazepineindole (1) was identified from a phenotypic screen on wild type Plasmodium falciparum with an in vitro IC(50) of 90 nM. Structure-activity relationships for the optimization of 1 to compound 20a (IC(50) = 0.2 nM) including the identification of the active 1R,3S enantiomer and elimination of metabolic liabilities is presented. Improvement of the pharmacokinetic profile of the series translated to exceptional oral efficacy in the P. berghei infected malaria mouse model where full cure was achieved in four of five mice with three daily doses of 30 mg/kg.

  12. Syntheses of potent, selective, and orally bioavailable indazole-pyridine series of protein kinase B/Akt inhibitors with reduced hypotension.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gui-Dong; Gandhi, Viraj B; Gong, Jianchun; Thomas, Sheela; Woods, Keith W; Song, Xiaohong; Li, Tongmei; Diebold, R Bruce; Luo, Yan; Liu, Xuesong; Guan, Ran; Klinghofer, Vered; Johnson, Eric F; Bouska, Jennifer; Olson, Amanda; Marsh, Kennan C; Stoll, Vincent S; Mamo, Mulugeta; Polakowski, James; Campbell, Thomas J; Martin, Ruth L; Gintant, Gary A; Penning, Thomas D; Li, Qun; Rosenberg, Saul H; Giranda, Vincent L

    2007-06-28

    Compound 7 was identified as a potent (IC50 = 14 nM), selective, and orally bioavailable (F = 70% in mouse) inhibitor of protein kinase B/Akt. While promising efficacy was observed in vivo, this compound showed effects on depolarization of Purkinje fibers in an in vitro assay and CV hypotension in vivo. Guided by an X-ray structure of 7 bound to protein kinase A, which has 80% homology with Akt in the kinase domain, our efforts have focused on structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the phenyl moiety, in an attempt to address the cardiovascular liability and further improve the Akt potency. A novel and efficient synthetic route toward diversely substituted phenyl derivatives of 7 was developed utilizing a copper-mediated aziridine ring-opening reaction as the key step. To improve the selectivity of these Akt inhibitors over other protein kinases, a nitrogen atom was incorporated into selected phenyl analogues of 7 at the C-6 position of the methyl indazole scaffold. These modifications resulted in the discovery of inhibitor 37c with greater potency (IC50 = 0.6 nM vs Akt), selectivity, and improved cardiovascular safety profile. The SARs, pharmacokinetic profile, and CV safety of selected Akt inhibitors will be discussed.

  13. Orally bioavailable Syk inhibitors with activity in a rat PK/PD model.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Gebhard; Veenstra, Siem; Strang, Ross; Blanz, Joachim; Vangrevelinghe, Eric; Berghausen, Jörg; Lee, Christian C; Zerwes, Hans-Günter

    2015-10-15

    Design and optimization of benzo- and pyrido-thiazoles/isothiazoles are reported leading to the discovery of the potent, orally bioavailable Syk inhibitor 5, which was found to be active in a rat PK/PD model. Compound 5 showed acceptable overall kinase selectivity. However, in addition to Syk it also inhibited Aurora kinase in enzymatic and cellular settings leading to findings in the micronucleus assay. As a consequence, compound 5 was not further pursued.

  14. Novel iodoacetamido benzoheterocyclic derivatives with potent antileukemic activity are inhibitors of STAT5 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Prencipe, Filippo; Lopez-Cara, Carlota; Rondanin, Riccardo; Simoni, Daniele; Hamel, Ernest; Grimaudo, Stefania; Pipitone, Rosaria Maria; Meli, Maria; Tolomeo, Manlio

    2015-01-01

    Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5) protein, a component of the STAT family of signaling proteins, is considered to be an attractive therapeutic target because of its involvement in the progression of acute myeloid leukemia. In an effort to discover potent molecules able to inhibit the phosphorylation-activation of STAT5, twenty-two compounds were synthesized and evaluated on the basis of our knowledge of the activity of 2-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3-iodoacetamido-6-methoxybenzo[b]furan derivative 1 as a potent STAT5 inhibitor. Most of these molecules, structurally related to compound 1, were characterized by the presence of a common 3′,4′,5′-trimethoxybenzoyl moiety at the 2-position of different benzoheterocycles such as benzo[b]furan, benzo[b]thiophene, indole and N-methylindole. Effects on biological activity of the iodoacetamido group and of different moieties (methyl and methoxy) at the C-3 to C-7 positions were examined. In the series of benzo[b]furan derivatives, moving the iodoacetylamino group from the C-4 to the C-5 or C-6 positions did not significantly affect antiproliferative activity. Compounds 4, 15, 20 and 23 blocked STAT5 signals and induced apoptosis of K562 BCR–ABL positive cells. For compound 23, the trimethoxybenzoyl moiety at the 2-position of the benzo[b]furan core was not essential for potent inhibition of STAT5 activation. PMID:26629859

  15. 5-Lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) inhibitors. Part 4: development of 3-[3-tert-butylsulfanyl-1-[4-(6-ethoxypyridin-3-yl)benzyl]-5-(5-methylpyridin-2-ylmethoxy)-1H-indol-2-yl]-2,2-dimethylpropionic acid (AM803), a potent, oral, once daily FLAP inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Stock, Nicholas S; Bain, Gretchen; Zunic, Jasmine; Li, Yiwei; Ziff, Jeannie; Roppe, Jeffrey; Santini, Angelina; Darlington, Janice; Prodanovich, Pat; King, Christopher D; Baccei, Christopher; Lee, Catherine; Rong, Haojing; Chapman, Charles; Broadhead, Alex; Lorrain, Dan; Correa, Lucia; Hutchinson, John H; Evans, Jilly F; Prasit, Peppi

    2011-12-08

    The potent 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) inhibitor 3-[3-tert-butylsulfanyl-1-[4-(6-ethoxypyridin-3-yl)benzyl]-5-(5-methylpyridin-2-ylmethoxy)-1H-indol-2-yl]-2,2-dimethylpropionic acid 11cc is described (AM803, now GSK2190915). Building upon AM103 (1) (Hutchinson et al. J. Med Chem.2009, 52, 5803-5815; Stock et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2010, 20, 213-217; Stock et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.2010, 20, 4598-4601), SAR studies centering around the pyridine moiety led to the discovery of compounds that exhibit significantly increased potency in a human whole blood assay measuring LTB(4) inhibition with longer drug preincubation times (15 min vs 5 h). Further studies identified 11cc with a potency of 2.9 nM in FLAP binding, an IC(50) of 76 nM for inhibition of LTB(4) in human blood (5 h incubation) and excellent preclinical toxicology and pharmacokinetics in rat and dog. 11cc also demonstrated an extended pharmacodynamic effect in a rodent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) model. This compound has successfully completed phase 1 clinical studies in healthy volunteers and is currently undergoing phase 2 trials in asthmatic patients.

  16. Discovery of potent and novel S-nitrosoglutathione reductase inhibitors devoid of cytochrome P450 activities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xicheng; Qiu, Jian; Strong, Sarah A; Green, Louis S; Wasley, Jan W F; Blonder, Joan P; Colagiovanni, Dorothy B; Mutka, Sarah C; Stout, Adam M; Richards, Jane P; Rosenthal, Gary J

    2011-10-01

    The pyrrole based N6022 was recently identified as a potent, selective, reversible, and efficacious S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) inhibitor and is currently undergoing clinical development for the treatment of acute asthma. GSNOR is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family (ADH) and regulates the levels of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) through catabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Reduced levels of GSNO, as well as other nitrosothiols (SNOs), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including those of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. Preservation of endogenous SNOs through GSNOR inhibition presents a novel therapeutic approach with broad applicability. We describe here the synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of novel pyrrole based analogues of N6022 focusing on removal of cytochrome P450 inhibition activities. We identified potent and novel GSNOR inhibitors having reduced CYP inhibition activities and demonstrated efficacy in a mouse ovalbumin (OVA) model of asthma.

  17. Vacuolin-1 potently and reversibly inhibits autophagosome-lysosome fusion by activating RAB5A

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingying; Dong, Shichen; Hao, Baixia; Li, Chang; Zhu, Kaiyuan; Guo, Wenjing; Wang, Qian; Cheung, King-Ho; Wong, Connie WM; Wu, Wu-Tian; Markus, Huss; Yue, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic lysosomal degradation process essential for cellular homeostasis and cell survival. Dysfunctional autophagy has been associated with a wide range of human diseases, e.g., cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. A large number of small molecules that modulate autophagy have been widely used to dissect this process and some of them, e.g., chloroquine (CQ), might be ultimately applied to treat a variety of autophagy-associated human diseases. Here we found that vacuolin-1 potently and reversibly inhibited the fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes in mammalian cells, thereby inducing the accumulation of autophagosomes. Interestingly, vacuolin-1 was less toxic but at least 10-fold more potent in inhibiting autophagy compared with CQ. Vacuolin-1 treatment also blocked the fusion between endosomes and lysosomes, resulting in a defect in general endosomal-lysosomal degradation. Treatment of cells with vacuolin-1 alkalinized lysosomal pH and decreased lysosomal Ca2+ content. Besides marginally inhibiting vacuolar ATPase activity, vacuolin-1 treatment markedly activated RAB5A GTPase activity. Expression of a dominant negative mutant of RAB5A or RAB5A knockdown significantly inhibited vacuolin-1-induced autophagosome-lysosome fusion blockage, whereas expression of a constitutive active form of RAB5A suppressed autophagosome-lysosome fusion. These data suggest that vacuolin-1 activates RAB5A to block autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Vacuolin-1 and its analogs present a novel class of drug that can potently and reversibly modulate autophagy. PMID:25483964

  18. Discovery of novel protease activated receptors 1 antagonists with potent antithrombotic activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Perez, Michel; Lamothe, Marie; Maraval, Catherine; Mirabel, Etienne; Loubat, Chantal; Planty, Bruno; Horn, Clemens; Michaux, Julien; Marrot, Sebastien; Letienne, Robert; Pignier, Christophe; Bocquet, Arnaud; Nadal-Wollbold, Florence; Cussac, Didier; de Vries, Luc; Le Grand, Bruno

    2009-10-08

    Protease activated receptors (PARs) or thrombin receptors constitute a class of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) implicated in the activation of many physiological mechanisms. Thus, thrombin activates many cell types such as vascular smooth muscle cells, leukocytes, endothelial cells, and platelets via activation of these receptors. In humans, thrombin-induced platelet aggregation is mediated by one subtype of these receptors, termed PAR1. This article describes the discovery of new antagonists of these receptors and more specifically two compounds: 2-[5-oxo-5-(4-pyridin-2-ylpiperazin-1-yl)penta-1,3-dienyl]benzonitrile 36 (F 16618) and 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-[4-(4-fluorobenzyl)piperazin-1-yl]propenone 39 (F 16357), obtained after optimization. Both compounds are able to inhibit SFLLR-induced human platelet aggregation and display antithrombotic activity in an arteriovenous shunt model in the rat after iv or oral administration. Furthermore, these compounds are devoid of bleeding side effects often observed with other types of antiplatelet drugs, which constitutes a promising advantage for this new class of antithrombotic agents.

  19. Anti-cancer small molecule JP-8g exhibits potent in vivo anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yulong; Liu, Jia; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yao, Jia; Kai, Ming; Jiang, Xianxing; Wang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Spirooxindoles are a class of compounds with diverse biological activity. Previously, we identified a series of spirooxindole-pyranopyrimidine compounds that exhibited broad-spectrum anti-cancer activity. In this study, we evaluated one of these compounds, JP-8g, on mouse models and found that it showed potent in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. Further investigation suggested that JP-8g may execute its anti-inflammatory activity through nitric oxide synthase signaling pathways. Our results suggest that these spirooxindole-pyranopyrimidine class compounds have potential for not only cancer treatment but also inflammation therapy. PMID:24626153

  20. Extensive screening for edible herbal extracts with potent scavenging activity against superoxide anions.

    PubMed

    Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro; Yoshizaki, Fumihiko; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2008-06-01

    To search for edible herbal extracts with potent antioxidant activity, we conducted a large scale screening based on the superoxide scavenging activity. That is, scavenging activity against superoxide anions were extensively screened from ethanol extracts of approximately 1,000 kinds of herbs by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping method. Among them we chose four edible herbal extracts with prominently potent ability to reduce the signal intensity of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO)-OOH, a spin adduct formed by DMPO and superoxide anion. They are the extracts from Punica granatum (Peel), Syzygium aromaticum (Bud), Mangifera indica (Kernel), and Phyllanthus emblica (Fruit), and are allowed to be used as foodstuffs according to the Japanese legal regulation. The ESR-spin trapping method coupled with steady state kinetic analysis showed that all of the four extracts directly scavenge superoxide anions, and that the superoxide scavenging potential of any of the extracts was comparable to that of L-ascorbic acid. Furthermore, polyphenol determination indicates that the activity is at least in part attributable to polyphenols. These results with such large scale screening might give useful information when choosing a potent antioxidant as a foodstuff.

  1. AZD-4547 exerts potent cytostatic and cytotoxic activities against fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-expressing colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ting-Jing; Zhu, Jin-Hai; Peng, De-Feng; Cui, Zhen; Zhang, Chao; Lu, Pei-hua

    2015-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) causes significant mortalities worldwide. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (FGFR) signaling is frequently dysregulated and/or constitutively activated in CRCs, contributing to cancer carcinogenesis and progression. Here, we studied the activity of AZD-4547, a novel and potent FGFR kinase inhibitor, on CRC cells. AZD-4547 inhibited CRC cell growth in vitro, and its activity correlated with the FGFR-1/2 expression level. AZD-4547 was cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic in FGFR-1/2-expressed CRC cell lines (NCI-H716 and HCT-116), but not in FGFR-1/2 null HT-29 cells. Further, AZD-4547 inhibited cell cycle progression and attenuated the activation of FGFR1-FGFR substrate 2 (FRS-2), ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) signalings in NCI-H716 and HCT-116 cells. In vivo, AZD-4547 oral administration at effective doses inhibited NCI-H716 (high FGFR-1/2 expression) xenograft growth in nude mice. Phosphorylation of FGFR-1, AKT, and ERK1/2 in xenograft specimens was also inhibited by AZD-4547 administration. Thus, our preclinical studies strongly support possible clinical investigations of AZD-4547 for the treatment of CRCs harboring deregulated FGFR signalings.

  2. YL529, a novel, orally available multikinase inhibitor, potently inhibits angiogenesis and tumour growth in preclinical models

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Youzhi; Lin, Hongjun; Meng, Nana; Lu, Wenjie; Li, Guobo; Han, Yuanyuan; Dai, Xiaoyun; Xia, Yong; Song, Xiangrong; Yang, Shengyong; Wei, Yuquan; Yu, Luoting; Zhao, Yinglan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Targeted chemotherapy using small-molecule inhibitors of angiogenesis and proliferation is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Experimental Approach YL529 was developed via computer-aided drug design, de novo synthesis and high-throughput screening. The biochemical, pharmacodynamic and toxicological profiles of YL529 were investigated using kinase and cell viability assays, a mouse tumour cell-containing alginate bead model, a zebrafish angiogenesis model and several human tumour xenograft models in athymic mice. Key Results In vitro, YL529 selectively inhibited the activities of VEGFR2/VEGFR3 and serine/threonine kinase RAF kinase. YL529 inhibited VEGF165-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2, as well as the proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. It also significantly blocked vascular formation and angiogenesis in the zebrafish model. Moreover, YL529 strongly attenuated the proliferation of A549 cells by disrupting the RAF/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) kinase (MEK) kinase kinase/MAPK pathway. Oral administration of YL529 (37.5–150 mg−1·kg−1·day−1) to nude mice bearing established tumour xenografts significantly prevented the growth (60–80%) of A549, SPC-A1, A375, OS-RC-2 and HCT116 tumours without detectable toxicity. YL529 markedly reduced microvessel density and increased tumour cell apoptosis in the tumours formed in mice inoculated with the lung cancer cells, SPC-A1 and A549, and the colon carcinoma cells, HCT116. Conclusions and Implications YL529, an orally active multikinase inhibitor, shows therapeutic potential for solid tumours, and warrants further investigation as a possible anticancer agent. PMID:23594209

  3. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of potent antitumor active quinoline and naphthyridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sanjay K; Jha, Amrita; Agarwal, Shiv K; Mukherjee, Rama; Burman, Anand C

    2007-11-01

    The disease of cancer has been ranked second after cardiovascular diseases and plant-derived molecules have played an important role for the treatment of cancer. Nine cytotoxic plant-derived molecules such as vinblastine, vincristine, navelbine, etoposide, teniposide, taxol, taxotere, topotecan and irinotecan have been approved as anticancer drugs. Recently, epothilones are being emerging as future potential anti-tumor agents. However, targeted cancer therapy has now been rapidly expanding and small organic molecules are being exploited for this purpose. Amongst target specific small organic molecules, quinazoline was found as one of the most successful chemical class in cancer chemotherapy as three drugs namely Gefitinib, Erlotinib and Canertinib belong to this series. Now, quinazoline related chemical classes such as quinolines and naphthyridines are being exploited in cancer chemotherapy and a number of molecules such as compounds EKB-569 (52), HKI-272 (78) and SNS-595 (127a) are in different phases of clinical trials. This review presents the synthesis of quinolines and naphthyridines derivatives, screened for anticancer activity since year 2000. The synthesis of most potent derivatives in each prototype has been delineated. A brief structure activity relationship for each prototype has also been discussed. It has been observed that aniline group at C-4, aminoacrylamide substituents at C-6, cyano group at C-3 and alkoxy groups at C-7 in the quinoline ring play an important role for optimal activity. While aminopyrrolidine functionality at C-7, 2'-thiazolyl at N-1 and carboxy group at C-3 in 1,8-naphthyridine ring are essential for eliciting the cytotoxicity. This review would help the medicinal chemist to design and synthesize molecules for targeted cancer chemotherapy.

  4. Potent Activity of Ponatinib (AP24534) in Models of FLT3-Driven Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Gozgit, Joseph M.; Wong, Matthew J.; Wardwell, Scott; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Mohemmad, Qurish K.; Narasimhan, Narayana I.; Shakespeare, William C.; Wang, Frank; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim; Rivera, Victor M.

    2011-01-01

    Ponatinib (AP24534) is a novel multitargeted kinase inhibitor that potently inhibits native and mutant BCR-ABL at clinically achievable drug levels. Ponatinib also has in vitro inhibitory activity against a discrete set of kinases implicated in the pathogenesis of other hematologic malignancies, including FLT3, KIT, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), and platelet derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα). Here, using leukemic cell lines containing activated forms of each of these receptors, we show that ponatinib potently inhibits receptor phosphorylation and cellular proliferation with IC50 values comparable to those required for inhibition of BCR-ABL (0.3 to 20 nmol/L). The activity of ponatinib against the FLT3-ITD mutant, found in up to 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, was particularly notable. In MV4-11 (FLT3-ITD+/+) but not RS4;11 (FLT3-ITD−/−) AML cells, ponatinib inhibited FLT3 signaling and induced apoptosis at concentrations of less than 10 nmol/L. In an MV4-11 mouse xenograft model, once daily oral dosing of ponatinib led to a dose-dependent inhibition of signaling and tumor regression. Ponatinib inhibited viability of primary leukemic blasts from a FLT3-ITD positive AML patient (IC50 4 nmol/L) but not those isolated from 3 patients with AML expressing native FLT3. Overall, these results support the investigation of ponatinib in patients with FLT3-ITD–driven AML and other hematologic malignancies driven by KIT, FGFR1, or PDGFRα. PMID:21482694

  5. Synthesis, evaluation, and metabolism of novel [6]-shogaol derivatives as potent Nrf2 activators.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingdong; Wang, Pei; Zhao, Yantao; Yang, Chun; Clark, Anderson; Leung, TinChung; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sang, Shengmin

    2016-06-01

    Oxidative stress is a central component of many chronic diseases. The Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) system is a major regulatory pathway of cytoprotective genes against oxidative and electrophilic stress. Activation of the Nrf2 pathway plays crucial roles in the chemopreventive effects of various inducers. In this study, we developed a novel class of potent Nrf2 activators derived from ginger compound, [6]-shogaol (6S), using the Tg[glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (gstp1):green fluorescent protein (GFP)] transgenic zebrafish model. Investigation of structure-activity relationships of 6S derivatives indicates that the combination of an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl entity and a catechol moiety in one compound enhances the Tg(gstp1:GFP) fluorescence signal in zebrafish embryos. Chemical reaction and in vivo metabolism studies of the four most potent 6S derivatives showed that both α,β-unsaturated carbonyl entity and catechol moiety act as major active groups for conjugation with the sulfhydryl groups of the cysteine residues. In addition, we further demonstrated that 6S derivatives increased the expression of Nrf2 downstream target, heme oxygenase-1, in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. These results suggest that α,β-unsaturated carbonyl entity and catechol moiety of 6S derivatives may react with the cysteine residues of Keap1, disrupting the Keap1-Nrf2 complex, thereby liberating and activating Nrf2. Our findings of natural product-derived Nrf2 activators lead to design options of potent Nrf2 activators for further optimization.

  6. A Potent, Selective and Cell-Active Allosteric Inhibitor of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3)**

    PubMed Central

    Kaniskan, H. Ümit; Szewczyk, Magdalena M.; Yu, Zhengtian; Eram, Mohammad S.; Yang, Xiaobao; Schmidt, Keith; Luo, Xiao; Dai, Miao; He, Feng; Zang, Irene; Lin, Ying; Kennedy, Steven; Li, Fengling; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Dong, Aiping; Smil, David; Min, Sun-Joon; Landon, Melissa; Lin-Jones, Jennifer; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L.; Schapira, Matthieu; Atadja, Peter; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Brown, Peter J.; Zhao, Kehao; Jin, Jian; Vedadi, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    PRMT3 catalyzes the asymmetric dimethylation of arginine residues of various proteins. It is essential for maturation of ribosomes, may have a role in lipogenesis, and is implicated in several diseases. A potent, selective, and cell- active PRMT3 inhibitor would be a valuable tool for further investigating PRMT3 biology. Here we report the discovery of the first PRMT3 chemical probe, SGC707, by structure-based optimization of the allosteric PRMT3 inhibitors we reported previously, and thorough characterization of this probe in biochemical, biophysical, and cellular assays. SGC707 is a potent PRMT3 inhibitor (IC50 = 31 ± 2 nm, KD = 53 ± 2 nm) with outstanding selectivity (selective against 31 other methyltransferases and more than 250 non-epigenetic targets). The mechanism of action studies and crystal structure of the PRMT3-SGC707 complex confirm the allosteric inhibition mode. Importantly, SGC707 engages PRMT3 and potently inhibits its methyltransferase activity in cells. It is also bioavailable and suitable for animal studies. This well- characterized chemical probe is an excellent tool to further study the role of PRMT3 in health and disease. PMID:25728001

  7. Novel fluorinated pyrrolomycins as potent anti-staphylococcal biofilm agents: Design, synthesis, pharmacokinetics and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zunhua; Liu, Yan; Ahn, Jongsam; Qiao, Zhen; Endres, Jennifer L; Gautam, Nagsen; Huang, Yunlong; Li, Jerry; Zheng, Jialin; Alnouti, Yazen; Bayles, Kenneth W; Li, Rongshi

    2016-11-29

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a major cause of hospital- and community-associated bacterial infections in the U.S. and around the world. These infections have become increasingly difficult to treat due to the propensity to develop antibiotic resistance and form biofilm. To date, no antibiofilm agents are available for clinical use. To add to the repertoire of antibiotics for clinical use and to provide novel agents for combating both SA and biofilm infections, we previously reported marinopyrroles as potent anti-SA agents. In this study, we used fragment-based and bioisostere approaches to design and synthesize a series of novel fluorinated pyrrolomycins for the first time, performed analyses of their physicochemical and drug-like properties, and investigated structure activity relationships and pharmacokinetics. These promising fluorinated pyrrolomycins demonstrate potent antibacterial activity against SA with favorable drug-like properties and pharmacokinetic profiles. Importantly, these compounds kill staphylococcal biofilm-associated cells with a lack of mammalian cell cytotoxicity and no occurrence of bacterial resistance. Our novel fluorinated pyrrolomycin 4 has a clogP value of 4.1, an MIC of 73 ng/mL, MBC of 4 μg/mL, kill staphylococcal-associated biofilm at 8 μg/mL, bioavailability of 35%, and the elimination half-life of 6.04 h and 6.75 h by intravenous and oral administration, respectively. This is the first report of comprehensive drug discovery studies on pyrrolomycin-based antibiotics.

  8. UV-inactivated HSV-1 potently activates NK cell killing of leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Samudio, Ismael; Rezvani, Katayoun; Shaim, Hila; Hofs, Elyse; Ngom, Mor; Bu, Luke; Liu, Guoyu; Lee, Jason T C; Imren, Suzan; Lam, Vivian; Poon, Grace F T; Ghaedi, Maryam; Takei, Fumio; Humphries, Keith; Jia, William; Krystal, Gerald

    2016-05-26

    Herein we demonstrate that oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) potently activates human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to lyse leukemic cell lines and primary acute myeloid leukemia samples, but not healthy allogeneic lymphocytes. Intriguingly, we found that UV light-inactivated HSV-1 (UV-HSV-1) is equally effective in promoting PBMC cytolysis of leukemic cells and is 1000- to 10 000-fold more potent at stimulating innate antileukemic responses than UV-inactivated cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, reovirus, or adenovirus. Mechanistically, UV-HSV-1 stimulates PBMC cytolysis of leukemic cells, partly via Toll-like receptor-2/protein kinase C/nuclear factor-κB signaling, and potently stimulates expression of CD69, degranulation, migration, and cytokine production in natural killer (NK) cells, suggesting that surface components of UV-HSV-1 directly activate NK cells. Importantly, UV-HSV-1 synergizes with interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-2 in inducing activation and cytolytic activity of NK cells. Additionally, UV-HSV-1 stimulates glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation-dependent oxygen consumption in NK cells, but only glycolysis is required for their enhanced antileukemic activity. Last, we demonstrate that T cell-depleted human PBMCs exposed to UV-HSV-1 provide a survival benefit in a murine xenograft model of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Taken together, our results support the preclinical development of UV-HSV-1 as an adjuvant, alone or in combination with IL-15, for allogeneic donor mononuclear cell infusions to treat AML.

  9. UV-inactivated HSV-1 potently activates NK cell killing of leukemic cells

    PubMed Central

    Samudio, Ismael; Rezvani, Katayoun; Shaim, Hila; Hofs, Elyse; Ngom, Mor; Bu, Luke; Liu, Guoyu; Lee, Jason T. C.; Imren, Suzan; Lam, Vivian; Poon, Grace F. T.; Ghaedi, Maryam; Takei, Fumio; Humphries, Keith; Jia, William

    2016-01-01

    Herein we demonstrate that oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) potently activates human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to lyse leukemic cell lines and primary acute myeloid leukemia samples, but not healthy allogeneic lymphocytes. Intriguingly, we found that UV light–inactivated HSV-1 (UV-HSV-1) is equally effective in promoting PBMC cytolysis of leukemic cells and is 1000- to 10 000-fold more potent at stimulating innate antileukemic responses than UV-inactivated cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, reovirus, or adenovirus. Mechanistically, UV-HSV-1 stimulates PBMC cytolysis of leukemic cells, partly via Toll-like receptor-2/protein kinase C/nuclear factor-κB signaling, and potently stimulates expression of CD69, degranulation, migration, and cytokine production in natural killer (NK) cells, suggesting that surface components of UV-HSV-1 directly activate NK cells. Importantly, UV-HSV-1 synergizes with interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-2 in inducing activation and cytolytic activity of NK cells. Additionally, UV-HSV-1 stimulates glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation–dependent oxygen consumption in NK cells, but only glycolysis is required for their enhanced antileukemic activity. Last, we demonstrate that T cell–depleted human PBMCs exposed to UV-HSV-1 provide a survival benefit in a murine xenograft model of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Taken together, our results support the preclinical development of UV-HSV-1 as an adjuvant, alone or in combination with IL-15, for allogeneic donor mononuclear cell infusions to treat AML. PMID:26941401

  10. BI 1002494, a Novel Potent and Selective Oral Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Displays Differential Potency in Human Basophils and B Cells.

    PubMed

    Lamb, David J; Wollin, Stefan Lutz; Schnapp, Andreas; Bischoff, Daniel; Erb, Klaus J; Bouyssou, Thierry; Guilliard, Bernd; Strasser, Christine; Wex, Eva; Blum, Sylvia; Thaler, Eva; Nickel, Helga; Radmacher, Oliver; Haas, Hannah; Swantek, Jennifer L; Souza, Don; Canfield, Melissa; White, Della; Panzenbeck, Mark; Kashem, Mohammed A; Sanville-Ross, Mary; Kono, Takeshi; Sewald, Katherina; Braun, Armin; Obernolte, Helena; Danov, Olga; Schaenzle, Gerhard; Rast, Georg; Maier, Gerd-Michael; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    BI 1002494 [(R)-4-{(R)-1-[7-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-[1,6]napthyridin-5-yloxy]-ethyl}pyrrolidin-2-one] is a novel, potent, and selective spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor with sustained plasma exposure after oral administration in rats, which qualifies this molecule as a good in vitro and in vivo tool compound. BI 1002494 exhibits higher potency in inhibiting high-affinity IgE receptor-mediated mast cell and basophil degranulation (IC50 = 115 nM) compared with B-cell receptor-mediated activation of B cells (IC50 = 810 nM). This may be explained by lower kinase potency when the physiologic ligand B-cell linker was used, suggesting that SYK inhibitors may exhibit differential potency depending on the cell type and the respective signal transduction ligand. A 3-fold decrease in potency was observed in rat basophils (IC50 = 323 nM) compared with human basophils, but a similar species potency shift was not observed in B cells. The lower potency in rat basophils was confirmed in both ex vivo inhibition of bronchoconstriction in precision-cut rat lung slices and in reversal of anaphylaxis-driven airway resistance in rats. The different cellular potencies translated into different in vivo efficacy; full efficacy in a rat ovalbumin model (that contains an element of mast cell dependence) was achieved with a trough plasma concentration of 340 nM, whereas full efficacy in a rat collagen-induced arthritis model (that contains an element of B-cell dependence) was achieved with a trough plasma concentration of 1400 nM. Taken together, these data provide a platform from which different estimates of human efficacious exposures can be made according to the relevant cell type for the indication intended to be treated.

  11. A phase 1 dose-escalation and expansion study of binimetinib (MEK162), a potent and selective oral MEK1/2 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Bendell, Johanna C; Javle, Milind; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios S; Finn, Richard S; Wainberg, Zev A; Laheru, Daniel A; Weekes, Colin D; Tan, Benjamin R; Khan, Gazala N; Zalupski, Mark M; Infante, Jeffrey R; Jones, Suzanne; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos P; Tolcher, Anthony W; Chavira, Renae E; Christy-Bittel, Janna L; Barrett, Emma; Patnaik, Amita

    2017-01-01

    Background: Binimetinib (MEK162; ARRY-438162) is a potent and selective oral MEK 1/2 inhibitor. This phase 1 study determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, and preliminary anti-tumour activity of binimetinib in patients with advanced solid tumours, with expansion cohorts of patients with biliary cancer or KRAS- or BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer. Methods: Binimetinib was administered twice daily. Expansion cohorts were enroled after MTD determination following a 3+3 dose-escalation design. Pharmacokinetic properties were determined from plasma samples. Tumour samples were assessed for mutations in RAS, RAF, and other relevant genes. Pharmacodynamic properties were evaluated in serum and skin punch biopsy samples. Results: Ninety-three patients received binimetinib (dose-escalation phase, 19; expansion, 74). The MTD was 60 mg twice daily, with dose-limiting adverse events (AEs) of dermatitis acneiform and chorioretinopathy. The dose for expansion patients was subsequently decreased to 45 mg twice daily because of the frequency of treatment-related ocular toxicity at the MTD. Common AEs across all dose levels included rash (81%), nausea (56%), vomiting (52%), diarrhoea (51%), peripheral oedema (46%), and fatigue (43%); most were grade 1/2. Dose-proportional increases in binimetinib exposure were observed and target inhibition was demonstrated in serum and skin punch biopsy samples. Three patients with biliary cancer had objective responses (one complete and two partial). Conclusions: Binimetinib demonstrated a manageable safety profile, target inhibition, and dose-proportional exposure. The 45 mg twice daily dose was identified as the recommended phase 2 dose. The three objective responses in biliary cancer patients are encouraging and support further evaluation in this population. PMID:28152546

  12. A Class of 5-Nitro-2-furancarboxylamides with Potent Trypanocidal Activity against Trypanosoma brucei in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the World Health Organization approved the nifurtimox–eflornithine combination therapy for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis, renewing interest in nitroheterocycle therapies for this and associated diseases. In this study, we have synthesized a series of novel 5-nitro-2-furancarboxylamides that show potent trypanocidal activity, ∼1000-fold more potent than nifurtimox against in vitro Trypanosoma brucei with very low cytotoxicity against human HeLa cells. More importantly, the most potent analogue showed very limited cross-resistance to nifurtimox-resistant cells and vice versa. This implies that our novel, relatively easy to synthesize and therefore cheap, 5-nitro-2-furancarboxylamides are targeting a different, but still essential, biochemical process to those targeted by nifurtimox or its metabolites in the parasites. The significant increase in potency (smaller dose probably required) has the potential for greatly reducing unwanted side effects and also reducing the likelihood of drug resistance. Collectively, these findings have important implications for the future therapeutic treatment of African sleeping sickness. PMID:23281892

  13. Discovery of a potent and orally available acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor as an anti-atherosclerotic agent: (4-phenylcoumarin)acetanilide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Masaki; Fukui, Seiji; Nakada, Yoshihisa; Tokunoh, Ryosuke; Itokawa, Shigekazu; Kakoi, Yuichi; Nishimura, Satoshi; Sanada, Tsukasa; Fuse, Hiromitsu; Kubo, Kazuki; Wada, Takeo; Marui, Shogo

    2011-01-01

    Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes cholesterol esterification. ACAT inhibitors are expected to be potent therapeutic agents for the treatment of atherosclerosis. A series of potent ACAT inhibitors based on an (4-phenylcoumarin)acetanilide scaffold was identified. Evaluation of the structure-activity relationships of a substituent on this scaffold, with an emphasis on improving the pharmacokinetic profile led to the discovery of 2-[7-chloro-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl]-N-[4-chloro-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]acetamide (23), which exhibited potent ACAT inhibitory activity (IC50=12 nM) and good pharmacokinetic profile in mice. Compound 23 also showed regressive effects on atherosclerotic plaques in apolipoprotein (apo)E knock out (KO) mice at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg per os (p.o.).

  14. Identification of new potent phthalazine derivatives with VEGFR-2 and EGFR kinase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kamilia M; Barsoum, Flora F; Awadallah, Fadi M; Mohamed, Nehal E

    2016-11-10

    Efforts to develop new antitumor agents are now directed towards multitarget therapies that are believed to have high potency and low tendency to resistance compared to conventional drugs. Herein, we highlighted the synthesis and antitumor activity of five series of phthalazine-based compounds featuring a variety of bioactive chemical fragments at position 1 of the phthalazine nucleus. The antitumor activity of the target compounds was performed against fourteen cancer cell lines where all compounds were active in the nanomolar level. In addition, the mechanism of action of the target compounds was investigated through an enzymatic inhibitory assay against VEGFR-2 and EGFR kinases, revealing potent and preferential activity toward VEGFR-2. Binding mode of the most active compounds was studied using docking experiment.

  15. A novel peptide with potent and broad-spectrum antiviral activities against multiple respiratory viruses

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hanjun; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Ke; Chu, Hin; Liu, Dabin; Poon, Vincent Kwok-Man; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Leung, Ho-Chuen; Fai, Ng; Lin, Yong-Ping; Zhang, Anna Jin-Xia; Jin, Dong-Yan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2016-01-01

    A safe, potent and broad-spectrum antiviral is urgently needed to combat emerging respiratory viruses. In light of the broad antiviral activity of β-defensins, we tested the antiviral activity of 11 peptides derived from mouse β-defensin-4 and found that a short peptide, P9, exhibited potent and broad-spectrum antiviral effects against multiple respiratory viruses in vitro and in vivo, including influenza A virus H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7, H7N9, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The antiviral activity of P9 was attributed to its high-affinity binding to viral glycoproteins, as well as the abundance of basic amino acids in its composition. After binding viral particles through viral surface glycoproteins, P9 entered into cells together with the viruses via endocytosis and prevented endosomal acidification, which blocked membrane fusion and subsequent viral RNA release. This study has paved the avenue for developing new prophylactic and therapeutic agents with broad-spectrum antiviral activities. PMID:26911565

  16. Cytotoxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Oral Rinses In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Heinz-Dieter; Moritz, Andreas; Lussi, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    While oral rinses used for cosmetic purposes only do not necessarily have to be antiseptic, antimicrobial activity is required for medical indications, including oral and periodontal surgery. So the question arises—is the antimicrobial activity of oral rinses associated with any destructive changes in cell viability in vitro? To answer this question, we examined twelve oral rinses with respect to their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Antimicrobial activity was screened against five bacterial strains using disc diffusion. Cytotoxicity was determined by mitochondrial reductase activity with primary gingival fibroblasts, L929 cells, and HSC-2 epithelial cells. Phase contrast microscopy and trypan blue staining were then performed to reveal cell morphology. Cells remained vital after exposure to oral rinses that were only used for cosmetic purposes. Moderate cytotoxic effects were observed for oral rinses containing 0.05% chlorhexidine, ethanol, or pegylated hydrogenated castor oil and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Other oral rinses containing 0.2% chlorhexidine and cocamidopropyl betaine exhibited strong cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity. Strong cytotoxic but moderate antimicrobial activity was observed in oral rinses containing cetylpyridinium chloride. The in vitro data show that oral rinses are heterogeneous with respect to their cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. Based on their respective properties, oral rinses can be selected either to reduce the microbial load or for cosmetic purposes.

  17. Bipiperidinyl carboxylic acid amides as potent, selective, and functionally active CCR4 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Cyrille F; Bazin, Marc; Philippe, Laurence; Zhang, Jiansu; Tylaska, Laurie; Miret, Juan; Bauer, Paul H

    2007-09-01

    A cell-based assay for the chemokine G-protein-coupled receptor CCR4 was developed, and used to screen a small-molecule compound collection in a multiplex format. A series of bipiperidinyl carboxylic acid amides amenable to parallel chemistry were derived that were potent and selective antagonists of CCR4. One prototype compound was shown to be active in a functional model of chemotaxis, making it a useful chemical tool to explore the role of CCR4 in asthma, allergy, diabetes, and cancer.

  18. Discovery and structure-activity relationships of urea derivatives as potent and novel CCR3 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Aiko; Iura, Yosuke; Tomioka, Hiroki; Sato, Ippei; Morihira, Koichiro; Kubota, Hirokazu; Morokata, Tatsuaki; Takeuchi, Makoto; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Tsukamoto, Shin-ichi; Imaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Toshiya

    2012-08-01

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of ureas as CCR3 antagonists are described. Optimization starting with lead compound 2 (IC(50)=190 nM) derived from initial screening hit compound 1 (IC(50)=600 nM) led to the identification of (S)-N-((1R,3S,5S)-8-((6-fluoronaphthalen-2-yl)methyl)-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-yl)-N-(2-nitrophenyl)pyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxamide 27 (IC(50)=4.9 nM) as a potent CCR3 antagonist.

  19. Aromatic lipoxin A4 and lipoxin B4 analogues display potent biological activities.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Timothy P; Vallin, Karl S A; Shah, Syed Tasadaque Ali; Fakhry, Jérôme; Maderna, Paola; Scannell, Michael; Sampaio, Andre L F; Perretti, Mauro; Godson, Catherine; Guiry, Patrick J

    2007-11-29

    Lipoxins are a group of biologically active eicosanoids typically formed by transcellular lipoxygenase activity. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and Lipoxin B4 (LXB4) biosynthesis has been detected in a variety of inflammatory conditions. The native lipoxins LXA4 and LXB4 demonstrate potent antiinflammatory and proresolution bioactions. However, their therapeutic potential is compromised by rapid metabolic inactivation by PG dehydrogenase-mediated oxidation and reduction. Here we report on the stereoselective synthesis of aromatic LXA4 and LXB4 analogues by employing Sharpless epoxidation, Pd-mediated Heck coupling, and diastereoselective reduction as the key transformations. Subsequent biological testing has shown that these analogues display potent biological activities. Phagocytic clearance of apoptotic leukocytes plays a critical role in the resolution of inflammation. Both LXA4 analogues (1R)-3a and (1S)-3a were found to stimulate a significant increase in phagocytosis of apoptotic polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) by macrophages, with comparable efficacy to the effect of native LXA4, albeit greater potency, while the LXB4 analogue also stimulated phagocytosis with a maximum effect observed at 10-11 M. LX-stimulated phagocytosis was associated with rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton consistent with that reported for native lipoxins. Using zymosan-induced peritonitis as a murine model of acute inflammation (1R)-3a significantly reduced PMN accumulation.

  20. Potent, Selective, and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitors of VPS34 Provide Chemical Tools to Modulate Autophagy in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a dynamic process that regulates lysosomal-dependent degradation of cellular components. Until recently the study of autophagy has been hampered by the lack of reliable pharmacological tools, but selective inhibitors are now available to modulate the PI 3-kinase VPS34, which is required for autophagy. Here we describe the discovery of potent and selective VPS34 inhibitors, their pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, and ability to inhibit autophagy in cellular and mouse models. PMID:26819669

  1. P1-Substituted Symmetry-Based Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors with Potent Antiviral Activity against Drug-Resistant Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    DeGoey, David A.; Grampovnik, David J.; Chen, Hui-Ju; Flosi, William J.; Klein, Larry L.; Dekhtyar, Tatyana; Stoll, Vincent; Mamo, Mulugeta; Molla, Akhteruzzaman; Kempf, Dale J.

    2013-03-07

    Because there is currently no cure for HIV infection, patients must remain on long-term drug therapy, leading to concerns over potential drug side effects and the emergence of drug resistance. For this reason, new and safe antiretroviral agents with improved potency against drug-resistant strains of HIV are needed. A series of HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) with potent activity against both wild-type (WT) virus and drug-resistant strains of HIV was designed and synthesized. The incorporation of substituents with hydrogen bond donor and acceptor groups at the P1 position of our symmetry-based inhibitor series resulted in significant potency improvements against the resistant mutants. By this approach, several compounds, such as 13, 24, and 29, were identified that demonstrated similar or improved potencies compared to 1 against highly mutated strains of HIV derived from patients who previously failed HIV PI therapy. Overall, compound 13 demonstrated the best balance of potency against drug resistant strains of HIV and oral bioavailability in pharmacokinetic studies. X-ray analysis of an HIV PI with an improved resistance profile bound to WT HIV protease is also reported.

  2. Residual ovarian activity during oral steroid contraception.

    PubMed

    van Heusden, A M; Fauser, B C J M

    2002-01-01

    Steroid drugs with contraceptive properties have been available in the clinical setting for over four decades and are still subject to improvement. Estrogens, progestins and anti-progestins have been used alone or in various combinations, regimens and routes of administration to favour the balance between efficacy and undesirable effects. One of the most important changes in this respect is the gradual lowering of steroid dosage in commercially available contraceptives. Current steroid contraceptive pills still achieve the goal of suppression of pituitary-ovarian activity, but the margins for error are minimal. In this review the available data on modes of action and the effects on suppressing pituitary-ovarian activity by different forms of oral contraception are reassessed. Although pregnancy rates provide a crude measure of contraceptive efficacy, no benchmark for pituitary-ovarian inhibition is available to test the suppressive potential of contraceptive drugs. Consequently, many studies provide incomplete and/or incomparable results. For the further study of those forms of steroid contraception that rely predominantly on suppression of ovarian activity, prevention of dominant follicles selection should be the objective.

  3. Prokaryotic expression of a constitutively expressed Tephrosia villosa defensin and its potent antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, S; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Kirti, P B

    2008-10-01

    Plant defensins are small, highly stable, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides produced by the plants for inhibiting a broad-spectrum of microbial pathogens. Some of the well-characterized plant defensins exhibit potent antifungal activity on certain pathogenic fungal species only. We characterized a defensin, TvD1 from a weedy leguminous herb, Tephrosia villosa. The open reading frame of the cDNA was 228 bp, which codes for a peptide with 75 amino acids. Expression analyses indicated that this defensin is expressed constitutively in T. villosa with leaf, stem, root, and seed showing almost similar levels of high expression. The recombinant peptide (rTvD1), expressed in the Escherichia coli expression system, exhibited potent in vitro antifungal activity against several filamentous soil-borne fungal pathogens. The purified peptide also showed significant inhibition of root elongation in Arabidopsis seedlings, subsequently affecting the extension of growing root hairs indicating that it has the potential to disturb the plant growth and development.

  4. Potent multitarget FAAH-COX inhibitors: Design and structure-activity relationship studies.

    PubMed

    Migliore, Marco; Habrant, Damien; Sasso, Oscar; Albani, Clara; Bertozzi, Sine Mandrup; Armirotti, Andrea; Piomelli, Daniele; Scarpelli, Rita

    2016-02-15

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exert their pharmacological effects by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. Though widely prescribed for pain and inflammation, these agents have limited utility in chronic diseases due to serious mechanism-based adverse events such as gastrointestinal damage. Concomitant blockade of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enhances the therapeutic effects of the NSAIDs while attenuating their propensity to cause gastrointestinal injury. This favorable interaction is attributed to the accumulation of protective FAAH substrates, such as the endocannabinoid anandamide, and suggests that agents simultaneously targeting COX and FAAH might provide an innovative strategy to combat pain and inflammation with reduced side effects. Here, we describe the rational design and structure-active relationship (SAR) properties of the first class of potent multitarget FAAH-COX inhibitors. A focused SAR exploration around the prototype 10r (ARN2508) led to the identification of achiral (18b) as well as racemic (29a-c and 29e) analogs. Absolute configurational assignment and pharmacological evaluation of single enantiomers of 10r are also presented. (S)-(+)-10r is the first highly potent and selective chiral inhibitor of FAAH-COX with marked in vivo activity, and represents a promising lead to discover novel analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  5. Recombinant Ad35 adenoviral proteins as potent modulators of human T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Joanne; Carter, Darrick; Lieber, André; Astier, Anne L

    2015-01-01

    The protein CD46 protects cells from complement attack by regulating cleavage of C3b and C3d. CD46 also regulates the adaptive immune response by controlling T-cell activation and differentiation. Co-engagement of the T-cell receptor and CD46 notably drives T-cell differentiation by switching production of interferon-γ to secretion of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10. This regulatory pathway is altered in several chronic inflammatory diseases, highlighting its key role for immune homeostasis. The manipulation of the CD46 pathway may therefore provide a powerful means to regulate immune responses. Herein, we investigated the effect of recombinant proteins derived from the fibre knob of the adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35) that uses CD46 as its entry receptor, on human T-cell activation. We compared the effects of Ad35K++, engineered to exhibit enhanced affinity to CD46, and of Ad35K−, mutated in the binding site for CD46. Ad35K++ profoundly affects T-cell activation by decreasing the levels of CD46 at the surface of primary T cells, and impairing T-cell co-activation, shown by decreased CD25 expression, reduced proliferation and lower secretion of interleukin-10 and interferon-γ. In contrast, Ad35K− acts a potent co-activator of T cells, enhancing T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. These data show that recombinant Ad35 proteins are potent modulators of human T-cell activation, and support their further development as potential drugs targeting T-cell responses. PMID:25251258

  6. Dimers of melampomagnolide B exhibit potent anticancer activity against hematological and solid tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Janganati, Venumadhav; Ponder, Jessica; Jordan, Craig T.; Borrelli, Michael J.; Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Crooks, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel carbamate and carbonate dimers of melampomagnolide B (MMB) have been synthesized by reaction of the MMB-triazole carbamate synthon 6 with various terminal diamino and dihydroxy alkanes. The resulting dimeric products 7b, 7c and 7f were selected and evaluated for anticancer activity against a panel of 60 human hematological and solid tumor cell lines. The most active compounds, 7b, 7c and 7f, exhibited GI50 values in the range 250-780 nM against the majority of leukemia cell lines in the tumor cell panel. Specifically, compounds 7b and 7f exhibited potent growth inhibition against non-small cell lung cancer cell lines NCI-H522 (GI50 = 160 nM) and HOP-92 (GI50 = 170 nM), respectively. Also, compound 7f also potently inhibited the growth of melanoma cell lines LOX IMVI, MALME-3M, and UACC-62 (GI50 values = 170, 190 and 190 nM, respectively); breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468 (GI50 = 190 nM); colon cancer cell line HCT-116 (GI50 = 190 nM); and renal cancer cell line RXF 393 (GI50 = 160 nM). Compound 7f and the simple dicarbonate dimer of MMB (8) showed anticancer activity 300-fold and 1 × 106-fold, respectively, more cytotoxic than 7f and DMAPT at a concentration of 10 μM against rat 9L-SF gliosarcoma cells. The dimeric compounds 7a-7j & 8 were also screened for antileukemic activity against M9-ENL1 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells and primary AML cell specimens. These compounds exhibited two to twelve-fold more potent antileukemic activity (EC50 = 0.5-2.9 μM) against the M9-ENL1 cell line when compared to parthenolide (EC50 = 6.0 μM). The dimeric analogues were also active against the primary AML cell specimens in the nanomolar to lower micromolar range and exhibited two to ten-fold more potent antileukemic activity (EC50 = 0.86-4.2 μM) when compared to parthenolide (EC50 = 2.5-16 μM). Thus, dimer 7f exhibited promising anticancer activity against a variety of both hematological and solid human tumor cell lines, while dimer 8 was

  7. Potent Intratype Neutralizing Activity Distinguishes Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) from HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Özkaya Şahin, Gülşen; Holmgren, Birgitta; da Silva, Zacarias; Nielsen, Jens; Nowroozalizadeh, Salma; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Månsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Sören; Norrgren, Hans; Aaby, Peter

    2012-01-01

    HIV-2 has a lower pathogenicity and transmission rate than HIV-1. Neutralizing antibodies could be contributing to these observations. Here we explored side by side the potency and breadth of intratype and intertype neutralizing activity (NAc) in plasma of 20 HIV-1-, 20 HIV-2-, and 11 dually HIV-1/2 (HIV-D)-seropositive individuals from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Panels of primary isolates, five HIV-1 and five HIV-2 isolates, were tested in a plaque reduction assay using U87.CD4-CCR5 cells as targets. Intratype NAc in HIV-2 plasma was found to be considerably more potent and also broader than intratype NAc in HIV-1 plasma. This indicates that HIV-2-infected individuals display potent type-specific neutralizing antibodies, whereas such strong type-specific antibodies are absent in HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, the potency of intratype NAc was positively associated with the viral load of HIV-1 but not HIV-2, suggesting that NAc in HIV-1 infection is more antigen stimulation dependent than in HIV-2 infection, where plasma viral loads typically are at least 10-fold lower than in HIV-1 infection. Intertype NAc of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections was, instead, of low potency. HIV-D subjects had NAc to HIV-2 with similar high potency as singly HIV-2-infected individuals, whereas neutralization of HIV-1 remained poor, indicating that the difference in NAc between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections depends on the virus itself. We suggest that immunogenicity and/or antigenicity, meaning the neutralization phenotype, of HIV-2 is distinct from that of HIV-1 and that HIV-2 may display structures that favor triggering of potent neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:22072782

  8. The Second-Generation Exportin-1 Inhibitor KPT-8602 Demonstrates Potent Activity against Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, Thomas; De Bie, Jolien; Neggers, Jasper E; Jacquemyn, Maarten; Vanstreels, Els; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L; Hornung, Veit; Baloglu, Erkan; Landesman, Yosef; Senapedis, William; Shacham, Sharon; Dagklis, Antonis; Cools, Jan; Daelemans, Dirk

    2016-10-25

    Purpose: Human exportin-1 (XPO1) is the key nuclear-cytoplasmic transport protein that exports different cargo proteins out of the nucleus. Inducing nuclear accumulation of these proteins by inhibiting XPO1 causes cancer cell death. First clinical validation of pharmacological inhibition of XPO1 was obtained with the Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compound selinexor (KPT-330) demonstrating activity in phase-II/IIb clinical trials when dosed 1 to 3 times weekly. The second-generation SINE compound KPT-8602 shows improved tolerability and can be dosed daily. Here, we investigate and validate the drug-target interaction of KPT-8602 and explore its activity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).Experimental Design: We examined the effect of KPT-8602 on XPO1 function and XPO1-cargo as well as on a panel of leukemia cell lines. Mutant XPO1 leukemia cells were designed to validate KPT-8602's drug-target interaction. In vivo, anti-ALL activity was measured in a mouse ALL model and patient-derived ALL xenograft models.Results: KPT-8602 induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in a panel of leukemic cell lines in vitro Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we demonstrated the specificity of KPT-8602 for cysteine 528 in the cargo-binding groove of XPO1 and validated the drug target interaction. In vivo, KPT-8602 showed potent anti-leukemia activity in a mouse ALL model as well as in patient-derived T- and B-ALL xenograft models without affecting normal hematopoiesis.Conclusions: KPT-8602 is highly specific for XPO1 inhibition and demonstrates potent anti-leukemic activity supporting clinical application of the second-generation SINE compound for the treatment of ALL. Clin Cancer Res; 1-14. ©2016 AACR.

  9. In vitro activity of voriconazole against Mexican oral yeast isolates.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Vargas, Luis Octavio; Eraso, Elena; Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso Javier; Aguirre, José Manuel; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quindós, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent complication in HIV-infected and AIDS patients. Topical antifungal treatment is useful for the initial episodes of oral candidiasis, but most patients suffer more than one episode and fluconazole or itraconazole can help in the management, and voriconazole may represent a useful alternative agent for the treatment of recalcitrant oral and oesophageal candidiasis. The aim of this research was to study the in vitro activity of voriconazole and fluconazole against Mexican oral isolates of clinically relevant yeast. The in vitro susceptibility of 187 oral yeast isolates from HIV-infected and healthy Mexicans was determined for fluconazole and voriconazole by the M44-A disc diffusion method. At 24 h, fluconazole was active against 179 of 187 isolates (95.7 %). Moreover, a 100% susceptibility to voriconazole was observed. Voriconazole and fluconazole are highly active in vitro against oral yeast isolates. This study provides baseline data on susceptibilities to both antifungal agents in Mexico.

  10. Impaired antigen presentation and potent phagocytic activity identifying tumor-tolerant human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Soares-Schanoski, Alessandra; Jurado, Teresa; Córdoba, Raúl; Siliceo, María; Fresno, Carlos Del; Gómez-Piña, Vanesa; Toledano, Victor; Vallejo-Cremades, Maria T; Alfonso-Iñiguez, Sergio; Carballo-Palos, Arkaitz; Fernández-Ruiz, Irene; Cubillas-Zapata, Carolina; Biswas, Subhra K; Arnalich, Francisco; García-Río, Francisco; López-Collazo, Eduardo

    2012-06-29

    Monocyte exposure to tumor cells induces a transient state in which these cells are refractory to further exposure to cancer. This phenomenon, termed "tumor tolerance", is characterized by a decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to tumors. In the past, we found that this effect comprises IRAK-M up regulation and TLR4 and CD44 activation. Herein we have established a human model of tumor tolerance and have observed a marked down-regulation of MHCII molecules as well as the MHCII master regulator, CIITA, in monocytes/macrophages. These cells combine an impaired capability for antigen presentation with potent phagocytic activity and exhibit an M2-like phenotype. In addition circulating monocytes isolated from Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia patients exhibited the same profile as tumor tolerant cells after tumor ex vivo exposition.

  11. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of betulinic acid treatment in a model of lethal endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Costa, José Fernando Oliveira; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Maia, Gabriela Lemos de Azevedo; Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Meira, Cássio Santana; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ricardo; de Carvalho, Lain Carlos Pontes; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Betulinic acid (BA) is a lupane-type triterpene with a number of biological activities already reported. While potent anti-HIV and antitumoral activities were attributed to BA, it is considered to have a moderate anti-inflammatory activity. Here we evaluated the effects of BA in a mouse model of endotoxic shock. Endotoxemia was induced through intraperitoneally LPS administration, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines were assessed by Griess method and ELISA, respectively. Treatment of BALB/c mice with BA at 67 mg/kg caused a 100% survival against a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). BA treatment caused a reduction in TNF-α production induced by LPS but did not alter IL-6 production. Moreover, BA treatment increased significantly the serum levels of IL-10 compared to vehicle-treated, LPS-challenged mice. To investigate the role of IL-10 in BA-induced protection, wild-type and IL-10(-/-) mice were studied. In contrast to the observations in IL-10(+/+) mice, BA did not protect IL-10(-/-) mice against a lethal LPS challenge. Addition of BA inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators by macrophages stimulated with LPS, while promoting a significant increase in IL-10 production. BA-treated peritoneal exudate macrophages produced lower concentrations of TNF-α and NO and higher concentrations of IL-10 upon LPS stimulation. Similarly, macrophages obtained from BA-treated mice produced less pro-inflammatory mediators and increased IL-10 when compared to non-stimulated macrophages obtained from vehicle-treated mice. In conclusion, we have shown that BA has a potent anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, protecting mice against LPS by modulating TNF-α production by macrophages in vivo through a mechanism dependent on IL-10.

  12. Basis Tetrapeptides as Potent Intracellular Inhibitors of type A Botulinum Neurotoxin Protease Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, M.; Swaminathan, S.; Oyler, G.; Ahmed, S. A.

    2011-01-21

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most potent of all toxins that cause flaccid muscle paralysis leading to death. They are also potential biothreat agents. A systematic investigation of various short peptide inhibitors of the BoNT protease domain with a 17-residue peptide substrate led to arginine-arginine-glycine-cysteine having a basic tetrapeptide structure as the most potent inhibitor. When assayed in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT), the inhibitory effect was drastically reduced. Replacing the terminal cysteine with one hydrophobic residue eliminated the DTT effect but with two hydrophobic residues made the pentapeptide a poor inhibitor. Replacing the first arginine with cysteine or adding an additional cysteine at the N terminus did not improve inhibition. When assessed using mouse brain lysates, the tetrapeptides also inhibited BoNT/A cleavage of the endogenous SNAP-25. The peptides penetrated the neuronal cell lines, N2A and BE(2)-M17, without adversely affecting metabolic functions as measured by ATP production and P-38 phosphorylation. Biological activity of the peptides persisted within cultured chick motor neurons and rat and mouse cerebellar neurons for more than 40 h and inhibited BoNT/A protease action inside the neurons in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Our results define a tetrapeptide as the smallest peptide inhibitor in the backdrop of a large substrate protein of 200+ amino acids having multiple interaction regions with its cognate enzyme. The inhibitors should also be valuable candidates for drug development.

  13. Novel highly potent and selective nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors: synthesis, biological evaluation and structure-activity relationships investigation.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Silvia; Zimmer, Christina; Belluti, Federica; Rampa, Angela; Hartmann, Rolf W; Recanatini, Maurizio; Bisi, Alessandra

    2010-07-22

    In further pursuing our search for potent and selective aromatase inhibitors, a new series of molecules was designed and synthesized, exploring possible structural modifications of a previously identified xanthone scaffold. Among them, highly potent compounds, with inhibitory activity in the low nanomolar range, were found. In particular, substitution of the heterocyclic oxygen atom in the xanthone core by a sulfur atom and/or increase in structure flexibility seemed to be favorable for the interaction with the enzyme.

  14. Allergy-Inducing Chromium Compounds Trigger Potent Innate Immune Stimulation Via ROS-Dependent Inflammasome Activation.

    PubMed

    Adam, Christian; Wohlfarth, Jonas; Haußmann, Maike; Sennefelder, Helga; Rodin, Annette; Maler, Mareike; Martin, Stefan F; Goebeler, Matthias; Schmidt, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Chromium allergy is a common occupational skin disease mediated by chromium (VI)-specific T cells that induce delayed-type hypersensitivity in sensitized individuals. Additionally, chromium (VI) can act as an irritant. Both responses critically require innate immune activation, but if and how chromium (VI) elicits this signal is currently unclear. Using human monocytes, primary human keratinocytes, and murine dendritic cells we show that chromium (VI) compounds fail to trigger direct proinflammatory activation but potently induce processing and secretion of IL-1β. IL-1β release required priming by phorbol-ester or toll-like receptor stimulation and was prevented by inhibition of K(+) efflux, NLRP3 depletion or caspase-1 inhibition, identifying chromium (VI) as a hapten activator of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Inflammasome activation was initiated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production triggered by chromium (VI), as indicated by sensitivity to treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine and a coinciding failure of K(+) efflux, caspase-1, or NLRP3 inhibition to prevent mitochondrial reactive oxygen species accumulation. IL-1β release further correlated with cytotoxicity that was secondary to reactive oxygen species, K(+) efflux, and NLRP3 activation. Trivalent chromium was unable to induce mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, inflammasome activation, and cytotoxicity, suggesting that oxidation state-specific differences in mitochondrial reactivity may determine inflammasome activation and allergic/irritant capacity of different chromium compounds.

  15. Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Muneaki; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Ogikubo, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Keishi; Iwakiri, Tomomi; Okumura, Manabu; Kodama, Hirofumi; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-01

    There has been very limited information on the capacities of tropical fruits to inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Thus, the inhibitory effects of tropical fruits on midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity of CYP3A in human liver microsomes were evaluated. Eight tropical fruits such as common papaw, dragon fruit, kiwi fruit, mango, passion fruit, pomegranate, rambutan, and star fruit were tested. We also examined the inhibition of CYP3A activity by grapefruit (white) and Valencia orange as controls. The juice of star fruit showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A. The addition of a star fruit juice (5.0%, v/v) resulted in the almost complete inhibition of midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity (residual activity of 0.1%). In the case of grape-fruit, the residual activity was 14.7%. The inhibition depended on the amount of fruit juice added to the incubation mixture (0.2-6.0%, v/v). The elongation of the preincubation period of a juice from star fruit (1.25 or 2.5%, v/v) with the microsomal fraction did not alter the CYP3A inhibition, suggesting that the star fruit did not contain a mechanism-based inhibitor. Thus, we discovered filtered extracts of star fruit juice to be inhibitors of human CYP3A activity in vitro.

  16. The EDLL motif: a potent plant transcriptional activation domain from AP2/ERF transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Shiv B; Belachew, Alemu; Ma, Siu Fong; Young, Melinda; Ade, Jules; Shen, Yu; Marion, Colleen M; Holtan, Hans E; Bailey, Adina; Stone, Jeffrey K; Edwards, Leslie; Wallace, Andreah D; Canales, Roger D; Adam, Luc; Ratcliffe, Oliver J; Repetti, Peter P

    2012-06-01

    In plants, the ERF/EREBP family of transcriptional regulators plays a key role in adaptation to various biotic and abiotic stresses. These proteins contain a conserved AP2 DNA-binding domain and several uncharacterized motifs. Here, we describe a short motif, termed 'EDLL', that is present in AtERF98/TDR1 and other clade members from the same AP2 sub-family. We show that the EDLL motif, which has a unique arrangement of acidic amino acids and hydrophobic leucines, functions as a strong activation domain. The motif is transferable to other proteins, and is active at both proximal and distal positions of target promoters. As such, the EDLL motif is able to partly overcome the repression conferred by the AtHB2 transcription factor, which contains an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif. We further examined the activation potential of EDLL by analysis of the regulation of flowering time by NF-Y (nuclear factor Y) proteins. Genetic evidence indicates that NF-Y protein complexes potentiate the action of CONSTANS in regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis; we show that the transcriptional activation function of CONSTANS can be substituted by direct fusion of the EDLL activation motif to NF-YB subunits. The EDLL motif represents a potent plant activation domain that can be used as a tool to confer transcriptional activation potential to heterologous DNA-binding proteins.

  17. Enhancement of the fibrinolytic activity in plasma by oral administration of nattokinase.

    PubMed

    Sumi, H; Hamada, H; Nakanishi, K; Hiratani, H

    1990-01-01

    The existence of a potent fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase, NK) in the traditional fermented food called 'natto', was reported by us previously. It was confirmed that oral administration of NK (or natto) produced a mild and frequent enhancement of the fibrinolytic activity in the plasma, as indicated by the fibrinolytic parameters, and the production of tissue plasminogen activator. NK capsules were also administered orally to dogs with experimentally induced thrombosis, and lysis of the thrombi was observed by angiography. The results obtained suggest that NK represents a possible drug for use not only in the treatment of embolism but also in the prevention of the disease, since NK has a proven safety and can be massproduced.

  18. Potent antagonistic activity of Egyptian Lactobacillus plantarum against multiresistant and virulent food-associated pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Al-Madboly, Lamiaa A.; Abdullah, Abeer K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have shown a growing interest to replace the administration of antibiotics with the application of probiotics. The aim of our investigation was to screen for promising strains with broad antimicrobial activity and also more resistant to the challenges met in the gastrointestinal tract. In our study, only 32 out of 50 (64%) probiotic isolates showed antagonistic activity against certain major extensively and pandrug-resistant Gram-positive and -negative food-borne pathogens. Fifteen L. plantarum isolates had a broad antibacterial spectrum. Among these isolates, only five presented potent antibacterial activity relative to previous studies. The recorded inhibition zone diameter ranged from 25 to 44 mm. Pronounced cell-free supernatant activities (6400–25,600 AU/ml) were commonly detected at the end of the logarithmic phase at 37°C. A marked increase in the range of activity (12,800–51,200 AU/ml) was recorded after the addition of 0.9% Na Cl to the media. Moreover, subjecting these isolates to different stressors, including high temperature, low pH, and different concentrations of bile and Na Cl, revealed different responses, and only two out of the five L. plantarum isolates showed marked resistance to all of the stress factors. Accordingly, this study highlights the intense and broad antagonistic activity induced by L. plantarum against various food associated pathogens, and their ability to resist different stressors suggests that they can be used in the food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26029169

  19. Discovery of Potent, Selective, and Orally Bioavailable Small-Molecule Modulators of the Mediator Complex-Associated Kinases CDK8 and CDK19

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Mediator complex-associated cyclin-dependent kinase CDK8 has been implicated in human disease, particularly in colorectal cancer where it has been reported as a putative oncogene. Here we report the discovery of 109 (CCT251921), a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of CDK8 with equipotent affinity for CDK19. We describe a structure-based design approach leading to the discovery of a 3,4,5-trisubstituted-2-aminopyridine series and present the application of physicochemical property analyses to successfully reduce in vivo metabolic clearance, minimize transporter-mediated biliary elimination while maintaining acceptable aqueous solubility. Compound 109 affords the optimal compromise of in vitro biochemical, pharmacokinetic, and physicochemical properties and is suitable for progression to animal models of cancer. PMID:26796641

  20. Galloylated proanthocyanidins from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal have potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, A; Williams, A R; Thamsborg, S M; Mueller-Harvey, I

    2016-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA) from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal were investigated by thiolytic degradation with benzyl mercaptan and the reaction products were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These PA were galloylated (≈40%), contained only B-type linkages and had a high proportion of prodelphinidins (>70%). The mean degree of polymerisation was 8 (i.e. average molecular size was 2384Da) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) was the major flavan-3-ol subunit in PA. Shea meal also proved to be a potentially valuable source for extracting free flavan-3-ol-O-gallates, especially EGCg (575mg/kg meal), which is known for its health and anti-parasitic benefits. Proanthocyanidins were isolated and tested for bioactivity against Ascaris suum, which is an important parasite of pigs. Migration and motility tests revealed that these PA have potent activity against this parasitic nematode.

  1. Potent and selective MAO-B inhibitory activity: amino- versus nitro-3-arylcoumarin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Matos, Maria João; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Fernanda; Vilar, Santiago; Santana, Lourdes; Uriarte, Eugenio; Hripcsak, George; Estrada, Martín; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel; Viña, Dolores

    2015-02-01

    In this study we synthesized and evaluated a new series of amino and nitro 3-arylcoumarins as hMAO-A and hMAO-B inhibitors. Compounds 2, 3, 5 and 6 presented a better activity and selectivity profile against the hMAO-B isoform (IC50 values between 2 and 6nM) than selegiline. In general, the amino derivatives (4-6) proved to be more selective against MAO-B than the nitro derivatives (1-3). Additionally, a theoretical study of some physicochemical properties, PAMPA and reversibility assays for the most potent derivative, and molecular docking simulations were carried out to further explain the pharmacological results, and to identify the hypothetical binding mode for the compounds inside the hMAO-B.

  2. Designed, synthetically accessible bryostatin analogues potently induce activation of latent HIV reservoirs in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechristopher, Brian A.; Loy, Brian A.; Marsden, Matthew D.; Schrier, Adam J.; Zack, Jerome A.; Wender, Paul A.

    2012-09-01

    Bryostatin is a unique lead in the development of potentially transformative therapies for cancer, Alzheimer's disease and the eradication of HIV/AIDS. However, the clinical use of bryostatin has been hampered by its limited supply, difficulties in accessing clinically relevant derivatives, and side effects. Here, we address these problems through the step-economical syntheses of seven members of a new family of designed bryostatin analogues using a highly convergent Prins-macrocyclization strategy. We also demonstrate for the first time that such analogues effectively induce latent HIV activation in vitro with potencies similar to or better than bryostatin. Significantly, these analogues are up to 1,000-fold more potent in inducing latent HIV expression than prostratin, the current clinical candidate for latent virus induction. This study provides the first demonstration that designed, synthetically accessible bryostatin analogues could serve as superior candidates for the eradication of HIV/AIDS through induction of latent viral reservoirs in conjunction with current antiretroviral therapy.

  3. Pyrazole derived ultra-short antimicrobial peptidomimetics with potent anti-biofilm activity.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Mija; Gunasekaran, Pethaiah; Rajasekaran, Ganesan; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Soo-Jae; Bang, Geul; Cho, Kun; Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Jeon, Young Ho; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Shin, Song Yub; Bang, Jeong Kyu

    2017-01-05

    In this study, we report on the first chemical synthesis of ultra-short pyrazole-arginine based antimicrobial peptidomimetics derived from the newly synthesized N-alkyl/aryl pyrazole amino acids. Through the systematic tuning of hydrophobicity, charge, and peptide length, we identified the shortest peptide Py11 with the most potent antimicrobial activity. Py11 displayed greater antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including MRSA, MDRPA, and VREF, which was approximately 2-4 times higher than that of melittin. Besides its higher selectivity (therapeutic index) toward bacterial cells than LL-37, Py11 showed highly increased proteolytic stability against trypsin digestion and maintained its antimicrobial activity in the presence of physiological salts. Interestingly, Py11 exhibited higher anti-biofilm activity against MDRPA compared to LL-37. The results from fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggested that Py11 kills bacterial cells possibly by integrity disruption damaging the cell membrane, leading to the cytosol leakage and eventual cell lysis. Furthermore, Py11 displayed significant anti-inflammatory (endotoxin-neutralizing) activity by inhibiting LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α. Collectively, our results suggest that Py11 may serve as a model compound for the design of antimicrobial and antisepsis agents.

  4. Sulfonylureas have antifungal activity and are potent inhibitors of Candida albicans acetohydroxyacid synthase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Ting; Cui, Chang-Jun; Chow, Eve W L; Pue, Nason; Lonhienne, Thierry; Wang, Jian-Guo; Fraser, James A; Guddat, Luke W

    2013-01-10

    The sulfonylurea herbicides exert their activity by inhibiting plant acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), the first enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway. It has previously been shown that if the gene for AHAS is deleted in Candida albicans , attenuation of virulence is achieved, suggesting AHAS as an antifungal drug target. Herein, we have cloned, expressed, and purified C. albicans AHAS and shown that several sulfonylureas are inhibitors of this enzyme and possess antifungal activity. The most potent of these compounds is ethyl 2-(N-((4-iodo-6-methoxypyrimidin-2-yl)carbamoyl)sulfamoyl)benzoate (10c), which has a K(i) value of 3.8 nM for C. albicans AHAS and an MIC₉₀ of 0.7 μg/mL for this fungus in cell-based assays. For the sulfonylureas tested there was a strong correlation between inhibitory activity toward C. albicans AHAS and fungicidal activity, supporting the hypothesis that AHAS is the target for their inhibitory activity within the cell.

  5. Alkyl Amine Bevirimat Derivatives Are Potent and Broadly Active HIV-1 Maturation Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Emiko; Ablan, Sherimay D.; Mandt, Rebecca; Pauly, Gary T.; Sigano, Dina M.; Schneider, Joel P.; Martin, David E.; Nitz, Theodore J.; Wild, Carl T.

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant with the release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles from the infected cell, the viral protease cleaves the Gag polyprotein precursor at a number of sites to trigger virus maturation. We previously reported that a betulinic acid-derived compound, bevirimat (BVM), blocks HIV-1 maturation by disrupting a late step in protease-mediated Gag processing: the cleavage of the capsid-spacer peptide 1 (CA-SP1) intermediate to mature CA. BVM was shown in multiple clinical trials to be safe and effective in reducing viral loads in HIV-1-infected patients. However, naturally occurring polymorphisms in the SP1 region of Gag (e.g., SP1-V7A) led to a variable response in some BVM-treated patients. The reduced susceptibility of SP1-polymorphic HIV-1 to BVM resulted in the discontinuation of its clinical development. To overcome the loss of BVM activity induced by polymorphisms in SP1, we carried out an extensive medicinal chemistry campaign to develop novel maturation inhibitors. In this study, we focused on alkyl amine derivatives modified at the C-28 position of the BVM scaffold. We identified a set of derivatives that are markedly more potent than BVM against an HIV-1 clade B clone (NL4-3) and show robust antiviral activity against a variant of NL4-3 containing the V7A polymorphism in SP1. One of the most potent of these compounds also strongly inhibited a multiclade panel of primary HIV-1 isolates. These data demonstrate that C-28 alkyl amine derivatives of BVM can, to a large extent, overcome the loss of susceptibility imposed by polymorphisms in SP1. PMID:26482309

  6. Discovery of 3H-Benzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-ones as Potent, Highly Selective, and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitors of the Human Protooncogene Proviral Insertion Site in Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (PIM) Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Zhi-Fu; Hasvold, Lisa A.; Leverson, Joel D.; Han, Edward K.; Guan, Ran; Johnson, Eric F.; Stoll, Vincent S.; Stewart, Kent D.; Stamper, Geoff; Soni, Nirupama; Bouska, Jennifer J.; Luo, Yan; Sowin, Thomas J.; Lin, Nan-Horng; Giranda, Vincent S.; Rosenberg, Saul H.; Penning, Thomas D.

    2010-02-19

    Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3 are a family of serine/threonine kinases which have been found to be overexpressed in a variety of hematopoietic malignancies and solid tumors. Benzothienopyrimidinones were discovered as a novel class of Pim inhibitors that potently inhibit all three Pim kinases with subnanomolar to low single-digit nanomolar K{sub i} values and exhibit excellent selectivity against a panel of diverse kinases. Protein crystal structures of the bound Pim-1 complexes of benzothienopyrimidinones 3b (PDB code 3JYA), 6e (PDB code 3JYO), and 12b (PDB code 3JXW) were determined and used to guide SAR studies. Multiple compounds exhibited potent antiproliferative activity in K562 and MV4-11 cells with submicromolar EC{sub 50} values. For example, compound 14j inhibited the growth of K562 cells with an EC{sub 50} value of 1.7 {micro}M and showed K{sub i} values of 2, 3, and 0.5 nM against Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3, respectively. These novel Pim kinase inhibitors efficiently interrupted the phosphorylation of Bad in both K562 and LnCaP-Bad cell lines, indicating that their potent biological activities are mechanism-based. The pharmacokinetics of 14j was studied in CD-1 mice and shown to exhibit bioavailability of 76% after oral dosing. ADME profiling of 14j suggested a long half-life in both human and mouse liver microsomes, good permeability, modest protein binding, and no CYP inhibition below 20 {micro}M concentration.

  7. Thiazole: a promising heterocycle for the development of potent CNS active agents.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Chandra Bhushan; Kumari, Shikha; Tiwari, Manisha

    2015-03-06

    Thiazole is a valuable scaffold in the field of medicinal chemistry and has accounted to display a variety of biological activities. Thiazole and its derivatives have attracted continuing interest to design various novel CNS active agents. In the past few decades, thiazoles have been widely used to develop a variety of therapeutic agents against numerous CNS targets. Thiazole containing drug molecules are currently being used in treatment of various CNS disorders and a number of thiazole derivatives are also presently in clinical trials. A lot of research has been carried out on thiazole and their analogues, which has proved their efficacy to overcome several CNS disorders in rodent as well as primate models. The aim of present review is to highlights diverse CNS activities displayed by thiazole and their derivatives. SAR of this nucleus has also been well discussed. This review covers the recent updates present in literature and will surely provide a greater insight for the designing and development of potent thiazole based CNS active agents in future.

  8. A chalcone with potent inhibiting activity against biofilm formation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Kunthalert, Duangkamol; Baothong, Sudarat; Khetkam, Pichit; Chokchaisiri, Suwadee; Suksamrarn, Apichart

    2014-10-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), an important human respiratory pathogen, frequently causes biofilm infections. Currently, resistance of bacteria within the biofilm to conventional antimicrobials poses a major obstacle to effective medical treatment on a global scale. Novel agents that are effective against NTHi biofilm are therefore urgently required. In this study, a series of natural and synthetic chalcones with various chemical substituents were evaluated in vitro for their antibiofilm activities against strong biofilm-forming strains of NTHi. Of the test chalcones, 3-hydroxychalcone (chalcone 8) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity, its mean minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50 ) being 16 μg/mL (71.35 μM), or approximately sixfold more active than the reference drug, azithromycin (MBIC50 419.68 μM). The inhibitory activity of chalcone 8, which is a chemically modified chalcone, appeared to be superior to those of the natural chalcones tested. Significantly, chalcone 8 inhibited biofilm formation by all studied NTHi strains, indicating that the antibiofilm activities of this compound occur across multiple strong-biofilm forming NTHi isolates of different clinical origins. According to antimicrobial and growth curve assays, chalcone 8 at concentrations that decreased biofilm formation did not affect growth of NTHi, suggesting the biofilm inhibitory effect of chalcone 8 is non-antimicrobial. In terms of structure-activity relationship, the possible substituent on the chalcone backbone required for antibiofilm activity is discussed. These findings indicate that 3-hydroxychalcone (chalcone 8) has powerful antibiofilm activity and suggest the potential application of chalcone 8 as a new therapeutic agent for control of NTHi biofilm-associated infections.

  9. The potent antioxidant activity of the vitamin K cycle in microsomal lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, L M; Ronden, J E; Thijssen, H H

    1997-10-15

    In the vitamin K cycle, vitamin K-hydroquinone, the active cofactor for gamma-glutamylcarboxylase, is continuously regenerated. The successive pathways contain oxidation of the hydroquinone to the epoxide, followed by reduction to the quinone and reduction to the hydroquinone. Vitamin K-hydroquinone is a potent radical scavenging species (Mukai et al., J Biol Chem 267: 22277-22281, 1992). We tested the potential antioxidant activity of the vitamin K cycle in lipid peroxidation reactions (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) in rat liver microsomes. As prooxidant we used Fe2+/ascorbate, NADPH-Fe3+/ATP, and NADPH/CCl4. Vitamin K (< or = 50 microM) on its own did not influence the formation of TBARS. In combination with 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT), the reductive cofactor for the microsomal enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase, vitamin K suppressed lipid peroxidation with a concentration that blocked the maximal response by 50% (IC50) of ca. 0.2 microM. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone-4) were equally active. Warfarin (5 microM) and chloro-vitamin K (50 microM), inhibitors of vitamin K epoxide reductase and gamma-glutamylcarboxylase, respectively, were able to completely abolish the antioxidant effect. Lipid peroxidation was inversely related to the amount of vitamin K hydroquinone in the reaction. Vitamin K epoxide reductase seemed sensitive to lipid peroxidation, with half of the activity being lost within 10 min during oxidation with NADPH/CCl4. The inactivation could be attenuated by antioxidants such as vitamin E, reduced glutathione, and menadione and also by a K vitamin in combination with DTT, but not by superoxide dismutase and catalase. The results show that the vitamin K cycle could act as a potent antioxidant, that the active species in all probability is vitamin K-hydroquinone, and that the primary reaction product is the semiquinone. The results also show that the reaction product is processed in the vitamin K cycle to

  10. A Potent, Selective and Cell-active Inhibitor of Human Type I Protein Arginine Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hong; Senisterra, Guillermo; Li, Fengling; Butler, Kyle V.; Kaniskan, H. Ümit; Speed, Brandon A.; dela Seña, Carlo; Dong, Aiping; Zeng, Hong; Schapira, Matthieu; Brown, Peter J.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Liu, Jing; Vedadi, Masoud; Jin, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) play a crucial role in a variety of biological processes. Overexpression of PRMTs has been implicated in various human diseases including cancer. Consequently, selective small-molecule inhibitors of PRMTs have been pursued by both academia and pharmaceutical industry as chemical tools for testing biological and therapeutic hypotheses. PRMTs are divided into three categories: type I PRMTs which catalyze mono- and asymmetric dimethylation of arginine residues, type II PRMTs which catalyze mono- and symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues, and type III PRMT which catalyzes only monomethylation of arginine residues. Here, we report the discovery of a potent, selective and cell-active inhibitor of human type I PRMTs, MS023, and characterization of this inhibitor in a battery of biochemical, biophysical and cellular assays. MS023 displayed high potency for type I PRMTs including PRMT1, 3, 4, 6 and 8, but was completely inactive against type II and type III PRMTs, protein lysine methyltransferases and DNA methyltransferases. A crystal structure of PRMT6 in complex with MS023 revealed that MS023 binds the substrate binding site. MS023 potently decreased cellular levels of histone arginine asymmetric dimethylation. It also reduced global levels of arginine asymmetric dimethylation and concurrently increased levels of arginine monomethylation and symmetric dimethylation in cells. We also developed MS094, a close analog of MS023, which was inactive in biochemical and cellular assays, as a negative control for chemical biology studies. MS023 and MS094 are useful chemical tools for investigating the role of type I PRMTs in health and disease. PMID:26598975

  11. Design and synthesis of 4-substituted quinazolines as potent EGFR inhibitors with anti-breast cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Marwa; Magdy, Naja

    2016-09-23

    Cancer is a major health problem to human beings around the world. Many quinazoline derivatives were reported to have potent cytotoxic activity. Our aim in this work is the discovery of potent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors with anti-breast cancer activity containing 4-substituted quinazoline pharmacophore. Novel series of 4-substituted 6,8-dibromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-quinazoline derivatives have been designed and synthesized. New derivatives were tested against MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma cell line) and screened for their inhibition activity against epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK). Most of the tested compounds show potent antiproliferative activity and EGFR-TK inhibitory activity. Compounds VIIIc and VIIIb exerted powerful cytotoxic activity (IC50 3.1 and 6.3 µM) with potent inhibitory percent (91.1 and 88.4%) against EGFR-TK. Compounds IX, VIIa, X, VIIb, VIc, V, IV, VIa and VIb showed promising cytotoxic effects with IC50 range (12-79 µM) with good activity against EGFR-TK with the inhibitory percent (85.4-60.8%). On the other hand, compounds VIIc, VIIIa exerted low cytotoxic effects as revealed from their IC50 value (124 and 144 µM) with low activity against EGFR-TK with inhibitory percent 30.6 and 29.1% respectively.

  12. Potent NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation by the HIV Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Abacavir.

    PubMed

    Toksoy, Atiye; Sennefelder, Helga; Adam, Christian; Hofmann, Sonja; Trautmann, Axel; Goebeler, Matthias; Schmidt, Marc

    2017-02-17

    There is experimental and clinical evidence that some exanthematous allergic drug hypersensitivity reactions are mediated by drug-specific T cells. We hypothesized that the capacity of certain drugs to directly stimulate the innate immune system may contribute to generate drug-specific T cells. Here we analyzed whether abacavir, an HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor often inducing severe delayed-type drug hypersensitivity, can trigger innate immune activation that may contribute to its allergic potential. We show that abacavir fails to generate direct innate immune activation in human monocytes but potently triggers IL-1β release upon pro-inflammatory priming with phorbol ester or Toll-like receptor stimulation. IL-1β processing and secretion were sensitive to Caspase-1 inhibition, NLRP3 knockdown, and K(+) efflux inhibition and were not observed with other non-allergenic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, identifying abacavir as a specific inflammasome activator. It further correlated with dose-dependent mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and cytotoxicity, indicating that inflammasome activation resulted from mitochondrial damage. However, both NLRP3 depletion and inhibition of K(+) efflux mitigated abacavir-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and cytotoxicity, suggesting that these processes were secondary to NLRP3 activation. Instead, depletion of cardiolipin synthase 1 abolished abacavir-induced IL-1β secretion, suggesting that mitochondrial cardiolipin release may trigger abacavir-induced inflammasome activation. Our data identify abacavir as a novel inflammasome-stimulating drug allergen. They implicate a potential contribution of innate immune activation to medication-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity, which may stimulate new concepts for treatment and prevention of drug allergies.

  13. Anticancer copper(II) phosphorus dendrimers are potent proapoptotic Bax activators.

    PubMed

    Mignani, Serge; El Brahmi, Nabil; Eloy, Laure; Poupon, Joel; Nicolas, Valérie; Steinmetz, Anke; El Kazzouli, Said; Bousmina, Mosto M; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Cresteil, Thierry

    2017-03-21

    A multivalent phosphorus dendrimer 1G3 and its corresponding Cu-complex, 1G3-Cu have been recently identified as agents retaining high antiproliferative potency. This antiproliferative capacity was preserved in cell lines overexpressing the efflux pump ABC B1, whereas cross-resistance was observed in ovarian cancer cell lines resistant to cisplatin. Theoretical 3D models were constructed: the dendrimers appear as irregularly shaped disk-like nano-objects of about 22 Å thickness and 49 Å diameter, which accumulated in cells after penetration by endocytosis. To get insight in their mode of action, cell death pathways have been examined in human cancer cell lines: early apoptosis was followed by secondary necrosis after multivalent phosphorus dendrimers exposure. The multivalent plain phosphorus dendrimer 1G3 moderately activated caspase-3 activity, in contrast with the multivalent Cu-conjugated phosphorus dendrimer 1G3-Cu which strikingly reduced the caspase-3 content and activity. This decrease of caspase activity is not related to the presence of copper, since inorganic copper has no or little effect on caspase-3. Conversely the potent apoptosis activation could be related to a noticeable translocation of Bax to the mitochondria, resulting in the release of AIF into the cytosol, its translocation to the nucleus and a severe DNA fragmentation, without alteration of the cell cycle. The multivalent Cu-conjugated phosphorus dendrimer is more efficient than its non-complexed analog to activate this pathway in close relationship with the higher antiproliferative potency. Therefore, this multivalent Cu-conjugated phosphorus dendrimer 1G3-Cu can be considered as a new and promising first-in-class antiproliferative agent with a distinctive mode of action, inducing apoptosis tumor cell death through Bax activation pathway.

  14. Nifuroxazide exerts potent anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activity in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongxia; Ye, Tinghong; Yu, Xi; Lei, Qian; Yang, Fangfang; Xia, Yong; Song, Xuejiao; Liu, Li; Deng, Hongxia; Gao, Tiantao; Peng, Cuiting; Zuo, Weiqiong; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Lidan; Wang, Ningyu; Zhao, Lifeng; Xie, Yongmei; Yu, Luoting; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-02-02

    Melanoma is a highly malignant neoplasm of melanocytes with considerable metastatic potential and drug resistance, explaining the need for new candidates that inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. The signal transducer and activator of the transcription 3 (Stat3) signaling pathway plays an important role in melanoma and has been validated as promising anticancer target for melanoma therapy. In this study, nifuroxazide, an antidiarrheal agent identified as an inhibitor of Stat3, was evaluated for its anti-melanoma activity in vitro and in vivo. It had potent anti-proliferative activity against various melanoma cell lines and could induce G2/M phase arrest and cell apoptosis. Moreover, nifuroxazide markedly impaired melanoma cell migration and invasion by down-regulating phosphorylated-Src, phosphorylated-FAK, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2, MMP-9 and vimentin. It also significantly inhibited tumor growth without obvious side effects in the A375-bearing mice model by inducing apoptosis and reducing cell proliferation and metastasis. Notably, nifuroxazide significantly inhibited pulmonary metastases, which might be associated with the decrease of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These findings suggested that nifuroxazide might be a potential agent for inhibiting the growth and metastasis of melanoma.

  15. Nifuroxazide exerts potent anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activity in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongxia; Ye, Tinghong; Yu, Xi; Lei, Qian; Yang, Fangfang; Xia, Yong; Song, Xuejiao; Liu, Li; Deng, Hongxia; Gao, Tiantao; Peng, Cuiting; Zuo, Weiqiong; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Lidan; Wang, Ningyu; Zhao, Lifeng; Xie, Yongmei; Yu, Luoting; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly malignant neoplasm of melanocytes with considerable metastatic potential and drug resistance, explaining the need for new candidates that inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. The signal transducer and activator of the transcription 3 (Stat3) signaling pathway plays an important role in melanoma and has been validated as promising anticancer target for melanoma therapy. In this study, nifuroxazide, an antidiarrheal agent identified as an inhibitor of Stat3, was evaluated for its anti-melanoma activity in vitro and in vivo. It had potent anti-proliferative activity against various melanoma cell lines and could induce G2/M phase arrest and cell apoptosis. Moreover, nifuroxazide markedly impaired melanoma cell migration and invasion by down-regulating phosphorylated-Src, phosphorylated-FAK, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2, MMP-9 and vimentin. It also significantly inhibited tumor growth without obvious side effects in the A375-bearing mice model by inducing apoptosis and reducing cell proliferation and metastasis. Notably, nifuroxazide significantly inhibited pulmonary metastases, which might be associated with the decrease of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These findings suggested that nifuroxazide might be a potential agent for inhibiting the growth and metastasis of melanoma. PMID:26830149

  16. A potent synthetic inorganic antibiotic with activity against drug-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hubick, Shelby; Jayaraman, Arumugam; McKeen, Alexander; Reid, Shelby; Alcorn, Jane; Stavrinides, John; Sterenberg, Brian T

    2017-02-06

    The acronymously named "ESKAPE" pathogens represent a group of bacteria that continue to pose a serious threat to human health, not only due to their propensity for repeated emergence, but also due to their ability to "eskape" antibiotic treatment. The evolution of multi-drug resistance in these pathogens alone has greatly outpaced the development of new therapeutics, necessitating an alternative strategy for antibiotic development that considers the evolutionary mechanisms driving antibiotic resistance. In this study, we synthesize a novel inorganic antibiotic, phosphopyricin, which has antibiotic activity against the Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE). We show that this potent antibiotic is bactericidal, and exhibits low toxicity in an acute dose assay in mice. As a synthetic compound that does not occur naturally, phosphopyricin would be evolutionarily foreign to microbes, thereby slowing the evolution of resistance. In addition, it loses antibiotic activity upon exposure to light, meaning that the active antibiotic will not accumulate in the general environment where strong selective pressures imposed by antibiotic residuals are known to accelerate resistance. Phosphopyricin represents an innovation in antimicrobials, having a synthetic core, and a photosensitive chemical architecture that would reduce accumulation in the environment.

  17. A potent synthetic inorganic antibiotic with activity against drug-resistant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hubick, Shelby; Jayaraman, Arumugam; McKeen, Alexander; Reid, Shelby; Alcorn, Jane; Stavrinides, John; Sterenberg, Brian T.

    2017-01-01

    The acronymously named “ESKAPE” pathogens represent a group of bacteria that continue to pose a serious threat to human health, not only due to their propensity for repeated emergence, but also due to their ability to “eskape” antibiotic treatment12. The evolution of multi-drug resistance in these pathogens alone has greatly outpaced the development of new therapeutics, necessitating an alternative strategy for antibiotic development that considers the evolutionary mechanisms driving antibiotic resistance. In this study, we synthesize a novel inorganic antibiotic, phosphopyricin, which has antibiotic activity against the Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE). We show that this potent antibiotic is bactericidal, and exhibits low toxicity in an acute dose assay in mice. As a synthetic compound that does not occur naturally, phosphopyricin would be evolutionarily foreign to microbes, thereby slowing the evolution of resistance. In addition, it loses antibiotic activity upon exposure to light, meaning that the active antibiotic will not accumulate in the general environment where strong selective pressures imposed by antibiotic residuals are known to accelerate resistance. Phosphopyricin represents an innovation in antimicrobials, having a synthetic core, and a photosensitive chemical architecture that would reduce accumulation in the environment. PMID:28165020

  18. Taurine is a potent activator of extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors in the thalamus.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fan; Yue, Minerva; Chandra, Dev; Keramidas, Angelo; Goldstein, Peter A; Homanics, Gregg E; Harrison, Neil L

    2008-01-02

    Taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the brain. In a number of studies, taurine has been reported to activate glycine receptors (Gly-Rs) at moderate concentrations (> or = 100 microM), and to be a weak agonist at GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)-Rs), which are usually activated at high concentrations (> or = 1 mM). In this study, we show that taurine reduced the excitability of thalamocortical relay neurons and activated both extrasynaptic GABA(A)-Rs and Gly-Rs in neurons in the mouse ventrobasal (VB) thalamus. Low concentrations of taurine (10-100 microM) decreased neuronal input resistance and firing frequency, and elicited a steady outward current under voltage clamp, but had no effects on fast inhibitory synaptic currents. Currents elicited by 50 microM taurine were abolished by gabazine, insensitive to midazolam, and partially blocked by 20 microM Zn2+, consistent with the pharmacological properties of extrasynaptic GABA(A)-Rs (alpha4beta2delta subtype) involved in tonic inhibition in the thalamus. Tonic inhibition was enhanced by an inhibitor of taurine transport, suggesting that taurine can act as an endogenous activator of these receptors. Taurine-evoked currents were absent in relay neurons from GABA(A)-R alpha4 subunit knock-out mice. The amplitude of the taurine current was larger in neurons from adult mice than juvenile mice. Taurine was a more potent agonist at recombinant alpha4beta2delta GABA(A)-Rs than at alpha1beta2gamma2 GABA(A)-Rs. We conclude that physiological concentrations of taurine can inhibit VB neurons via activation of extrasynaptic GABA(A)-Rs and that taurine may function as an endogenous regulator of excitability and network activity in the thalamus.

  19. Collybolide is a novel biased agonist of κ-opioid receptors with potent antipruritic activity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Achla; Gomes, Ivone; Bobeck, Erin N.; Fakira, Amanda K.; Massaro, Nicholas P.; Sharma, Indrajeet; Cavé, Adrien; Hamm, Heidi E.; Parello, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Among the opioid receptors, the κ-opioid receptor (κOR) has been gaining considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of complex CNS disorders including depression, visceral pain, and cocaine addiction. With an interest in discovering novel ligands targeting κOR, we searched natural products for unusual scaffolds and identified collybolide (Colly), a nonnitrogenous sesquiterpene from the mushroom Collybia maculata. This compound has a furyl-δ-lactone core similar to that of Salvinorin A (Sal A), another natural product from the plant Salvia divinorum. Characterization of the molecular pharmacological properties reveals that Colly, like Sal A, is a highly potent and selective κOR agonist. However, the two compounds differ in certain signaling and behavioral properties. Colly exhibits 10- to 50-fold higher potency in activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway compared with Sal A. Taken with the fact that the two compounds are equipotent for inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity, these results suggest that Colly behaves as a biased agonist of κOR. Behavioral studies also support the biased agonistic activity of Colly in that it exhibits ∼10-fold higher potency in blocking non–histamine-mediated itch compared with Sal A, and this difference is not seen in pain attenuation by these two compounds. These results represent a rare example of functional selectivity by two natural products that act on the same receptor. The biased agonistic activity, along with an easily modifiable structure compared with Sal A, makes Colly an ideal candidate for the development of novel therapeutics targeting κOR with reduced side effects. PMID:27162327

  20. Direct regulation of androgen receptor activity by potent CYP17 inhibitors in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Soifer, Harris S; Souleimanian, Naira; Wu, Sijian; Voskresenskiy, Anatoliy M; Collak, Filiz Kisaayak; Cinar, Bekir; Stein, Cy A

    2012-02-03

    TOK-001 and abiraterone are potent 17-heteroarylsteroid (17-HAS) inhibitors of Cyp17, one of the rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthesis of testosterone from cholesterol in prostate cancer cells. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the prevention of prostate cell growth by 17-HASs still remains elusive. Here, we assess the effects of 17-HASs on androgen receptor (AR) activity in LNCaP and LAPC-4 cells. We demonstrate that both TOK-001 and abiraterone reduced AR protein and mRNA expression, and antagonized AR-dependent promoter activation induced by androgen. TOK-001, but not abiraterone, is an effective apparent competitor of the radioligand [(3)H]R1881 for binding to the wild type and various mutant AR (W741C, W741L) proteins. In agreement with these data, TOK-001 is a consistently superior inhibitor than abiraterone of R1881-induced transcriptional activity of both wild type and mutant AR. However, neither agent was able to trans-activate the AR in the absence of R1881. Our data demonstrate that phospho-4EBP1 levels are significantly reduced by TOK-001 and to a lesser extent by abiraterone alcohol, and suggest a mechanism by which cap-dependent translation is suppressed by blocking assembly of the eIF4F and eIF4G complex to the mRNA 5' cap. Thus, the effects of these 17-HASs on AR signaling are complex, ranging from a decrease in testosterone production through the inhibition of Cyp17 as previously described, to directly reducing both AR protein expression and R1881-induced AR trans-activation.

  1. Potent inhibition of human neutrophil activations by bractelactone, a novel chalcone from Fissistigma bracteolatum

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yang-Chang; Sureshbabu, Munisamy; Fang, Yao-Ching; Wu, Yi-Hsiu; Lan, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chang, Ya-Wen; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2013-02-01

    Fissistigma bracteolatum is widely used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. However, its active components and mechanisms of action remain unclear. In this study, (3Z)-6,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3-(phenylmethylidene)-5-(3-phenylpropanoyl) -1-benzofuran-2(3H) (bractelactone), a novel chalcone from F. bracteolatum, showed potent inhibitory effects against superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ·−}) production, elastase release, and CD11b expression in formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced human neutrophils. However, bractelactone showed only weak inhibition of phorbol myristate acetate-caused O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The peak cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) was unaltered by bractelactone in FMLP-induced neutrophils, but the decay time of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was significantly shortened. In a calcium-free solution, changes in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} caused by the addition of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} were inhibited by bractelactone in FMLP-activated cells. In addition, bractelactone did not alter the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK, JNK, or AKT or the concentration of cAMP. These results suggest that bractelactone selectively inhibits store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). In agreement with this concept, bractelactone suppressed sustained [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} changes in thapsigargin-activated neutrophils. Furthermore, bractelactone did not alter FMLP-induced formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effects of bractelactone, an active ingredient of F. bracteolatum, in human neutrophils are through the selective inhibition of SOCE. Highlights: ► Bractelactone isolated from Fissistigma bracteolatum. ► Bractelactone inhibited FMLP-induced human neutrophil activations. ► Bractelactone had no effect on IP3 formation. ► Bractelactone did not alter MAPKs, AKT, and cAMP pathways. ► Bractelactone inhibited store-operated calcium entry.

  2. Activation of TRPM3 by a potent synthetic ligand reveals a role in peptide release.

    PubMed

    Held, Katharina; Kichko, Tatjana; De Clercq, Katrien; Klaassen, Hugo; Van Bree, Rieta; Vanherck, Jean-Christophe; Marchand, Arnaud; Reeh, Peter W; Chaltin, Patrick; Voets, Thomas; Vriens, Joris

    2015-03-17

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel subfamily M member 3 (TRPM3), a member of the TRP channel superfamily, was recently identified as a nociceptor channel in the somatosensory system, where it is involved in the detection of noxious heat; however, owing to the lack of potent and selective agonists, little is known about other potential physiological consequences of the opening of TRPM3. Here we identify and characterize a synthetic TRPM3 activator, CIM0216, whose potency and apparent affinity greatly exceeds that of the canonical TRPM3 agonist, pregnenolone sulfate (PS). In particular, a single application of CIM0216 causes opening of both the central calcium-conducting pore and the alternative cation permeation pathway in a membrane-delimited manner. CIM0216 evoked robust calcium influx in TRPM3-expressing somatosensory neurons, and intradermal injection of the compound induced a TRPM3-dependent nocifensive behavior. Moreover, CIM0216 elicited the release of the peptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from sensory nerve terminals and insulin from isolated pancreatic islets in a TRPM3-dependent manner. These experiments identify CIM0216 as a powerful tool for use in investigating the physiological roles of TRPM3, and indicate that TRPM3 activation in sensory nerve endings can contribute to neurogenic inflammation.

  3. Characterization of DicB by partially masking its potent inhibitory activity of cell division

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaoyuan; Pei, Hairun; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wei, Qiang; Zhu, Jia; Zheng, Jimin; Jia, Zongchao

    2016-01-01

    DicB, a protein encoded by the Kim (Qin) prophage in Escherichia coli, inhibits cell division through interaction with MinC. Thus far, characterization of DicB has been severely hampered owing to its potent activity which ceases cell division and leads to cell death. In this work, through fusing maltose-binding protein to the N-terminus of DicB (MBP–DicB), we successfully expressed and purified recombinant DicB that enabled in vitro analysis for the first time. More importantly, taking advantage of the reduced inhibitory activity of MBP–DicB, we were able to study its effects on cell growth and morphology. Inhibition of cell growth by MBP–DicB was systematically evaluated using various DicB constructs, and their corresponding effects on cell morphology were also investigated. Our results revealed that the N-terminal segment of DicB plays an essential functional role, in contrast to its C-terminal tail. The N-terminus of DicB is of critical importance as even the first amino acid (following the initial Met) could not be removed, although it could be mutated. This study provides the first glimpse of the molecular determinants underlying DicB's function. PMID:27466443

  4. Mirror-image organometallic osmium arene iminopyridine halido complexes exhibit similar potent anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Soni, Rina; Romero, María J; Pizarro, Ana M; Salassa, Luca; Clarkson, Guy J; Hearn, Jessica M; Habtemariam, Abraha; Wills, Martin; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-11-04

    Four chiral Os(II) arene anticancer complexes have been isolated by fractional crystallization. The two iodido complexes, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 2, (S)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(S)-1-phenylethylamine) and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)I]PF6 (complex 4, (R)-ImpyMe: N-(2-pyridylmethylene)-(R)-1-phenylethylamine), showed higher anticancer activity (lower IC50 values) towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells than cisplatin and were more active than the two chlorido derivatives, (S(Os),S(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 1, and (R(Os),R(C))-[Os(η(6)-p-cym)(ImpyMe)Cl]PF6, 3. The two iodido complexes were evaluated in the National Cancer Institute 60-cell-line screen, by using the COMPARE algorithm. This showed that the two potent iodido complexes, 2 (NSC: D-758116/1) and 4 (NSC: D-758118/1), share surprisingly similar cancer cell selectivity patterns with the anti-microtubule drug, vinblastine sulfate. However, no direct effect on tubulin polymerization was found for 2 and 4, an observation that appears to indicate a novel mechanism of action. In addition, complexes 2 and 4 demonstrated potential as transfer-hydrogenation catalysts for imine reduction.

  5. Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship studies of a potent PACE4 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Anna; Couture, Frédéric; Levesque, Christine; Ly, Kévin; Desjardins, Roxane; Beauchemin, Sophie; Prahl, Adam; Lammek, Bernard; Neugebauer, Witold; Dory, Yves L; Day, Robert

    2014-01-09

    PACE4 plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer and is an attractive target for the development of novel inhibitor-based tumor therapies. We previously reported the design and synthesis of a novel, potent, and relatively selective PACE4 inhibitor known as a Multi-Leu (ML) peptide. In the present work, we examined the ML peptide through detailed structure-activity relationship studies. A variety of ML-peptide analogues modified at the P8-P5 positions with leucine isomers (Nle, DLeu, and DNle) or substituted at the P1 position with arginine mimetics were tested for their inhibitory activity, specificity, stability, and antiproliferative effect. By incorporating d isomers at the P8 position or a decarboxylated arginine mimetic, we obtained analogues with an improved stability profile and excellent antiproliferative properties. The DLeu or DNle residue also has improved specificity toward PACE4, whereas specificity was reduced for a peptide modified with the arginine mimetic, such as 4-amidinobenzylamide.

  6. IPD-196, a novel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor with potent anticancer activity against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Lee, Hyunseung; Yun, Sun-Mi; Jung, Kyung Hee; Jeong, Yujeong; Yan, Hong Hua; Hong, Sungwoo; Hong, Soon-Sun

    2013-02-01

    As the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is associated with a wide variety of human malignancies, it is emerging as an attractive target for cancer treatment. In this study we synthesized a novel PI3Kα inhibitor, IPD-196 [ethyl 6-(5-(2,4-difluorophenylsulfonamido)pyridin-3-yl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxylate], and evaluated its anticancer effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. IPD-196 effectively inhibited the phosphorylation of downstream PI3K effectors such as Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, and 4E-BP1, and its antiproliferative effect was more potent than that of sorafenib or LY294002. It also induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase as well as apoptosis by increasing the proportion of sub-G1 apoptotic cells, and the levels of cleaved PARP, caspase-3, and caspase-9. Furthermore, it decreased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in Huh-7 cells, and inhibited tube formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which was confirmed by a Matrigel plug assay in mice. Taken together, IPD-196 exhibited its anticancer activity through disruption of the PI3K/Akt pathway that caused cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, and inhibition of angiogenesis in human HCC cells. We therefore suggest that IPD-196 may be a potential candidate drug for targeted HCC therapy.

  7. Putting copper into action: copper-impregnated products with potent biocidal activities.

    PubMed

    Borkow, Gadi; Gabbay, Jeffrey

    2004-11-01

    Copper ions, either alone or in copper complexes, have been used for centuries to disinfect liquids, solids, and human tissue. Today copper is used as a water purifier, algaecide, fungicide, nematocide, molluscicide, and antibacterial and antifouling agent. Copper also displays potent antiviral activity. We hypothesized that introducing copper into clothing, bedding, and other articles would provide them with biocidal properties. A durable platform technology has been developed that introduces copper into cotton fibers, latex, and other polymeric materials. This study demonstrates the broad-spectrum antimicrobial (antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal) and antimite activities of copper-impregnated fibers and polyester products. This technology enabled the production of antiviral gloves and filters (which deactivate HIV-1 and other viruses), antibacterial self-sterilizing fabrics (which kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci), antifungal socks (which alleviate symptoms of athlete's foot), and anti-dust mite mattress covers (which reduce mite-related allergies). These products did not have skin-sensitizing properties, as determined by guine pig maximization and rabbit skin irritation tests. Our study demonstrates the potential use of copper in new applications. These applications address medical issues of the greatest importance, such as viral transmissions; nosocomial, or healthcare-associated, infections; and the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers with potent and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity from the marine sponge Dysidea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shi; Canning, Corene B; Bhargava, Kanika; Sun, Xiuxiu; Zhu, Wenjun; Zhou, Ninghui; Zhang, Yifan; Zhou, Kequan

    2015-01-01

    Three polybrominated diphenyl ethers, 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-3,5-dibromophenol (1) and 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-3,4,5-tribromophenol (2) were isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea granulosa; and 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromophenol (3) from Dysidea spp. They exhibited potent and broad spectrum in vitro antibacterial activity, especially against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated against 12 clinical and standard strains of Gram positive and negative bacteria. The observed MIC range was 0.1-4.0mg/L against all the Gram positive bacteria and 0.1-16.0mg/L against Gram negative bacteria. 2-(2',4″-Dibromophenoxy)-3,5-dibromophenol showed stronger broad spectrum antibacterial activity than other two compounds. 2-(2',4″-Dibromophenoxy)-3,5-dibromophenol and 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromophenol are thermo-stable. The results suggest that 2-(2',4'-dibromophenoxy)-3,5-dibromophenol could be used as a potential lead molecule for anti-MRSA, anti-E. coli O157:H7, and anti-Salmonella for drug development.

  9. Gossypol enantiomers potently inhibit human placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and aromatase activities.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yaoyao; Mao, Baiping; Li, Linxi; Guan, Hongguo; Su, Ying; Li, Xiaoheng; Lian, Qingquan; Huang, Ping; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2016-03-01

    Gossypol is a chemical isolated from cotton seeds. It exists as (+) or (-) enantiomer and has been tested for anticancer, abortion-inducing, and male contraception. Progesterone formed from pregnenolone by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1) and estradiol from androgen by aromatase (CYP19A1) are critical for the maintenance of pregnancy or associated with some cancers. In this study we compared the potencies of (+)- and (-)-gossypol enantiomers in the inhibition of HSD3B1 and aromatase activities as well as progesterone and estradiol production in human placental JEG-3 cells. (+) Gossypol showed potent inhibition on human placental HSD3B1 with IC50 value of 2.3 μM, while (-) gossypol weakly inhibited it with IC50 over 100 μM. In contrast, (-) gossypol moderately inhibited CYP19A1 activity with IC50 of 23 μM, while (+) gossypol had no inhibition when the highest concentration (100 μM) was tested. (+) Gossypol enantiomer competitively inhibited HSD3B1 against substrate pregnenolone and showed mixed mode against NAD(+). (-) Gossypol competitively inhibited CYP19A1 against substrate testosterone. Gossypol enantiomers showed different potency related to their inhibition on human HSD3B1 and CYP19A1. Whether gossypol enantiomer is used alone or in combination relies on its application and beneficial effects.

  10. Preclinical and Early Clinical Profile of a Highly Selective and Potent Oral Inhibitor of Aldosterone Synthase (CYP11B2)

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Dietmar; Delporte, Marie-Laure; Palermo, Giuseppe; Amrein, Kurt; Mohr, Susanne; De Vera Mudry, Maria Cristina; Brown, Morris J.; Ferber, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Primary hyperaldosteronism is a common cause of resistant hypertension. Aldosterone is produced in the adrenal by aldosterone synthase (AS, encoded by the gene CYP11B2). AS shares 93% homology to 11β-hydroxylase (encoded by the gene CYP11B1), responsible for cortisol production. This homology has hitherto impeded the development of a drug, which selectively suppresses aldosterone but not cortisol production, as a new treatment for primary hyperaldosteronism. We now report the development of RO6836191 as a potent (Ki 13 nmol/L) competitive inhibitor of AS, with in vitro selectivity >100-fold over 11β-hydroxylase. In cynomolgus monkeys challenged with synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone, single doses of RO6836191 inhibited aldosterone synthesis without affecting the adrenocorticotropic hormone–induced rise in cortisol. In repeat-dose toxicity studies in monkeys, RO6836191 reproduced the adrenal changes of the AS−/− mouse: expansion of the zona glomerulosa; increased expression of AS (or disrupted green fluorescent protein gene in the AS−/− mouse); hypertrophy, proliferation, and apoptosis of zona glomerulosa cells. These changes in the monkey were partially reversible and partially preventable by electrolyte supplementation and treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. In healthy subjects, single doses of RO6836191, across a 360-fold dose range, reduced plasma and urine aldosterone levels with maximum suppression at a dose of 10 mg, but unchanged cortisol, on adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge, up to 360 mg, and increase in the precursors 11-deoxycorticosterone and 11-deoxycortisol only at or >90 mg. In conclusion, RO6836191 demonstrates that it is possible to suppress aldosterone production completely in humans without affecting cortisol production. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01995383. PMID:27872236

  11. Discovery of novel Ponatinib analogues for reducing KDR activity as potent FGFRs inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Peng, Xia; Guan, Xiaocong; Lu, Dong; Xi, Yong; Jin, Shiyu; Chen, Hui; Zeng, Limin; Ai, Jing; Geng, Meiyu; Hu, Youhong

    2017-01-27

    FGF receptors (FGFRs) are tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in diverse tumors by genetic alterations such as gene amplifications, somatic mutations and translocations. Owing to this characteristic, FGFRs are attractive targets for cancer treatment. It has been demonstrated that most multi-targeted, ATP competitive tyrosine kinase inhibitors are active against FGFRs as well as other kinases. The design of new and more selective inhibitors of FGFRs, which might be reduced off-target and side effects, is a difficult yet significant challenge. The results of the current investigation, show that novel Ponatinib analogues are highly active as FGFR inhibitors and that they possess reduced kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) activities. Observations made in a structure and activity relationship (SAR) investigation led to the development of a promising, orally available lead compound 4, which displays a 50-100 fold in vitro selectivity for inhibition of FGFR1-3 over KDR. In addition, biological evaluation of compound 4 showed that it displays significant antitumor activities in FGFR1-amplificated H1581 and FGFR2-amplificated SNU-16 xenograft models.

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of diarylthiazole derivatives as antimitotic and antivascular agents with potent antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Yang, Zhuang; Liu, Yibin; Ma, Liang; Wu, Yuzhe; He, Lin; Shao, Mingfeng; Yu, Kun; Wu, Wenshuang; Pu, Yuzhi; Nie, Chunlai; Chen, Lijuan

    2015-07-01

    By switching position of the N and S atom in the thiazole ring which were similar to the previously reported agent 5-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-(3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)thiazol-2-amine, a series of 4,5-diarylthiazole derivatives were synthesized using Friedel-Crafts reaction based on chemical modification of Combrestatatin A-4 (CA-4). Their antiproliferative activities were evaluated and identified as new microtubule destabilizing agents. Structure-activity relationship study indicated that compound 8a with 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl group at the C-4 position and 4-ethoxyphenyl group at the C-5 position of 2-amino substituted thiazole was of the most potent inhibitory activity in this series. 8a was found to exhibit the IC50 values of 8.4-26.4nM in five human cancer cell lines, with comparable inhibition effects to CA-4. Moreover, 8a showed potency as a tubulin polymerization inhibitor, with colchicine site binding ability and comparable extent of inhibition against the growth of P-glycoprotein over-expressing multidrug resistant cell lines. Mechanism studies revealed that 8a could block the progression of cell cycle in the G2/M phase and result in cellular apoptosis in cancer cells. As a new tubulin destabilizing agent, 8a was also found high antivascular activity as it concentration-dependently reduced the cell migration and disrupted capillary like tube formation of HUVEC cells. Furthermore, 8a significantly suppressed the tumor growth in HCT116 and SK-OV-3 xenograft models with tumor growth inhibitory rate of 55.12% and 72.7%, respectively. Our studies highlighted that 8a was a promising microtubule targeting antitumor agent.

  13. Compounds from Sorindeia juglandifolia (Anacardiaceae) exhibit potent anti-plasmodial activities in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Discovering new lead compounds against malaria parasites is a crucial step to ensuring a sustainable global pipeline for effective anti-malarial drugs. As far as we know, no previous phytochemical or pharmacological investigations have been carried out on Sorindeia juglandifolia. This paper describes the results of an anti-malarial activity-driven investigation of the fruits of this Cameroonian plant. Methods Air-dried fruits were extracted by maceration using methanol. The extract was fractionated by flash chromatography followed by column chromatography over silica gel, eluting with gradients of hexane-ethyl acetate mixtures. Resulting fractions and compounds were tested in vitro against the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistant strain W2, against field isolates of P. falciparum, and against the P. falciparum recombinant cysteine protease falcipain-2. Promising fractions were assessed for acute toxicity after oral administration in mice. One of the promising isolated compounds was assessed in vivo against the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Results The main end-products of the activity-guided fractionation were 2,3,6-trihydroxy benzoic acid (1) and 2,3,6-trihydroxy methyl benzoate (2). Overall, nine fractions tested against P. falciparum W2 and falcipain-2 were active, with IC50 values of 2.3-11.6 μg/ml for W2, and 1.1-21.9 μg/ml for falcipain-2. Purified compounds (1) and (2) also showed inhibitory effects against P. falciparum W2 (IC50s 16.5 μM and 13.0 μM) and falcipain-2 (IC50s 35.4 and 6.1 μM). In studies of P. falciparum isolates from Cameroon, the plant fractions demonstrated IC50 values of 0.14-19.4 μg/ml and compounds (1) and (2) values of 6.3 and 36.1 μM. In vivo assessment of compound (1) showed activity against P. berghei strain B, with mean parasitaemia suppressive dose and curative dose of 44.9 mg/kg and 42.2 mg/kg, respectively. Active fractions were found to be safe in mice after oral administration of 7 g

  14. Triterpenoids isolated from apple peels have potent antiproliferative activity and may be partially responsible for apple's anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    He, Xiangjiu; Liu, Rui Hai

    2007-05-30

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of apple peels was used to determine the chemical identity of bioactive constituents. Thirteen triterpenoids were isolated, and their chemical structures were identified. Antiproliferative activities of the triterpenoids against human HepG2 liver cancer cells, MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and Caco-2 colon cancer cells were evaluated. Most of the triterpenoids showed high potential anticancer activities against the three human cancer cell lines. Among the compounds isolated, 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, 2alpha-hydroxy-3beta-{[(2E)-3-phenyl-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy}olean-12-en-28-oic acid, and 3beta-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-2alpha-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid showed higher antiproliferative activity toward HepG2 cancer cells. Ursolic acid, 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, and 3beta-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-2alpha-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid exhibited higher antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cancer cells. All triterpenoids tested showed antiproliferative activity against Caco-2 cancer cells, especially 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, maslinic acid, 2alpha-hydroxy-3beta-{[(2E)-3-phenyl-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy}olean-12-en-28-oic acid, and 3beta-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-2alpha-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, which displayed much higher antiproliferative activities. These results showed the triterpenoids isolated from apple peels have potent antiproliferative activity and may be partially responsible for the anticancer activities of whole apples.

  15. Green synthesis of silk sericin-capped silver nanoparticles and their potent anti-bacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Bang, Nipaporn; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a `green chemistry' approach was introduced to synthesize silk sericin (SS)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under an alkaline condition (pH 11) using SS as a reducing and stabilizing agent instead of toxic chemicals. The SS-capped AgNPs were successfully synthesized at various concentrations of SS and AgNO3, but the yields were different. A higher yield of SS-capped AgNPs was obtained when the concentrations of SS and AgNO3 were increased. The SS-capped AgNPs showed a round shape and uniform size with diameter at around 48 to 117 nm. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy result proved that the carboxylate groups obtained from alkaline degradation of SS would be a reducing agent for the generation of AgNPs while COO- and NH2 + groups stabilized the AgNPs and prevented their precipitation or aggregation. Furthermore, the SS-capped AgNPs showed potent anti-bacterial activity against various gram-positive bacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.008 mM) and gram-negative bacteria (MIC ranging from 0.001 to 0.004 mM). Therefore, the SS-capped AgNPs would be a safe candidate for anti-bacterial applications.

  16. A novel polypeptide from shark cartilage with potent anti-angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lanhong; Ling, Peixue; Wang, Zheng; Niu, Rongli; Hu, Chaoxin; Zhang, Tianmin; Lin, Xiukun

    2007-05-01

    Using guanidine-HCl extraction, acetone precipitation, ultra-filtration and chromatography, a novel polypeptide with potent anti-angiogenic activity was purified from cartilage of the shark, Prionace glauca. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis and SDS-PAGE revealed that the substance is a novel polypeptide with MW 15500 (PG155). The anti-angiogenic effects of PG155 were evaluated using zebrafish embryos model in vivo. Treatment of the embryos with 20 microg/ml PG155 resulted in a significant reduction in the growth of subintestinal vessels (SIVs). A higher dose resulted in almost complete inhibition of SIV growth, as observed by endogenous alkaline phosphatase (EAP) staining assay. An in vitro transwell experiment revealed that the polypeptide inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced migration and tubulogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs in 20 microg/ml PG155 significantly decreased the density of migrated cells. Almost complete inhibition of cell migration was found when HUVECs were treated with 40-80 microg/ml PG155. PG155 (20 microg/ml) markedly inhibited the tube formation of HUVECs and a dose-dependent effect was also found when treatment of HUVECs with PG155 at the concentration from 20-160 microg/ml.

  17. Glycosylated enfuvirtide: a long-lasting glycopeptide with potent anti-HIV activity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuihong; Chang, Xuesong; Wang, Yan; Gao, George F; Shao, Yiming; Ma, Liying; Li, Xuebing

    2015-02-12

    Many peptide-based therapeutics have short circulatory half-lives. We report here that the pharmacokinetics of an anti-HIV peptide drug enfuvirtide (ENF) can be dramatically improved by a chemical glycosylation approach. A set of glycosylated ENFs with varying glycosylation sites and glycan structures were synthesized. Among these, a sialic acid-introduced peptide (SL-ENF) demonstrated a 15-fold extended half-life in rats relative to ENF (T1/2: 23.1 vs 1.5 h), and its antiviral potency was comparable to that of ENF (EC50: 2 vs 3 nM). SL-ENF bound to a functional fragment of the HIV fusogenic protein gp41 and formed complexes with high affinity and α-helicity, revealing the mechanism behind its potent antiviral activity. Because it is widely accepted in biology that glycosylation protects proteins from denaturation and proteases, our approach may be useful for the development of novel protein and peptide drugs with enhanced pharmaceutical properties.

  18. Novel Synthesis of Kanamycin Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles with Potent Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jason N.; Waghwani, Hitesh K.; Connor, Michael G.; Hamilton, William; Tockstein, Sarah; Moolani, Harsh; Chavda, Fenil; Badwaik, Vivek; Lawrenz, Matthew B.; Dakshinamurthy, Rajalingam

    2016-01-01

    With a sharp increase in the cases of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria all over the world, there is a huge demand to develop a new generation of antibiotic agents to fight them. As an alternative to the traditional drug discovery route, we have designed an effective antibacterial agent by modifying an existing commercial antibiotic, kanamycin, conjugated on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In this study, we report a single-step synthesis of kanamycin-capped AuNPs (Kan-AuNPs) utilizing the combined reducing and capping properties of kanamycin. While Kan-AuNPs have increased toxicity to a primate cell line (Vero 76), antibacterial assays showed dose-dependent broad spectrum activity of Kan-AuNPs against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Kanamycin resistant bacteria. Further, a significant reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Kan-AuNPs was observed when compared to free kanamycin against all the bacterial strains tested. Mechanistic studies using transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy indicated that at least part of Kan-AuNPs increased efficacy may be through disrupting the bacterial envelope, resulting in the leakage of cytoplasmic content and the death of bacterial cells. Results of this study provide critical information about a novel method for the development of antibiotic capped AuNPs as potent next-generation antibacterial agents. PMID:27330535

  19. Novel Synthesis of Kanamycin Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles with Potent Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Payne, Jason N; Waghwani, Hitesh K; Connor, Michael G; Hamilton, William; Tockstein, Sarah; Moolani, Harsh; Chavda, Fenil; Badwaik, Vivek; Lawrenz, Matthew B; Dakshinamurthy, Rajalingam

    2016-01-01

    With a sharp increase in the cases of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria all over the world, there is a huge demand to develop a new generation of antibiotic agents to fight them. As an alternative to the traditional drug discovery route, we have designed an effective antibacterial agent by modifying an existing commercial antibiotic, kanamycin, conjugated on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In this study, we report a single-step synthesis of kanamycin-capped AuNPs (Kan-AuNPs) utilizing the combined reducing and capping properties of kanamycin. While Kan-AuNPs have increased toxicity to a primate cell line (Vero 76), antibacterial assays showed dose-dependent broad spectrum activity of Kan-AuNPs against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Kanamycin resistant bacteria. Further, a significant reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Kan-AuNPs was observed when compared to free kanamycin against all the bacterial strains tested. Mechanistic studies using transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy indicated that at least part of Kan-AuNPs increased efficacy may be through disrupting the bacterial envelope, resulting in the leakage of cytoplasmic content and the death of bacterial cells. Results of this study provide critical information about a novel method for the development of antibiotic capped AuNPs as potent next-generation antibacterial agents.

  20. Effect of Complement on HIV-2 Plasma Antiviral Activity Is Intratype Specific and Potent

    PubMed Central

    Özkaya Şahin, Gülşen; Holmgren, Birgitta; Sheik-Khalil, Enas; da Silva, Zacarias; Nielsen, Jens; Nowroozalizadeh, Salma; Månsson, Fredrik; Norrgren, Hans; Aaby, Peter; Fenyö, Eva Maria

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)-infected individuals develop immunodeficiency with a considerable delay and transmit the virus at rates lower than HIV-1-infected persons. Conceivably, comparative studies on the immune responsiveness of HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected hosts may help to explain the differences in pathogenesis and transmission between the two types of infection. Previous studies have shown that the neutralizing antibody response is more potent and broader in HIV-2 than in HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we have examined further the function of the humoral immune response and studied the effect of complement on the antiviral activity of plasma from singly HIV-1- or HIV-2-infected individuals, as well as HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. The neutralization and antibody-dependent complement-mediated inactivation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates were tested in a plaque reduction assay using U87.CD4.CCR5 cells. The results showed that the addition of complement increased intratype antiviral activities of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 plasma samples, although the complement effect was more pronounced with HIV-2 than HIV-1 plasma. Using an area-under-the-curve (AUC)-based readout, multivariate statistical analysis confirmed that the type of HIV infection was independently associated with the magnitude of the complement effect. The analyses carried out with purified IgG indicated that the complement effect was largely exerted through the classical complement pathway involving IgG in both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. In summary, these findings suggest that antibody binding to HIV-2 structures facilitates the efficient use of complement and thereby may be one factor contributing to a strong antiviral activity present in HIV-2 infection. PMID:23077299

  1. Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase: selective inhibition by potent n-alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates.

    PubMed

    Quistad, Gary B; Fisher, Karl J; Owen, Sarah C; Klintenberg, Rebecka; Casida, John E

    2005-06-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent endogenous phospholipid modulator of diverse biological activities, including inflammation and shock. PAF levels are primarily regulated by PAF acetylhydrolases (PAF-AHs). These enzymes are candidate secondary targets of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and related toxicants. Previously known OP inhibitors of other serine hydrolases were tested with PAF-AH from mouse brain and testes of established functional importance compared with the structurally different human plasma enzyme. Several key OP pesticides and their oxon metabolites were very poor inhibitors of mouse brain and human plasma PAF-AH in vitro but moderately active for mouse brain and blood PAF-AH in vivo (e.g., tribufos defoliant and profenofos insecticide, presumably following oxidative bioactivation). OP compounds were then designed for maximum in vitro potency and selectivity for mouse brain PAF-AH vs. acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Lead compounds were found in a series of benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxides. Ultrahigh potency and selectivity were achieved with n-alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates (long-chain sarin analogs): mouse brain and testes IC50 < or = 5 nM for C(8)-C(18) analogs and 0.1-0.6 nM for C(13) and C(14) compounds; human plasma IC50 < or = 2 nM for C(13)-C(18) analogs. AChE inhibitory potency decreased as chain length increased with maximum brain PAF-AH/AChE selectivity (>3000-fold) for C(13)-C(18) compounds. The toxicity of i.p.-administered PAF (LD50 ca. 0.5 mg/kg) was increased less than 2-fold by pretreatment with tribufos or the C(13)n-alkyl methylphosphonofluoridate. These studies with a mouse model indicate that PAF-AH is not a major secondary target of OP pesticide poisoning. The optimized PAF-AH inhibitors may facilitate investigations on other aspects of PAF metabolism and action.

  2. Structure-activity relationship for enantiomers of potent inhibitors of B. anthracis dihydrofolate reductase

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Christina R.; Wakeham, Nancy; Nammalwar, Baskar; Tseitin, Vladimir; Bourne, Philip C.; Barrow, Esther W.; Mylvaganam, Shankari; Ramnarayan, Kal; Bunce, Richard A.; Berlin, K. Darrell; Barrow, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial resistance to antibiotic therapies is increasing and new treatment options are badly needed. There is an overlap between these resistant bacteria and organisms classified as likely bioterror weapons. For example, Bacillus anthracis is innately resistant to the anti-folate trimethoprim due to sequence changes found in the dihydrofolate reductase enzyme. Development of new inhibitors provides an opportunity to enhance the current arsenal of anti-folate antibiotics while also expanding the coverage of the anti-folate class. Methods We have characterized inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis dihydrofolate reductase by measuring the Ki and MIC values and calculating the energetics of binding. This series contains a core diaminopyrimidine ring, a central dimethoxybenzyl ring, and a dihydrophthalazine moiety. We have altered the chemical groups extended from a chiral center on the dihydropyridazine ring of the phthalazine moiety. The interactions for the most potent compounds were visualized by X-ray structure determination. Results We find that the potency of individual enantiomers is divergent with clear preference for the S-enantiomer, while maintaining a high conservation of contacts within the binding site. The preference for enantiomers seems to be predicated largely by differential interactions with protein residues Leu29, Gln30 and Arg53. Conclusions These studies have clarified the activity of modifications and of individual enantiomers, and highlighted the role of the less-active R-enantiomer in effectively diluting the more active S-enantiomer in racemic solutions. This directly contributes to the development of new antimicrobials, combating trimethoprim resistance, and treatment options for potential bioterrorism agents. PMID:22999981

  3. Structure-activity relationships for organometallic osmium arene phenylazopyridine complexes with potent anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Habtemariam, Abraha; Basri, Aida M B H; Braddick, Darren; Clarkson, Guy J; Sadler, Peter J

    2011-10-28

    We report the synthesis and characterisation of 32 half sandwich phenylazopyridine Os(II) arene complexes [Os(η(6)-arene)(phenylazopyridine)X](+) in which X is chloride or iodide, the arene is p-cymene or biphenyl and the pyridine and phenyl rings contain a variety of substituents (F, Cl, Br, I, CF(3), OH or NO(2)). Ten X-ray crystal structures have been determined. Cytotoxicity towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells ranges from high potency at nanomolar concentrations to inactivity. In general the introduction of an electron-withdrawing group (e.g. F, Cl, Br or I) at specific positions on the pyridine ring significantly increases cytotoxic activity and aqueous solubility. Changing the arene from p-cymene to biphenyl and the monodentate ligand X from chloride to iodide also increases the activity significantly. Activation by hydrolysis and DNA binding appears not to be the major mechanism of action since both the highly active complex [Os(η(6)-bip)(2-F-azpy)I]PF(6) (9) and the moderately active complex [Os(η(6)-bip)(3-Cl-azpy)I]PF(6) (23) are very stable and inert towards aquation. Studies of octanol-water partition coefficients (log P) and subcellular distributions of osmium in A2780 human ovarian cancer cells suggested that cell uptake and targeting to cellular organelles play important roles in determining activity. Although complex 9 induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A2780 cells, the ROS level did not appear to play a role in the mechanism of anticancer activity. This class of organometallic osmium complexes has new and unusual features worthy of further exploration for the design of novel anticancer drugs.

  4. Antiviral Activities of Several Oral Traditional Chinese Medicines against Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lin-Lin; Ge, Miao; Wang, Hui-Qiang; Yin, Jin-Qiu; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Li, Yu-Huan

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is still a serious threat to human health with significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses poses a great challenge to existing antiviral drugs. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) may be an alternative to overcome the challenge. Here, 10 oral proprietary Chinese medicines were selected to evaluate their anti-influenza activities. These drugs exhibit potent inhibitory effects against influenza A H1N1, influenza A H3N2, and influenza B virus. Importantly, they demonstrate potent antiviral activities against drug-resistant strains. In the study of mechanisms, we found that Xiaoqinglong mixture could increase antiviral interferon production by activating p38 MAPK, JNK/SAPK pathway, and relative nuclear transcription factors. Lastly, our studies also indicate that some of these medicines show inhibitory activities against EV71 and CVB strains. In conclusion, the 10 traditional Chinese medicines, as kind of compound combination medicines, show broad-spectrum antiviral activities, possibly also including inhibitory activities against strains resistant to available antiviral drugs. PMID:26557857

  5. Discovery, structure-activity relationship study, and oral analgesic efficacy of cyproheptadine derivatives possessing N-type calcium channel inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Niwa, Seiji; Iwayama, Satoshi; Koganei, Hajime; Fujita, Shin-ichi; Takeda, Tomoko; Kito, Morikazu; Ono, Yukitsugu; Saitou, Yuki; Takahara, Akira; Iwata, Seinosuke; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Shoji, Masataka

    2006-08-01

    Antiallergic drug cyproheptadine (Cyp) is known to have inhibitory activities for L-type calcium channels in addition to histamine and serotonin receptors. Since we found that Cyp had an inhibitory activity against N-type calcium channel, Cyp was optimized to obtain more selective N-type calcium channel blocker with analgesic action. As a consequence of the optimization, we found 13 with potent N-type calcium channel inhibitory activity which had lower inhibitory activities against L-type calcium channel, histamine (H1), and serotonin (5-HT2A) receptors than those of Cyp. 13 showed an oral analgesic activity in rat formalin-induced pain model.

  6. Delta- and gamma-tocotrienol isomers are potent in inhibiting inflammation and endothelial activation in stimulated human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Muid, Suhaila; Froemming, Gabriele R. Anisah; Rahman, Thuhairah; Ali, A. Manaf; Nawawi, Hapizah M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tocotrienols (TCTs) are more potent antioxidants than α-tocopherol (TOC). However, the effectiveness and mechanism of the action of TCT isomers as anti-atherosclerotic agents in stimulated human endothelial cells under inflammatory conditions are not well established. Aims 1) To compare the effects of different TCT isomers on inflammation, endothelial activation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). 2) To identify the two most potent TCT isomers in stimulated human endothelial cells. 3) To investigate the effects of TCT isomers on NFκB activation, and protein and gene expression levels in stimulated human endothelial cells. Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with various concentrations of TCT isomers or α-TOC (0.3–10 µM), together with lipopolysaccharides for 16 h. Supernatant cells were collected and measured for protein and gene expression of cytokines (interleukin-6, or IL-6; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or TNF-α), adhesion molecules (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, or ICAM-1; vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, or VCAM-1; and e-selectin), eNOS, and NFκB. Results δ-TCT is the most potent TCT isomer in the inhibition of IL-6, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and NFκB, and it is the second potent in inhibiting e-selectin and eNOS. γ-TCT isomer is the most potent isomer in inhibiting e-selectin and eNOS, and it is the second most potent in inhibiting is IL-6, VCAM-1, and NFκB. For ICAM-1 protein expression, the most potent is δ-TCT followed by α-TCT. α- and β-TCT inhibit IL-6 at the highest concentration (10 µM) but enhance IL-6 at lower concentrations. γ-TCT markedly increases eNOS expression by 8–11-fold at higher concentrations (5–10 µM) but exhibits neutral effects at lower concentrations. Conclusion δ- and γ-TCT are the two most potent TCT isomers in terms of the inhibition of inflammation and endothelial activation whilst enhancing eNOS, possibly mediated via the NFκB pathway. Hence, there is a

  7. Systemically active human opiorphin is a potent yet non-addictive analgesic without drug tolerance effects.

    PubMed

    Rougeot, C; Robert, F; Menz, L; Bisson, J-F; Messaoudi, M

    2010-08-01

    Human opiorphin QRFSR-peptide protects enkephalins from degradation by human neutral endopeptidase (hNEP) and aminopeptidase-N (hAP-N) and inhibits pain perception in a behavioral model of mechanical acute pain (1). Here, using two other pain rat models, the tail-flick and the formalin tests, we assess the potency and duration of the antinociceptive action of opiorphin with reference to morphine. The occurrence of adverse effects with emphasis on the side-effect profile at equi-analgesic doses was compared. We demonstrate that opiorphin elicits minimal adverse morphine-associated effects, at doses (1-2 mg/kg, i.v.) that produce a comparable analgesic potency in both spinally controlled thermal-induced acute and peripheral chemical-induced tonic nociception. The analgesic response induced by opiorphin in the formalin-induced pain model preferentially requires activation of endogenous mu-opioid pathways. However, in contrast to exogenous mu-opioid agonists such as morphine, opiorphin, does not develop significant abuse liability or antinociceptive drug tolerance after subchronic treatment. In addition, anti-peristaltism was not observed. We conclude that opiorphin, by inhibiting the destruction of endogenous enkephalins, which are released according to the painful stimulus, activates restricted opioid pathways specifically involved in pain control, thus contributing to a greater balance between analgesia and side-effects than found with morphine. Therefore, opiorphin could give rise to new analgesics endowed with potencies similar to morphine but with fewer adverse effects than opioid agonists. Its chemical optimization, to generate functional derivatives endowed with better bioavailability properties than the native peptide, could lead to a potent class of physiological type analgesics.

  8. Cissampelos pareira Linn: Natural Source of Potent Antiviral Activity against All Four Dengue Virus Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Ruchi; Raut, Rajendra; Tyagi, Poornima; Pareek, Pawan Kumar; Barman, Tarani Kanta; Singhal, Smita; Shirumalla, Raj Kumar; Kanoje, Vijay; Subbarayan, Ramesh; Rajerethinam, Ravisankar; Sharma, Navin; Kanaujia, Anil; Shukla, Gyanesh; Gupta, Y. K.; Katiyar, Chandra K.; Bhatnagar, Pradip K.; Upadhyay, Dilip J.; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Khanna, Navin

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, poses a significant global public health risk. In tropical countries such as India where periodic dengue outbreaks can be correlated to the high prevalence of the mosquito vector, circulation of all four dengue viruses (DENVs) and the high population density, a drug for dengue is being increasingly recognized as an unmet public health need. Methodology/Principal findings Using the knowledge of traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, we developed a systematic bioassay-guided screening approach to explore the indigenous herbal bio-resource to identify plants with pan-DENV inhibitory activity. Our results show that the alcoholic extract of Cissampelos pariera Linn (Cipa extract) was a potent inhibitor of all four DENVs in cell-based assays, assessed in terms of viral NS1 antigen secretion using ELISA, as well as viral replication, based on plaque assays. Virus yield reduction assays showed that Cipa extract could decrease viral titers by an order of magnitude. The extract conferred statistically significant protection against DENV infection using the AG129 mouse model. A preliminary evaluation of the clinical relevance of Cipa extract showed that it had no adverse effects on platelet counts and RBC viability. In addition to inherent antipyretic activity in Wistar rats, it possessed the ability to down-regulate the production of TNF-α, a cytokine implicated in severe dengue disease. Importantly, it showed no evidence of toxicity in Wistar rats, when administered at doses as high as 2g/Kg body weight for up to 1 week. Conclusions/Significance Our findings above, taken in the context of the human safety of Cipa, based on its use in Indian traditional medicine, warrant further work to explore Cipa as a source for the development of an inexpensive herbal formulation for dengue therapy. This may be of practical relevance to a dengue-endemic resource-poor country such as India. PMID:26709822

  9. Potent anticancer activity of photo-activated oxo-bridged diiron(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Chanu, S Binita; Banerjee, Samya; Roy, Mithun

    2017-01-05

    Cancer-specific anticancer drugs are still an elusive goal. Using light as the temporal control to generate cytotoxic species from photo-activated prodrug in the presence or absence of molecular oxygen has shown potential application targeted chemotherapy as in photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the present work we explored the chemistry of several photo-active (μ-oxo)diiron(III) complexes of the following formulation [{Fe(μ-O) (L-his)(B)}2](ClO4)2 (1a-1c), [Fe2(μ-O)(H2O)2B4](ClO4)4 (2b, 2c) and [Fe2(μ-O)(μ-O2CMe)B4](ClO4)3 (3b, 3c), L-his = l-histidine, B is 2,2'-bipyridine, 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq) complexes for tumor-specific anticancer activity. Facile redox chemistry and photochemical aspects of the complexes prompted us to investigate the cytotoxic as well as the photo-activated cytotoxic properties of the complexes to the cancer cells. In the present investigation we explored the cancer-specific condition of excess concentration of H2O2 for our approach to targeted chemotherapy. Cytotoxic effect of the complexes to the cancer cells was found to be significantly higher than in normal cells indicating tumor-specific anticancer activity of the complexes. Cytotoxic effect was even more pronounced when the cancer cells treated with the complexes were exposed to the visible light (400-700 nm). There was >12 fold increase in cytotoxicity of the photoactivated complexes in cancer cells (MCF-7) in comparison to the normal cells (MCF-10a). We have defined a factor viz. cancer cell specificity factor (f) describing the targeted photochemotherapeutic effect of the complexes at their specific concentration. The factor (f) > 1 indicated the cancer cell specificity of the complexes, while f > 2.5 for the complexes under the visible light exposure suggested photodynamic effect. DCFDA assay indicated the presence of excess of ROS in the treated HeLa cells. ROS concentration was found to increase even more on visible

  10. Novel 2-Aminobenzamides as Potential Orally Active Antithrombotic Agents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to develop potent antithrombotic agents, a series of novel 2-aminobenzamide derivatives were synthesized and screened for their in vivo antithrombotic activity. Among the 23 compounds tested, compound (8g) showed the most promising antithrombotic activity, which was comparable with clinically used aspirin or warfarin, but at variance with these standard drugs, 8g did not exhibit the increased bleeding time, suggesting its potential as a novel antithrombotic agent. PMID:24900559

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure, structure-activity relationships, and antiviral activity of a potent SARS coronavirus 3CL protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Syaulan; Chen, Shu-Jen; Hsu, Min-Feng; Wu, Jen-Dar; Tseng, Chien-Te K; Liu, Yu-Fan; Chen, Hua-Chien; Kuo, Chun-Wei; Wu, Chi-Shen; Chang, Li-Wen; Chen, Wen-Chang; Liao, Shao-Ying; Chang, Teng-Yuan; Hung, Hsin-Hui; Shr, Hui-Lin; Liu, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Yu-An; Chang, Ling-Yin; Hsu, Jen-Chi; Peters, Clarence J; Wang, Andrew H-J; Hsu, Ming-Chu

    2006-08-10

    A potent SARS coronavirus (CoV) 3CL protease inhibitor (TG-0205221, Ki = 53 nM) has been developed. TG-0205221 showed remarkable activity against SARS CoV and human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E replications by reducing the viral titer by 4.7 log (at 5 microM) for SARS CoV and 5.2 log (at 1.25 microM) for HCoV 229E. The crystal structure of TG-0205221 (resolution = 1.93 A) has revealed a unique binding mode comprising a covalent bond, hydrogen bonds, and numerous hydrophobic interactions. Structural comparisons between TG-0205221 and a natural peptide substrate were also discussed. This information may be applied toward the design of other 3CL protease inhibitors.

  12. A new orally active male antifertility agent.

    PubMed

    Coppola, J A; Saldarini, R J

    1974-05-01

    CL 88,236 (1-1-amino-3-chloro-2-propanol HC1) was tested orally for antifertility in male rats, mice and hamsters. It was given orally in propylene glycol either daily for 14 days with mating on Days 7-14, (or for 7 days with mating on Days 2, 4, and 6, or for 7 days every other week for 3 weeks in withdrawal tests. In male rats, 5 mg per kg for 14 days reduced number of pregnant females 50%, and at 10-80 mg per kg males were completely sterile. Libido, coitus, and ejaculation were normal, but fragmented sperm, spermatogenic arrest, and granuloma-like epididymal lesions appeared at 40 and 80 mg per kg. Serial matings showed that sterility developed within 6 days and lasted for 1 week after withdrawal. Sterility was maintained by treating rats with CL 88,236 on alternating weeks. Male mice and hamsters were sterilized by 300 mg per kg per day for 14 days, without toxicity. Sterility was apparently mediated by affecting epididymal and vas sperm stores.

  13. The Investigational Fungal Cyp51 Inhibitor VT-1129 Demonstrates Potent In Vitro Activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Shawn R.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Iqbal, Naureen; Bolden, Carol B.; Grossman, Nina T.; Garvey, Edward P.; Brand, Stephen R.; Hoekstra, William J.; Schotzinger, Robert J.; Ottinger, Elizabeth; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro activities of the novel fungal Cyp51 inhibitor VT-1129 were evaluated against a large panel of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates. VT-1129 demonstrated potent activities against both Cryptococcus species as demonstrated by low MIC50 and MIC90 values. For C. gattii, the in vitro potency was maintained against all genotypes. In addition, significantly lower geometric mean MICs were observed for VT-1129 than for fluconazole against C. neoformans, including isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibility. PMID:26787697

  14. Abietane-Type Diterpenoid Amides with Highly Potent and Selective Activity against Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Pirttimaa, Minni; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Kopelyanskiy, Dmitry; Kaiser, Marcel; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Brun, Reto; Jaffe, Charles L; Moreira, Vânia M; Alakurtti, Sami

    2016-02-26

    Dehydroabietylamine (1) was used as a starting material to synthesize a small library of dehydroabietyl amides by simple and facile methods, and their activities against two disease-causing trypanosomatids, namely, Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma cruzi, were assayed. The most potent compound, 10, an amide of dehydroabietylamine and acrylic acid, was found to be highly potent against these parasites, displaying an IC50 value of 0.37 μM against L. donovani axenic amastigotes and an outstanding selectivity index of 63. Moreover, compound 10 fully inhibited the growth of intracellular amastigotes in Leishmania donovani-infected human macrophages with a low IC50 value of 0.06 μM. This compound was also highly effective against T. cruzi amastigotes residing in L6 cells with an IC50 value of 0.6 μM and high selectivity index of 58, being 3.5 times more potent than the reference compound benznidazole. The potent activity of this compound and its relatively low cytotoxicity make it attractive for further development in pursuit of better drugs for patients suffering from leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.

  15. Glycodermorphins: opioid peptides with potent and prolonged analgesic activity and enhanced blood-brain barrier penetration

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Lucia; Lattanzi, Roberta; Tabacco, Fabio; Scolaro, Barbara; Rocchi, Raniero

    1998-01-01

    In order to improve the in vivo stability of the opioid peptide dermorphin we synthesized O-βglucosylated analogs ([Ser7-O-βGlc]dermorphin and [Ser7-O-βGlc(Ac)4]-dermorphin) and C-αgalactosylated analogs ([Ala7-C-αGal]dermorphin and [Ala7-C-αGal(Ac)4]-dermorphin).O- and C-glycosylation of dermorphin halved the peptide affinity for brain μ-opioid receptors and the biological potency in guinea-pig ileum assay (GPI). Despite their lower opioid receptor affinity, when administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v., 8–40 pmol) and subcutaneously (s.c., 0.5–3 μmol kg−1) in rats, glycosylated analogs were two times more potent than dermorphin in reducing the nociceptive response to radiant heat. Acetylation of sugar hydroxyl groups reduces 5–10 times both biological activity on GPI and μ-receptor affinity, whereas the antinociceptive potency was equal to (i.c.v.) or only two-three times lower (s.c.) than dermorphin potency.Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Index (BBB-PI) of the glycodermorphins was significantly higher than that of dermorphin, indicating a facilitated entry into the brain: O-β-linked glucoconiugates are expected to enter CNS by the glucose transporter GLUT-1 of the endothelial barrier. However the calculated BBB-PI for the C-αgalactoside was about two times higher than that of the O-βglucoside, excluding the implication of GLUT-1 that is known to be selective for O-β-links and preferring for the exose glucose.The enhanced brain permeability with the subsequent decrease in peripheral dosage of these opioid peptides did not result in lowering constipation. PMID:9723966

  16. Discovery of a Potent and Selective BCL-XL Inhibitor with in Vivo Activity.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhi-Fu; Hasvold, Lisa; Wang, Le; Wang, Xilu; Petros, Andrew M; Park, Chang H; Boghaert, Erwin R; Catron, Nathaniel D; Chen, Jun; Colman, Peter M; Czabotar, Peter E; Deshayes, Kurt; Fairbrother, Wayne J; Flygare, John A; Hymowitz, Sarah G; Jin, Sha; Judge, Russell A; Koehler, Michael F T; Kovar, Peter J; Lessene, Guillaume; Mitten, Michael J; Ndubaku, Chudi O; Nimmer, Paul; Purkey, Hans E; Oleksijew, Anatol; Phillips, Darren C; Sleebs, Brad E; Smith, Brian J; Smith, Morey L; Tahir, Stephen K; Watson, Keith G; Xiao, Yu; Xue, John; Zhang, Haichao; Zobel, Kerry; Rosenberg, Saul H; Tse, Chris; Leverson, Joel D; Elmore, Steven W; Souers, Andrew J

    2014-10-09

    A-1155463, a highly potent and selective BCL-XL inhibitor, was discovered through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fragment screening and structure-based design. This compound is substantially more potent against BCL-XL-dependent cell lines relative to our recently reported inhibitor, WEHI-539, while possessing none of its inherent pharmaceutical liabilities. A-1155463 caused a mechanism-based and reversible thrombocytopenia in mice and inhibited H146 small cell lung cancer xenograft tumor growth in vivo following multiple doses. A-1155463 thus represents an excellent tool molecule for studying BCL-XL biology as well as a productive lead structure for further optimization.

  17. Dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids are potent activators of Ca2+-activated K+ channels in isolated rat coronary arterial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tong; Katakam, Prasad V G; VanRollins, Mike; Weintraub, Neal L; Spector, Arthur A; Lee, Hon-Chi

    2001-01-01

    Dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), which are metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), have been identified as highly potent endogenous vasodilators, but the mechanisms by which DHETs induce relaxation of vascular smooth muscle are unknown. Using inside-out patch clamp techniques, we examined the effects of DHETs on the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels in smooth muscle cells from rat small coronary arteries (150–300 μm diameter). 11,12-DHET potently activated BK channels with an EC50 of 1.87 ± 0.57 nm (n = 5). Moreover, the three other regioisomers 5,6-, 8,9- and 14,15-DHET were equipotent with 11,12-DHET in activating BK channels. The efficacy of 11,12-DHET in opening BK channels was much greater than that of its immediate precursor 11,12-EET. In contrast, AA did not significantly affect BK channel activity. The voltage dependence of BK channels was dramatically modulated by 11,12-DHET. With physiological concentrations of cytoplasmic Ca2+ (200 nm), the voltage at which the channel open probability was half-maximal (V1/2) was shifted from a baseline of 115.6 ± 6.5 mV to 95.0 ± 10.1 mV with 5 nm 11,12-DHET, and to 60.0 ± 8.4 mV with 50 nm 11,12-DHET. 11,12-DHET also enhanced the sensitivity of BK channels to Ca2+ but did not activate the channels in the absence of Ca2+. 11,12-DHET (50 nm) reduced the Ca2+ EC50 of BK channels from a baseline of 1.02 ± 0.07 μm to 0.42 ± 0.11 μm. Single channel kinetic analysis indicated that 11,12-DHET did not alter BK channel conductance but did reduce the first latency of BK channel openings in response to a voltage step. 11,12-DHET dose-dependently increased the open dwell times, abbreviated the closed dwell times, and decreased the transition rates from open to closed states. We conclude that DHETs hyperpolarize vascular smooth muscle cells through modulation of the BK channel gating behaviour, and by enhancing the channel sensitivities to Ca2+ and voltage. Hence

  18. Rhamnazin, a novel inhibitor of VEGFR2 signaling with potent antiangiogenic activity and antitumor efficacy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yao; Cai, Wei; Pei, Chong-gang; Shao, Yi

    2015-03-20

    Anti-angiogenesis targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) has emerged as an important tool for cancer therapy. The identification of new drugs from natural products has a long and successful history. In this study, we described a novel VEGFR2 inhibitor, rhamnazin, which inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth. Rhamnazin significantly inhibited proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro as well as inhibited sprouts formation of rat aorta ring. In addition, it inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling regulator in HUVECs. Moreover, rhamnazin could directly inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 in vitro and in vivo. Oral administration of rhamnazin at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day could markedly inhibited human tumor xenograft growth and decreased microvessel densities (MVD) in tumor sections. Taken together, these preclinical evaluations suggest that rhamnazin inhibits angiogenesis and may be a promising anticancer drug candidate. - Highlights: • Rhamnazin inhibits the response of HUVECs to VEGF in vitro. • Rhamnazin inhibits VEGFR2 kinase activity and its downstream signaling. • Rhamnazin prevents the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumor and reduces micro-vessel density in vivo.

  19. Identification of gentian violet concentration that does not stain oral mucosa, possesses anti-candidal activity and is well tolerated.

    PubMed

    Jurevic, R J; Traboulsi, R S; Mukherjee, P K; Salata, R A; Ghannoum, M A

    2011-05-01

    Gentian violet (GV) is recommended for initial treatment of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings. Currently GV is not used because of its staining effects. In this study, we investigated the staining capacity of three different concentrations of GV to determine a concentration that does not cause staining. The selected concentration that did not cause staining was evaluated for its physical stability and antifungal activity. Fifteen healthy participants were randomized to rinse twice daily for 14 days with one of three GV concentrations: 0.1%, 0.0085%, or 0.00165%. Oral examination and intra-oral photographs were performed at baseline and at the end of therapy. Participants responded to a questionnaire to assess adverse events. Antifungal activity was evaluated using the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute methodology. GV at a concentration of 0.00165% did not stain the oral mucosa and was well tolerated. GV at a concentration of 0.00165% was stable and possessed antifungal activity when stored at certain temperatures for different time periods. Gentian violet solution at the concentration of 0.00165% does not stain the oral mucosa, is stable and possesses potent antifungal activity.

  20. Rescuing failed oral implants via Wnt activation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xing; Li, Jingtao; Chen, Tao; Mouraret, Sylvain; Dhamdhere, Girija; Brunski, John B.; Zou, Shujuan; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Implant osseointegration is not always guaranteed and once fibrous encapsulation occurs clinicians have few options other than implant removal. Our goal was to test whether a WNT protein therapeutic could rescue such failed implants. Material and Methods Titanium implants were placed in over-sized murine oral osteotomies. A lack of primary stability was verified by mechanical testing. Interfacial strains were estimated by finite element modelling and histology coupled with histomorphometry confirmed the lack of peri-implant bone. After fibrous encapsulation was established peri-implant injections of a liposomal formulation of WNT3A protein (L-WNT3A) or liposomal PBS (L-PBS) were then initiated. Quantitative assays were employed to analyse the effects of L-WNT3A treatment. Results Implants in gap-type interfaces exhibited high interfacial strains and no primary stability. After verification of implant failure, L-WNT3A or L-PBS injections were initiated. L-WNT3A induced a rapid, significant increase in Wnt responsiveness in the peri-implant environment, cell proliferation and osteogenic protein expression. The amount of peri-implant bone and bone in contact with the implant were significantly higher in L-WNT3A cases. Conclusions These data demonstrate L-WNT3A can induce peri-implant bone formation even in cases where fibrous encapsulation predominates. PMID:26718012

  1. Discovery of 4-(4-aminopyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazin-8-yl)benzamides as novel, highly potent and selective, orally bioavailable inhibitors of Tyrosine Threonine Kinase, TTK.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Radoslaw; Li, Sze-Wan; Liu, Yong; Ng, Grace; Lang, Yunhui; Feher, Miklos; Brokx, Richard; Beletskaya, Irina; Hodgson, Richard; Mao, Guodong; Plotnikova, Olga; Awrey, Donald E; Mason, Jacqueline M; Wei, Xin; Lin, Dan Chi-Chia; Che, Yi; Kiarash, Reza; Madeira, Brian; Fletcher, Graham C; Mak, Tak W; Bray, Mark R; Pauls, Henry W

    2016-08-01

    TTK/Mps1 is a key kinase controlling progression of cell division via participation in the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint and is overexpressed in a number of human cancers. Herein we report the discovery of 4-(4-aminopyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazin-8-yl)benzamides as a potent, novel class of TTK inhibitors. The series was identified by means of bioisosteric replacement of the related imidazopyrazine and imidazopyridazine scaffolds. Optimization led to the identification of compounds with excellent potency (Ki=0.8nM) and exceptional kinase selectivity. The SAR indicates a strong dependence of activity on the presence of the N-cyclopropyl-2-methylbenzamide moiety delineating the geometry for 1½ type kinase inhibitor. Molecular modeling indicates the extensive and optimal contacts, mediated through H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions, are responsible for the selectivity and potency of the inhibitors. The compounds demonstrate a strong anti-proliferative activity in a panel of human cancer cell lines (HCT116 GI50<15nM) and good rodent pharmacokinetics (oral %F 97%).

  2. Synthesis and bioevaluation of N,4-diaryl-1,3-thiazole-2-amines as tubulin inhibitors with potent antiproliferative activity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingwen; Wu, Yue; Wang, Yueting; Zuo, Daiying; Guan, Qi; Bao, Kai; Wang, Jian; Wu, Yingliang; Zhang, Weige

    2017-01-01

    A series of N,4-diaryl-1,3-thiazole-2-amines containing three aromatic rings with an amino linker were designed and synthesized as tubulin inhibitors and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity in three human cancer cell lines. Most of the target compounds displayed moderate antiproliferative activity, and N-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-amine (10s) was determined to be the most potent compound. Tubulin polymerization and immunostaining experiments revealed that 10s potently inhibited tubulin polymerization and disrupted tubulin microtubule dynamics in a manner similar to CA-4. Moreover, 10s effectively induced SGC-7901 cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in both concentration- and time-dependent manners. The molecular docking results revealed that 10s could bind to the colchicine binding site of tubulin. PMID:28333984

  3. The Investigational Fungal Cyp51 Inhibitor VT-1129 Demonstrates Potent In Vitro Activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Fothergill, Annette W; Iqbal, Naureen; Bolden, Carol B; Grossman, Nina T; Garvey, Edward P; Brand, Stephen R; Hoekstra, William J; Schotzinger, Robert J; Ottinger, Elizabeth; Patterson, Thomas F; Wiederhold, Nathan P

    2016-04-01

    Thein vitroactivities of the novel fungal Cyp51 inhibitor VT-1129 were evaluated against a large panel ofCryptococcus neoformansandCryptococcus gattiiisolates. VT-1129 demonstrated potent activities against bothCryptococcusspecies as demonstrated by low MIC50and MIC90values. ForC. gattii, thein vitropotency was maintained against all genotypes. In addition, significantly lower geometric mean MICs were observed for VT-1129 than for fluconazole againstC. neoformans, including isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibility.

  4. Identification of a novel multiple kinase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity against influenza virus by reducing viral polymerase activity.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yutaka; Kakisaka, Michinori; Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Tajima, Shigeru; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko; Aida, Yoko

    2014-07-18

    Neuraminidase inhibitors are the only currently available influenza treatment, although resistant viruses to these drugs have already been reported. Thus, new antiviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action are urgently required. In this study, we identified a novel antiviral compound, WV970, through cell-based screening of a 50,000 compound library and subsequent lead optimization. This compound exhibited potent antiviral activity with nanomolar IC50 values against both influenza A and B viruses but not non-influenza RNA viruses. Time-of-addition and indirect immunofluorescence assays indicated that WV970 acted at an early stage of the influenza life cycle, but likely after nuclear entry of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP). Further analyses of viral RNA expression and viral polymerase activity indicated that WV970 inhibited vRNP-mediated viral genome replication and transcription. Finally, structure-based virtual screening and comprehensive human kinome screening were used to demonstrate that WV970 acts as a multiple kinase inhibitor, many of which are associated with influenza virus replication. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that WV970 is a promising anti-influenza drug candidate and that several kinases associated with viral replication are promising drug targets.

  5. Larvicidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Croton macrostachyus Del. against Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, K; Ilango, K

    2010-01-01

    Methanol leaf extracts of two Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants viz., Lomisar [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (Poaceae)] and Bisana [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Croton macrostachyus Del. (Euphorbiaceae)] were screened for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector in Ethiopia. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of post treatment. Both plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis. Cymbopogon citratus extract has exhibited potent larvicidal activity than Croton macrostachyus at lower concentrations. The LC50 and LC90 values of Cymbopogon citratus were 74.02 and 158.20 ppm, respectively. From this data, a chi-square value 2.760 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. While, the LC50 and LC90 values of Croton macrostachyus were 89.25 and 224.98 ppm, respectively and the chi-square value 1.035 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. The present investigation establishes that these plant extracts could serve as potent mosquito larvicidal agents against Anopheles arabiensis. However, their mode of actions and larvicidal efficiency under the field conditions should be scrutinized and determined in the near future.

  6. Itraconazole, a new triazole that is orally active in aspergillosis.

    PubMed Central

    Van Cutsem, J; Van Gerven, F; Van de Ven, M A; Borgers, M; Janssen, P A

    1984-01-01

    Itraconazole is a new orally active triazole derivative with broad-spectrum antifungal activity. This drug is effective in experimental aspergillosis and possesses in vitro activity against various species and strains of Aspergillus. Morphological destruction of inoculated hyphae and complete inhibition of hyphal outgrowth in culture is obtained from 0.07 micrograms ml-1 (10(-7)M) onward. These properties make itraconazole a likely candidate for clinical evaluation in disseminated aspergillosis. Images PMID:6097167

  7. Discovery of WQ-3810: Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 7-(3-alkylaminoazetidin-1-yl)fluoro-quinolones as orally active antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kenji; Kuramoto, Yasuhiro; Amano, Hirotaka; Kazamori, Daichi; Yazaki, Akira

    2015-10-20

    Novel 7-(3-alkylaminoazetidin-1-yl)fluoroquinolones were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antibacterial activities and oral absorption rates. Against Gram-negative bacteria, 10a-e, which have various alkyl groups containing different numbers of carbon atoms (C0-C3) at the C-7 alkylaminoazetidine position, showed potent and similar antibacterial activities, whereas the activity of 10f (C4, t-Bu) was significantly lower than those of 10a-e. Conversely, the oral absorption rates of 10a-e in rats increased depending on the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl groups; 10d (C3, n-Pr) and 10e (C3, i-Pr) had high oral absorption rates (>90% at 10 mg/kg). These results demonstrated that the introduction of alkyl groups onto C-7 aminoazetidine is useful for the improvement of the oral absorption rates of these drugs while maintaining their antibacterial activities. As a conclusion, from this series of fluoroquinolones, WQ-3810 (10e), having 3-isopropylaminoazetidine as the C-7 substituent, was identified as an orally active antibacterial agent with a potent in vitro activity.

  8. WAY-318068: a novel, potent and selective noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor with activity in rodent models of pain and depression

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, GT; Dwyer, JM; Harrison, JE; Beyer, CE; Cummons, T; Manzino, L; Mark, L; Johnston, GH; Strassle, BW; Adedoyin, A; Lu, P; Piesla, MJ; Pulicicchio, CM; Erve, JCL; Platt, BJ; Hughes, ZA; Rogers, KE; Deecher, DC; Trybulski, EJ; Kennedy, JD; Zhang, P; Leventhal, L

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Antidepressants, which raise the CNS concentrations of 5-HT and noradrenaline, are frequently used in the treatment of chronic pain; however, it is not known if increasing CNS noradrenaline levels alone is sufficient for efficacy, in part resulting from a lack of small molecules with sufficient selectivity. Experimental approach: In this report, we present the in vitro pharmacological and in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties of the novel, orally available and CNS penetrant inhibitor of the noradrenaline transporter (NET), WAY-318068 (1-[(1S,2R)-1-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(methylamino)propyl]-7-fluoro-3,3-dimethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one). Key results: WAY-318068 is a potent and effective inhibitor of the NET with a Ki of 8.7 nM in a binding assay, and an IC50 of 6.8 nM in an assay of transporter function, without significant binding to the dopamine transporter. Furthermore, the compound has only weak activity at the 5-HT transporter, leading to a functional selectivity of greater than 2500-fold. It is orally bioavailable with substantial quantities of the compound found in the CNS after oral dosing. As measured by microdialysis in rats, the compound causes a robust and significant increase in cortical noradrenaline levels without affecting 5-HT. WAY-318068 was effective in models of acute, visceral, inflammatory, osteoarthritic, neuropathic, diabetic and bone cancer pain, as well as in traditional models of depression at doses that do not cause motor deficits. Conclusions and implications: Collectively, the present results support the conclusion that selectively increasing CNS levels of noradrenaline is sufficient for efficacy in models of depression and pain. PMID:20590604

  9. Colon-targeted cell-permeable NFκB inhibitory peptide is orally active against experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungchae; Yum, Soohwan; Yoo, Hyun-Jung; Kang, Sookjin; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Min, Dosik; Kim, Young Mi; Jung, Yunjin

    2012-05-07

    For the purpose of development of orally active peptide therapeutics targeting NFκB for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), two major barriers in oral delivery of therapeutic peptides, metabolic lability and tissue impermeability, were circumvented by introduction of a colon-targeted delivery system and cell permeable peptides (CPP) to NFκB inhibitory peptides (NIP). Suppression of NFκB activation was compared following treatment with various CPP conjugated NIPs (CPP-NIP). The most potent CPP-NIP was loaded in a capsule coated with a colon specific polymer, which was administered orally to colitic rats. The anti-inflammatory activity of the colon-targeted CPP-NIP was evaluated by measuring inflammatory indices in the inflamed colonic tissue. For confirmation of the local action of the CPP-NIP, the same experiment was done after rectal administration. Tissue permeability of the CPP-NIP was examined microscopically and spectrophotometrically using FITC-labeled CPP-NIP (CPP-NIP-FITC). NEMO binding domain peptide (NBD, TALDWSWLQTE) fused with a cell permeable peptide CTP (YGRRARRRARR), CTP-NBD, was most potent in inhibiting NFκB activity in cells. Colon-targeted CTP-NBD, but not colon-targeted NBD and CTP-NBD in an enteric capsule, ameliorated the colonic injury, which was in parallel with decrease in MPO activity and the levels of inflammatory mediators. Intracolonic treatment with CTP-NBD alleviated rat colitis and improved all the inflammatory indicators. CTP-NBD-FITC was detected at much greater level in the inflamed tissue than was NBD-FITC. Taken together, introduction of cell permeability and colon targetability to NIP may be a feasible strategy for an orally active peptide therapy for treatment of IBD.

  10. Discovery of Isonicotinamides as Highly Selective, Brain Penetrable, and Orally Active Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guanglin; Chen, Ling; Burton, Catherine R; Xiao, Hong; Sivaprakasam, Prasanna; Krause, Carol M; Cao, Yang; Liu, Nengyin; Lippy, Jonathan; Clarke, Wendy J; Snow, Kimberly; Raybon, Joseph; Arora, Vinod; Pokross, Matt; Kish, Kevin; Lewis, Hal A; Langley, David R; Macor, John E; Dubowchik, Gene M

    2016-02-11

    GSK-3 is a serine/threonine kinase that has numerous substrates. Many of these proteins are involved in the regulation of diverse cellular functions, including metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Inhibition of GSK-3 may be useful in treating a number of diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), type II diabetes, mood disorders, and some cancers, but the approach poses significant challenges. Here, we present a class of isonicotinamides that are potent, highly kinase-selective GSK-3 inhibitors, the members of which demonstrated oral activity in a triple-transgenic mouse model of AD. The remarkably high kinase selectivity and straightforward synthesis of these compounds bode well for their further exploration as tool compounds and therapeutics.

  11. New pyrrole derivatives with potent tubulin polymerization inhibiting activity as anticancer agents including hedgehog-dependent cancer.

    PubMed

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-08-14

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  12. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  13. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. PMID:27301442

  14. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health

    PubMed Central

    AlAttas, Safia A.; Zahran, Fat’heya M.; Turkistany, Shereen A.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinical and clinical studies at the cellular and molecular levels are required to investigate the mechanisms of action of NS and its constituents, particularly TQ. PMID:26905343

  15. Selective inhibition of EZH2 by ZLD1039 blocks H3K27methylation and leads to potent anti-tumor activity in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xuejiao; Gao, Tiantao; Wang, Ningyu; Feng, Qiang; You, Xinyu; Ye, Tinghong; Lei, Qian; Zhu, Yongxia; Xiong, Menghua; Xia, Yong; Yang, Fangfang; Shi, Yaojie; Wei, Yuquan; Zhang, Lidan; Yu, Luoting

    2016-01-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a candidate oncogenic driver due to its prevalent overexpression and aberrant repression of tumor suppressor genes in diverse cancers. Therefore, blocking EZH2 enzyme activity may present a valid therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancers with EZH2 overexpression including breast cancers. Here, we described ZLD1039 a potent, highly selective, and orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of EZH2, which inhibited breast tumor growth and metastasis. ZLD1039 considerably inhibited EZH2 methyltransferase activity with nanomolar potency, decreased global histone-3 lysine-27 (H3K27) methylation, and reactivated silenced tumor suppressors connected to increased survival of patients with breast cancer. Comparable to conditional silencing of EZH2, its inhibition by ZLD1039 decreased cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induced apoptosis. Comparably, treatment of xenograft-bearing mice with ZLD1039 led to tumor growth regression and metastasis inhibition. These data confirmed the dependency of breast cancer progression on EZH2 activity and the usefulness of ZLD1039 as a promising treatment for breast cancer. PMID:26868841

  16. Influence of ethylene-oxy spacer group on the activity of linezolid: synthesis of potent antibacterials possessing a thiocarbonyl group.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, N; Raheem, Mohammed A; Khera, Manoj Kumar; Rajale, Trideep V; Kumar, Magadi Sitaram; Kandepu, Sreenivas; Das, Jagattaran; Rajagopalan, R; Iqbal, Javed; Trehan, Sanjay

    2003-12-01

    The influence of an ethylene-oxy spacer element between the heterocycle and the aromatic ring in linezolid is reported. The introduction of such spacer group generated compounds with inferior antibacterial activity. However, the conversion of the acetamide group present in the linezolid analogues to either thiocarbamate or thioacetamide functionality restored the activity. The synthesis of linezolid analogues possessing the ethylene-oxy spacer group along with SAR studies with different heterocycles and preparation of some thiocarbonyl compounds possessing potent antibacterial property are presented.

  17. Identification of a novel multiple kinase inhibitor with potent antiviral activity against influenza virus by reducing viral polymerase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Yutaka; Kakisaka, Michinori; Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Tajima, Shigeru; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko; Aida, Yoko

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Screening of 50,000 compounds and subsequent lead optimization identified WV970. • WV970 has antiviral effects against influenza A, B and highly pathogenic viral strains. • WV970 inhibits viral genome replication and transcription. • A target database search suggests that WV970 may bind to a number of kinases. • KINOMEscan screening revealed that WV970 has inhibitory effects on 15 kinases. - Abstract: Neuraminidase inhibitors are the only currently available influenza treatment, although resistant viruses to these drugs have already been reported. Thus, new antiviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action are urgently required. In this study, we identified a novel antiviral compound, WV970, through cell-based screening of a 50,000 compound library and subsequent lead optimization. This compound exhibited potent antiviral activity with nanomolar IC{sub 50} values against both influenza A and B viruses but not non-influenza RNA viruses. Time-of-addition and indirect immunofluorescence assays indicated that WV970 acted at an early stage of the influenza life cycle, but likely after nuclear entry of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP). Further analyses of viral RNA expression and viral polymerase activity indicated that WV970 inhibited vRNP-mediated viral genome replication and transcription. Finally, structure-based virtual screening and comprehensive human kinome screening were used to demonstrate that WV970 acts as a multiple kinase inhibitor, many of which are associated with influenza virus replication. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that WV970 is a promising anti-influenza drug candidate and that several kinases associated with viral replication are promising drug targets.

  18. Fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activity in oral microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, M B; Dahlén, G; Linde, A

    1983-01-01

    Samples were taken from blood accumulated in dental alveoli after surgical removal of mandibular third molars, from subgingival plaque of teeth with advanced periodontal destructions, from teeth with infected necrotic pulps, and from subjects suffering from angular cheilitis. Of the microorganisms subcultured from these samples, 116 strains were assayed for enzymes degrading fibrinogen and fibrin. Enzymes degrading fibrinogen were assayed with the thin-layer enzyme assay cultivation technique. This assay involves the cultivation of microorganisms on culture agars applied over fibrinogen-coated polystyrene surfaces. Enzymes degrading fibrin were assayed with both a plate assay and a tube assay, in which fibrin was mixed with a microbial culture medium. Microorganisms degrading fibrinogen or fibrin or both were isolated from all sampling sites. Activity was mainly detected in strains of Actinomyces, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Peptococcus, Propionibacterium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Most Fusobacterium strains degraded fibrinogen only. Enzymes degrading fibrinogen as well as enzymes degrading fibrin via activation of plasminogen were revealed in strains of Clostridium, S. aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes. It was generally found that fibrinogen was degraded by more strains than was fibrin, which indicates that different proteases may be involved. PMID:6345573

  19. Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptides with Reduced Activation of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Have Potent Bactericidal Activity against Colistin-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Yi, Guanghui; Zhang, Yunliang; Rowe-Magnus, Dean A.; Bush, Karen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The world is at the precipice of a postantibiotic era in which medical procedures and minor injuries can result in bacterial infections that are no longer effectively treated by antibiotics. Cathelicidins are peptides produced by animals to combat bacterial infections and to regulate innate immune responses. However, cathelicidins are potent activators of the inflammatory response. Cathelicidins with reduced proinflammatory activity and potent bactericidal activity in the low micromolar range against Gram-negative bacteria have been identified. Motifs in cathelicidins that impact bactericidal activity and cytotoxicity to human cells have been elucidated and used to generate peptides that have reduced activation of proinflammatory cytokine production and reduced cytotoxicity to human cells. The resultant peptides have bactericidal activities comparable to that of colistin and can kill colistin-resistant bacteria. PMID:27651360

  20. A novel lectin with highly potent antiproliferative and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from cicada (Cicada flammata).

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiu Juan; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-05-01

    A dimeric lectin with a molecular weight of 60 kDa and high hemagglutinating activity was isolated from dried cicadas. It was adsorbed on Q-Sepharose and unadsorbed on Affi-Gel Blue gel. Its hemagglutinating activity was stable up to 55 degrees C and between pH 2 and 13. The activity was inhibited by glucuronic acid and raffinose, K(+) ions, and Mg(2+) ions. Cicada lectin potently inhibited proliferation of HepG2 hepatoma and MCF 7 breast cancer cells, with an IC(50) value of 0.76 and 0.49 microM, respectively. It potently inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity with an IC(50) of 0.36 microM but was devoid of mitogenic activity on spleen cells. Its N-terminal sequence exhibited slight similarity to a conserved hypothetical protein from Culex quinquefasciatus and a gene product from transcript GH19834-RA of Drosophila grimshawi, but there was no resemblance to lectins from other insects, including Drosophila, Sarcophaga, Glossina, and Aedes species.

  1. Rice Bran Protein as a Potent Source of Antimelanogenic Peptides with Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Akihito; Tanaka, Seiya; Tanaka, Takaaki; Taniguchi, Masayuki

    2016-10-28

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is consumed as a staple food globally, and rice bran, the byproduct, is an unused biomass that is ultimately discarded as waste. Thus, in the present study, a technique for producing tyrosinase inhibitory peptides from rice bran protein (RBP) was developed. Simultaneous treatment of RBP with chymotrypsin and trypsin produced numerous peptides. Subsequently, six tyrosinase inhibitory peptides were isolated from the hydrolysate fractions in a multistep purification protocol, and their amino acid sequences were determined. Three of these peptides had a C-terminal tyrosine residue and exhibited significant inhibitory effects against tyrosinase-mediated monophenolase reactions. Furthermore, peptide CT-2 (Leu-Gln-Pro-Ser-His-Tyr) potently inhibited melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells without causing cytotoxicity, suggesting the potential of CT-2 as an agent for melanin-related skin disorder treatment. The present data indicate that RBP is a potent source of tyrosinase inhibitory peptides and that simultaneous treatment of RBP with chymotrypsin and trypsin efficiently produces these peptides.

  2. Structural analysis of proanthocyanidins isolated from fruit stone of Chinese hawthorn with potent antityrosinase and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Chen, Chih-Min; Gao, Yu-Sen; Feng, Hui-Ling; Ding, Yu-Mei; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Han-Tao; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2014-01-08

    Proanthocyanidins were isolated from fruit stone of Chinese hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.). Their structures were analyzed and elucidated by methods of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The results demonstrated that these compounds are complicated mixtures of homo- and heteropolymers consisting of procyanidin/procyanidin gallate and prodelphinidin. They possessed structural heterogeneity in monomer units, polymer length, and interflavan linkage (A-type and B-type). Their antityrosinase and antioxidant activity were then investigated. The results revealed that they can inhibit tyrosinase activities, including the monophenolase activity and the diphenolase activity. In addition, proanthocyanidins possessed potent antioxidant activity. Our studies revealed that proanthocyanidins isolated from fruit stone of Chinese hawthorn may be applied in food, agriculture, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  3. Optimized S-trityl-L-cysteine-based inhibitors of kinesin spindle protein with potent in vivo antitumor activity in lung cancer xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Good, James A D; Wang, Fang; Rath, Oliver; Kaan, Hung Yi Kristal; Talapatra, Sandeep K; Podgórski, Dawid; MacKay, Simon P; Kozielski, Frank

    2013-03-14

    The mitotic kinesin Eg5 is critical for the assembly of the mitotic spindle and is a promising chemotherapy target. Previously, we identified S-trityl-L-cysteine as a selective inhibitor of Eg5 and developed triphenylbutanamine analogues with improved potency, favorable drug-like properties, but moderate in vivo activity. We report here their further optimization to produce extremely potent inhibitors of Eg5 (K(i)(app) < 10 nM) with broad-spectrum activity against cancer cell lines comparable to the Phase II drug candidates ispinesib and SB-743921. They have good oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics and induced complete tumor regression in nude mice explanted with lung cancer patient xenografts. Furthermore, they display fewer liabilities with CYP-metabolizing enzymes and hERG compared with ispinesib and SB-743921, which is important given the likely application of Eg5 inhibitors in combination therapies. We present the case for this preclinical series to be investigated in single and combination chemotherapies, especially targeting hematological malignancies.

  4. A Lipopeptide HIV-1/2 Fusion Inhibitor with Highly Potent in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo Antiviral Activity.

    PubMed

    Chong, Huihui; Xue, Jing; Xiong, Shengwen; Cong, Zhe; Ding, Xiaohui; Zhu, Yuanmei; Liu, Zixuan; Chen, Ting; Feng, Yifan; He, Lei; Guo, Yan; Wei, Qiang; Zhou, Yusen; Qin, Chuan; He, Yuxian

    2017-03-29

    Peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) region of the HIV-1 fusogenic protein gp41 are potent viral entry inhibitors, and currently enfuvirtide (T-20) is the only one for clinical use; however, emerging drug-resistance largely limits its efficacy. In this study, we generated a novel lipopeptide inhibitor, named LP-19, by integrating multiple design strategies, including an N-terminal M-T hook structure, HIV-2 sequence, intra-helical salt-bridges, and a membrane-anchoring lipid tail. LP-19 showed stable binding affinity and highly potent, broad and long-lasting antiviral activity. In in vitro studies, LP-19 efficiently inhibited HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV-mediated cell fusion, viral entry and infection, and it was highly active against diverse subtypes of primary HIV-1 isolates and inhibitor-resistant mutants. The ex vivo studies demonstrated that LP-19 exhibited dramatically increased anti-HIV activity and extended half-life in rhesus macaques. In short-term monotherapy, LP-19 reduced the viral loads to undetectable levels in acutely and chronically SHIV-infected monkeys. Therefore, this study offers an ideal HIV-1/2 fusion inhibitor for clinical development and emphasizes the importance of the viral fusion step as a drug target.IMPORTANCE The peptide drug T-20 is the only viral fusion inhibitor in clinic, which is used in combination therapy of HIV-1 infection; however, it requires high dosage and easily induces drug-resistance, calling for a new drug with significantly improved pharmaceutical profiles. Here, we have developed a short lipopeptide-based fusion inhibitor termed LP-19, which mainly targets the conserved gp41 pocket site and shows highly potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1, HIV-2 and even SIV isolates. LP-19 exhibits dramatically increased antiviral activity and extended half-life in rhesus macaques, and it has potent therapeutic efficacy in SHIV-infected monkeys, highlighting its high potential as a new viral fusion inhibitor for clinical

  5. BO-1055, a novel DNA cross-linking agent with remarkable low myelotoxicity shows potent activity in sarcoma models

    PubMed Central

    Ambati, Srikanth R.; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Pera, Benet; Lopes, Eloisi Caldas; Chaudhry, Anisha; Wong, Elissa W.P.; Saxena, Ashish; Su, Tsann-Long; Moore, Malcolm A.S.

    2016-01-01

    DNA damaging agents cause rapid shrinkage of tumors and form the basis of chemotherapy for sarcomas despite significant toxicities. Drugs having superior efficacy and wider therapeutic windows are needed to improve patient outcomes. We used cell proliferation and apoptosis assays in sarcoma cell lines and benign cells; γ-H2AX expression, comet assay, immunoblot analyses and drug combination studies in vitro and in patient derived xenograft (PDX) models. BO-1055 caused apoptosis and cell death in a concentration and time dependent manner in sarcoma cell lines. BO-1055 had potent activity (submicromolar IC50) against Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, intermediate activity in DSRCT (IC50 = 2-3μM) and very weak activity in osteosarcoma (IC50 >10μM) cell lines. BO-1055 exhibited a wide therapeutic window compared to other DNA damaging drugs. BO-1055 induced more DNA double strand breaks and γH2AX expression in cancer cells compared to benign cells. BO-1055 showed inhibition of tumor growth in A673 xenografts and caused tumor regression in cyclophosphamide resistant patient-derived Ewing sarcoma xenografts and A204 xenografts. Combination of BO-1055 and irinotecan demonstrated synergism in Ewing sarcoma PDX models. Potent activity on sarcoma cells and its relative lack of toxicity presents a strong rationale for further development of BO-1055 as a therapeutic agent. PMID:27248664

  6. Potent Vinblastine C20′ Ureas Displaying Additionally Improved Activity Against a Vinblastine-Resistant Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A series of disubstituted C20′-urea derivatives of vinblastine were prepared from 20′-aminovinblastine that was made accessible through a unique Fe(III)/NaBH4-mediated alkene functionalization reaction of anhydrovinblastine. Three analogues were examined across a panel of 15 human tumor cell lines, displaying remarkably potent cell growth inhibition activity (avg. IC50 = 200–300 pM), being 10–200-fold more potent than vinblastine (avg. IC50 = 6.1 nM). Significantly, the analogues also display further improved activity against the vinblastine-resistant HCT116/VM46 cell line that bears the clinically relevant overexpression of Pgp, exhibiting IC50 values on par with that of vinblastine against the sensitive HCT116 cell line, 100–200-fold greater than the activity of vinblastine against the resistant HCT116/VM46 cell line, and display a reduced 10–20-fold activity differential between the matched sensitive and resistant cell lines (vs 100-fold for vinblastine). PMID:24223237

  7. 6-Hydroxyflavone and derivatives exhibit potent anti-inflammatory activity among mono-, di- and polyhydroxylated flavones in kidney mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Wang, Zhiwei; Sidhu, Preetpal Singh; Desai, Umesh R; Zhou, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory responses by kidney mesangial cells play a critical role in the glomerulonephritis. The anti-inflammatory potential of nineteen mono-, di- and polyhydroxylated flavones including fisetin, quercetin, morin, tricetin, gossypetin, apigenin and myricetin were investigated on rat mesangial cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as the inflammatory stimuli. 6-Hydroxyflavone and 4',6-dihydroxyflavone exhibited high activity with IC50 in the range of 2.0 μM, a much better inhibition potential in comparison to the well-studied polyhydroxylated flavones. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory activity was not due to direct quenching of NO radicals. Investigation on derivatives with methylation, acetylation or sulfation of 6-hydroxyl group revealed that 6-methoxyflavone was the most potent with an IC50 of 192 nM. Mechanistic study indicated that the anti-inflammatory activity of 6-methoxyflavone arose via the inhibition of LPS-induced downstream inducible NO synthase in mesangial cells. The identification of 6-hydroxyflavone and 6-methoxyflavone with potent anti-inflammatory activity in kidney mesangial cells provides a new flavone scaffold and direction to develop naturally derived products for potential nephritis prevention and treatment.

  8. 6-Hydroxyflavone and Derivatives Exhibit Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity among Mono-, Di- and Polyhydroxylated Flavones in Kidney Mesangial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Preetpal Singh; Desai, Umesh R.; Zhou, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory responses by kidney mesangial cells play a critical role in the glomerulonephritis. The anti-inflammatory potential of nineteen mono-, di- and polyhydroxylated flavones including fisetin, quercetin, morin, tricetin, gossypetin, apigenin and myricetin were investigated on rat mesangial cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as the inflammatory stimuli. 6-Hydroxyflavone and 4′,6-dihydroxyflavone exhibited high activity with IC50 in the range of 2.0 μM, a much better inhibition potential in comparison to the well-studied polyhydroxylated flavones. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory activity was not due to direct quenching of NO radicals. Investigation on derivatives with methylation, acetylation or sulfation of 6-hydroxyl group revealed that 6-methoxyflavone was the most potent with an IC50 of 192 nM. Mechanistic study indicated that the anti-inflammatory activity of 6-methoxyflavone arose via the inhibition of LPS-induced downstream inducible NO synthase in mesangial cells. The identification of 6-hydroxyflavone and 6-methoxyflavone with potent anti-inflammatory activity in kidney mesangial cells provides a new flavone scaffold and direction to develop naturally derived products for potential nephritis prevention and treatment. PMID:25790236

  9. Potent drugs that attenuate anti-Candida albicans activity of fluconazole and their possible mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Urai, Makoto; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Niki, Mamiko; Inoue, Manabu; Tanabe, Koichi; Umeyama, Takashi; Fukazawa, Hidesuke; Ohno, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu

    2014-10-01

    Fluconazole (FLCZ) is a first-line drug for treating Candida albicans infections, but clinical failure due to reduced sensitivity is a growing concern. Our previous study suggested that certain drug combinations pose a particular challenge in potently reducing FLCZ's anti-C. albicans activity, and cyclooxygenase inhibitors formed the major group of these attenuating drugs in combination with FLCZ. In this study, we examined the effects of diclofenac sodium (DFNa) and related compounds in combination with FLCZ against C. albicans, and investigated their possible mechanisms of interaction. DFNa, ibuprofen, and omeprazole elevated the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of FLCZ by 8-, 4-, and 4-fold, respectively; however, loxoprofen sodium and celecoxib did not. An analogue of DFNa, 2,6-dichlorodiphenylamine, also elevated the MIC by 4-fold. Gene expression analysis revealed that diclofenac sodium induced CDR1 efflux pump activity, but not CDR2 activity. In addition, an efflux pump CDR1 mutant, which was manipulated to not be induced by DFNa, showed less elevation of MIC compared to that shown by the wild type. Therefore, DFNa and related compounds are potent factors for reducing the sensitivity of C. albicans to FLCZ partly via induction of an efflux pump. Although it is not known whether such antagonism is relevant to the clinical treatment failure observed, further investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the reduction of FLCZ's anti-C. albicans activity is expected to promote safer and more effective use of the drug.

  10. Discovery and Characterization of a Potent Interleukin-6 Binding Peptide with Neutralizing Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, Sheila; Bhandari, Ashok; Avitahl-Curtis, Nicole; McMahon, Jaimee; Wachtel, Derek; Zhang, Jenny; Leitheiser, Christopher; Bernier, Sylvie G.; Liu, Guang; Tran, Tran T.; Celino, Herodion; Tobin, Jenny; Jung, Joon; Zhao, Hong; Glen, Katie E.; Graul, Chris; Griffin, Aliesha; Schairer, Wayne C.; Higgins, Carolyn; Reza, Tammi L.; Mowe, Eva; Rivers, Sam; Scott, Sonya; Monreal, Alex; Shea, Courtney; Bourne, Greg; Coons, Casey; Smith, Adaline; Tang, Kim; Mandyam, Ramya A.; Masferrer, Jaime; Liu, David; Patel, Dinesh V.; Fretzen, Angelika; Murphy, Craig A.; Milne, G. Todd; Smythe, Mark L.; Carlson, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important member of the cytokine superfamily, exerting pleiotropic actions on many physiological processes. Over-production of IL-6 is a hallmark of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as Castleman’s Disease (CD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Antagonism of the interleukin IL-6/IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)/gp130 signaling complex continues to show promise as a therapeutic target. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against components of this complex have been approved as therapeutics for both CD and RA. To potentially provide an additional modality to antagonize IL-6 induced pathophysiology, a peptide-based antagonist approach was undertaken. Using a combination of molecular design, phage-display, and medicinal chemistry, disulfide-rich peptides (DRPs) directed against IL-6 were developed with low nanomolar potency in inhibiting IL-6-induced pSTAT3 in U937 monocytic cells. Targeted PEGylation of IL-6 binding peptides resulted in molecules that retained their potency against IL-6 and had a prolongation of their pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in rodents and monkeys. One such peptide, PN-2921, contained a 40 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety and inhibited IL-6-induced pSTAT3 in U937 cells with sub-nM potency and possessed 23, 36, and 59 h PK half-life values in mice, rats, and cynomolgus monkeys, respectively. Parenteral administration of PN-2921 to mice and cynomolgus monkeys potently inhibited IL-6-induced biomarker responses, with significant reductions in the acute inflammatory phase proteins, serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP). This potent, PEGylated IL-6 binding peptide offers a new approach to antagonize IL-6-induced signaling and associated pathophysiology. PMID:26555695

  11. Structure−Activity Study of Dihydrocinnamic Acids and Discovery of the Potent FFA1 (GPR40) Agonist TUG-469

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The free fatty acid 1 receptor (FFA1 or GPR40), which is highly expressed on pancreatic β-cells and amplifies glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, has emerged as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Several FFA1 agonists containing the para-substituted dihydrocinnamic acid moiety are known. We here present a structure−activity relationship study of this compound family suggesting that the central methyleneoxy linker is preferable for the smaller compounds, whereas the central methyleneamine linker gives higher potency to the larger compounds. The study resulted in the discovery of the potent and selective full FFA1 agonist TUG-469 (29). PMID:24900217

  12. Discovery of a Novel Series of Imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine Derivatives as Potent and Orally Bioavailable Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinde; Xu, Wenwei; Wang, Kai; Mo, Mingguang; Zhang, Wei; Du, Lili; Yuan, Xiaojing; Xu, Yechun; Wang, Yiping; Shen, Jianhua

    2015-11-12

    Inhibition of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has been suggested to be a promising therapeutic strategy for several inflammation-associated diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and diabetic macular edema. Herein, we report the discovery of a novel series of Lp-PLA2 inhibitors constructed on an imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine scaffold through a conformational restriction strategy. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis resulted in the identification of several compounds with high potency in vitro and good metabolic stability in liver S9 fractions. Compounds 7c and 14b selected for further exploration in vivo demonstrated excellent pharmacokinetic profiles and exhibited significant inhibitory efficacy in SD rats upon oral dosing.

  13. Active E-rosette formation in women taking oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Satoh, P S; Fleming, W E; Johnston, K A; Ozmun, J M

    1977-01-06

    On the assumption that the number of E-rosettable lymphocytes (active T lymphocytes) is an index of cell-mediated immunity, rosette assays were performed at early cycle and at midcycle for 6 women taking oral contraceptives (OCs) for 1-4 years. OC subjects at midcycle had 21.4% active rosette-forming lymphocytes as compared with 14.1% in controls (p less than .05). The 2 youngest subjects had higher values during the early cycle. These results imply the possibility of hormonal regulation of human T-cell activity.

  14. Phenylthiazole Antibacterial Agents Targeting Cell Wall Synthesis Exhibit Potent Activity in Vitro and in Vivo against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Haroon; Younis, Waleed; Chen, Lu; Peters, Christine E; Pogliano, Joe; Pogliano, Kit; Cooper, Bruce; Zhang, Jianan; Mayhoub, Abdelrahman; Oldfield, Eric; Cushman, Mark; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2017-03-23

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial species, such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), necessitates the development of new antimicrobials. Here, we investigate the spectrum of antibacterial activity of three phenylthiazole-substituted aminoguanidines. These compounds possess potent activity against VRE, inhibiting growth of clinical isolates at concentrations as low as 0.5 μg/mL. The compounds exerted a rapid bactericidal effect, targeting cell wall synthesis. Transposon mutagenesis suggested three possible targets: YubA, YubB (undecaprenyl diphosphate phosphatase (UPPP)), and YubD. Both UPPP as well as undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase were inhibited by compound 1. YubA and YubD are annotated as transporters and may also be targets because 1 collapsed the proton motive force in membrane vesicles. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, we demonstrate that two compounds (1, 3, at 20 μg/mL) retain potent activity in vivo, significantly reducing the burden of VRE in infected worms. Taken altogether, the results indicate that compounds 1 and 3 warrant further investigation as novel antibacterial agents against drug-resistant enterococci.

  15. Ivermectin is a potent inhibitor of flavivirus replication specifically targeting NS3 helicase activity: new prospects for an old drug

    PubMed Central

    Mastrangelo, Eloise; Pezzullo, Margherita; De Burghgraeve, Tine; Kaptein, Suzanne; Pastorino, Boris; Dallmeier, Kai; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Neyts, Johan; Hanson, Alicia M.; Frick, David N.; Bolognesi, Martino; Milani, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Infection with yellow fever virus (YFV), the prototypic mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes severe febrile disease with haemorrhage, multi-organ failure and a high mortality. Moreover, in recent years the Flavivirus genus has gained further attention due to re-emergence and increasing incidence of West Nile, dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Potent and safe antivirals are urgently needed. Methods Starting from the crystal structure of the NS3 helicase from Kunjin virus (an Australian variant of West Nile virus), we identified a novel, unexploited protein site that might be involved in the helicase catalytic cycle and could thus in principle be targeted for enzyme inhibition. In silico docking of a library of small molecules allowed us to identify a few selected compounds with high predicted affinity for the new site. Their activity against helicases from several flaviviruses was confirmed in in vitro helicase/enzymatic assays. The effect on the in vitro replication of flaviviruses was then evaluated. Results Ivermectin, a broadly used anti-helminthic drug, proved to be a highly potent inhibitor of YFV replication (EC50 values in the sub-nanomolar range). Moreover, ivermectin inhibited, although less efficiently, the replication of several other flaviviruses, i.e. dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Ivermectin exerts its effect at a timepoint that coincides with the onset of intracellular viral RNA synthesis, as expected for a molecule that specifically targets the viral helicase. Conclusions The well-tolerated drug ivermectin may hold great potential for treatment of YFV infections. Furthermore, structure-based optimization may result in analogues exerting potent activity against flaviviruses other than YFV. PMID:22535622

  16. New potent and selective inhibitors of anandamide reuptake with antispastic activity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ligresti, Alessia; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Pryce, Gareth; Kulasegram, Sanjitha; Beletskaya, Irina; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Saha, Bijali; Mahadevan, Anu; Visintin, Cristina; Wiley, Jenny L; Baker, David; Martin, Billy R; Razdan, Raj K; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that the compound O-2093 is a selective inhibitor of the reuptake of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). We have now re-examined the activity of O-2093 in vivo and synthesized four structural analogs (O-2247, O-2248, O-3246, and O-3262), whose activity was assessed in: (a) binding assays carried out with membranes from cells overexpressing the human CB(1) and CB(2) receptors; (b) assays of transient receptor potential of the vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel functional activity (measurement of [Ca(2+)](i)); (c) [(14)C]AEA cellular uptake and hydrolysis assays in rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells; (d) the mouse 'tetrad' tests (analgesia on a hot plate, immobility on a 'ring', rectal hypothermia and hypolocomotion in an open field); and (e) the limb spasticity test in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CREAE) mice, a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). O-2093, either synthesized by us or commercially available, was inactive in the 'tetrad' up to a 20 mg kg(-1) dose (i.v.). Like O-2093, the other four compounds exhibited low affinity in CB(1) (K(i) from 1.3 to >10 microM) and CB(2) binding assays (1.310 microM), very low potency as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors (IC(50)>25 microM) and were inactive in the 'tetrad' up to a 30 mg kg(-1) dose (i.v.). While O-2247 and O-2248 were poor inhibitors of [(14)C]AEA cellular uptake (IC(50)>40 microM), O-3246 and O-3262 were quite potent in this assay. O-3246, which exhibits only a very subtle structural difference with O-2093, is the most potent inhibitor of AEA uptake reported in vitro under our experimental conditions (IC(50)=1.4 microM) and is 12-fold more potent than O-2093. When injected intravenously O-3246 and O-3262, again like O-2093 and unlike O-2247 and O-2248, significantly inhibited limb spasticity in mice with CREAE. These data confirm the potential utility of selective

  17. New potent and selective inhibitors of anandamide reuptake with antispastic activity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ligresti, Alessia; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Pryce, Gareth; Kulasegram, Sanjitha; Beletskaya, Irina; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Saha, Bijali; Mahadevan, Anu; Visintin, Cristina; Wiley, Jenny L; Baker, David; Martin, Billy R; Razdan, Raj K; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that the compound O-2093 is a selective inhibitor of the reuptake of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). We have now re-examined the activity of O-2093 in vivo and synthesized four structural analogs (O-2247, O-2248, O-3246, and O-3262), whose activity was assessed in: (a) binding assays carried out with membranes from cells overexpressing the human CB1 and CB2 receptors; (b) assays of transient receptor potential of the vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel functional activity (measurement of [Ca2+]i); (c) [14C]AEA cellular uptake and hydrolysis assays in rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells; (d) the mouse ‘tetrad' tests (analgesia on a hot plate, immobility on a ‘ring', rectal hypothermia and hypolocomotion in an open field); and (e) the limb spasticity test in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CREAE) mice, a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). O-2093, either synthesized by us or commercially available, was inactive in the ‘tetrad' up to a 20 mg kg−1 dose (i.v.). Like O-2093, the other four compounds exhibited low affinity in CB1 (Ki from 1.3 to >10 μM) and CB2 binding assays (1.310 μM), very low potency as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors (IC50>25 μM) and were inactive in the ‘tetrad' up to a 30 mg kg−1 dose (i.v.). While O-2247 and O-2248 were poor inhibitors of [14C]AEA cellular uptake (IC50>40 μM), O-3246 and O-3262 were quite potent in this assay. O-3246, which exhibits only a very subtle structural difference with O-2093, is the most potent inhibitor of AEA uptake reported in vitro under our experimental conditions (IC50=1.4 μM) and is 12-fold more potent than O-2093. When injected intravenously O-3246 and O-3262, again like O-2093 and unlike O-2247 and O-2248, significantly inhibited limb spasticity in mice with CREAE. These data confirm the potential utility of selective AEA uptake

  18. Histone deacetylase activators: N-acetylthioureas serve as highly potent and isozyme selective activators for human histone deacetylase-8 on a fluorescent substrate.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raushan K; Mandal, Tanmay; Balsubramanian, Narayanaganesh; Viaene, Tajae; Leedahl, Travis; Sule, Nitesh; Cook, Gregory; Srivastava, D K

    2011-10-01

    We report, for the first time, that certain N-acetylthiourea derivatives serve as highly potent and isozyme selective activators for the recombinant form of human histone deacetylase-8 in the assay system containing Fluor-de-Lys as a fluorescent substrate. The experimental data reveals that such activating feature is manifested via decrease in the K(m) value of the enzyme's substrate and increase in the catalytic turnover rate of the enzyme.

  19. Inhibition of constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation by novel platinum complexes with potent antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Turkson, James; Zhang, Shumin; Palmer, Jay; Kay, Heidi; Stanko, Joseph; Mora, Linda B; Sebti, Said; Yu, Hua; Jove, Richard

    2004-12-01

    DNA-alkylating agents that are platinum complexes induce apoptotic responses and have wide application in cancer therapy. The potential for platinum compounds to modulate signal transduction events that contribute to their therapeutic outcome has not been extensively examined. Among the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins, Stat3 activity is frequently up-regulated in many human tumors. Various lines of evidence have established a causal role for aberrant Stat3 activity in malignant transformation and provided validation for its targeting in the development of small-molecule inhibitors as novel cancer therapeutics. We report here that platinum-containing compounds disrupt Stat3 signaling and suppress its biological functions. The novel platinum (IV) compounds, CPA-1, CPA-7, and platinum (IV) tetrachloride block Stat3 activity in vitro at low micromolar concentrations. In malignant cells that harbor constitutively activated Stat3, CPA-1, CPA-7, and platinum (IV) tetrachloride inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in a manner that reflects the attenuation of persistent Stat3 activity. By contrast, cells that do not contain persistent Stat3 activity are marginally affected or are not affected by these compounds. Moreover, CPA-7 induces the regression of mouse CT26 colon tumor, which correlates with the abrogation of persistent Stat3 activity in tumors. Thus, the modulation of oncogenic signal transduction pathways, such as Stat3, may be one of the key molecular mechanisms for the antitumor effects of platinum (IV)-containing complexes.

  20. Central domain of IL-33 is cleaved by mast cell proteases for potent activation of group-2 innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Lefrançais, Emma; Duval, Anais; Mirey, Emilie; Roga, Stéphane; Espinosa, Eric; Cayrol, Corinne; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an alarmin cytokine from the IL-1 family. IL-33 activates many immune cell types expressing the interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1) receptor ST2, including group-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s, natural helper cells, nuocytes), the major producers of IL-5 and IL-13 during type-2 innate immune responses and allergic airway inflammation. IL-33 is likely to play a critical role in asthma because the IL33 and ST2/IL1RL1 genes have been reproducibly identified as major susceptibility loci in large-scale genome-wide association studies. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating IL-33 activity is thus urgently needed. Here, we investigated the role of mast cells, critical effector cells in allergic disorders, known to interact with ILC2s in vivo. We found that serine proteases secreted by activated mast cells (chymase and tryptase) generate mature forms of IL-33 with potent activity on ILC2s. The major forms produced by mast cell proteases, IL-3395–270, IL-33107–270, and IL-33109–270, were 30-fold more potent than full-length human IL-331–270 for activation of ILC2s ex vivo. They induced a strong expansion of ILC2s and eosinophils in vivo, associated with elevated concentrations of IL-5 and IL-13. Murine IL-33 is also cleaved by mast cell tryptase, and a tryptase inhibitor reduced IL-33–dependent allergic airway inflammation in vivo. Our study identifies the central cleavage/activation domain of IL-33 (amino acids 66–111) as an important functional domain of the protein and suggests that interference with IL-33 cleavage and activation by mast cell and other inflammatory proteases could be useful to reduce IL-33–mediated responses in allergic asthma and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:25313073

  1. A Novel Sulindac Derivative That Does Not Inhibit Cyclooxygenases but Potently Inhibits Colon Tumor Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis with Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Gary A.; Keeton, Adam B.; Tinsley, Heather N.; Gary, Bernard D.; Whitt, Jason D.; Mathew, Bini; Thaiparambil, Jose; Coward, Lori; Gorman, Gregory; Li, Yonghe; Sani, Brahma; Hobrath, Judith V.; Maxuitenko, Yulia Y.; Reynolds, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as sulindac have shown promising antineoplastic activity, although toxicity from cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition and the suppression of prostaglandin synthesis limits their use for chemoprevention. Previous studies have concluded that the mechanism responsible for their antineoplastic activity may be COX independent. To selectively design out the COX inhibitory activity of sulindac sulfide (SS), in silico modeling studies were done that revealed the crucial role of the carboxylate moiety for COX-1 and COX-2 binding. These studies prompted the synthesis of a series of SS derivatives with carboxylate modifications that were screened for tumor cell growth and COX inhibitory activity. A SS amide (SSA) with a N,N-dimethylethyl amine substitution was found to lack COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activity, yet potently inhibit the growth of human colon tumor cell lines, HT-29, SW480, and HCT116 with IC50 values of 2 to 5 µmol/L compared with 73 to 85 µmol/L for SS. The mechanism of growth inhibition involved the suppression of DNA synthesis and apoptosis induction. Oral administration of SSA was well-tolerated in mice and generated plasma levels that exceeded its in vitro IC50 for tumor growth inhibition. In the human HT-29 colon tumor xenograft mouse model, SSA significantly inhibited tumor growth at a dosage of 250 mg/kg. Combined treatment of SSA with the chemotherapeutic drug, Camptosar, caused a more sustained suppression of tumor growth compared with Camptosar treatment alone. These results indicate that SSA has potential safety and efficacy advantages for colon cancer chemoprevention as well as utility for treating malignant disease if combined with chemotherapy. PMID:19470791

  2. A novel sulindac derivative that does not inhibit cyclooxygenases but potently inhibits colon tumor cell growth and induces apoptosis with antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Gary A; Keeton, Adam B; Tinsley, Heather N; Gary, Bernard D; Whitt, Jason D; Mathew, Bini; Thaiparambil, Jose; Coward, Lori; Gorman, Gregory; Li, Yonghe; Sani, Brahma; Hobrath, Judith V; Maxuitenko, Yulia Y; Reynolds, Robert C

    2009-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as sulindac have shown promising antineoplastic activity, although toxicity from cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition and the suppression of prostaglandin synthesis limits their use for chemoprevention. Previous studies have concluded that the mechanism responsible for their antineoplastic activity may be COX independent. To selectively design out the COX inhibitory activity of sulindac sulfide (SS), in silico modeling studies were done that revealed the crucial role of the carboxylate moiety for COX-1 and COX-2 binding. These studies prompted the synthesis of a series of SS derivatives with carboxylate modifications that were screened for tumor cell growth and COX inhibitory activity. A SS amide (SSA) with a N,N-dimethylethyl amine substitution was found to lack COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activity, yet potently inhibit the growth of human colon tumor cell lines, HT-29, SW480, and HCT116 with IC(50) values of 2 to 5 micromol/L compared with 73 to 85 micromol/L for SS. The mechanism of growth inhibition involved the suppression of DNA synthesis and apoptosis induction. Oral administration of SSA was well-tolerated in mice and generated plasma levels that exceeded its in vitro IC(50) for tumor growth inhibition. In the human HT-29 colon tumor xenograft mouse model, SSA significantly inhibited tumor growth at a dosage of 250 mg/kg. Combined treatment of SSA with the chemotherapeutic drug, Camptosar, caused a more sustained suppression of tumor growth compared with Camptosar treatment alone. These results indicate that SSA has potential safety and efficacy advantages for colon cancer chemoprevention as well as utility for treating malignant disease if combined with chemotherapy.

  3. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 3-Alkyl-1,5-Diaryl-1H-Pyrazoles as Rigid Analogues of Combretastatin A-4 with Potent Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qile; Qi, Huan; Sun, Maolin; Zuo, Daiying; Jiang, Xuewei; Wen, Zhiyong; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Yingliang; Zhang, Weige

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel 3-alkyl-1,5-diaryl-1H-pyrazoles were synthesized as combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) analogues and evaluated for antiproliferative activity against three human cancer cell lines (SGC-7901, A549 and HT-1080). Most of the target compounds displayed moderate to potent antiproliferative activity, and 7k was found to be the most potent compound. Structure-activity relationships indicated that compounds with a trimethoxyphenyl A-ring at the N-1 position of the pyrazole skeleton were more potent than those with the A-ring at the C-5 position. Tubulin polymerization and immunostaining experiments revealed that 7k potently inhibited tubulin polymerization and disrupted tubulin microtubule dynamics in a manner similar to CA-4. Computational modelling demonstrated that the binding of 7k to the colchicine binding site on microtubules may involve a similar mode as CA-4. PMID:26061410

  4. Tetrahydro-2-naphthyl and 2-Indanyl Triazolopyrimidines Targeting Plasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Display Potent and Selective Antimalarial Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Malaria persists as one of the most devastating global infectious diseases. The pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) has been identified as a new malaria drug target, and a triazolopyrimidine-based DHODH inhibitor 1 (DSM265) is in clinical development. We sought to identify compounds with higher potency against Plasmodium DHODH while showing greater selectivity toward animal DHODHs. Herein we describe a series of novel triazolopyrimidines wherein the p-SF5-aniline was replaced with substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl or 2-indanyl amines. These compounds showed strong species selectivity, and several highly potent tetrahydro-2-naphthyl derivatives were identified. Compounds with halogen substitutions displayed sustained plasma levels after oral dosing in rodents leading to efficacy in the P. falciparum SCID mouse malaria model. These data suggest that tetrahydro-2-naphthyl derivatives have the potential to be efficacious for the treatment of malaria, but due to higher metabolic clearance than 1, they most likely would need to be part of a multidose regimen. PMID:27127993

  5. Rapid Discovery and Structure–Activity Relationships of Pyrazolopyrimidines That Potently Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Growth via SRC Kinase Inhibition with Exceptional Selectivity over ABL Kinase

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Novel pyrazolopyrimidines displaying high potency and selectivity toward SRC family kinases have been developed by combining ligand-based design and phenotypic screening in an iterative manner. Compounds were derived from the promiscuous kinase inhibitor PP1 to search for analogs that could potentially target a broad spectrum of kinases involved in cancer. Phenotypic screening against MCF7 mammary adenocarcinoma cells generated target-agnostic structure–activity relationships that biased subsequent designs toward breast cancer treatment rather than to a particular target. This strategy led to the discovery of two potent antiproliferative leads with phenotypically distinct anticancer mode of actions. Kinase profiling and further optimization resulted in eCF506, the first small molecule with subnanomolar IC50 for SRC that requires 3 orders of magnitude greater concentration to inhibit ABL. eCF506 exhibits excellent water solubility, an optimal DMPK profile and oral bioavailability, halts SRC-associated neuromast migration in zebrafish embryos without inducing life-threatening heart defects, and inhibits SRC phosphorylation in tumor xenografts in mice. PMID:27115835

  6. Chemical or genetic Pin1 inhibition exerts potent anticancer activity against hepatocellular carcinoma by blocking multiple cancer-driving pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xin-Hua; Zhang, Arina Li; Zheng, Min; Li, Mei-Qing; Chen, Champ Peng; Xu, Huijuan; Chu, Qing-Song; Yang, Dayun; Lu, Wenxian; Tsai, Ting-Fen; Liu, Hekun; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Lu, Kun Ping

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent and malignant cancers with high inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity. A central common signaling mechanism in cancer is proline-directed phosphorylation, which is further regulated by the unique proline isomerase Pin1. Pin1 is prevalently overexpressed in human cancers including ~70% of HCC, and promotes tumorigenesis by activating multiple cancer-driving pathways. However, it was challenging to evaluate the significance of targeting Pin1 in cancer treatment until the recent identification of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as a Pin1 inhibitor. Here we systematically investigate functions of Pin1 and its inhibitor ATRA in the development and treatment of HCC. Pin1 knockdown potently inhibited HCC cell proliferation and tumor growth in mice. ATRA-induced Pin1 degradation inhibited the growth of HCC cells, although at a higher IC50 as compared with breast cancer cells, likely due to more active ATRA metabolism in liver cells. Indeed, inhibition of ATRA metabolism enhanced the sensitivity of HCC cells to ATRA. Moreover, slow-releasing ATRA potently and dose-dependently inhibited HCC growth in mice. Finally, chemical or genetic Pin1 ablation blocked multiple cancer-driving pathways simultaneously in HCC cells. Thus, targeting Pin1 offers a promising therapeutic approach to simultaneously stop multiple cancer-driving pathways in HCC. PMID:28262728

  7. Potent suppressive activity of chlorophyll a and b from green tea (Camellia sinensis) against tumor promotion in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Higashi-Okai, K; Okai, Y

    1998-09-01

    Potent antigenotoxic and anti-tumor promoting activities of chlorophyll a from green tea (camellia sinensis) have been shown using in vitro cell culture experiments (Okai Y. et al. (1996) Mutation Res., 370, 11-17). In the present study, the authors analyzed in vivo effects of chlorophyll a and b from green tea on tumor promotion in mouse skin in the following ways. 1. When chlorophyll a and b from green tea were applied before each treatment by a tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on BALB/c mouse skin initiated by 7, 12-dimethylbenz [a] an-thracene (DMBA), they caused significant suppression in a dose-dependent manner against BALB/c mouse skin tumorigenesis. 2. Chlorophyll a and b showed significant suppressive effects against TPA-induced inflammatory reaction such as edema formation in BALB/c mouse ear skin in a dose-dependent fashion. These results suggest that chlorophyll a and b possess potent suppressive activities against tumor promotion in mouse skin.

  8. The Spider Venom Peptide Lycosin-II Has Potent Antimicrobial Activity against Clinically Isolated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongjun; Wang, Ling; Yang, Huali; Xiao, Haoliang; Farooq, Athar; Liu, Zhonghua; Hu, Min; Shi, Xiaoliu

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have been accepted as excellent candidates for developing novel antibiotics against drug-resistant bacteria. Recent studies indicate that spider venoms are the source for the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides. In the present study, we isolated and characterized an antibacterial peptide named lycosin-II from the venom of the spider Lycosa singoriensis. It contains 21 amino acid residue lacking cysteine residues and forms a typical linear amphipathic and cationic α-helical conformation. Lycosin-II displays potent bacteriostatic effect on the tested drug-resistant bacterial strains isolated from hospital patients, including multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, which has presented a huge challenge for the infection therapy. The inhibitory ability of lycosin-II might derive from its binding to cell membrane, because Mg2+ could compete with the binding sites to reduce the bacteriostatic potency of lycosin-II. Our data suggest that lycosin-II might be a lead in the development of novel antibiotics for curing drug-resistant bacterial infections. PMID:27128941

  9. The Oral Antimalarial Drug Tafenoquine Shows Activity against Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Luis; Martínez-García, Marta; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Manzano, José Ignacio; Yardley, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease that requires new, safer, and more effective treatments. Repurposing oral drugs could reduce both the time and cost involved in sleeping sickness drug discovery. Tafenoquine (TFQ) is an oral antimalarial drug belonging to the 8-aminoquinoline family which is currently in clinical phase III. We show here that TFQ efficiently kills different T. brucei spp. in the submicromolar concentration range. Our results suggest that TFQ accumulates into acidic compartments and induces a necrotic process involving cell membrane disintegration and loss of cytoplasmic content, leading to parasite death. Cell lysis is preceded by a wide and multitarget drug action, affecting the lysosome, mitochondria, and acidocalcisomes and inducing a depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, elevation of intracellular Ca2+, and production of reactive oxygen species. This is the first report of an 8-aminoquinoline demonstrating significant in vitro activity against T. brucei. PMID:26195527

  10. Anti-cancer activity of bromelain nanoparticles by oral administration.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Patnaik, Soma; Srivastava, Amit K; Mudiam, Mohan K R; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Panda, Amulya K; Pant, Aditya B; Kumar, Pradeep; Gupta, Kailash C

    2014-12-01

    Oral administration of anti-cancer drugs is an effective alternative to improve their efficacy and reduce undesired toxicity. Bromelain (BL) is known as an effective anti-cancer phyto-therapeutic agent, however, its activity is reduced upon oral administration. In addressing the issue, BL was encapsulated in Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to formulate nanoparticles (NPs). Further, the NPs were coated with Eudragit L30D polymer to introduce stability against the gastric acidic conditions. The resultant coated NPs were characterized for BL entrapment, proteolytic activity and mean particle size. The stability and release pattern of NPs were evaluated under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) pH conditions. Cytotoxicity studies carried out in human cell lines of diverse origin have shown significant dose advantage (-7-10 folds) with NPs in reducing the IC50 values compared with free BL. The cellular uptake of NPs in MCF-7, HeLa and Caco-2 cells monolayer was significantly enhanced several folds as compared to free BL. Altered expression of marker proteins associated with apoptosis and cell death (P53, P21, Bcl2, Bax) also confirmed the enhanced anti-carcinogenic potential of formulated NPs. Oral administration of NPs reduced the tumor burden of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and also increased their life-span (160.0 ± 5.8%) when compared with free BL (24 ± 3.2%). The generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of apoptosis and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential in EAC cells treated with NPs confirmed the suitability of Eudragit coated BL-NPs as a promising candidate for oral chemotherapy.

  11. Design, synthesis and molecular docking of α,β-unsaturated cyclohexanone analogous of curcumin as potent EGFR inhibitors with antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun-Yun; Cao, Yi; Ma, Hailkuo; Li, Huan-Qiu; Ao, Gui-Zhen

    2013-01-15

    A type of novel α,β-unsaturated cyclohexanone analogous, which designed based on the curcumin core structure, have been discovered as potential EGFR inhibitors. These compounds exhibit potent antiproliferative activity in two human tumor cell lines (Hep G2 and B16-F10). Among them, compounds I(3) and I(12) displayed the most potent EGFR inhibitory activity (IC(50) = 0.43 μM and 1.54 μM, respectively). Molecular docking of I(12) into EGFR TK active site was also performed. This inhibitor nicely fitting the active site might well explain its excellent inhibitory activity.

  12. (-)-Englerin A is a potent and selective activator of TRPC4 and TRPC5 calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Yasemin; Gaunt, Hannah J; Muraki, Katsuhiko; Ludlow, Melanie J; Amer, Mohamed S; Bruns, Alexander; Vasudev, Naveen S; Radtke, Lea; Willot, Matthieu; Hahn, Sven; Seitz, Tobias; Ziegler, Slava; Christmann, Mathias; Beech, David J; Waldmann, Herbert

    2015-03-16

    Current therapies for common types of cancer such as renal cell cancer are often ineffective and unspecific, and novel pharmacological targets and approaches are in high demand. Here we show the unexpected possibility for the rapid and selective killing of renal cancer cells through activation of calcium-permeable nonselective transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) calcium channels by the sesquiterpene (-)-englerin A. This compound was found to be a highly efficient, fast-acting, potent, selective, and direct stimulator of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channels. TRPC4/5 activation through a high-affinity extracellular (-)-englerin A binding site may open up novel opportunities for drug discovery aimed at renal cancer.

  13. Antiviral Activity of Bictegravir (GS-9883), a Novel Potent HIV-1 Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor with an Improved Resistance Profile

    PubMed Central

    Tsiang, Manuel; Jones, Gregg S.; Goldsmith, Joshua; Mulato, Andrew; Hansen, Derek; Kan, Elaine; Tsai, Luong; Bam, Rujuta A.; Stepan, George; Stray, Kirsten M.; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Yant, Stephen R.; Yu, Helen; Kukolj, George; Cihlar, Tomas; Lazerwith, Scott E.; Jin, Haolun

    2016-01-01

    Bictegravir (BIC; GS-9883), a novel, potent, once-daily, unboosted inhibitor of HIV-1 integrase (IN), specifically targets IN strand transfer activity (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 7.5 ± 0.3 nM) and HIV-1 integration in cells. BIC exhibits potent and selective in vitro antiretroviral activity in both T-cell lines and primary human T lymphocytes, with 50% effective concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 2.4 nM and selectivity indices up to 8,700 relative to cytotoxicity. BIC exhibits synergistic in vitro antiviral effects in pairwise combinations with tenofovir alafenamide, emtricitabine, or darunavir and maintains potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 variants resistant to other classes of antiretrovirals. BIC displayed an in vitro resistance profile that was markedly improved compared to the integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) raltegravir (RAL) and elvitegravir (EVG), and comparable to that of dolutegravir (DTG), against nine INSTI-resistant site-directed HIV-1 mutants. BIC displayed statistically improved antiviral activity relative to EVG, RAL, and DTG against a panel of 47 patient-derived HIV-1 isolates with high-level INSTI resistance; 13 of 47 tested isolates exhibited >2-fold lower resistance to BIC than DTG. In dose-escalation experiments conducted in vitro, BIC and DTG exhibited higher barriers to resistance than EVG, selecting for HIV-1 variants with reduced phenotypic susceptibility at days 71, 87, and 20, respectively. A recombinant virus with the BIC-selected M50I/R263K dual mutations in IN exhibited only 2.8-fold reduced susceptibility to BIC compared to wild-type virus. All BIC-selected variants exhibited low to intermediate levels of cross-resistance to RAL, DTG, and EVG (<8-fold) but remained susceptible to other classes of antiretrovirals. A high barrier to in vitro resistance emergence for both BIC and DTG was also observed in viral breakthrough studies in the presence of constant clinically relevant drug concentrations. The

  14. PM01183, a new DNA minor groove covalent binder with potent in vitro and in vivo anti-tumour activity

    PubMed Central

    Leal, JFM; Martínez-Díez, M; García-Hernández, V; Moneo, V; Domingo, A; Bueren-Calabuig, JA; Negri, A; Gago, F; Guillén-Navarro, MJ; Avilés, P; Cuevas, C; García-Fernández, LF; Galmarini, CM

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE PM01183 is a new synthetic tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid that is currently in phase I clinical development for the treatment of solid tumours. In this study we have characterized the interactions of PM01183 with selected DNA molecules of defined sequence and its in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH DNA binding characteristics of PM01183 were studied using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, fluorescence-based melting kinetic experiments and computational modelling methods. Its mechanism of action was investigated using flow cytometry, Western blot analysis and fluorescent microscopy. In vitro anti-tumour activity was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the in vivo activity utilized several human cancer models. KEY RESULTS Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that PM01183 bound to DNA. Fluorescence-based thermal denaturation experiments showed that the most favourable DNA triplets providing a central guanine for covalent adduct formation are AGC, CGG, AGG and TGG. These binding preferences could be rationalized using molecular modelling. PM01183–DNA adducts in living cells give rise to double-strand breaks, triggering S-phase accumulation and apoptosis. The potent cytotoxic activity of PM01183 was ascertained in a 23-cell line panel with a mean GI50 value of 2.7 nM. In four murine xenograft models of human cancer, PM01183 inhibited tumour growth significantly with no weight loss of treated animals. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS PM01183 is shown to bind to selected DNA sequences and promoted apoptosis by inducing double-strand breaks at nanomolar concentrations. The potent anti-tumour activity of PM01183 in several murine models of human cancer supports its development as a novel anti-neoplastic agent. PMID:20977459

  15. Thusin, a Novel Two-Component Lantibiotic with Potent Antimicrobial Activity against Several Gram-Positive Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Bingyue; Zheng, Jinshui; Liu, Hualin; Li, Junhua; Ruan, Lifang; Peng, Donghai; Sajid, Muhammad; Sun, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rapidly increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, the need for new antimicrobial drugs to treat infections has become urgent. Bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin, are considered potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics and have attracted widespread attention in recent years. Among these bacteriocins, lantibiotics, especially two-component lantibiotics, exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against some clinically relevant Gram-positive pathogens and have potential applications in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we characterized a novel two-component lantibiotic termed thusin that consists of Thsα, Thsβ, and Thsβ' (mutation of Thsβ, A14G) and that was isolated from a B. thuringiensis strain BGSC 4BT1. Thsα and Thsβ (or Thsβ') exhibit optimal antimicrobial activity at a 1:1 ratio and act sequentially to affect target cells, and they are all highly thermostable (100°C for 30 min) and pH tolerant (pH 2.0 to 9.0). Thusin shows remarkable efficacy against all tested Gram-positive bacteria and greater activities than two known lantibiotics thuricin 4A-4 and ticin A4, and one antibiotic vancomycin against various bacterial pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus sciuri, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Moreover, thusin is also able to inhibit the outgrowth of B. cereus spores. The potent antimicrobial activity of thusin against some Gram-positive pathogens indicates that it has potential for the development of new drugs. PMID:27486447

  16. Identification of Tetraazacyclic Compounds as Novel Potent Inhibitors Antagonizing RORγt Activity and Suppressing Th17 Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Qingfeng; Zhao, Mei; Yu, Bolan; Bai, Chuan; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T-helper cells that produce interleukin-17 (Th17 cells) are characterized as pathological T-helper cells in autoimmune diseases. Differentiation of human and mouse Th17 cells requires a key transcription regulator, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt), which is a potential therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases. To develop a therapeutic agent for Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases, we have established a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for candidate screening, in which the luciferase activity in RORγt-LBD positive and negative Jurkat cells were analyzed to evaluate induction of RORγt activity by compounds. This technique was applied to screen a commercially-available drug-like chemical compound library (Enamine) which contains 20155 compounds. The screening identified 17 compounds that can inhibit RORγt function in the HTS screen system. Of these, three tetraazacyclic compounds can potently inhibit RORγt activity, and suppress Th17 differentiation and IL-17 production. These three candidate compounds could significantly attenuate the expression of the Il17a by 65%- 90%, and inhibit IL-17A secretion by 47%, 63%, and 74%, respectively. These compounds also exhibited a potent anti-RORγt activity, with EC50 values of 0.25 μM, 0.67 μM and 2.6 μM, respectively. Our data demonstrated the feasibility of targeting the RORγt to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation and function with these tetraazacyclic compounds, and the potential to improve the structure of these compounds for autoimmune diseases therapeutics. PMID:26368822

  17. A Novel Immunomodulatory Hemocyanin from the Limpet Fissurella latimarginata Promotes Potent Anti-Tumor Activity in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Arancibia, Sergio; Espinoza, Cecilia; Salazar, Fabián; Del Campo, Miguel; Tampe, Ricardo; Zhong, Ta-Ying; De Ioannes, Pablo; Moltedo, Bruno; Ferreira, Jorge; Lavelle, Ed C.; Manubens, Augusto; De Ioannes, Alfredo E.; Becker, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    Hemocyanins, the huge oxygen-transporting glycoproteins of some mollusks, are used as immunomodulatory proteins with proven anti-cancer properties. The biodiversity of hemocyanins has promoted interest in identifying new anti-cancer candidates with improved immunological properties. Hemocyanins promote Th1 responses without known side effects, which make them ideal for long-term sustained treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated a novel hemocyanin from the limpet/gastropod Fissurella latimarginata (FLH). This protein has the typical hollow, cylindrical structure of other known hemocyanins, such as the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and the Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH). FLH, like the KLH isoforms, is composed of a single type of polypeptide with exposed N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. However, its immunogenicity was significantly greater than that of KLH and CCH, as FLH induced a stronger humoral immune response and had more potent anti-tumor activity, delaying tumor growth and increasing the survival of mice challenged with B16F10 melanoma cells, in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Additionally, FLH-treated mice demonstrated increased IFN-γ production and higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ lymphocytes. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that FLH, but not CCH or KLH, stimulated the rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α) by dendritic cells, triggering a pro-inflammatory milieu that may explain its enhanced immunological activity. Moreover, this effect was abolished when deglycosylated FLH was used, suggesting that carbohydrates play a crucial role in the innate immune recognition of this protein. Altogether, our data demonstrate that FLH possesses increased anti-tumor activity in part because it activates a more potent innate immune response in comparison to other known hemocyanins. In conclusion, FLH is a potential new marine adjuvant for immunization and possible cancer immunotherapy. PMID

  18. Lead optimization of a pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7(4H)-one scaffold to identify potent, selective and orally bioavailable KDM5 inhibitors suitable for in vivo biological studies.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Zhang, Birong; Labadie, Sharada; Ortwine, Daniel F; Vinogradova, Maia; Kiefer, James R; Gehling, Victor S; Harmange, Jean-Christophe; Cummings, Richard; Lai, Tommy; Liao, Jiangpeng; Zheng, Xiaoping; Liu, Yichin; Gustafson, Amy; Van der Porten, Erica; Mao, Weifeng; Liederer, Bianca M; Deshmukh, Gauri; Classon, Marie; Trojer, Patrick; Dragovich, Peter S; Murray, Lesley

    2016-08-15

    Starting with a lead [1,5-a]pyrimidin-7(4H)-one-containing molecule (1), we generated potent, selective and orally bioavailable KDM5 inhibitors. Using structure- and property-based approaches, we designed 48 with improved cell potency (PC9 H3K4Me3 EC50=0.34μM). Furthermore, 48 maintained suitable physiochemical properties and displayed an excellent pharmacokinetic (PK) profile in mice. When dosed orally in mice at 50mg/kg twice a day (BID), 48 showed an unbound maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) >15-fold over its cell EC50, thereby providing a robust chemical probe for studying KDM5 biological functions in vivo.

  19. Development of GoSlo-SR-5-69, a potent activator of large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subhrangsu; Large, Roddy J; Akande, Adebola Morayo; Kshatri, Aravind; Webb, Tim I; Domene, Carmen; Sergeant, Gerard P; McHale, Noel G; Thornbury, Keith D; Hollywood, Mark A

    2014-03-21

    We have designed, synthesised and characterised the effects of a number of novel anthraquinone derivatives and assessed their effects on large conductance, Ca(2+) activated K(+) (BK) channels recorded from rabbit bladder smooth muscle cells using the excised, inside/out configuration of the patch clamp technique. These compounds are members of the GoSlo-SR family of compounds, which potently open BK channels and shift the voltage required for half maximal activation (V1/2) negatively. The efficacy of the anilinoanthraquinone derivatives was enhanced when the size of ring D was increased, since the cyclopentane and cyclohexane derivatives shifted the V1/2, by -24 ± 6 mV and -54 ± 8 mV, respectively, whereas the cycloheptane and cyclooctane derivatives shifted the V1/2 by -61 ± 6 mV and -106 ± 6 mV. To examine if a combination of hydrophobicity and steric bulking of this region further enhanced their ability to open BK channels, we synthesised a number of naphthalene and tetrahydro-naphthalene derivatives. The tetrahydro-2-naphthalene derivative GoSlo-SR-5-69 was the most potent and efficacious of the series since it was able to shift the activation V1/2 by greater than -100 mV when applied at a concentration of 1 μM and had an EC50 of 251 nM, making it one of the most potent and efficacious BK channel openers synthesised to date.

  20. Orally administered H-Dmt-Tic-Lys-NH-CH2-Ph (MZ-2), a potent mu/delta-opioid receptor antagonist, regulates obese-related factors in mice.

    PubMed

    Marczak, Ewa D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Myers, Page H; Blankenship, Terry; Wilson, Ralph; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2009-08-15

    Orally active dual mu-/delta-opioid receptor antagonist, H-Dmt-Tic-Lys-NH-CH(2)-Ph (MZ-2) was applied to study body weight gain, fat content, bone mineral density, serum insulin, cholesterol and glucose levels in female ob/ob (B6.V-Lep/J homozygous) and lean wild mice with or without voluntary exercise on wheels for three weeks, and during a two week post-treatment period under the same conditions. MZ-2 (10mg/kg/day, p.o.) exhibited the following actions: (1) reduced body weight gain in sedentary obese mice that persisted beyond the treatment period without effect on lean mice; (2) stimulated voluntary running on exercise wheels of both groups of mice; (3) decreased fat content, enhanced bone mineral density (BMD), and decreased serum insulin and glucose levels in obese mice; and (4) MZ-2 (30 microM) increased BMD in human osteoblast cells (MG-63) comparable to naltrexone, while morphine inhibited mineral nodule formation. Thus, MZ-2 has potential application in the clinical management of obesity, insulin and glucose levels, and the amelioration of osteoporosis.

  1. Orally administered H-Dmt-Tic-Lys-NH-CH2-Ph (MZ-2), a potent μ-/δ-opioid receptor antagonist, regulates obese-related factors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Marczak, Ewa D.; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Myers, Page H.; Blankenship, Terry; Wilson, Ralph; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Lazarus, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    Orally active dual μ-/δ-opioid receptor antagonist, H-Dmt-Tic-Lys-NH-CH2-Ph (MZ-2) was applied to study body weight gain, fat content, bone mineral density, serum insulin, cholesterol and glucose levels in female ob/ob (B6.V-Lep/J homozygous) and lean wild mice with or without voluntary exercise on wheels for three weeks, and during a two week post-treatment period under the same conditions. MZ-2 (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) exhibited the following actions: (1) reduced body weight gain in sedentary obese mice that persisted beyond the treatment period without effect on lean mice; (2) stimulated voluntary running on exercise wheels of both groups of mice; (3) decreased fat content, enhanced bone mineral density (BMD), and decreased serum insulin and glucose levels in obese mice; and (4) MZ-2 (30 μM) increased BMD in human osteoblast cells (MG-63) comparable to naltrexone, while morphine inhibited mineral nodule formation. Thus, MZ-2 has potential application in the clinical management of obesity, insulin and glucose levels, and the amelioration of osteoporosis. PMID:19576206

  2. The novel trisubstituted pyran derivative D-142 has triple monoamine reuptake inhibitory activity and exerts potent antidepressant-like activity in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Aloke K.; Gopishetty, Bhaskar; Gogoi, Sanjib; Ali, Solav; Zhen, Juan; Reith, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    Major depression disorder is a significant health problem with 10-20% of all adults suffering from this disease. The underlying causes of depression are still unclear and 15% of depressed patients are resistant to all known therapies. Monoamine therapies have so far been the most successful approach for treating depression. Triple monoamine reuptake inhibitors have recently been implicated in generation of potent antidepressant activity while possibly exhibiting a low side-effect profile in addition to treating anhedonia. The additional, previously under-appreciated involvement of dopaminergic systems in depression prompted our efforts to develop novel asymmetric trisubstituted and disubstituted pyran derivatives as triple reuptake inhibitors. One of the lead compounds, D-142, exhibited uptake inhibition (Ki) values of 29.3 nM, 14.7 nM and 37.4 nM for norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine transporters, respectively. Its affinity for serotonin transporter was comparable to fluoxetine , a well known SSRI. In the rat forced swimming test, compound D-142 exhibited potent antidepressant activity in the dose range tested (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and was far more efficacious than the reference compound imipramine. In the mouse tail suspension test, compound D-142 reduced immobility in a dose (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) dependent manner, indicating a potent antidepressant effect. In locomotor activity tests, compound D-142 did not exhibit any stimulation in the same dose ranges. In the extended CNS receptors screening assay this molecule exhibited little or no non-specific interaction in the CNS, indicating high specificity for monoamine transporters. These results advance D-142 as a potential potent antidepressant. PMID:21963455

  3. Triggering through NOD-2 Differentiates Bone Marrow Precursors to Dendritic Cells with Potent Bactericidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nargis; Aqdas, Mohammad; Vidyarthi, Aurobind; Negi, Shikha; Pahari, Susanta; Agnihotri, Tapan; Agrewala, Javed N.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by activating naïve T cells. The role of pattern recognition receptors like Toll-Like Receptors and Nod-Like Receptors expressed on DCs is well-defined in the recognition of the pathogens. However, nothing is precisely studied regarding the impact of NOD-2 signaling during the differentiation of DCs. Consequently, we explored the role of NOD-2 signaling in the differentiation of DCs and therefore their capability to activate innate and adaptive immunity. Intriguingly, we observed that NOD-2 stimulated DCs (nDCs) acquired highly activated and matured phenotype and exhibited substantially greater bactericidal activity by robust production of nitric oxide. The mechanism involved in improving the functionality of nDCs was dependent on IFN-αβ signaling, leading to the activation of STAT pathways. Furthermore, we also observed that STAT-1 and STAT-4 dependent maturation and activation of DCs was under the feedback mechanism of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 proteins. nDCs acquired enhanced potential to activate chiefly Th1 and Th17 immunity. Taken together, these results suggest that nDCs can be exploited as an immunotherapeutic agent in bolstering host immunity and imparting protection against the pathogens. PMID:27265209

  4. Structurally well-defined macrophage activating factor derived from vitamin D3-binding protein has a potent adjuvant activity for immunization.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1998-06-01

    Freund's adjuvant produced severe inflammation that augments development of antibodies. Thus, mixed administration of antigens with adjuvant was not required as long as inflammation was induced in the hosts. Since macrophage activation for phagocytosis and antigen processing is the first step of antibody development, inflammation-primed macrophage activation plays a major role in immune development. Therefore, macrophage activating factor should act as an adjuvant for immunization. The inflammation-primed macrophage activation process is the major macrophage activating cascade that requires participation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) and glycosidases of B and T lymphocytes. Stepwise incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase efficiently generated the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF) we have ever encountered. Administration of GcMAF (20 or 100 pg/mouse) resulted in stimulation of the progenitor cells for extensive mitogenesis and activation of macrophages. Administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) along with immunization of mice with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) produced a large number of anti-SRBC antibody secreting splenic cells in 2-4 days. Thus, GcMAF has a potent adjuvant activity for immunization. Although malignant tumours are poorly immunogenic, 4 days after GcMAF-primed immunization of mice with heat-killed Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, the ascites tumour was no longer transplantable in these mice.

  5. Water extracts of cinnamon and clove exhibits potent inhibition of protein glycation and anti-atherosclerotic activity in vitro and in vivo hypolipidemic activity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seori; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    Advanced glycation end products contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and atherosclerosis. Aqueous extracts of ground pepper, cinnamon, rosemary, ginger, and clove were analyzed and tested for anti-atherosclerotic activity in vitro and in vivo using hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. Cinnamon and clove extracts (at final 10 μg/mL) had the strongest anti-glycation and antioxidant activity in this study. Cinnamon and clove had the strongest inhibition of activity against copper-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and LDL phagocytosis by macrophages. Cinnamon or clove extracts had potent cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner. They exhibited hypolipidemic activity in a hypercholesterolemic zebrafish model; the clove extract-treated group had a 68% and 80% decrease in serum cholesterol and TG levels, respectively. The clove extract-fed group had the smallest increase in body weight and height and the strongest antioxidant activity following a 5-week high cholesterol diet. Hydrophilic ingredients of cinnamon and clove showed potent activities to suppress the incidence of atherosclerosis and diabetes via strong antioxidant potential, prevention of apoA-I glycation and LDL-phagocytosis, inhibition of CETP, and hypolipidemic activity. These results suggest the potential to develop a new functional dietary agent to treat chronic metabolic diseases, such as hyperlipidemia and diabetes.

  6. Potent In Vivo Antiviral Activity of the Herpes Simplex Virus Primase-Helicase Inhibitor BAY 57-1293

    PubMed Central

    Betz, Ulrich A. K.; Fischer, Rüdiger; Kleymann, Gerald; Hendrix, Martin; Rübsamen-Waigmann, Helga

    2002-01-01

    BAY 57-1293 belongs to a new class of antiviral compounds and inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2 in the nanomolar range in vitro by abrogating the enzymatic activity of the viral primase-helicase complex. In various rodent models of HSV infection the antiviral activity of BAY 57-1293 in vivo was found to be superior compared to all compounds currently used to treat HSV infections. The compound shows profound antiviral activity in murine and rat lethal challenge models of disseminated herpes, in a murine zosteriform spread model of cutaneous disease, and in a murine ocular herpes model. It is active in parenteral, oral, and topical formulations. BAY 57-1293 continued to demonstrate efficacy when the onset of treatment was initiated after symptoms of herpetic disease were already apparent. PMID:12019088

  7. New natural polysaccharides with potent antithrombic activity: fucans from brown algae.

    PubMed

    Grauffel, V; Kloareg, B; Mabeau, S; Durand, P; Jozefonvicz, J

    1989-08-01

    Fucans extracted from brown algae exhibit anticoagulant properties, as demonstrated by coagulation assays and kinetic study of the inactivation of thrombin in the presence of antithrombin III. These derivatives exert a direct antithrombic activity by an antithrombin III-independent pathway. Besides, their anticoagulant activity is not mediated by a potency to inhibit factor Xa. Relatively low-molecular-mass fractions (50,000 Daltons) prepared by chromatographic fractionation of the crude fucans also exhibit anticoagulant activity. They may prove useful as anticoagulant drugs.

  8. Pyrrolo[3',2':6,7]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridines with potent photo-antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Spanò, Virginia; Giallombardo, Daniele; Cilibrasi, Vincenzo; Parrino, Barbara; Carbone, Anna; Montalbano, Alessandra; Frasson, Ilaria; Salvador, Alessia; Richter, Sara N; Doria, Filippo; Freccero, Mauro; Cascioferro, Stella; Diana, Patrizia; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Barraja, Paola

    2017-03-10

    Pyrrolo[3',2':6,7]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridines were synthesized as a new class of tricyclic system in which the pyridine ring is annelated to a cycloheptapyrrole scaffold, with the aim of obtaining new photosensitizing agents with improved antiproliferative activity and lower undesired toxic effects. A versatile synthetic pathway was approached, which allowed the isolation of derivatives of the title ring system with a good substitution pattern on the pyrrole moiety. Photobiological studies revealed that the majority of the new compounds showed a potent cytotoxic effect upon photoactivation with light of the proper wavelength, especially when decorated with a 2-ethoxycabonyl group and a N-benzyl substituted moiety, with EC50 values reaching the submicromolar level. The mechanism of action was evaluated.

  9. Honaucins A–C, Potent Inhibitors of Eukaryotic Inflammation and Bacterial Quorum Sensing: Synthetic Derivatives and Structure-Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyukjae; Mascuch, Samantha J.; Villa, Francisco A.; Byrum, Tara; Teasdale, Margaret E.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Preskitt, Linda B.; Rowley, David C.; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Honaucins A–C were isolated from the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya crossbyana which was found overgrowing corals on the Hawaiian coast. Honaucin A consists of (S)-3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone and 4-chlorocrotonic acid which are connected via an ester linkage. Honaucin A and its two natural analogs exhibit potent inhibition of bioluminescence, a quorum sensing-dependent phenotype, in Vibrio harveyi BB120 as well as of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide production in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. The decrease in nitric oxide production was accompanied by a decrease in the transcripts of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, most dramatically interleukin-1β. Synthesis of honaucin A as well as a number of analogs and subsequent evaluation in anti-inflammation and quorum sensing inhibition bioassays revealed the essential structural features for activity in this chemical class, and provided analogs with greater potency in both assays. PMID:22633410

  10. Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Hagvall, Lina; Baron, Jens Malte; Boerje, Anna; Weidolf, Lars; Merk, Hans; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2008-12-01

    Contact sensitization is caused by low molecular weight compounds which penetrate the skin and bind to protein. In many cases, these compounds are activated to reactive species, either by autoxidation on exposure to air or by metabolic activation in the skin. Geraniol, a widely used fragrance chemical, is considered to be a weak allergen, although its chemical structure does not indicate it to be a contact sensitizer. We have shown that geraniol autoxidizes and forms allergenic oxidation products. In the literature, it is suggested but not shown that geraniol could be metabolically activated to geranial. Previously, a skin-like CYP cocktail consisting of cutaneous CYP isoenzymes, was developed as a model system to study cutaneous metabolism. In the present study, we used this system to investigate CYP-mediated activation of geraniol. In incubations with the skin-like CYP cocktail, geranial, neral, 2,3-epoxygeraniol, 6,7-epoxygeraniol and 6,7-epoxygeranial were identified. Geranial was the main metabolite formed followed by 6,7-epoxygeraniol. The allergenic activities of the identified metabolites were determined in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Geranial, neral and 6,7-epoxygeraniol were shown to be moderate sensitizers, and 6,7-epoxygeranial a strong sensitizer. Of the isoenzymes studied, CYP2B6, CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 showed high activities. It is likely that CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 are mainly responsible for the metabolic activation of geraniol in the skin, as they are expressed constitutively at significantly higher levels than CYP2B6. Thus, geraniol is activated through both autoxidation and metabolism. The allergens geranial and neral are formed via both oxidation mechanisms, thereby playing a large role in the sensitization to geraniol.

  11. Identification of potent anticancer activity in Ximenia americana aqueous extracts used by African traditional medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, Cristina; Eyol, Erguel; Berger, Martin R. . E-mail: m.berger@dkfz.de

    2006-03-15

    The antineoplastic activity of a plant powder used in African traditional medicine for treating cancer was investigated by analyzing the activity of various extracts in vitro. The most active, aqueous extract was subsequently subjected to a detailed investigation in a panel of 17 tumor cell lines, showing an average IC{sub 5} of 49 mg raw powder/ml medium. The sensitivity of the cell lines varied by two orders of magnitude, from 1.7 mg/ml in MCF7 breast cancer cells to 170 mg/ml in AR230 chronic-myeloid leukemia cells. Immortalized, non-tumorigenic cell lines showed a marginal sensitivity. In addition, kinetic and recovery experiments performed in MCF7 and U87-MG cells and a comparison with the antineoplastic activity of miltefosine, gemcitabine, and cisplatinum in MCF7, U87-MG, HEp2, and SAOS2 cells revealed no obvious similarity between the sensitivity profiles of the extract and the three standard agents, suggesting a different mechanism of cytotoxicity. The in vivo antitumor activity was determined in the CC531 colorectal cancer rat model. Significant anticancer activity was found following administration of equitoxic doses of 100 (perorally) and 5 (intraperitoneally) mg raw powder/kg, indicating a 95% reduced activity following intestinal absorption. By sequencing the mitochondrial gene for the large subunit of the ribulose bis-phosphate carboxylase (rbcL) in DNA from the plant material, the source plant was identified as Ximenia americana. A physicochemical characterization showed that the active antineoplastic component(s) of the plant material are proteins with galactose affinity. Moreover, by mass spectrometry, one of these proteins was shown to contain a stretch of 11 amino acids identical to a tryptic peptide from the ribosome-inactivating protein ricin.

  12. By Homing to the Kidney, Activated Macrophages Potently Exacerbate Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Yiping; Cai, Qi; Zheng, Guoping; Lee, Vincent W.S.; Zheng, Dong; Li, Xiaomei; Kui Tan, Thian; Harris, David C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages are important mediators of injury in most types of human kidney diseases; however, the pathogenic importance of both macrophage number and activation status is unknown. To examine this question, severe-combined immunodeficient mice with adriamycin nephrosis, an experimental model of human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, were treated intravenously with either resting (1 × 106 to 5 × 106) or activated (1 × 103 to 1 × 106) macrophages on day 6 postadriamycin administration, and the effects on kidney injury were examined. On day 28, renal injury was worse in the group that received activated macrophages at doses as low as 1 × 104 macrophages per mouse compared with control adriamycin nephrotic mice. However, treatment with resting macrophages at doses as high as 5 × 106 macrophages per mouse had no significant effect on either renal histology or function. The transferred activated macrophages homed to inflamed kidneys during the middle-to-late stages of the disease, but such homing was not observed for resting macrophages. This study of in vivo cell adoptive transfer supports the importance of macrophage activation status over macrophage number in causing renal injury. These data suggest that therapeutic strategies for treating progressive kidney diseases should target activated macrophages. PMID:18467704

  13. Potent in vitro antiviral activity of Cistus incanus extract against HIV and Filoviruses targets viral envelope proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rebensburg, Stephanie; Helfer, Markus; Schneider, Martha; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Eberle, Josef; Schindler, Michael; Gürtler, Lutz; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Novel therapeutic options are urgently needed to improve global treatment of virus infections. Herbal products with confirmed clinical safety features are attractive starting material for the identification of new antiviral activities. Here we demonstrate that Cistus incanus (Ci) herbal products inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in vitro. Ci extract inhibited clinical HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates, and, importantly, a virus isolate with multiple drug resistances, confirming broad anti-HIV activity. Antiviral activity was highly selective for virus particles, preventing primary attachment of the virus to the cell surface and viral envelope proteins from binding to heparin. Bioassay-guided fractionation indicated that Ci extract contains numerous antiviral compounds and therefore has favorably low propensity to induce virus resistance. Indeed, no resistant viruses emerged during 24 weeks of continuous propagation of the virus in the presence of Ci extracts. Finally, Ci extracts also inhibited infection by virus particles pseudotyped with Ebola and Marburg virus envelope proteins, indicating that antiviral activity of Ci extract extends to emerging viral pathogens. These results demonstrate that Ci extracts show potent and broad in vitro antiviral activity against viruses that cause life-threatening diseases in humans and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles. PMID:26833261

  14. Rice endosperm is cost-effective for the production of recombinant griffithsin with potent activity against HIV.

    PubMed

    Vamvaka, Evangelia; Arcalis, Elsa; Ramessar, Koreen; Evans, Abbey; O'Keefe, Barry R; Shattock, Robin J; Medina, Vicente; Stöger, Eva; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Protein microbicides containing neutralizing antibodies and antiviral lectins may help to reduce the rate of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) if it is possible to manufacture the components in large quantities at a cost affordable in HIV-endemic regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. We expressed the antiviral lectin griffithsin (GRFT), which shows potent neutralizing activity against HIV, in the endosperm of transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa), to determine whether rice can be used to produce inexpensive GRFT as a microbicide ingredient. The yield of (OS) GRFT in the best-performing plants was 223 μg/g dry seed weight. We also established a one-step purification protocol, achieving a recovery of 74% and a purity of 80%, which potentially could be developed into a larger-scale process to facilitate inexpensive downstream processing. (OS) GRFT bound to HIV glycans with similar efficiency to GRFT produced in Escherichia coli. Whole-cell assays using purified (OS) GRFT and infectivity assays using crude extracts of transgenic rice endosperm confirmed that both crude and pure (OS) GRFT showed potent activity against HIV and the crude extracts were not toxic towards human cell lines, suggesting they could be administered as a microbicide with only minimal processing. A freedom-to-operate analysis confirmed that GRFT produced in rice is suitable for commercial development, and an economic evaluation suggested that 1.8 kg/ha of pure GRFT could be produced from rice seeds. Our data therefore indicate that rice could be developed as an inexpensive production platform for GRFT as a microbicide component.

  15. [Anti-Candida activity of aroma candy and its protective activity against murine oral candidiasis].

    PubMed

    Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Suzuki, Motofumi; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Sato, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    A daily eatable candy that has possible protective activity against oral candidiasis was experimentally produced. The candy was made from reduced-maltose as main constituent and from several natural products, such as oligonol (depolymerized polyphenols derived from lychee), cinnamon (cassia), citral, and capric acid, which are known to have anti-Candida activity in vitro and in vivo. The candy effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of C. albicans, even when it was diluted 1,000 times with culture media. We assessed the protective activity of the candy against murine candidiasis. When 50μl of candy dissolved and diluted 4 times with water was administered 3 times into the oral cavity of Candida infected mice, the score of lesions on the Candida-infected tongues improved on day 2. These findings suggest that this candy has potential as food that provides protective activity against oral candidiasis.

  16. Negatively charged silver nanoparticles with potent antibacterial activity and reduced toxicity for pharmaceutical preparations

    PubMed Central

    Salvioni, Lucia; Galbiati, Elisabetta; Collico, Veronica; Alessio, Giulia; Avvakumova, Svetlana; Corsi, Fabio; Tortora, Paolo; Prosperi, Davide; Colombo, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Background The discovery of new solutions with antibacterial activity as efficient and safe alternatives to common preservatives (such as parabens) and to combat emerging infections and drug-resistant bacterial pathogens is highly expected in cosmetics and pharmaceutics. Colloidal silver nanoparticles (NPs) are attracting interest as novel effective antimicrobial agents for the prevention of several infectious diseases. Methods Water-soluble, negatively charged silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by reduction with citric and tannic acid and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, differential centrifuge sedimentation, and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. AgNPs were tested with model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in comparison to two different kinds of commercially available AgNPs. Results In this work, AgNPs with higher antibacterial activity compared to the commercially available colloidal silver solutions were prepared and investigated. Bacteria were plated and the antibacterial activity was tested at the same concentration of silver ions in all samples. The AgNPs did not show any significant reduction in the antibacterial activity for an acceptable time period. In addition, AgNPs were transferred to organic phase and retained their antibacterial efficacy in both aqueous and nonaqueous media and exhibited no toxicity in eukaryotic cells. Conclusion We developed AgNPs with a 20 nm diameter and negative zeta potential with powerful antibacterial activity and low toxicity compared to currently available colloidal silver, suitable for cosmetic preservatives and pharmaceutical preparations administrable to humans and/or animals as needed.

  17. A Novel Time-Dependent CENP-E Inhibitor with Potent Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Akihiro; Ohori, Momoko; Iwai, Kenichi; Nambu, Tadahiro; Miyamoto, Maki; Kawamoto, Tomohiro; Okaniwa, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Centromere-associated protein E (CENP-E) regulates both chromosome congression and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) during mitosis. The loss of CENP-E function causes chromosome misalignment, leading to SAC activation and apoptosis during prolonged mitotic arrest. Here, we describe the biological and antiproliferative activities of a novel small-molecule inhibitor of CENP-E, Compound-A (Cmpd-A). Cmpd-A inhibits the ATPase activity of the CENP-E motor domain, acting as a time-dependent inhibitor with an ATP-competitive-like behavior. Cmpd-A causes chromosome misalignment on the metaphase plate, leading to prolonged mitotic arrest. Treatment with Cmpd-A induces antiproliferation in multiple cancer cell lines. Furthermore, Cmpd-A exhibits antitumor activity in a nude mouse xenograft model, and this antitumor activity is accompanied by the elevation of phosphohistone H3 levels in tumors. These findings demonstrate the potency of the CENP-E inhibitor Cmpd-A and its potential as an anticancer therapeutic agent. PMID:26649895

  18. A novel ribonuclease with potent HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity from cultured mushroom Schizophyllum commune.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Chang; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Wang, He-Xiang

    2011-10-01

    A 20-kDa ribonuclease (RNase) was purified from fresh fruiting bodies of cultured Schizophyllum commune mushrooms. The RNase was not adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel but adsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose. It exhibited maximal RNase activity at pH 6.0 and 70°C. It demonstrated the highest ribonucleolytic activity toward poly (U) (379.5 μ/mg), the second highest activity toward poly (C) (244.7 μ/mg), less activity toward poly (A) (167.4 μ/mg), and much weaker activity toward poly (G) (114.5 μ/mg). The RNase inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 65 μM. No effect on [(3)H-methyl]-thymidine uptake by lymphoma MBL2 cells and leukemia L1210 cells was observed at 100 μM concentration of the RNase. A comparison of RNases from S. commune and Volvariella volvacea revealed that they demonstrated some similarities in N-terminal amino acid sequence, optimum pH and polyhomoribonucleotide specificity. However, some differences in chromatographic behavior and molecular mass were observed.

  19. Human Salivary Protein Histatin 5 Has Potent Bactericidal Activity against ESKAPE Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Du, Han; Puri, Sumant; McCall, Andrew; Norris, Hannah L.; Russo, Thomas; Edgerton, Mira

    2017-01-01

    ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens have characteristic multiple-drug resistance and cause an increasing number of nosocomial infections worldwide. Peptide-based therapeutics to treat ESKAPE infections might be an alternative to conventional antibiotics. Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a salivary cationic histidine-rich peptide produced only in humans and higher primates. It has high antifungal activity against Candida albicans through an energy-dependent, non-lytic process; but its bactericidal effects are less known. We found Hst 5 has bactericidal activity against S. aureus (60–70% killing) and A. baumannii (85–90% killing) in 10 and 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer (NaPB), while killing of >99% of P. aeruginosa, 60–80% E. cloacae and 20–60% of E. faecium was found in 10 mM NaPB. Hst 5 killed 60% of biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa, but had reduced activity against biofilms of S. aureus and A. baumannii. Hst 5 killed 20% of K. pneumonia biofilm cells but not planktonic cells. Binding and uptake studies using FITC-labeled Hst 5 showed E. faecium and E. cloacae killing required Hst 5 internalization and was energy dependent, while bactericidal activity was rapid against P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii suggesting membrane disruption. Hst 5-mediated killing of S. aureus was both non-lytic and energy independent. Additionally, we found that spermidine conjugated Hst 5 (Hst5-Spd) had improved killing activity against E. faecium, E. cloacae, and A. baumannii. Hst 5 or its derivative has antibacterial activity against five out of six ESKAPE pathogens and may be an alternative treatment for these infections. PMID:28261570

  20. Optogenetic excitation of preBötzinger complex neurons potently drives inspiratory activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Alsahafi, Zaki; Dickson, Clayton T; Pagliardini, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the sites and mechanisms underlying respiratory rhythmogenesis is of fundamental interest in the field of respiratory neurophysiology. Previous studies demonstrated the necessary and sufficient role of preBötzinger complex (preBötC) in generating inspiratory rhythms in vitro and in vivo. However, the influence of timed activation of the preBötC network in vivo is as yet unknown given the experimental approaches previously used. By unilaterally infecting preBötC neurons using an adeno-associated virus expressing channelrhodopsin we photo-activated the network in order to assess how excitation delivered in a spatially and temporally precise manner to the inspiratory oscillator influences ongoing breathing rhythms and related muscular activity in urethane-anaesthetized rats. We hypothesized that if an excitatory drive is necessary for rhythmogenesis and burst initiation, photo-activation of preBötC not only will increase respiratory rate, but also entrain it over a wide range of frequencies with fast onset, and have little effect on ongoing respiratory rhythm if a stimulus is delivered during inspiration. Stimulation of preBötC neurons consistently increased respiratory rate and entrained respiration up to fourfold baseline conditions. Furthermore, brief pulses of photostimulation delivered at random phases between inspiratory events robustly and consistently induced phase-independent (Type 0) respiratory reset and recruited inspiratory muscle activity at very short delays (∼100 ms). A 200 ms refractory period following inspiration was also identified. These data provide strong evidence for a fine control of inspiratory activity in the preBötC and provide further evidence that the preBötC network constitutes the fundamental oscillator of inspiratory rhythms. PMID:26010654

  1. Didymin: an orally active citrus flavonoid for targeting neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Sharad S; Singhal, Sulabh; Singhal, Preeti; Singhal, Jyotsana; Horne, David; Awasthi, Sanjay

    2017-02-08

    Neuroblastoma, a rapidly growing yet treatment responsive cancer, is the third most common cancer of children and the most common solid tumor in infants. Unfortunately, neuroblastoma that has lost p53 function often has a highly treatment-resistant phenotype leading to tragic outcomes. In the context of neuroblastoma, the functions of p53 and MYCN (which is amplified in ~25% of neuroblastomas) are integrally linked because they are mutually transcriptionally regulated, and because they together regulate the catalytic activity of RNA polymerases. Didymin is a citrus-derived natural compound that kills p53 wild-type as well as drug-resistant p53-mutant neuroblastoma cells in culture. In addition, orally administered didymin causes regression of neuroblastoma xenografts in mouse models, without toxicity to non-malignant cells, neural tissues, or neural stem cells. RKIP is a Raf-inhibitory protein that regulates MYCN activation, is transcriptionally upregulated by didymin, and appears to play a key role in the anti-neuroblastoma actions of didymin. In this review, we discuss how didymin overcomes drug-resistance in p53-mutant neuroblastoma through RKIP-mediated inhibition of MYCN and its effects on GRK2, PKCs, Let-7 micro-RNA, and clathrin-dependent endocytosis by Raf-dependent and -independent mechanisms. In addition, we will discuss studies supporting potential clinical impact and translation of didymin as a low cost, safe, and effective oral agent that could change the current treatment paradigm for refractory neuroblastoma.

  2. Biological Clues to Potent DNA-Damaging Activities in Food and Flavoring

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Zulfiquer; Gilbert, Samuel F.; Patel, Kalpesh; Ghosh, Soma; Bhunia, Anil K.; Kern, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    Population differences in age-related diseases and cancer could stem from differences in diet. To characterize DNA strand-breaking activities in selected foods/beverages, flavorings, and some of their constituent chemicals, we used p53R cells, a cellular assay sensitive to such breaks. Substances testing positive included reference chemicals: quinacrine (peak response, 51X) and etoposide (33X); flavonoids: EGCG (19X), curcumin (12X), apigenin (9X), and quercetin (7X); beverages: chamomile (11X), green (21X), and black tea (26X) and coffee (3 to 29X); and liquid smoke (4 to 28X). Damage occurred at dietary concentrations: etoposide near 5 μg/ml produced responses similar to a 1:1000 dilution of liquid smoke, a 1:20 dilution of coffee, and a 1:5 dilution of tea. Pyrogallol-related chemicals and tannins are present in dietary sources and individually produced strong activity: pyrogallol (30X), 3-methoxycatechol (25X), gallic acid (21X), and 1,2,4-benzenetriol (21X). From structure-activity relationships, high activities depended on specific orientations of hydroxyls on the benzene ring. Responses accompanied cellular signals characteristic of DNA breaks such as H2AX phosphorylation. Breaks were also directly detected by comet assay. Cellular toxicological effects of foods and flavorings could guide epidemiologic and experimental studies of potential disease risks from DNA strand-breaking chemicals in diets. PMID:23402862

  3. Broad and potent antiviral activity of the NAE inhibitor MLN4924.

    PubMed

    Le-Trilling, Vu Thuy Khanh; Megger, Dominik A; Katschinski, Benjamin; Landsberg, Christine D; Rückborn, Meike U; Tao, Sha; Krawczyk, Adalbert; Bayer, Wibke; Drexler, Ingo; Tenbusch, Matthias; Sitek, Barbara; Trilling, Mirko

    2016-02-01

    In terms of infected human individuals, herpesviruses range among the most successful virus families. Subclinical herpesviral infections in healthy individuals contrast with life-threatening syndromes under immunocompromising and immunoimmature conditions. Based on our finding that cytomegaloviruses interact with Cullin Roc ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) in the context of interferon antagonism, we systematically assessed viral dependency on CRLs by utilizing the drug MLN4924. CRL activity is regulated through the conjugation of Cullins with the ubiquitin-like molecule Nedd8. By inhibiting the Nedd8-activating Enzyme (NAE), MLN4924 interferes with Nedd8 conjugation and CRL activity. MLN4924 exhibited pronounced antiviral activity against mouse and human cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus (HSV)- 1 (including multi-drug resistant clinical isolates), HSV-2, adeno and influenza viruses. Human cytomegalovirus genome amplification was blocked at nanomolar MLN4924 concentrations. Global proteome analyses revealed that MLN4924 blocks cytomegaloviral replication despite increased IE1 amounts. Expression of dominant negative Cullins assigned this IE regulation to defined Cullin molecules and phenocopied the antiviral effect of MLN4924.

  4. Potent chemopreventive/antioxidant activity detected in common spices of the Apiaceae family

    PubMed Central

    Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Aqil, Farrukh; Soper, Lisa; Schultz, David J.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2015-01-01

    Spices are used worldwide, particularly, in the Asian and Middle-Eastern countries and considered protective against degenerative diseases, including cancer. Here, we report the efficacy of aqueous and non-aqueous extracts of eleven Apiaceae spices for free radical-scavenging activity and to inhibit cytochrome P450s in two separate reactions involving: i) 4-hydroxy-17β-estradiol (4E2), DNA and CuCl2 and ii) 17β-estradiol, rat liver microsomes, co-factors, DNA and CuCl2. Oxidative DNA adducts resulting from redox cycling of 4E2 were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling. Aqueous (5 mg/ml) and non-aqueous extracts (6 mg/ml) substantially inhibited (83% – 98%) formation of DNA adducts in the microsomal reaction. However, in non-microsomal reaction, only aqueous extracts showed the inhibitory activity (83% – 96%). Adduct inhibition was also observed at 5-fold lower concentrations of aqueous extracts of cumin (60%) and caraway (90%), and 10-fold lower concentrations of carrot seeds (76%) and ajowan (90%). These results suggests the presence of two groups of phytochemicals - polar compounds that have free radical-scavenging activity, and lipophilic compounds that selectively inhibit P450 activity associated with estrogen metabolism. Because most of these Apiaceae spices are used widely with no known toxicity, the phytochemicals from the Apiaceae spices used in foods may be potentially protective against estrogen-mediated breast cancer. PMID:26381237

  5. Chemical constituents of Phragmanthera austroarabica A. G. Mill and J. A. Nyberg with potent antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Jihan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phragmanthera austroarabica A.G. Mill. and J. A. Nyberg is a semi parasitic plant belonging to family Loranthaceae. It was collected from Saudi Arabia. It is widely used in folk medicine among the kingdom in treatment of various diseases including diabetes mellitus. Objective: The total alcoholic extract of P. austroarabica collected from Saudi Arabia was investigated for the chemical structure and prominent biological activity of the main constituents. Materials and Methods: Isolation of the active constituents was performed using different chromatographic techniques including column chromatography packed with silica or sephadex and preparative thin layer chromatography. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on different spectroscopic data as mass spectrum, one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation). Results: Phytochemical investigation of the plant resulted in isolation of 12 compounds. The isolated compounds were identified as chrysophanic acid, emodin, chrysophanic acid-8-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O-glucoside, pectolinarigenin, quercetin, dillenetin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, catechin-4’-O-gallate, methyl gallate, lupeol and ursolic acid. All the isolated phenolic compounds revealed significant free radical scavenging activities when tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reagent. Conclusion: The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds can justify the use of P. austroarabica in traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes and verify its possible application as an antihyperglycemic drug. PMID:26692747

  6. Potent Chemopreventive/Antioxidant Activity Detected in Common Spices of the Apiaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Aqil, Farrukh; Soper, Lisa; Schultz, David J; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2015-01-01

    Spices are used worldwide, particularly in the Asian and Middle Eastern countries, and considered protective against degenerative diseases, including cancer. Here, we report the efficacy of aqueous and non-aqueous extracts of 11 Apiaceae spices for free radical-scavenging activity and to inhibit cytochrome P450s in two separate reactions involving: 1) 4-hydroxy-17ß-estradiol (4E2), DNA, and CuCl2 and 2) 17ß-estradiol, rat liver microsomes, cofactors, DNA and CuCl2. Oxidative DNA adducts resulting from redox cycling of 4E2 were analyzed by (32)P-postlabeling. Aqueous (5 mg/ml) and non-aqueous extracts (6 mg/ml) substantially inhibited (83-98%) formation of DNA adducts in the microsomal reaction. However, in nonmicrosomal reaction, only aqueous extracts showed the inhibitory activity (83-96%). Adduct inhibition was also observed at five-fold lower concentrations of aqueous extracts of cumin (60%) and caraway (90%), and 10-fold lower concentrations of carrot seeds (76%) and ajowan (90%). These results suggests the presence of 2 groups of phytochemicals: polar compounds that have free radical-scavenging activity and lipophilic compounds that selectively inhibit P450 activity associated with estrogen metabolism. Because most of these Apiaceae spices are used widely with no known toxicity, the phytochemicals from the Apiaceae spices used in foods may be potentially protective against estrogen-mediated breast cancer.

  7. In vitro activity of inexpensive topical alternatives against Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Rana S; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2008-03-01

    The use of inexpensive topical alternatives, e.g. oil of melaleuca (tea tree oil (TTO)), chlorhexidine (CHX), povidone iodine (PI) and gentian violet (GV), to treat oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has been proposed in resource-poor countries. However, pre-clinical studies comparing the antifungal activity of these agents are lacking. This study compared the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TTO, GV, PI, CHX and fluconazole (FLZ) against 91 clinical Candida strains using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methodology. Isolates were obtained from the oral cavity of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Among the topical agents examined, GV showed the most potent activity against all Candida isolates tested (MIC range, MIC for 50% of the organisms (MIC(50)) and MIC for 90% of the organisms (MIC(90)) of 0.03-0.25 microg/mL, 0.06 microg/mL and 0.1 2microg/mL, respectively). CHX was 64 times less active than GV (MIC range, MIC(50) and MIC(90) of 0.5-16 microg/mL, 4 microg/mL and 8 microg/mL, respectively). The lowest antifungal activity was seen for PI (MIC(90)=0.25%). Moreover, GV, unlike the other topical agents tested, was fungicidal (minimum fungicidal concentration=1 microg/mL) against Candida albicans isolates (n=83). In addition, GV showed activity against FLZ-resistant C. albicans (n=3). The combination of GV and FLZ was not antagonistic and there was no interaction between the two compounds. GV possesses potent antifungal activity against FLZ-susceptible and -resistant Candida strains and is not antagonistic when used in combination with FLZ. In vivo evaluation is warranted.

  8. Synthesis of a novel adamantyl nitroxide derivative with potent anti-hepatoma activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin; Wang, Shan; Bu, Wei; Wei, Meng-Ying; Li, Wei-Wei; Yao, Min-Na; Ma, Zhong-Ying; Lu, Cheng-Tao; Li, Hui-Hui; Hu, Na-Ping; Zhang, En-Hu; Yang, Guo-Dong; Wen, Ai-Dong; Zhu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel adamantyl nitroxide derivative was synthesized and its antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The adamantyl nitroxide derivative 4 displayed a potent anticancer activity against all the tested human hepatoma cells, especially with IC50 of 68.1 μM in Bel-7404 cells, compared to the positive control 5-FU (IC50=607.7 μM). The significant inhibition of cell growth was also observed in xenograft mouse model, with low toxicity. Compound 4 suppressed the cell migration and invasion, induced the G2/M phase arrest. Further mechanistic studies revealed that compound 4 induced cell death, which was accompanied with damaging mitochondria, increasing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, cleavages of caspase-9 and caspase-3, as well as activations of Bax and Bcl-2. These results confirmed that adamantyl nitroxide derivative exhibited selective antitumor activities via mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in Bel-7404 cells, and would be a potential anticancer agent for liver cancer.

  9. Purification, sequence, and model structure of charybdotoxin, a potent selective inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez-Gallego, G; Navia, M A; Reuben, J P; Katz, G M; Kaczorowski, G J; Garcia, M L

    1988-01-01

    Charybdotoxin (ChTX), a protein present in the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus var. hebraeus, has been purified to homogeneity by a combination of ion-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, and complete amino acid sequence determination of the pure protein reveal that it consists of a single polypeptide chain of 4.3 kDa. Purified ChTX is a potent and selective inhibitor of the approximately 220-pS Ca2+-activated K+ channel present in GH3 anterior pituitary cells and primary bovine aortic smooth muscle cells. The toxin reversibly blocks channel activity by interacting at the external pore of the channel protein with an apparent Kd of 2.1 nM. The primary structure of ChTX is similar to a number of neurotoxins of diverse origin, which suggests that ChTX is a member of a superfamily of proteins that modify ion-channel activities. On the basis of this similarity, the three-dimensional structure of ChTX has been modeled from the known crystal structure of alpha-bungarotoxin. These studies indicate that ChTX is useful as a probe of Ca2+-activated K+-channel function and suggest that the proposed tertiary structure of ChTX may provide insight into the mechanism of channel block. Images PMID:2453055

  10. Mutagenic activity in disinfected waters and recovery of the potent bacterial mutagen "MX" from water by XAD resin adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backlund, Peter; Wondergem, Erik; Kronberg, Leif

    Chlorination of humic water generated mutagenic activity in the Ames test. The formation of the potent bacterial mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity were favoured by acidic chlorination conditions and high chlorine doses. Chlorinated humic waters from different locations differed slightly in the level of mutagenicity as well as in the proportion of activity derived from MX. Chlorination of an industrially polluted surface water with a low content of humic material generated an approximately equal level of mutagenicity (per mg of DOC) as that of chlorinated humic water, but only a minor part (26%) of the activity could be explained by the presence of MX. The mutagenicity and the amount of MX generated were substantially lower when using combined treatment methods (ClO2+Cl2, O3+Cl2) or when substituting chlorine by monochloramine or chlorine dioxide. The recovery of MX by XAD adsorption from water acidified to pH 2 was found to be quantitative.

  11. Glycosynthase Mutants of Endoglycosidase S2 Show Potent Transglycosylation Activity and Remarkably Relaxed Substrate Specificity for Antibody Glycosylation Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiezheng; Tong, Xin; Yang, Qiang; Giddens, John P; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2016-08-05

    Glycosylation can exert a profound impact on the structures and biological functions of antibodies. Glycosylation remodeling using the endoglycosidase-catalyzed deglycosylation and transglycosylation approach is emerging as a promising platform to produce homogeneous glycoforms of antibodies, but the broad application of this method will require the availability of highly efficient glycosynthase mutants. We describe in this paper a systematic site-directed mutagenesis of an endoglycosidase from Streptococcus pyogenes of serotype M49 (Endo-S2) and the evaluation of the resulting mutants for their hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities. We found that mutations at the Asp-184 residue gave mutants that demonstrated significantly different properties, some possessed potent transglycosylation activity with diminished hydrolysis activity but others did not, which would be otherwise difficult to predict without the comparative study. In contrast to the previously reported Endo-S mutants that are limited to action on complex type N-glycans, the Endo-S2 glycosynthases described here, including D184M and D184Q, were found to have remarkably relaxed substrate specificity and were capable of transferring three major types (complex, high-mannose, and hybrid type) of N-glycans for antibody glycosylation remodeling. In addition, the Endo-S2 glycosynthase mutants were found to be much more active in general than the Endo-S mutants for transglycosylation. The usefulness of these Endo-S2 glycosynthase mutants was exemplified by an efficient glycosylation remodeling of two therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, rituximab and trastuzumab (Herceptin).

  12. Synthesis of a novel adamantyl nitroxide derivative with potent anti-hepatoma activity in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin; Wang, Shan; Bu, Wei; Wei, Meng-Ying; Li, Wei-Wei; Yao, Min-Na; Ma, Zhong-Ying; Lu, Cheng-Tao; Li, Hui-Hui; Hu, Na-Ping; Zhang, En-Hu; Yang, Guo-Dong; Wen, Ai-Dong; Zhu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel adamantyl nitroxide derivative was synthesized and its antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo were investigated. The adamantyl nitroxide derivative 4 displayed a potent anticancer activity against all the tested human hepatoma cells, especially with IC50 of 68.1 μM in Bel-7404 cells, compared to the positive control 5-FU (IC50=607.7 μM). The significant inhibition of cell growth was also observed in xenograft mouse model, with low toxicity. Compound 4 suppressed the cell migration and invasion, induced the G2/M phase arrest. Further mechanistic studies revealed that compound 4 induced cell death, which was accompanied with damaging mitochondria, increasing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, cleavages of caspase-9 and caspase-3, as well as activations of Bax and Bcl-2. These results confirmed that adamantyl nitroxide derivative exhibited selective antitumor activities via mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in Bel-7404 cells, and would be a potential anticancer agent for liver cancer. PMID:27429843

  13. Negatively charged liposomes show potent adjuvant activity when simply admixed with protein antigens

    PubMed Central

    Yanasarn, Nijaporn; Sloat, Brian R.; Cui, Zhengrong

    2011-01-01

    Liposomes have been investigated extensively as a vaccine delivery system. Herein the adjuvant activities of liposomes with different net surface charges (neutral, positive, or negative) were evaluated when admixed with protein antigens, ovalbumin (OVA, pI = 4.7), Bacillus anthracis protective antigen protein (PA, pI = 5.6), or cationized OVA (cOVA). Mice immunized subcutaneously with OVA admixed with different liposomes generated different antibody responses. Interestingly, OVA admixed with net negatively charged liposomes prepared with DOPA was as immunogenic as OVA admixed with positively charged liposomes prepared with DOTAP. Immunization of mice with the anthrax PA protein admixed with the net negatively charged DOPA liposomes also induced a strong and functional anti-PA antibody response. When the cationized OVA was used as a model antigen, liposomes with net neutral, negative, or positive charges showed comparable adjuvant activities. Immunization of mice with the OVA admixed with DOPA liposomes also induced OVA-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and significantly delayed the growth of OVA-expressing B16-OVA tumors in mice. However, not all net negatively charged liposomes showed a strong adjuvant activity. The adjuvant activity of the negatively charged liposomes may be related to the liposome’s ability (i) to up-regulate the expression of molecules related to the activation and maturation of antigen-presenting cells and (ii) to slightly facilitate the uptake of the antigens by antigen-presenting cells. Simply admixing certain negatively charged liposomes with certain protein antigens of interest may represent a novel platform for vaccine development. PMID:21615153

  14. Engineering of a linear inactive analog of human β-defensin 4 to generate peptides with potent antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Himanshu; Mathew, Basil; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2015-06-01

    Human β-defensins (HBDs) are cationic antimicrobial peptides constrained by three disulfide bridges. They have diverse range of functions in the innate immune response. It is of interest to investigate whether linear analogs of defensins can be generated, which possess antimicrobial activity. In this study, we have designed linear peptides with potent antimicrobial activity from an inactive peptide spanning the N-terminus of HBD4. Our results show that l-arginine to d-arginine substitution imparts considerable antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and Candida albicans. Increase in hydrophobicity by fatty acylation of the peptides with myristic acid further enhances their potency. In the presence of high concentrations of salt, antimicrobial activity of the myristoylated peptide with l-arginine is attenuated relatively to a lesser extent as compared with the linear active peptide with d-arginine. Substitution of cysteine with the hydrophobic helix-promoting amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid favors candidacidal activity but not antibacterial activity. The mechanism of killing by d-arginine substituted unacylated analog involves transient interaction with the bacterial membrane followed by translocation into the cytoplasm without membrane permeabilization. Accumulation of peptides in the cytoplasm can affect various cellular processes that lead to cell death. However, the peptide causes membrane permeabilization in case of C. albicans. Myristoylation results in greater interaction of the peptide chain with the microbial cell surface and causes membrane permeabilization. Results described in the study demonstrate that it is possible to generate highly active linear analogs of defensins by selective introduction of d-amino acids and fatty acids, which could be attractive candidates for development as therapeutic agents.

  15. A selective TrkB agonist with potent neurotrophic activities by 7,8-dihydroxyflavone

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung-Wuk; Liu, Xia; Yepes, Manuel; Shepherd, Kennie R.; Miller, Gary W.; Liu, Yang; Wilson, W. David; Xiao, Ge; Blanchi, Bruno; Sun, Yi E.; Ye, Keqiang

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a cognate ligand for the tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) receptor, mediates neuronal survival, differentiation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. However, BDNF has a poor pharmacokinetic profile that limits its therapeutic potential. Here we report the identification of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone as a bioactive high-affinity TrkB agonist that provokes receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone protected wild-type, but not TrkB-deficient, neurons from apoptosis. Administration of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone to mice activated TrkB in the brain, inhibited kainic acid-induced toxicity, decreased infarct volumes in stroke in a TrkB-dependent manner, and was neuroprotective in an animal model of Parkinson disease. Thus, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone imitates BDNF and acts as a robust TrkB agonist, providing a powerful therapeutic tool for the treatment of various neurological diseases. PMID:20133810

  16. Spice oil cinnamaldehyde exhibits potent anticandidal activity against fluconazole resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Shreaz, Sheikh; Bhatia, Rimple; Khan, Neelofar; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Basir, Seemi F; Manzoor, Nikhat; Khan, Luqman Ahmad

    2011-10-01

    Fluconazole resistance is becoming an important clinical concern. We studied the in vitro effects of cinnamaldehyde against 18 fluconazole-resistant Candida isolates. MIC(90) of cinnamaldehyde against different Candida isolates ranged 100-500 μg/ml. Growth and sensitivity of the organisms were significantly affected by cinnamaldehyde at different concentrations. The rapid irreversible action of this compound on fungal cells suggested membrane-located targets for its action. Insight studies to mechanism suggested that cinnamaldehyde exerts its antifungal activity by targeting sterol biosynthesis and plasma membrane ATPase activity. Inhibition of H(+) (-)ATPase leads to intracellular acidification and cell death. Toxicity against H9c2 rat cardiac myoblasts was studied to exclude the possibility of further associated cytotoxicity. The observed selectively fungicidal characteristics against fluconazole-resistant Candida isolates signify a promising candidature of this essential oil as an antifungal agent in treatments for candidosis.

  17. Alkylidene Oxapenem β-Lactamase Inhibitors Revisited: Potent Broad Spectrum Activity but New Stability Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of C6-alkylidene containing oxapenems. We show that this class of β-lactamase inhibitors possesses an unprecedented spectrum with activity against class A, C, and D enzymes. Surprisingly, this class of compounds displayed significant photolytic instability in addition to the known hydrolytic instability. Quantum mechanical calculations were used to develop models to predict the stability of new analogues. PMID:25147614

  18. Alkylidene Oxapenem β-Lactamase Inhibitors Revisited: Potent Broad Spectrum Activity but New Stability Challenges.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew D; Kale, Manoj; Reddy, Kishore; Tentarelli, Sharon; Zambrowski, Mark; Zhang, Minli; Palmer, Tiffany; Breen, John; Lahiri, Sushmita; Shirude, Pravin S; Verheijen, Jeroen C

    2014-08-14

    We present a comprehensive study of C6-alkylidene containing oxapenems. We show that this class of β-lactamase inhibitors possesses an unprecedented spectrum with activity against class A, C, and D enzymes. Surprisingly, this class of compounds displayed significant photolytic instability in addition to the known hydrolytic instability. Quantum mechanical calculations were used to develop models to predict the stability of new analogues.

  19. Fungal metabolites of xanthohumol with potent antiproliferative activity on human cancer cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tronina, Tomasz; Bartmańska, Agnieszka; Filip-Psurska, Beata; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Popłoński, Jarosław; Huszcza, Ewa

    2013-04-01

    Xanthohumol (1) and xanthohumol D (2) were isolated from spent hops. Isoxanthohumol (3) was obtained from xanthohumol by isomerisation in alkaline solution. Six metabolites were obtained as a result of transformation of xanthohumol (1) by selected fungal cultures. Their structures were established on the basis of their spectral data. One of them: 2″-(2'''-hydroxyisopropyl)-dihydrofurano-[4″,5″:3',4']-4',2-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-α,β-dihydrochalcone (6) has not been previously reported in the literature. The antioxidant properties of hops flavonoids and xanthohumol derivatives were investigated using the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The effects of these compounds on proliferation of MCF-7, PC-3 and HT-29 human cancer cell lines were determined by the SRB assay. With the exception of one metabolite, all tested compounds showed antiproliferative activity against the tested human cancer lines. α,β-Dihydroxanthohumol (4), obtained through the biotransformation of xanthohumol, showed higher antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line than cisplatin, a widely used anticancer therapeutic agent, and a comparably high activity against PC-3 human prostate cancer cell line.

  20. Structural basis of binding and rationale for the potent urease inhibitory activity of biscoumarins.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Shams, Sulaiman; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Lodhi, Atif; Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Jalil, Saima; Nawaz, Sarfraz Ahmad; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Iqbal, Sajid; Rahman, Atta-ur

    2014-01-01

    Urease belongs to a family of highly conserved urea-hydrolyzing enzymes. A common feature of these enzymes is the presence of two Lewis acid nickel ions and reactive cysteine residue in the active sites. In the current study we examined a series of biscoumarins 1-10 for their mechanisms of inhibition with the nickel containing active sites of Jack bean and Bacillus pasteurii ureases. All these compounds competitively inhibited Jack bean urease through interaction with the nickel metallocentre, as deduced from Michaelis-Menten kinetics, UV-visible absorbance spectroscopic, and molecular docking simulation studies. Some of the compounds behaved differently in case of Bacillus pasteurii urease. We conducted the enzyme kinetics, UV-visible spectroscopy, and molecular docking results in terms of the known protein structure of the enzyme. We also evaluated possible molecular interpretations for the site of biscoumarins binding and found that phenyl ring is the major active pharmacophore. The excellent in vitro potency and selectivity profile of the several compounds described combined with their nontoxicity against the human cells and plants suggest that these compounds may represent a viable lead series for the treatment of urease associated problems.

  1. Structural Basis of Binding and Rationale for the Potent Urease Inhibitory Activity of Biscoumarins

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Lodhi, Atif; Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Jalil, Saima; Nawaz, Sarfraz Ahmad; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Iqbal, Sajid; Rahman, Atta-ur

    2014-01-01

    Urease belongs to a family of highly conserved urea-hydrolyzing enzymes. A common feature of these enzymes is the presence of two Lewis acid nickel ions and reactive cysteine residue in the active sites. In the current study we examined a series of biscoumarins 1–10 for their mechanisms of inhibition with the nickel containing active sites of Jack bean and Bacillus pasteurii ureases. All these compounds competitively inhibited Jack bean urease through interaction with the nickel metallocentre, as deduced from Michaelis-Menten kinetics, UV-visible absorbance spectroscopic, and molecular docking simulation studies. Some of the compounds behaved differently in case of Bacillus pasteurii urease. We conducted the enzyme kinetics, UV-visible spectroscopy, and molecular docking results in terms of the known protein structure of the enzyme. We also evaluated possible molecular interpretations for the site of biscoumarins binding and found that phenyl ring is the major active pharmacophore. The excellent in vitro potency and selectivity profile of the several compounds described combined with their nontoxicity against the human cells and plants suggest that these compounds may represent a viable lead series for the treatment of urease associated problems. PMID:25295281

  2. A New Octadecenoic Acid Derivative from Caesalpinia gilliesii Flowers with Potent Hepatoprotective Activity

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Samir M.; El-Haddad, Alaadin E.; El-Raey, Mohamed A.; Abd El-Khalik, Soad M.; Koheil, Mahmoud A.; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Caesalpinia gilliesii Hook is an ornamental shrub with showy yellow flowers. It was used in folk medicine due to its contents of different classes of secondary metabolites. In our previous study, dichloromethane extract of C. gilliesii flowers showed a good antioxidant activity. Aim of the Study: Isolation and identification of bioactive hepatoprotective compounds from C. gilliesii flowers dichloromethane fraction. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective activity of dichloromethane fraction and isolated compounds were studied in CCl4-intoxicated rat liver slices by measuring liver injury markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione [GSH]). All compounds were structurally elucidated on the basis of electron ionization-mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: A new 12,13,16-trihydroxy-14(Z)-octadecenoic acid was identified in addition to the known β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl, daucosterol, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoside, luteolin-7,4’-dimethyl ether, genistein-5-methyl ether, luteolin-7-O-rhamnoside, isovanillic acid, and p-methoxybenzoic acid. Dichloromethane fraction and isorhamnetin were able to significantly protect the liver against intoxication. Moreover, the dichloromethane fraction and the isolated phytosterols induced GSH above the normal level. Conclusion: The hepatoprotective activity of C. gilliesii may be attributed to its high content of phytosterols and phenolic compounds. SUMMARY Bioactive Hepatoprotective phytosterols and phenolics from chloroform extract of Caesalpinia gilliesii Abbreviations used: ALT: Alanine Aminotransferase; AST: Aspartate aminotransferase; GSH: Glutathione; SC50: Scavenging Capacity 50 (SC 50); COSY: Correlation spectroscopy; NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; CC: Column chromatography; EI-MS: Electron-impact mass spectrometry; HSQC: Heteronuclear single-quantum correlation. PMID:27563221

  3. Highly Potent, Water Soluble Benzimidazole Antagonist for Activated (alpha)4(beta)1 Integrin

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R D; Andrei, M; Lau, E Y; Lightstone, F C; Liu, R; Lam, K S; Kurth, M J

    2007-08-29

    The cell surface receptor {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 1} integrin, activated constitutively in lymphoma, can be targeted with the bisaryl urea peptidomimetic antagonist 1 (LLP2A). However, concerns on its preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) profile provided an impetus to change the pharmacophore from a bisaryl urea to a 2-arylaminobenzimidazole moiety resulting in improved solubility while maintaining picomolar potency [5 (KLCA4); IC{sub 50} = 305 pM]. With exceptional solubility, this finding has potential for improving PK to help diagnose and treat lymphomas.

  4. Novel Quinazoline Derivatives Bearing Various 4-Aniline Moieties as Potent EGFR Inhibitors with Enhanced Activity Against NSCLC Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changyan; Sun, Yajun; Zhu, Xingqi; Wu, Bin; Wang, Qiao; Zhen, Yuhong; Shu, Xiaohong; Liu, Kexin; Zhou, Youwen; Ma, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    A class of novel quinazoline derivatives bearing various C-4 aniline moieties was synthesized and biologically evaluated as potent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors for intervention of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Most of these inhibitors are comparable to gefitinib in inhibiting these cancer cell lines, and several of them even displayed superior inhibitory activity. In particular, analogue 5b with an IC50 of 0.10 μm against the EGFR wild-type A431 cells and 5c with an IC50 of 0.001 μm against the gefitinib-sensitive HCC827 cells (EGFR del E746-A750) was identified as highly active EGFR inhibitors. It was also significant that the discovered analogue 2f, not only has high potency against the gefitinib-sensitive cells (IC50 = 0.031 μm), but also possesses remarkably improved activity against the gefitinib-resistant cells. In addition, the enzymatic assays and the Western blot analysis for evaluating the effects of the typical inhibitors indicated that these molecules strongly interfere with the EGFR target.

  5. Impurities contained in antifungal drug ketoconazole are potent activators of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Grycová, Aneta; Dořičáková, Aneta; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2015-12-03

    Antifungal drug ketoconazole is a mixture of (+)/(-) cis-enantiomers, which also contains several impurities. Ketoconazole was identified as an activator of aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR by three independent research teams. In the current paper we demonstrate that impurities contained in ketoconazole preparations are strong activators of human AhR and inducers of CYP1A1. Impurity IMP-C had similar potency (EC50), but 10-15 times higher efficacy (magnitude of induction) towards AhR, comparing to (+)-ketoconazole, as revealed by gene reporter assay in AZ-AHR stably transfected cells. Impurities IMP-B and IMP-C, and in lesser extent IMP-E, induced a formation of AhR-DNA complex, as demonstrated by electromobility shift assay EMSA. Impurities IMP-C and IMP-E dose-dependently induced CYP1A1 mRNA after 24 h, and their effects were comparable to those by (+)-ketoconazole. The level of CYP1A1 protein in HepG2 cells was strongly increased by IMP-C after 48h. In conclusion, our data further elucidated molecular effects of ketoconazole towards AhR signaling pathway, with possible implications in ketoconazole role in skin chemoprevention and/or damage, involving AhR.

  6. Synthesis, Docking and Biological Activities of Novel Hybrids Celecoxib and Anthraquinone Analogs as Potent Cytotoxic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Maha S.; Hegazy, Gehan H.; Haiba, Mogedda E.; Ali, Hamed I.; Khalifa, Nagy M.; Soliman, Abd El-mohsen M.

    2014-01-01

    Herein, novel hybrid compounds of celecoxib and 2-aminoanthraquinone derivatives have been synthesized using condensation reactions of celecoxib with 2-aminoanthraquinone derivatives or 2-aminoanthraquinon with celecoxib derivatives. Celecoxib was reacted with different acid chlorides, 2-chloroethylisocyanate and bis (2-chloroethyl) amine hydrochloride. These intermediates were then reacted with 2-aminoanthraquinone. Also the same different acid chlorides and 2-chloroethylisocyanate were reacted with 2-aminoanthraquinone and the resulting intermediates were reacted with celecoxib to give isomers for the previous compounds. The antitumor activities against hepatic carcinoma tumor cell line (HEPG2) have been investigated in vitro, and all these compounds showed promising activities, especially compound 3c, 7, and 12. Flexible docking studies involving AutoDock 4.2 was investigated to identify the potential binding affinities and the mode of interaction of the hybrid compounds into two protein tyrosine kinases namely, SRC (Pp60v-src) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor, PDGFR (c-Kit). The compounds in this study have a preferential affinity for the c-Kit PDGFR PTK over the non-receptor tyrosine kinase SRC (Pp60v-src). PMID:25490139

  7. Novel composite plastics containing silver(I) acylpyrazolonato additives display potent antimicrobial activity by contact.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Fabio; Palmucci, Jessica; Pettinari, Claudio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Condello, Francesca; Ferraro, Stefano; Marangoni, Mirko; Crispini, Alessandra; Scuri, Stefania; Grappasonni, Iolanda; Cocchioni, Mario; Nabissi, Massimo; Chierotti, Michele R; Gobetto, Roberto

    2015-01-07

    New silver(I) acylpyrazolonato derivatives displaying a mononuclear, polynuclear, or ionic nature, as a function of the ancillary azole ligands used in the synthesis, have been fully characterized by thermal analysis, solution NMR spectroscopy, solid-state IR and NMR spectroscopies, and X-ray diffraction techniques. These derivatives have been embedded in polyethylene (PE) matrix, and the antimicrobial activity of the composite materials has been tested against three bacterial strains (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus): Most of the composites show antimicrobial action comparable to PE embedded with AgNO3 . Tests by contact and release tests for specific migration of silver from PE composites clearly indicate that, at least in the case of the PE, for composites containing polynuclear silver(I) additives, the antimicrobial action is exerted by contact, without release of silver ions. Moreover, PE composites can be re-used several times, displaying the same antimicrobial activity. Membrane permeabilization studies and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation tests confirm the disorganization of bacterial cell membranes. The cytotoxic effect, evaluated in CD34(+) cells by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide) and CFU (colony forming units) assays, indicates that the PE composites do not induce cytotoxicity in human cells. Studies of ecotoxicity, based on the test of Daphnia magna, confirm tolerability of the PE composites by higher organisms and exclude the release of Ag(+) ions in sufficient amounts to affect water environment.

  8. Rational design of orally-active, pyrrolidine-based progesterone receptor partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Scott K.; Washburn, David G.; Frazee, James S.; Madauss, Kevin P.; Hoang, Tram H.; Lapinski, Leahann; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Glace, Lindsay E.; Trizna, Walter; Williams, Shawn P.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Laping, Nicholas J.

    2010-09-03

    Using the X-ray crystal structure of an amide-based progesterone receptor (PR) partial agonist bound to the PR ligand binding domain, a novel PR partial agonist class containing a pyrrolidine ring was designed. Members of this class of N-alkylpyrrolidines demonstrate potent and highly selective partial agonism of the progesterone receptor, and one of these analogs was shown to be efficacious upon oral dosing in the OVX rat model of estrogen opposition.

  9. Potent antimicrobial activity of bone cement encapsulating silver nanoparticles capped with oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Prokopovich, Polina; Köbrick, Mathias; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Perni, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    Bone cement is widely used in surgical treatments for the fixation for orthopaedic devices. Subsequently, 2-3% of patients undergoing these procedures develop infections that are both a major health risk for patients and a cost for the health service providers; this is also aggravated by the fact that antibiotics are losing efficacy because of the rising resistance of microorganisms to these substances. In this study, oleic acid capped silver nanoparticles (NP) were encapsulated into Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based bone cement samples at various ratios. Antimicrobial activity against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter baumannii was exhibited at NP concentrations as low as 0.05% (w/w). Furthermore, the mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the bone cement containing these NP were assessed to guarantee that such material is safe to be used in orthopaedic surgical practice.

  10. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of novel microtubule-modulating brominated noscapine analogs.

    PubMed

    Zughaier, Susu; Karna, Prasanthi; Stephens, David; Aneja, Ritu

    2010-02-11

    Noscapine, a plant-derived, non-toxic, over-the-counter antitussive alkaloid has tubulin-binding properties. Based upon the structural resemblance of noscapine to colchicine, a tubulin-binding anti-inflammatory drug, noscapine and its semi-synthetic brominated analogs were examined for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Brominated noscapine analogs were found to inhibit cytokine and chemokine release from macrophage cell lines but did not affect cell viability. Brominated noscapine analogs demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties in both TLR- and non-TLR induced in vitro innate immune pathway inflammation models, mimicking septic and sterile infection respectively. In addition, electron microscopy and immunoblotting data indicated that these analogs induced robust autophagy in human macrophages. This study is the first report to identify brominated noscapines as innate immune pathway anti-inflammatory molecules.

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    PubMed

    Urban, Joseph F; Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie M; Scheib, Ulrike; Yiu, Ying Y; Aroian, Raffi V

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the intestines. Ascaris lumbricoides infections in children are associated with malnutrition, growth and cognitive stunting, immune defects, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening blockage of the digestive tract and aberrant migration into the bile duct and peritoneum. Similar effects can be seen with A. suum infections in pigs related to poor feed efficiency and performance. New strategies to control Ascaris infections are needed largely due to reduced treatment efficacies of current anthelmintics in the field, the threat of resistance development, and the general lack of new drug development for intestinal soil-transmitted helminths for humans and animals. Here we demonstrate for the first time that A. suum expresses the receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein and novel anthelmintic Cry5B, which has been previously shown to intoxicate hookworms and which belongs to a class of proteins considered non-toxic to vertebrates. Cry5B is able to intoxicate A. suum larvae and adults and triggers the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway similar to that observed with other nematodes. Most importantly, two moderate doses of 20 mg/kg body weight (143 nM/kg) of Cry5B resulted in a near complete cure of intestinal A. suum infections in pigs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the excellent potential of Cry5B to treat Ascaris infections in pigs and in humans and for Cry5B to work effectively in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B Has Potent Anthelmintic Activity against Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melanie M.; Scheib, Ulrike; Yiu, Ying Y.; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the intestines. Ascaris lumbricoides infections in children are associated with malnutrition, growth and cognitive stunting, immune defects, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening blockage of the digestive tract and aberrant migration into the bile duct and peritoneum. Similar effects can be seen with A. suum infections in pigs related to poor feed efficiency and performance. New strategies to control Ascaris infections are needed largely due to reduced treatment efficacies of current anthelmintics in the field, the threat of resistance development, and the general lack of new drug development for intestinal soil-transmitted helminths for humans and animals. Here we demonstrate for the first time that A. suum expresses the receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein and novel anthelmintic Cry5B, which has been previously shown to intoxicate hookworms and which belongs to a class of proteins considered non-toxic to vertebrates. Cry5B is able to intoxicate A. suum larvae and adults and triggers the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway similar to that observed with other nematodes. Most importantly, two moderate doses of 20 mg/kg body weight (143 nM/kg) of Cry5B resulted in a near complete cure of intestinal A. suum infections in pigs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the excellent potential of Cry5B to treat Ascaris infections in pigs and in humans and for Cry5B to work effectively in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23818995

  13. Inorganic polyphosphate is a potent activator of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Seidlmayer, Lea K; Gomez-Garcia, Maria R; Blatter, Lothar A; Pavlov, Evgeny; Dedkova, Elena N

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by excessive Ca2+ accumulation is a major contributor to cardiac cell and tissue damage during myocardial infarction and ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). At the molecular level, mitochondrial dysfunction is induced by Ca2+-dependent opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which leads to the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), disruption of adenosine triphosphate production, and ultimately cell death. Although the role of Ca2+ for induction of mPTP opening is established, the exact molecular mechanism of this process is not understood. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the adverse effect of mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation is mediated by its interaction with inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a polymer of orthophosphates linked by phosphoanhydride bonds. We found that cardiac mitochondria contained significant amounts (280±60 pmol/mg of protein) of short-chain polyP with an average length of 25 orthophosphates. To test the role of polyP for mPTP activity, we investigated kinetics of Ca2+ uptake and release, ΔΨm and Ca2+-induced mPTP opening in polyP-depleted mitochondria. polyP depletion was achieved by mitochondria-targeted expression of a polyP-hydrolyzing enzyme. Depletion of polyP in mitochondria of rabbit ventricular myocytes led to significant inhibition of mPTP opening without affecting mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration by itself. This effect was observed when mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was stimulated by increasing cytosolic [Ca2+] in permeabilized myocytes mimicking mitochondrial Ca2+ overload observed during IRI. Our findings suggest that inorganic polyP is a previously unrecognized major activator of mPTP. We propose that the adverse effect of polyphosphate might be caused by its ability to form stable complexes with Ca2+ and directly contribute to inner mitochondrial membrane permeabilization.

  14. Synthesis and SAR of 1-acetanilide-4-aminopyrazole-substituted quinazolines: selective inhibitors of Aurora B kinase with potent anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Foote, Kevin M; Mortlock, Andrew A; Heron, Nicola M; Jung, Frédéric H; Hill, George B; Pasquet, Georges; Brady, Madeleine C; Green, Stephen; Heaton, Simon P; Kearney, Sarah; Keen, Nicholas J; Odedra, Rajesh; Wedge, Stephen R; Wilkinson, Robert W

    2008-03-15

    A new class of 1-acetanilide-4-aminopyrazole-substituted quinazoline Aurora kinase inhibitors has been discovered possessing highly potent cellular activity. Continuous infusion into athymic mice bearing SW620 tumors of the soluble phosphate derivative 2 led to dose-proportional exposure of the des-phosphate compound 8 with a high-unbound fraction. The combination of potent cell activity and high free-drug exposure led to pharmacodynamic changes in the tumor at low doses, indicative of Aurora B-kinase inhibition and a reduction in tumor volume.

  15. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity

    PubMed Central

    Krager, Kimberly J.; Pineda, E. Nathalie; Kharade, Sujay V.; Kordsmeier, Mary; Howard, Luke; Breen, Philip J.; Compadre, Cesar M.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2015-01-01

    The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3) and γ-tocotrienol (GT3) have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR). However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB) isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source. PMID:26425129

  16. Tumor necrosis factor: a potent effector molecule for tumor cell killing by activated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Urban, J L; Shepard, H M; Rothstein, J L; Sugarman, B J; Schreiber, H

    1986-01-01

    Activated macrophages (aM phi) destroy more effectively cancer cells than normal cells. The mechanism by which macrophages destroy cancer cells is not known. We report here that tumor cells susceptible to aM phi were killed by recombinant (r) tumor necrosis factor type alpha (TNF-alpha), whereas variant tumor cells resistant to aM phi after selection in vitro or in vivo were resistant to killing by rTNF-alpha. The converse selection for rTNF-alpha-resistant variants resulted in cells that were also resistant to killing by aM phi. The sensitivity of macrophage-resistant variants was not changed to other tumoricidal cells or soluble mediators, except that the macrophage-resistant variants were also resistant to the effects of another cytotoxic protein, B-cell lymphotoxin, which is structurally related to rTNF-alpha. Similar results were obtained regardless of whether short-term or long-term cytotoxic effects of aM phi were measured. Finally, it was shown that killing of tumor cells by murine aM phi was completely inhibited with a polyclonal antibody that neutralizes the effects of murine TNF-alpha. These results suggest a major role for TNF-alpha in tumor cell destruction by aM phi in vitro and in vivo. PMID:3487788

  17. Nanosomes carrying doxorubicin exhibit potent anticancer activity against human lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Akhil; Amreddy, Narsireddy; Babu, Anish; Panneerselvam, Janani; Mehta, Meghna; Muralidharan, Ranganayaki; Chen, Allshine; Zhao, Yan Daniel; Razaq, Mohammad; Riedinger, Natascha; Kim, Hogyoung; Liu, Shaorong; Wu, Si; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.; Munshi, Anupama; Ramesh, Rajagopal

    2016-01-01

    Successful chemotherapeutic intervention for management of lung cancer requires an efficient drug delivery system. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) can incorporate various therapeutics; however, GNPs have limitations as drug carriers. Nano-sized cellular vesicles like exosomes (Exo) can ferry GNP-therapeutic complexes without causing any particle aggregation or immune response. In the present study, we describe the development and testing of a novel Exo-GNP-based therapeutic delivery system -‘nanosomes’- for lung cancer therapy. This system consists of GNPs conjugated to anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) by a pH-cleavable bond that is physically loaded onto the exosomes (Exo-GNP-Dox). The therapeutic efficacy of Dox in nanosomes was assessed in H1299 and A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells, normal MRC9 lung fibroblasts, and Dox-sensitive human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASM). The enhanced rate of drug release under acidic conditions, successful uptake of the nanosomes by the recipient cells and the cell viability assays demonstrated that nanosomes exhibit preferential cytotoxicity towards cancer cells and have minimal activity on non-cancerous cells. Finally, the underlying mechanism of cytotoxicity involved ROS-mediated DNA damage. Results from this study mark the establishment of an amenable drug delivery vehicle and highlight the advantages of a natural drug carrier that demonstrates reduced cellular toxicity and efficient delivery of therapeutics to cancer cells. PMID:27941871

  18. Pyrrolo[2,3-h]quinolinones: a new ring system with potent photoantiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Barraja, Paola; Diana, Patrizia; Montalbano, Alessandra; Dattolo, Gaetano; Cirrincione, Girolamo; Viola, Giampietro; Vedaldi, Daniela; Dall'Acqua, Francesco

    2006-12-15

    A new class of compounds, the pyrrolo[2,3-h]quinolin-2-ones, nitrogen isosters of the angular furocoumarin Angelicin, was synthesized with the aim of obtaining new photochemotherapeutic agents with increased antiproliferative activity and lower undesired toxic effects than the lead compound. Two synthetic pathways were approached to allow the isolation both of the dihydroderivatives 10-17 and of the aromatic ring system 23. Compounds 10-17 showed a remarkable phototoxicity and a great UVA dose dependence reaching IC(50) values at submicromolar level. Intracellular localization of these compounds has been evaluated by means of fluorescence microscopy using tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester and acridine orange, which are specific fluorescent probes for mitochondria and lysosomes, respectively. A weak co-staining was observed with mitochondrial stain, whereas a specific localization in lysosomes was observed. Studies directed to elucidate the mode of action of this series of compounds revealed that they do not intercalate with DNA and do not induce photodamage to the macromolecule. On the contrary, they induce significative photodamage to lipids and proteins.

  19. Multifunctional oligomer incorporation: a potent strategy to enhance the transfection activity of poly(l-lysine).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Yang, Jixiang; Ren, Hongqi; O'Keeffe-Ahern, Jonathan; Zhou, Dezhong; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Jiatong; Guo, Tianying

    2016-03-01

    Natural polycations, such as poly(l-lysine) (PLL) and chitosan (CS), have inherent superiority as non-viral vectors due to their unparalleled biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, the application was constrained by poor transfection efficiency and safety concerns. Since previous modification strategies greatly weakened the inherent advantages of natural polycations, developing a strategy for functional group introduction with broad applicability to enhance the transfection efficiency of natural polycations without compromising their cationic properties is imperative. Herein, two uncharged functional diblock oligomers P(DMAEL-b-NIPAM) and P(DMAEL-b-Vlm) were prepared from a lactose derivative, N-iso-propyl acrylamide (NIPAM) as well as 1-vinylimidazole (Vlm) and further functionalized with four small ligands folate, glutathione, cysteine and arginine, respectively, aiming to enhance the interactions of complexes with cells, which were quantified utilizing a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) biosensor, circumventing the tedious material screening process of cell transfection. Upon incorporation with PLL and DNA, the multifunctional oligomers endow the formulated ternary complexes with great properties suitable for transfection, such as anti-aggregation in serum, destabilized endosome membrane, numerous functional sites for promoted endocytosis and therefore robust transfection activity. Furthermore, different from the conventional strategy of decreasing cytotoxicity by reducing the charge density, the multifunctional oligomer incorporation strategy maintains the highly positive charge density, which is essential for efficient cellular uptake. This system develops a new platform to modify natural polycations towards clinical gene therapy.

  20. Novel spirohydantoin derivative as a potent multireceptor-active antipsychotic and antidepressant agent.

    PubMed

    Czopek, Anna; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Bucki, Adam; Byrtus, Hanna; Pawłowski, Maciej; Kazek, Grzegorz; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Piaskowska, Agata; Kalinowska-Tłuścik, Justyna; Partyka, Anna; Wesołowska, Anna

    2015-07-01

    A series of novel spirohydantoin derivatives with arylpiperazinylbutyl moiety were synthesized and evaluated for serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT7 and dopamine D2 receptors. Based on these data, four compounds were selected for further binding affinity assays on dopamine D1, D3, D4, and 5-HT2C, 5-HT6 as well as adrenergic α1 and α2C receptors, which are involved in various CNS diseases such as schizophrenia, anxiety and/or depression. The compound 14, 1-{4-[4-(2-metoxyphe-nyl)piperazin-1-yl]butyl}-3',4'-dihydro-2H,2'H,5H-spiro[imidazolidine-4,1'-naphthalene]-2,5-dione, with the most promising functional profile, mixed 5-HT2A/D2 antagonist and 5-HT1A partial agonist, was selected. In the mouse d-amphetamine-induced locomotor hyperactivity model, compound 14 produced antipsychotic-like activity, which is devoid of cataleptogenic effects and in the forced swim test in mice, it showed a significant antidepressant-like effect unlike the reference drug aripiprazole.

  1. Design and synthesis of chalcone derivatives as potent tyrosinase inhibitors and their structural activity relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Sakeh, Nurshafika M.; Zareen, Seema; Gul, Sana; Lo, Kong Mun; Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Shah, Syed Adnan Ali; Ahmad, Syahida

    2015-04-01

    Browning of fruits and vegetables is a serious issue in the food industry, as it damages the organoleptic properties of the final products. Overproduction of melanin causes aesthetic problems such as melisma, freckles and lentigo. In this study, a series of chalcones (1-10) have been synthesized and examined for their tryrosinase inhibitory activity. The results showed that flavokawain B (1), flavokawain A (2) and compound 3 were found to be potential tyrosinase inhibitors, indicating IC50 14.20-14.38 μM values. This demonstrates that 4-substituted phenolic compound especially at ring A exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibition. Additionally, molecular docking results showed a strong binding affinity for compounds 1-3 through chelation between copper metal and ligands. The detailed molecular docking and SARs studies correlate well with the tyrosinase inhibition studies in vitro. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and single X-ray crystallographic techniques. These findings could lead to design and discover of new tyrosinase inhibitors to control the melanine overproduction and overcome the economic loss of food industry.

  2. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Cytotoxic Activity of Novel Paramagnetic Platinum Hematoporphyrin IX Complexes: Potent Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gencheva, G.; Tsekova, D.; Gochev, G.; Momekov, G.; Tyuliev, G.; Skumryev, V.; Karaivanova, M.; Bontchev, P. R.

    2007-01-01

    Three novel stable Pt(III) complexes with distorted octahedral structure and (dz2)1 ground state have been obtained in the course of Pt(II)-hematoporphyrin IX ((7,12-bis(1-hydroxyethyl)-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H-23H-porphyn-2,18-dipropionic acid), Hp) interaction in alkaline aqueous medium and aerobic conditions. A redox interaction also takes place together with the complexation process leading to the formation of Pt(III) species and organic radicals. The processes in the reaction system and the structure of the complexes formed cis-[Pt(III)(NH3)2(Hp−3H)(H2O)2]⋅H2O 1, [Pt(III)(Hp−3H)(H2O)2]⋅H2O 2, and [Pt((O,O)Hp−2H)Cl(H2O)3] 3, were studied by UV-Vis, IR, EPR and XPS spectra, thermal (TGS, DSC), potentiometric and magnetic methods. The newly synthesized complexes show promising cytotoxic activity comparable with that of cis-platin in in vitro tests against a panel of human leukemia cell lines. The observed cytotoxicity of the complex 2 against SKW-3 cells (KE-37 derivative) is due to induction of cell death through apoptosis. PMID:18309370

  3. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate potently inhibits the in vitro activity of hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase[S

    PubMed Central

    Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Spina, Michele; Tran, Chi Nhan; Falconi, Maurizio; Eleuteri, Anna Maria; Angeletti, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is the rate-controlling enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, and owing to its biological and pharmacological relevance, researchers have investigated several compounds capable of modulating its activity with the hope of developing new hypocholesterolemic drugs. In particular, polyphenol-rich extracts were extensively tested for their cholesterol-lowering effect as alternatives, or adjuvants, to the conventional statin therapies, but a full understanding of the mechanism of their action has yet to be reached. Our work reports on a detailed kinetic and equilibrium study on the modulation of HMGR by the most-abundant catechin in green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Using a concerted approach involving spectrophotometric, optical biosensor, and chromatographic analyses, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis on the cofactor site of HMGR, we have demonstrated that EGCG potently inhibits the in vitro activity of HMGR (Ki in the nanomolar range) by competitively binding to the cofactor site of the reductase. Finally, we evaluated the effect of combined EGCG-statin administration. PMID:21357570

  4. Fatty acids from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with potent inhibitory effects on fish gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Bury, N R; Codd, G A; Wendelaaar Bonga, S E; Flik, G

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acids from two strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, PCC 7820 (a strain that produces the hepatotoxin microcystin-LR, MC-LR) and CYA 43 (a strain that produces only small quantities of MC-LR), were extracted, partially characterised and tested for their inhibitory effect on the K+-dependent p-nitrophenol phosphatase (pNPPase) activity of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill basolateral membrane. Thin-layer chromatography of the lipids from dichloromethane:methanol extracts of M. aeruginosa PCC 7820 and CYA 43, using diethylether:isopropanol:formic acid (100:4.5:2.5) as solvent, yielded five inhibitory products from M. aeruginosa 7820 and six from M. aeruginosa CYA 43. None of these products could be related to MC-LR. The inhibitory behaviour of the products mimics that of a slow, tight-binding inhibitor. The inhibitory activity is removed by incubation of extracts with fatty-acid-free bovine serum albumin (FAF-BSA). However, FAF-BSA only partially reversed the inhibition of K+-dependent pNPPase on fish gills pre-exposed to the extracted products. We conclude that M. aeruginosa strains PCC 7820 and CYA 43 produce fatty acids with potent inhibitory effects on K+-dependent pNPPase. The release of these products following lysis of cyanobacterial blooms may help to explain fish kills through a disturbance of gill functioning.

  5. The mitochondrion interfering compound NPC-26 exerts potent anti-pancreatic cancer cell activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yang-Yang; Zhuang, Yi-Huang; Cai, Wen-Jie; Liu, Yan; Zou, Wen-Bing

    2016-11-01

    The development of novel anti-pancreatic cancer agents is extremely important. Here, we investigated the anti-pancreatic cancer activity by NPC-26, a novel mitochondrion interfering compound. We showed that NPC-26 was anti-proliferative and cytotoxic to human pancreatic cancer cells, possibly via inducing caspase-9-dependent cell apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition or shRNA-mediated silence of caspase-9 attenuated NPC-26-induced pancreatic cancer cell death and apoptosis. Further, NPC-26 treatment led to mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in the cancer cells, which was evidenced by mitochondrial depolarization, ANT-1(adenine nucleotide translocator-1)-Cyp-D (cyclophilin-D) association and oxidative phosphorylation disturbance. mPTP blockers (cyclosporin and sanglifehrin A) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of key mPTP components (Cyp-D and ANT-1) dramatically attenuated NPC-26-induced pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis. Importantly, we showed that NPC-26, at a low concentration, potentiated gemcitabine-induced mPTP opening and subsequent pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis. In vivo, NPC-26 intraperitoneal injection significantly suppressed the growth of PANC-1 xenograft tumors in nude mice. Meanwhile, NPC-26 sensitized gemcitabine-mediated anti-pancreatic cancer activity in vivo. In summary, the results of this study suggest that NPC-26, alone or together with gemcitabine, potently inhibits pancreatic cancer cells possibly via disrupting mitochondrion.

  6. Epitope Mapping of M36, a Human Antibody Domain with Potent and Broad HIV-1 Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weizao; Yuan, Xiaohui; Chong, Huihui; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; He, Yuxian

    2013-01-01

    M36 is the first member of a novel class of potent HIV-1 entry inhibitors based on human engineered antibody domains (eAds). It exhibits broad inhibitory activity suggesting that its CD4-induced epitope is highly conserved. Here, we describe fine mapping of its epitope by using several approaches. First, a panel of mimotopes was affinity-selected from a random peptide library and potential m36-binding residues were computationally predicted. Second, homology modeling of m36 and molecular docking of m36 onto gp120 revealed potentially important residues in gp120-m36 interactions. Third, the predicted contact residues were verified by site-directed mutagenesis. Taken together, m36 epitope comprising three discontinuous sites including six key gp120 residues (Site C1: Thr123 and Pro124; Site C3: Glu370 and Ile371; Site C4: Met426 and Trp427) were identified. In the 3D structure of gp120, the sites C1 and C4 are located in the bridging sheet and the site C3 is within the β15-α3 excursion, which play essential roles for the receptor- and coreceptor-binding and are major targets of neutralizing antibodies. Based on these results we propose a precise localization of the m36 epitope and suggest a mechanism of its broad inhibitory activity which could help in the development of novel HIV-1 therapeutics based on eAds. PMID:23776690

  7. Discovery of a Potent HIV Integrase Inhibitor That Leads to a Prodrug with Significant anti-HIV Activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide research efforts in drug discovery involving HIV integrase have produced only one compound, raltegravir, that has been approved for clinical use in HIV/AIDS. As resistance, toxicity, and drug–drug interactions are recurring issues with all classes of anti-HIV drugs, the discovery of novel integrase inhibitors remains a significant scientific challenge. We have designed a lead HIV-1 strand transfer (ST) inhibitor (IC50 70 nM), strategically assembled on a pyridinone scaffold. A focused structure–activity investigation of this parent compound led to a significantly more potent ST inhibitor, 2 (IC50 6 ± 3 nM). Compound 2 exhibits good stability in pooled human liver microsomes. It also displays a notably favorable profile with respect to key human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes and human UDP glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs). The prodrug of inhibitor 2, i.e., compound 10, was found to possess remarkable anti-HIV-1 activity in cell culture (EC50 9 ± 4 nM, CC50 135 ± 7 μM, therapeutic index = 15 000). PMID:22328963

  8. Potent antitumor activity of quinolone compounds with an unsaturated aminoazabicyclo group at the C-7 position of the quinolone ring.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, H; Mano, E; Hakoda, N; Yoshinari, T; Nakagawa, S; Okura, A

    1996-04-01

    Relationships between the substituents on the quinolone nucleus of 2 and related compounds and their biological activities were studied. 2, 3 and 1 carrying a (1R, 2R, 6R)-2-amino-8-azabicyclo[4.3.0.]non-3-en-8-yl group at the C-7 position increased the rate of formation of DNA-protein complexes in cells, and inhibited the growth of tumor cells more strongly than the compounds with other substituents. The introduction of a fluorine atom or a methoxy group at the 8-position and an amino group at the 5-position increased the activity still further. The three compounds listed were all effective against P388 leukemia in mice. Subcutaneous injection of 2 at 2 mg/kg strongly suppressed the growth of human MX-1 breast cancer cells in nude mice. 1 has various functional groups that increase the cytotoxic potential of quinolone derivatives: a (1R, 2R, 6R)-2-amino-8-azabicyclo[4.3.0.]non-3-en-8-yl moiety at C-7, a cyclopropyl group at the 1-position, fluorine atoms at the 6- and 8-positions, and an amino group at the 5-position of the quinoline carboxylic acid. These data suggest that this series of compounds provide good models for the further design of potent antitumor quinolones.

  9. Potent neutralization of VEGF biological activities with a fully human antibody Fab fragment directed against VEGF receptor 2

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, H.-Q. . E-mail: hua-quan.miao@imclone.com; Hu, Kun; Jimenez, Xenia; Navarro, Elizabeth; Zhang, Haifan; Lu Dan; Ludwig, Dale L.; Balderes, Paul; Zhu Zhenping . E-mail: zhenping.zhu@imclone.com

    2006-06-23

    Compelling evidence suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors, especially receptor 2 (VEGFR2, or kinase insert domain-containing receptor, KDR), play a critical role in angiogenesis under both physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer and angiogenic retinopathies such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To this end, inhibition of angiogenesis with antagonists to either VEGF or KDR has yielded significant therapeutic efficacy both in preclinical studies in animal models and in clinical trials in patients with cancer and AMD. We previously reported the identification of a high affinity, fully human anti-KDR antibody fragment, 1121B Fab, through a highly stringent affinity maturation process with a Fab originally isolated from a naive human antibody phage display library. In this study, we demonstrate that 1121B Fab is able to strongly block KDR/VEGF interaction, resulting in potent inhibition of an array of biological activities of VEGF, including activation of the receptor and its signaling pathway, intracellular calcium mobilization, and migration and proliferation of endothelial cells. Taken together, our data lend strong support to the further development of 1121B Fab fragment as an anti-angiogenesis agent in both cancer and angiogenic retinopathies.

  10. Enabling the Discovery and Virtual Screening of Potent and Safe Antimicrobial Peptides. Simultaneous Prediction of Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Ruso, Juan M; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Dias Soeiro Cordeiro, M Natália

    2016-08-08

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent promising alternatives to fight against bacterial pathogens. However, cellular toxicity remains one of the main concerns in the early development of peptide-based drugs. This work introduces the first multitasking (mtk) computational model focused on performing simultaneous predictions of antibacterial activities, and cytotoxicities of peptides. The model was created from a data set containing 3592 cases, and it displayed accuracy higher than 96% for classifying/predicting peptides in both training and prediction (test) sets. The technique known as alanine scanning was computationally applied to illustrate the calculation of the quantitative contributions of the amino acids (in their respective positions of the sequence) to the biological effects of a defined peptide. A small library formed by 10 peptides was generated, where peptides were designed by considering the interpretations of the different descriptors in the mtk-computational model. All the peptides were predicted to exhibit high antibacterial activities against multiple bacterial strains, and low cytotoxicity against various cell types. The present mtk-computational model can be considered a very useful tool to support high throughput research for the discovery of potent and safe AMPs.

  11. Potent α-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic α-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting≥ 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 μgml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440

  12. Dormancy activation mechanism of oral cavity cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xin; Zhao, Baohong; Shang, Dehao; Zhong, Ming; Deng, Chunfu; Jia, Xinshan

    2015-07-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are targeted primarily at rapidly proliferating cancer cells and are unable to eliminate cancer stem cells in the G0 phase. Thus, these treatments cannot prevent the recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells are maintained in the dormant G0 phase, and how they become active is key to developing new cancer therapies. The current study found that the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil, acting on the oral squamous cell carcinoma KB cell line, selectively killed proliferating cells while sparing cells in the G0 phase. Bisulfite sequencing PCR showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter led to the expression of Sox2. This then resulted in the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage and suggested that the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage is closely related to an epigenetic modification of the cell.

  13. Seizure facilitating activity of the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol.

    PubMed

    Younus, Iyan; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2016-03-01

    Contraceptive management is critical in women with epilepsy. Although oral contraceptives (OCs) are widely used by many women with epilepsy, little is known about their impact on epileptic seizures and epileptogenesis. Ethinyl estradiol (EE) is the primary component of OC pills. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological effect of EE on epileptogenesis and kindled seizures in female mice using the hippocampus kindling model. Animals were stimulated daily with or without EE until generalized stage 5 seizures were elicited. EE treatment significantly accelerated the rate of epileptogenesis. In acute studies, EE caused a significant decrease in the afterdischarge threshold and increased the incidence and severity of seizures in fully-kindled mice. In chronic studies, EE treatment caused a greater susceptibility to kindled seizures. Collectively, these results are consistent with moderate proconvulsant-like activity of EE. Such excitatory effects may affect seizure risk in women with epilepsy taking OC pills.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Antrodia camphorata extracts against oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lien, Hsiu-Man; Tseng, Chin-Jui; Huang, Chao-Lu; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chia-Chang; Lai, Ya-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a unique, endemic and extremely rare mushroom species native to Taiwan, and both crude extracts of and purified chemical compounds from A. camphorata have been reported to have a variety of significant beneficial effects, such as anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity. However, reports on the effects of A. camphorata against dental pathogens have been limited. Oral health is now recognized as important for overall general health, including conditions such as dental caries, periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) are the most common bacteria associated with dental plaque and periodontopathic diseases, respectively. Thus, our study examined the ability of five various crude extracts of A. camphorata to inhibit the growth of dental bacteria and anti-adherence in vitro. Among the extracts, the ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts exhibited the lowest MICs against P. gingivalis and S. mutans (MIC = 4∼16 µg/mL). The MIC of the aqueous extract was greater than 2048 µg/mL against both P. gingivalis and S. mutans. In vitro adherence of S. mutans was significantly inhibited by the addition of either the ethyl acetate extract or chloroform extract (MIC = 16∼24 µg/mL), while the ethanol extract (MIC = 32∼64 µg/mL) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity. Based on the result of this study, the ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of A. camphorata may be good candidates for oral hygiene agents to control dental caries and periodontopathic conditions.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Antrodia camphorata Extracts against Oral Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Hsiu-Man; Tseng, Chin-Jui; Huang, Chao-Lu; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chia-Chang; Lai, Ya-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a unique, endemic and extremely rare mushroom species native to Taiwan, and both crude extracts of and purified chemical compounds from A. camphorata have been reported to have a variety of significant beneficial effects, such as anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activity. However, reports on the effects of A. camphorata against dental pathogens have been limited. Oral health is now recognized as important for overall general health, including conditions such as dental caries, periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) are the most common bacteria associated with dental plaque and periodontopathic diseases, respectively. Thus, our study examined the ability of five various crude extracts of A. camphorata to inhibit the growth of dental bacteria and anti-adherence in vitro. Among the extracts, the ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts exhibited the lowest MICs against P. gingivalis and S. mutans (MIC = 4∼16 µg/mL). The MIC of the aqueous extract was greater than 2048 µg/mL against both P. gingivalis and S. mutans. In vitro adherence of S. mutans was significantly inhibited by the addition of either the ethyl acetate extract or chloroform extract (MIC = 16∼24 µg/mL), while the ethanol extract (MIC = 32∼64 µg/mL) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity. Based on the result of this study, the ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of A. camphorata may be good candidates for oral hygiene agents to control dental caries and periodontopathic conditions. PMID:25144619

  16. In vitro anti-biofilm activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans Houtt. against oral primary colonizer bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rukayadi, Yaya; Kim, Kyu-Hoi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2008-03-01

    In early dental plaque formation, oral primary colonizers such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus are initially attached to the pellicle-coated tooth surface to form a biofilm. The study aimed to determine the efficacy of macelignan, isolated from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), in removing each single oral primary biofilm in vitro on a polystyrene 96-well microtiter plate. Four biofilm growth phases (4, 12, 20 and 24 h) were evaluated in this study after treatment with macelignan at various concentrations (0.2, 2 and 10 microg/mL) and exposure times (5, 10 and 30 min). Anti-biofilm activity of macelignan was measured as the percentage of the remaining biofilm absorbance after macelignan treatment in comparison with the untreated control. At 24 h of biofilm growth, S. mutans, A. viscosus and S. sanguis biofilms were reduced by up to 30%, 30% and 38%, respectively, after treatment with 10 microg/mL macelignan for 5 min. Increasing the treatment time to 30 min resulted in a reduction of more than 50% of each of the single primary biofilms. The results indicate that macelignan is a potent natural anti-biofilm agent against oral primary colonizers.

  17. Design, synthesis, and biological activity of 4-[(4-cyano-2-arylbenzyloxy)-(3-methyl-3H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl]benzonitriles as potent and selective farnesyltransferase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Wang, Gary T; Wang, Xilu; Tong, Yunsong; Sullivan, Gerry; Park, David; Leonard, Nicholas M; Li, Qun; Cohen, Jerry; Gu, Wen-Zhen; Zhang, Haiying; Bauch, Joy L; Jakob, Clarissa G; Hutchins, Charles W; Stoll, Vincent S; Marsh, Kennan; Rosenberg, Saul H; Sham, Hing L; Lin, Nan-Horng

    2004-01-29

    A novel series of 4-[(4-cyano-2-arylbenzyloxy)-(3-methyl-3H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl]benzonitriles have been synthesized as selective farnesyltransferase inhibitors using structure-based design. X-ray cocrystal structures of compound 20-FTase-HFP and A313326-FTase-HFP confirmed our initial design. The decreased interaction between the aryl groups and Ser 48 in GGTase-I binding site could be one possible reason to explain the improved selectivity for this new series of FTase inhibitors. Medicinal chemistry efforts led to the discovery of compound 64 with potent cellular activity (EC(50) = 3.5 nM) and outstanding pharmacokinetic profiles in dog (96% bioavailable, 18.4 h oral t(1/2), and 0.19 L/(h x kg) plasma clearance).

  18. Combined activation of the energy and cellular-defense pathways may explain the potent anti-senescence activity of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Atamna, Hani; Atamna, Wafa; Al-Eyd, Ghaith; Shanower, Gregory; Dhahbi, Joseph M

    2015-12-01

    Methylene blue (MB) delays cellular senescence, induces complex-IV, and activates Keap1/Nrf2; however, the molecular link of these effects to MB is unclear. Since MB is redox-active, we investigated its effect on the NAD/NADH ratio in IMR90 cells. The transient increase in NAD/NADH observed in MB-treated cells triggered an investigation of the energy regulator AMPK. MB induced AMPK phosphorylation in a transient pattern, which was followed by the induction of PGC1α and SURF1: both are inducers of mitochondrial and complex-IV biogenesis. Subsequently MB-treated cells exhibited >100% increase in complex-IV activity and a 28% decline in cellular oxidants. The telomeres erosion rate was also significantly lower in MB-treated cells. A previous research suggested that the pattern of AMPK activation (i.e., chronic or transient) determines the AMPK effect on cell senescence. We identified that the anti-senescence activity of MB (transient activator) was 8-times higher than that of AICAR (chronic activator). Since MB lacked an effect on cell cycle, an MB-dependent change to cell cycle is unlikely to contribute to the anti-senescence activity. The current findings in conjunction with the activation of Keap1/Nrf2 suggest a synchronized activation of the energy and cellular defense pathways as a possible key factor in MB's potent anti-senescence activity.

  19. Breast Milk of HIV-Positive Mothers Has Potent and Species-Specific In Vivo HIV-Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Angela; Baker, Caroline; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Stamper, Lisa W.; Fouda, Genevieve G.; Permar, Sallie R.; Hinde, Katie; Kuhn, Louise; Bode, Lars; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the nutritional and health benefits of breast milk, breast milk can serve as a vector for mother-to-child HIV transmission. Most HIV-infected infants acquire HIV through breastfeeding. Paradoxically, most infants breastfed by HIV-positive women do not become infected. This is potentially attributed to anti-HIV factors in breast milk. Breast milk of HIV-negative women can inhibit HIV infection. However, the HIV-inhibitory activity of breast milk from HIV-positive mothers has not been evaluated. In addition, while significant differences in breast milk composition between transmitting and nontransmitting HIV-positive mothers have been correlated with transmission risk, the HIV-inhibitory activity of their breast milk has not been compared. This knowledge may significantly impact the design of prevention approaches in resource-limited settings that do not deny infants of HIV-positive women the health benefits of breast milk. Here, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus humanized mice to evaluate the in vivo HIV-inhibitory activity of breast milk obtained from HIV-positive transmitting and nontransmitting mothers. We also assessed the species specificity and biochemical characteristics of milk's in vivo HIV-inhibitory activity and its ability to inhibit other modes of HIV infection. Our results demonstrate that breast milk of HIV-positive mothers has potent HIV-inhibitory activity and indicate that breast milk can prevent multiple routes of infection. Most importantly, this activity is unique to human milk. Our results also suggest multiple factors in breast milk may contribute to its HIV-inhibitory activity. Collectively, our results support current recommendations that HIV-positive mothers in resource-limited settings exclusively breastfeed in combination with antiretroviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Approximately 240,000 children become infected with HIV annually, the majority via breastfeeding. Despite daily exposure to virus in breast milk, most infants

  20. Role of the side chain stereochemistry in the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of kotalanol, a potent natural α-glucosidase inhibitor. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Genzoh; Matsuoka, Kanjyun; Yoshinaga, Masahiro; Xie, Weijia; Tsutsui, Nozomi; A Amer, Mumen F; Nakamura, Shinya; Nakanishi, Isao; Wu, Xiaoming; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2012-11-01

    To examine the role of the side chain of kotalanol (2), a potent natural α-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from Salacia reticulata, on inhibitory activity, four diastereomers (11a-11d) with reversed configuration (S) at the C-4' position in the side chain were synthesized and evaluated. Two of the four (11b and 11d) significantly lost their inhibitory activity against both maltase and sucrase, while the other two (11a and 11c) sustained the inhibitory activity to a considerable extent, showing distinct activity in response to the change of stereochemistry of the hydroxyls at the 5'and 6' positions. Different activities were rationalized with reference to in silico docking studies on these inhibitors with hNtMGAM. Against isomaltase, all four analogs showed potent inhibitory activity as well as 2, and 11b and 11d exhibited enzyme selectivity.

  1. Novel 4-anilinoquinazoline derivatives featuring an 1-adamantyl moiety as potent EGFR inhibitors with enhanced activity against NSCLC cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiqing; Li, Yanxia; Ge, Yang; Song, Zhendong; Wang, Changyuan; Huang, Shanshan; Jin, Yue; Han, Xu; Zhen, Yuhong; Liu, Kexin; Zhou, Youwen; Ma, Xiaodong

    2016-03-03

    With the aim of overcoming gefitinib resistance, a series of novel quinazoline derivatives bearing an adamantyl group on the aniline ring were synthesized as potent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. Most of these analogues are comparable to gefitinib in their ability to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, and several also exhibited significantly enhanced anti-tumor potency. Specifically, compound 3d, with an IC50 value of 2.06 μM against A431 cells with the wild-type EGFR and of 0.009 μM against the gefitinib-sensitive cells, displayed approximately 5-fold higher potency than the lead compound to inhibit the cells harboring the EGFR(T790M) mutant. In addition, the molecular simulation and Western blot analysis results also indicated that these compounds effectively interfered with the EGFR(T790M) activity, and may serve as a new alternative structure to develop more effective antitumor agents.

  2. Synergistic anti-tumor therapy by a comb-like multifunctional antibody nanoarray with exceptionally potent activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huafei; Sun, Yun; Chen, Di; Zhao, He; Zhao, Mengxin; Zhu, Xiandi; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Cheng; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Fulei; Wei, Huafeng; Li, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Simultaneously blocking multiple mediators offers new hope for the treatment of complex diseases. However, the curative potential of current combination therapy by chronological administration of separate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or multi-specific mAbs is still moderate due to inconvenient manipulation, low cooperative effectors, poor pharmacokinetics and insufficient tumor accumulation. Here, we describe a facile strategy that arms distinct mAbs with cooperative effectors onto a long chain to form a multicomponent comb-like nano mAb. Unlike dissociative parental mAbs, the multifunctional mAb nanoarray (PL-RB) constructed from type I/II anti-CD20 mAbs shows good pharmacokinetics. This PL-RB simultaneously targets distinct epitopes on a single antigen (Ag) and neighboring Ags on different lymphocytes. This unique intra- and intercellular Ag cross-linking endows the multifunctional mAb nanoarray with potent apoptosis activity. The exceptional apoptosis, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) that are synchronously evoked by the nano PL-RB are further synergistically promoted via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR), which resulted in high intratumor accumulation and excellent anti-lymphoma efficiency.

  3. Peptidomic analysis of skin secretions from the bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus (Ranidae) identifies multiple peptides with potent insulin-releasing activity.

    PubMed

    Mechkarska, Milena; Ojo, Opeolu O; Meetani, Mohammed A; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Abdel-Wahab, Yasser H A; Flatt, Peter R; King, Jay D; Conlon, J Michael

    2011-02-01

    Using a combination of reversed-phase HPLC and electrospray mass spectrometry, peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus Shaw, 1802 led to the identification and characterization of five newly described peptides (ranatuerin-1CBb, ranatuerin-2CBc, and -CBd, palustrin-2CBa, and temporin-CBf) together with seven peptides previously isolated on the basis of their antimicrobial activity (ranatuerin-1CBa, ranatuerin-2CBa, brevinin-1CBa, and -1CBb, temporin-CBa, -CBb, and -CBd). The abilities of the most abundant of the purified peptides to stimulate the release of insulin from the rat BRIN-BD11 clonal β cell line were evaluated. Ranatuerin-2CBd (GFLDIIKNLGKTFAGHMLDKIRCTIGTCPPSP) was the most potent peptide producing a significant stimulation of insulin release (119% of basal rate, P<0.01) from BRIN-BD11 cells at a concentration of 30nM, with a maximum response (236% of basal rate, P<0.001) at a concentration of 3μM. Ranatuerin-2CBd did not stimulate release of the cytosolic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase at concentrations up to 3μM, indicating that the integrity of the plasma membrane had been preserved. Brevinin-1CBb (FLPFIARLAAKVFPSIICSVTKKC) produced the maximum stimulation of insulin release (285% of basal rate, P<0.001 at 3μM) but the peptide was cytotoxic at this concentration.

  4. Synthesis and SAR of novel, potent and orally bioavailable benzimidazole inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with a quaternary methylene-amino substituent.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gui-Dong; Gandhi, Viraj B; Gong, Jianchun; Thomas, Sheela; Luo, Yan; Liu, Xuesong; Shi, Yan; Klinghofer, Vered; Johnson, Eric F; Frost, David; Donawho, Cherrie; Jarvis, Ken; Bouska, Jennifer; Marsh, Kennan C; Rosenberg, Saul H; Giranda, Vincent L; Penning, Thomas D

    2008-07-15

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) play significant roles in various cellular functions including DNA repair and control of RNA transcription. PARP inhibitors have been demonstrated to potentiate the effect of cytotoxic agents or radiation in a number of animal tumor models. Utilizing a benzimidazole carboxamide scaffold in which the amide forms a key intramolecular hydrogen bond for optimal interaction with the enzyme, we have identified a novel series of PARP inhibitors containing a quaternary methylene-amino substituent at the C-2 position of the benzimidazole. Geminal dimethyl analogs at the methylene-amino substituent were typically more potent than mono-methyl derivatives in both intrinsic and cellular assays. Smaller cycloalkanes such as cyclopropyl or cyclobutyl were tolerated at the quaternary carbon while larger rings were detrimental to potency. In vivo efficacy data in a B16F10 murine flank melanoma model in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) are described for two optimized analogs.

  5. Discovery of a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable histamine H3 receptor antagonist SAR110068 for the treatment of sleep-wake disorders.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhongli; Hurst, William J; Czechtizky, Werngard; Francon, Dominique; Griebel, Guy; Nagorny, Raisa; Pichat, Philippe; Schwink, Lothar; Stengelin, Siegfried; Hendrix, James A; George, Pascal G

    2013-11-15

    Previous studies have shown that compound 1 displayed high affinity towards histamine H3 receptor (H3R), (human (h-H3R), K(i)=8.6 nM, rhesus monkey (rh-H3R), K(i)=1.2 nM, and rat (r-H3R), K(i)=16.5 nM), but exhibited high affinity for hERG channel. Herein, we report the discovery of a novel, potent, and highly selective H3R antagonist/inverse agonist 5a(SS) (SAR110068) with acceptable hERG channel selectivity and desirable pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties through lead optimization sequence. The significant awakening effects of 5a(SS) on sleep-wake cycles studied by using EEG recording in rats during their light phase support its potential therapeutic utility in human sleep-wake disorders.

  6. Changes in voluntary torque and electromyographic activity following oral baclofen.

    PubMed

    Hornby, T George; Heckman, C J; Harvey, Richard L; Rymer, W Zev

    2004-12-01

    The consequences of baclofen intake on voluntary motor behaviors remain unclear. We studied the effects of single oral doses of baclofen on voluntary, isometric knee extension torques and surface and single motor unit (MU) electromyographic (EMG) activity from the vastus lateralis in 11 individuals without neurological injury. Examination of submaximal to maximal contractions of varying duration performed pre- and post-baclofen ingestion revealed significant decreases in maximal knee torques and EMG magnitude, accompanied by an increase in slope of the torque-EMG relation. A decreased slope of the torque-MU firing rate relation was also demonstrated post-baclofen, but without changes in minimal firing rates or recruitment forces. During sustained contractions at < or =25% of maximal voluntary torque elicited after baclofen ingestion, increased EMG activity was observed without significant differences in MU firing rates. Our results demonstrate a clear reduction in the maximal torque-generating ability following baclofen. Specific changes in MU firing patterns indicate that weakness may be due partly to reduced motoneuronal excitability, although use of MU discharge patterns to assess these effects is limited in its sensitivity.

  7. LLY-507, a cell-active, potent, and selective inhibitor of protein-lysine methyltransferase SMYD2

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Hannah; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Antonysamy, Stephen; Chang, Shawn; Chen, Lisa Hong; Curtis, Carmen; Emtage, Spencer; Fan, Li; Gheyi, Tarun; Li, Fengling; Liu, Shichong; Martin, Joseph R.; Mendel, David; Olsen, Jonathan B.; Pelletier, Laura; Shatseva, Tatiana; Wu, Song; Zhang, Feiyu Fred; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Brown, Peter J.; Campbell, Robert M.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Barsyte-Lovejoy, Dalia; Mader, Mary; Vedadi, Masoud

    2015-03-30

    SMYD2 is a lysine methyltransferase that catalyzes the monomethylation of several protein substrates including p53. SMYD2 is overexpressed in a significant percentage of esophageal squamous primary carcinomas, and that overexpression correlates with poor patient survival. However, the mechanism(s) by which SMYD2 promotes oncogenesis is not understood. A small molecule probe for SMYD2 would allow for the pharmacological dissection of this biology. In this report, we disclose LLY-507, a cell-active, potent small molecule inhibitor of SMYD2. LLY-507 is >100-fold selective for SMYD2 over a broad range of methyltransferase and non-methyltransferase targets. A 1.63-Å resolution crystal structure of SMYD2 in complex with LLY-507 shows the inhibitor binding in the substrate peptide binding pocket. LLY-507 is active in cells as measured by reduction of SMYD2-induced monomethylation of p53 Lys(370) at submicromolar concentrations. We used LLY-507 to further test other potential roles of SMYD2. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics showed that cellular global histone methylation levels were not significantly affected by SMYD2 inhibition with LLY-507, and subcellular fractionation studies indicate that SMYD2 is primarily cytoplasmic, suggesting that SMYD2 targets a very small subset of histones at specific chromatin loci and/or non-histone substrates. Breast and liver cancers were identified through in silico data mining as tumor types that display amplification and/or overexpression of SMYD2. LLY-507 inhibited the proliferation of several esophageal, liver, and breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. As a result, these findings suggest that LLY-507 serves as a valuable chemical probe to aid in the dissection of SMYD2 function in cancer and other biological processes.

  8. COH-203, a novel microtubule inhibitor, exhibits potent anti-tumor activity via p53-dependent senescence in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Huan; Zuo, Dai-Ying; Bai, Zhao-Shi; Xu, Jing-Wen; Li, Zeng-Qiang; Shen, Qi-Rong; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Wei-Ge; Wu, Ying-Liang

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • COH-203 exhibits anti-hepatoma effects in vitro and in vivo with low toxicity. • COH-203 inhibits tubulin polymerization. • COH-203 induces mitotic arrest followed by mitotic slippage in BEL-7402 cells. • COH-203 induces p53-dependent senescence in BEL-7402 cells. - Abstract: 5-(3-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3H-1, 2-dithiol-3-one (COH-203) is a novel synthesized analogue of combretastatin A-4 that can be classified as a microtubule inhibitor. In this study, we evaluated the anti-hepatoma effect of COH-203 in vitro and in vivo and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. COH-203 was shown to be more effective in inhibiting the proliferation of liver cancer cells compared with normal liver cells. COH-203 also displayed potent anti-tumor activity in a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model without significant toxicity. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that treatment with COH-203 induced mitotic arrest by inhibiting tubulin polymerization in BEL-7402 liver cancer cells. Long-term COH-203 treatment in BEL-7402 cells led to mitotic slippage followed by senescence via the p14{sup Arf}–p53–p21 and p16{sup INK4α}–Rb pathways. Furthermore, suppression of p53 via pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor) and p53-siRNA attenuated COH-203-induced senescence in BEL-7402 cells, suggesting that COH-203 induced senescence p53-dependently. In conclusion, we report for the first time that COH-203, one compound in the combretastatin family, promotes anti-proliferative activity through the induction of p-53 dependent senescence. Our findings will provide a molecular rationale for the development of COH-203 as a promising anti-tumor agent.

  9. LLY-507, a cell-active, potent, and selective inhibitor of protein-lysine methyltransferase SMYD2

    DOE PAGES

    Nguyen, Hannah; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Antonysamy, Stephen; ...

    2015-03-30

    SMYD2 is a lysine methyltransferase that catalyzes the monomethylation of several protein substrates including p53. SMYD2 is overexpressed in a significant percentage of esophageal squamous primary carcinomas, and that overexpression correlates with poor patient survival. However, the mechanism(s) by which SMYD2 promotes oncogenesis is not understood. A small molecule probe for SMYD2 would allow for the pharmacological dissection of this biology. In this report, we disclose LLY-507, a cell-active, potent small molecule inhibitor of SMYD2. LLY-507 is >100-fold selective for SMYD2 over a broad range of methyltransferase and non-methyltransferase targets. A 1.63-Å resolution crystal structure of SMYD2 in complex withmore » LLY-507 shows the inhibitor binding in the substrate peptide binding pocket. LLY-507 is active in cells as measured by reduction of SMYD2-induced monomethylation of p53 Lys(370) at submicromolar concentrations. We used LLY-507 to further test other potential roles of SMYD2. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics showed that cellular global histone methylation levels were not significantly affected by SMYD2 inhibition with LLY-507, and subcellular fractionation studies indicate that SMYD2 is primarily cytoplasmic, suggesting that SMYD2 targets a very small subset of histones at specific chromatin loci and/or non-histone substrates. Breast and liver cancers were identified through in silico data mining as tumor types that display amplification and/or overexpression of SMYD2. LLY-507 inhibited the proliferation of several esophageal, liver, and breast cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. As a result, these findings suggest that LLY-507 serves as a valuable chemical probe to aid in the dissection of SMYD2 function in cancer and other biological processes.« less

  10. Potent and Targeted Activation of Latent HIV-1 Using the CRISPR/dCas9 Activator Complex.

    PubMed

    Saayman, Sheena M; Lazar, Daniel C; Scott, Tristan A; Hart, Jonathan R; Takahashi, Mayumi; Burnett, John C; Planelles, Vicente; Morris, Kevin V; Weinberg, Marc S

    2016-03-01

    HIV-1 provirus integration results in a persistent latently infected reservoir that is recalcitrant to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) with lifelong treatment being the only option. The "shock and kill" strategy aims to eradicate latent HIV by reactivating proviral gene expression in the context of cART treatment. Gene-specific transcriptional activation can be achieved using the RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 system comprising single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) with a nuclease-deficient Cas9 mutant (dCas9) fused to the VP64 transactivation domain (dCas9-VP64). We engineered this system to target 23 sites within the long terminal repeat promoter of HIV-1 and identified a "hotspot" for activation within the viral enhancer sequence. Activating sgRNAs transcriptionally modulated the latent proviral genome across multiple different in vitro latency cell models including T cells comprising a clonally integrated mCherry-IRES-Tat (LChIT) latency system. We detected consistent and effective activation of latent virus mediated by activator sgRNAs, whereas latency reversal agents produced variable activation responses. Transcriptomic analysis revealed dCas9-VP64/sgRNAs to be highly specific, while the well-characterized chemical activator TNFα induced widespread gene dysregulation. CRISPR-mediated gene activation represents a novel system which provides enhanced efficiency and specificity in a targeted latency reactivation strategy and represents a promising approach to a "functional cure" of HIV/AIDS.

  11. Protease-activated receptor 2 modulates proliferation and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Eryani, Kamal; Cheng, Jun; Abé, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Babkair, Hamzah; Essa, Ahmed; Saku, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Based on our previous finding that protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) regulates hemophagocytosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells, which induces their heme oxygenase 1-dependent keratinization, we have formulated a hypothesis that PAR-2 functions in wider activities of SCC cells. To confirm this hypothesis, we investigated immunohistochemical profiles of PAR-2 in oral SCC tissues and its functional roles in cell proliferation and invasion in SCC cells in culture. The PAR-2 expression modes were determined in 48 surgical tissue specimens of oral SCC. Using oral SCC-derived cell systems, we determined both gene and protein expression levels of PAR-2. SCC cell proliferation and invasive properties were also examined in conditions in which PAR-2 was activated by the synthetic peptide SLIGRL. PAR-2 was immunolocalized in oral SCC and carcinoma in situ cells, especially in those on the periphery of carcinoma cell foci (100% of cases), but not in normal oral epithelia. Its expression at both gene and protein levels was confirmed in 3 oral SCC cell lines including ZK-1. Activation of PAR-2 induced ZK-1 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. PAR-2-activated ZK-1 cells invaded faster than nonactivated ones. The expression of PAR-2 is specific to oral malignancies, and PAR-2 regulates the growth and invasion of oral SCC cells.

  12. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of A-286501, a novel orally active adenosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Michael F; Yu, Haixia; McGaraughty, Steve; Wismer, Carol T; Mikusa, Joe; Zhu, Chang; Chu, Katharine; Kohlhaas, Kathy; Cowart, Marlon; Lee, Chih Hung; Stewart, Andrew O; Cox, Bryan F; Polakowski, James; Kowaluk, Elizabeth A

    2002-03-01

    Adenosine (ADO) is an inhibitory neuromodulator that can increase nociceptive thresholds in response to noxious stimulation. Inhibition of the ADO-metabolizing enzyme, adenosine kinase (AK) increases extracellular ADO concentrations at sites of tissue trauma and AK inhibitors may have therapeutic potential as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents. N7-((1'R,2'S,3'R,4'S)-2',3'-dihydroxy-4'-amino-cyclopentyl)-4-amino-5-bromo-pyrrolo[2,3-a]pyrimidine (A-286501) is a novel and potent (IC50=0.47 nM) carbocyclic nucleoside AK inhibitor that has no significant activity (IC50 >100 microM) at other sites of ADO interaction (A1, A2A, A3 receptors, ADO transporter, and ADO deaminase) or other (IC50 value >10 microM) neurotransmitter and peptide receptors, ion channel proteins, neurotransmitter reuptake sites and enzymes, including cyclooxygenases-1 and -2. A-286501 showed equivalent potency to inhibit AK from several mammalian species and kinetic studies revealed that A-286501 was a reversible and competitive inhibitor with respect to ADO and non-competitive with respect to MgATP2-. A-286501 was orally effective to reduce nociception in animal models of acute (thermal), inflammatory (formalin and carrageenan), and neuropathic (L5/L6 nerve ligation and streptozotocin-induced diabetic) pain. A-286501 was particularly potent (ED50=1 micromol/kg, p.o.) to reduce carrageenan-induced inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia as compared to its analgesic actions in other pain models (acute and neuropathic) and its ability to alter hemodynamic function and motor performance. A-286501 was also effective to reduce carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity, a measure of neutrophil influx (ED50=10 micromol/kg, p.o.), in the injured paw. The anti-nociceptive effects of A-286501 in the L5/L6 nerve injury model of neuropathic pain (ED50=20 micromol/kg, p.o.) were not blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone, but were blocked by the ADO receptor antagonist, theophylline. Following

  13. Discovery of novel 2-(alkylmorpholin-4-yl)-6-(3-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones as orally-active GSK-3β inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Kenji; Sakai, Daiki; Watanabe, Kazutoshi; Nakayama, Kazuki; Kohara, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sunada, Shinji; Nabeno, Mika; Okamoto, Masako; Saito, Ken-Ichi; Eguchi, Jun-ichi; Mori, Akiko; Tanaka, Shinji; Inazawa, Keiko; Horikawa, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    We herein describe the results of further evolution of GSK-3β inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease from our promising compounds with in vivo tau phosphorylation inhibitory activity by oral administration. Introduction of a low alkyl group instead of the phenyl group at the 3-position of the morpholine moiety aiming to improve pharmacokinetic profiles resulted in potent low molecular weight GSK-3β inhibitors with good in vitro pharmacokinetic profiles, which also showed in vivo tau phosphorylation inhibitory activity by oral administration. Effect of the stereochemistry of the alkyl moiety is also discussed using docking models.

  14. Discovery of 1-[3-(aminomethyl)phenyl]-N-3-fluoro-2'-(methylsulfonyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (DPC423), a highly potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of blood coagulation factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Pinto, D J; Orwat, M J; Wang, S; Fevig, J M; Quan, M L; Amparo, E; Cacciola, J; Rossi, K A; Alexander, R S; Smallwood, A M; Luettgen, J M; Liang, L; Aungst, B J; Wright, M R; Knabb, R M; Wong, P C; Wexler, R R; Lam, P Y

    2001-02-15

    Factor Xa (fXa) plays a critical role in the coagulation cascade, serving as the point of convergence of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Together with nonenzymatic cofactor Va and Ca2+ on the phospholipid surface of platelets or endothelial cells, factor Xa forms the prothrombinase complex, which is responsible for the proteolysis of prothrombin to catalytically active thrombin. Thrombin, in turn, catalyzes the cleavage of fibrinogen to fibrin, thus initiating a process that ultimately leads to clot formation. Recently, we reported on a series of isoxazoline and isoxazole monobasic noncovalent inhibitors of factor Xa which show good potency in animal models of thrombosis. In this paper, we wish to report on the optimization of the heterocyclic core, which ultimately led to the discovery of a novel pyrazole SN429 (2b; fXa K(i) = 13 pM). We also report on our efforts to improve the oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of this series while maintaining subnanomolar potency and in vitro selectivity. This was achieved by replacing the highly basic benzamidine P1 with a less basic benzylamine moiety. Further optimization of the pyrazole core substitution and the biphenyl P4 culminated in the discovery of DPC423 (17h), a highly potent, selective, and orally active factor Xa inhibitor which was chosen for clinical development.

  15. Synthesis and Evaluation of 1,5-Disubstituted Tetrazoles as Rigid Analogues of Combretastatin A-4 with Potent Antiproliferative and Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Salvador, Maria Kimatrai; Preti, Delia; Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Brancale, Andrea; Fu, Xian-Hua; Li, Jun; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Hamel, Ernest; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2012-01-01

    Tubulin, the major structural component of microtubules, is a target for the development of anticancer agents. Two series of 1,5-diaryl substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrazoles were concisely synthesized, using a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction, and identified as potent antiproliferative agents and novel tubulin polymerization inhibitors that act at the colchicine site. SAR analysis indicated that compounds with a 4-ethoxyphenyl group at the N-1 or C-5 position of the 1,2,3,4-tetrazole ring exhibited maximal activity. Several of these compounds also had potent activity in inhibiting the growth of multidrug resistant cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein. Active compounds induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway with activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Furthermore, compound 4l significantly reduced in vivo the growth of the HT-29 xenograft in a nude mouse model, suggesting that 4l is a promising new antimitotic agent with clinical potential. PMID:22136312

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Myristica fragrans against Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Zaleha; Shuhairi, Nadia Najwa; Md Fazly Shah Yap, Nordiyana; Harry Sibungkil, Carrie-Anne; Latip, Jalifah

    2012-01-01

    Myristica fragrans Houtt is mostly cultivated for spices in Penang Island, Malaysia. The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flesh, mace and seed of Myristica fragrans was evaluated the bactericidal potential against three Gram-positive cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 6249, and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419) and three Gram-negative periodontopathic bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29522, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277, and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586). Antibacterial activities of the extracts was determined by twofold serial microdilution, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 1.25 to 640 mg/mL and 0.075 to 40 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was obtained by subculturing method. Among all extracts tested, ethyl acetate extract of flesh has the highest significant inhibitory effects against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with mean MIC value ranging from 0.625 to 1.25 ± 0.00 (SD) mg/mL; P = 0.017) and highest bactericidal effects at mean MBC value ranging from 0.625 mg/mL to 20 ± 0.00 (SD) mg/mL. While for seed and mace of Myristica fragrans, their ethanol extracts exhibited good antibacterial activity against both groups of test pathogens compared to its ethyl acetate extracts. All of the extracts of Myristica fragrans did not show any antibacterial activities against Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586. Thus, our study showed the potential effect of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from flesh, seed and mace of Myristica fragrans to be new natural agent that can be incorporated in oral care products. PMID:23049613

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Myristica fragrans against Oral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Zaleha; Shuhairi, Nadia Najwa; Md Fazly Shah Yap, Nordiyana; Harry Sibungkil, Carrie-Anne; Latip, Jalifah

    2012-01-01

    Myristica fragrans Houtt is mostly cultivated for spices in Penang Island, Malaysia. The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of flesh, mace and seed of Myristica fragrans was evaluated the bactericidal potential against three Gram-positive cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 6249, and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419) and three Gram-negative periodontopathic bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29522, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277, and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586). Antibacterial activities of the extracts was determined by twofold serial microdilution, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 1.25 to 640 mg/mL and 0.075 to 40 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was obtained by subculturing method. Among all extracts tested, ethyl acetate extract of flesh has the highest significant inhibitory effects against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with mean MIC value ranging from 0.625 to 1.25 ± 0.00 (SD) mg/mL; P = 0.017) and highest bactericidal effects at mean MBC value ranging from 0.625 mg/mL to 20 ± 0.00 (SD) mg/mL. While for seed and mace of Myristica fragrans, their ethanol extracts exhibited good antibacterial activity against both groups of test pathogens compared to its ethyl acetate extracts. All of the extracts of Myristica fragrans did not show any antibacterial activities against Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586. Thus, our study showed the potential effect of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from flesh, seed and mace of Myristica fragrans to be new natural agent that can be incorporated in oral care products.

  18. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flufenamic acid is a potent activator of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yuan; Li, Kai; Yan, Qiaojing; Koizumi, Schuichi; Shi, Liye; Takahashi, Shuhei; Zhu, Ying; Matsue, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Masayuki; Kitamura, Masanori; Yao, Jian

    2011-10-01

    Flufenamic acid (FFA) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties. In addition, it modulates multiple channel activities. The mechanisms underlying the pharmacological actions of FFA are presently unclear. Given that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has both anti-inflammatory and channel-regulating functions, we examined whether FFA induces AMPK activation. 1) Exposure of several different types of cells to FFA resulted in an elevation of AMPKα phosphorylation at Thr172. This effect of FFA was reproduced by functionally and structurally similar mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, niflumic acid, and meclofenamic acid. 2) FFA-induced activation of AMPK was largely abolished by the treatment of cells with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester) (an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator) or depletion of extracellular Ca(2+), whereas it was mimicked by stimulation of cells with the Ca(2+) ionophore 5-(methylamino)-2-({(2R,3R,6S,8S,9R,11R)-3,9,11-trimethyl-8-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-oxo-2-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)ethyl]-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl}methyl)-1,3-benzoxazole-4-carboxylic acid (A23187) or ionomycin. 3) FFA triggered a rise in intracellular Ca(2+), which was abolished by cyclosporine, a blocker of mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Cyclosporine also abolished FFA-induced activation of AMPK. 4) Inhibition of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) with 7-oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid acetate (STO-609) or down-regulation of CaMKKβ with short interfering RNA largely abrogated FFA-induced activation of AMPK. 5) FFA significantly suppressed nuclear factor-κB activity and inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression triggered by interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α. This suppression was also largely abrogated by STO-609. Taken together, we conclude that FFA induces AMPK activation through the Ca(2+)-CaMKKβ pathway

  19. Potent HGF/c-Met axis inhibitors from Eucalyptus globulus: the coupling of phloroglucinol and sesquiterpenoid is essential for the activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Ai, Jing; Gan, Li-She; Xu, Jin-Biao; Wang, Ying; Su, Zu-Shang; Wang, Lu; Ding, Jian; Geng, Mei-Yu; Yue, Jian-Min

    2012-09-27

    Eucalyptin A (1), together with two known compounds 2 and 3 exhibiting potent inhibition on HGF/c-Met axis, was discovered from the fruits of Eucalyptus globulus. 1 possessed an unprecedented carbon framework of phloroglucinol-coupled sesquiterpenoid, and its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic method and ECD calculation. A brief structure-activity relationship discussion indicated that the coupling of a phloroglucinol and a sesquiterpenoid is essential for the activity.

  20. Role of the side chain stereochemistry in the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of kotalanol, a potent natural α-glucosidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weijia; Tanabe, Genzoh; Matsuoka, Kanjyun; Amer, Mumen F A; Minematsu, Toshie; Wu, Xiaoming; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Muraoka, Osamu

    2011-04-01

    Synthesis and evaluation of four diastereomers (9a, 9b, 9c and 9d) of kotalanol, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from an Ayurvedic medicinal plant Salacia species, are described. Stereo-inversion at C-3' and C-4' of kotalanol (2) caused significant decrease of the inhibitory activities against maltase and sucrase, whereas inhibitory activity against isomaltase sustained, thus resulted in exerting selectivity against isomaltase.

  1. Parallel Functional Activity Profiling Reveals Valvulopathogens Are Potent 5-Hydroxytryptamine2B Receptor Agonists: Implications for Drug Safety Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xi-Ping; Setola, Vincent; Yadav, Prem N.; Allen, John A.; Rogan, Sarah C.; Hanson, Bonnie J.; Revankar, Chetana; Robers, Matt; Doucette, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced valvular heart disease (VHD) is a serious side effect of a few medications, including some that are on the market. Pharmacological studies of VHD-associated medications (e.g., fenfluramine, pergolide, methysergide, and cabergoline) have revealed that they and/or their metabolites are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine2B (5-HT2B) receptor agonists. We have shown that activation of 5-HT2B receptors on human heart valve interstitial cells in vitro induces a proliferative response reminiscent of the fibrosis that typifies VHD. To identify current or future drugs that might induce VHD, we screened approximately 2200 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or investigational medications to identify 5-HT2B receptor agonists, using calcium-based high-throughput screening. Of these 2200 compounds, 27 were 5-HT2B receptor agonists (hits); 14 of these had previously been identified as 5-HT2B receptor agonists, including seven bona fide valvulopathogens. Six of the hits (guanfacine, quinidine, xylometazoline, oxymetazoline, fenoldopam, and ropinirole) are approved medications. Twenty-three of the hits were then “functionally profiled” (i.e., assayed in parallel for 5-HT2B receptor agonism using multiple readouts to test for functional selectivity). In these assays, the known valvulopathogens were efficacious at concentrations as low as 30 nM, whereas the other compounds were less so. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the pEC50 data revealed that ropinirole (which is not associated with valvulopathy) was clearly segregated from known valvulopathogens. Taken together, our data demonstrate that patterns of 5-HT2B receptor functional selectivity might be useful for identifying compounds likely to induce valvular heart disease. PMID:19570945

  2. N-Arylpiperazine-1-carboxamide derivatives: a novel series of orally active nonsteroidal androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kinoyama, Isao; Taniguchi, Nobuaki; Kawaminami, Eiji; Nozawa, Eisuke; Koutoku, Hiroshi; Furutani, Takashi; Kudoh, Masafumi; Okada, Minoru

    2005-04-01

    A novel series of N-arylpiperazine-1-carboxamide derivatives was synthesized and their androgen receptor (AR) antagonist activities and in vivo antiandrogenic properties were evaluated. Reporter assays indicated that trans-2,5-dimethylpiperazine derivatives are potent AR antagonists, and in this series trans-N-4-[4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-N-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2,5-dimethylpiperazine-1-carboxamide (18 g, YM-175735) exhibited the most potent antiandrogenic activity. Compared to bicalutamide, YM-175735 is an approximately 4-fold stronger AR antagonist and has slightly increased antiandrogenic activity, suggesting that YM-175735 may be useful in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  3. Targeted Antibiotic Delivery: Selective Siderophore Conjugation with Daptomycin Confers Potent Activity Against Multi-Drug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Manuka; Miller, Patricia A; Möllmann, Ute; Claypool, William D; Schroeder, Valerie A; Wolter, William R; Suckow, Mark; Yu, Honglin; Li, Shuang; Huang, Weiqiang; Zajicek, Jaroslav; Miller, Marvin J

    2017-03-13

    In order to address the dire need for new antibiotics to treat specific strains of drug resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections, a mixed ligand analog of the natural Acinetobacter baumannii selective siderophore, fimsbactin, was coupled to daptomycin, a Gram-positive only antibiotic. The resulting conjugate, 11, has potent activity against multi-drug resistant strains of A. baumannii, both in vitro and in vivo. The study also indicates that conjugation of siderophores to "drugs" that are much larger than the siderophore (iron transport agent) itself facilitates active uptake that circumvents the normal permeability problems in Gram-negative bacteria. The results demonstrate the ability to extend activity of a normally Gram-positive only antibiotic to create a potent and targeted Gram-negative antibiotic using a bacterial iron transport based sideromycin Trojan Horse strategy.

  4. Structural definition of a potent macrophage activating factor derived from vitamin D3-binding protein with adjuvant activity for antibody production.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N

    1996-10-01

    Incubation of human vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein), with a mixture of immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase, efficiently generated a potent macrophage activating factor, a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar. Stepwise incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase, and isolation of the intermediates with immobilized lectins, revealed that either sequence of hydrolysis of Gc glycoprotein by these glycosidases yields the macrophage-activating factor, implying that Gc protein carries a trisaccharide composed of N-acetylgalactosamine and dibranched galactose and sialic acid termini. A 3 hr incubation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with picomolar amounts of the enzymatically generated macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) resulted in a greatly enhanced phagocytic activity. Administration of a minute amount (10-50 pg/mouse) of GcMAF resulted in a seven- to nine-fold enhanced phagocytic activity of macrophages. Injection of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) along with GcMAF into mice produced a large number of anti-SRBC antibody secreting splenic cells in 2-4 days.

  5. Discovery of orally active pyrrolopyridine- and aminopyridine-based Met kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Zhen-Wei; Wei, Donna; Schroeder, Gretchen M.; Cornelius, Lyndon A.M.; Kim, Kyoung; Chen, Xiao-Tao; Schmidt, Robert J.; Williams, David K.; Tokarski, John S.; An, Yongmi; Sack, John S.; Manne, Veeraswamy; Kamath, Amrita; Zhang, Yueping; Marathe, Punit; Hunt, John T.; Lombardo, Louis J.; Fargnoli, Joseph; Borzilleri, Robert M.

    2008-09-10

    A series of acylurea analogs derived from pyrrolopyridine and aminopyridine scaffolds were identified as potent inhibitors of Met kinase activity. The SAR at various positions of the two kinase scaffolds was investigated. These studies led to the discovery of compounds 3b and 20b, which demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetic properties in mice and significant antitumor activity in a human gastric carcinoma xenograft model.

  6. Donor CD19 CAR T cells exert potent graft-versus-lymphoma activity with diminished graft-versus-host activity.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab; Smith, Melody; James, Scott E; Davila, Marco L; Velardi, Enrico; Argyropoulos, Kimon V; Gunset, Gertrude; Perna, Fabiana; Kreines, Fabiana M; Levy, Emily R; Lieberman, Sophie; Jay, Hillary V; Tuckett, Andrea Z; Zakrzewski, Johannes L; Tan, Lisa; Young, Lauren F; Takvorian, Kate; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Jenq, Robert R; Hanash, Alan M; Motta, Ana Carolina F; Murphy, George F; Liu, Chen; Schietinger, Andrea; Sadelain, Michel; van den Brink, Marcel R M

    2017-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative therapy for hematological malignancies. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse after allo-HSCT remain major impediments to the success of allo-HSCT. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) direct tumor cell recognition of adoptively transferred T cells. CD19 is an attractive CAR target, which is expressed in most B cell malignancies, as well as in healthy B cells. Clinical trials using autologous CD19-targeted T cells have shown remarkable promise in various B cell malignancies. However, the use of allogeneic CAR T cells poses a concern in that it may increase risk of the occurrence of GVHD, although this has not been reported in selected patients infused with donor-derived CD19 CAR T cells after allo-HSCT. To understand the mechanism whereby allogeneic CD19 CAR T cells may mediate anti-lymphoma activity without causing a significant increase in the incidence of GVHD, we studied donor-derived CD19 CAR T cells in allo-HSCT and lymphoma models in mice. We demonstrate that alloreactive T cells expressing CD28-costimulated CD19 CARs experience enhanced stimulation, resulting in the progressive loss of both their effector function and proliferative potential, clonal deletion, and significantly decreased occurrence of GVHD. Concurrently, the other CAR T cells that were present in bulk donor T cell populations retained their anti-lymphoma activity in accordance with the requirement that both the T cell receptor (TCR) and CAR be engaged to accelerate T cell exhaustion. In contrast, first-generation and 4-1BB-costimulated CAR T cells increased the occurrence of GVHD. These findings could explain the reduced risk of GVHD occurring with cumulative TCR and CAR signaling.

  7. Organ-specific genotoxicity of the potent rodent colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and three hydrazine derivatives: difference between intraperitoneal and oral administration.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Y F; Saga, A; Akasaka, M; Ishibashi, S; Yoshida, K; Su, Y Q; Matsusaka, N; Tsuda, S

    1998-07-08

    We used a modification of the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) (Comet) assay to test the in vivo genotoxicity of four hydrazine derivatives--1,2-dimethylhydrazine (SDMH), 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), hydrazine (HZ), and procarbazine (PCZ)--in mouse liver, lung, kidney, brain, and bone marrow, and in the mucosa of stomach, colon, and bladder. Mice were sacrificed 3 and 24 h after intra-peritoneal (i.p.) and oral (p.o.) administration. SDMH at 20 mg/kg i.p. yielded statistically significant DNA damage in all tested organs except for lung. In the gastrointestinal tract, SDMH was genotoxic in the stomach and the colon after i.p. treatment but only in the colon after 20 and 30 mg/kg p.o. treatment. UDMH at 50 mg/kg i.p. yielded DNA damage in the liver and lung at 3 h. PCZ at 200 mg/kg i.p. caused DNA damage in the liver, kidney, lung, brain, and bone marrow. UDMH and PCZ were positive in the stomach and colon p.o. but not by i.p. treatment. HZ at 100 mg/kg yielded DNA damage in the stomach, liver, and lung when given i.p. and in the brain when p.o. Thus, the administration route is important when evaluating organ-specific genotoxicity in multiple organs.

  8. Changes in respiratory activity induced by mastication during oral breathing in humans.

    PubMed

    Daimon, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2014-06-01

    We examined the effect of oral breathing on respiratory movements, including the number of respirations and the movement of the thoracic wall at rest and while chewing gum. Forty normal nose breathers were selected by detecting expiratory airflow from the mouth using a CO2 sensor. Chest measurements were recorded using a Piezo respiratory belt transducer, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter and trapezius muscles were recorded at rest and while chewing gum during nasal or oral breathing. Oral breathing was introduced by completely occluding the nostrils with a nose clip. During oral breathing, the respiration rate was significantly lower while chewing gum than while at rest (P < 0.05). While chewing gum, the respiration rate was significantly lower during oral breathing than during nasal breathing (P < 0.05). During oral breathing, thoracic movement was significantly higher while chewing gum than while at rest (P < 0.05). Thoracic movement was significantly greater during oral breathing than during nasal breathing (P < 0.05). The trapezius muscle exhibited significant EMG activity when chewing gum during oral breathing. The activity of the trapezius muscle coincided with increased movement of the thoracic wall. Chewing food while breathing through the mouth interferes with and decreases the respiratory cycle and promotes unusual respiratory movement of the thoracic wall, which is directed by the activity of accessory muscles of respiration.

  9. 1-(Fluoroalkylidene)-1,1-bisphosphonic Acids are Potent and Selective Inhibitors of the Enzymatic Activity of Toxoplasma gondii Farnesyl Pyrophosphate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Szajnman, Sergio H.; Rosso, Valeria S.; Malayil, Leena; Smith, Alyssa; Moreno, Silvia N. J.; Docampo, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    α-Fluorinated-1,1-bisphosphonic acids derived from fatty acids were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated against Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease and against Toxoplasma gondii, the responsible agent of toxoplasmosis and also towards the target parasitic enzymes farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase of T. cruzi (TcFPPS) and T gondii (TgFPPS), respectively. Interestingly, 1-fluorononylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid (compound 43) has proven to be an extremely potent inhibitor of the enzymatic activity of TgFPPS at the low nanomolar range exhibiting an IC50 of 30 nM. This compound was two-fold more potent than risedronate (IC50 = 74 nM) taken as a positive control. This enzymatic activity was associated to a strong cell growth inhibition against tachyzoites of T. gondii having an IC50 value of 2.7 μM. PMID:22215028

  10. Structure-activity relationships: analogues of the dicaffeoylquinic and dicaffeoyltartaric acids as potent inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase and replication.

    PubMed

    King, P J; Ma, G; Miao, W; Jia, Q; McDougall, B R; Reinecke, M G; Cornell, C; Kuan, J; Kim, T R; Robinson, W E

    1999-02-11

    The dicaffeoylquinic acids (DCQAs) and dicaffeoyltartaric acids (DCTAs) are potent and selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase. They also inhibit HIV-1 replication at nontoxic concentrations. Since integrase is an excellent target for anti-HIV therapy, structure-activity relationships were employed to synthesize compounds with: (1) improved potency against HIV-1 integrase, (2) improved anti-HIV effect in tissue culture, and (3) increased selectivity as indicated by low cellular toxicity. Thirty-four analogues of the DCTAs and DCQAs were synthesized and tested for cell toxicity, anti-HIV activity, and inhibition of HIV-1 integrase. Seventeen of the 34 analogues had potent activity against HIV-1 integrase ranging from 0. 07 to >10 microM. Seventeen analogues that were synthesized or purchased had no inhibitory activity against integrase at concentrations of 25 microM. Of the biologically active analogues, 7 of the 17 inhibited HIV replication at nontoxic concentrations. The most potent compounds were D-chicoric acid, meso-chicoric acid, bis(3,4-dihydroxydihydrocinnamoyl)-L-tartaric acid, digalloyl-L-tartaric acid, bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-L-tartaric acid, dicaffeoylglyceric acid, and bis(3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetyl)-L-tartaric acid. Anti-HIV activity of the active compounds in tissue culture ranged from 35 to 0.66 microM. Structure-activity relationships demonstrated that biscatechol moieties were absolutely required for inhibition of integrase, while at least one free carboxyl group was required for anti-HIV activity. These data demonstrate that analogues of the DCTAs and the DCQAs can be synthesized which have improved activity against HIV integrase.

  11. Radiosynthesis and pharmacokinetics of high specific activity /sup 75,77/Br-bromperidol, a potent butyrophenone neuroleptic

    SciTech Connect

    Moerlein, S.M.; Stocklin, G.

    1984-01-01

    Bromperidol, 4-(4-(4-bromophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidino)-4'- fluorobutyrophenone, is a potent neuroleptic which has found clinical use in the treatment of schizophrenia. Of the major dopaminergic receptor-binding ligands, bromperidol has the greatest specificity for binding to cerebral dopamine receptors (K/sub i/ = 3.7 nM) relative to competitive cerebral serotonin (K/sub i/ = 26 nM), ..cap alpha..-adrenergic (K/sub i/ = 100 nM) or histamine (K/sub i/ = 700 nM) receptors. The authors have therefore prepared bromperidol labelled with no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) /sup 75/Br (t/sub 1/2/ = 1.6 hr ..beta../sup +/) or /sup 77/Br (t/sub 1/2/ = 52 hr EC) for evaluation as a radiopharmaceutical for mapping cerebral dopamine receptor areas with PECT technology, as well as for non-invasive pharmacodynamic studies in man with conventional nuclear medicine equipment. 4-(4-(4-trimethylstannylphenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidino)-4'- fluorobutyrophenone, TMSn-P, was synthesized in 40% chemical yield by reaction of trimethylstannyl sodium with bromperidol. TMSn-P was purified by preparative HPLC and characterized by /sup 1/H-NMR and GC-MS. TMSn-P was radiobrominated in methanol using n.c.a. /sup 75/Br/sup -/ or /sup 77/Br/sup -/ and dichloramine-T as oxidizing agent. Product /sup 75,77/Br-bromperidol was separated from impurities, including chlorinated side-product halo-peridol, using HPLC (RP-18; MeOH/H/sub 2/O/Et/sub 3/N = 70/30/0.3). For a reaction time of 5 minutes, and an overall radiopharmaceutical production time of 30 minutes, /sup 75,77/Br-bromperidol was obtained in physiological saline solution with 40% radiochemical yield and a specific activity > 10,000 Ci/mmole. The pharmacokinetics in rodents and PECT studies in primates using /sup 75,77/Br-bromperidol are compared with that of previously-reported /sup 75,77/Br-brombenperidol.

  12. Catechins and procyanidins of Ginkgo biloba show potent activities towards the inhibition of β-amyloid peptide aggregation and destabilization of preformed fibrils.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haiyan; Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee-Fong; Liu, Yong; Liu, Liang; Han, Quan-Bin; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-04-22

    Catechins and procyanidins, together with flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones, are three important categories of components in the standard extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb761). In this research, catechins and proanthocyanidins were found to exist in both the extract of Ginkgo leaves and Ginkgo products. By comparing with reference compounds, six of them were identified as (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-gallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin and procyanidins B1 and B3. The activities of these polyphenols in the inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation and the destabilization of preformed fibrils were evaluated using biochemical assays, which showed that all six of the polyphenols, as well as a fraction of the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb) containing catechins and procyanidins, exerted potent inhibitory activities towards Aβ42 aggregation and could also destabilize the performed fibrils. Catechins and procyanidins can therefore be regarded as the potent active constituents of EGb761 in terms of their inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation and destabilization of the fibrils. Although quantitative mass spectroscopic analysis revealed that the catechins and procyanidins are only present in low concentrations in EGb761, these components should be studied in greater detail because of their potent inhibitory effects towards Aβ42 aggregation and their ability to destabilize preformed fibrils, especially during the quality control of Ginkgo leaves and the manufacture of Ginkgo products.

  13. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko; and others

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis.

  14. Pharmacological and Behavioral Characterization of D-473, an Orally Active Triple Reuptake Inhibitor Targeting Dopamine, Serotonin and Norepinephrine Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Aloke K.; Santra, Soumava; Sharma, Horrick; Voshavar, Chandrashekhar; Xu, Liping; Mabrouk, Omar; Antonio, Tamara; Reith, Maarten E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disease affecting a wide cross section of people around the world. The current therapy for depression is less than adequate and there is a considerable unmet need for more efficacious treatment. Dopamine has been shown to play a significant role in depression including production of anhedonia which has been one of the untreated symptoms in MDD. It has been hypothesized that drugs acting at all three monoamine transporters including dopamine transporter should provide more efficacious antidepressants activity. This has led to the development of triple reuptake inhibitor D-473 which is a novel pyran based molecule and interacts with all three monoamine transporters. The monoamine uptake inhibition activity in the cloned human transporters expressed in HEK-293 cells (70.4, 9.18 and 39.7 for DAT, SERT and NET, respectively) indicates a serotonin preferring triple reuptake inhibition profile for this drug. The drug D-473 exhibited good brain penetration and produced efficacious activity in rat forced swim test under oral administration. The optimal efficacy dose did not produce any locomotor activation. Microdialysis experiment demonstrated that systemic administration of D-473 elevated extracellular level of the three monoamines DA, 5-HT, and NE efficaciously in the dorsal lateral striatum (DLS) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) area, indicating in vivo blockade of all three monoamine transporters by D-473. Thus, the current biological data from D-473 indicate potent antidepressant activity of the molecule. PMID:25427177

  15. Antibacterial activities of aminoglycoside antibiotics-derived cationic amphiphiles. Polyol-modified neomycin B-, kanamycin A-, amikacin-, and neamine-based amphiphiles with potent broad spectrum antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Bera, Smritilekha; Zhanel, George G; Schweizer, Frank

    2010-05-13

    Cationic amphiphiles containing multiple positively charged amino functions define a structurally diverse class of antibacterials with broad-spectrum activity and different modes of action. Oligocationic amphiphiles have been used as antibiotics to treat infections and as antiseptics and disinfectants for decades with little or no occurrence of resistance. We have prepared a novel class of cationic amphiphiles termed aminoglycoside antibiotics-derived amphiphiles in which the polyol scaffold of the aminoglycosides neomycin B, kanamycin A, amikacin, and neamine has been uniformly decorated with hydrophobic residues in the form of polycarbamates and polyethers. Our results show that the nature of the polyol modification as well as the nature of the aminoglycoside antibiotics has a strong effect on the antibacterial potency. The most potent antibacterials are polyol-modified neomycin B-based amphiphiles containing unsubstituted aromatic rings. These analogues exhibit up to 256-fold enhanced antibacterial activity against resistant strains when compared to neomycin B while retaining most of their activity against neomycin B-susceptible strains.

  16. Identification of methysticin as a potent and non-toxic NF-kappaB inhibitor from kava, potentially responsible for kava's chemopreventive activity.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Ahmad Ali; Hermanson, David Lee; Xing, Chengguo

    2009-10-01

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor that plays an essential role in cancer development. The results of our recent chemopreventive study demonstrate that kava, a beverage in the South Pacific Islands, suppresses NF-kappaB activation in lung adenoma tissues, potentially a mechanism responsible for kava's chemopreventive activity. Methysticin is identified as a potent NF-kappaB inhibitor in kava with minimum toxicity. Other kava constituents, including four kavalactones of similar structures to methysticin, demonstrate minimum activities in inhibiting NF-kappaB.

  17. Oral health conditions affect functional and social activities of terminally-ill cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, D.J.; Epstein, J.B.; Yao, Y.; Wilkie, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Oral conditions are established complications in terminally-ill cancer patients. Yet despite significant morbidity, the characteristics and impact of oral conditions in these patients are poorly documented. The study objective was to characterize oral conditions in terminally-ill cancer patients to determine the presence, severity, and the functional and social impact of these oral conditions. Methods This was an observational clinical study including terminally-ill cancer patients (2.5–3 week life expectancy). Data were obtained via the Oral Problems Scale (OPS) that measures the presence of subjective xerostomia, orofacial pain, taste change, and the functional/social impact of oral conditions and a demographic questionnaire. A standardized oral examination was used to assess objective salivary hypofunction, fungal infection, mucosal erythema, and ulceration. Regression analysis and t test investigated the associations between measures. Results Of 104 participants, most were ≥50 years of age, female, and high-school educated; 45% were African American, 43% Caucasian, and 37% married. Oral conditions frequencies were: salivary hypofunction (98%), mucosal erythema (50%), ulceration (20%), fungal infection (36%), and other oral problems (46%). Xerostomia, taste change, and orofacial pain all had significant functional impact; p<.001, p=.042 and p<.001, respectively. Orofacial pain also had a significant social impact (p<.001). Patients with oral ulcerations had significantly more orofacial pain with a social impact than patients without ulcers (p=.003). Erythema was significantly associated with fungal infection and with mucosal ulceration (p<.001). Conclusions Oral conditions significantly affect functional and social activities in terminally-ill cancer patients. Identification and management of oral conditions in these patients should therefore be an important clinical consideration. PMID:24232310

  18. Significant decrease of ADP release rate underlies the potent activity of dimethylenastron to inhibit mitotic kinesin Eg5 and cancer cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Linlin; Sun, Xiaodong; Xie, Songbo; Yu, Haiyang; Zhong, Diansheng

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • DIMEN displays higher anti-proliferative activity than enastron. • DIMEN induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis more significantly than enastron. • DIMEN blocked the conformational change of ADP-binding pocket more effectively. • DIMEN hindered ADP release more potently than enastron. - Abstract: Eg5 is a mitotic kinesin that plays a crucial role in the formation of bipolar mitotic spindles, by hydrolyzing ATP to push apart anti-parallel microtubules. Dimethylenastron is potent specific small molecule inhibitor of Eg5. The mechanism by which dimethylenastron inhibits Eg5 function remains unclear. By comparing with enastron, here we report that dimethylenastron prevents the growth of pancreatic and lung cancer cells more effectively, by halting mitotic progression and triggering apoptosis. We analyze their interactions with ADP-bound Eg5 crystal structure, and find that dimethylenastron binds Eg5 motor domain with higher affinity. In addition, dimethylenastron allosterically blocks the conformational change of the “sandwich”-like ADP-binding pocket more effectively. We subsequently use biochemical approach to reveal that dimethylenastron slows ADP release more significantly than enastron. These data thus provide biological, structural and mechanistic insights into the potent inhibitory activity of dimethylenastron.

  19. 4-Substituted thioquinolines and thiazoloquinolines: potent, selective, and Tween-80 in vitro dependent families of antitubercular agents with moderate in vivo activity.

    PubMed

    Escribano, Jaime; Rivero-Hernández, Cristina; Rivera, Hilda; Barros, David; Castro-Pichel, Julia; Pérez-Herrán, Esther; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Ferrer-Bazaga, Santiago; Jiménez-Navarro, Elena; Ballell, Lluís

    2011-12-09

    Two new families of closely related selective, non-cytotoxic, and potent antitubercular agents were discovered: thioquinolines and thiazoloquinolines. The compounds were found to possess potent antitubercular properties in vitro, an activity that is dependent on experimental conditions of MIC determination (resazurin test and the presence or absence of Tween-80). To clarify the therapeutic potential of these compound families, a medicinal chemistry effort was undertaken to generate a lead-like structure that would enable murine efficacy studies and help elucidate the in vivo implications of the in vitro observations. Although the final compounds showed only limited levels of systemic exposure in mice, modest levels of efficacy in vivo at nontoxic doses were observed.

  20. A Synthetic 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone Derivative Promotes Neurogenesis and Exhibits Potent Antidepressant Effect

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xia; Chan, Chi-Bun; Jang, Sung-Wuk; Pradoldej, Sompol; Huang, Junjian; He, Kunyan; Phun, Lien H.; France, Stefan; Xiao, Ge; Jia, Yonghui; Luo, Hongbo R.; Ye, Keqiang

    2011-01-01

    7,8-Dihydroxyflavone is a recently identified small molecular tropomyosin-receptor-kinase B (TrkB) agonist. Our preliminary structural activity relationship (SAR) study showed that the 7,8-dihydroxy groups are essential for the agonistic effect. To improve the lead compound's agonistic activity, we have conducted an extensive SAR study and synthesized numerous derivatives. We have successfully identified 4'-dimethylamino-7,8-dihydroxyflavone that displays higher TrkB agonistic activity than the lead. This novel compound also exhibits a more robust and longer TrkB activation effect in animals. Consequently, this new compound reveals more potent anti-apoptotic activity. Interestingly, chronic oral administration of 4'-dimethylamino-7,8-dihydroxyflavone and its lead strongly promotes neurogenesis in dentate gyrus and demonstrates marked antidepressant effects. Hence, our data support that the synthetic 4'-dimethylamino-7,8-dihydroxyflavone and its lead both are orally bioavailable TrkB agonists and possess potent antidepressant effects. PMID:21073191

  1. GD2-specific CAR T Cells Undergo Potent Activation and Deletion Following Antigen Encounter but can be Protected From Activation-induced Cell Death by PD-1 Blockade.

    PubMed

    Gargett, Tessa; Yu, Wenbo; Dotti, Gianpietro; Yvon, Eric S; Christo, Susan N; Hayball, John D; Lewis, Ian D; Brenner, Malcolm K; Brown, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown great promise in the treatment of hematologic malignancies but more variable results in the treatment of solid tumors and the persistence and expansion of CAR T cells within patients has been identified as a key correlate of antitumor efficacy. Lack of immunological "space", functional exhaustion, and deletion have all been proposed as mechanisms that hamper CAR T-cell persistence. Here we describe the events following activation of third-generation CAR T cells specific for GD2. CAR T cells had highly potent immediate effector functions without evidence of functional exhaustion in vitro, although reduced cytokine production reversible by PD-1 blockade was observed after longer-term culture. Significant activation-induced cell death (AICD) of CAR T cells was observed after repeated antigen stimulation, and PD-1 blockade enhanced both CAR T-cell survival and promoted killing of PD-L1(+) tumor cell lines. Finally, we assessed CAR T-cell persistence in patients enrolled in the CARPETS phase 1 clinical trial of GD2-specific CAR T cells in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Together, these data suggest that deletion also occurs in vivo and that PD-1-targeted combination therapy approaches may be useful to augment CAR T-cell efficacy and persistence in patients.

  2. Synthesis, Biological Activity, and Crystal Structure of Potent Nonnucleoside Inhibitors of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase That Retain Activity against Mutant Forms of the Enzyme†

    PubMed Central

    Morningstar, Marshall L.; Roth, Thomas; Farnsworth, David W.; Smith, Marilyn Kroeger; Watson, Karen; Buckheit, Robert W.; Das, Kalyan; Zhang, Wanyi; Arnold, Eddy; Julias, John G.; Hughes, Stephen H.; Michejda, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to develop novel and potent nonnucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors that are effective against the wild type (WT) virus and clinically observed mutants, 1,2-bis-substituted benzimidazoles were synthesized and tested. Optimization of the N1 and C2 positions of benzimidazole led to the development of 1-(2,6-difluorobenzyl)-2-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4-methylbenzimidazole (1) (IC50 = 0.2 μM, EC50 = 0.44 μM, and TC50 ≥ 100 against WT). This paper describes how substitution on the benzimidazole ring profoundly affects activity. Substituents at the benzimidazole C4 dramatically enhanced potency, while at C5 or C6 substituents were generally detrimental or neutral to activity, respectively. A 7-methyl analogue did not inhibit HIV-1 RT. Determination of the crystal structure of 1 bound to RT provided the basis for accurate modeling of additional analogues, which were synthesized and tested. Several derivatives were nanomolar inhibitors of wild-type virus and were effective against clinically relevant HIV-1 mutants. PMID:17663538

  3. WHI-05, a novel bromo-methoxy substituted phenyl phosphate derivative of zidovudine, is a dual-action spermicide with potent anti-HIV activity.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, O J; Zhu, Z; Yiv, S H; Chen, C L; Waurzyniak, B; Uckun, F M

    1999-05-01

    Heterosexual transmission of HIV to women is the fastest-growing mode of transmission. In a systematic effort to develop a microbicide capable of preventing HIV transmission as well as providing fertility control, novel phenyl phosphate derivatives of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (zidovudine, ZDV) have been identified that exhibit potent anti-HIV and spermicidal activities. This study reports the synthesis, characterization, and preclinical formulation of compound WHI-05, 5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-methoxyphenyl) methoxyalaninyl phosphate. The anti-HIV activities of WHI-05 and ZDV were compared by measuring p24 antigen production and reverse transcriptase activity as markers of viral replication using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with both ZDV-sensitive and ZDV-resistant strains of HIV. The sperm immobilizing activity (SIA) of WHI-05 was compared with that of ZDV and nonoxynol-9 (N-9) by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). The effect of WHI-05 on sperm membrane integrity was examined by high resolution, low voltage scanning electron microscopy (HR-LVSEM). The in vitro cytotoxicity profile of WHI-05 versus N-9 were compared using normal human vaginal, ectocervical, and endocervical epithelial cells. The in vivo vaginal tolerance, absorption, and toxicity of a 2% WHI-05 gel-microemulsion was tested in the rabbit. Whereas ZDV displayed potent anti-HIV activity but lacked SIA, WHI-05 elicited both potent anti-HIV activity and SIA. WHI-05 inhibited the replication of ZDV-sensitive as well as ZDV-resistant strains of HIV in PBMC. CASA combined with HR-LVSEM demonstrated that WHI-05-induced SIA was not associated with membrane damage. Unlike, N-9, the spermicidal activity of WHI-05 was not associated with cytotoxicity to reproductive tract epithelial cells. Repetitive intravaginal application of a 2% WHI-05 gel-microemulsion did not damage the vaginal epithelium or cause local inflammation in the rabbit model. As a

  4. Novel Alkynylphosphonate Analogue of Calcitriol with Potent Antiproliferative Effects in Cancer Cells and Lack of Calcemic Activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe the design and synthesis of diethyl [(5Z,7E)-(1S,3R)-1,3-dihydroxy-9,10-secochola-5,7,10(19)-trien-23-in-24-yl] phosphonate (compound 10), which combines the low calcemic properties of phosphonates with the decreased metabolic inactivation due to the presence of a triple bond in C-24 and studied its in vitro effects on several cancer cell lines and its in vivo effects on blood calcium levels. We demonstrate that this compound is a potent antiproliferative vitamin D analogue, showing lack of calcemic effects in vivo. PMID:24900339

  5. Discovery and Early Clinical Evaluation of BMS-605339, a Potent and Orally Efficacious Tripeptidic Acylsulfonamide NS3 Protease Inhibitor for the Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    SciTech Connect

    Scola, Paul M.; Wang, Alan Xiangdong; Good, Andrew C.; Sun, Li-Qiang; Combrink, Keith D.; Campbell, Jeffrey A.; Chen, Jie; Tu, Yong; Sin, Ny; Venables, Brian L.; Sit, Sing-Yuen; Chen, Yan; Cocuzza, Anthony; Bilder, Donna M.; D’Andrea, Stanley; Zheng, Barbara; Hewawasam, Piyasena; Ding, Min; Thuring, Jan; Li, Jianqing; Hernandez, Dennis; Yu, Fei; Falk, Paul; Zhai, Guangzhi; Sheaffer, Amy K.; Chen, Chaoqun; Lee, Min S.; Barry, Diana; Knipe, Jay O.; Li, Wenying; Han, Yong-Hae; Jenkins, Susan; Gesenberg, Christoph; Gao, Qi; Sinz, Michael W.; Santone, Kenneth S.; Zvyaga, Tatyana; Rajamani, Ramkumar; Klei, Herbert E.; Colonno, Richard J.; Grasela, Dennis M.; Hughes, Eric; Chien, Caly; Adams, Stephen; Levesque, Paul C.; Li, Danshi; Zhu, Jialong; Meanwell, Nicholas A.; McPhee, Fiona

    2014-03-13

    The discovery of BMS-605339 (35), a tripeptidic inhibitor of the NS3/4A enzyme, is described. This compound incorporates a cyclopropylacylsulfonamide moiety that was designed to improve the potency of carboxylic acid prototypes through the introduction of favorable nonbonding interactions within the S1' site of the protease. The identification of 35 was enabled through the optimization and balance of critical properties including potency and pharmacokinetics (PK). This was achieved through modulation of the P2* subsite of the inhibitor which identified the isoquinoline ring system as a key template for improving PK properties with further optimization achieved through functionalization. A methoxy moiety at the C6 position of this isoquinoline ring system proved to be optimal with respect to potency and PK, thus providing the clinical compound 35 which demonstrated antiviral activity in HCV-infected patients.

  6. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko; Park, Si-Bum; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Kawada, Teruo

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism.

  7. Identification and Characterization of the First Cathelicidin from Sea Snakes with Potent Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Activity and Special Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lin; Gao, Jiuxiang; Zhang, Shumin; Wu, Sijin; Xie, Zeping; Ling, Guiying; Kuang, Yi-Qun; Yang, Yongliang; Yu, Haining; Wang, Yipeng

    2015-01-01

    Cathelicidins are a family of gene-encoded peptide effectors of innate immunity found exclusively in vertebrates. They play pivotal roles in host immune defense against microbial invasions. Dozens of cathelicidins have been identified from several vertebrate species. However, no cathelicidin from marine reptiles has been characterized previously. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel cathelicidin (Hc-CATH) from the sea snake Hydrophis cyanocinctus. Hc-CATH is composed of 30 amino acids, and the sequence is KFFKRLLKSVRRAVKKFRKKPRLIGLSTLL. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and structure modeling analysis indicated that Hc-CATH mainly assumes an amphipathic α-helical conformation in bacterial membrane-mimetic solutions. It possesses potent broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial activity. Meanwhile, it is highly stable and shows low cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. The microbial killing activity of Hc-CATH is executed through the disruption of cell membrane and lysis of bacterial cells. In addition, Hc-CATH exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Hc-CATH directly binds with LPS to neutralize its toxicity, and it also binds to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4/MD2 complex), which therefore inhibits the binding of LPS to TLR4/MD2 complex and the subsequent activation of LPS-induced inflammatory response pathways. Taken together, our study demonstrates that Hc-CATH, the first cathelicidin from sea snake discovered to have both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, is a potent candidate for the development of peptide antibiotics. PMID:26013823

  8. Identification and Characterization of the First Cathelicidin from Sea Snakes with Potent Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Activity and Special Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin; Gao, Jiuxiang; Zhang, Shumin; Wu, Sijin; Xie, Zeping; Ling, Guiying; Kuang, Yi-Qun; Yang, Yongliang; Yu, Haining; Wang, Yipeng

    2015-07-03

    Cathelicidins are a family of gene-encoded peptide effectors of innate immunity found exclusively in vertebrates. They play pivotal roles in host immune defense against microbial invasions. Dozens of cathelicidins have been identified from several vertebrate species. However, no cathelicidin from marine reptiles has been characterized previously. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel cathelicidin (Hc-CATH) from the sea snake Hydrophis cyanocinctus. Hc-CATH is composed of 30 amino acids, and the sequence is KFFKRLLKSVRRAVKKFRKKPRLIGLSTLL. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and structure modeling analysis indicated that Hc-CATH mainly assumes an amphipathic α-helical conformation in bacterial membrane-mimetic solutions. It possesses potent broad-spectrum and rapid antimicrobial activity. Meanwhile, it is highly stable and shows low cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. The microbial killing activity of Hc-CATH is executed through the disruption of cell membrane and lysis of bacterial cells. In addition, Hc-CATH exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Hc-CATH directly binds with LPS to neutralize its toxicity, and it also binds to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4/MD2 complex), which therefore inhibits the binding of LPS to TLR4/MD2 complex and the subsequent activation of LPS-induced inflammatory response pathways. Taken together, our study demonstrates that Hc-CATH, the first cathelicidin from sea snake discovered to have both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, is a potent candidate for the development of peptide antibiotics.

  9. Histone Methyltransferase Inhibitors Are Orally Bioavailable, Fast-Acting Molecules with Activity against Different Species Causing Malaria in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sundriyal, Sandeep; Caron, Joachim; Chen, Patty; Witkowski, Benoit; Menard, Didier; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Renia, Laurent; Nosten, Francois; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Martínez, María Santos; Ferrer, Santiago; Sanz, Laura M.; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Wittlin, Sergio; Duffy, Sandra; Avery, Vicky M.; Ruecker, Andrea; Delves, Michael J.; Sinden, Robert E.; Fuchter, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current antimalarials are under continuous threat due to the relentless development of drug resistance by malaria parasites. We previously reported promising in vitro parasite-killing activity with the histone methyltransferase inhibitor BIX-01294 and its analogue TM2-115. Here, we further characterize these diaminoquinazolines for in vitro and in vivo efficacy and pharmacokinetic properties to prioritize and direct compound development. BIX-01294 and TM2-115 displayed potent in vitro activity, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of <50 nM against drug-sensitive laboratory strains and multidrug-resistant field isolates, including artemisinin-refractory Plasmodium falciparum isolates. Activities against ex vivo clinical isolates of both P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were similar, with potencies of 300 to 400 nM. Sexual-stage gametocyte inhibition occurs at micromolar levels; however, mature gametocyte progression to gamete formation is inhibited at submicromolar concentrations. Parasite reduction ratio analysis confirms a high asexual-stage rate of killing. Both compounds examined displayed oral efficacy in in vivo mouse models of Plasmodium berghei and P. falciparum infection. The discovery of a rapid and broadly acting antimalarial compound class targeting blood stage infection, including transmission stage parasites, and effective against multiple malaria-causing species reveals the diaminoquinazoline scaffold to be a very promising lead for development into greatly needed novel therapies to control malaria. PMID:25421480

  10. Grape seed and tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M; Michels, Alexander J; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

    2012-09-12

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) and their constituent flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. To evaluate the relative potency of extracts and catechins, their concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined and compared to the widely used pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess relative inhibitory efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. Whereas tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of α-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Nongallated catechins were ineffective. The data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates, in particular epigallocatechin gallate, are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase activity and suggest that procyanidins in grape seed extract strongly inhibit α-amylase activity.

  11. Potent antitumor activities of recombinant human PDCD5 protein in combination with chemotherapy drugs in K562 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Lin; Song, Quansheng; Zhang, Yingmei; Lou, Yaxin; Wang, Yanfang; Tian, Linjie; Zheng, Yi; Ma, Dalong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Wang, Ying

    2010-05-28

    Conventional chemotherapy is still frequently used. Programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) enhances apoptosis of various tumor cells triggered by certain stimuli and is lowly expressed in leukemic cells from chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. Here, we describe for the first time that recombinant human PDCD5 protein (rhPDCD5) in combination with chemotherapy drugs has potent antitumor effects on chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor efficacy of rhPDCD5 protein with chemotherapy drugs, idarubicin (IDR) or cytarabine (Ara-C), was examined in K562 cells in vitro and K562 xenograft tumor models in vivo. rhPDCD5 protein markedly increased the apoptosis rates and decreased the colony-forming capability of K562 cells after the combined treatment with IDR or Ara-C. rhPDCD5 protein by intraperitoneal administration dramatically improved the antitumor effects of IDR treatment in the K562 xenograft model. The tumor sizes and cell proliferation were significantly decreased; and TUNEL positive cells were significantly increased in the combined group with rhPDCD5 protein and IDR treatment compared with single IDR treatment groups. rhPDCD5 protein, in combination with IDR, has potent antitumor effects on chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells and may be a novel and promising agent for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia.

  12. Telomerase activity in the occurrence and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yuji; Yoshida, Noriaki; Nozaki, Tadashige; Inoue, Harumi; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Kusama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the risk factors for carcinogenesis. It was recently reported that telomerase plays an important role in inducing such chronic inflammation. Although high telomerase activity is detected in cancer tissues, the activator of telomerase is still unknown. In this study, we used an immunohistochemical method to examine the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence in the oral cavity. Furthermore, the effects of inflammatory cytokines on the telomerase activity and migration of oral cancer cell lines (Ca9-22, HSC-3, and HSC-4) were examined. Immunoreactivity for hTERT was observed in squamous intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and squamous cell carcinoma. Telomerase activity in Ca9-22 cells was increased by treatment with TNF-α and INF-γ, while its activity in HSC-4 cells was decreased by IL-1β. Although inflammatory cytokines did not affect the proliferative activity of any of the oral cancer cell lines, cytokines and hTERT siRNA promoted the migration of HSC-3 cells. These results suggest that the presence of long-term chronic inflammation may increase telomerase activity and therefore contribute to malignant transformation of the oral mucosal epithelium. Furthermore, inhibition of telomerase activity by inflammatory stimuli increases the invasion of certain types of oral squamous cell carcinomas.

  13. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  14. Ethyl acetate extract from marine sponge Hyattella cribriformis exhibit potent anticancer activity by promoting tubulin polymerization as evidenced mitotic arrest and induction of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Pazhanimuthu; Thayman, Malini; Rajan, Sowmiya; Raman, Lakshmi Sundaram; Ramasubbu, Sankar; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marine sponges are important sources of bioactive compounds. Objective: This study investigated the anticancer properties of Hyattella cribriformis ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in various cancer and normal cell lines. Materials and Methods: anticancer assay was carried out in 15 cell lines to evaluate the anticancer potential of the EA fraction. Impact on cell cycle distribution was determined using flow cytometry. The fraction was investigated for interfering microtubules assembly in both in vitro and cellular assay. Further studies were conducted to determine the fraction induced cell death (apoptosis) using calcein/propidium iodide dual staining, activated caspase-3 and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 protein at Ser70. DNA fragmentation assay was performed to confirm the apoptosis. Results: EA fraction exhibited potent inhibition of cancer cell growth and resulted in 50% growth inhibition (GI50) of 0.27 μg/mL in A673 cell line. Sarcoma (MG-63, Saos-2) and ovarian (SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3) cancer cell lines also showed superior anticancer activity GI50 of 1.0 μg/mL. Colon and breast cancer cell lines exhibited moderate GI compare other cancer cell lines and normal human lung fibroblast showed GI50 of 15.6 μg/mL. EA fraction showed potent G2/M phase arrest in A673 cell line and induced apoptosis at 48 h exposure. EA fraction promoted microtubule polymerization in tubulin polymerization assay and increased level of polymerized tubulin in the HeLa cells. Fraction induced the activation of caspase-3 and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein. Fraction induced DNA fragmentation in HeLa cells as evidence of apoptosis. Conclusion: Marine sponge H. cribriformis EA fraction exhibited potent anticancer activity through tubulin polymerization and induction of apoptosis. PMID:25829774

  15. Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, inhibits MAP kinases and AP-1 activation via potent MKK inhibition: the role in TNF-alpha inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Kyung; Jang, Young Pyo; Kim, Young Choong; Kim, Sang Geon

    2004-10-01

    Arctigenin, naturally occurring in Bardanae fructus, Saussurea medusa, Arctium lappa L., Torreya nucifera and Ipomea cairica, is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Previously, we showed that arctigenin potently inhibited the induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which involved suppression of NF-kappaB activation. In the present study, we examined the effects of arctigenin on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in Raw264.7 cells and MAP kinase kinase (MKK) activity. The effect of arctigenin on activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation was also studied in association with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression. Immunoblot analysis showed that arctigenin inhibited phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1/2, p38 kinase and JNK and their activities in Raw264.7 cells treated with LPS. Arctigenin potently inhibited the activity of MKK1 in vitro with the IC(50) value of 1 nM. Gel shift and reporter gene analyses revealed that arctigenin inhibited LPS-inducible AP-1 binding to the AP-1 consensus oligonucleotide and AP-1-mediated reporter gene expression. In view of the potential role of AP-1 in the induction of TNF-alpha, we next examined the inhibitory effects of arctigenin on the expression of TNF-alpha. Arctigenin blocked TNF-alpha production and decreased the level of TNF-alpha mRNA in the cells exposed to LPS. These results showed that arctigenin inhibited activation of MAP kinases including ERK1/2, p38 kinase and JNK through the inhibition of MKK activities, leading to AP-1 inactivation, which might, at least in part, contribute to the inhibition of TNF-alpha production.

  16. Nine novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) muscle protein hydrolysates and antihypertensive effect of the potent active peptide in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; Sila, Assaâd; Guillochon, Didier; Dhulster, Pascal; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to identify novel ACE inhibitory peptides from the muscle of cuttlefish. Proteins were hydrolyzed and the hydrolysates were then subjected to various types of chromatography to isolate the active peptides. Nine ACE inhibitory peptides were isolated and their molecular masses and amino acid sequences were determined using ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS, respectively. The structures of the most potent peptides were identified as Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro, Ala-Phe-Val-Gly-Tyr-Val-Leu-Pro and Glu-Lys-Ser-Tyr-Glu-Leu-Pro. The first peptide displayed the highest ACE inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 5.22μM. Lineweaver-Burk plots suggest that Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro acts as a non-competitive inhibitor against ACE. Furthermore, antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) also revealed that oral administration of Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro can decrease systolic blood pressure significantly (p<0.01). These results suggest that the Val-Glu-Leu-Tyr-Pro would be a beneficial ingredient for nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals acting against hypertension and its related diseases.

  17. A Redesigned Vancomycin Engineered for Dual D-Ala-D-Ala and D-Ala-D-Lac Binding Exhibits Potent Antimicrobial Activity Against Vancomycin-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jian; Pierce, Joshua G.; James, Robert C.; Okano, Akinori; Boger, Dale L.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of bacteria resistant to vancomycin, often the antibiotic of last resort, poses a major health problem. Vancomycin-resistant bacteria sense a glycopeptide antibiotic challenge and remodel their cell wall precursor peptidoglycan terminus from D-Ala-d-Ala to D-Ala-D-Lac, reducing the binding of vancomycin to its target 1000-fold and accounting for the loss in antimicrobial activity. Here, we report [Φ[C(=NH)NH]Tpg4]-vancomycin aglycon designed to exhibit the dual binding to D-Ala-D-Ala and D-Ala-D-Lac needed to reinstate activity against vancomycin-resistant bacteria. Its binding to a model D-Ala-D-Ala ligand was found to be only two-fold less than vancomycin aglycon and this affinity was maintained with a model D-Ala-D-Lac ligand, representing a 600-fold increase relative to vancomycin aglycon. Accurately reflecting these binding characteristics, it exhibits potent antimicrobial activity against vancomycin-resistant bacteria (MIC = 0.31 g/mL, VanA VRE). Thus, a complementary single atom exchange in the vancomycin core structure (O NH) to counter the single atom exchange in the cell wall precursors of resistant bacteria (NH O) reinstates potent antimicrobial activity and charts a rational path forward for the development of antibiotics for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant bacterial infections. PMID:21823662

  18. Structure-activity relationship study of pyrimido[1,2-c][1,3]benzothiazin-6-imine derivatives for potent anti-HIV agents.

    PubMed

    Mizuhara, Tsukasa; Oishi, Shinya; Ohno, Hiroaki; Shimura, Kazuya; Matsuoka, Masao; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2012-11-01

    3,4-Dihydro-2H,6H-pyrimido[1,2-c][1,3]benzothiazin-6-imine (PD 404182) is an antiretroviral agent with submicromolar inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 infection. In the current study, the structure-activity relationships of accessory groups at the 3- and 9-positions of pyrimido[1,2-c][1,3]benzothiazin-6-imine were investigated for the development of more potent anti-HIV agents. Several different derivatives containing a 9-aryl group were designed and synthesized using Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling and Ullmann coupling reactions. Modification of the m-methoxyphenyl or benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl group resulted in improved anti-HIV activity. In addition, the 2,4-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-ene-fused benzo[e][1,3]thiazine derivatives were designed and tested for their anti-HIV activities. The most potent 9-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl) derivative was two-threefold more effective against several strains of HIV-1 and HIV-2 than the parent compound, PD 404182.

  19. Novel potent and selective bile acid derivatives as TGR5 agonists: biological screening, structure-activity relationships, and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Thomas, Charles; Gioiello, Antimo; Une, Mizuho; Hofmann, Alan F; Saladin, Régis; Schoonjans, Kristina; Pellicciari, Roberto; Auwerx, Johan

    2008-03-27

    TGR5, a metabotropic receptor that is G-protein-coupled to the induction of adenylate cyclase, has been recognized as the molecular link connecting bile acids to the control of energy and glucose homeostasis. With the aim of disclosing novel selective modulators of this receptor and at the same time clarifying the molecular basis of TGR5 activation, we report herein the biological screening of a collection of natural occurring bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and some steroid hormones, which has resulted in the discovery of new potent and selective TGR5 ligands. Biological results of the tested collection of compounds were used to extend the structure-activity relationships of TGR5 agonists and to develop a binary classification model of TGR5 activity. This model in particular could unveil some hidden properties shared by the molecular shape of bile acids and steroid hormones that are relevant to TGR5 activation and may hence be used to address the design of novel selective and potent TGR5 agonists.

  20. Potent activity of the lichen antibiotic (+)-usnic acid against clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elo, Hannu; Matikainen, Jorma; Pelttari, Eila

    2007-06-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant staphylococci, most notably methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are serious clinical problems. The antibiotic arsenal available against them is limited, and new mutants worsen the situation. We studied the activity of (+)-usnic acid, an old lichen-derived drug, and its sodium salt against clinical isolates of VRE and MRSA using the agar diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. The acid and, especially, the sodium salt had potent antimicrobial activity against all clinical isolates of VRE and MRSA studied. The MIC values of the sodium salt against VRE strains ranged between 4 and 16 μg/ml (1-day test) and between 4 and 31 μg/ml (2-day test), being below 8 μg/ml for most strains. The salt had potent activity even against those strains that were not inhibited by ampicillin (125 μg/ml), and it never lost its activity after 24 h, in contrast to ampicillin. Thus, in spite of the fact that usnic acid can in some cases cause serious toxicity, it and its salts may be worth considering in clinical practice in cases where other therapies have failed or the microbe is resistant toward other agents.

  1. BPR1K653, a Novel Aurora Kinase Inhibitor, Exhibits Potent Anti-Proliferative Activity in MDR1 (P-gp170)-Mediated Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio; Lin, Wen-Hsing; Hsu, John Tsu-An; Hour, Tzyh-Chyuan; Yeh, Teng-Kuang; Ko, Shengkai; Lien, Tzu-Wen; Coumar, Mohane Selvaraj; Liu, Jin-Fen; Lai, Wen-Yang; Shiao, Hui-Yi; Lee, Tian-Ren; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang; Chang, Jang-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Background Over-expression of Aurora kinases promotes the tumorigenesis of cells. The aim of this study was to determine the preclinical profile of a novel pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor, BPR1K653, as a candidate for anti-cancer therapy. Since expression of the drug efflux pump, MDR1, reduces the effectiveness of various chemotherapeutic compounds in human cancers, this study also aimed to determine whether the potency of BPR1K653 could be affected by the expression of MDR1 in cancer cells. Principal Findings BPR1K653 specifically inhibited the activity of Aurora-A and Aurora-B kinase at low nano-molar concentrations in vitro. Anti-proliferative activity of BPR1K653 was evaluated in various human cancer cell lines. Results of the clonogenic assay showed that BPR1K653 was potent in targeting a variety of cancer cell lines regardless of the tissue origin, p53 status, or expression of MDR1. At the cellular level, BPR1K653 induced endo-replication and subsequent apoptosis in both MDR1-negative and MDR1-positive cancer cells. Importantly, it showed potent activity against the growth of xenograft tumors of the human cervical carcinoma KB and KB-derived MDR1-positive KB-VIN10 cells in nude mice. Finally, BPR1K653 also exhibited favorable pharmacokinetic properties in rats. Conclusions and Significance BPR1K653 is a novel potent anti-cancer compound, and its potency is not affected by the expression of the multiple drug resistant protein, MDR1, in cancer cells. Therefore, BPR1K653 is a promising anti-cancer compound that has potential for the management of various malignancies, particularly for patients with MDR1-related drug resistance after prolonged chemotherapeutic treatments. PMID:21887256

  2. Cumulin, an Oocyte-secreted Heterodimer of the Transforming Growth Factor-β Family, Is a Potent Activator of Granulosa Cells and Improves Oocyte Quality*

    PubMed Central

    Mottershead, David G.; Sugimura, Satoshi; Al-Musawi, Sara L.; Li, Jing-Jie; Richani, Dulama; White, Melissa A.; Martin, Georgia A.; Trotta, Andrew P.; Ritter, Lesley J.; Shi, Junyan; Mueller, Thomas D.; Harrison, Craig A.; Gilchrist, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) are oocyte-specific growth factors with central roles in mammalian reproduction, regulating species-specific fecundity, ovarian follicular somatic cell differentiation, and oocyte quality. In the human, GDF9 is produced in a latent form, the mechanism of activation being an open question. Here, we produced a range of recombinant GDF9 and BMP15 variants, examined their in silico and physical interactions and their effects on ovarian granulosa cells (GC) and oocytes. We found that the potent synergistic actions of GDF9 and BMP15 on GC can be attributed to the formation of a heterodimer, which we have termed cumulin. Structural modeling of cumulin revealed a dimerization interface identical to homodimeric GDF9 and BMP15, indicating likely formation of a stable complex. This was confirmed by generation of recombinant heterodimeric complexes of pro/mature domains (pro-cumulin) and covalent mature domains (cumulin). Both pro-cumulin and cumulin exhibited highly potent bioactivity on GC, activating both SMAD2/3 and SMAD1/5/8 signaling pathways and promoting proliferation and expression of a set of genes associated with oocyte-regulated GC differentiation. Cumulin was more potent than pro-cumulin, pro-GDF9, pro-BMP15, or the two combined on GC. However, on cumulus-oocyte complexes, pro-cumulin was more effective than all other growth factors at notably improving oocyte quality as assessed by subsequent day 7 embryo development. Our results support a model of activation for human GDF9 dependent on cumulin formation through heterodimerization with BMP15. Oocyte-secreted cumulin is likely to be a central regulator of fertility in mono-ovular mammals. PMID:26254468

  3. Dasatinib-loaded albumin nanoparticles possess diminished endothelial cell barrier disruption and retain potent anti-leukemia cell activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenyu; Shetty, Sreerama; Fu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Dasatinib (DAS), a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is highly effective in treating chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, its clinical use is limited due to serious adverse effects. DAS can disrupt endothelial barrier integrity and increase endothelial permeability which may cause peripheral edema and pleural effusion. Albumin nanoparticles (NPs) as a drug carrier may serve as a useful tool for cell-selective drug delivery to reduce DAS-induced endothelial hyperpermeability and maintain endothelial barrier integrity. In this study, we reported that DAS-loaded NPs exhibited potent anti-leukemia efficacy as DAS alone. Importantly, albumin NPs as a drug carrier markedly reduced DAS-induced endothelial hyperpermeability by restraining the inhibition of Lyn kinase signaling pathway in endothelial cells. Therefore, albumin NPs could be a potential tool to improve anti-leukemia efficacy of DAS through its cell-selective effects. PMID:27391073

  4. Synthesis and potent antistaphylococcal activity of some new 2-[4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenoxy)phenyl]-1,N-disubstituted-1H-benzimidazole-5-carboxamidines.

    PubMed

    Püsküllü, M Orhan; Yıldız, Sulhiye; Duydu, Yalçın; Üstündağ, Aylin; Göker, Hakan

    2015-04-01

    A series of new 2-[4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenoxy)phenyl]-1,N-disubstituted-1H-benzimidazole-5-carboxamidines (23-33) have been synthesized and evaluated for their potential antistaphylococcal activity. Cytotoxic effects of the compounds were investigated by the neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity test. Most of the compounds exhibited good MICs values against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Compound 28 with N-cyclohexylcarboxamidine group at the 5-position was found to be the most potent agent, with the MIC value of 3.12 µg/mL.

  5. Characterization of anti-competitor activities produced by oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fengxia; Kreth, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Most bacteria in nature exist in multispecies communities known as biofilms. In the natural habitat where resources (nutrient, space, etc.) are usually limited, individual species must compete or collaborate with other neighboring species in order to perpetuate in the multispecies community. The human oral cavity is colonized by >700 microbial species known as the indigenous microflora. This indigenous flora normally maintains an ecological balance through antagonistic as well as mutualistic interspecies interactions. However, environmental perturbation may disrupt this balance, leading to overgrowth of pathogenic species, which could in turn initiate diseases such as dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontitis (gum disease). Understanding the mechanisms of diversity maintenance may help development of novel approaches to manage these "polymicrobial diseases." In this chapter, we will focus on a well-characterized form of biochemical warfare: bacteriocins produced by Streptococcus mutans, a primary dental caries pathogen, and H(2)O(2) produced by Streptococcus sanguinis, an oral commensal. We will describe detailed methodologies on the competition assay, isolation, purification, and characterization of bacteriocins.

  6. The latex sap of the 'Old World Plant' Lagenaria siceraria with potent lectin activity mitigates neoplastic malignancy targeting neovasculature and cell death.

    PubMed

    Vigneshwaran, V; Thirusangu, Prabhu; Madhusudana, S; Krishna, V; Pramod, Siddanakoppalu N; Prabhakar, B T

    2016-10-01

    Lifestyle and dietary modifications have contributed much to somatic genetic alteration which has concomitantly led to increase in malignant diseases. Henceforth, plant based and dietary interventions to mitigate and impede oncogenic transformation are in great demand. We investigated the latex sap (LSL) of the dietary Lagenaria siceraria vegetable, the first domesticated plant species with the potent lectin activity for its functional role against the tumor progression and its mechanism. LSL has markedly stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes and displayed strong cytotoxic activity against cancer both in-vitro and in-vivo. The tumor regression was paralleled with drastic reduction in tumoral neovasculature as evidenced from angiogenic parameters and abrogated related gene expressions. LSL has also triggered apoptotic signaling cascade in cancer cells through activation of caspase-3 mediated activation of endonuclease and inducing apoptotic cellular events. Collectively our study provides tangible evidences that latex sap from L. siceraria with immunopotentiating ability significantly regresses the tumor progression by targeting angiogenesis and inducing cell death.

  7. 6-Aryl and heterocycle quinazoline derivatives as potent EGFR inhibitors with improved activity toward gefitinib-sensitive and -resistant tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Mostafa M; Abou El Ella, Dalal A; Keeton, Adam B; Piazza, Gary A; Abadi, Ashraf H; Hartmann, Rolf W; Engel, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    A group of novel anilinoquinazoline derivatives with variable aryl and heterocyclic substituents at position 6 were synthesized and tested for their EGFR-inhibitory activity. Aryl and heterocyclic rings were attached to the quinazoline scaffold through different linkages such as imine, amide, and thiourea. Most of the aryl and heterocyclic derivatives showed potent inhibition of wild-type EGFR with IC₅₀ values in the low nanomolar range. Among these, thiourea derivatives 6 a, 6 b and compound 10 b also retained significant activity toward the gefitinib-insensitive EGFR(T790M/L858R) mutant, displaying up to 24-fold greater potency than gefitinib. In addition, cell growth inhibitory activity was tested against cancer cell lines with wild-type (KB cells) and mutant EGFR (H1975 cells). Several compounds including 6 a were found to be more potent than the reference compound gefitinib toward both cell lines, as was the case for compound 10 b against H1975 cells. Therefore, compounds 6 a and 10 b in particular may serve as new leads for the development of inhibitors effective against wild-type EGFR as well as gefitinib-resistant mutants.

  8. Stepwise design, synthesis, and in vitro antifungal screening of (Z)-substituted-propenoic acid derivatives with potent broad-spectrum antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    Khedr, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are a main reason for the high mortality rate worldwide. It is a challenge to design selective antifungal agents with broad-spectrum activity. Lanosterol 14α-demethylase is an attractive target in the design of antifungal agents. Seven compounds were selected from a number of designed compounds using a rational docking study. These compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activity. In silico study results showed the high binding affinity to lanosterol 14α-demethylase (−24.49 and −25.83 kcal/mol) for compounds V and VII, respectively; these values were greater than those for miconazole (−18.19 kcal/mol) and fluconazole (−16.08 kcal/mol). Compound V emerged as the most potent antifungal agent among all compounds with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 7.01, 7.59, 7.25, 31.6, and 41.6 µg/mL against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, respectively. The antifungal activity for most of the synthesized compounds was more potent than that of miconazole and fluconazole. PMID:26309398

  9. New betulinic acid derivatives induce potent and selective antiproliferative activity through cell cycle arrest at the S phase and caspase dependent apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rita C; Salvador, Jorge A R; Cortés, Roldán; Pachón, Gisela; Marín, Silvia; Cascante, Marta

    2011-06-01

    New semisynthetic derivatives of betulinic acid (BA) RS01, RS02 and RS03 with 18-45 times improved cytotoxic activity against HepG2 cells, were tested for their ability to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HepG2, HeLa and Jurkat cells. All the compounds induced significant increase in the population at the S phase more effectively than BA. RS01, RS02 and RS03 were also found to be potent inducers of apoptosis with RS01 being markedly more potent than BA, suggesting that the introduction of the imidazolyl moiety is crucial for enhancing the induction of apoptosis and the cell cycle arrest. The mechanism of apoptosis induction has been studied in HepG2 cells and found to be mediated by activation of the postmitochondrial caspases-9 and -3 cascade and possibly by mitochondrial amplification loop involving caspase-8. These facts were corroborated by detection of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and DNA fragmentation. Because RS01, RS02 and RS03 exhibited significant improved antitumor activity with respect to BA, they may be promising new agents for the treatment of cancer. In particular, RS01 is the most promising compound with an IC(50) value 45 times lower than BA on HepG2 cells and 61 times lower than the one found for the non-tumoral Chang liver cells.

  10. The effect of compactin, a potent inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase activity, on cholesterogenesis and serum cholesterol levels in rats and chicks.

    PubMed

    Fears, R; Richards, D H; Ferres, H

    1980-04-01

    Compactin, [7-(1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-2-methyl-8-(2-methylbutyrylox)naphthyl)-3-hydroxyheptan-5-olide], a potent competitive inhibitor of the rate-determining step in cholesterol biosynthesis, was used to study the influence of changes in cholesterogenesis on serum cholesterol levels. Up to 3 h after a single oral dose (20 or 50 mg/kg) or after the last of a series of daily oral doses (50 mg/kg for 7 or 28 days) to young, male normolipidaemic rats, compactin consistently inhibited cholesterogenesis measured using 3H20 in liver, ileum and other extrahepatic tissues without affecting fatty acid synthesis. Compactin did not reduce serum or tissue cholesterol nor affect the serum concentration of other lipids nor the ratio between lipoprotein classes. A diurnal variation in the effect of compactin on cholesterogenesis was observed. For example, by 12--20 h after dosing, cholesterogenesis at all sites was increased above the comparable control value, indicating the induction of enzyme synthesis and overall there was little effect on the mass of cholesterol synthesized per day. Similar results were obtained using male chicks. Inhibition of cholesterogenesis by compactin was also observed in cholestyramine-treated rats, in which cholesterol turnover was markedly increased, and even in cholesterol-fed rats, in which cholesterogenesis already was repressed. In neither case, however, was inhibition of cholesterogenesis accompanied by a hypocholesterolaemic effect. It is concluded that a more persistent suppression of cholesterogenesis, than that observed with compactin in the rat, may be required in order to affect serum cholesterol concentrations.

  11. Inhibition of cathepsin S confers sensitivity to methyl protodioscin in oral cancer cells via activation of p38 MAPK/JNK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Chien, Su-Yu; Lo, Yu-Sheng; Chuang, Yi-Ching; Hsi, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chia-Chieh; Chen, Jui-Chieh; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Approximately 90% of oral cancers are subtyped to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Despite advances in diagnostic techniques and improvement in treatment modalities, the prognosis remains poor. Therefore, an effective chemotherapy mechanism that enhances tumor sensitivity to chemotherapeutics is urgently needed. Methyl protodioscin (MP) is a furostanol bisglycoside with a wide range of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the antitumor activity of MP on OSCC and its underlying mechanisms. Our results show that treatment of OSCC cells with MP potently inhibited cell viability. Moreover, MP leading to cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, which subsequently activates caspase-3, -8, -9 and PARP to induce cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that MP induces a robust autophagy in OSCC cells. The results indicate cathepsin S (CTSS) is involved in MP-induced apoptosis and autophagy by modulation of p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways. These findings may provide rationale to combine MP with CTSS blockade for the effective treatment of OSCC. PMID:28327651

  12. MULTIDENTATE TEREPHTHALAMIDATE AND HYDROXYPYRIDONATE LIGANDS: TOWARDS NEW ORALLY ACTIVE CHELATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, Rebecca J.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2011-07-13

    The limitations of current therapies for the treatment of iron overload or radioisotope contamination have stimulated efforts to develop new orally bioavailable iron and actinide chelators. Siderophore-inspired tetradentate, hexadentate and octadentate terephthalamidate and hydroxypyridonate ligands were evaluated in vivo as selective and efficacious iron or actinide chelating agents, with several metal loading and ligand assessment procedures, using {sup 59}Fe, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 241}Am as radioactive tracers. The compounds presented in this study were compared to commercially available therapeutic sequestering agents [deferoxamine (DFO) for iron and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DPTA) for actinides] and are unrivaled in terms of affinity, selectivity and decorporation efficacy, which attests to the fact that high metal affinity may overcome the low bioavailability properties commonly associated to multidenticity.

  13. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjie; Dong, Qi; Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-02-23

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection.

  14. Oblongifolin M, an active compound isolated from a Chinese medical herb Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibits enterovirus 71 reproduction through downregulation of ERp57

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; He, Yaqing; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping; He, Jason; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan; Huang, Jian-dong; Xu, Hongxi; He, Ming-Liang

    2016-01-01

    There is no effective drug to treat EV71 infection yet. Traditional Chinese herbs are great resources for novel antiviral compounds. Here we showed that Oblongifolin M (OM), an active compound isolated from Garcinia oblongifolia, potently inhibited EV71 infection in a dose dependent manner. To identify its potential effectors in the host cells, we successfully identified 18 proteins from 52 differentially expressed spots by comparative proteomics studies. Further studies showed that knockdown of ERp57 inhibited viral replication through downregulating viral IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activities, whereas ectopic expression of ERp57 increased IRES activity and partly rescued the inhibitory effects of OM on viral replication. We demonstrated that OM is an effective antiviral agent; and that ERp57 is one of its cellular effectors against EV71 infection. PMID:26848777

  15. Jatrophane diterpenes as modulators of multidrug resistance. Advances of structure-activity relationships and discovery of the potent lead pepluanin A.

    PubMed

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Motti, Riccardo; Simon, Pierre-Noël; Dumontet, Charles; Di Pietro, Attilio

    2004-02-12

    From the whole plant of Euphorbia peplus L., five new diterpenes based on a jatrophane skeleton (pepluanins A-E, 1-5) were isolated, together with two known analogues (6 and 7), which served to divulge in detail the structure-activity relationships within this class of P-glycoprotein inhibitors. The results revealed the importance of substitutions on the medium-sized ring (carbons 8, 9, 14, and 15). In particular, the activity is collapsed by the presence of a free hydroxyl at C-8, while it increases with a carbonyl at C-14, an acetoxyl at C-9, and a free hydroxyl at C-15. The most potent compound of the series, pepluanin A, showed a very high activity for a jatrophane diterpene, outperforming cyclosporin A by a factor of at least 2 in the inhibition of Pgp-mediated daunomycin transport.

  16. Isolation of an Orally Active Insecticidal Toxin from the Venom of an Australian Tarantula

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Margaret C.; Daly, Norelle L.; Mobli, Mehdi; Morales, Rodrigo A. V.; King, Glenn F.

    2013-01-01

    Many insect pests have developed resistance to existing chemical insecticides and consequently there is much interest in the development of new insecticidal compounds with novel modes of action. Although spiders have deployed insecticidal toxins in their venoms for over 250 million years, there is no evolutionary selection pressure on these toxins to possess oral activity since they are injected into prey and predators via a hypodermic needle-like fang. Thus, it has been assumed that spider-venom peptides are not orally active and are therefore unlikely to be useful insecticides. Contrary to this dogma, we show that it is possible to isolate spider-venom peptides with high levels of oral insecticidal activity by directly screening for per os toxicity. Using this approach, we isolated a 34-residue orally active insecticidal peptide (OAIP-1) from venom of the Australian tarantula Selenotypus plumipes. The oral LD50 for OAIP-1 in the agronomically important cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera was 104.2±0.6 pmol/g, which is the highest per os activity reported to date for an insecticidal venom peptide. OAIP-1 is equipotent with synthetic pyrethroids and it acts synergistically with neonicotinoid insecticides. The three-dimensional structure of OAIP-1 determined using NMR spectroscopy revealed that the three disulfide bonds form an inhibitor cystine knot motif; this structural motif provides the peptide with a high level of biological stability that probably contributes to its oral activity. OAIP-1 is likely to be synergized by the gut-lytic activity of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin (Bt) expressed in insect-resistant transgenic crops, and consequently it might be a good candidate for trait stacking with Bt. PMID:24039872

  17. N-desalkylquetiapine, a potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and partial 5-HT1A agonist, as a putative mediator of quetiapine's antidepressant activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Niels H; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Caron, Marc G; Wetsel, William C; Rothman, Richard B; Roth, Bryan L

    2008-09-01

    Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is also US FDA approved for treating bipolar depression, albeit by an unknown mechanism. To discover the potential mechanism for this apparently unique action, we screened quetiapine, its metabolite N-Desalkylquetiapine, and dibenzo[b,f][1,4]thiazepine-11(10-H)-one (DBTO) against a large panel of G-protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, and neurotransmitter transporters. DBTO was inactive at all tested molecular targets. N-Desalkylquetiapine had a high affinity (3.4 nM) for the histamine H(1) receptor and moderate affinities (10-100 nM) for the norepinephrine reuptake transporter (NET), the serotonin 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1E), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), 5-HT(7) receptors, the alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor, and the M(1), M(3), and M(5) muscarinic receptors. The compound had low affinities (100-1000 nM) for the 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(2C), 5-HT(3), 5-HT(5), 5-HT(6), alpha(1A), alpha(2A), alpha(2B), alpha(2C), H(2), M(2), M(4), and dopamine D(1), D(2), D(3), and D(4) receptors. N-Desalkylquetiapine potently inhibited human NE transporter with a K(i) of 12 nM, about 100-fold more potent than quetiapine itself. N-Desalkylquetiapine was also 10-fold more potent and more efficacious than quetiapine at the 5-HT(1A) receptor. N-Desalkylquetiapine was an antagonist at 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), 5-HT(2C), alpha(1A), alpha(1D), alpha(2A), alpha(2C), H(1), M(1), M(3), and M(5) receptors. In the mouse tail suspension test, N-Desalkylquetiapine displayed potent antidepressant-like activity in VMAT2 heterozygous mice at doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg. These data strongly suggest that the antidepressant activity of quetiapine is mediated, at least in part, by its metabolite N-Desalkylquetiapine through NET inhibition and partial 5-HT(1A) agonism. Possible contributions of this metabolite to the side effects of quetiapine are discussed.

  18. Isolation and characterization of α-conotoxin LsIA with potent activity at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Inserra, Marco C; Kompella, Shiva N; Vetter, Irina; Brust, Andreas; Daly, Norelle L; Cuny, Hartmut; Craik, David J; Alewood, Paul F; Adams, David J; Lewis, Richard J

    2013-09-15

    A new α-conotoxin LsIA was isolated from the crude venom of Conus limpusi using assay-guided RP-HPLC fractionation. Synthetic LsIA was a potent antagonist of α3β2, α3α5β2 and α7 nAChRs, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 10, 31 and 10 nM, respectively. The structure of LsIA determined by NMR spectroscopy comprised a characteristic disulfide bond-stabilized α-helical structure and disordered N-terminal region. Potency reductions of up to 9-fold were observed for N-terminally truncated analogues of LsIA at α7 and α3β2 nAChRs, whereas C-terminal carboxylation enhanced potency 3-fold at α3β2 nAChRs but reduced potency 3-fold at α7 nAChRs. This study gives further insight into α-conotoxin pharmacology and the molecular basis of nAChR selectivity, highlighting the influence of N-terminal residues and C-terminal amidation on conotoxin pharmacology.

  19. A Novel Laccase with Potent Antiproliferative and HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitory Activities from Mycelia of Mushroom Coprinus comatus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuang; Rong, Cheng-Bo; Kong, Chang; Liu, Yu; Xu, Feng; Miao, Qian-Jiang; Wang, Shou-Xian; Wang, He-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    A novel laccase was isolated and purified from fermentation mycelia of mushroom Coprinus comatus with an isolation procedure including three ion-exchange chromatography steps on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, and Q-Sepharose and one gel-filtration step by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The purified enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of 64 kDa. It possessed a unique N-terminal amino acid sequence of AIGPVADLKV, which has considerably high sequence similarity with that of other fungal laccases, but is different from that of C. comatus laccases reported. The enzyme manifested an optimal pH value of 2.0 and an optimal temperature of 60°C using 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolone-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) as the substrate. The laccase displayed, at pH 2.0 and 37°C, Km values of 1.59 mM towards ABTS. It potently suppressed proliferation of tumor cell lines HepG2 and MCF7, and inhibited human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) with an IC50 value of 3.46 μM, 4.95 μM, and 5.85 μM, respectively, signifying that it is an antipathogenic protein. PMID:25540778

  20. Discovery of 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-(4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro- 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide (Apixaban, BMS-562247), a Highly Potent, Selective, Efficacious, and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitor of Blood Coagulation Factor Xa

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Donald J.P.; Orwat, Michael J.; Koch, Stephanie; Rossi, Karen A.; Alexander, Richard S.; Smallwood, Angela; Wong, Pancras C.; Rendina, Alan R.; Luettgen, Joseph M.; Knabb, Robert M.; He, Kan; Xin, Baomin; Wexler, Ruth R.; Lam, Patrick Y.S.

    2010-03-08

    Efforts to identify a suitable follow-on compound to razaxaban (compound 4) focused on modification of the carboxamido linker to eliminate potential in vivo hydrolysis to a primary aniline. Cyclization of the carboxamido linker to the novel bicyclic tetrahydropyrazolopyridinone scaffold retained the potent fXa binding activity. Exceptional potency of the series prompted an investigation of the neutral P{sub 1} moieties that resulted in the identification of the p-methoxyphenyl P{sub 1}, which retained factor Xa binding affinity and good oral bioavailability. Further optimization of the C-3 pyrazole position and replacement of the terminal P{sub 4} ring with a neutral heterocycle culminated in the discovery of 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-(4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide (apixaban, compound 40). Compound 40 exhibits a high degree of fXa potency, selectivity, and efficacy and has an improved pharmacokinetic profile relative to 4.

  1. Effect of low-dose oral contraceptives on natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Baker, D A; Salvatore, W; Milch, P O

    1989-01-01

    Several reports indicate an association between oral contraceptives and increased infection rates. One mechanism that could explain this increased infection rate is a decrease in immune function. A study comparing T cell subsets showed no differences in numbers between oral contraceptive users and controls. In this study, natural killer cell activity was compared in women before and 3 and 6 months after oral contraceptive use. There was a statistically significant decrease in NK cell activity after three months. There was no further decrease by six months and the differences were no longer significant due to greater variability. No infections were reported during the study period. Thus, the observed reduction in NK activity was either physiologically insignificant or the previously reported increase in infections may be the result of non-immunological factors.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Seven Essential Oils From Iranian Aromatic Plants Against Common Causes of Oral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ghadiri, Pooria; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Moein, Mohammad Reza; Mehriar, Peiman; Bahrani, Farideh; Golzar, Tahereh; Pakshir, Keyvan; Fani, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the past two decades, there has been a growing trend in using oral hygienic products originating from natural resources such as essential oils (EOs) and plant extracts. Seven aromatic plants used in this study are among popular traditional Iranian medicinal plants with potential application in modern medicine as anti-oral infectious diseases. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from seven medicinal plants against pathogens causing oral infections. Materials and Methods: The chemical compositions of EOs distilled from seven plants were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These plants included Satureja khuzestanica, S. bachtiarica, Ocimum sanctum, Artemisia sieberi, Zataria multiflora, Carum copticum and Oliveria decumbens. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated by broth micro-dilution in 96 well plates as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. Results: The tested EOs inhibited the growth of examined oral pathogens at concentrations of 0.015-16 µL/mL. Among the examined oral pathogens, Enterococcus faecalis had the highest Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Microbicidal Concentrations (MMCs). Of the examined EOs, S. khuzestanica, Z. multiflora and S. bachtiarica, showed the highest antimicrobial activities, respectively, while Artemisia sieberi exhibited the lowest antimicrobial activity. Conclusions: The excellent antimicrobial activities of the tested EOs might be due to their major phenolic or alcoholic monoterpenes with known antimicrobial activities. Hence, these EOs can be possibly used as an antimicrobial agent in treatment and control of oral pathogens. PMID:25793100

  3. SKLB-163, a new benzothiazole-2-thiol derivative, exhibits potent anticancer activity by affecting RhoGDI/JNK-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, X; Xie, G; Wang, Z; Lin, H; Zhou, T; Xiang, P; Jiang, Y; Yang, S; Wei, Y; Yu, L; Zhao, Y

    2014-03-27

    Small-molecule inhibitors are an attractive therapeutic approach for most types of human cancers. SKLB-163, a novel benzothiazole-2-thiol derivative, was developed via computer-aided drug design and de novo synthesis. MTT assay showed it had potent anti-proliferative activity on various human cancer cells. Treatment of cancer cells with SKLB-163 induced obvious apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in vitro. SKLB-163 administered p.o. showed a marked antitumor activity in vivo. Proteomic techniques were employed to identify possible drug target proteins. The data showed molecular mechanism of action might be involved in downregulation of RhoGDI, which finally contributed to increased apoptosis and inhibited proliferation. These findings provided the potential value of SKLB-163 as a novel candidate antitumor drug.

  4. Biotransfomation of cyperenoic acid by Cunninghamella elegans AS 3.2028 and the potent anti-angiogenic activities of its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Tian, Jin-Long; Wu, Jing-Shuai; Sun, Tie-Min; Zhou, Li-Na; Song, Shao-Jiang; You, Song

    2017-02-16

    Cyperenoic acid (1) is one of the major sesquiterpenes isolated from Croton crassifolius, which exhibited potent anti-angiogenic activity. Traditional structural modification of 1 is difficult to perform by chemical technology due to the remarkable stability of the patchoulane skeleton. In order to overcome chemical synthesis difficulties and obtain structurally diverse derivations, microbial transformation of 1 by using Cunninghamella elegans AS 3.2028 was studied for the first time. Five new hydroxylated products 2-6 were obtained. Furthermore, cytotoxicity and anti-angiogenic activities of all the biotransformation products were evaluated by MTT assay and ELISA in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. These results indicated that hydroxylated modification products 2-4 significantly inhibited VEGF release, which suggest the potential use of hydroxylated modification products for cancer therapy.

  5. Potent immunosuppressive principles, dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids, isolated from nupharis rhizoma, the rhizoma of Nuphar pumilum (nymphaeaceae): structure-requirement of nuphar-alkaloid for immunosuppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Yamahara, J; Shimoda, H; Matsuda, H; Yoshikawa, M

    1996-09-01

    Potent immunosuppressants, the dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids, 6-hydroxythiobinupharidine (2), 6,6'-dihydroxythiobinupharidine (3), 6-hydroxythionuphlutine B (5) and 6'-hydroxythionuphlutine B (6), were isolated from a natural medicine, Nupharis Rhizoma, the rhizoma of Nuphar pumilum (TIMM.) DC., through bioassay-guided separation together with five quinolizidine alkaloids (8, 9, 10, 11, 12). Dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids (2, 3, 5, 6) were found to significantly inhibit anti-sheep erythrocyte plaque forming cell formation in mice spleen cells at 10(-6) M concentration. At this concentration, 2, 5 and 6 were found to exhibit no cytotoxicity to mice spleen cells, and 3 also showed only a little cytotoxicity. In addition, the inhibitory activity of several Nuphar alkaloids, dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids (1, 4, 7, 8), and monomeric sesquiterpene alkaloids (9, 10, 11, 12) on anti-sheep erythrocyte plaque forming cell formation was examined and some structural requirement of Nuphar alkaloid for immunosuppressive activity was determined.

  6. DFT calculation of four new potential agents muscarinic of bispyridinium type: structure, synthesis, biological activity, hydration, and relations with the potents W84 and DUO-3O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolea Palafox, M.; Posada-Moreno, P.; Villarino-Marín, A. L.; Martinez-Rincon, C.; Ortuño-Soriano, I.; Zaragoza-García, I.

    2011-02-01

    Four new potential agents muscarinic (allosteric modulators) were synthesized and studied by using the B3LYP density functional method. The optimum conformation and geometry structure of these compounds were determined and analyzed. Solvent effects were considered including a variable number (1-15) of explicit water molecules surrounding the compound in order to simulate the first hydration shell, as well as using the Tomasi's polarized continuum model (PCM). A similar simultaneous analysis of the potents W84 and DUO-3O allosteric modulator of muscarinic receptors was also carried out. The effect of the hydration on the total atomic charges and several intermolecular distances of interest were also discussed. The biological activity against acetylcholine of our four synthesized bispyridinium salts was determined. Relationships/tendencies structure-activity were established. Several general conclusions were underlined.

  7. Potent and Selective Triazole-Based Inhibitors of the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl-Hydroxylases with Activity in the Murine Brain

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Mun Chiang; Atasoylu, Onur; Hodson, Emma; Tumber, Anthony; Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Gómez-Pérez, Verónica; Demetriades, Marina; Rydzik, Anna M.; Holt-Martyn, James; Tian, Ya-Min; Bishop, Tammie; Claridge, Timothy D. W.; Kawamura, Akane; Pugh, Christopher W.; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the cellular adaptation to limiting oxygen availability in animals, the expression of a large set of genes is activated by the upregulation of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). Therapeutic activation of the natural human hypoxic response can be achieved by the inhibition of the hypoxia sensors for the HIF system, i.e. the HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs). Here, we report studies on tricyclic triazole-containing compounds as potent and selective PHD inhibitors which compete with the 2-oxoglutarate co-substrate. One compound (IOX4) induces HIFα in cells and in wildtype mice with marked induction in the brain tissue, revealing that it is useful for studies aimed at validating the upregulation of HIF for treatment of cerebral diseases including stroke. PMID:26147748

  8. Fragment-based discovery of a new family of non-peptidic small-molecule cyclophilin inhibitors with potent antiviral activities

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed-Belkacem, Abdelhakim; Colliandre, Lionel; Ahnou, Nazim; Nevers, Quentin; Gelin, Muriel; Bessin, Yannick; Brillet, Rozenn; Cala, Olivier; Douguet, Dominique; Bourguet, William; Krimm, Isabelle; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Guichou, Jean- François

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIase) that catalyse the interconversion of the peptide bond at proline residues. Several cyclophilins play a pivotal role in the life cycle of a number of viruses. The existing cyclophilin inhibitors, all derived from cyclosporine A or sanglifehrin A, have disadvantages, including their size, potential for side effects unrelated to cyclophilin inhibition and drug–drug interactions, unclear antiviral spectrum and manufacturing issues. Here we use a fragment-based drug discovery approach using nucleic magnetic resonance, X-ray crystallography and structure-based compound optimization to generate a new family of non-peptidic, small-molecule cyclophilin inhibitors with potent in vitro PPIase inhibitory activity and antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus and coronaviruses. This family of compounds has the potential for broad-spectrum, high-barrier-to-resistance treatment of viral infections. PMID:27652979

  9. Nortestosterone-derived synthetic progestogens do not activate the progestogen receptor of Murray-Darling rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) but are potent agonists of androgen receptors alpha and beta.

    PubMed

    Bain, Peter A; Kumar, Anu; Ogino, Yukiko; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic progestogens derived from 19-nortestosterone can elicit a number of adverse effects in fish including decreased fecundity, altered hormone levels, disruption of normal breeding cycles, expression in females of male-specific biomarkers, development of male secondary sexual characteristics in females, and changes in the expression of steroidogenic genes. A recent in vitro study showed that a number of representatives from this class of progestins were potent agonists of fathead minnow androgen receptor (AR) and only weak agonists of progesterone receptor (PR) from the same species. This confirms that synthetic progestogens derived from 19-nortestosterone function as AR agonists in otomorphs, which express a single AR subtype. However, numerous perciformes are known to express two AR subtypes. We have recently shown that ARα and ARβ from Murray-Darling rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) respond differently to certain androgens and anti-androgens. The goal of the present study was to determine concentration-response profiles for selected progestins in transactivation assays driven by rainbowfish ARα, ARβ and PR in order to ascertain the relative potency of progestins against these receptors. As a means of confirming the expected activity of the progestins and reference compounds used in the study against human-derived receptors, we also established concentration-response relationships using transactivation assays driven by human PR and AR. We found that all five 19-nortestosterone-derived progestins tested were highly potent agonists of rainbowfish ARα, but that only four of the five progestins were potent agonists of rainbowfish ARβ, with norgestimate exhibiting only weak activity against rainbowfish ARβ. The spironolactone-derived progestin, drospirenone, was not an agonist of rainbowfish ARα or ARβ but was a weak agonist of rainbowfish PR. None of the 19-nortestosterone-progestins activated rainbowfish PR. These findings confirm that the

  10. Dual control mechanism for heme oxygenase: tin(IV)-protoporphyrin potently inhibits enzyme activity while markedly increasing content of enzyme protein in liver.

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, M K; Kappas, A

    1987-01-01

    Tin(IV)-protoporphyrin (Sn-protoporphyrin) potently inhibits heme degradation to bile pigments in vitro and in vivo, a property that confers upon this synthetic compound the ability to suppress a variety of experimentally induced and naturally occurring forms of jaundice in animals and humans. Utilizing rat liver heme oxygenase purified to homogeneity together with appropriate immunoquantitation techniques, we have demonstrated that Sn-protoporphyrin possesses the additional property of potently inducing the synthesis of heme oxygenase protein in liver cells while, concurrently, completely inhibiting the activity of the newly formed enzyme. Substitution of tin for the central iron atom of heme thus leads to the formation of a synthetic heme analogue that regulates heme oxygenase by a dual mechanism, which involves competitive inhibition of the enzyme for the natural substrate heme and simultaneous enhancement of new enzyme synthesis. Cobaltic(III)-protoporphyrin (Co-protoporphyrin) also inhibits heme oxygenase activity in vitro, but unlike Sn-protoporphyrin it greatly enhances the activity of the enzyme in the whole animal. Co-protoporphyrin also acts as an in vivo inhibitor of heme oxygenase; however, its inducing effect on heme oxygenase synthesis is so pronounced as to prevail in vivo over its inhibitory effect on the enzyme. These studies show that certain synthetic heme analogues possess the ability to simultaneously inhibit as well as induce the enzyme heme oxygenase in liver. The net balance between these two actions, as reflected in the rate of heme oxidation activity in the whole animal, appears to be influenced by the nature of the central metal atom of the synthetic metalloporphyrin. Images PMID:3470805

  11. IMGN853, a Folate Receptor-α (FRα)-Targeting Antibody-Drug Conjugate, Exhibits Potent Targeted Antitumor Activity against FRα-Expressing Tumors.

    PubMed

    Ab, Olga; Whiteman, Kathleen R; Bartle, Laura M; Sun, Xiuxia; Singh, Rajeeva; Tavares, Daniel; LaBelle, Alyssa; Payne, Gillian; Lutz, Robert J; Pinkas, Jan; Goldmacher, Victor S; Chittenden, Thomas; Lambert, John M

    2015-07-01

    A majority of ovarian and non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cancers overexpress folate receptor α (FRα). Here, we report the development of an anti-FRα antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), consisting of a FRα-binding antibody attached to a highly potent maytansinoid that induces cell-cycle arrest and cell death by targeting microtubules. From screening a large panel of anti-FRα monoclonal antibodies, we selected the humanized antibody M9346A as the best antibody for targeted delivery of a maytansinoid payload into FRα-positive cells. We compared M9346A conjugates with various linker/maytansinoid combinations, and found that a conjugate, now denoted as IMGN853, with the N-succinimidyl 4-(2-pyridyldithio)-2-sulfobutanoate (sulfo-SPDB) linker and N(2')-deacetyl-N(2')-(4-mercapto-4-methyl-1-oxopentyl)-maytansine (DM4) exhibited the most potent antitumor activity in several FRα-expressing xenograft tumor models. The level of expression of FRα on the surface of cells was a major determinant in the sensitivity of tumor cells to the cytotoxic effect of the conjugate. Efficacy studies of IMGN853 in xenografts of ovarian cancer and non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and of a patient tumor-derived xenograft model demonstrated that the ADC was highly active against tumors that expressed FRα at levels similar to those found on a large fraction of ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer patient tumors, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. IMGN853 displayed cytotoxic activity against FRα-negative cells situated near FRα-positive cells (bystander cytotoxic activity), indicating its ability to eradicate tumors with heterogeneous expression of FRα. Together, these findings support the clinical development of IMGN853 as a novel targeted therapy for patients with FRα-expressing tumors.

  12. Discovery of a Quinoline-4-carboxamide Derivative with a Novel Mechanism of Action, Multistage Antimalarial Activity, and Potent in Vivo Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The antiplasmodial activity, DMPK properties, and efficacy of a series of quinoline-4-carboxamides are described. This series was identified from a phenotypic screen against the blood stage of Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) and displayed moderate potency but with suboptimal physicochemical properties and poor microsomal stability. The screening hit (1, EC50 = 120 nM) was optimized to lead molecules with low nanomolar in vitro potency. Improvement of the pharmacokinetic profile led to several compounds showing excellent oral efficacy in the P. berghei malaria mouse model with ED90 values below 1 mg/kg when dosed orally for 4 days. The favorable potency, selectivity, DMPK properties, and efficacy coupled with a novel mechanism of action, inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (PfEF2), led to progression of 2 (DDD107498) to preclinical development. PMID:27631715

  13. Discovery of a Quinoline-4-carboxamide Derivative with a Novel Mechanism of Action, Multistage Antimalarial Activity, and Potent in Vivo Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Baragaña, Beatriz; Norcross, Neil R; Wilson, Caroline; Porzelle, Achim; Hallyburton, Irene; Grimaldi, Raffaella; Osuna-Cabello, Maria; Norval, Suzanne; Riley, Jennifer; Stojanovski, Laste; Simeons, Frederick R C; Wyatt, Paul G; Delves, Michael J; Meister, Stephan; Duffy, Sandra; Avery, Vicky M; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Sinden, Robert E; Wittlin, Sergio; Frearson, Julie A; Gray, David W; Fairlamb, Alan H; Waterson, David; Campbell, Simon F; Willis, Paul; Read, Kevin D; Gilbert, Ian H

    2016-11-10

    The antiplasmodial activity, DMPK properties, and efficacy of a series of quinoline-4-carboxamides are described. This series was identified from a phenotypic screen against the blood stage of Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) and displayed moderate potency but with suboptimal physicochemical properties and poor microsomal stability. The screening hit (1, EC50 = 120 nM) was optimized to lead molecules with low nanomolar in vitro potency. Improvement of the pharmacokinetic profile led to several compounds showing excellent oral efficacy in the P. berghei malaria mouse model with ED90 values below 1 mg/kg when dosed orally for 4 days. The favorable potency, selectivity, DMPK properties, and efficacy coupled with a novel mechanism of action, inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (PfEF2), led to progression of 2 (DDD107498) to preclinical development.

  14. Potent antitumor 9-anilinoacridines and acridines bearing an alkylating N-mustard residue on the acridine chromophore: synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Su, Tsann-Long; Lin, Yi-Wen; Chou, Ting-Chao; Zhang, Xiuguo; Bacherikov, Valeriy A; Chen, Ching-Huang; Liu, Leroy F; Tsai, Tsong-Jen

    2006-06-15

    A series of 9-anilinoacridine and acridine derivatives bearing an alkylating N-mustard residue at C4 of the acridine chromophore were synthesized. The N-mustard pharmacophore was linked to the C4 of the acridine ring with an O-ethyl (O-C(2)), O-propyl (O-C(3)), or O-butyl (O-C(4)) spacer. It revealed that all newly synthesized compounds were very potent cytotoxic agents against human leukemia and various solid tumors in vitro. These agents did not exhibit cross-resistance against vinblastine-resistant (CCRF-CEM/VBL) or taxol-resistant (CCRF-CEM/taxol) cells. It also showed that these agents were DNA cross-linking agents rather than topoisomerase II inhibitors. Of these agents, compounds 27a and 27c were shown to have potent antitumor activity in nude mice bearing the human breast carcinoma MX-1 xenograft. The therapeutic efficacies of these two agents are comparable to that of taxol.

  15. Potent Natural Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitors from Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon: Synthesis, Quantification, and Measurement of Biological Activities In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Seiya; Morisseau, Christophe; Inceoglu, Bora; Kamita, Shizuo G.; De Nicola, Gina R.; Nyegue, Maximilienne; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    We describe here three urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors from the root of the plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana. The concentration of these ureas in the root was quantified by LC-MS/MS, showing that 1, 3-bis (4-methoxybenzyl) urea (MMU) is the most abundant (42.3 μg/g dry root weight). All of the ureas were chemically synthesized, and their inhibitory activity toward recombinant human and recombinant rat sEH was measured. The most potent compound, MMU, showed an IC50 of 92 nM via fluorescent assay and a Ki of 54 nM via radioactivity-based assay on human sEH. MMU effectively reduced inflammatory pain in a rat nociceptive pain assay. These compounds are among the most potent sEH inhibitors derived from natural sources. Moreover, inhibition of sEH by these compounds may mechanistically explain some of the therapeutic effects of P. brazzeana. PMID:25659109

  16. More potent inhibition of human CYP2A6 than mouse CYP2A5 enzyme activities by derivatives of phenylethylamine and benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Rahnasto, M; Raunio, H; Poso, A; Juvonen, R O

    2003-05-01

    1. A rapid 96-well plate assay method was developed and validated to measure liver microsomal coumarin 7-hydroxylation in vitro. 2. The method was used to test inhibition of human and mouse CYP2A enzymes by three phenylethylamine derivatives 2-(p-tolyl)-ethylamine, amphetamine, 2-phenylethylamine and benzaldehyde, and two of its derivatives, 4-methylbenzaldehyde and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde. 3. The benzaldehyde derivatives were more potent inhibitors of CYP2A5 than the phenylethylamines. The K(ic) value of 4-methylbenzaldehyde was 3.4 micro M and for 4-methoxybenzaldehyde it was 0.86 micro M for CYP2A5. 4. Amphetamine is a weak inhibitor of CYP2A6, whereas benzaldehyde is a suicide inhibitor with K(inact) = 0.16 min(-1) and K(I) = 18 micro M. The K(ic) values of 2-phenylethylamine, 2-(p-tolyl)-ethylamine, 4-methylbenzaldehyde and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde were 1.13, 0.23, 0.36 and 0.73 micro M for CYP2A6, respectively. 5. Novel potent inhibitors were found for CYP2A6 and, except for 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, all the compounds inhibited CYP2A5 and CYP2A6 enzymes differentially. These data add to the refinement of CYP2A enzyme active sites and provide chemical leads for developing novel chemical inhibitors of the CYP2A6 enzyme.

  17. Zalypsis: a novel marine-derived compound with potent antimyeloma activity that reveals high sensitivity of malignant plasma cells to DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Ocio, Enrique M; Maiso, Patricia; Chen, Xi; Garayoa, Mercedes; Alvarez-Fernández, Stela; San-Segundo, Laura; Vilanova, David; López-Corral, Lucía; Montero, Juan C; Hernández-Iglesias, Teresa; de Alava, Enrique; Galmarini, Carlos; Avilés, Pablo; Cuevas, Carmen; San-Miguel, Jesús F; Pandiella, Atanasio

    2009-04-16

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable, and new drugs with novel mechanisms of action are still needed. In this report, we have analyzed the action of Zalypsis, an alkaloid analogous to certain natural marine compounds, in MM. Zalypsis turned out to be the most potent antimyeloma agent we have tested so far, with IC(50) values from picomolar to low nanomolar ranges. It also showed remarkable ex vivo potency in plasma cells from patients and in MM cells in vivo xenografted in mice. Besides the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, Zalypsis provoked DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), evidenced by an increase in phospho-histone-H2AX and phospho-CHK2, followed by a striking overexpression of p53 in p53 wild-type cell lines. In addition, in those cell lines in which p53 was mutated, Zalypsis also provoked DSBs and induced cell death, although higher concentrations were required. Immunohistochemical studies in tumors also demonstrated histone-H2AX phosphorylation and p53 overexpression. Gene expression profile studies were concordant with these results, revealing an important deregulation of genes involved in DNA damage response. The potent in vitro and in vivo antimyeloma activity of Zalypsis uncovers the high sensitivity of tumor plasma cells to DSBs and strongly supports the use of this compound in MM patients.

  18. Activity of antimicrobial peptide mimetics in the oral cavity: II. Activity against periopathogenic biofilms and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Hua, J; Scott, R W; Diamond, G

    2010-12-01

    Whereas periodontal disease is ultimately of bacterial etiology, from multispecies biofilms of gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms, much of the deleterious effects are caused by the resultant epithelial inflammatory response. Hence, development of a treatment that combines anti-biofilm antibiotic activity with anti-inflammatory activity would be of great utility. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as defensins are naturally occurring peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum activity as well as a variety of immunomodulatory activities. Furthermore, bacteria do not readily develop resistance to these agents. However, clinical studies have suggested that they do not represent optimal candidates for exogenous therapeutic agents. Small-molecule mimetics of these AMPs exhibit similar activities to the parent peptides, in addition to having low toxicity, high stability and low cost. To determine whether AMP mimetics have the potential for treatment of periodontal disease, we examined the activity of one mimetic, mPE, against biofilm cultures of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Metabolic assays as well as culture and biomass measurement assays demonstrated that mPE exhibits potent activity against biofilm cultures of both species. Furthermore, as little as 2 μg ml(-1) mPE was sufficient to inhibit interleukin-1β-induced secretion of interleukin-8 in both gingival epithelial cells and THP-1 cells. This anti-inflammatory activity is associated with a reduction in activation of nuclear factor-κB, suggesting that mPE can act both as an anti-biofilm agent in an anaerobic environment and as an anti-inflammatory agent in infected tissues.

  19. Hawaiian oral tradition describes 400 years of volcanic activity at Kīlauea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Culturally significant oral tradition involving Pele, the Hawaiian volcano deity, and her youngest sister Hi'iaka may involve the two largest volcanic events to have taken place in Hawai'i since human settlement: the roughly 60-year-long ‘Ailā’au eruption during the 15th century and the following development of Kīlauea's caldera. In 1823, Rev. William Ellis and three others became the first Europeans to visit Kīlauea's summit and were told stories about Kīlauea's activity that are consistent with the Pele–Hi'iaka account and extend the oral tradition through the 18th century. Recent geologic studies confirm the essence of the oral traditions and illustrate the potential value of examining other Hawaiian chants and stories for more information about past volcanic activity in Hawai‘i.

  20. A major transactivator of varicella-zoster virus, the immediate-early protein IE62, contains a potent N-terminal activation domain.

    PubMed Central

    Perera, L P; Mosca, J D; Ruyechan, W T; Hayward, G S; Straus, S E; Hay, J

    1993-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the product of the putative immediate-early gene ORF62 (IE62) activates varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genes thought to represent all three kinetic classes, namely, immediate-early (alpha), early (beta), and late (gamma) classes, of VZV genes as well as a variety heterologous gene promoters. However, the mechanism(s) by which IE62 protein mediates transactivation of these diverse VZV and heterologous gene promoters remains to be elucidated. In this study, by using yeast GAL4 protein chimeras, the coding regions of VZV ORF62 possessing activation domains have been assessed. We demonstrate that the VZV IE62 protein contains a potent activation domain in the N-terminal portion of the molecule, encoded within the first 86 codons of ORF62. The predicted secondary structure profile and the acid-base composition of this IE62 domain resemble those of other transregulatory proteins whose activation is mediated through acidic, hydrophobic elements. In addition, we show that deletion of this activation domain from the 1,310-residue native IE62 protein results in ablation of the transactivator function of IE62. We also present evidence that the mutant IE62 protein lacking the activation domain, though devoid of transactivation ability, was still capable of interfering with the activation of target promoters by the native, full-length IE62. Images PMID:8392592