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Sample records for potential drug target

  1. ING Proteins as Potential Anticancer Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Unoki, M.; Kumamoto, K.; Harris, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent emerging evidence suggests that ING family proteins play roles in carcinogenesis both as oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes depending on the family members and on cell status. Previous results from non-physiologic overexpression experiments showed that all five family members induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, thus it had been thought until very recently that all of the family members function as tumor suppressor genes. Therefore restoration of ING family proteins in cancer cells has been proposed as a treatment for cancers. However, ING2 knockdown experiments showed unexpected results: ING2 knockdown led to senescence in normal human fibroblast cells and suppressed cancer cell growth. ING2 is also overexpressed in colorectal cancer, and promotes cancer cell invasion through an MMP13 dependent pathway. Additionally, it was reported that ING2 has two isoforms, ING2a and ING2b. Although expression of ING2a predominates compared with ING2b, both isoforms confer resistance against cell cycle arrest or apoptosis to cancer cells, thus knockdown of both isoforms is critical to remove this resistance. Taken together, these results suggest that ING2 can function as an oncogene in some specific types of cancer cells, indicating restoration of this gene in cancer cells could cause cancer progression. Because knockdown of ING2 suppresses cancer cell invasion and induces apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, ING2 may be an anticancer drug target. In this brief review, we discuss possible clinical applications of ING2 with the latest knowledge of molecular targeted therapies. PMID:19442116

  2. Using Click Chemistry to Identify Potential Drug Targets in Plasmodium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Sporozo ite infection of the liver is the first obl igate step of the Plasmodium...goal is to find drugs that prevent or control liver infection. Development of such drugs will be faci l itated by identification of parasite proteins...required for l iver infection. These proteins are potential drug targets for development of therapies that restrict Plasmodium liver infection. The

  3. Dihydrofolate reductase: A potential drug target in trypanosomes and leishmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccotto, Fabio; Martin, Andrew C. R.; Laskowski, Roman A.; Thornton, Janet M.; Gilbert, Ian H.

    1998-05-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase has successfully been used as a drug target in the area of anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and anti-malarial chemotherapy. Little has been done to evaluate it as a drug target for treatment of the trypanosomiases and leishmaniasis. A crystal structure of Leishmania major dihydrofolate reductase has been published. In this paper, we describe the modelling of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei dihydrofolate reductases based on this crystal structure. These structures and models have been used in the comparison of protozoan, bacterial and human enzymes in order to highlight the different features that can be used in the design of selective anti-protozoan agents. Comparison has been made between residues present in the active site, the accessibility of these residues, charge distribution in the active site, and the shape and size of the active sites. Whilst there is a high degree of similarity between protozoan, human and bacterial dihydrofolate reductase active sites, there are differences that provide potential for selective drug design. In particular, we have identified a set of residues which may be important for selective drug design and identified a larger binding pocket in the protozoan than the human and bacterial enzymes.

  4. Cognitive 'Omics': Pattern-Based Validation of Potential Drug Targets.

    PubMed

    Gyertyán, István

    2017-02-01

    Despite the abundance of cognitive enhancer mechanisms identified in basic research, drugs approved for cognitive disorders are scarce and of limited efficacy. Although the so-called 'gold-standard' animal assays are well suited to the study of fundamental learning processes, they fail to predict clinical efficacy against complex and robust cognitive defects. Preclinical validation of potential drug targets requires new approaches with higher translational value. Here I propose a rodent cognitive test system that encompasses several learning paradigms each modeling a certain human cognitive domain. Cognitive deficits are brought about by several impairing methods and a particular mechanism of action is tested on each defective cognitive function. The outcome is a cognitive efficacy pattern that should then be matched to the cognitive deficit patterns of the clinical disorders. The best fit will highlight the clinical indication with the greatest chance for success.

  5. Cardiac calmodulin kinase: a potential target for drug design.

    PubMed

    Bányász, T; Szentandrássy, N; Tóth, A; Nánási, P P; Magyar, J; Chen-Izu, Y

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic strategy for cardiac arrhythmias has undergone a remarkable change during the last decades. Currently implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy is considered to be the most effective therapeutic method to treat malignant arrhythmias. Some even argue that there is no room for antiarrhythmic drug therapy in the age of implantable cardioverter defibrillators. However, in clinical practice, antiarrhythmic drug therapies are frequently needed, because implantable cardioverter defibrillators are not effective in certain types of arrhythmias (i.e. premature ventricular beats or atrial fibrillation). Furthermore, given the staggering cost of device therapy, it is economically imperative to develop alternative effective treatments. Cardiac ion channels are the target of a number of current treatment strategies, but therapies based on ion channel blockers only resulted in moderate success. Furthermore, these drugs are associated with an increased risk of proarrhythmia, systemic toxicity, and increased defibrillation threshold. In many cases, certain ion channel blockers were found to increase mortality. Other drug classes such as ßblockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, aldosterone antagonists, and statins appear to have proven efficacy for reducing cardiac mortality. These facts forced researchers to shift the focus of their research to molecular targets that act upstream of ion channels. One of these potential targets is calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). Several lines of evidence converge to suggest that CaMKII inhibition may provide an effective treatment strategy for heart diseases. (1) Recent studies have elucidated that CaMKII plays a key role in modulating cardiac function and regulating hypertrophy development. (2) CaMKII activity has been found elevated in the failing hearts from human patients and animal models. (3) Inhibition of CaMKII activity has been shown to mitigate hypertrophy, prevent functional remodeling and

  6. Cardiac Calmodulin Kinase: A Potential Target for Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Bányász, T.; Szentandrássy, N.; Tóth, A.; Nánási, P.P.; Magyar, J.; Chen-Izu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic strategy for cardiac arrhythmias has undergone a remarkable change during the last decades. Currently implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy is considered to be the most effective therapeutic method to treat malignant arrhythmias. Some even argue that there is no room for antiarrhythmic drug therapy in the age of implantable cardioverter defibrillators. However, in clinical practice, antiarrhythmic drug therapies are frequently needed, because implantable cardioverter defibrillators are not effective in certain types of arrhythmias (i.e. premature ventricular beats or atrial fibrillation). Furthermore, given the staggering cost of device therapy, it is economically imperative to develop alternative effective treatments. Cardiac ion channels are the target of a number of current treatment strategies, but therapies based on ion channel blockers only resulted in moderate success. Furthermore, these drugs are associated with an increased risk of proarrhythmia, systemic toxicity, and increased defibrillation threshold. In many cases, certain ion channel blockers were found to increase mortality. Other drug classes such as β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, aldosterone antagonists, and statins appear to have proven efficacy for reducing cardiac mortality. These facts forced researchers to shift the focus of their research to molecular targets that act upstream of ion channels. One of these potential targets is calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). Several lines of evidence converge to suggest that CaMKII inhibition may provide an effective treatment strategy for heart diseases. (1) Recent studies have elucidated that CaMKII plays a key role in modulating cardiac function and regulating hypertrophy development. (2) CaMKII activity has been found elevated in the failing hearts from human patients and animal models. (3) Inhibition of CaMKII activity has been shown to mitigate hypertrophy, prevent functional remodeling and

  7. Potential drug targets for calcific aortic valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Aikawa, Elena; Merryman, W. David

    2014-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and, given its association with age, the prevalence of CAVD is expected to continue to rise as global life expectancy increases. No drug strategies currently exist to prevent or treat CAVD. Given that valve replacement is the only available clinical option, patients often cope with a deteriorating quality of life until diminished valve function demands intervention. The recognition that CAVD results from active cellular mechanisms suggests that the underlying pathways might be targeted to treat the condition. However, no such therapeutic strategy has been successfully developed to date. One hope was that drugs already used to treat vascular complications might also improve CAVD outcomes, but the mechanisms of CAVD progression and the desired therapeutic outcomes are often different from those of vascular diseases. We, therefore, discuss the benchmarks that must be met by a CAVD treatment approach, and highlight advances in the understanding of CAVD mechanisms to identify potential novel therapeutic targets. PMID:24445487

  8. The prokaryotic FAD synthetase family: a potential drug target.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Ana; Ferreira, Patricia; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Medina, Milagros

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of cellular production of the flavin cofactors, flavin adenine mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide(FAD) will prevent the assembly of a large number of flavoproteins and flavoenzymes involved in key metabolic processes in all types of organisms. The enzymes responsible for FMN and FAD production in prokaryotes and eukaryotes exhibit various structural characteristics to catalyze the same chemistry, a fact that converts the prokaryotic FAD synthetase (FADS) in a potential drug target for the development of inhibitors endowed with anti-pathogenic activity. The first step before searching for selective inhibitors of FADS is to understand the structural and functional mechanisms for the riboflavin kinase and FMN adenylyltransferase activities of the prokaryotic enzyme, and particularly to identify their differential functional characteristics with regard to the enzymes performing similar functions in other organisms, particularly humans. In this paper, an overview of the current knowledge of the structure-function relationships in prokaryotic FADS has been presented, as well as of the state of the art in the use of these enzymes as drug targets.

  9. TargetNet: a web service for predicting potential drug-target interaction profiling via multi-target SAR models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhi-Jiang; Dong, Jie; Che, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Min-Feng; Wen, Ming; Wang, Ning-Ning; Wang, Shan; Lu, Ai-Ping; Cao, Dong-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Drug-target interactions (DTIs) are central to current drug discovery processes and public health fields. Analyzing the DTI profiling of the drugs helps to infer drug indications, adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, and drug mode of actions. Therefore, it is of high importance to reliably and fast predict DTI profiling of the drugs on a genome-scale level. Here, we develop the TargetNet server, which can make real-time DTI predictions based only on molecular structures, following the spirit of multi-target SAR methodology. Naïve Bayes models together with various molecular fingerprints were employed to construct prediction models. Ensemble learning from these fingerprints was also provided to improve the prediction ability. When the user submits a molecule, the server will predict the activity of the user's molecule across 623 human proteins by the established high quality SAR model, thus generating a DTI profiling that can be used as a feature vector of chemicals for wide applications. The 623 SAR models related to 623 human proteins were strictly evaluated and validated by several model validation strategies, resulting in the AUC scores of 75-100 %. We applied the generated DTI profiling to successfully predict potential targets, toxicity classification, drug-drug interactions, and drug mode of action, which sufficiently demonstrated the wide application value of the potential DTI profiling. The TargetNet webserver is designed based on the Django framework in Python, and is freely accessible at http://targetnet.scbdd.com.

  10. Alzheimer's associated inflammation, potential drug targets and future therapies.

    PubMed

    Stuchbury, G; Münch, G

    2005-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly population. The most widely used treatment for Alzheimer's disease at present is acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, which aim to prolong cognitive function through increased synaptic activity, without providing neuroprotection. This treatment is only symptomatic and provides modest outcomes for patients. The recent elucidation of the inflammatory pathways involved in Alzheimer's disease however, has opened doors for better treatment and prevention by identification of areas of therapeutic intervention that target the cause of the disease rather than the symptoms. This review describes the inflammatory pathways that are thought to be present in Alzheimer's disease and some of the new therapies that have shown promise, via alteration or inhibition of these pathways. Some of the therapies included in this review, which have already demonstrated beneficial effects in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, or have the potential to do so, are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, statins, RAGE antagonists and antioxidants.

  11. Sirtuins as potential drug targets for metablic diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies of the sirtuin family of proteins, which possess NAD+/-dependent deacetylase and ADP ribosyltransferase activities, indicate that they regulate many biological functions, such as longevity and metabolism. These findings also suggest that sirtuins might serve as valuable drug targets f...

  12. TCGA Bladder Cancer Study Reveals Potential Drug Targets - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with the TCGA Research Network have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease.

  13. TCGA bladder cancer study reveals potential drug targets

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with TCGA have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease. They also discovered that, at the molecular level, some subtypes of bla

  14. Using Click Chemistry to Identify Potential Drug Targets in Plasmodium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    the Plasmodium mammalian cycle . Identifying parasite proteins that are required for liver infection can lead to novel drugs against malaria. For the...mammalian cycle . Inhibiting this step can block malaria at an early step. However, few anti-malarials target liver infection by sporozoites. Our goal is...methods to synthesize TSP and TSP derivatives, we demonstrated that we could append a propargyl group to the piperidine ring nitrogen and that this

  15. Acylation in trypanosomatids: an essential process and potential drug target

    PubMed Central

    Goldston, Amanda M.; Sharma, Aabha I.; Paul, Kimberly S.; Engman, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acylation—the addition of fatty acid moieties such as myristate and palmitate to proteins—is essential for the survival, growth, and infectivity of the trypanosomatids: Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania. Myristoylation and palmitoylation are critical for parasite growth, targeting and localization, and the intrinsic function of some proteins. The trypanosomatids possess a single N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) and multiple palmitoyl acyltransferases, and these enzymes and their cellular targets are only now being characterized. Global inhibition of either process leads to cell death in trypanosomatids, and genetic ablation of NMT compromises virulence. Moreover, NMT inhibitors effectively cure T. brucei infection in rodents. Thus, protein acylation represents an attractive target for the development of trypanocidal drugs. PMID:24954795

  16. Targeting drug sensitivity predictors: New potential strategies to improve pharmacotherapy of human brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Kalueff, Allan V; Stewart, Adam Michael; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai; Gottesman, Irving I

    2015-12-03

    One of the main challenges in medicine is the lack of efficient drug therapies for common human disorders. For example, although depressed patients receive powerful antidepressants, many often remain resistant to psychopharmacotherapy. The growing recognition of complex interplay between the drug targets and the predictors of drug sensitivity requires an improved understanding of these two key aspects of drug action and their potentially shared molecular networks. Here, we apply the concept of endophenotypes and their interplay to drug action and sensitivity. Based on these analyses, we postulate that novel drugs may be developed by targeting specific molecular pathways that integrate drug targets with drug sensitivity predictors.

  17. Pharmacoinformatics elucidation of potential drug targets against migraine to target ion channel protein KCNK18

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Sheikh Arslan; Hassan, Mubashir; Rashid, Sajid

    2014-01-01

    Migraine, a complex debilitating neurological disorder is strongly associated with potassium channel subfamily K member 18 (KCNK18). Research has emphasized that high levels of KCNK18 may be responsible for improper functioning of neurotransmitters, resulting in neurological disorders like migraine. In the present study, a hybrid approach of molecular docking and virtual screening were followed by pharmacophore identification and structure modeling. Screening was performed using a two-dimensional similarity search against recommended migraine drugs, keeping in view the physicochemical properties of drugs. LigandScout tool was used for exploring pharmacophore properties and designing novel molecules. Here, we report the screening of four novel compounds that have showed maximum binding affinity against KCNK18, obtained through the ZINC database, and Drug and Drug-Like libraries. Docking studies revealed that Asp-46, Ile-324, Ile-44, Gly-118, Leu-338, Val-113, and Phe-41 are critical residues for receptor–ligand interaction. A virtual screening approach coupled with docking energies and druglikeness rules illustrated that ergotamine and PB-414901692 are potential inhibitor compounds for targeting KCNK18. We propose that selected compounds may be more potent than the previously listed drug analogs based on the binding energy values. Further analysis of these inhibitors through site-directed mutagenesis could be helpful for exploring the details of ligand-binding pockets. Overall, the findings of this study may be helpful for designing novel therapeutic targets to cure migraine. PMID:24899801

  18. Potential Targets for Antifungal Drug Discovery Based on Growth and Virulence in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuyun; Hou, Yinglong; Yue, Longtao; Liu, Shuyuan; Du, Juan; Sun, Shujuan

    2015-10-01

    Fungal infections, especially infections caused by Candida albicans, remain a challenging problem in clinical settings. Despite the development of more-effective antifungal drugs, their application is limited for various reasons. Thus, alternative treatments with drugs aimed at novel targets in C. albicans are needed. Knowledge of growth and virulence in fungal cells is essential not only to understand their pathogenic mechanisms but also to identify potential antifungal targets. This article reviews the current knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and virulence in C. albicans and examines potential targets for the development of new antifungal drugs.

  19. Epigenetic Modifications, Alcoholic Brain and Potential Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Jangra, Ashok; Sriram, Chandra Shaker; Pandey, Suryanarayan; Choubey, Priyansha; Rajput, Prabha; Saroha, Babita; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic alcohol exposure evidently influences epigenetic changes, both transiently and permanently, and these changes in turn influence a variety of cells and organ systems throughout the body. Many of the alcohol-induced epigenetic modifications can contribute to cellular adaptations that ultimately lead to behavioral tolerance and alcohol dependence. The persistence of behavioral changes demonstrates that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. The research activities over the past years have demonstrated a crucial role of epigenetic mechanisms in causing long lasting and transient changes in the expression of several genes in diverse tissues, including brain. This has stimulated recent research work that is aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the long lasting and transient effects of alcohol abuse on the brain in humans and animal models of alcohol addiction. In this study, we update our current understanding of the impact of alcohol exposure on epigenetic mechanisms in the brain and refurbish the knowledge of epigenetics in the direction of new drugs development. PMID:27780992

  20. Natural antisense and noncoding RNA transcripts as potential drug targets.

    PubMed

    Wahlestedt, Claes

    2006-06-01

    Information on the complexity of mammalian RNA transcription has increased greatly in the past few years. Notably, thousands of sense transcripts (conventional protein-coding genes) have antisense transcript partners, most of which are noncoding. Interestingly, a number of antisense transcripts regulate the expression of their sense partners, either in a discordant (antisense knockdown results in sense-transcript elevation) or concordant (antisense knockdown results in concomitant sense-transcript reduction) manner. Two new pharmacological strategies based on the knockdown of antisense RNA transcripts by siRNA (or another RNA targeting principle) are proposed in this review. In the case of discordant regulation, knockdown of antisense transcript elevates the expression of the conventional (sense) gene, thereby conceivably mimicking agonist-activator action. In the case of concordant regulation, knockdown of antisense transcript, or concomitant knockdown of antisense and sense transcripts, results in an additive or even synergistic reduction of the conventional gene expression. Although both strategies have been demonstrated to be valid in cell culture, it remains to be seen whether they provide advantages in other contexts.

  1. IMP dehydrogenase from Pneumocystis carinii as a potential drug target.

    PubMed Central

    O'Gara, M J; Lee, C H; Weinberg, G A; Nott, J M; Queener, S F

    1997-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid, a specific inhibitor of IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH; EC 1.1.1.205), is a potent inhibitor of Pneumocystis carinii growth in culture, suggesting that IMPDH may be a sensitive target for chemotherapy in this organism. The IMPDH gene was cloned as a first step to characterizing the enzyme and developing selective inhibitors. A 1.3-kb fragment containing a portion of the P. carinii IMPDH gene was amplified by PCR with two degenerate oligonucleotides based on conserved sequences in IMPDH from humans and four different microorganisms. Northern hybridization analysis showed the P. carinii IMPDH mRNA to be approximately 1.6 kb. The entire cDNA encoding P. carinii IMPDH was isolated and cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence of P. carinii IMPDH shared homology with bacterial (31 to 38%), protozoal (48 to 59%), mammalian (60 to 62%), and fungal (62%) IMPDH enzymes. The IMPDH cDNA was expressed by using a T7 expression system in an IMPDH-deficient strain of Escherichia coli (strain S phi 1101). E. coli S phi 1101 cells containing the P. carinii IMPDH gene were able to grow on medium lacking guanine, implying that the protein expressed in vivo was functional. Extracts of these E. coli cells contained IMPDH activity that had an apparent Km for IMP of 21.7 +/- 0.3 microM and an apparent Km for NAD of 314 +/- 84 microM (mean +/- standard error of the mean; n = 3), and the activity was inhibited by mycophenolic acid (50% inhibitory concentration, 24 microM; n = 2). PMID:8980752

  2. Bacterial Magnetosome: A Novel Biogenetic Magnetic Targeted Drug Carrier with Potential Multifunctions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianbo; Li, Ying; Liang, Xing-Jie; Wang, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) synthesized by magnetotactic bacteria have recently drawn great interest due to their unique features. BMs are used experimentally as carriers for antibodies, enzymes, ligands, nucleic acids, and chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition to the common attractive properties of magnetic carriers, BMs also show superiority as targeting nanoscale drug carriers, which is hardly matched by artificial magnetic particles. We are presenting the potential applications of BMs as drug carriers by introducing the drug-loading methods and strategies and the recent research progress of BMs which has contributed to the application of BMs as drug carriers. PMID:22448162

  3. Modular Nanotransporters for Targeted Intracellular Delivery of Drugs: Folate Receptors as Potential Targets

    PubMed Central

    Slastnikova, Tatiana A.; Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Sobolev, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to a subcellular drug delivery system, modular nanotransporters (MNT) that can penetrate into target cells and deliver a therapeutic into their subcellular compartments, particularly into the nucleus. The therapeutics which need such type of delivery belong to two groups: (i) those that exert their effect only when delivered into a certain cell compartment (like DNA delivered into the nucleus); and (ii) those drugs that are capable of exerting their effect in different parts of the cells, however there can be found a cell compartment that is the most sensitive to their effect. A particular interest attract such cytotoxic agents as Auger electron emitters which are known to be ineffective outside the cell nucleus, whereas they possess high cytotoxicity in the vicinity of nuclear DNA through the induction of non-reparable double-strand DNA breaks. The review discusses main approaches permitting to choose internalizable receptors permitting both recognition of target cells and penetration into them. Special interest attract folate receptors which become accessible to blood circulating therapeutics after malignant transformation or on activated macrophages which makes them an attractive target for both several oncological and inflammatory diseases, like atherosclerosis. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that MNT is a promising platform for targeted delivery of different therapeutics into the nuclei of target cells. PMID:25312738

  4. PLP-dependent enzymes as potential drug targets for protozoan diseases.

    PubMed

    Kappes, Barbara; Tews, Ivo; Binter, Alexandra; Macheroux, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The chemical properties of the B(6) vitamers are uniquely suited for wide use as cofactors in essential reactions, such as decarboxylations and transaminations. This review addresses current efforts to explore vitamin B(6) dependent enzymatic reactions as drug targets. Several current targets are described that are found amongst these enzymes. The focus is set on diseases caused by protozoan parasites. Comparison across a range of these organisms allows insight into the distribution of potential targets, many of which may be of interest in the development of broad range anti-protozoan drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pyridoxal Phosphate Enzymology.

  5. Potential therapeutic targets and the role of technology in developing novel cannabinoid drugs from cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Manogar, P; Prabhu, S

    2016-10-01

    Cyanobacteria find several applications in pharmacology as potential candidates for drug design. The need for new compounds that can be used as drugs has always been on the rise in therapeutics. Cyanobacteria have been identified as promising targets of research in the quest for new pharmaceutical compounds as they can produce secondary metabolites with novel chemical structures. Cyanobacteria is now recognized as a vital source of bioactive molecules like Curacin A, Largazole and Apratoxin which have succeeded in reaching Phase II and Phase III into clinical trials. The discovery of several new clinical cannabinoid drugs in the past decade from diverse marine life should translate into a number of new drugs for cannabinoid in the years to come. Conventional cannabinoid drugs have high toxicity and as a result, they affect the efficacy of chemotherapy and patients' life very much. The present review focuses on how potential, safe and affordable drugs used for cannabinoid treatment could be developed from cyanobacteria.

  6. Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT): a potential target for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-06-01

    Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; product of the SLC5A6 gene) is an important transmembrane protein responsible for translocation of vitamins and other essential cofactors such as biotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. Hydropathy plot (Kyte-Dolittle algorithm) revealed that human SMVT protein consists of 635 amino acids and 12 transmembrane domains with both amino and carboxyl termini oriented towards the cytoplasm. SMVT is expressed in various tissues such as placenta, intestine, brain, liver, lung, kidney, cornea, retina and heart. This transporter displays broad substrate specificity and excellent capacity for utilization in drug delivery. Drug absorption is often limited by the presence of physiological (epithelial tight junctions), biochemical (efflux transporters and enzymatic degradation) and chemical (size, lipophilicity, molecular weight, charge etc.) barriers. These barriers may cause many potential therapeutics to be dropped from the preliminary screening portfolio and subsequent entry into the market. Transporter targeted delivery has become a powerful approach to deliver drugs to target tissues because of the ability of the transporter to translocate the drug to intracellular organelles at a higher rate. This review highlights studies employing SMVT transporter as a target for drug delivery to improve bioavailability and investigate the feasibility of developing SMVT targeted drug delivery systems.

  7. GWAS and drug targets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a large number of links between genome variation and complex disease. Among other benefits, it is expected that these insights will lead to new therapeutic strategies, particularly the identification of new drug targets. In this paper, we evaluate the power of GWAS studies to find drug targets by examining how many existing drug targets have been directly 'rediscovered' by this technique, and the extent to which GWAS results may be leveraged by network information to discover known and new drug targets. Results We find that only a very small fraction of drug targets are directly detected in the relevant GWAS studies. We investigate two possible explanations for this observation. First, we find evidence of negative selection acting on drug target genes as a consequence of strong coupling with the disease phenotype, so reducing the incidence of SNPs linked to the disease. Second, we find that GWAS genes are substantially longer on average than drug targets and than all genes, suggesting there is a length related bias in GWAS results. In spite of the low direct relationship between drug targets and GWAS reported genes, we found these two sets of genes are closely coupled in the human protein network. As a consequence, machine-learning methods are able to recover known drug targets based on network context and the set of GWAS reported genes for the same disease. We show the approach is potentially useful for identifying drug repurposing opportunities. Conclusions Although GWA studies do not directly identify most existing drug targets, there are several reasons to expect that new targets will nevertheless be discovered using these data. Initial results on drug repurposing studies using network analysis are encouraging and suggest directions for future development. PMID:25057111

  8. Mechanistic study of IR-780 dye as a potential tumor targeting and drug delivery agent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlong; Luo, Shenglin; Tan, Xu; Shi, Chunmeng

    2014-01-01

    IR-780 iodide, a near-infrared fluorescent heptamethine dye, has been recently characterized to exhibit preferential accumulation property in the mitochondria of tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the possible mechanisms for its tumor selective activity and its potential as a drug delivery carrier. Results showed that the energy-dependent uptake of IR-780 iodide into the mitochondria of tumor cells was affected by glycolysis and plasma membrane potential. Moreover, OATP1B3 subtype of organic anion transporter peptides (OATPs) may play a dominant role in the transportation of IR-780 iodide into tumor cells, while cellular endocytosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and the ATP-binding cassette transporters did not show significant influence to its accumulation. We further evaluated the potential of IR-780 iodide as a drug delivery carrier by covalent conjugation of IR-780 with nitrogen mustard (IR-780NM). In vivo imaging showed that IR-780NM remained the tumor targeting property, indicating that IR-780 iodide could be potentially applied as a drug delivery agent for cancer targeted imaging and therapy.

  9. Heat shock protein 90 as a potential drug target against surra.

    PubMed

    Rochani, Ankit K; Mithra, Chandan; Singh, Meetali; Tatu, Utpal

    2014-08-01

    Trypanosomiasis is caused by Trypanosoma species which affect both human and animal populations and pose a major threat to developing countries. The incidence of animal trypanosomiasis is on the rise. Surra is a type of animal trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma evansi, and has been included in priority list B of significant diseases by the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE). Control of surra has been a challenge due to the lack of effective drugs and vaccines and emergence of resistance towards existing drugs. Our laboratory has previously implicated Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) from protozoan parasites as a potential drug target and successfully demonstrated efficacy of an Hsp90 inhibitor in cell culture as well as a pre-clinical mouse model of trypanosomiasis. This article explores the role of Hsp90 in the Trypanosoma life cycle and its potential as a drug target. It appears plausible that the repertoire of Hsp90 inhibitors available in academia and industry may have value for treatment of surra and other animal trypanosomiasis.

  10. Identification of potential drug targets based on a computational biology algorithm for venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ruiqiang; Li, Lei; Chen, Lina; Li, Wan; Chen, Binbin; Jiang, Jing; Huang, Hao; Li, Yiran; He, Yuehan; Lv, Junjie; He, Weiming

    2017-02-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, fatal and frequently recurrent disease. Changes in the activity of different coagulation factors serve as a pathophysiological basis for the recurrent risk of VTE. Systems biology approaches provide a better understanding of the pathological mechanisms responsible for recurrent VTE. In this study, a novel computational method was presented to identify the recurrent risk modules (RRMs) based on the integration of expression profiles and human signaling network, which hold promise for achieving new and deeper insights into the mechanisms responsible for VTE. The results revealed that the RRMs had good classification performance to discriminate patients with recurrent VTE. The functional annotation analysis demonstrated that the RRMs played a crucial role in the pathogenesis of VTE. Furthermore, a variety of approved drug targets in the RRM M5 were related to VTE. Thus, the M5 may be applied to select potential drug targets for combination therapy and the extended treatment of VTE.

  11. Identification of polycystic ovary syndrome potential drug targets based on pathobiological similarity in the protein-protein interaction network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wan; Wei, Wenqing; Li, Yiran; Xie, Ruiqiang; Guo, Shanshan; Wang, Yahui; Jiang, Jing; Chen, Binbin; Lv, Junjie; Zhang, Nana; Chen, Lina; He, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinological disorders in reproductive aged women. PCOS and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are closely linked in multiple levels and possess high pathobiological similarity. Here, we put forward a new computational approach based on the pathobiological similarity to identify PCOS potential drug target modules (PPDT-Modules) and PCOS potential drug targets in the protein-protein interaction network (PPIN). From the systems level and biological background, 1 PPDT-Module and 22 PCOS potential drug targets were identified, 21 of which were verified by literatures to be associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS. 42 drugs targeting to 13 PCOS potential drug targets were investigated experimentally or clinically for PCOS. Evaluated by independent datasets, the whole PPDT-Module and 22 PCOS potential drug targets could not only reveal the drug response, but also distinguish the statuses between normal and disease. Our identified PPDT-Module and PCOS potential drug targets would shed light on the treatment of PCOS. And our approach would provide valuable insights to research on the pathogenesis and drug response of other diseases. PMID:27191267

  12. Integrative exploration of genomic profiles for triple negative breast cancer identifies potential drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaosheng; Guda, Chittibabu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is high-risk due to its rapid drug resistance and recurrence, metastasis, and lack of targeted therapy. So far, no molecularly targeted therapeutic agents have been clinically approved for TNBC. It is imperative that we discover new targets for TNBC therapy. Objectives: A large volume of cancer genomics data are emerging and advancing breast cancer research. We may integrate different types of TNBC genomic data to discover molecular targets for TNBC therapy. Data sources: We used publicly available TNBC tumor tissue genomic data in the Cancer Genome Atlas database in this study. Methods: We integratively explored genomic profiles (gene expression, copy number, methylation, microRNA [miRNA], and gene mutation) in TNBC and identified hyperactivated genes that have higher expression, more copy numbers, lower methylation level, or are targets of miRNAs with lower expression in TNBC than in normal samples. We ranked the hyperactivated genes into different levels based on all the genomic evidence and performed functional analyses of the sets of genes identified. More importantly, we proposed potential molecular targets for TNBC therapy based on the hyperactivated genes. Results: Some of the genes we identified such as FGFR2, MAPK13, TP53, SRC family, MUC family, and BCL2 family have been suggested to be potential targets for TNBC treatment. Others such as CSF1R, EPHB3, TRIB1, and LAD1 could be promising new targets for TNBC treatment. By utilizing this integrative analysis of genomic profiles for TNBC, we hypothesized that some of the targeted treatment strategies for TNBC currently in development are more likely to be promising, such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, while the others are more likely to be discouraging, such as angiogenesis inhibitors. Limitations: The findings in this study need to be experimentally validated in the future. Conclusion: This is a systematic study that combined 5

  13. Orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): biological functions and potential drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiao-long; Wang, Ying; Li, Da-li; Luo, Jian; Liu, Ming-yao

    2012-01-01

    The superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) includes at least 800 seven-transmembrane receptors that participate in diverse physiological and pathological functions. GPCRs are the most successful targets of modern medicine, and approximately 36% of marketed pharmaceuticals target human GPCRs. However, the endogenous ligands of more than 140 GPCRs remain unidentified, leaving the natural functions of those GPCRs in doubt. These are the so-called orphan GPCRs, a great source of drug targets. This review focuses on the signaling transduction pathways of the adhesion GPCR family, the LGR subfamily, and the PSGR subfamily, and their potential functions in immunology, development, and cancers. In this review, we present the current approaches and difficulties of orphan GPCR deorphanization and characterization. PMID:22367282

  14. ROCK1 is a potential combinatorial drug target for BRAF mutant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Marjon A; Maddalo, Gianluca; Greig, Kylie; Raaijmakers, Linsey M; Possik, Patricia A; van Breukelen, Bas; Cappadona, Salvatore; Heck, Albert JR; Altelaar, AF Maarten; Peeper, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of BRAF mutant melanomas with specific BRAF inhibitors leads to tumor remission. However, most patients eventually relapse due to drug resistance. Therefore, we designed an integrated strategy using (phospho)proteomic and functional genomic platforms to identify drug targets whose inhibition sensitizes melanoma cells to BRAF inhibition. We found many proteins to be induced upon PLX4720 (BRAF inhibitor) treatment that are known to be involved in BRAF inhibitor resistance, including FOXD3 and ErbB3. Several proteins were down-regulated, including Rnd3, a negative regulator of ROCK1 kinase. For our genomic approach, we performed two parallel shRNA screens using a kinome library to identify genes whose inhibition sensitizes to BRAF or ERK inhibitor treatment. By integrating our functional genomic and (phospho)proteomic data, we identified ROCK1 as a potential drug target for BRAF mutant melanoma. ROCK1 silencing increased melanoma cell elimination when combined with BRAF or ERK inhibitor treatment. Translating this to a preclinical setting, a ROCK inhibitor showed augmented melanoma cell death upon BRAF or ERK inhibition in vitro. These data merit exploration of ROCK1 as a target in combination with current BRAF mutant melanoma therapies. PMID:25538140

  15. Diacylglycerol Kinases as Emerging Potential Drug Targets for a Variety of Diseases: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Fumio; Mizuno, Satoru; Komenoi, Suguru

    2016-01-01

    Ten mammalian diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) isozymes (α–κ) have been identified to date. Our previous review noted that several DGK isozymes can serve as potential drug targets for cancer, epilepsy, autoimmunity, cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension and type II diabetes (Sakane et al., 2008). Since then, recent genome-wide association studies have implied several new possible relationships between DGK isozymes and diseases. For example, DGKθ and DGKκ have been suggested to be associated with susceptibility to Parkinson's disease and hypospadias, respectively. In addition, the DGKη gene has been repeatedly identified as a bipolar disorder (BPD) susceptibility gene. Intriguingly, we found that DGKη-knockout mice showed lithium (BPD remedy)-sensitive mania-like behaviors, suggesting that DGKη is one of key enzymes of the etiology of BPD. Because DGKs are potential drug targets for a wide variety of diseases, the development of DGK isozyme-specific inhibitors/activators has been eagerly awaited. Recently, we have identified DGKα-selective inhibitors. Because DGKα has both pro-tumoral and anti-immunogenic properties, the DGKα-selective inhibitors would simultaneously have anti-tumoral and pro-immunogenic (anti-tumor immunogenic) effects. Although the ten DGK isozymes are highly similar to each other, our current results have encouraged us to identify and develop specific inhibitors/activators against every DGK isozyme that can be effective regulators and drugs against a wide variety of physiological events and diseases. PMID:27583247

  16. Inflammation and Immune Regulation as Potential Drug Targets in Antidepressant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Frank M.; Kirkby, Kenneth C.; Lichtblau, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports a mutual relationship between inflammation and major depression. A variety of mechanisms are outlined, indicating how inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis, course and treatment of major depression. In particular, this review addresses 1) inflammatory cytokines as markers of depression and potential predictors of treatment response, 2) findings that cytokines interact with antidepressants and non-pharmacological antidepressive therapies, such as electroconvulsive therapy, deep brain stimulation and physical activity, 3) the influence of cytokines on the cytochrome (CYP) p450-system and drug efflux transporters, and 4) how cascades of inflammation might serve as antidepressant drug targets. A number of clinical trials have focused on agents with immunmodulatory properties in the treatment of depression, of which this review covers nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cytokine inhibitors, ketamine, polyunsaturated fatty acids, statins and curcumin. A perspective is also provided on possible future immune targets for antidepressant therapy, such as toll-like receptor-inhibitors, glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors, oleanolic acid analogs and minocycline. Concluding from the available data, markers of inflammation may become relevant factors for more personalised planning and prediction of response of antidepressant treatment strategies. Agents with anti-inflammatory properties have the potential to serve as clinically relevant antidepressants. Further studies are required to better define and identify subgroups of patients responsive to inflammatory agents as well as to define optimal time points for treatment onset and duration. PMID:26769225

  17. Dual-targeting anti-angiogenic cyclic peptides as potential drug leads for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Yue; Craik, David J.; Daly, Norelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Peptide analogues derived from bioactive hormones such as somatostatin or certain growth factors have great potential as angiogenesis inhibitors for cancer applications. In an attempt to combat emerging drug resistance many FDA-approved anti-angiogenesis therapies are co-administered with cytotoxic drugs as a combination therapy to target multiple signaling pathways of cancers. However, cancer therapies often encounter limiting factors such as high toxicities and side effects. Here, we combined two anti-angiogenic epitopes that act on different pathways of angiogenesis into a single non-toxic cyclic peptide framework, namely MCoTI-II (Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin inhibitor-II), and subsequently assessed the anti-angiogenic activity of the novel compound. We hypothesized that the combination of these two epitopes would elicit a synergistic effect by targeting different angiogenesis pathways and result in improved potency, compared to that of a single epitope. This novel approach has resulted in the development of a potent, non-toxic, stable and cyclic analogue with nanomolar potency inhibition in in vitro endothelial cell migration and in vivo chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis assays. This is the first report to use the MCoTI-II framework to develop a 2-in-1 anti-angiogenic peptide, which has the potential to be used as a form of combination therapy for targeting a wide range of cancers. PMID:27734947

  18. A double-targeted magnetic nanocarrier with potential application in hydrophobic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guobin; Guo, Yi; Lv, Yanyun; Liu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Li; Zhang, Xuezhong

    2012-03-01

    A double-targeted magnetic nanocarrier based with potential applications in the delivery of hydrophobic drugs has been developed. It consists of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles encapsulated in self-assembled micelles of the amphiphilic copolymer MPEG-PLGA [methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)], and was fabricated using the solvent-evaporation technique. The magnetic nanocarrier has a very stable core-shell structure and is superparamagnetic. Its cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay with three cell lines-HeLa, MCF-7, and HT1080; it exhibited no cytotoxicity against any tested line at concentrations of up to 400 μg/mL after incubation for 24 h. Its cellular uptake was studied by Prussian blue staining and by fluorescence microscopy after encapsulating a fluorescent probe (hydrophobic quantum dots) into the nanocarrier. Finally, the magnetic targeting property of the magnetic nanocarrier was confirmed by an in vitro test. Overall, the results obtained demonstrate the potential of the double-targeted nanocarrier for the intracellular delivery of hydrophobic drugs.

  19. Chemical validation of trypanothione synthetase: a potential drug target for human trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Torrie, Leah S; Wyllie, Susan; Spinks, Daniel; Oza, Sandra L; Thompson, Stephen; Harrison, Justin R; Gilbert, Ian H; Wyatt, Paul G; Fairlamb, Alan H; Frearson, Julie A

    2009-12-25

    In the search for new therapeutics for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis, many potential drug targets in Trypanosoma brucei have been validated by genetic means, but very few have been chemically validated. Trypanothione synthetase (TryS; EC 6.3.1.9; spermidine/glutathionylspermidine:glutathione ligase (ADP-forming)) is one such target. To identify novel inhibitors of T. brucei TryS, we developed an in vitro enzyme assay, which was amenable to high throughput screening. The subsequent screen of a diverse compound library resulted in the identification of three novel series of TryS inhibitors. Further chemical exploration resulted in leads with nanomolar potency, which displayed mixed, uncompetitive, and allosteric-type inhibition with respect to spermidine, ATP, and glutathione, respectively. Representatives of all three series inhibited growth of bloodstream T. brucei in vitro. Exposure to one of our lead compounds (DDD86243; 2 x EC(50) for 72 h) decreased intracellular trypanothione levels to <10% of wild type. In addition, there was a corresponding 5-fold increase in the precursor metabolite, glutathione, providing strong evidence that DDD86243 was acting on target to inhibit TryS. This was confirmed with wild-type, TryS single knock-out, and TryS-overexpressing cell lines showing expected changes in potency to DDD86243. Taken together, these data provide initial chemical validation of TryS as a drug target in T. brucei.

  20. Conserved Fungal Genes as Potential Targets for Broad-Spectrum Antifungal Drug Discovery†

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengping; Healy, Matthew D.; Dougherty, Brian A.; Esposito, Kim M.; Maurice, Trina C.; Mazzucco, Charles E.; Bruccoleri, Robert E.; Davison, Daniel B.; Frosco, Marybeth; Barrett, John F.; Wang, Ying-Kai

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of novel classes of antifungal drugs depends to a certain extent on the identification of new, unexplored targets that are essential for growth of fungal pathogens. Likewise, the broad-spectrum capacity of future antifungals requires the target gene(s) to be conserved among key fungal pathogens. Using a genome comparison (or concordance) tool, we identified 240 conserved genes as candidates for potential antifungal targets in 10 fungal genomes. To facilitate the identification of essential genes in Candida albicans, we developed a repressible C. albicans MET3 (CaMET3) promoter system capable of evaluating gene essentiality on a genome-wide scale. The CaMET3 promoter was found to be highly amenable to controlled gene expression, a prerequisite for use in target-based whole-cell screening. When the expression of the known antifungal target C. albicans ERG1 was reduced via down-regulation of the CaMET3 promoter, the CaERG1 conditional mutant strain became hypersensitive, specifically to its inhibitor, terbinafine. Furthermore, parallel screening against a small compound library using the CaERG1 conditional mutant under normal and repressed conditions uncovered several hypersensitive compound hits. This work therefore demonstrates a streamlined process for proceeding from selection and validation of candidate antifungal targets to screening for specific inhibitors. PMID:16607011

  1. Hyperlipidemia, Disease Associations, and Top 10 Potential Drug Targets: A Network View.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sneha; Bhatnagar, Sonika

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of acquired hyperlipidemia has increased due to sedentary life style and lipid-rich diet. In this work, a lipid-protein-protein interaction network (LPPIN) for acquired hyperlipidemia was prepared by incorporating differentially expressed genes in obese fatty liver as seed nodes, protein interactions from PathwayLinker, and lipid interactions from STITCH4.0. Cholesterol, diacylglycreol, phosphatidylinositol-bis-phosphate, and inositol triphosphate were identified as core lipids that influence the signaling pathways in the LPPIN. RACα serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT1) was a highly essential central protein. The gastrin-CREB pathway was greatly enriched; all enriched pathways in the LPPIN showed crosstalk with the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt pathway, correlating with the central role of AKT1 in the network. The disease clusters identified in the LPPIN were cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Type II diabetes. In this context, we note that the commercially approved drug targets for hyperlipidemia in each disease cluster may potentially be repurposed for treatment of the specific disease. We report here top 10 potential drug targets that may mediate progression from hyperlipidemia to the respective disease state. ToppGene Suite was employed to identify candidates followed by a) discarding high closeness centrality nodes, and b) selecting nodes with high bridging centrality. Three potential targets could be mapped to specific disease clusters in the LPPIN. Lipids associated with acquired hyperlipidemia and each disease cluster identified may be useful as prognostic fingerprints. These findings provide an integrative view of lipid-protein interactions leading to acquired hyperlipidemia and the associated diseases, and might prove useful in future translational pharmaceutical research.

  2. A Systematic In Silico Search for Target Similarity Identifies Several Approved Drugs with Potential Activity against the Plasmodium falciparum Apicoplast

    PubMed Central

    Bispo, Nadlla Alves; Culleton, Richard; Silva, Lourival Almeida; Cravo, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Most of the drugs in use against Plasmodium falciparum share similar modes of action and, consequently, there is a need to identify alternative potential drug targets. Here, we focus on the apicoplast, a malarial plastid-like organelle of algal source which evolved through secondary endosymbiosis. We undertake a systematic in silico target-based identification approach for detecting drugs already approved for clinical use in humans that may be able to interfere with the P. falciparum apicoplast. The P. falciparum genome database GeneDB was used to compile a list of ≈600 proteins containing apicoplast signal peptides. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target and its predicted sequence was used to interrogate three different freely available databases (Therapeutic Target Database, DrugBank and STITCH3.1) that provide synoptic data on drugs and their primary or putative drug targets. We were able to identify several drugs that are expected to interact with forty-seven (47) peptides predicted to be involved in the biology of the P. falciparum apicoplast. Fifteen (15) of these putative targets are predicted to have affinity to drugs that are already approved for clinical use but have never been evaluated against malaria parasites. We suggest that some of these drugs should be experimentally tested and/or serve as leads for engineering new antimalarials. PMID:23555651

  3. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed—including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  4. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Sheketha R; Hedlund, Peter B; Roberts, Amanda J; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed-including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction.

  5. Characterisation of the Candida albicans Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Ppt2 as a Potential Antifungal Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Dobb, Katharine S.; Kaye, Sarah J.; Beckmann, Nicola; Thain, John L.; Stateva, Lubomira; Birch, Mike; Oliver, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal drugs acting via new mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat the increasing numbers of severe fungal infections caused by pathogens such as Candida albicans. The phosphopantetheinyl transferase of Aspergillus fumigatus, encoded by the essential gene pptB, has previously been identified as a potential antifungal target. This study investigated the function of its orthologue in C. albicans, PPT2/C1_09480W by placing one allele under the control of the regulatable MET3 promoter, and deleting the remaining allele. The phenotypes of this conditional null mutant showed that, as in A. fumigatus, the gene PPT2 is essential for growth in C. albicans, thus fulfilling one aspect of an efficient antifungal target. The catalytic activity of Ppt2 as a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and the acyl carrier protein Acp1 as a substrate were demonstrated in a fluorescence transfer assay, using recombinant Ppt2 and Acp1 produced and purified from E.coli. A fluorescence polarisation assay amenable to high-throughput screening was also developed. Therefore we have identified Ppt2 as a broad-spectrum novel antifungal target and developed tools to identify inhibitors as potentially new antifungal compounds. PMID:26606674

  6. Novel drugs that target the estrogen-related receptor alpha: their therapeutic potential in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    May, Felicity EB

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer continues to rise: 1.7 million women were diagnosed with and 521,000 women died from breast cancer in 2012. This review considers first current treatment options: surgery; radiotherapy; and systemic endocrine, anti-biological, and cytotoxic therapies. Clinical management includes prevention, early detection by screening, treatment with curative intent, management of chronic disease, and palliative control of advanced breast cancer. Next, the potential of novel drugs that target DNA repair, growth factor dependence, intracellular and intercellular signal transduction, and cell cycle are considered. Estrogen-related receptor alpha has attracted attention as a therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancers with de novo resistance to, and in breast cancers with acquired resistance to, endocrine therapies such as antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors. Estrogen-related receptor alpha is an orphan receptor and transcription factor. Its activity is regulated by coregulator proteins and posttranslational modification. It is an energy sensor that controls adaptation to energy demand and may facilitate glycolytic metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative respiration in breast cancer cells. Estrogen-related receptor alpha increases breast cancer cell migration, proliferation, and tumor development. It is expressed at high levels in estrogen receptor-negative tumors, and is proposed to activate estrogen-responsive genes in endocrine-resistant tumors. The structures and functions of the ligand-binding domains of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen-related receptor alpha, their ability to bind estrogens, phytoestrogens, and synthetic ligands, and the effects of ligand agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists on biological activity, are evaluated. Synthetic ligands of estrogen-related receptor alpha have activity in preclinical models of metabolic disorders, diabetes, osteoporosis, and oncology. The clinical settings in which these novel

  7. Oxidized macrophage migration inhibitory factor is a potential new tissue marker and drug target in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schinagl, Alexander; Thiele, Michael; Douillard, Patrice; Völkel, Dirk; Kenner, Lukas; Kazemi, Zahra; Freissmuth, Michael; Scheiflinger, Friedrich; Kerschbaumer, Randolf J.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine, which was shown to be upregulated in cancers and to exhibit tumor promoting properties. Unlike other cytokines, MIF is ubiquitously present in the circulation and tissue of healthy subjects. We recently described a previously unrecognized, disease-related isoform of MIF, designated oxMIF, which is present in the circulation of patients with different inflammatory diseases. In this article, we report that oxMIF is also linked to different solid tumors as it is specifically expressed in tumor tissue from patients with colorectal, pancreatic, ovarian and lung cancer. Furthermore, oxMIF can be specifically targeted by a subset of phage display-derived fully human, monoclonal anti-MIF antibodies (mAbs) that were shown to neutralize pro-tumorigenic activities of MIF in vivo. We further demonstrate that anti-oxMIF mAbs sensitize human cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3, A2780 and A2780ADR) to the action of cytotoxic drugs (mitoxantrone, cisplatin and doxorubicin) in vitro and in an A2780 xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer. We conclude that oxMIF is the disease related isoform of MIF in solid tumors and a potential new diagnostic marker and drug target in cancer. PMID:27636991

  8. Drug design with Cdc7 kinase: a potential novel cancer therapy target

    PubMed Central

    Sawa, Masaaki; Masai, Hisao

    2008-01-01

    Identification of novel molecular targets is critical in development of new and efficient cancer therapies. Kinases are one of the most common drug targets with a potential for cancer therapy. Cell cycle progression is regulated by a number of kinases, some of which are being developed to treat cancer. Cdc7 is a serine-threonine kinase originally discovered in budding yeast, which has been shown to be necessary to initiate the S phase. Inhibition of Cdc7 in cancer cells retards the progression of the S phase, accumulates DNA damage, and induces p53-independent cell death, but the same treatment in normal cells does not significantly affect of less than viability. Low-molecular-weight compounds that inhibit Cdc7 kinase with an IC50 10 nM have been identified, and shown to be effective in the inhibition of tumor growth in animal models. Thus Cdc7 kinase can be recognized as a novel molecular target for cancer therapy. PMID:19920912

  9. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 is a potential drug target for African trypanosomiasis therapy.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Kayode K; Gillespie, J Robert; Riechers, Aaron J; Napuli, Alberto J; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Buckner, Frederick S; Gelb, Michael H; Domostoj, Mathias M; Wells, Susan J; Scheer, Alexander; Wells, Timothy N C; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2008-10-01

    Development of a safe, effective, and inexpensive therapy for African trypanosomiasis is an urgent priority. In this study, we evaluated the validity of Trypanosoma brucei glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) as a potential drug target. Interference with the RNA of either of two GSK-3 homologues in bloodstream-form T. brucei parasites led to growth arrest and altered parasite morphology, demonstrating their requirement for cell survival. Since the growth arrest after RNA interference appeared to be more profound for T. brucei GSK-3 "short" (Tb10.161.3140) than for T. brucei GSK-3 "long" (Tb927.7.2420), we focused on T. brucei GSK-3 short for further studies. T. brucei GSK-3 short with an N-terminal maltose-binding protein fusion was cloned, expressed, and purified in a functional form. The potency of a GSK-3-focused inhibitor library against the recombinant enzyme of T. brucei GSK-3 short, as well as bloodstream-form parasites, was evaluated with the aim of determining if compounds that inhibit enzyme activity could also block the parasites' growth and proliferation. Among the compounds active against the cell, there was an excellent correlation between activity inhibiting the T. brucei GSK-3 short enzyme and the inhibition of T. brucei growth. Thus, there is reasonable genetic and chemical validation of GSK-3 short as a drug target for T. brucei. Finally, selective inhibition may be required for therapy targeting the GSK-3 enzyme, and a molecular model of the T. brucei GSK-3 short enzyme suggests that compounds that selectively inhibit T. brucei GSK-3 short over the human GSK-3 enzymes can be found.

  10. Exploring the Trypanosoma brucei Hsp83 potential as a target for structure guided drug design.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Hills, Tanya; Senisterra, Guillermo; Wernimont, Amy K; Mackenzie, Claire; Norcross, Neil R; Ferguson, Michael A J; Wyatt, Paul G; Gilbert, Ian H; Hui, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if untreated. The current drugs available to eliminate the causative agent Trypanosoma brucei have multiple liabilities, including toxicity, increasing problems due to treatment failure and limited efficacy. There are two approaches to discover novel antimicrobial drugs--whole-cell screening and target-based discovery. In the latter case, there is a need to identify and validate novel drug targets in Trypanosoma parasites. The heat shock proteins (Hsp), while best known as cancer targets with a number of drug candidates in clinical development, are a family of emerging targets for infectious diseases. In this paper, we report the exploration of T. brucei Hsp83--a homolog of human Hsp90--as a drug target using multiple biophysical and biochemical techniques. Our approach included the characterization of the chemical sensitivity of the parasitic chaperone against a library of known Hsp90 inhibitors by means of differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF). Several compounds identified by this screening procedure were further studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and X-ray crystallography, as well as tested in parasite growth inhibitions assays. These experiments led us to the identification of a benzamide derivative compound capable of interacting with TbHsp83 more strongly than with its human homologs and structural rationalization of this selectivity. The results highlight the opportunities created by subtle structural differences to develop new series of compounds to selectively target the Trypanosoma brucei chaperone and effectively kill the sleeping sickness parasite.

  11. Antirheumatic drug response signatures in human chondrocytes: potential molecular targets to stimulate cartilage regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Kristin; Häupl, Thomas; Lübke, Carsten; Ringe, Jochen; Morawietz, Lars; Wachtel, Anja; Sittinger, Michael; Kaps, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) leads to progressive destruction of articular cartilage. This study aimed to disclose major mechanisms of antirheumatic drug action on human chondrocytes and to reveal marker and pharmacological target genes that are involved in cartilage dysfunction and regeneration. Methods An interactive in vitro cultivation system composed of human chondrocyte alginate cultures and conditioned supernatant of SV40 T-antigen immortalised human synovial fibroblasts was used. Chondrocyte alginate cultures were stimulated with supernatant of RA synovial fibroblasts, of healthy donor synovial fibroblasts, and of RA synovial fibroblasts that have been antirheumatically treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) (azathioprine, gold sodium thiomalate, chloroquine phosphate, and methotrexate), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (piroxicam and diclofenac), or steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) (methylprednisolone and prednisolone). Chondrocyte gene expression profile was analysed using microarrays. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed for validation of microarray data. Results Genome-wide expression analysis revealed 110 RA-related genes in human chondrocytes: expression of catabolic mediators (inflammation, cytokines/chemokines, and matrix degradation) was induced, and expression of anabolic mediators (matrix synthesis and proliferation/differentiation) was repressed. Potential marker genes to define and influence cartilage/chondrocyte integrity and regeneration were determined and include already established genes (COX-2, CXCR-4, IL-1RN, IL-6/8, MMP-10/12, and TLR-2) and novel genes (ADORA2A, BCL2-A1, CTGF, CXCR-7, CYR-61, HSD11B-1, IL-23A, MARCKS, MXRA-5, NDUFA4L2, NR4A3, SMS, STS, TNFAIP-2, and TXNIP). Antirheumatic treatment with SAIDs showed complete and strong reversion of RA-related gene expression in human chondrocytes, whereas

  12. Novel Insight from Computational Virtual Screening Depict the Binding Potential of Selected Phytotherapeutics Against Probable Drug Targets of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Suman; Skariyachan, Sinosh

    2017-02-20

    This study explores computational screening and molecular docking approaches to screen novel herbal therapeutics against probable drug targets of Clostridium difficile. The essential genes were predicted by comparative genome analysis of C. difficile and best homologous organisms using BLAST search at database of essential genes (DEG). The functions of these genes in various metabolic pathways were predicted and some of these genes were considered as potential targets. Three major proteins were selected as putative targets, namely permease IIC component, ABC transporter and histidine kinase. The three-dimensional structures of these targets were predicted by molecular modelling. The herbal bioactive compounds were screened by computer-aided virtual screening and binding potentials against the drug targets were predicted by molecular docking. Quercetin present in Psidium guajava (binding energy of -9.1 kcal/mol), Ellagic acid found in Punica granatum and Psidium guajava (binding energy -9.0 kcal/mol) and Curcumin, present in Curcuma longa (binding energy -7.8 kcal/mol) demonstrated minimum binding energy and more number of interacting residues with the drug targets. Further, comparative study revealed that phytoligands demonstrated better binding affinities to the drug targets in comparison with usual ligands. Thus, this investigation explores the therapeutic probabilities of selected phytoligands against the putative drug targets of C. difficile.

  13. Microbial Peptidyl-Prolyl cis/trans Isomerases (PPIases): Virulence Factors and Potential Alternative Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Initially discovered in the context of immunomodulation, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) were soon identified as enzymes catalyzing the rate-limiting protein folding step at peptidyl bonds preceding proline residues. Intense searches revealed that PPIases are a superfamily of proteins consisting of three structurally distinguishable families with representatives in every described species of prokaryote and eukaryote and, recently, even in some giant viruses. Despite the clear-cut enzymatic activity and ubiquitous distribution of PPIases, reports on solely PPIase-dependent biological roles remain scarce. Nevertheless, they have been found to be involved in a plethora of biological processes, such as gene expression, signal transduction, protein secretion, development, and tissue regeneration, underscoring their general importance. Hence, it is not surprising that PPIases have also been identified as virulence-associated proteins. The extent of contribution to virulence is highly variable and dependent on the pleiotropic roles of a single PPIase in the respective pathogen. The main objective of this review is to discuss this variety in virulence-related bacterial and protozoan PPIases as well as the involvement of host PPIases in infectious processes. Moreover, a special focus is given to Legionella pneumophila macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) and Mip-like PPIases of other pathogens, as the best-characterized virulence-related representatives of this family. Finally, the potential of PPIases as alternative drug targets and first tangible results are highlighted. PMID:25184565

  14. Proteins with complex architecture as potential targets for drug design: a case study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mészáros, Bálint; Tóth, Judit; Vértessy, Beáta G; Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; Simon, István

    2011-07-01

    Lengthy co-evolution of Homo sapiens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the main causative agent of tuberculosis, resulted in a dramatically successful pathogen species that presents considerable challenge for modern medicine. The continuous and ever increasing appearance of multi-drug resistant mycobacteria necessitates the identification of novel drug targets and drugs with new mechanisms of action. However, further insights are needed to establish automated protocols for target selection based on the available complete genome sequences. In the present study, we perform complete proteome level comparisons between M. tuberculosis, mycobacteria, other prokaryotes and available eukaryotes based on protein domains, local sequence similarities and protein disorder. We show that the enrichment of certain domains in the genome can indicate an important function specific to M. tuberculosis. We identified two families, termed pkn and PE/PPE that stand out in this respect. The common property of these two protein families is a complex domain organization that combines species-specific regions, commonly occurring domains and disordered segments. Besides highlighting promising novel drug target candidates in M. tuberculosis, the presented analysis can also be viewed as a general protocol to identify proteins involved in species-specific functions in a given organism. We conclude that target selection protocols should be extended to include proteins with complex domain architectures instead of focusing on sequentially unique and essential proteins only.

  15. Indolin-2-one compounds targeting thioredoxin reductase as potential anticancer drug leads

    PubMed Central

    Kaminska, Kamila K.; Bertrand, Helene C.; Tajima, Hisashi; Stafford, William C.; Cheng, Qing; Chen, Wan; Wells, Geoffrey; Arner, Elias S.J.; Chew, Eng-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Several compounds bearing the indolinone chemical scaffold are known to possess anticancer properties. For example, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib is an arylideneindolin-2-one compound. The chemical versatility associated with structural modifications of indolinone compounds underlies the potential to discover additional derivatives possessing anticancer properties. Previously synthesized 3-(2-oxoethylidene)indolin-2-one compounds, also known as supercinnamaldehyde (SCA) compounds in reference to the parent compound 1 [1-methyl-3(2-oxopropylidene)indolin-2-one], bear a nitrogen-linked α,β-unsaturated carbonyl (Michael acceptor) moiety. Here we found that analogs bearing N-substituents, in particular compound 4 and 5 carrying an N-butyl and N-benzyl substituent, respectively, were strongly cytotoxic towards human HCT 116 colorectal and MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. These compounds also displayed strong thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) inhibitory activity that was likely attributed to the electrophilicity of the Michael acceptor moiety. Their selectivity towards cellular TrxR inhibition over related antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR), thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was mediated through targeting of the selenocysteine (Sec) residue in the highly accessible C-terminal active site of TrxR. TrxR inhibition mediated by indolin-2-one compounds led to cellular Trx oxidation, increased oxidative stress and activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1). These events also led to activation of p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, and cell death with apoptotic features of PARP cleavage and caspase 3 activation. In conclusion, these results suggest that indolin-2-one-based compounds specifically targeting TrxR may serve as novel drug leads for anticancer therapy. PMID:27244886

  16. Isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis offers potential targets for drug discovery against diseases caused by apicomplexan parasites.

    PubMed

    Hunter, William N

    2011-01-01

    Two, simple, C5 compounds, dimethylally diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate, are the universal precursors of isoprenoids, a large family of natural products involved in numerous important biological processes. Two distinct biosynthetic pathways have evolved to supply these precursors. Humans use the mevalonate route whilst many species of bacteria including important pathogens, plant chloroplasts and apicomplexan parasites exploit the non-mevalonate pathway. The absence from humans, combined with genetic and chemical validation suggests that the non-mevalonate pathway holds the potential to support new drug discovery programmes targeting Gram-negative bacteria and the apicomplexan parasites responsible for causing serious human diseases, and also infections of veterinary importance. The non-mevalonate pathway relies on eight enzyme-catalyzed stages exploiting a range of cofactors and metal ions. A wealth of structural and mechanistic data, mainly derived from studies of bacterial enzymes, now exists for most components of the pathway and these will be described. Particular attention will be paid to how these data inform on the apicomplexan orthologues concentrating on the enzymes from Plasmodium spp. these cause malaria, one the most important parasitic diseases in the world today.

  17. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential. PMID:21420431

  18. The AEROPATH project targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa: crystallographic studies for assessment of potential targets in early-stage drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Moynie, Lucille; Schnell, Robert; McMahon, Stephen A.; Sandalova, Tatyana; Boulkerou, Wassila Abdelli; Schmidberger, Jason W.; Alphey, Magnus; Cukier, Cyprian; Duthie, Fraser; Kopec, Jolanta; Liu, Huanting; Jacewicz, Agata; Hunter, William N.; Naismith, James H.; Schneider, Gunter

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial infections are increasingly difficult to treat owing to the spread of antibiotic resistance. A major concern is Gram-negative bacteria, for which the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs has been particularly scarce. In an effort to accelerate early steps in drug discovery, the EU-funded AEROPATH project aims to identify novel targets in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by applying a multidisciplinary approach encompassing target validation, structural characterization, assay development and hit identification from small-molecule libraries. Here, the strategies used for target selection are described and progress in protein production and structure analysis is reported. Of the 102 selected targets, 84 could be produced in soluble form and the de novo structures of 39 proteins have been determined. The crystal structures of eight of these targets, ranging from hypothetical unknown proteins to metabolic enzymes from different functional classes (PA1645, PA1648, PA2169, PA3770, PA4098, PA4485, PA4992 and PA5259), are reported here. The structural information is expected to provide a firm basis for the improvement of hit compounds identified from fragment-based and high-throughput screening campaigns. PMID:23295481

  19. The AEROPATH project targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa: crystallographic studies for assessment of potential targets in early-stage drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Moynie, Lucille; Schnell, Robert; McMahon, Stephen A; Sandalova, Tatyana; Boulkerou, Wassila Abdelli; Schmidberger, Jason W; Alphey, Magnus; Cukier, Cyprian; Duthie, Fraser; Kopec, Jolanta; Liu, Huanting; Jacewicz, Agata; Hunter, William N; Naismith, James H; Schneider, Gunter

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial infections are increasingly difficult to treat owing to the spread of antibiotic resistance. A major concern is Gram-negative bacteria, for which the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs has been particularly scarce. In an effort to accelerate early steps in drug discovery, the EU-funded AEROPATH project aims to identify novel targets in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by applying a multidisciplinary approach encompassing target validation, structural characterization, assay development and hit identification from small-molecule libraries. Here, the strategies used for target selection are described and progress in protein production and structure analysis is reported. Of the 102 selected targets, 84 could be produced in soluble form and the de novo structures of 39 proteins have been determined. The crystal structures of eight of these targets, ranging from hypothetical unknown proteins to metabolic enzymes from different functional classes (PA1645, PA1648, PA2169, PA3770, PA4098, PA4485, PA4992 and PA5259), are reported here. The structural information is expected to provide a firm basis for the improvement of hit compounds identified from fragment-based and high-throughput screening campaigns.

  20. Targeting the Toll of Drug Abuse: The Translational Potential of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Bachtell, Ryan; Hutchinson, Mark R; Wang, Xiaohui; Rice, Kenner C; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    There is growing recognition that glial proinflammatory activation importantly contributes to the rewarding and reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse, including cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, and alcohol. It has recently been proposed that glia are recognizing, and becoming activated by, such drugs as a CNS immunological response to these agents being xenobiotics; that is, substances foreign to the brain. Activation of glia, primarily microglia, by various drugs of abuse occurs via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The detection of such xenobiotics by TLR4 results in the release of glial neuroexcitatory and neurotoxic substances. These glial products of TLR4 activation enhance neuronal excitability within brain reward circuitry, thereby enhancing their rewarding and reinforcing effects. Indeed, selective pharmacological blockade of TLR4 activation, such as with the non-opioid TLR4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone, suppresses a number of indices of drug reward/reinforcement. These include: conditioned place preference, self-administration, drugprimed reinstatement, incubation of craving, and elevations of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine. Notably, TLR4 blockade fails to alter self-administration of food, indicative of a selective effect on drugs of abuse. Genetic disruption of TLR4 signaling recapitulates the effects of pharmacological TLR4 blockade, providing converging lines of evidence of a central importance of TLR4. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence converge to raise TLR4 as a promising therapeutic target for drug abuse.

  1. Drug addiction: targeting dynamic neuroimmune receptor interactions as a potential therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Jonathan Henry W; Hutchinson, Mark R; Mustafa, Sanam

    2016-02-01

    Drug addiction and dependence have proven to be difficult psychiatric disorders to treat. The limited efficacy of neuronally acting medications, such as acamprosate and naltrexone, highlights the need to identify novel targets. Recent research has underscored the importance of the neuroimmune system in many behavioural manifestations of drug addiction. In this review, we propose that our appreciation for complex phenotypes such as drug addiction and dependence will come with a greater understanding that these disorders are the result of intricate, interconnected signalling pathways that are, if only partially, determined at the receptor level. The idea of receptor heteromerisation and receptor mosaics will be introduced to explain cross talk between the receptors and signalling molecules implicated in neuroimmune signalling pathways.

  2. The exciting potential of nanotherapy in brain-tumor targeted drug delivery approaches

    PubMed Central

    Agrahari, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    Delivering therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) and brain-tumor has been a major challenge. The current standard treatment approaches for the brain-tumor comprise of surgical resection followed by immunotherapy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. However, the current treatments are limited in providing significant benefits to the patients and despite recent technological advancements; brain-tumor is still challenging to treat. Brain-tumor therapy is limited by the lack of effective and targeted strategies to deliver chemotherapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is the main obstacle that must be overcome to allow compounds to reach their targets in the brain. Recent advances have boosted the nanotherapeutic approaches in providing an attractive strategy in improving the drug delivery across the BBB and into the CNS. Compared to conventional formulations, nanoformulations offer significant advantages in CNS drug delivery approaches. Considering the above facts, in this review, the physiological/anatomical features of the brain-tumor and the BBB are briefly discussed. The drug transport mechanisms at the BBB are outlined. The approaches to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs across the CNS into the brain-tumor using nanocarriers are summarized. In addition, the challenges that need to be addressed in nanotherapeutic approaches for their enhanced clinical application in brain-tumor therapy are discussed.

  3. Temperature-sensitive polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a potential drug delivery system for targeted therapy of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Koppolu, Bhanuprasanth; Bhavsar, Zarna; Wadajkar, Aniket S; Nattama, Sivaniarvindpriya; Rahimi, Maham; Nwariaku, Fiemu; Nguyen, Kytai T

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and investigate temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide-allylamine)-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (TPMNPs) as possible targeted drug carriers for treatments of advanced thyroid cancer (ATC). These nanoparticles were prepared by free radical polymerization of monomers on the surface of silane-coupled iron oxide nanoparticles. In vitro studies demonstrated that TPMNPs were cytocompatible and effectively taken up by cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. An external magnetic field significantly increased nanoparticle uptake, especially when cells were exposed to physiological flow conditions. Drug loading and release studies using doxorubicin confirmed the temperature-responsive release of drugs from nanoparticles. In addition, doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles significantly killed ATC cells when compared to free doxorubicin. The in vitro results indicate that TPMNPs have potential as targeted and controlled drug carriers for thyroid cancer treatment.

  4. Targeted screen for human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases inhibitors and the evaluation of potential drug-drug interactions with zafirlukast.

    PubMed

    Oda, Shingo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Kutsuno, Yuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Itoh, Tomoo; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki

    2015-06-01

    Inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes is a major mechanism in drug-drug interactions (DDIs). A number of cases of DDIs via inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltranseferases (UGTs) have been reported, although the changes in pharmacokinetics are relatively small in comparison with drugs that are metabolized by cytochrome P450s. Most of the past studies have investigated hepatic UGTs, although recent studies have revealed a significant contribution of UGTs in the small intestine to drug clearance. To evaluate potential DDIs caused by inhibition of intestinal UGTs, we assessed inhibitory effects of 578 compounds, including drugs, xenobiotics, and endobiotics, on human UGT1A8 and UGT1A10, which are major contributors to intestinal glucuronidation. We identified 29 inhibitors by monitoring raloxifene glucuronidation with recombinant UGTs. All of the inhibitors potently inhibited UGT1A1 activity, as well. We found that zafirlukast is a potent general inhibitor of UGT1As and a moderate inhibitor of UGT2Bs because it monitors 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation by recombinant UGTs. However, zafirlukast did not potently inhibit diclofenac glucuronidation, suggesting that the inhibitory effects might be substrate specific. Inhibitory effects of zafirlukast on some UGT substrates were further investigated in human liver and human small intestine microsomes in order to evaluate potential DDIs. The R values (the ratios of intrinsic clearance with and without an inhibitor) revealed that zafirlukast has potential to cause clinical DDIs in the small intestine. Although we could not identify specific UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 inhibitors, zafirlukast was identified as a general inhibitor for UGTs in vitro. The present study suggests that the inhibition of UGT in the small intestine would be an underlying mechanism for DDIs.

  5. Glycosaminoglycans are potential pharmacological targets for classic DNA minor groove binder drugs berenil and pentamidine.

    PubMed

    Zsila, Ferenc

    2015-10-14

    It is shown that the antiprotozoal drugs berenil and pentamidine, conventional minor groove binders of DNA, form non-covalent complexes with polyanionic glycosaminoglycans. Induced circular dichroism (CD) spectra as well as UV hypochromism confirmed drug binding to the asymmetric template of heparin and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The biphasic nature of the CD signals refers to intermolecular chiral exciton coupling between the dicationic guest molecules forming a right- or a left-handed helical array along the GAG chains. Quantitative evaluation of the spectroscopic data measured in pH 7.0 buffer solution (80 mM NaCl) indicated a higher (Ka ∼ 10(6) M(-1) for berenil) and a lower (Ka ∼ 10(5) M(-1) for pentamidine) affinity heparin binding of these agents, similar to that reported for DNA. Drug-chondroitin sulfate complexes (Ka ∼ 10(4)-10(5) M(-1)) could be detected only at low ionic strength. These results imply that besides nucleic acids, GAGs may be another pharmacological targets for diarylamidine drugs.

  6. Proteomic and bioinformatic analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi chemotherapy and potential drug targets: new pieces for an old puzzle.

    PubMed

    Sadok Menna-Barreto, Rubem Figueiredo; Belloze, Kele Teixeira; Perales, Jonas; Silva-Jr, Floriano Paes

    2014-03-01

    Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America and is caused by the protozoan hemoflagellate parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Nowadays, it has also been disseminated to non-endemic countries due to the ease of global mobility. The nitroheterocycle benznidazole is currently used to treat this neglected tropical disease, although this drug causes severe side effects and has limited efficacy during the chronic phase of the disease. Proteomics and bioinformatics have recently become powerful tools in the identification of new drug targets. In the last decade, proteomic profiles of different T. cruzi forms under distinct experimental conditions were assessed. These reports have pointed to many potential drug targets, with ergosterol biosynthesis-related proteins and redox system enzymes being the most promising candidates. Nevertheless, the majority of the compounds active against T. cruzi still have unclear mechanisms of action, and most proteomic efforts have studied epimastigotes (the non-clinically relevant insect form of the parasite). Additional analyses with the clinically relevant parasite forms should be performed to identify proteins that actually bind drugs active against T. cruzi. Nonetheless, due to the known technical hurdles in generating such experimental data, bioinformatic approaches that integrate currently available data to generate additional knowledge will also be useful. Here, we review T. cruzi proteomics and describe the main chemoproteomic methods and their application to the identification of trypanosomatid drug targets. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits of more extensively integrating all proteomic data with other molecular databases via bioinformatic analyses to develop novel, viable strategies for alternative treatments of Chagas disease.

  7. Brucella melitensis Methionyl-tRNA-Synthetase (MetRS), a Potential Drug Target for Brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Kayode K; Ranade, Ranae M; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Dranow, David M; Myers, Janette B; Choi, Ryan; Nakazawa Hewitt, Steve; Edwards, Thomas E; Davies, Douglas R; Lorimer, Donald; Boyle, Stephen M; Barrett, Lynn K; Buckner, Frederick S; Fan, Erkang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Brucella melitensis methionyl-tRNA-synthetase (BmMetRS) with molecular, structural and phenotypic methods to learn if BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. Recombinant BmMetRS was expressed, purified from wild type Brucella melitensis biovar Abortus 2308 strain ATCC/CRP #DD-156 and screened by a thermal melt assay against a focused library of one hundred previously classified methionyl-tRNA-synthetase inhibitors of the blood stage form of Trypanosoma brucei. Three compounds showed appreciable shift of denaturation temperature and were selected for further studies on inhibition of the recombinant enzyme activity and cell viability against wild type B. melitensis strain 16M. BmMetRS protein complexed with these three inhibitors resolved into three-dimensional crystal structures and was analyzed. All three selected methionyl-tRNA-synthetase compounds inhibit recombinant BmMetRS enzymatic functions in an aminoacylation assay at varying concentrations. Furthermore, growth inhibition of B. melitensis strain 16M by the compounds was shown. Inhibitor-BmMetRS crystal structure models were used to illustrate the molecular basis of the enzyme inhibition. Our current data suggests that BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. However, further studies are needed to optimize lead compound potency, efficacy and safety as well as determine the pharmacokinetics, optimal dosage, and duration for effective treatment.

  8. Brucella melitensis Methionyl-tRNA-Synthetase (MetRS), a Potential Drug Target for Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Ranae M.; Zhang, Zhongsheng; Dranow, David M.; Myers, Janette B.; Choi, Ryan; Nakazawa Hewitt, Steve; Edwards, Thomas E.; Davies, Douglas R.; Lorimer, Donald; Boyle, Stephen M.; Barrett, Lynn K.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Fan, Erkang; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Brucella melitensis methionyl-tRNA-synthetase (BmMetRS) with molecular, structural and phenotypic methods to learn if BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. Recombinant BmMetRS was expressed, purified from wild type Brucella melitensis biovar Abortus 2308 strain ATCC/CRP #DD-156 and screened by a thermal melt assay against a focused library of one hundred previously classified methionyl-tRNA-synthetase inhibitors of the blood stage form of Trypanosoma brucei. Three compounds showed appreciable shift of denaturation temperature and were selected for further studies on inhibition of the recombinant enzyme activity and cell viability against wild type B. melitensis strain 16M. BmMetRS protein complexed with these three inhibitors resolved into three-dimensional crystal structures and was analyzed. All three selected methionyl-tRNA-synthetase compounds inhibit recombinant BmMetRS enzymatic functions in an aminoacylation assay at varying concentrations. Furthermore, growth inhibition of B. melitensis strain 16M by the compounds was shown. Inhibitor-BmMetRS crystal structure models were used to illustrate the molecular basis of the enzyme inhibition. Our current data suggests that BmMetRS is a promising target for brucellosis drug development. However, further studies are needed to optimize lead compound potency, efficacy and safety as well as determine the pharmacokinetics, optimal dosage, and duration for effective treatment. PMID:27500735

  9. Identification of potential drug targets by subtractive genome analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7: an in silico approach

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Shakhinur Islam; Ferdous, Sabiha; Jewel, Nurnabi Azad; Akter, Arzuba; Mahmud, Zabed; Islam, Md Muzahidul; Afrin, Tanzila; Karim, Nurul

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial enteric infections resulting in diarrhea, dysentery, or enteric fever constitute a huge public health problem, with more than a billion episodes of disease annually in developing and developed countries. In this study, the deadly agent of hemorrhagic diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome, Escherichia coli O157:H7 was investigated with extensive computational approaches aimed at identifying novel and broad-spectrum antibiotic targets. A systematic in silico workflow consisting of comparative genomics, metabolic pathways analysis, and additional drug prioritizing parameters was used to identify novel drug targets that were essential for the pathogen’s survival but absent in its human host. Comparative genomic analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotated metabolic pathways identified 350 putative target proteins in E. coli O157:H7 which showed no similarity to human proteins. Further bio-informatic approaches including prediction of subcellular localization, calculation of molecular weight, and web-based investigation of 3D structural characteristics greatly aided in filtering the potential drug targets from 350 to 120. Ultimately, 44 non-homologous essential proteins of E. coli O157:H7 were prioritized and proved to have the eligibility to become novel broad-spectrum antibiotic targets and DNA polymerase III alpha (dnaE) was the top-ranked among these targets. Moreover, druggability of each of the identified drug targets was evaluated by the DrugBank database. In addition, 3D structure of the dnaE was modeled and explored further for in silico docking with ligands having potential druggability. Finally, we confirmed that the compounds N-coeleneterazine and N-(1,4-dihydro-5H-tetrazol-5-ylidene)-9-oxo-9H-xanthene-2-sulfon-amide were the most suitable ligands of dnaE and hence proposed as the potential inhibitors of this target protein. The results of this study could facilitate the discovery and release of new and effective drugs against E

  10. Targeting drugs to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Heller, Anne; Brockhoff, Gero; Goepferich, Achim

    2012-09-01

    Mitochondria are of an increasing interest in pharmaceutical and medical research since it has been reported that dysfunction of these organelles contributes to several diseases with a great diversity of clinical appearance. By the fact that mitochondria are located inside the cell and, in turn, origins of mitochondrial diseases or targets of drugs are located inside mitochondria, a drug molecule has to cross several barriers. This is a severe drawback for the selective accumulation of drug molecules in mitochondria. Therefore, targeting strategies such as direct drug modification or encapsulation into nanocarriers have to be applied to achieve an accumulation of drug molecules in these organelles. In this review, it will be demonstrated how properties and dysfunctions of mitochondria are generating a need for the development of mitochondria specific therapies. Furthermore, intracellular targets of mitochondrial diseases, strategies to utilize mitochondrial specificities and targeting approaches will be discussed. Finally, techniques to investigate mitochondrial characteristics and functionality are reviewed.

  11. Direct AKAP-mediated protein-protein interactions as potential drug targets.

    PubMed

    Hundsrucker, C; Klussmann, E

    2008-01-01

    A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are a diverse family of about 50 scaffolding proteins. They are defined by the presence of a structurally conserved protein kinase A (PKA)-binding domain. AKAPs tether PKA and other signalling proteins such as further protein kinases, protein phosphatases and phosphodiesterases by direct protein-protein interactions to cellular compartments. Thus, AKAPs form the basis of signalling modules that integrate cellular signalling processes and limit these to defined sites. Disruption of AKAP functions by gene targeting, knockdown approaches and, in particular, pharmacological disruption of defined AKAP-dependent protein-protein interactions has revealed key roles of AKAPs in numerous processes, including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractility and vasopressin-mediated water reabsorption in the kidney. Dysregulation of such processes causes diseases, including cardiovascular and renal disorders. In this review, we discuss AKAP functions elucidated by gene targeting and knockdown approaches, but mainly focus on studies utilizing peptides for disruption of direct AKAP-mediated protein-protein interactions. The latter studies point to direct AKAP-mediated protein-protein interactions as targets for novel drugs.

  12. The Metaboloepigenetic Dimension of Cancer Stem Cells: Evaluating the Market Potential for New Metabostemness-Targeting Oncology Drugs.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    The current global portfolio of oncology drugs is unlikely to produce durable disease remission for millions of cancer patients worldwide. This is due, in part, to the existence of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), a particularly aggressive type of malignant cell that is capable of indefinite self-replication, is refractory to conventional treatments, and is skilled at spreading and colonizing distant organs. To date, no drugs from big-league Pharma companies are capable of killing CSCs. Why? Quite simply, a classic drug development approach based on mutated genes and pathological protein products cannot efficiently target the plastic, epigenetic proclivity of cancer tissues to generate CSCs. Recent studies have proposed that certain elite metabolites (oncometabolites) and other common metabolites can significantly influence the establishment and maintenance of epigenetic signatures of stemness and cancer. Consequently, cellular metabolism and the core epigenetic codes, DNA methylation and histone modification, can be better viewed as an integrated metaboloepigenetic dimension of CSCs, which we have recently termed cancer metabostemness. By targeting weaknesses in the bridge connecting metabolism and epigenetics, a new generation of metabostemnessspecific drugs can be generated for potent and long-lasting elimination of life-threatening CSCs. Here I evaluate the market potential of re-modeling the oncology drug pipeline by discovering and developing new metabolic approaches able to target the apparently undruggable epigenetic programs that dynamically regulate the plasticity of non-CSC and CSC cellular states.

  13. Giardia fatty acyl-CoA synthetases as potential drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fengguang; Ortega-Pierres, Guadalupe; Argüello-García, Raúl; Zhang, Haili; Zhu, Guan

    2015-01-01

    Giardiasis caused by Giardia intestinalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. duodenalis) is one of the leading causes of diarrheal parasitic diseases worldwide. Although limited drugs to treat giardiasis are available, there are concerns regarding toxicity in some patients and the emerging drug resistance. By data-mining genome sequences, we observed that G. intestinalis is incapable of synthesizing fatty acids (FA) de novo. However, this parasite has five long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases (GiACS1 to GiACS5) to activate FA scavenged from the host. ACS is an essential enzyme because FA need to be activated to form acyl-CoA thioesters before they can enter subsequent metabolism. In the present study, we performed experiments to explore whether some GiACS enzymes could serve as drug targets in Giardia. Based on the high-throughput datasets and protein modeling analyses, we initially studied the GiACS1 and GiACS2, because genes encoding these two enzymes were found to be more consistently expressed in varied parasite life cycle stages and when interacting with host cells based on previously reported transcriptome data. These two proteins were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins. Biochemical analysis revealed that both had apparent substrate preference toward palmitic acid (C16:0) and myristic acid (C14:0), and allosteric or Michaelis–Menten kinetics on palmitic acid or ATP. The ACS inhibitor triacsin C inhibited the activity of both enzymes (IC50 = 1.56 μM, Ki = 0.18 μM for GiACS1, and IC50 = 2.28 μM, Ki = 0.23 μM for GiACS2, respectively) and the growth of G. intestinalis in vitro (IC50 = 0.8 μM). As expected from giardial evolutionary characteristics, both GiACSs displayed differences in overall folding structure as compared with their human counterparts. These observations support the notion that some of the GiACS enzymes may be explored as drug targets in this parasite. PMID:26257723

  14. Targeting Prefrontal Cortical Systems for Drug Development: Potential Therapies for Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Arnsten, Amy F.T.; Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Medications to treat cognitive disorders are increasingly needed, yet researchers have had few successes in this challenging arena. Cognitive abilities in primates arise from highly evolved N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor circuits in layer III of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These circuits have unique modulatory needs that can differ from the layer V neurons that predominate in rodents, but they offer multiple therapeutic targets. Cognitive improvement often requires low doses that enhance the pattern of information held in working memory, whereas higher doses can produce nonspecific changes that obscure information. Identifying appropriate doses for clinical trials may be helped by assessments in monkeys and by flexible, individualized dose designs. The use of guanfacine (Intuniv) for prefrontal cortical disorders was based on research in monkeys, supporting this approach. Coupling our knowledge of higher primate circuits with the powerful methods now available in drug design will help create effective treatments for cognitive disorders. PMID:26738476

  15. Molecular docking and structure-based virtual screening studies of potential drug target, CAAX prenyl proteases, of Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shalini; Vijaya Prabhu, Sitrarasu; Suryanarayanan, Venkatesan; Bhardwaj, Ruchika; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Targeting CAAX prenyl proteases of Leishmania donovani can be a good approach towards developing a drug molecule against Leishmaniasis. We have modeled the structure of CAAX prenyl protease I and II of L. donovani, using homology modeling approach. The structures were further validated using Ramachandran plot and ProSA. Active site prediction has shown difference in the amino acid residues present at the active site of CAAX prenyl protease I and CAAX prenyl protease II. The electrostatic potential surface of the CAAX prenyl protease I and II has revealed that CAAX prenyl protease I has more electropositive and electronegative potentials as compared CAAX prenyl protease II suggesting significant difference in their activity. Molecular docking with known bisubstrate analog inhibitors of protein farnesyl transferase and peptidyl (acyloxy) methyl ketones reveals significant binding of these molecules with CAAX prenyl protease I, but comparatively less binding with CAAX prenyl protease II. New and potent inhibitors were also found using structure-based virtual screening. The best docked compounds obtained from virtual screening were subjected to induced fit docking to get best docked configurations. Prediction of drug-like characteristics has revealed that the best docked compounds are in line with Lipinski's rule. Moreover, best docked protein-ligand complexes of CAAX prenyl protease I and II are found to be stable throughout 20 ns simulation. Overall, the study has identified potent drug molecules targeting CAAX prenyl protease I and II of L. donovani whose drug candidature can be verified further using biochemical and cellular studies.

  16. FK506-Binding Protein 10, a Potential Novel Drug Target for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia A.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Knüppel, Larissa; Maul, Julia; Heinzelmann, Katharina; Juan-Guardela, Brenda M.; Hennen, Elisabeth; Preissler, Gerhard; Winter, Hauke; Neurohr, Claus; Hatz, Rudolf; Lindner, Michael; Behr, Jürgen; Kaminski, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    secretion by phLF. Conclusions: FKBP10 might be a novel drug target for IPF. PMID:26039104

  17. Neuropeptide receptors as potential drug targets in the treatment of inflammatory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, Erika; Pozsgai, Gábor; Hajna, Zsófia; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Szolcsányi, János

    2014-01-01

    Cross-talk between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems exists via regulator molecules, such as neuropeptides, hormones and cytokines. A number of neuropeptides have been implicated in the genesis of inflammation, such as tachykinins and calcitonin gene-related peptide. Development of their receptor antagonists could be a promising approach to anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy. Anti-inflammatory neuropeptides, such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, urocortin, adrenomedullin, somatostatin, cortistatin, ghrelin, galanin and opioid peptides, are also released and act on their own receptors on the neurons as well as on different inflammatory and immune cells. The aim of the present review is to summarize the most prominent data of preclinical animal studies concerning the main pharmacological effects of ligands acting on the neuropeptide receptors. Promising therapeutic impacts of these compounds as potential candidates for the development of novel types of anti-inflammatory drugs are also discussed. PMID:23432438

  18. The Response Regulator BfmR Is a Potential Drug Target for Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Akshay; Beanan, Janet M.; Olson, Ruth; MacDonald, Ulrike; Graham, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Identification and validation is the first phase of target-based antimicrobial development. BfmR (RstA), a response regulator in a two-component signal transduction system (TCS) in Acinetobacter baumannii, is an intriguing potential antimicrobial target. A unique characteristic of BfmR is that its inhibition would have the dual benefit of significantly decreasing in vivo survival and increasing sensitivity to selected antimicrobials. Studies on the clinically relevant strain AB307-0294 have shown BfmR to be essential in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that this phenotype in strains AB307-0294 and AB908 is mediated, in part, by enabling growth in human ascites fluid and serum. Further, BfmR conferred resistance to complement-mediated bactericidal activity that was independent of capsular polysaccharide. Importantly, BfmR also increased resistance to the clinically important antimicrobials meropenem and colistin. BfmR was highly conserved among A. baumannii strains. The crystal structure of the receiver domain of BfmR was determined, lending insight into putative ligand binding sites. This enabled an in silico ligand binding analysis and a blind docking strategy to assess use as a potential druggable target. Predicted binding hot spots exist at the homodimer interface and the phosphorylation site. These data support pursuing the next step in the development process, which includes determining the degree of inhibition needed to impact growth/survival and the development a BfmR activity assay amenable to high-throughput screening for the identification of inhibitors. Such agents would represent a new class of antimicrobials active against A. baumannii which could be active against other Gram-negative bacilli that possess a TCS with shared homology. IMPORTANCE Increasing antibiotic resistance in bacteria, particularly Gram-negative bacilli, has significantly affected the ability of physicians to treat infections, with resultant increased morbidity, mortality, and

  19. DYRK1A: a potential drug target for multiple Down syndrome neuropathologies.

    PubMed

    Becker, Walter; Soppa, Ulf; Tejedor, Francisco J

    2014-02-01

    Down syndrome (DS), the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability, is caused by the trisomy of chromosome 21. MNB/DYRK1A (Minibrain/dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A) has possibly been the most extensively studied chromosome 21 gene during the last decade due to the remarkable correlation of its functions in the brain with important DS neuropathologies, such as neuronal deficits, dendrite atrophy, spine dysgenesis, precocious Alzheimer's-like neurodegeneration, and cognitive deficits. MNB/DYRK1A has become an attractive drug target because increasing evidence suggests that its overexpression may induce DS-like neurobiological alterations, and several small-molecule inhibitors of its protein kinase activity are available. Here, we summarize the functional complexity of MNB/DYRK1A from a DS-research perspective, paying particular attention to the capacity of different MNB/DYRK1A inhibitors to reverse the neurobiological alterations caused by the increased activity of MNB/DYRK1A in experimental models. Finally, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of possible MNB/DYRK1A-based therapeutic strategies that result from the functional, molecular, and pharmacological complexity of MNB/DYRK1A.

  20. Medicinal Chemistry of ATP Synthase: A Potential Drug Target of Dietary Polyphenols and Amphibian Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss the inhibitory effects of dietary polyphenols and amphibian antimicrobial/antitumor peptides on ATP synthase. In the beginning general structural features highlighting catalytic and motor functions of ATP synthase will be described. Some details on the presence of ATP synthase on the surface of several animal cell types, where it is associated with multiple cellular processes making it an interesting drug target with respect to dietary polyphenols and amphibian antimicrobial peptides will also be reviewed. ATP synthase is known to have distinct polyphenol and peptide binding sites at the interface of α/β subunits. Molecular interaction of polyphenols and peptides with ATP synthase at their respective binding sites will be discussed. Binding and inhibition of other proteins or enzymes will also be covered so as to understand the therapeutic roles of both types of molecules. Lastly, the effects of polyphenols and peptides on the inhibition of Escherichia coli cell growth through their action on ATP synthase will also be presented. PMID:20586714

  1. PPAR{alpha} is a potential therapeutic target of drugs to treat circadian rhythm sleep disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Hidenori; Oishi, Katsutaka; Kudo, Takashi; Shibata, Shigenobu; Ishida, Norio . E-mail: n.ishida@aist.go.jp

    2007-06-08

    Recent progress at the molecular level has revealed that nuclear receptors play an important role in the generation of mammalian circadian rhythms. To examine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is involved in the regulation of circadian behavioral rhythms in mammals, we evaluated the locomotor activity of mice administered with the hypolipidemic PPAR{alpha} ligand, bezafibrate. Circadian locomotor activity was phase-advanced about 3 h in mice given bezafibrate under light-dark (LD) conditions. Transfer from LD to constant darkness did not change the onset of activity in these mice, suggesting that bezafibrate advanced the phase of the endogenous clock. Surprisingly, bezafibrate also advanced the phase in mice with lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN; the central clock in mammals). The circadian expression of clock genes such as period2, BMAL1, and Rev-erb{alpha} was also phase-advanced in various tissues (cortex, liver, and fat) without affecting the SCN. Bezafibrate also phase-advanced the activity phase that is delayed in model mice with delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) due to a Clock gene mutation. Our results indicated that PPAR{alpha} is involved in circadian clock control independently of the SCN and that PPAR{alpha} could be a potent target of drugs to treat circadian rhythm sleep disorders including DSPS.

  2. Utilizing Functional Genomics Screening to Identify Potentially Novel Drug Targets in Cancer Cell Spheroid Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Eamonn; Wai, Patty; Leonidou, Andri; Bland, Philip; Khalique, Saira; Farnie, Gillian; Daley, Frances; Peck, Barrie; Natrajan, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    The identification of functional driver events in cancer is central to furthering our understanding of cancer biology and indispensable for the discovery of the next generation of novel drug targets. It is becoming apparent that more complex models of cancer are required to fully appreciate the contributing factors that drive tumorigenesis in vivo and increase the efficacy of novel therapies that make the transition from pre-clinical models to clinical trials. Here we present a methodology for generating uniform and reproducible tumor spheroids that can be subjected to siRNA functional screening. These spheroids display many characteristics that are found in solid tumors that are not present in traditional two-dimension culture. We show that several commonly used breast cancer cell lines are amenable to this protocol. Furthermore, we provide proof-of-principle data utilizing the breast cancer cell line BT474, confirming their dependency on amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor HER2 and mutation of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate 3-kinase (PIK3CA) when grown as tumor spheroids. Finally, we are able to further investigate and confirm the spatial impact of these dependencies using immunohistochemistry. PMID:28060271

  3. Small Molecules from Nature Targeting G-Protein Coupled Cannabinoid Receptors: Potential Leads for Drug Discovery and Development

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Charu; Sadek, Bassem; Goyal, Sameer N.; Sinha, Satyesh; Ojha, Shreesh

    2015-01-01

    The cannabinoid molecules are derived from Cannabis sativa plant which acts on the cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) which have been explored as potential therapeutic targets for drug discovery and development. Currently, there are numerous cannabinoid based synthetic drugs used in clinical practice like the popular ones such as nabilone, dronabinol, and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol mediates its action through CB1/CB2 receptors. However, these synthetic based Cannabis derived compounds are known to exert adverse psychiatric effect and have also been exploited for drug abuse. This encourages us to find out an alternative and safe drug with the least psychiatric adverse effects. In recent years, many phytocannabinoids have been isolated from plants other than Cannabis. Several studies have shown that these phytocannabinoids show affinity, potency, selectivity, and efficacy towards cannabinoid receptors and inhibit endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes, thus reducing hyperactivity of endocannabinoid systems. Also, these naturally derived molecules possess the least adverse effects opposed to the synthetically derived cannabinoids. Therefore, the plant based cannabinoid molecules proved to be promising and emerging therapeutic alternative. The present review provides an overview of therapeutic potential of ligands and plants modulating cannabinoid receptors that may be of interest to pharmaceutical industry in search of new and safer drug discovery and development for future therapeutics. PMID:26664449

  4. microRNAs of parasitic helminths – Identification, characterization and potential as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D.; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. They were first identified in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where the miRNAs lin-4 and let-7 were shown to be essential for regulating correct developmental progression. The sequence of let-7 was subsequently found to be conserved in higher organisms and changes in expression of let-7, as well as other miRNAs, are associated with certain cancers, indicating important regulatory roles. Some miRNAs have been shown to have essential functions, but the roles of many are currently unknown. With the increasing availability of genome sequence data, miRNAs have now been identified from a number of parasitic helminths, by deep sequencing of small RNA libraries and bioinformatic approaches. While some miRNAs are widely conserved in a range of organisms, others are helminth-specific and many are novel to each species. Here we review the potential roles of miRNAs in regulating helminth development, in interacting with the host environment and in development of drug resistance. Use of fluorescently-labeled small RNAs demonstrates uptake by parasites, at least in vitro. Therefore delivery of miRNA inhibitors or mimics has potential to alter miRNA activity, providing a useful tool for probing the roles of miRNAs and suggesting novel routes to therapeutics for parasite control. PMID:25057458

  5. The fibrogenic actions of lung fibroblast-derived urokinase: a potential drug target in IPF

    PubMed Central

    Schuliga, Michael; Jaffar, Jade; Harris, Trudi; Knight, Darryl A; Westall, Glen; Stewart, Alastair G

    2017-01-01

    The role of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains unclear. uPA-generated plasmin has potent fibrogenic actions involving protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Here we characterize uPA distribution or levels in lung tissue and sera from IPF patients to establish the mechanism of its fibrogenic actions on lung fibroblasts (LFs). uPA immunoreactivity was detected in regions of fibrosis including fibroblasts of lung tissue from IPF patients (n = 7). Serum uPA levels and activity were also higher in IPF patients (n = 18) than controls (n = 18) (P < 0.05), being negatively correlated with lung function as measured by forced vital capacity (FVC) %predicted (P < 0.05). The culture supernatants of LFs from IPF patients, as compared to controls, showed an increase in plasmin activity after plasminogen incubation (5–15 μg/mL), corresponding with increased levels of uPA and IL-6 (n = 5–6, P < 0.05). Plasminogen-induced increases in plasmin activity and IL-6 levels were attenuated by reducing uPA and/or PAR-1 expression by RNAi. Plasmin(ogen)-induced mitogenesis was also attenuated by targeting uPA, PAR-1 or IL-6. Our data shows uPA is formed in active regions of fibrosis in IPF lung and contributes to LF plasmin generation, IL-6 production and proliferation. Urokinase is a potential target for the treatment of lung fibrosis. PMID:28139758

  6. Marketed Drugs Can Inhibit Cytochrome P450 27A1, a Potential New Target for Breast Cancer Adjuvant Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mast, Natalia; Lin, Joseph B; Pikuleva, Irina A

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 CYP27A1 is the only enzyme in humans converting cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, an oxysterol of multiple functions, including tissue-specific modulation of estrogen and liver X receptors. Both receptors seem to mediate adverse effects of 27-hydroxycholesterol in breast cancer when the levels of this oxysterol are elevated. The present work assessed druggability of CYP27A1 as a potential antibreast cancer target. We selected 26 anticancer and noncancer medications, most approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and evaluated them first in vitro for inhibition of purified recombinant CYP27A1 and binding to the enzyme active site. Six strong CYP27A1 inhibitors/binders were identified. These were the two antibreast cancer pharmaceuticals anastrozole and fadrozole, antiprostate cancer drug bicalutamide, sedative dexmedetomidine, and two antifungals ravuconazole and posaconazole. Anastrozole was then tested in vivo on mice, which received subcutaneous drug injections for 1 week. Mouse plasma and hepatic 27-hydroxycholesterol levels were decreased 2.6- and 1.6-fold, respectively, whereas plasma and hepatic cholesterol content remained unchanged. Thus, pharmacologic CYP27A1 inhibition is possible in the whole body and individual organs, but does not negatively affect cholesterol elimination. Our results enhance the potential of CYP27A1 as an antibreast cancer target, could be of importance for the interpretation of Femara versus Anastrozole Clinical Evaluation Trial, and bring attention to posaconazole as a potential complementary anti-breast cancer medication. More medications on the US market may have unanticipated off-target inhibition of CYP27A1, and we propose strategies for their identification.

  7. Marketed Drugs Can Inhibit Cytochrome P450 27A1, a Potential New Target for Breast Cancer Adjuvant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Natalia; Lin, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 CYP27A1 is the only enzyme in humans converting cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, an oxysterol of multiple functions, including tissue-specific modulation of estrogen and liver X receptors. Both receptors seem to mediate adverse effects of 27-hydroxycholesterol in breast cancer when the levels of this oxysterol are elevated. The present work assessed druggability of CYP27A1 as a potential antibreast cancer target. We selected 26 anticancer and noncancer medications, most approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and evaluated them first in vitro for inhibition of purified recombinant CYP27A1 and binding to the enzyme active site. Six strong CYP27A1 inhibitors/binders were identified. These were the two antibreast cancer pharmaceuticals anastrozole and fadrozole, antiprostate cancer drug bicalutamide, sedative dexmedetomidine, and two antifungals ravuconazole and posaconazole. Anastrozole was then tested in vivo on mice, which received subcutaneous drug injections for 1 week. Mouse plasma and hepatic 27-hydroxycholesterol levels were decreased 2.6- and 1.6-fold, respectively, whereas plasma and hepatic cholesterol content remained unchanged. Thus, pharmacologic CYP27A1 inhibition is possible in the whole body and individual organs, but does not negatively affect cholesterol elimination. Our results enhance the potential of CYP27A1 as an antibreast cancer target, could be of importance for the interpretation of Femara versus Anastrozole Clinical Evaluation Trial, and bring attention to posaconazole as a potential complementary anti-breast cancer medication. More medications on the US market may have unanticipated off-target inhibition of CYP27A1, and we propose strategies for their identification. PMID:26082378

  8. Hippo signaling pathway in liver and pancreas: the potential drug target for tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Kong, Delin; Zhao, Yicheng; Men, Tong; Teng, Chun-Bo

    2015-02-01

    Cell behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, are intricately controlled during organ development and tissue regeneration. In the past 9 years, the Hippo signaling pathway has been delineated to play critical roles in organ size control, tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis through regulating cell behaviors. In mammals, the core modules of the Hippo signaling pathway include the MST1/2-LATS1/2 kinase cascade and the transcriptional co-activators YAP/TAZ. The activity of YAP/TAZ is suppressed by cytoplasmic retention due to phosphorylation in the canonical MST1/2-LATS1/2 kinase cascade-dependent manner or the non-canonical MST1/2- and/or LATS1/2-independent manner. Hippo signaling pathway, which can be activated or inactivated by cell polarity, contact inhibition, mechanical stretch and extracellular factors, has been demonstrated to be involved in development and tumorigenesis of liver and pancreas. In addition, we have summarized several small molecules currently available that can target Hippo-YAP pathway for potential treatment of hepatic and pancreatic cancers, providing clues for other YAP initiated cancers therapy as well.

  9. Core Proteomic Analysis of Unique Metabolic Pathways of Salmonella enterica for the Identification of Potential Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Infections caused by Salmonella enterica, a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacteria belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae, are major threats to the health of humans and animals. The recent availability of complete genome data of pathogenic strains of the S. enterica gives new avenues for the identification of drug targets and drug candidates. We have used the genomic and metabolic pathway data to identify pathways and proteins essential to the pathogen and absent from the host. Methods We took the whole proteome sequence data of 42 strains of S. enterica and Homo sapiens along with KEGG-annotated metabolic pathway data, clustered proteins sequences using CD-HIT, identified essential genes using DEG database and discarded S. enterica homologs of human proteins in unique metabolic pathways (UMPs) and characterized hypothetical proteins with SVM-prot and InterProScan. Through this core proteomic analysis we have identified enzymes essential to the pathogen. Results The identification of 73 enzymes common in 42 strains of S. enterica is the real strength of the current study. We proposed all 73 unexplored enzymes as potential drug targets against the infections caused by the S. enterica. The study is comprehensive around S. enterica and simultaneously considered every possible pathogenic strain of S. enterica. This comprehensiveness turned the current study significant since, to the best of our knowledge it is the first subtractive core proteomic analysis of the unique metabolic pathways applied to any pathogen for the identification of drug targets. We applied extensive computational methods to shortlist few potential drug targets considering the druggability criteria e.g. Non-homologous to the human host, essential to the pathogen and playing significant role in essential metabolic pathways of the pathogen (i.e. S. enterica). In the current study, the subtractive proteomics through a novel approach was applied i.e. by considering only proteins

  10. Strategies of targeting oral drug delivery systems to the colon and their potential use for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Khan, Mansoor A

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Often, surgical intervention remains the choice in treating CRC. Traditional dosage forms used for treating CRC deliver drug to wanted as well as unwanted sites of drug action resulting in several adverse side effects. Targeted oral drug delivery systems are being investigated to target and deliver chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents directly to colon and rectum. Site-specific delivery of a drug to colon increases its concentration at the target site, and thus requires a lower dose with reduced incidence of side effects. The major obstacle to be overcome for successful targeting of drug to colon through oral route is that drug absorption/degradation must be avoided in stomach and small intestine before the dosage form reaches colon. The review includes discussion of physiological factors that must be considered when targeting drugs directly to colorectal region, an outline on drugs used for treatment and prevention of CRC, and a brief description of various types of colon-targeted oral drug delivery systems. The focus is on the assessment of various formulation approaches being investigated for oral colon-specific delivery of drugs used in the treatment and prevention of CRC.

  11. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Aminoglycosides Resistant and Susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates for Exploring Potential Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Divakar; Kumar, Bhavnesh; Lata, Manju; Joshi, Beenu; Venkatesan, Krishnamurthy; Shukla, Sangeeta; Bisht, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    Aminoglycosides, amikacin (AK) and kanamycin (KM) are second line anti-tuberculosis drugs used to treat tuberculosis (TB) and resistance to them affects the treatment. Membrane and membrane associated proteins have an anticipated role in biological processes and pathogenesis and are potential targets for the development of new diagnostics/vaccine/therapeutics. In this study we compared membrane and membrane associated proteins of AK and KM resistant and susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and bioinformatic tools. Twelve proteins were found to have increased intensities (PDQuest Advanced Software) in resistant isolates and were identified as ATP synthase subunit alpha (Rv1308), Trigger factor (Rv2462c), Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Rv0462), Elongation factor Tu (Rv0685), Transcriptional regulator MoxR1(Rv1479), Universal stress protein (Rv2005c), 35kDa hypothetical protein (Rv2744c), Proteasome subunit alpha (Rv2109c), Putative short-chain type dehydrogenase/reductase (Rv0148), Bacterioferritin (Rv1876), Ferritin (Rv3841) and Alpha-crystallin/HspX (Rv2031c). Among these Rv2005c, Rv2744c and Rv0148 are proteins with unknown functions. Docking showed that both drugs bind to the conserved domain (Usp, PspA and SDR domain) of these hypothetical proteins and GPS-PUP predicted potential pupylation sites within them. Increased intensities of these proteins and proteasome subunit alpha might not only be neutralized/modulated the drug molecules but also involved in protein turnover to overcome the AK and KM resistance. Besides that Rv1876, Rv3841 and Rv0685 were found to be associated with iron regulation signifying the role of iron in resistance. Further research is needed to explore how these potential protein targets contribute to resistance of AK and KM. PMID:26436944

  12. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Aminoglycosides Resistant and Susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates for Exploring Potential Drug Targets.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divakar; Kumar, Bhavnesh; Lata, Manju; Joshi, Beenu; Venkatesan, Krishnamurthy; Shukla, Sangeeta; Bisht, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    Aminoglycosides, amikacin (AK) and kanamycin (KM) are second line anti-tuberculosis drugs used to treat tuberculosis (TB) and resistance to them affects the treatment. Membrane and membrane associated proteins have an anticipated role in biological processes and pathogenesis and are potential targets for the development of new diagnostics/vaccine/therapeutics. In this study we compared membrane and membrane associated proteins of AK and KM resistant and susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by 2DE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and bioinformatic tools. Twelve proteins were found to have increased intensities (PDQuest Advanced Software) in resistant isolates and were identified as ATP synthase subunit alpha (Rv1308), Trigger factor (Rv2462c), Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Rv0462), Elongation factor Tu (Rv0685), Transcriptional regulator MoxR1(Rv1479), Universal stress protein (Rv2005c), 35kDa hypothetical protein (Rv2744c), Proteasome subunit alpha (Rv2109c), Putative short-chain type dehydrogenase/reductase (Rv0148), Bacterioferritin (Rv1876), Ferritin (Rv3841) and Alpha-crystallin/HspX (Rv2031c). Among these Rv2005c, Rv2744c and Rv0148 are proteins with unknown functions. Docking showed that both drugs bind to the conserved domain (Usp, PspA and SDR domain) of these hypothetical proteins and GPS-PUP predicted potential pupylation sites within them. Increased intensities of these proteins and proteasome subunit alpha might not only be neutralized/modulated the drug molecules but also involved in protein turnover to overcome the AK and KM resistance. Besides that Rv1876, Rv3841 and Rv0685 were found to be associated with iron regulation signifying the role of iron in resistance. Further research is needed to explore how these potential protein targets contribute to resistance of AK and KM.

  13. Scaffold proteins LACK and TRACK as potential drug targets in kinetoplastid parasites: Development of inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Qvit, Nir; Schechtman, Deborah; Pena, Darlene Aparecida; Berti, Denise Aparecida; Soares, Chrislaine Oliveira; Miao, Qianqian; Liang, Liying (Annie); Baron, Lauren A.; Teh-Poot, Christian; Martínez-Vega, Pedro; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Churchill, Eric; Cunningham, Anna D.; Malkovskiy, Andrey V.; Federspiel, Nancy A.; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia; Manso Alves, Maria Julia; Jardim, Armando; Momar, Ndao; Dumonteil, Eric; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases cause ∼500,000 deaths annually and remain a major challenge for therapeutic development. Using a rational design based approach, we developed peptide inhibitors with anti-parasitic activity that were derived from the sequences of parasite scaffold proteins LACK (Leishmania's receptor for activated C-kinase) and TRACK (Trypanosomareceptor for activated C-kinase). We hypothesized that sequences in LACK and TRACK that are conserved in the parasites, but not in the mammalian ortholog, RACK (Receptor for activated C-kinase), may be interaction sites for signaling proteins that are critical for the parasites' viability. One of these peptides exhibited leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity in culture. Moreover, in infected mice, this peptide was also effective in reducing parasitemia and increasing survival without toxic effects. The identified peptide is a promising new anti-parasitic drug lead, as its unique features may limit toxicity and drug-resistance, thus overcoming central limitations of most anti-parasitic drugs. PMID:27054066

  14. Network-Based Approach to Identify Potential Targets and Drugs that Promote Neuroprotection and Neurorepair in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiwei; Liu, Hailong; Lin, Yongzhong; Liu, Guangming; Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Pengyao; Yang, Xiaohan; Zheng, Tiezheng; Fan, Ming; Zhou, Xuezhong; Meng, Jun; Sun, Changkai

    2017-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) accounts for more than 80% of the approximately 610,000 new stroke cases worldwide every year. Both ischemia and reperfusion can cause death, damage, and functional changes of affected nerve cells, and these alterations can result in high rates of disability and mortality. Therefore, therapies aimed at increasing neuroprotection and neurorepair would make significant contributions to AIS management. However, with regard to AIS therapies, there is currently a large gap between experimental achievements and practical clinical solutions (EC-GAP-AIS). Here, by integrating curated disease-gene associations and interactome network known to be related to AIS, we investigated the molecular network mechanisms of multi-module structures underlying AIS, which might be relevant to the time frame subtypes of AIS. In addition, the EC-GAP-AIS phenomenon was confirmed and elucidated by the shortest path lengths and the inconsistencies in the molecular functionalities and overlapping pathways between AIS-related genes and drug targets. Furthermore, we identified 23 potential targets (e.g. ADORA3, which is involved in the regulation of cellular reprogramming and the extracellular matrix) and 46 candidate drugs (e.g. felbamate, methylphenobarbital and memantine) that may have value for the treatment of AIS. PMID:28054643

  15. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  16. SW43-DOX ± loading onto drug-eluting bead, a potential new targeted drug delivery platform for systemic and locoregional cancer treatment – An in vitro evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Johannes M.; Gai, Yongkang; Sun, Lingyi; Xiang, Guangya; Zeng, Dexing; Kim, Hyun S.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of unresectable primary cancer and their distant metastases, with the liver representing one of the most frequent location, is still plagued by insufficient treatment success and poor survival rates. The Sigma-2 receptor is preferentially expressed on many tumor cells making it an appealing target for therapy. Thus, we developed a potential targeted drug conjugate consisting of the Sigma-2 receptor ligand SW43 and Doxorubicin (SW43-DOX) for systemic cancer therapy and for locoregional treatment of primary and secondary liver malignancies when loaded onto drug-eluting bead (DEB) which was compared in vitro to the treatment with Doxorubicin alone. SW43-DOX binds specifically to the Sigma-2 receptor expressed on hepatocellular (Hep G2, Hep 3B), pancreatic (Panc-1) and colorectal (HT-29) carcinoma cell lines with high affinity and subsequent early specific internalization. Free SW43-DOX showed superior concentration and time depended cancer toxicity than treatment with Doxorubicin alone. Action mechanisms analysis revealed an apoptotic cell death with increased caspase 3/7 activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Only ROS scavenging with α-Tocopherol, but not the caspase inhibition (Z-VAD-FMK), partly reverted the effect. SW43-DOX could successfully be loaded onto DEB and showed prolonged eluting kinetics compared to Doxorubicin. SW43-DOX loaded DEB vs. Doxorubicin loaded DEB showed a significantly greater time dependent toxicity in all cell lines. In conclusion, the novel conjugate SW43-DOX ± loading onto DEB is a promising drug delivery platform for targeted systemic and locoregional cancer therapy. PMID:27262893

  17. Participation of epidermal langerhans cells in human pathology and their potential as targets for drug development: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ayala-García, Isai; Hernández-Segura, Ana Martha; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés; Alvarez Pérez, S Judith; Téllez, Beatriz Hernández; Ramírez-González, María Dolores

    2005-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LC) are antigen presenting cells of the epidermis originated from bone marrow progenitors that arrive into the epidermis through the blood vessels LC are also referred to as dendritic cells. In the presence of antigens LC become activated and migrate from the skin to the lymph nodes where they induce T cells responses, therefore, LC function as sentinels of the epidermis and constitute, in part the Skin Immune System (SIS). LC have been implicated in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of diverse diseases such as atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and melanoma, among others. The aim of this review is to draw the attention of pharmacologists towards LC as targets for drug action and drug development due to their immunesurveillance function. LC modulate the SIS as an endogenous mechanism of defense against many infectious agents, xenobiotics, and for the treatment of cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases. A review of the literature on LC is presented here giving emphasis to LC cell cycle and cellular and molecular characteristics, LC possible role in human pathologies, and LC therapeutic potential.

  18. [Measurement and data analysis of drug concentrations at the target site--potentials, limitations and fields of application].

    PubMed

    Schäftlein, André; el Talia, Maurice; Kloft, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    Drug measurements in the blood are only surrogates for drug concentrations in peripheral tissues, which often represent the target sites of the drug. Due to drug specific and physiological characteristics, however, blood and target site concentrations may differ. For this reason, methods to measure drug concentrations at the target site have been developed during the last years. During the last decade, microdialysis has become the method of choice for the continuous study of unbound tissue concentrations of drugs. In order to fully exploit these measurements to quantify the concentration-time profile of the investigated drug, different tools of data analysis can be applied. The aim is to contribute to decision-making in selecting the optimal dose 1) for dosing schedules during the development program of new drugs and 2) for therapeutic usage for physicians and pharmacists. For these aims, the so called ,,nonlinear mixed effect (NLME) modelling approach" presents the method of choice as it determines the typical concentration-time profile of a drug as well as the variability within the investigated study population. Additionally, between-patient variability can be explained by patient-specific characteristics e.g. weight enabling dose individualisation within the whole investigated population. A systematic literature research in Pubmed for the use of antiinfectives in humans shows that the preferable methods of measuring concentrations at the target site (microdialysis) and data analysis (NLME) have rarely been used simultaneously. Hence, in future the benefit of linking both methods of choice should be further exploited in order to improve knowledge gain, to optimise antiinfective dosing regimens and to increase medication safety.

  19. Renal targeting potential of a polymeric drug carrier, poly-l-glutamic acid, in normal and diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Hann-Juang; Kiew, Lik-Voon; Chin, Yunni; Norazit, Anwar; Mohd Noor, Suzita; Lo, Yoke-Lin; Looi, Chung-Yeng; Lau, Yeh-Siang; Lim, Tuck-Meng; Wong, Won-Fen; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Abdul Sattar, Munavvar Zubaid; Johns, Edward J; Chik, Zamri; Chung, Lip-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Poly-l-glutamic acid (PG) has been used widely as a carrier to deliver anticancer chemotherapeutics. This study evaluates PG as a selective renal drug carrier. Experimental approach 3H-deoxycytidine-labeled PGs (17 or 41 kDa) and 3H-deoxycytidine were administered intravenously to normal rats and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The biodistribution of these compounds was determined over 24 h. Accumulation of PG in normal kidneys was also tracked using 5-(aminoacetamido) fluorescein (fluoresceinyl glycine amide)-labeled PG (PG-AF). To evaluate the potential of PGs in ferrying renal protective anti-oxidative stress compounds, the model drug 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) was conjugated to 41 kDa PG to form PG-AEBSF. PG-AEBSF was then characterized and evaluated for intracellular anti-oxidative stress efficacy (relative to free AEBSF). Results In the normal rat kidneys, 17 kDa radiolabeled PG (PG-Tr) presents a 7-fold higher, while 41 kDa PG-Tr shows a 15-fold higher renal accumulation than the free radiolabel after 24 h post injection. The accumulation of PG-AF was primarily found in the renal tubular tissues at 2 and 6 h after an intravenous administration. In the diabetic (oxidative stress-induced) kidneys, 41 kDa PG-Tr showed the greatest renal accumulation of 8-fold higher than the free compound 24 h post dose. Meanwhile, the synthesized PG-AEBSF was found to inhibit intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (a reactive oxygen species generator) at an efficiency that is comparable to that of free AEBSF. This indicates the preservation of the anti-oxidative stress properties of AEBSF in the conjugated state. Conclusion/Implications The favorable accumulation property of 41 kDa PG in normal and oxidative stress-induced kidneys, along with its capabilities in conserving the pharmacological properties of the conjugated renal protective drugs, supports its role as a potential renal

  20. Potential therapeutic application of dendrimer/cyclodextrin conjugates with targeting ligands as advanced carriers for gene and oligonucleotide drugs.

    PubMed

    Arima, Hidetoshi; Motoyama, Keiichi; Higashi, Taishi

    2017-04-01

    Despite the recent approval of some gene medicines and nucleic acid drugs, further improvement of delivery techniques for these drugs is strongly required. Several delivery technologies for these drugs have been developed, in other words, viral and two types of nonviral (lipofection and polyfection) vectors. Among the polyfection system, the potential use of various cyclodextrin (CyD) derivatives and CyD-appended polymers as carriers for gene and nucleic acid drugs has been demonstrated. The polyamidoamine dendrimer (G3) conjugates with α-CyD (α-CDE (G3)) have been reported to possess noteworthy properties as DNA and nucleic acid drugs carriers. This review will focus on the attempts to develop such cell-specific drug carriers by preparing polyethylene glycol, galactose, lactose, mannose, fucose and folic acid-appended α-CDEs as tissue and cell-selective carriers of gene and nucleic acid drugs.

  1. Nanoparticle Fullerene (C60) demonstrated stable binding with antibacterial potential towards probable targets of drug resistant Salmonella typhi - a computational perspective and in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Parveen, Asma; Garka, Shruti

    2016-11-23

    Salmonella typhi, a Gram negative bacterium, has become multidrug resistant (MDR) to wide classes of antibacterials which necessitate an alarming precaution. This study focuses on the binding potential and therapeutic insight of Nano-Fullerene C60 towards virulent targets of Salmonella typhi by computational prediction and preliminary in vitro assays. The clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi were collected and antibiotic susceptibility profiles were assessed. The drug targets of pathogen were selected by rigorous literature survey and gene network analysis by various metabolic network resources. Based on this study, 20 targets were screened and the 3D structures of few drug targets were retrieved from PDB and others were computationally predicted. The structures of nanoleads such as Fullerene C60, ZnO and CuO were retrieved from drug databases. The binding potential of these nanoleads towards all selected targets were predicted by molecular docking. The best docked conformations were screened and concept was investigated by preliminary bioassays. This study revealed that most of the isolates of Salmonella typhi were found to be MDR (p < .05). The theoretical models of selected drug targets showed high stereochemical validity. The molecular docking studies suggested that Fullerene C60 showed better binding affinity towards the drug targets when compared to ZnO and CuO. The preliminary in vitro assays suggested that 100 μg/L Fullerene C60 posses significant inhibitory activities and absence of drug resistance to this nanoparticle. This study suggests that Fullerene C60 can be scaled up as probable lead molecules against the major drug targets of MDR Salmonella typhi.

  2. Secretome Prediction of Two M. tuberculosis Clinical Isolates Reveals Their High Antigenic Density and Potential Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo-Granados, Fernanda; Zatarain-Barrón, Zyanya L.; Cantu-Robles, Vito A.; Mendoza-Vargas, Alfredo; Molina-Romero, Camilo; Sánchez, Filiberto; Del Pozo-Yauner, Luis; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    druggability analysis of the secretomes, we found potential drug targets such as cytochrome P450, thiol peroxidase, the Ag85C, and Ribonucleoside Reductase in the secreted proteins that could be used as drug targets for novel treatments against Tuberculosis. PMID:28223967

  3. Other targeted drugs in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Rodón, Jordi; Karachaliou, Niki; Sánchez, Jesús; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Viteri, Santiago; Pilotto, Sara; Teixidó, Cristina; Riso, Aldo; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Targeted therapy drugs are developed against specific molecular alterations on cancer cells. Because they are “targeted” to the tumor, these therapies are more effective and better tolerated than conventional therapies such as chemotherapy. In the last decade, great advances have been made in understanding of melanoma biology and identification of molecular mechanisms involved in malignant transformation of cells. The identification of oncogenic mutated kinases involved in this process provides an opportunity for development of new target therapies. The dependence of melanoma on BRAF-mutant kinase has provided an opportunity for development of mutation-specific inhibitors with high activity and excellent tolerance that are now being used in clinical practice. This marked a new era in the treatment of metastatic melanoma and much research is now ongoing to identify other “druggable” kinases and transduction signaling networking. It is expected that in the near future the spectrum of target drugs for melanoma treatment will increase. Herein, we review the most relevant potential novel drugs for melanoma treatment based on preclinical data and the results of early clinical trials. PMID:26605312

  4. Systemic Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles Identifies ErbB3 as a Potential Drug Target in Pediatric Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Nordberg, Janne; Mpindi, John Patrick; Iljin, Kristiina; Pulliainen, Arto Tapio; Kallajoki, Markku; Kallioniemi, Olli; Elenius, Klaus; Elenius, Varpu

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric sarcomas, including rhabdomyosarcomas, Ewing’s sarcoma, and osteosarcoma, are aggressive tumors with poor survival rates. To overcome problems associated with nonselectivity of the current therapeutic approaches, targeted therapeutics have been developed. Currently, an increasing number of such drugs are used for treating malignancies of adult patients but little is known about their effects in pediatric patients. We analyzed expression of 24 clinically approved target genes in a wide variety of pediatric normal and malignant tissues using a novel high-throughput systems biology approach. Analysis of the Genesapiens database of human transcriptomes demonstrated statistically significant up-regulation of VEGFC and EPHA2 in Ewing’s sarcoma, and ERBB3 in alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas. In silico data for ERBB3 was validated by demonstrating ErbB3 protein expression in pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma in vitro and in vivo. ERBB3 overexpression promoted whereas ERBB3-targeted siRNA suppressed rhabdomyosarcoma cell gowth, indicating a functional role for ErbB3 signaling in rhabdomyosarcoma. These data suggest that drugs targeting ErbB3, EphA2 or VEGF-C could be further tested as therapeutic targets for pediatric sarcomas. PMID:23227212

  5. Clinicopathological significance and potential drug target of CDH1 in breast cancer: a meta-analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruixue; Ding, Ping; Yang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    CDH1, as a tumor suppressor gene, contributes sporadic breast cancer (BC) progression. However, the association between CDH1 hypermethylation and BC, and its clinicopathological significance remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between the CDH1 methylation profile and the major clinicopathological features. A detailed literature was searched through the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science™, and EMBASE™ for related research publications. The data were extracted and assessed by two reviewers independently. Odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and summarized respectively. The frequency of CDH1 methylation was significantly higher in invasive ductal carcinoma than in normal breast tissues (OR =5.83, 95% CI 3.76-9.03, P<0.00001). CDH1 hypermethylation was significantly higher in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative BC than in ER-positive BC (OR =0.62, 95% CI 0.43-0.87, P=0.007). In addition, we found that the CDH1 was significantly methylated in HER2-negative BC than in HER2-positive BC (OR =0.26, 95% CI 0.15-0.44, P<0.00001). However, CDH1 methylation frequency was not associated with progesterone receptor (PR) status, or with grades, stages, or lymph node metastasis of BC patients. Our results indicate that CDH1 hypermethylation is a potential novel drug target for developing personalized therapy. CDH1 hypermethylation is strongly associated with ER-negative and HER2-negative BC, respectively, suggesting CDH1 methylation status could contribute to the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of ER-negative or HER2-negative BC with aggressive tumor biology.

  6. An in silico functional annotation and screening of potential drug targets derived from Leishmania spp. hypothetical proteins identified by immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Schneider, Mônica S; Lage, Daniela P; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo A; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2017-05-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan of the Leishmania genus. While no human vaccine is available, drugs such as pentavalent antimonials, pentamidine and amphotericin B are used for treat the patients. However, the high toxicity of these pharmaceutics, the emergence of parasite resistance and/or their high cost have showed to the urgent need of identify new targets to be employed in the improvement of the treatment against leishmaniasis. In a recent immunoproteomics approach performed in the Leishmania infantum species, 104 antigenic proteins were recognized by antibodies in sera of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) dogs. Some of them were later showed to be effective diagnostic markers and/or vaccine candidates against the disease. Between these proteins, 24 considered as hypothetical were identified in the promastigote and amastigote-like extracts of the parasites. The present study aimed to use bioinformatics tools to select new drug targets between these hypothetical proteins. Their cellular localization was predicted to be seven membrane proteins, as well as eight cytoplasmic, three nuclear, one mitochondrial and five proteins remained unclassified. Their functions were predicted as being two transport proteins, as well as five with metabolic activity, three as cell signaling and fourteen proteins remained unclassified. Ten hypothetical proteins were well-annotated and compared to their homology regarding to human proteins. Two proteins, a calpain-like and clavaminate synthase-like proteins were selected by using Docking analysis as being possible drug targets. In this sense, the present study showed the employ of new strategies to select possible drug candidates, according their localization and biological function in Leishmania parasites, aiming to treat against VL.

  7. Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Development of Disease-Modifying Osteoarthritis Drugs.

    PubMed

    Manning, Lauren B; Li, Yefu; Chickmagalur, Nithya S; Li, Xiaolong; Xu, Lin

    2016-11-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis disorders, but the identification of therapeutic targets to effectively prevent OA has been increasingly difficult. The goal of this investigation is to provide experimental evidence that discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) may be an ideal target for the development of disease-modifying OA drugs. Ddr2 was conditionally deleted from articular cartilage of adult mouse knee joints. Aggrecan-CreERT2;floxed Ddr2 mice, which were generated by crossing Aggrecan-CreERT2 mice with floxed Ddr2 mice, then received tamoxifen injections at the age of 8 weeks. The mice were then subjected to destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery. At 8 and 16 weeks after DMM, mice were euthanized for the collection of knee joints. In a separate experiment, Aggrecan-CreERT2;floxed Ddr2 mice were subjected to DMM at the age of 10 weeks. The mice then received tamoxifen injections at 8 weeks after DMM. The mice were euthanized for the collection of knee joints at 16 weeks after DMM. The progressive process of articular cartilage degeneration was significantly delayed in the knee joints of Ddr2-deficient mice in comparison to their control littermates. Articular cartilage damage in the knee joints of the mice was associated with increased expression profiles of both Ddr2 and matrix metalloproteinase 13. These findings suggest that DDR2 may be an ideal target for the development of disease-modifying OA drugs.

  8. Invasion and egress by the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii: potential targets for the development of new antiparasitic drugs.

    PubMed

    Lavine, M D; Arrizabalaga, G

    2007-01-01

    Intracellular protozoan parasites are a great threat to animal and human health. To successfully disseminate through an organism these parasites must be able to enter and exit host cells efficiently and rapidly. The inhibition of invasion or egress of obligate intracellular parasites is regarded as a goal for drug development since these processes are essential for their survival and likely to require proteins unique to the parasites. Thus, a more comprehensive knowledge of invasion and egress proteins will aid in the development of drugs and vaccines against these intracellular pathogens. In recent years, the study of a particular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, has yielded valuable information on how invasion and egress are achieved by some protozoan parasites. Besides being a good model system for the study of parasite biology, Toxoplasma is an important human pathogen capable of causing devastating disease in both immunocompromised individuals and developing fetuses. The lack of effective, inexpensive and tolerable drugs against Toxoplasma makes the development of new therapies an imperative. The following review describes how the identification and in depth study, using proteomics, forward genetics and pharmacology of the Toxoplasma proteins involved in entering and exiting human cells provide an important starting point in identifying targets for drug discovery.

  9. Distinct prognostic values and potential drug targets of ALDH1 isoenzymes in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    You, Qinghua; Guo, Huanchen; Xu, Dongxiang

    2015-01-01

    Increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity has been found in the stem cell populations of leukemia and some solid tumors including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, which ALDH1’s isoenzymes are contributing to ALDH1 activity remains elusive. In addition, the prognostic value of individual ALDH1 isoenzyme is not clear. In the current study, we investigated the prognostic value of ALDH1 isoenzymes in NSCLC patients through the Kaplan–Meier plotter database, which contains updated gene expression data and survival information from a total of 1,926 NSCLC patients. High expression of ALDH1A1 mRNA was found to be correlated to a better overall survival (OS) in all NSCLC patients followed for 20 years (hazard ratio [HR] 0.88 [0.77–0.99], P=0.039). In addition, high expression of ALDH1A1 mRNA was also found to be correlated to better OS in adenocarcinoma (Ade) patients (HR 0.71 [0.57–0.9], P=0.0044) but not in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients (HR 0.92 [0.72–1.16], P=0.48). High expression of ALDH1A2 and ALDH1B1 mRNA was found to be correlated to worser OS in all NSCLC patients, as well as in Ade, but not in SCC patients. High expression of both ALDH1A3 and ALDH1L1 mRNA was not found to be correlated to OS in all NSCLC patients. These results strongly support that ALDH1A1 mRNA in NSCLC is associated with better prognosis. In addition, our current study also supports that ALDH1A2 and ALDH1B1 might be major contributors to the ALDH1 activity in NSCLC, since high expression of ALDH1A2 and ALDH1B1 mRNA was found to be significantly correlated to worser OS in all NSCLC patients. Based on our study, ALDH1A2 and ALDH1B1 might be excellent potential drug targets for NSCLC patients. PMID:26366059

  10. Drug targeting through pilosebaceous route.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, Rashmi; Jain, Sanjay K

    2009-10-01

    Local skin targeting is of interest for the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industry. A topically applied substance has basically three possibilities to penetrate into the skin: transcellular, intercellular, and follicular. The transfollicular path has been largely ignored because hair follicles constitute only 0.1% of the total skin. The hair follicle is a skin appendage with a complex structure containing many cell types that produce highly specialised proteins. The hair follicle is in a continuous cycle: anagen is the hair growth phase, catagen the involution phase and telogen is the resting phase. Nonetheless, the hair follicle has great potential for skin treatment, owing to its deep extension into the dermis and thus provides much deeper penetration and absorption of compounds beneath the skin than seen with the transdermal route. In the case of skin diseases and of cosmetic products, delivery to sweat glands or to the pilosebaceous unit is essential for the effectiveness of the drug. Increased accumulation in the pilosebaceous unit could treat alopecia, acne and skin cancer more efficiently and improve the effect of cosmetic substances and nutrients. Therefore, we review herein various drug delivery systems, including liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, lipid nanocarriers, gene therapy and discuss the results of recent researches. We also review the drugs which have been investigated for pilosebaceous delivery.

  11. Multidrug transporters as drug targets.

    PubMed

    Liang, X-J; Aszalos, A

    2006-08-01

    Transport molecules can significantly affect the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drugs. An important transport molecule, the 170 kDa P-glycoprotein (Pgp), is constitutively expressed at several organ sites in the human body. Pgp is expressed at the blood-brain barrier, in the kidneys, liver, intestines and in certain T cells. Other transporters such as the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) and MRP2 also contribute to drug distribution in the human body, although to a lesser extent than Pgp. These three transporters, and especially Pgp, are often targets of drugs. Pgp can be an intentional or unintentional target. It is directly targeted when one wants to block its function by a modifier drug so that another drug, also a substrate of Pgp, can penetrate the cell membrane, which would otherwise be impermeable. Unintentional targeting occurs when several drugs are administered to a patient and as a consequence, the physiological function of Pgp is blocked at different organ sites. Like Pgp, MRP1 also has the capacity to mediate transport of many drugs and other compounds. MRP1 has a protective role in preventing accumulation of toxic compounds and drugs in epithelial tissue covering the choroid plexus/cerebrospinal fluid compartment, oral epithelium, sertoli cells, intesticular tubules and urinary collecting duct cells. MRP2 primarily transports weakly basic drugs and bilirubin from the liver to bile. Most compounds that efficiently block Pgp have only low affinity for MRP1 and MRP2. There are only a few effective and specific MRP inhibitors available. Drug targeting of these transporters may play a role in cancer chemotherapy and in the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs.

  12. Small molecules targeting glycogen synthase kinase 3 as potential drug candidates for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Marchena, Miguel; Villarejo-Zori, Beatriz; Zaldivar-Diez, Josefa; Palomo, Valle; Gil, Carmen; Hernández-Sánchez, Catalina; Martínez, Ana; de la Rosa, Enrique J

    2017-12-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal dystrophy that courses with progressive degeneration of retinal tissue and loss of vision. Currently, RP is an unpreventable, incurable condition. We propose glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) inhibitors as potential leads for retinal cell neuroprotection, since the retina is also a part of the central nervous system and GSK-3 inhibitors are potent neuroprotectant agents. Using a chemical genetic approach, diverse small molecules with different potency and binding mode to GSK-3 have been used to validate and confirm GSK-3 as a pharmacological target for RP. Moreover, this medicinal chemistry approach has provided new leads for the future disease-modifying treatment of RP.

  13. Drug targeting using solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Elham; Kashanian, Soheila; Azandaryani, Abbas H; Faramarzi, Hossain; Dolatabadi, Jafar Ezzati Nazhad; Omidfar, Kobra

    2014-07-01

    The present review aims to show the features of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) which are at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several potential applications in drug delivery and research. Because of some unique features of SLNs such as their unique size dependent properties it offers possibility to develop new therapeutics. A common denominator of all these SLN-based platforms is to deliver drugs into specific tissues or cells in a pathological setting with minimal adverse effects on bystander cells. SLNs are capable to incorporate drugs into nanocarriers which lead to a new prototype in drug delivery which maybe used for drug targeting. Hence solid lipid nanoparticles hold great promise for reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery and hence attracted wide attention of researchers. This review presents a broad treatment of targeted solid lipid nanoparticles discussing their types such as antibody SLN, magnetic SLN, pH sensitive SLN and cationic SLN.

  14. Structures of Wild-Type and Mutant Human Spermidine/Spermine N1-acetyltransferase, a Potential Therapeutic Drug Target

    SciTech Connect

    Bewley,M.; Graziano, V.; Jiang, J.; Matz, E.; Studier, F.; Pegg, A.; Coleman, C.; Flanagan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Spermidine/spermine N{sup 1}-acetyltransferase (SSAT) is a key enzyme in the control of polyamine levels in human cells, as acetylation of spermidine and spermine triggers export or degradation. Increased intracellular polyamine levels accompany several types of cancers as well as other human diseases, and compounds that affect the expression, activity, or stability of SSAT are being explored as potential therapeutic drugs. We have expressed human SSAT from the cloned cDNA in Escherichia coli and have determined high-resolution structures of wild-type and mutant SSAT, as the free dimer and in binary and ternary complexes with CoA, acetyl-CoA (AcCoA), spermine, and the inhibitor N{sup 1},N{sup 11}-bis-(ethyl)-norspermine (BE-3-3-3). These structures show details of binding sites for cofactor, substrates, and inhibitor and provide a framework to understand enzymatic activity, mutations, and the action of potential drugs. Two dimer conformations were observed: a symmetric form with two open surface channels capable of binding substrate or cofactor, and an asymmetric form in which only one of the surface channels appears capable of binding and acetylating polyamines. SSAT was found to self-acetylate lysine-26 in the presence of AcCoA and absence of substrate, a reaction apparently catalyzed by AcCoA bound in the second channel of the asymmetric dimer. These unexpected and intriguing complexities seem likely to have some as yet undefined role in regulating SSAT activity or stability as a part of polyamine homeostasis. Sequence signatures group SSAT with proteins that appear to have thialysine N{sup {var_epsilon}}-acetyltransferase activity.

  15. Complete genome-wide screening and subtractive genomic approach revealed new virulence factors, potential drug targets against bio-war pathogen Brucella melitensis 16M

    PubMed Central

    Pradeepkiran, Jangampalli Adi; Sainath, Sri Bhashyam; Kumar, Konidala Kranthi; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2015-01-01

    Brucella melitensis 16M is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that infects both animals and humans. It causes a disease known as brucellosis, which is characterized by acute febrile illness in humans and causes abortions in livestock. To prevent and control brucellosis, identification of putative drug targets is crucial. The present study aimed to identify drug targets in B. melitensis 16M by using a subtractive genomic approach. We used available database repositories (Database of Essential Genes, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Automatic Annotation Server, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) to identify putative genes that are nonhomologous to humans and essential for pathogen B. melitensis 16M. The results revealed that among 3 Mb genome size of pathogen, 53 putative characterized and 13 uncharacterized hypothetical genes were identified; further, from Basic Local Alignment Search Tool protein analysis, one hypothetical protein showed a close resemblance (50%) to Silicibacter pomeroyi DUF1285 family protein (2RE3). A further homology model of the target was constructed using MODELLER 9.12 and optimized through variable target function method by molecular dynamics optimization with simulating annealing. The stereochemical quality of the restrained model was evaluated by PROCHECK, VERIFY-3D, ERRAT, and WHATIF servers. Furthermore, structure-based virtual screening was carried out against the predicted active site of the respective protein using the glycerol structural analogs from the PubChem database. We identified five best inhibitors with strong affinities, stable interactions, and also with reliable drug-like properties. Hence, these leads might be used as the most effective inhibitors of modeled protein. The outcome of the present work of virtual screening of putative gene targets might facilitate design of potential drugs for better treatment against brucellosis. PMID:25834405

  16. Complete genome-wide screening and subtractive genomic approach revealed new virulence factors, potential drug targets against bio-war pathogen Brucella melitensis 16M.

    PubMed

    Pradeepkiran, Jangampalli Adi; Sainath, Sri Bhashyam; Kumar, Konidala Kranthi; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2015-01-01

    Brucella melitensis 16M is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that infects both animals and humans. It causes a disease known as brucellosis, which is characterized by acute febrile illness in humans and causes abortions in livestock. To prevent and control brucellosis, identification of putative drug targets is crucial. The present study aimed to identify drug targets in B. melitensis 16M by using a subtractive genomic approach. We used available database repositories (Database of Essential Genes, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Automatic Annotation Server, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) to identify putative genes that are nonhomologous to humans and essential for pathogen B. melitensis 16M. The results revealed that among 3 Mb genome size of pathogen, 53 putative characterized and 13 uncharacterized hypothetical genes were identified; further, from Basic Local Alignment Search Tool protein analysis, one hypothetical protein showed a close resemblance (50%) to Silicibacter pomeroyi DUF1285 family protein (2RE3). A further homology model of the target was constructed using MODELLER 9.12 and optimized through variable target function method by molecular dynamics optimization with simulating annealing. The stereochemical quality of the restrained model was evaluated by PROCHECK, VERIFY-3D, ERRAT, and WHATIF servers. Furthermore, structure-based virtual screening was carried out against the predicted active site of the respective protein using the glycerol structural analogs from the PubChem database. We identified five best inhibitors with strong affinities, stable interactions, and also with reliable drug-like properties. Hence, these leads might be used as the most effective inhibitors of modeled protein. The outcome of the present work of virtual screening of putative gene targets might facilitate design of potential drugs for better treatment against brucellosis.

  17. Analyses of the Binding between Water Soluble C60 Derivatives and Potential Drug Targets through a Molecular Docking Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junjun; Zhang, Houjin

    2016-01-01

    Fullerene C60, a unique sphere-shaped molecule consisting of carbon, has been proved to have inhibitory effects on many diseases. However, the applications of C60 in medicine have been severely hindered by its complete insolubility in water and low solubility in almost all organic solvents. In this study, the water-soluble C60 derivatives and the C60 binding protein’s structures were collected from the literature. The selected proteins fall into several groups, including acetylcholinesterase, glutamate racemase, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, lumazine synthase, human estrogen receptor alpha, dihydrofolate reductase and N-myristoyltransferase. The C60 derivatives were docked into the binding sites in the proteins. The binding affinities of the C60 derivatives were calculated. The bindings between proteins and their known inhibitors or native ligands were also characterized in the same way. The results show that C60 derivatives form good interactions with the binding sites of different protein targets. In many cases, the binding affinities of C60 derivatives are better than those of known inhibitors and native ligands. This study demonstrates the interaction patterns of C60 derivatives and their binding partners, which will have good impact on the fullerene-based drug discovery. PMID:26829126

  18. Identifying Inhibitors of the Hsp90-Aha1 Protein Complex, a Potential Target to Drug Cystic Fibrosis, by Alpha Technology.

    PubMed

    Ihrig, Verena; Obermann, Wolfgang M J

    2017-01-01

    Deletion of a single phenylalanine residue at position 508 of the protein CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), a chloride channel in lung epithelium, is the most common cause for cystic fibrosis. As a consequence, folding of the CFTRΔF508 protein and delivery to the cell surface are compromised, resulting in degradation of the polypeptide. Accordingly, decreased surface presence of CFTRΔF508 causes impaired chloride ion conductivity and is associated with mucus accumulation, a hallmark of cystic fibrosis. Molecular chaperones such as Hsp90 and its co-chaperone partner Aha1 are thought to play a key role in targeting folding-deficient CFTRΔF508 for degradation. Thus, pharmacologic manipulation to inhibit Hsp90-Aha1 chaperone complex formation appears beneficial to inhibit proteolysis of CFTRΔF508 and rescue its residual chloride channel activity. Therefore, we have screened a collection of 14,400 druglike chemical compounds for inhibitors of the Hsp90-Aha1 complex by amplified luminescence proximity homogeneous assay (Alpha). We identified two druglike molecules that showed promising results when we tested their ability to restore chloride channel activity in culture cells expressing the mutant CFTRΔF508 protein. The two molecules were most effective in combination with the corrector VX-809 and may therefore serve as a lead compound that can be further developed into a drug to treat cystic fibrosis patients.

  19. Characterization of the gene encoding glyoxalase II from Leishmania donovani: a potential target for anti-parasite drugs

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Prasad K.; Mukherjee, Angana; Madhubala, Rentala

    2005-01-01

    The glyoxalase system is a ubiquitous detoxification pathway that protects against cellular damage caused by highly reactive oxoaldehydes such as methylglyoxal which is mainly formed as a by-product of glycolysis. The gene encoding GLOII (glyoxalase II) has been cloned from Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis. DNA sequence analysis revealed an ORF (open reading frame) of ∼888 bp that encodes a putative 295-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 32.5 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.0. The sequence identity between human GLOII and LdGLOII (L. donovani GLOII) is only 35%. The ORF is a single-copy gene on a 0.6-Mb chromosome. A ∼38 kDa protein was obtained by heterologous expression of LdGLOII in Escherichia coli, and homogeneous enzyme was obtained after affinity purification. Recombinant L. donovani GLOII showed a marked substrate specificity for trypanothione hemithioacetal over glutathione hemithioacetal. Antiserum against recombinant LdGLOII protein could detect a band of anticipated size ∼32 kDa in promastigote extracts. By overexpressing the GLOII gene in Leishmania donovani using Leishmania expression vector pspαhygroα, we detected elevated expression of GLOII RNA and protein. Overexpression of the GLOII gene will facilitate studies of gene function and its relevance as a chemotherapeutic target. This is the first report on the molecular characterization of glyoxalase II from Leishmania spp. The difference in the substrate specificity of the human and Leishmania donovani glyoxalase II enzyme could be exploited for structure-based drug design of selective inhibitors against the parasite. PMID:16159313

  20. Modeling of Human Prokineticin Receptors: Interactions with Novel Small-Molecule Binders and Potential Off-Target Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Levit, Anat; Yarnitzky, Talia; Wiener, Ayana; Meidan, Rina; Niv, Masha Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Motivation The Prokineticin receptor (PKR) 1 and 2 subtypes are novel members of family A GPCRs, which exhibit an unusually high degree of sequence similarity. Prokineticins (PKs), their cognate ligands, are small secreted proteins of ∼80 amino acids; however, non-peptidic low-molecular weight antagonists have also been identified. PKs and their receptors play important roles under various physiological conditions such as maintaining circadian rhythm and pain perception, as well as regulating angiogenesis and modulating immunity. Identifying binding sites for known antagonists and for additional potential binders will facilitate studying and regulating these novel receptors. Blocking PKRs may serve as a therapeutic tool for various diseases, including acute pain, inflammation and cancer. Methods and Results Ligand-based pharmacophore models were derived from known antagonists, and virtual screening performed on the DrugBank dataset identified potential human PKR (hPKR) ligands with novel scaffolds. Interestingly, these included several HIV protease inhibitors for which endothelial cell dysfunction is a documented side effect. Our results suggest that the side effects might be due to inhibition of the PKR signaling pathway. Docking of known binders to a 3D homology model of hPKR1 is in agreement with the well-established canonical TM-bundle binding site of family A GPCRs. Furthermore, the docking results highlight residues that may form specific contacts with the ligands. These contacts provide structural explanation for the importance of several chemical features that were obtained from the structure-activity analysis of known binders. With the exception of a single loop residue that might be perused in the future for obtaining subtype-specific regulation, the results suggest an identical TM-bundle binding site for hPKR1 and hPKR2. In addition, analysis of the intracellular regions highlights variable regions that may provide subtype specificity

  1. Therapeutic potential of targeting the endocannabinoids: implications for the treatment of obesity, metabolic syndrome, drug abuse and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Tucci, S A; Halford, J C G; Harrold, J A; Kirkham, T C

    2006-01-01

    Rimonabant (SR141716, Acomplia) has been described as an antagonist/inverse agonist at the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). It has been widely used as a tool to evaluate the mechanisms by which cannabinoid agonists produce their pharmacological effects and to elucidate the respective physiological or pathophysiological roles of the CB1 receptor. It has become increasingly clear that rimonabant can exert its own intrinsic actions. These may be viewed as evidence of either the inverse agonist nature of rimonabant or of tonic activity of the endocannabinoid system. To date, data obtained from clinical trials (RIO North America, RIO Europe and RIO Lipid) indicate that rimonabant may have clinical benefits in relation to its anti-obesity properties and as a novel candidate for the treatment of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders associated with overweight and obesity. Other clinical trials, such as the STRATUS study, have also shown that rimonabant may be effective in smoking cessation, and that the drug has a reasonable safety profile. Recently, it has been shown that rimonabant prevents indomethacin-induced intestinal injury by decreasing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), thus indicating that CB1 receptor antagonists might exhibit potential anti-inflammatory activity in acute and chronic diseases.

  2. Modeling, molecular dynamics, and docking assessment of transcription factor rho: a potential drug target in Brucella melitensis 16M

    PubMed Central

    Pradeepkiran, Jangampalli Adi; Kumar, Konidala Kranthi; Kumar, Yellapu Nanda; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2015-01-01

    -ligand complex via a hydrogen bonding interaction by aromatic-π contacts, and the ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) analysis of best leads indicate nontoxic in nature with good potential for drug development. PMID:25848225

  3. Modeling, molecular dynamics, and docking assessment of transcription factor rho: a potential drug target in Brucella melitensis 16M.

    PubMed

    Pradeepkiran, Jangampalli Adi; Kumar, Konidala Kranthi; Kumar, Yellapu Nanda; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2015-01-01

    via a hydrogen bonding interaction by aromatic-π contacts, and the ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) analysis of best leads indicate nontoxic in nature with good potential for drug development.

  4. Chemotherapy plus targeted drugs in conversion therapy for potentially resectable colorectal liver metastases: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Sun, Yinan; Zhao, Ben; Zhang, Huixian; Yu, Qianqian; Yuan, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the safety and efficiency of the conversion therapy : chemotherapy plus anti-epidermal growth factor Receptor (EGFR) or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) with different rat sarcoma (RAS) status in patients with potentially resectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified and the association between RAS mutation and clinical outcome in CRLM patients treated with anti-EGFR or anti-VEGFR MoAbs was investigated. Searches were performed for data recorded between January 2005 and August 2015 in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE. Objective response rates (ORR), conversion resection rates (CRR), R0 resection rates (R0R) and rate ratios (RR) were used to assess the strength of the association between different RAS status, MoAbs and conversion efficiency. Results In the conversion therapy, ORR and RR were associated with patients with wild type RAS and different MoAbs. Patients treated with MoAbs: anti-VEGFR or anti-EGFR drugs, resulted in higher ORR, (RR=1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27-1.84, P < 0.05). Furthermore, anti-EGFR regimens displayed higher ORR compared with anti-VEGFR regimens in CRLM patients, (RR=1.15, 95%CI: 1.04-1.26, P < 0.05). However, CRLM patients with mutant type RAS did not benefit from anti-EGFR therapy, (RR=0.91, 95%CI: 0.76-1.08, P<0.05) and wild type RAS patients displayed higher ORR with anti-EGFR therapy, (RR=1.56, 95%CI: 1.16-2.01, P <0.05). In addition, the patients achieved higher resection rates (RR=1.67, 95%CI: 1.00-2.81, P ≤ 0.05) and R0 resection (RR=1.85, 95%CI: 1.04-3.27, P < 0.05). Conclusion We noted that the addition of MoAbs (anti-EGFR or anti-VEGFR) to standard chemotherapy could improve conversion efficiency for patients with potentially resectable CRLM patients, and anti-EGFR therapies maybe more effective than anti-VEGFR therapies. RAS status is a potential predictive

  5. Targets and mechanisms of berberine, a natural drug with potential to treat cancer with special focus on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jabbarzadeh Kaboli, Parham; Rahmat, Asmah; Ismail, Patimah; Ling, King-Hwa

    2014-10-05

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide and novel therapeutic agents are needed to treat this disease. The plant-based alkaloid berberine has potential therapeutic applications for breast cancer, although a better understanding of the genes and cellular pathways regulated by this compound is needed to define the mechanism of its action in cancer treatment. In this review, the molecular targets of berberine in various cancers, particularly breast cancer, are discussed. Berberine was shown to be effective in inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in various cancerous cells. Some signaling pathways affected by berberine, including the MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase and Wnt/β-catenin pathways, are critical for reducing cellular migration and sensitivity to various growth factors. This review will discuss recent studies and consider the application of new prospective approaches based on microRNAs and other crucial regulators for use in future studies to define the action of berberine in cancer. The effects of berberine on cancer cell survival and proliferation are also outlined.

  6. Malaria heat shock proteins: drug targets that chaperone other drug targets.

    PubMed

    Pesce, E-R; Cockburn, I L; Goble, J L; Stephens, L L; Blatch, G L

    2010-06-01

    Ongoing research into the chaperone systems of malaria parasites, and particularly of Plasmodium falciparum, suggests that heat shock proteins (Hsps) could potentially be an excellent class of drug targets. The P. falciparum genome encodes a vast range and large number of chaperones, including 43 Hsp40, six Hsp70, and three Hsp90 proteins (PfHsp40s, PfHsp70s and PfHsp90s), which are involved in a number of fundamental cellular processes including protein folding and assembly, protein translocation, signal transduction and the cellular stress response. Despite the fact that Hsps are relatively conserved across different species, PfHsps do exhibit a considerable number of unique structural and functional features. One PfHsp90 is thought to be sufficiently different to human Hsp90 to allow for selective targeting. PfHsp70s could potentially be used as drug targets in two ways: either by the specific inhibition of Hsp70s by small molecule modulators, as well as disruption of the interactions between Hsp70s and co-chaperones such as the Hsp70/Hsp90 organising protein (Hop) and Hsp40s. Of the many PfHsp40s present on the parasite, there are certain unique or essential members which are considered to have good potential as drug targets. This review critically evaluates the potential of Hsps as malaria drug targets, as well as the use of chaperones as aids in the heterologous expression of other potential malarial drug targets.

  7. CYP1B1 G199T Polymorphism Affects Prognosis of NSCLC Patients with the Potential to Be an Indicator and Target for Precise Drug Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaofeng; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Shilei

    2017-01-01

    CYP1B1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms G119T, C432G, and A453G were tested among 164 NSCLC patients treated by Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery. After a follow-up period of 5 years, it was found that CYP1B1 G119T mutant genotypes were related to a higher risk of tumor recurrence and death after surgical resection. However, C432G and A453G genotypes had no influence on long-term prognosis of the study cohort. Thus, G199T alleles are supposed to be an auxiliary predictor for prognosis of NSCLC patients and a potential target for precise drug intervention, as well as a candidate for further anticancer drug research. PMID:28377924

  8. Biocomputational strategies for microbial drug target identification.

    PubMed

    Sakharkar, Kishore R; Sakharkar, Meena K; Chow, Vincent T K

    2008-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of about 300 bacteria (mostly pathogenic) have been determined, and many more such projects are currently in progress. The detection of bacterial genes that are non-homologous to human genes and are essential for the survival of the pathogen represent a promising means of identifying novel drug targets. We present a subtractive genomics approach for the identification of putative drug targets in microbial genomes and demonstrate its execution using Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an example. The resultant analyses are in good agreement with the results of systematic gene deletion experiments. This strategy enables rapid potential drug target identification, thereby greatly facilitating the search for new antibiotics. It should be recognized that there are limitations to this computational approach for drug target identification. Distant gene relationships may be missed since the alignment scores are likely to have low statistical significance. In conclusion, the results of such a strategy underscore the utility of large genomic databases for in silico systematic drug target identification in the post-genomic era.

  9. Chemical signatures and new drug targets for gametocytocidal drug development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Tanaka, Takeshi Q.; Magle, Crystal T.; Huang, Wenwei; Southall, Noel; Huang, Ruili; Dehdashti, Seameen J.; McKew, John C.; Williamson, Kim C.; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Control of parasite transmission is critical for the eradication of malaria. However, most antimalarial drugs are not active against P. falciparum gametocytes, responsible for the spread of malaria. Consequently, patients can remain infectious for weeks after the clearance of asexual parasites and clinical symptoms. Here we report the identification of 27 potent gametocytocidal compounds (IC50 < 1 μM) from screening 5,215 known drugs and compounds. All these compounds were active against three strains of gametocytes with different drug sensitivities and geographical origins, 3D7, HB3 and Dd2. Cheminformatic analysis revealed chemical signatures for P. falciparum sexual and asexual stages indicative of druggability and suggesting potential targets. Torin 2, a top lead compound (IC50 = 8 nM against gametocytes in vitro), completely blocked oocyst formation in a mouse model of transmission. These results provide critical new leads and potential targets to expand the repertoire of malaria transmission-blocking reagents.

  10. Target Oriented Drugs against Leishmania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-26

    leishmanlal excreted factor (EF) antibody in rabbit sera was developed. The assay, using Leishmania trop ica and Leishmania donovani promastigote EF...tropica LRC L137 L52 Leishmaniia donovani LRC L52 These strains were obtained from the WHO Leishmania Peference Centre collection maintained in the...FO 0 AD M FINAL REPORT0 (N TARGET ORIENTED DRUGS AGAINST LEISHMANIA I URI ZEHAVI, Ph.D. and JOSEPH EL-ON, Ph.D. Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL

  11. Bacterial proteases, untapped antimicrobial drug targets.

    PubMed

    Culp, Elizabeth; Wright, Gerard D

    2017-04-01

    Bacterial proteases are an extensive collection of enzymes that have vital roles in cell viability, stress response and pathogenicity. Although their perturbation clearly offers the potential for antimicrobial drug development, both as traditional antibiotics and anti-virulence drugs, they are not yet the target of any clinically used therapeutics. Here we describe the potential for and recent progress in the development of compounds targeting bacterial proteases with a focus on AAA+ family proteolytic complexes and signal peptidases (SPs). Caseinolytic protease (ClpP) belongs to the AAA+ family of proteases, a group of multimeric barrel-shaped complexes whose activity is tightly regulated by associated AAA+ ATPases. The opportunity for chemical perturbation of these complexes is demonstrated by compounds targeting ClpP for inhibition, activation or perturbation of its associated ATPase. Meanwhile, SPs are also a proven antibiotic target. Responsible for the cleavage of targeting peptides during protein secretion, both type I and type II SPs have been successfully targeted by chemical inhibitors. As the threat of pan-antibiotic resistance continues to grow, these and other bacterial proteases offer an arsenal of novel antibiotic targets ripe for development.

  12. Novel high throughput pooled shRNA screening identifies NQO1 as a potential drug target for host directed therapy for tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Karim, Ahmad F.; Ding, Xuedong; Das, Biswajit; Dobrowolski, Curtis; Gibson, Richard M.; Quiñones-Mateu, Miguel E.; Karn, Jonathan; Rojas, Roxana E.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical regulation of macrophage function is one key strategy for developing host-directed adjuvant therapies for tuberculosis (TB). A critical step to develop these therapies is the identification and characterization of specific macrophage molecules and pathways with a high potential to serve as drug targets. Using a barcoded lentivirus-based pooled short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) library combined with next generation sequencing, we identified 205 silenced host genes highly enriched in mycobacteria-resistant macrophages. Twenty-one of these “hits” belonged to the oxidoreductase functional category. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) was the top oxidoreductase “hit”. NQO1 expression was increased after mycobacterial infection, and NQO1 knockdown increased macrophage differentiation, NF-κB activation, and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in response to infection. This suggests that mycobacteria hijacks NQO1 to down-regulate pro-inflammatory and anti-bacterial functions. The competitive inhibitor of NQO1 dicoumarol synergized with rifampin to promote intracellular killing of mycobacteria. Thus, NQO1 is a new host target in mycobacterial infection that could potentially be exploited to increase antibiotic efficacy in vivo. Our findings also suggest that pooled shRNA libraries could be valuable tools for genome-wide screening in the search for novel druggable host targets for adjunctive TB therapies. PMID:27297123

  13. Transient kinetics of aminoglycoside phosphotransferase(3′)-IIIa reveals a potential drug target in the antibiotic resistance mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lallemand, Perrine; Leban, Nadia; Kunzelmann, Simone; Chaloin, Laurent; Serpersu, Engin H.; Webb, Martin R.; Barman, Tom; Lionne, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    Aminoglycoside phosphotransferases are bacterial enzymes responsible for the inactivation of aminoglycoside antibiotics by O-phosphorylation. It is important to understand the mechanism of enzymes in order to find efficient drugs. Using rapid-mixing methods, we studied the transient kinetics of aminoglycoside phosphotransferase(3′)-IIIa. We show that an ADP-enzyme complex is the main steady state intermediate. This intermediate interacts strongly with kanamycin A to form an abortive complex that traps the enzyme in an inactive state. A good strategy to prevent the inactivation of aminoglycosides would be to develop uncompetitive inhibitors that interact with this key ADP-enzyme complex. PMID:23108046

  14. Transient kinetics of aminoglycoside phosphotransferase(3')-IIIa reveals a potential drug target in the antibiotic resistance mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lallemand, Perrine; Leban, Nadia; Kunzelmann, Simone; Chaloin, Laurent; Serpersu, Engin H; Webb, Martin R; Barman, Tom; Lionne, Corinne

    2012-11-30

    Aminoglycoside phosphotransferases are bacterial enzymes responsible for the inactivation of aminoglycoside antibiotics by O-phosphorylation. It is important to understand the mechanism of enzymes in order to find efficient drugs. Using rapid-mixing methods, we studied the transient kinetics of aminoglycoside phosphotransferase(3')-IIIa. We show that an ADP-enzyme complex is the main steady state intermediate. This intermediate interacts strongly with kanamycin A to form an abortive complex that traps the enzyme in an inactive state. A good strategy to prevent the inactivation of aminoglycosides would be to develop uncompetitive inhibitors that interact with this key ADP-enzyme complex.

  15. Antiarrhythmic potential of drugs targeting the cardiac ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channel: case study of dantrolene.

    PubMed

    Acsai, Karoly; Nagy, Norbert; Marton, Zoltan; Oravecz, Kinga; Varro, Andras

    2015-01-01

    Driven by the limitations of the traditional antiarrhythmic pharmacology, current antiarrhythmic research is trying to identify new avenues for the development of specific and safe antiarrhythmic drugs. One of the most promising approaches in this field is the amelioration of the abnormal events in cellular Ca(2+) handling originating from the dysfunction of ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release complex (RyR), which is an inevitable key factor in the pathology of myocardial dysfunction, remodeling and arrhythmogenesis. Accordingly, both in experimental and clinical situations, inhibition of abnormal activity of RyR, regardless of being the primary cause or a consequence during the pathogenesis appears to exert beneficial effect on disease outcome, including a marked antiarrhythmic defense. Considerable amount of our knowledge in this field originates from studies using dantrolene, a human drug with RyR stabilizing effect. Our review summarizes the cardiovascular pharmacology of dantrolene and the results of its use in experimental models of cardiac diseases, which emphasize a promising perspective for the possible antiarrhythmic application of RyR inhibition in the future.

  16. DDTRP: Database of Drug Targets for Resistant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sundaramurthi, Jagadish Chandrabose; Ramanandan, Prabhakaran; Brindha, Sridharan; Subhasree, Chelladurai Ramarathnam; Prasad, Abhimanyu; Kumaraswami, Vasanthapuram; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Emergence of drug resistance is a major threat to public health. Many pathogens have developed resistance to most of the existing antibiotics, and multidrug-resistant and extensively drug resistant strains are extremely difficult to treat. This has resulted in an urgent need for novel drugs. We describe a database called ‘Database of Drug Targets for Resistant Pathogens’ (DDTRP). The database contains information on drugs with reported resistance, their respective targets, metabolic pathways involving these targets, and a list of potential alternate targets for seven pathogens. The database can be accessed freely at http://bmi.icmr.org.in/DDTRP. PMID:21938213

  17. UniDrug-Target: A Computational Tool to Identify Unique Drug Targets in Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Rout, Chittaranjan; Chauhan, Rajinder S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Targeting conserved proteins of bacteria through antibacterial medications has resulted in both the development of resistant strains and changes to human health by destroying beneficial microbes which eventually become breeding grounds for the evolution of resistances. Despite the availability of more than 800 genomes sequences, 430 pathways, 4743 enzymes, 9257 metabolic reactions and protein (three-dimensional) 3D structures in bacteria, no pathogen-specific computational drug target identification tool has been developed. Methods A web server, UniDrug-Target, which combines bacterial biological information and computational methods to stringently identify pathogen-specific proteins as drug targets, has been designed. Besides predicting pathogen-specific proteins essentiality, chokepoint property, etc., three new algorithms were developed and implemented by using protein sequences, domains, structures, and metabolic reactions for construction of partial metabolic networks (PMNs), determination of conservation in critical residues, and variation analysis of residues forming similar cavities in proteins sequences. First, PMNs are constructed to determine the extent of disturbances in metabolite production by targeting a protein as drug target. Conservation of pathogen-specific protein's critical residues involved in cavity formation and biological function determined at domain-level with low-matching sequences. Last, variation analysis of residues forming similar cavities in proteins sequences from pathogenic versus non-pathogenic bacteria and humans is performed. Results The server is capable of predicting drug targets for any sequenced pathogenic bacteria having fasta sequences and annotated information. The utility of UniDrug-Target server was demonstrated for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv). The UniDrug-Target identified 265 mycobacteria pathogen-specific proteins, including 17 essential proteins which can be potential drug targets. Conclusions

  18. A Systems-Pharmacology Analysis of Herbal Medicines Used in Health Improvement Treatment: Predicting Potential New Drugs and Targets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianling; Pei, Mengjie; Zheng, Chunli; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Yang, Ling

    2013-01-01

    For thousands of years, tonic herbs have been successfully used all around the world to improve health, energy, and vitality. However, their underlying mechanisms of action in molecular/systems levels are still a mystery. In this work, two sets of tonic herbs, so called Qi-enriching herbs (QEH) and Blood-tonifying herbs (BTH) in TCM, were selected to elucidate why they can restore proper balance and harmony inside body, organ and energy system. Firstly, a pattern recognition model based on artificial neural network and discriminant analysis for assessing the molecular difference between QEH and BTH was developed. It is indicated that QEH compounds have high lipophilicity while BTH compounds possess high chemical reactivity. Secondly, a systematic investigation integrating ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) prediction, target fishing and network analysis was performed and validated on these herbs to obtain the compound-target associations for reconstructing the biologically-meaningful networks. The results suggest QEH enhance physical strength, immune system and normal well-being, acting as adjuvant therapy for chronic disorders while BTH stimulate hematopoiesis function in body. As an emerging approach, the systems pharmacology model might facilitate to understand the mechanisms of action of the tonic herbs, which brings about new development for complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:24369484

  19. Homology modeling of NAD+-dependent DNA ligase of the Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi and its drug target potential using dispiro-cycloalkanones.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Nidhi; Nag, Jeetendra K; Pandey, Jyoti; Tripathi, Rama Pati; Shah, Priyanka; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2015-07-01

    Lymphatic filarial nematodes maintain a mutualistic relationship with the endosymbiont Wolbachia. Depletion of Wolbachia produces profound defects in nematode development, fertility, and viability and thus has great promise as a novel approach for treating filarial diseases. NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase is an essential enzyme of DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Therefore, in the present study, the antifilarial drug target potential of the NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase of the Wolbachia symbiont of Brugia malayi (wBm-LigA) was investigated using dispiro-cycloalkanone compounds. Dispiro-cycloalkanone specifically inhibited the nick-closing and cohesive-end ligation activities of the enzyme without inhibiting human or T4 DNA ligase. The mode of inhibition was competitive with the NAD(+) cofactor. Docking studies also revealed the interaction of these compounds with the active site of the target enzyme. The adverse effects of these inhibitors were observed on adult and microfilarial stages of B. malayi in vitro, and the most active compounds were further monitored in vivo in jirds and mastomys rodent models. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 had severe adverse effects in vitro on the motility of both adult worms and microfilariae at low concentrations. Compound 2 was the best inhibitor, with the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) (1.02 μM), followed by compound 5 (IC50, 2.3 μM) and compound 1 (IC50, 2.9 μM). These compounds also exhibited the same adverse effect on adult worms and microfilariae in vivo (P < 0.05). These compounds also tremendously reduced the wolbachial load, as evident by quantitative real-time PCR (P < 0.05). wBm-LigA thus shows great promise as an antifilarial drug target, and dispiro-cycloalkanone compounds show great promise as antifilarial lead candidates.

  20. Homology Modeling of NAD+-Dependent DNA Ligase of the Wolbachia Endosymbiont of Brugia malayi and Its Drug Target Potential Using Dispiro-Cycloalkanones

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Nidhi; Nag, Jeetendra K.; Pandey, Jyoti; Tripathi, Rama Pati; Shah, Priyanka; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic filarial nematodes maintain a mutualistic relationship with the endosymbiont Wolbachia. Depletion of Wolbachia produces profound defects in nematode development, fertility, and viability and thus has great promise as a novel approach for treating filarial diseases. NAD+-dependent DNA ligase is an essential enzyme of DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Therefore, in the present study, the antifilarial drug target potential of the NAD+-dependent DNA ligase of the Wolbachia symbiont of Brugia malayi (wBm-LigA) was investigated using dispiro-cycloalkanone compounds. Dispiro-cycloalkanone specifically inhibited the nick-closing and cohesive-end ligation activities of the enzyme without inhibiting human or T4 DNA ligase. The mode of inhibition was competitive with the NAD+ cofactor. Docking studies also revealed the interaction of these compounds with the active site of the target enzyme. The adverse effects of these inhibitors were observed on adult and microfilarial stages of B. malayi in vitro, and the most active compounds were further monitored in vivo in jirds and mastomys rodent models. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 had severe adverse effects in vitro on the motility of both adult worms and microfilariae at low concentrations. Compound 2 was the best inhibitor, with the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) (1.02 μM), followed by compound 5 (IC50, 2.3 μM) and compound 1 (IC50, 2.9 μM). These compounds also exhibited the same adverse effect on adult worms and microfilariae in vivo (P < 0.05). These compounds also tremendously reduced the wolbachial load, as evident by quantitative real-time PCR (P < 0.05). wBm-LigA thus shows great promise as an antifilarial drug target, and dispiro-cycloalkanone compounds show great promise as antifilarial lead candidates. PMID:25845868

  1. Bioinformatics and Molecular Biological Characterization of a Hypothetical Protein SAV1226 as a Potential Drug Target for Methicillin/Vancomycin-Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Nichole; Velk, Kimberly; McCune, Tyler; Wu, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin/multiple-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are infectious bacteria that are resistant to common antibiotics. A previous in silico study in our group has identified a hypothetical protein SAV1226 as one of the potential drug targets. In this study, we reported the bioinformatics characterization, as well as cloning, expression, purification and kinetic assays of hypothetical protein SAV1226 from methicillin/vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Mu50 strain. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis revealed a low degree of structural similarity with known proteins. Kinetic assays demonstrated that hypothetical protein SAV1226 is neither a domain of an ATP dependent dihydroxyacetone kinase nor of a phosphotransferase system (PTS) dihydroxyacetone kinase, suggesting that the function of hypothetical protein SAV1226 might be misannotated on public databases such as UniProt and InterProScan 5. PMID:26388980

  2. The C terminus of HspA--a potential target for native Ni(II) and Bi(III) anti-ulcer drugs.

    PubMed

    Rowinska-Zyrek, Magdalena; Witkowska, Danuta; Valensin, Daniela; Kamysz, Wojciech; Kozlowski, Henryk

    2010-07-07

    HspA, a protein crucial for nickel homeostasis in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), has a unique histidine- and cysteine-rich domain at the C terminus. In this work, we compared the coordination of nickel (the natural co-factor) and bismuth (inhibitor) to this domain (Ac-ACCHDHKKH-NH(2)) and to a reference peptide (Ac-CHCH-NH(2)). Potentiometric, CD, UV-Vis spectroscopic and NMR methods have shown that bismuth binds incomparably stronger than nickel; the same data shows the impact of histidines on such a binding. Our results are in good agreement with earlier biological data and suggest that HspA can be a potential target of the bismuth anti-ulcer drug against H. pylori.

  3. Sphingosines Derived from Marine Sponge as Potential Multi-Target Drug Related to Disorders in Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Biegelmeyer, Renata; Schröder, Rafael; Rambo, Douglas F.; Dresch, Roger R.; Carraro, João L. F.; Mothes, Beatriz; Moreira, José Cláudio F.; da Frota Junior, Mário L. C.; Henriques, Amélia T.

    2015-01-01

    Haliclona tubifera, marine sponge species abundant in Brazilian coastline, presents only a few papers published in the literature. Recently, we have reported the isolation of two modified C18 sphingoid bases: (2R,3R,6R,7Z)-2-aminooctadec-7-ene-1,3,6-triol and and (2R,3R,6R)-2-aminooctadec-1,3,6-triol. In order to continue our research, in this work aimed at the biological investigation of fractions that led to the isolation of these compounds. We evaluated the cytotoxic effect of marine sponge H. tubifera fractions in glioma (U87) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) human cell lines. In addition, considering the link between cancer, imbalance of reactive oxygen species and coagulation disorders, we also investigated the in vitro effects on blood coagulation and their redox properties. We showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction, rich in sphingoid bases, had important cytotoxic effects in both cancer cell lines with an IC50 < 15 μg/mL and also can inhibit the production of peroxyl radicals. Interestingly, this fraction increased the recalcification time of human blood, showing anticoagulant properties. The present study indicates the sphingosines fraction as a promising source of chemical prototypes, especially multifunctional drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:26308014

  4. Efficient synthesis of diverse heterobifunctionalized clickable oligo(ethylene glycol) linkers: potential applications in bioconjugation and targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Lalit N; Houston, Zachary H; Sarma, Saurav J; Jalisatgi, Satish S; Hawthorne, M Frederick

    2013-02-21

    Herein we describe the sequential synthesis of a variety of azide-alkyne click chemistry-compatible heterobifunctional oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) linkers for bioconjugation chemistry applications. Synthesis of these bioorthogonal linkers was accomplished through desymmetrization of OEGs by conversion of one of the hydroxyl groups to either an alkyne or azido functionality. The remaining distal hydroxyl group on the OEGs was activated by either a 4-nitrophenyl carbonate or a mesylate (-OMs) group. The -OMs functional group served as a useful precursor to form a variety of heterobifunctionalized OEG linkers containing different highly reactive end groups, e.g., iodo, -NH(2), -SH and maleimido, that were orthogonal to the alkyne or azido functional group. Also, the alkyne- and azide-terminated OEGs are useful for generating larger discrete poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) linkers (e.g., PEG(16) and PEG(24)) by employing a Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition click reaction. The utility of these clickable heterobifunctional OEGs in bioconjugation chemistry was demonstrated by attachment of the integrin (α(v)β(3)) receptor targeting peptide, cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys) (cRGfKD) and to the fluorescent probe sulfo-rhodamine B. The synthetic methodology presented herein is suitable for the large scale production of several novel heterobifunctionalized OEGs from readily available and inexpensive starting materials.

  5. Drug-targeting methodologies with applications: A review

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Feng, Yu; Childress, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery to solid tumors is a very active research area, focusing mainly on improved drug formulation and associated best delivery methods/devices. Drug-targeting has the potential to greatly improve drug-delivery efficacy, reduce side effects, and lower the treatment costs. However, the vast majority of drug-targeting studies assume that the drug-particles are already at the target site or at least in its direct vicinity. In this review, drug-delivery methodologies, drug types and drug-delivery devices are discussed with examples in two major application areas: (1) inhaled drug-aerosol delivery into human lung-airways; and (2) intravascular drug-delivery for solid tumor targeting. The major problem addressed is how to deliver efficiently the drug-particles from the entry/infusion point to the target site. So far, most experimental results are based on animal studies. Concerning pulmonary drug delivery, the focus is on the pros and cons of three inhaler types, i.e., pressurized metered dose inhaler, dry powder inhaler and nebulizer, in addition to drug-aerosol formulations. Computational fluid-particle dynamics techniques and the underlying methodology for a smart inhaler system are discussed as well. Concerning intravascular drug-delivery for solid tumor targeting, passive and active targeting are reviewed as well as direct drug-targeting, using optimal delivery of radioactive microspheres to liver tumors as an example. The review concludes with suggestions for future work, considereing both pulmonary drug targeting and direct drug delivery to solid tumors in the vascular system. PMID:25516850

  6. Mirvetuximab Soravtansine (IMGN853), a Folate Receptor Alpha-Targeting Antibody-Drug Conjugate, Potentiates the Activity of Standard of Care Therapeutics in Ovarian Cancer Models.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Jose F; Ab, Olga; Lanieri, Leanne; Lee, Jenny; Coccia, Jennifer; Bartle, Laura M; Themeles, Marian; Zhou, Yinghui; Pinkas, Jan; Ruiz-Soto, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    Elevated folate receptor alpha (FRα) expression is characteristic of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), thus establishing this receptor as a candidate target for the development of novel therapeutics to treat this disease. Mirvetuximab soravtansine (IMGN853) is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that targets FRα for tumor-directed delivery of the maytansinoid DM4, a potent agent that induces mitotic arrest by suppressing microtubule dynamics. Here, combinations of IMGN853 with approved therapeutics were evaluated in preclinical models of EOC. Combinations of IMGN853 with carboplatin or doxorubicin resulted in synergistic antiproliferative effects in the IGROV-1 ovarian cancer cell line in vitro. IMGN853 potentiated the cytotoxic activity of carboplatin via growth arrest and augmented DNA damage; cell cycle perturbations were also observed in cells treated with the IMGN853/doxorubicin combination. These benefits translated into improved antitumor activity in patient-derived xenograft models in vivo in both the platinum-sensitive (IMGN853/carboplatin) and platinum-resistant (IMGN853/pegylated liposomal doxorubicin) settings. IMGN853 co-treatment also improved the in vivo efficacy of bevacizumab in platinum-resistant EOC models, with combination regimens causing significant regressions and complete responses in the majority of tumor-bearing mice. Histological analysis of OV-90 ovarian xenograft tumors revealed that concurrent administration of IMGN853 and bevacizumab caused rapid disruption of tumor microvasculature and extensive necrosis, underscoring the superior bioactivity profile of the combination regimen. Overall, these demonstrations of combinatorial benefit conferred by the addition of the first FRα-targeting ADC to established therapies provide a compelling framework for the potential application of IMGN853 in the treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

  7. Neuroinflammation: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Craft, Jeffrey M; Watterson, D Martin; Van Eldik, Linda J

    2005-10-01

    The increased appreciation of the importance of glial cell-propagated inflammation (termed 'neuroinflammation') in the progression of pathophysiology for diverse neurodegenerative diseases, has heightened interest in the rapid discovery of neuroinflammation-targeted therapeutics. Efforts include searches among existing drugs approved for other uses, as well as development of novel synthetic compounds that selectively downregulate neuroinflammatory responses. The use of existing drugs to target neuroinflammation has largely met with failure due to lack of efficacy or untoward side effects. However, the de novo development of new classes of therapeutics based on targeting selective aspects of glia activation pathways and glia-mediated pathophysiologies, versus targeting pathways of quantitative importance in non-CNS inflammatory responses, is yielding promising results in preclinical animal models. The authors briefly review selected clinical and preclinical data that reflect the prevailing approaches targeting neuroinflammation as a pathophysiological process contributing to onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The authors conclude with opinions based on recent experimental proofs of concept using preclinical animal models of pathophysiology. The focus is on Alzheimer's disease, but the concepts are transferrable to other neurodegenerative disorders with an inflammatory component.

  8. Molecular Targets for Antiepileptic Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Meldrum, Brian S.; Rogawski, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary This review considers how recent advances in the physiology of ion channels and other potential molecular targets, in conjunction with new information on the genetics of idiopathic epilepsies, can be applied to the search for improved antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Marketed AEDs predominantly target voltage-gated cation channels (the α subunits of voltage-gated Na+ channels and also T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels) or influence GABA-mediated inhibition. Recently, α2–δ voltage-gated Ca2+ channel subunits and the SV2A synaptic vesicle protein have been recognized as likely targets. Genetic studies of familial idiopathic epilepsies have identified numerous genes associated with diverse epilepsy syndromes, including genes encoding Na+ channels and GABAA receptors, which are known AED targets. A strategy based on genes associated with epilepsy in animal models and humans suggests other potential AED targets, including various voltage-gated Ca2+ channel subunits and auxiliary proteins, A- or M-type voltage-gated K+ channels, and ionotropic glutamate receptors. Recent progress in ion channel research brought about by molecular cloning of the channel subunit proteins and studies in epilepsy models suggest additional targets, including G-protein-coupled receptors, such as GABAB and metabotropic glutamate receptors; hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channel subunits, responsible for hyperpolarization-activated current Ih; connexins, which make up gap junctions; and neurotransmitter transporters, particularly plasma membrane and vesicular transporters for GABA and glutamate. New information from the structural characterization of ion channels, along with better understanding of ion channel function, may allow for more selective targeting. For example, Na+ channels underlying persistent Na+ currents or GABAA receptor isoforms responsible for tonic (extrasynaptic) currents represent attractive targets. The growing understanding of the

  9. Target-based drug discovery for human African trypanosomiasis: selection of molecular target and chemical matter.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Ian H

    2014-01-01

    Target-based approaches for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and related parasites can be a valuable route for drug discovery for these diseases. However, care needs to be taken in selection of both the actual drug target and the chemical matter that is developed. In this article, potential criteria to aid target selection are described. Then the physiochemical properties of typical oral drugs are discussed and compared to those of known anti-parasitics.

  10. Target based drug design - a reality in virtual sphere.

    PubMed

    Verma, Saroj; Prabhakar, Yenamandra S

    2015-01-01

    The target based drug design approaches are a series of computational procedures, including visualization tools, to support the decision systems of drug design/discovery process. In the essence of biological targets shaping the potential lead/drug molecules, this review presents a comprehensive position of different components of target based drug design which include target identification, protein modeling, molecular dynamics simulations, binding/catalytic sites identification, docking, virtual screening, fragment based strategies, substructure treatment of targets in tackling drug resistance, in silico ADMET, structural vaccinology, etc along with the key issues involved therein and some well investigated case studies. The concepts and working of these procedures are critically discussed to arouse interest and to advance the drug research.

  11. Deep-Learning-Based Drug-Target Interaction Prediction.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Zhang, Zhimin; Niu, Shaoyu; Sha, Haozhi; Yang, Ruihan; Yun, Yonghuan; Lu, Hongmei

    2017-04-07

    Identifying interactions between known drugs and targets is a major challenge in drug repositioning. In silico prediction of drug-target interaction (DTI) can speed up the expensive and time-consuming experimental work by providing the most potent DTIs. In silico prediction of DTI can also provide insights about the potential drug-drug interaction and promote the exploration of drug side effects. Traditionally, the performance of DTI prediction depends heavily on the descriptors used to represent the drugs and the target proteins. In this paper, to accurately predict new DTIs between approved drugs and targets without separating the targets into different classes, we developed a deep-learning-based algorithmic framework named DeepDTIs. It first abstracts representations from raw input descriptors using unsupervised pretraining and then applies known label pairs of interaction to build a classification model. Compared with other methods, it is found that DeepDTIs reaches or outperforms other state-of-the-art methods. The DeepDTIs can be further used to predict whether a new drug targets to some existing targets or whether a new target interacts with some existing drugs.

  12. Stapled peptides for intracellular drug targets.

    PubMed

    Verdine, Gregory L; Hilinski, Gerard J

    2012-01-01

    Proteins that engage in intracellular interactions with other proteins are widely considered among the most biologically appealing yet chemically intractable targets for drug discovery. The critical interaction surfaces of these proteins typically lack the deep hydrophobic involutions that enable potent, selective targeting by small organic molecules, and their localization within the cell puts them beyond the reach of protein therapeutics. Considerable interest has therefore arisen in next-generation targeting molecules that combine the broad target recognition capabilities of protein therapeutics with the robust cell-penetrating ability of small molecules. One type that has shown promise in early-stage studies is hydrocarbon-stapled α-helical peptides, a novel class of synthetic miniproteins locked into their bioactive α-helical fold through the site-specific introduction of a chemical brace, an all-hydrocarbon staple. Stapling can greatly improve the pharmacologic performance of peptides, increasing their target affinity, proteolytic resistance, and serum half-life while conferring on them high levels of cell penetration through endocytic vesicle trafficking. Here, we discuss considerations crucial to the successful design and evaluation of potent stapled peptide interactions, our intention being to facilitate the broad application of this technology to intractable targets of both basic biologic interest and potential therapeutic value.

  13. A weighted and integrated drug-target interactome: drug repurposing for schizophrenia as a use case

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Computational pharmacology can uniquely address some issues in the process of drug development by providing a macroscopic view and a deeper understanding of drug action. Specifically, network-assisted approach is promising for the inference of drug repurposing. However, the drug-target associations coming from different sources and various assays have much noise, leading to an inflation of the inference errors. To reduce the inference errors, it is necessary and critical to create a comprehensive and weighted data set of drug-target associations. Results In this study, we created a weighted and integrated drug-target interactome (WinDTome) to provide a comprehensive resource of drug-target associations for computational pharmacology. We first collected drug-target interactions from six commonly used drug-target centered data sources including DrugBank, KEGG, TTD, MATADOR, PDSP Ki Database, and BindingDB. Then, we employed the record linkage method to normalize drugs and targets to the unique identifiers by utilizing the public data sources including PubChem, Entrez Gene, and UniProt. To assess the reliability of the drug-target associations, we assigned two scores (Score_S and Score_R) to each drug-target association based on their data sources and publication references. Consequently, the WinDTome contains 546,196 drug-target associations among 303,018 compounds and 4,113 genes. To assess the application of the WinDTome, we designed a network-based approach for drug repurposing using mental disorder schizophrenia (SCZ) as a case. Starting from 41 known SCZ drugs and their targets, we inferred a total of 264 potential SCZ drugs through the associations of drug-target with Score_S higher than two in WinDTome and human protein-protein interactions. Among the 264 SCZ-related drugs, 39 drugs have been investigated in clinical trials for SCZ treatment and 74 drugs for the treatment of other mental disorders, respectively. Compared with the results using other

  14. Automated High Throughput Drug Target Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Rupp, B

    2005-02-18

    The molecular structures of drug target proteins and receptors form the basis for 'rational' or structure guided drug design. The majority of target structures are experimentally determined by protein X-ray crystallography, which as evolved into a highly automated, high throughput drug discovery and screening tool. Process automation has accelerated tasks from parallel protein expression, fully automated crystallization, and rapid data collection to highly efficient structure determination methods. A thoroughly designed automation technology platform supported by a powerful informatics infrastructure forms the basis for optimal workflow implementation and the data mining and analysis tools to generate new leads from experimental protein drug target structures.

  15. p-Hydroxy benzoic acid-conjugated dendrimer nanotherapeutics as potential carriers for targeted drug delivery to brain: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swami, Rajan; Singh, Indu; Kulhari, Hitesh; Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Khan, Wahid; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2015-06-01

    Dendrimers which are discrete nanostructures/nanoparticles are emerging as promising candidates for many nanomedicine applications. Ligand-conjugated dendrimer facilitate the delivery of therapeutics in a targeted manner. Small molecules such as p-hydroxyl benzoic acid (pHBA) were found to have high affinity for sigma receptors which are prominent in most parts of central nervous system and tumors. The aim of this study was to synthesize pHBA-dendrimer conjugates as colloidal carrier for site-specific delivery of practically water insoluble drug, docetaxel (DTX) to brain tumors and to determine its targeting efficiency. pHBA, a small molecule ligand was coupled to the surface amine groups of generation 4-PAMAM dendrimer via a carbodiimide reaction and loaded with DTX. The conjugation was confirmed by 1HNMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. In vitro release of drug from DTX-loaded pHBA-conjugated dendrimer was found to be less as compared to unconjugated dendrimers. The prepared drug delivery system exhibited good physico-chemical stability and decrease in hemolytic toxicity. Cell viability and cell uptake studies were performed against U87MG human glioblastoma cells and formulations exerted considerable anticancer effect than plain drug. Conjugation of dendrimer with pHBA significantly enhanced the brain uptake of DTX which was shown by the recovery of a higher percentage of the dose from the brain following administration of pHBA-conjugated dendrimers compared with unconjugated dendrimer or formulation in clinical use (Taxotere®). Therefore, pHBA conjugated dendrimers could be an efficient delivery vehicle for the targeting of anticancer drugs to brain tumors.

  16. An eigenvalue transformation technique for predicting drug-target interaction.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Qifan; Xu, Xin; Li, Rong; Dong, Yongcheng; Li, Yan; Huang, Ziyan; Li, Yizhou; Li, Menglong

    2015-09-09

    The prediction of drug-target interactions is a key step in the drug discovery process, which serves to identify new drugs or novel targets for existing drugs. However, experimental methods for predicting drug-target interactions are expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, the in silico prediction of drug-target interactions has recently attracted increasing attention. In this study, we propose an eigenvalue transformation technique and apply this technique to two representative algorithms, the Regularized Least Squares classifier (RLS) and the semi-supervised link prediction classifier (SLP), that have been used to predict drug-target interaction. The results of computational experiments with these techniques show that algorithms including eigenvalue transformation achieved better performance on drug-target interaction prediction than did the original algorithms. These findings show that eigenvalue transformation is an efficient technique for improving the performance of methods for predicting drug-target interactions. We further show that, in theory, eigenvalue transformation can be viewed as a feature transformation on the kernel matrix. Accordingly, although we only apply this technique to two algorithms in the current study, eigenvalue transformation also has the potential to be applied to other algorithms based on kernels.

  17. Drug resistance mechanisms and novel drug targets for tuberculosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Mahmudul; Hameed, H M Adnan; Mugweru, Julius; Chhotaray, Chiranjibi; Wang, Changwei; Tan, Yaoju; Liu, Jianxiong; Li, Xinjie; Tan, Shouyong; Ojima, Iwao; Yew, Wing Wai; Nuermberger, Eric; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Zhang, Tianyu

    2017-01-20

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) poses a significant challenge to the successful treatment and control of TB worldwide. Resistance to anti-TB drugs has existed since the beginning of the chemotherapy era. New insights into the resistant mechanisms of anti-TB drugs have been provided. Better understanding of drug resistance mechanisms helps in the development of new tools for the rapid diagnosis of drug-resistant TB. There is also a pressing need in the development of new drugs with novel targets to improve the current treatment of TB and to prevent the emergence of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This review summarizes the anti-TB drug resistance mechanisms, furnishes some possible novel drug targets in the development of new agents for TB therapy and discusses the usefulness using known targets to develop new anti-TB drugs. Whole genome sequencing is currently an advanced technology to uncover drug resistance mechanisms in M. tuberculosis. However, further research is required to unravel the significance of some newly discovered gene mutations in their contribution to drug resistance.

  18. Targets of drugs are generally, and targets of drugs having side effects are specifically good spreaders of human interactome perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Lopez, Áron R.; Szalay, Kristóf Z.; Türei, Dénes; Módos, Dezső; Lenti, Katalin; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Csermely, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Network-based methods are playing an increasingly important role in drug design. Our main question in this paper was whether the efficiency of drug target proteins to spread perturbations in the human interactome is larger if the binding drugs have side effects, as compared to those which have no reported side effects. Our results showed that in general, drug targets were better spreaders of perturbations than non-target proteins, and in particular, targets of drugs with side effects were also better spreaders of perturbations than targets of drugs having no reported side effects in human protein-protein interaction networks. Colorectal cancer-related proteins were good spreaders and had a high centrality, while type 2 diabetes-related proteins showed an average spreading efficiency and had an average centrality in the human interactome. Moreover, the interactome-distance between drug targets and disease-related proteins was higher in diabetes than in colorectal cancer. Our results may help a better understanding of the network position and dynamics of drug targets and disease-related proteins, and may contribute to develop additional, network-based tests to increase the potential safety of drug candidates.

  19. Targets of drugs are generally, and targets of drugs having side effects are specifically good spreaders of human interactome perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Lopez, Áron R.; Szalay, Kristóf Z.; Türei, Dénes; Módos, Dezső; Lenti, Katalin; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Csermely, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Network-based methods are playing an increasingly important role in drug design. Our main question in this paper was whether the efficiency of drug target proteins to spread perturbations in the human interactome is larger if the binding drugs have side effects, as compared to those which have no reported side effects. Our results showed that in general, drug targets were better spreaders of perturbations than non-target proteins, and in particular, targets of drugs with side effects were also better spreaders of perturbations than targets of drugs having no reported side effects in human protein-protein interaction networks. Colorectal cancer-related proteins were good spreaders and had a high centrality, while type 2 diabetes-related proteins showed an average spreading efficiency and had an average centrality in the human interactome. Moreover, the interactome-distance between drug targets and disease-related proteins was higher in diabetes than in colorectal cancer. Our results may help a better understanding of the network position and dynamics of drug targets and disease-related proteins, and may contribute to develop additional, network-based tests to increase the potential safety of drug candidates. PMID:25960144

  20. Drug-Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles for Cancer Stem Cell Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Li, Binbin; Li, Qinghua; Mo, Jingxin; Dai, Honglian

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reported to play critical roles in tumor initiation, propagation, and regeneration of cancer. Nano-size vehicles are employed to deliver drugs to target the CSCs for cancer therapy. Polymeric nanoparticles have been considered as the most efficient vehicles for drug delivery due to their excellent pharmacokinetic properties. The CSCs specific antibodies or ligands can be conjugated onto the surface or interior of nanoparticles to successfully target and finally eliminate CSCs. In this review, we focus on the approaches of polymeric nanoparticles design for loading drug, and their potential application for CSCs targeting in cancer therapy. PMID:28261093

  1. Targeting Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases for Anticancer Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Latanya. M.; Lawrence, Harshani. R.; Sebti, Saïd. M.; Lawrence, Nicholas. J.; Wu, Jie.

    2010-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are a diverse family of enzymes encoded by 107 genes in the human genome. Together with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), PTPs regulate various cellular activities essential for the initiation and maintenance of malignant phenotypes. While PTK inhibitors are now used routinely for cancer treatment, the PTP inhibitor development field is still in the discovery phase. In this article, the suitability of targeting PTPs for novel anticancer drug discovery is discussed. Examples are presented for PTPs that have been targeted for anticancer drug discovery as well as potential new PTP targets for novel anticancer drug discovery. PMID:20337577

  2. Novel drugs targeting sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bhabak, Krishna P; Arenz, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    While the evidence for an involvement of sphingolipids (SLs) in a variety of diseases is rapidly increasing, the development of sphingolipid-related drugs is still in its infancy. In fact, the recently FDA-approved fingolimod or FTY-720 (see chapter by J. Pfeilschifter for more information) is the first drug on the market to interfere with sphingolipid signaling. The reasons for this lagging are manifold and within this chapter we try to name some of them. Ceramide is in the center of sphingolipid metabolism. We describe the most important and most recent inhibitors for enzymes controlling cellular ceramide levels.

  3. Targeted drug-carrying bacteriophages as antibacterial nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Yacoby, Iftach; Bar, Hagit; Benhar, Itai

    2007-06-01

    While the resistance of bacteria to traditional antibiotics is a major public health concern, the use of extremely potent antibacterial agents is limited by their lack of selectivity. As in cancer therapy, antibacterial targeted therapy could provide an opportunity to reintroduce toxic substances to the antibacterial arsenal. A desirable targeted antibacterial agent should combine binding specificity, a large drug payload per binding event, and a programmed drug release mechanism. Recently, we presented a novel application of filamentous bacteriophages as targeted drug carriers that could partially inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This partial success was due to limitations of drug-loading capacity that resulted from the hydrophobicity of the drug. Here we present a novel drug conjugation chemistry which is based on connecting hydrophobic drugs to the phage via aminoglycoside antibiotics that serve as solubility-enhancing branched linkers. This new formulation allowed a significantly larger drug-carrying capacity of the phages, resulting in a drastic improvement in their performance as targeted drug-carrying nanoparticles. As an example for a potential systemic use for potent agents that are limited for topical use, we present antibody-targeted phage nanoparticles that carry a large payload of the hemolytic antibiotic chloramphenicol connected through the aminoglycoside neomycin. We demonstrate complete growth inhibition toward the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli with an improvement in potency by a factor of approximately 20,000 compared to the free drug.

  4. Predicting new molecular targets for known drugs

    PubMed Central

    Keiser, Michael J.; Setola, Vincent; Irwin, John J.; Laggner, Christian; Abbas, Atheir; Hufeisen, Sandra J.; Jensen, Niels H.; Kuijer, Michael B.; Matos, Roberto C.; Tran, Thuy B.; Whaley, Ryan; Glennon, Richard A.; Hert, Jérôme; Thomas, Kelan L.H.; Edwards, Douglas D.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas drugs are intended to be selective, at least some bind to several physiologic targets, explaining both side effects and efficacy. As many drug-target combinations exist, it would be useful to explore possible interactions computationally. Here, we compared 3,665 FDA-approved and investigational drugs against hundreds of targets, defining each target by its ligands. Chemical similarities between drugs and ligand sets predicted thousands of unanticipated associations. Thirty were tested experimentally, including the antagonism of the β1 receptor by the transporter inhibitor Prozac, the inhibition of the 5-HT transporter by the ion channel drug Vadilex, and antagonism of the histamine H4 receptor by the enzyme inhibitor Rescriptor. Overall, 23 new drug-target associations were confirmed, five of which were potent (< 100 nM). The physiological relevance of one such, the drug DMT on serotonergic receptors, was confirmed in a knock-out mouse. The chemical similarity approach is systematic and comprehensive, and may suggest side-effects and new indications for many drugs. PMID:19881490

  5. Potentiating antilymphoma efficacy of chemotherapy using a liposome for integration of CD20 targeting, ultra-violet irradiation polymerizing, and controlled drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cong; Li, Huafei; Zhao, He; Zhang, Weiwei; Chen, Yan; Yue, Zhanyi; Lu, Qiong; Wan, Yuxiang; Tian, Xiaoyu; Deng, Anmei

    2014-08-01

    Unlike most malignancies, chemotherapy but not surgery plays the most important role in treating non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Currently, liposomes have been widely used to encapsulate chemotherapeutic drugs in treating solid tumors. However, higher in vivo stability owns a much more important position for excellent antitumor efficacy in treating hematological malignancies. In this study, we finely fabricated a rituximab Fab fragment-decorated liposome based on 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DC8,9PC), which can form intermolecular cross-linking through the diacetylenic group by ultra-violet (UV) irradiation. Our experimental results demonstrated that after the UV irradiation, the liposomes exhibit better serum stability and slower drug release with a decreased mean diameter of approximately 285 nm. The cellular uptake of adriamycin (ADR) by this Fab-navigated liposome was about four times of free drugs. Cytotoxicity assays against CD20+ lymphoma cells showed that the half maximal (50%) inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ADR-loaded immunoliposome was only one fourth of free ADR at the same condition. In vivo studies were evaluated in lymphoma-bearing SCID mice. With the high serum stability, finely regulated structure, active targeting strategy via antigen-antibody reaction and passive targeting strategy via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, our liposome exhibits durable and potent antitumor activities both in the disseminated and localized human NHL xeno-transplant models.

  6. The Cysteine Protease Cathepsin B Is a Key Drug Target and Cysteine Protease Inhibitors Are Potential Therapeutics for Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Gregory R.; Yu, Jin; Sipes, Nancy; Pierschbacher, Michael D.; Hook, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There are currently no effective therapeutic agents for traumatic brain injury (TBI), but drug treatments for TBI can be developed by validation of new drug targets and demonstration that compounds directed to such targets are efficacious in TBI animal models using a clinically relevant route of drug administration. The cysteine protease, cathepsin B, has been implicated in mediating TBI, but it has not been validated by gene knockout (KO) studies. Therefore, this investigation evaluated mice with deletion of the cathepsin B gene receiving controlled cortical impact TBI trauma. Results indicated that KO of the cathepsin B gene resulted in amelioration of TBI, shown by significant improvement in motor dysfunction, reduced brain lesion volume, greater neuronal density in brain, and lack of increased proapoptotic Bax levels. Notably, oral administration of the small-molecule cysteine protease inhibitor, E64d, immediately after TBI resulted in recovery of TBI-mediated motor dysfunction and reduced the increase in cathepsin B activity induced by TBI. E64d outcomes were as effective as cathepsin B gene deletion for improving TBI. E64d treatment was effective even when administered 8 h after injury, indicating a clinically plausible time period for acute therapeutic intervention. These data demonstrate that a cysteine protease inhibitor can be orally efficacious in a TBI animal model when administered at a clinically relevant time point post-trauma, and that E64d-mediated improvement of TBI is primarily the result of inhibition of cathepsin B activity. These results validate cathepsin B as a new TBI therapeutic target. PMID:24083575

  7. Hsp70 Protein Complexes as Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Assimon, Victoria A.; Gillies, Anne T.; Rauch, Jennifer N.; Gestwicki, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) plays critical roles in proteostasis and is an emerging target for multiple diseases. However, competitive inhibition of the enzymatic activity of Hsp70 has proven challenging and, in some cases, may not be the most productive way to redirect Hsp70 function. Another approach is to inhibit Hsp70’s interactions with important co-chaperones, such as J proteins, nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain-containing proteins. These co-chaperones normally bind Hsp70 and guide its many diverse cellular activities. Complexes between Hsp70 and co-chaperones have been shown to have specific functions, such as pro-folding, pro-degradation and pro-trafficking. Thus, a promising strategy may be to block protein-protein interactions between Hsp70 and its co-chaperones or to target allosteric sites that disrupt these contacts. Such an approach might shift the balance of Hsp70 complexes and re-shape the proteome and it has the potential to restore healthy proteostasis. In this review, we discuss specific challenges and opportunities related to those goals. By pursuing Hsp70 complexes as drug targets, we might not only develop new leads for therapeutic development, but also discover new chemical probes for use in understanding Hsp70 biology. PMID:22920901

  8. Hsp70 protein complexes as drug targets.

    PubMed

    Assimon, Victoria A; Gillies, Anne T; Rauch, Jennifer N; Gestwicki, Jason E

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) plays critical roles in proteostasis and is an emerging target for multiple diseases. However, competitive inhibition of the enzymatic activity of Hsp70 has proven challenging and, in some cases, may not be the most productive way to redirect Hsp70 function. Another approach is to inhibit Hsp70's interactions with important co-chaperones, such as J proteins, nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain-containing proteins. These co-chaperones normally bind Hsp70 and guide its many diverse cellular activities. Complexes between Hsp70 and co-chaperones have been shown to have specific functions, including roles in pro-folding, pro-degradation and pro-trafficking pathways. Thus, a promising strategy may be to block protein- protein interactions between Hsp70 and its co-chaperones or to target allosteric sites that disrupt these contacts. Such an approach might shift the balance of Hsp70 complexes and re-shape the proteome and it has the potential to restore healthy proteostasis. In this review, we discuss specific challenges and opportunities related to these goals. By pursuing Hsp70 complexes as drug targets, we might not only develop new leads for therapeutic development, but also discover new chemical probes for use in understanding Hsp70 biology.

  9. DrugComboRanker: drug combination discovery based on target network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Li, Fuhai; Sheng, Jianting; Xia, Xiaofeng; Ma, Jinwen; Zhan, Ming; Wong, Stephen T.C.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Currently there are no curative anticancer drugs, and drug resistance is often acquired after drug treatment. One of the reasons is that cancers are complex diseases, regulated by multiple signaling pathways and cross talks among the pathways. It is expected that drug combinations can reduce drug resistance and improve patients’ outcomes. In clinical practice, the ideal and feasible drug combinations are combinations of existing Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs or bioactive compounds that are already used on patients or have entered clinical trials and passed safety tests. These drug combinations could directly be used on patients with less concern of toxic effects. However, there is so far no effective computational approach to search effective drug combinations from the enormous number of possibilities. Results: In this study, we propose a novel systematic computational tool DrugComboRanker to prioritize synergistic drug combinations and uncover their mechanisms of action. We first build a drug functional network based on their genomic profiles, and partition the network into numerous drug network communities by using a Bayesian non-negative matrix factorization approach. As drugs within overlapping community share common mechanisms of action, we next uncover potential targets of drugs by applying a recommendation system on drug communities. We meanwhile build disease-specific signaling networks based on patients’ genomic profiles and interactome data. We then identify drug combinations by searching drugs whose targets are enriched in the complementary signaling modules of the disease signaling network. The novel method was evaluated on lung adenocarcinoma and endocrine receptor positive breast cancer, and compared with other drug combination approaches. These case studies discovered a set of effective drug combinations top ranked in our prediction list, and mapped the drug targets on the disease signaling network to highlight the

  10. An overview to understand the role of PE_PGRS family proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv and their potential as new drug targets.

    PubMed

    Meena, Laxman S

    2015-01-01

    new drug targets.

  11. AZ17: a new bispecific drug targeting IL-6 and IL-23 with potential clinical use--improves psoriasis in a human xenograft transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Stenderup, Karin; Rosada, Cecilia; Shanebeck, Kurt; Brady, William; Van Brunt, Michael P; King, Gordon; Marelli, Marcello; Slagle, Paul; Xu, Hengyu; Nairn, Natalie W; Johnson, Jeffrey; Wang, Aijun A; Li, Gary; Thornton, Kenneth C; Dam, Tomas N; Grabstein, Kenneth H

    2015-10-01

    Targeting more than one molecule in multifactorial diseases involving several disease mediators may provide improved therapeutic efficacy. Psoriasis is a multifactorial disease in which interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-23 are important disease mediators because they facilitate development of Th17 cells; widely accepted to be associated with psoriasis. To meet the need for new therapeutics, we aimed to create a clinically relevant bispecific drug, by combining the inhibitory properties of anti-IL-6 and anti-IL-23 antibodies, exhibiting high affinity, high stability and the ability to be produced in high yield. The bispecific molecule AZ17 was created by combining high affinity binding domains originating from monoclonal antibodies targeting human IL-6 and IL-23. To allow for high and efficient production, AZ17 was assembled by site-specific bioconjugation from two individual single chain fragment variables that were synthesized separately in Escherichia coli. To improve stability and extend pharmacokinetics, a flexible poly-ethylene glycol molecule was used as linker. In preclinical psoriasis models, AZ17 reduced IL-23-induced ear inflammation and improved psoriasis in a xenograft transplantation model where psoriasis skin is transplanted onto immune-deficient mice. The data presented here suggest AZ17 to be a promising drug candidate in psoriasis and other inflammatory diseases associated with Th17 cell development.

  12. Drug target validation: Lethal infection blocked by inducible peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jianshi; Wendler, Philip; Connelly, Gene; Lim, Audrey; Zhang, Jiansu; King, Megan; Li, Tongchuan; Silverman, Jared A.; Schimmel, Paul R.; Tally, Francis P.

    2000-01-01

    Genome projects are generating large numbers of potential new targets for drug discovery. One challenge is target validation, proving the usefulness of a specific target in an animal model. In this paper, we demonstrate a new approach to validation and assay development. We selected in vitro specific peptide binders to a potential pathogen target. By inducing the expression of a selected peptide in pathogen cells causing a lethal infection in mice, the animals were rescued. Thus, by combining in vitro selection methods for peptide binders with inducible expression in animals, the target's validity was rigorously tested and demonstrated. This approach to validation can be generalized and has the potential to become a valuable tool in the drug discovery process.

  13. Nanogel Carrier Design for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Eckmann, D. M.; Composto, R. J.; Tsourkas, A.; Muzykantov, V. R.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-based nanogel formulations offer features attractive for drug delivery, including ease of synthesis, controllable swelling and viscoelasticity as well as drug loading and release characteristics, passive and active targeting, and the ability to formulate nanogel carriers that can respond to biological stimuli. These unique features and low toxicity make the nanogels a favorable option for vascular drug targeting. In this review, we address key chemical and biological aspects of nanogel drug carrier design. In particular, we highlight published studies of nanogel design, descriptions of nanogel functional characteristics and their behavior in biological models. These studies form a compendium of information that supports the scientific and clinical rationale for development of this carrier for targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:25485112

  14. Atypical GTPases as drug targets.

    PubMed

    Soundararajan, Meera; Eswaran, Jeyanthy

    2012-01-01

    The Ras GTPases are the founding members of large Ras superfamily, which constitutes more than 150 of these important class of enzymes. These GTPases function as GDP-GTP-regulated binary switches that control many fundamental cellular processes. There are a number of GTPases that have been identified recently, which do not confine to this prototype termed as "atypical GTPases" but have proved to play a remarkable role in vital cellular functions. In this review, we provide an overview of the crucial physiological functions mediated by RGK and Centaurin class of multi domain atypical GTPases. Moreover, the recently available atypical GTPase structures of the two families, regulation, physiological functions and their critical roles in various diseases will be discussed. In summary, this review will highlight the emerging atypical GTPase family which allows us to understand novel regulatory mechanisms and thus providing new avenues for drug discovery programs.

  15. Topoisomerase as target for antibacterial and anticancer drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, Muthu K; Khilare, Madhavi M; Nikoomanesh, Kiana; Chothe, Aparna S; Jain, Kishor S

    2013-06-01

    DNA topoisomerases comprise a major aspect of basic cellular biology and are molecular targets for a variety of drugs like antibiotics, antibacterials and anticancer drugs. They act by inhibiting the topoisomerase molecule from relegating DNA strands after cleavage and convert the topoisomerases molecule into a DNA damaging agent. Though drugs of various categories acting through different mechanisms are available for the treatment, there are still problems associated with the currently available drugs. Therefore, Structural biologists, Structural chemists and Medicinal chemists all around the world have been identifying, designing, synthesizing and evaluating a variety of novel bioactive molecules targeting topoisomerase. This review summarizes types of topoisomerase and drug treating each class along with their structural requirement and activity. The emphasis has been laid in particular on the new potential heterocyles and the possible treatments as well as the current ongoing research status in the field of topoisomerase as dual targeting.

  16. Discovery of Anthelmintic Drug Targets and Drugs Using Chokepoints in Nematode Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Christina M.; Wang, Qi; Rosa, Bruce A.; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; Powell, Kerrie; Schedl, Tim; Pearce, Edward J.; Abubucker, Sahar; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic roundworm infections plague more than 2 billion people (1/3 of humanity) and cause drastic losses in crops and livestock. New anthelmintic drugs are urgently needed as new drug resistance and environmental concerns arise. A “chokepoint reaction” is defined as a reaction that either consumes a unique substrate or produces a unique product. A chokepoint analysis provides a systematic method of identifying novel potential drug targets. Chokepoint enzymes were identified in the genomes of 10 nematode species, and the intersection and union of all chokepoint enzymes were found. By studying and experimentally testing available compounds known to target proteins orthologous to nematode chokepoint proteins in public databases, this study uncovers features of chokepoints that make them successful drug targets. Chemogenomic screening was performed on drug-like compounds from public drug databases to find existing compounds that target homologs of nematode chokepoints. The compounds were prioritized based on chemical properties frequently found in successful drugs and were experimentally tested using Caenorhabditis elegans. Several drugs that are already known anthelmintic drugs and novel candidate targets were identified. Seven of the compounds were tested in Caenorhabditis elegans and three yielded a detrimental phenotype. One of these three drug-like compounds, Perhexiline, also yielded a deleterious effect in Haemonchus contortus and Onchocerca lienalis, two nematodes with divergent forms of parasitism. Perhexiline, known to affect the fatty acid oxidation pathway in mammals, caused a reduction in oxygen consumption rates in C. elegans and genome-wide gene expression profiles provided an additional confirmation of its mode of action. Computational modeling of Perhexiline and its target provided structural insights regarding its binding mode and specificity. Our lists of prioritized drug targets and drug-like compounds have potential to expedite the discovery

  17. Giardiasis, drug resistance, and new target discovery.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hai-Feng; Chen, Bing; Wen, Jian-Fan

    2010-08-01

    Giardiasis is a worldwide parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Giardia lamblia in humans and other animals, especially live stocks. Here, we briefly review the current state of therapeutic availability for giardiasis, including chemical drugs and vaccines, and the dilemma in the prevention and treatment of this disease, including the emergence of drug resistance and the shortage of vaccine (especially for humans). Future efforts and progress in controlling giardiasis are expected in three aspects: clarification of the drug resistance mechanisms, development of efficient vaccines, and identification of more targets for new drugs and vaccines.

  18. Chemical proteomics: terra incognita for novel drug target profiling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fuqiang; Zhang, Boya; Zhou, Shengtao; Zhao, Xia; Bian, Ce; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-01-01

    The growing demand for new therapeutic strategies in the medical and pharmaceutic fields has resulted in a pressing need for novel druggable targets. Paradoxically, however, the targets of certain drugs that are already widely used in clinical practice have largely not been annotated. Because the pharmacologic effects of a drug can only be appreciated when its interactions with cellular components are clearly delineated, an integrated deconvolution of drug-target interactions for each drug is necessary. The emerging field of chemical proteomics represents a powerful mass spectrometry (MS)-based affinity chromatography approach for identifying proteome-wide small molecule-protein interactions and mapping these interactions to signaling and metabolic pathways. This technique could comprehensively characterize drug targets, profile the toxicity of known drugs, and identify possible off-target activities. With the use of this technique, candidate drug molecules could be optimized, and predictable side effects might consequently be avoided. Herein, we provide a holistic overview of the major chemical proteomic approaches and highlight recent advances in this area as well as its potential applications in drug discovery. PMID:22640626

  19. Modulation of Ras/ERK and Phosphoinositide Signaling by Long-Chain n-3 PUFA in Breast Cancer and Their Potential Complementary Role in Combination with Targeted Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Serini, Simona; Calviello, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    A potential complementary role of the dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA) in combination with innovative mono-targeted therapies has recently been proposed. These compounds are thought to act pleiotropically to prevent the development and progression of a variety of cancers, including breast cancer. We hereinafter critically analyze the reports investigating the ability of LCn-3 PUFA to modulate the Ras/ERK and the phosphoinositide survival signaling pathways often aberrantly activated in breast cancer and representing the main targets of innovative therapies. The in vitro or in vivo animal and human interventional studies published up to January 2017 investigating the effects of LCn-3 PUFA on these pathways in normal and cancerous breast cells or tissues were identified through a systematic search of literature in the PubMed database. We found that, in most cases, both the in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated the ability of LCn-3 PUFA to inhibit the activation of these pro-survival pathways. Altogether, the analyzed results strongly suggest a potential role of LCn-3 PUFA as complementary agents in combination with mono-targeted therapies. Moreover, the results indicate the need for further in vitro and human interventional studies designed to unequivocally prove the potential adjuvant role of these fatty acids. PMID:28241486

  20. Finding Potential Therapeutic Targets against Shigella flexneri through Proteome Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Khan, Md. Arif; Hashem, Abu; Islam, Md. Monirul; Morshed, Mohammad Neaz; Keya, Chaman Ara; Salimullah, Md.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Shigella flexneri is a gram negative bacteria that causes the infectious disease “shigellosis.” S. flexneri is responsible for developing diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps in human. Antibiotics are mostly given to patients infected with shigella. Resistance to antibiotics can hinder its treatment significantly. Upon identification of essential therapeutic targets, vaccine and drug could be effective therapy for the treatment of shigellosis. Methods: The study was designed for the identification and qualitative characterization for potential drug targets from S. flexneri by using the subtractive proteome analysis. A set of computational tools were used to identify essential proteins those are required for the survival of S. flexneri. Total proteome (13,503 proteins) of S. flexneri was retrieved from NCBI and further analyzed by subtractive channel analysis. After identification of the metabolic proteins we have also performed its qualitative characterization to pave the way for the identification of promising drug targets. Results: Subtractive analysis revealed that a list of 53 targets of S. flexneri were human non-homologous essential metabolic proteins that might be used for potential drug targets. We have also found that 11 drug targets are involved in unique pathway. Most of these proteins are cytoplasmic, can be used as broad spectrum drug targets, can interact with other proteins and show the druggable properties. The functionality and drug binding site analysis suggest a promising effective way to design the new drugs against S. flexneri. Conclusion: Among the 53 therapeutic targets identified through this study, 13 were found highly potential as drug targets based on their physicochemical properties whilst only one was found as vaccine target against S. flexneri. The outcome might also be used as module as well as circuit design in systems biology. PMID:27920755

  1. Fluid mechanics aspects of magnetic drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Odenbach, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations using a flow phantom for magnetic drug targeting have been undertaken. The flow phantom is a half y-branched tube configuration where the main tube represents an artery from which a tumour-supplying artery, which is simulated by the side branch of the flow phantom, branches off. In the experiments a quantification of the amount of magnetic particles targeted towards the branch by a magnetic field applied via a permanent magnet is achieved by impedance measurement using sensor coils. Measuring the targeting efficiency, i.e. the relative amount of particles targeted to the side branch, for different field configurations one obtains targeting maps which combine the targeting efficiency with the magnetic force densities in characteristic points in the flow phantom. It could be shown that targeting efficiency depends strongly on the magnetic field configuration. A corresponding numerical model has been set up, which allows the simulation of targeting efficiency for variable field configuration. With this simulation good agreement of targeting efficiency with experimental data has been found. Thus, the basis has been laid for future calculations of optimal field configurations in clinical applications of magnetic drug targeting. Moreover, the numerical model allows the variation of additional parameters of the drug targeting process and thus an estimation of the influence, e.g. of the fluid properties on the targeting efficiency. Corresponding calculations have shown that the non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid will significantly influence the targeting process, an aspect which has to be taken into account, especially recalling the fact that the viscosity of magnetic suspensions depends strongly on the magnetic field strength and the mechanical load.

  2. Targeting the latest hallmark of cancer: another attempt at 'magic bullet' drugs targeting cancers' metabolic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Cuperlovic-Culf, M; Culf, A S; Touaibia, M; Lefort, N

    2012-10-01

    The metabolism of tumors is remarkably different from the metabolism of corresponding normal cells and tissues. Metabolic alterations are initiated by oncogenes and are required for malignant transformation, allowing cancer cells to resist some cell death signals while producing energy and fulfilling their biosynthetic needs with limiting resources. The distinct metabolic phenotype of cancers provides an interesting avenue for treatment, potentially with minimal side effects. As many cancers show similar metabolic characteristics, drugs targeting the cancer metabolic phenotype are, perhaps optimistically, expected to be 'magic bullet' treatments. Over the last few years there have been a number of potential drugs developed to specifically target cancer metabolism. Several of these drugs are currently in clinical and preclinical trials. This review outlines examples of drugs developed for different targets of significance to cancer metabolism, with a focus on small molecule leads, chemical biology and clinical results for these drugs.

  3. Targeted Cellular Drug Delivery using Tailored Dendritic Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kolhe, Parag; Kannan, Sujatha; Lieh-Lai, Mary

    2002-03-01

    Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers possess highly branched architectures, with a large number of controllable, tailorble, ‘peripheral’ functionalities. Since the surface chemistry of these materials can be modified with relative ease, these materials have tremendous potential in targeted drug and gene delivery. The large number of end groups can also be tailored to create special affinity to targeted cells, and can also encapsulate drugs and deliver them in a controlled manner. We are developing tailor-modified dendritic systems for drug delivery. Synthesis, in-vitro drug loading, in-vitro drug delivery, and the targeting efficiency to the cell are being studied systematically using a wide variety of experimental tools. Polyamidoamine and Polyol dendrimers, with different generations and end-groups are studied, with drugs such as Ibuprofen and Methotrexate. Our results indicate that a large number of drug molecules can be encapsulated/attached to the dendrimers, depending on the end groups. The drug-encapsulated dendrimer is able to enter the cells rapidly and deliver the drug. Targeting strategies being explored

  4. Structure-Bioactivity Relationship for Benzimidazole Thiophene Inhibitors of Polo-Like Kinase 1 (PLK1), a Potential Drug Target in Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Long, Thavy; Neitz, R. Jeffrey; Beasley, Rachel; Kalyanaraman, Chakrapani; Suzuki, Brian M.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Dissous, Colette; McKerrow, James H.; Drewry, David H.; Zuercher, William J.; Singh, Rahul; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Schistosoma flatworm parasites cause schistosomiasis, a chronic and debilitating disease of poverty in developing countries. Praziquantel is employed for treatment and disease control. However, its efficacy spectrum is incomplete (less active or inactive against immature stages of the parasite) and there is a concern of drug resistance. Thus, there is a need to identify new drugs and drug targets. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that RNA interference (RNAi) of the Schistosoma mansoni ortholog of human polo-like kinase (huPLK)1 elicits a deleterious phenotypic alteration in post-infective larvae (schistosomula or somules). Phenotypic screening and analysis of schistosomula and adult S. mansoni with small molecule inhibitors of huPLK1 identified a number of potent anti-schistosomals. Among these was a GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) benzimidazole thiophene inhibitor that has completed Phase I clinical trials for treatment of solid tumor malignancies. We then obtained GSKs Published Kinase Inhibitor Sets (PKIS) 1 and 2, and phenotypically screened an expanded series of 38 benzimidazole thiophene PLK1 inhibitors. Computational analysis of controls and PLK1 inhibitor-treated populations of somules demonstrated a distinctive phenotype distribution. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the phenotypes exhibited by these populations were mapped, visualized and analyzed through projection to a low-dimensional space. The phenotype distribution was found to have a distinct shape and topology, which could be elicited using cluster analysis. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) was identified for the benzimidazole thiophenes that held for both somules and adult parasites. The most potent inhibitors produced marked phenotypic alterations at 1–2 μM within 1 h. Among these were compounds previously characterized as potent inhibitors of huPLK1 in cell assays. Conclusions/Significance The reverse genetic and chemical SAR data support a continued investigation of Sm

  5. Targeting Membrane Lipid a Potential Cancer Cure?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Lee, Wai-Leng; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2017-01-01

    Cancer mortality and morbidity is projected to increase significantly over the next few decades. Current chemotherapeutic strategies have significant limitations, and there is great interest in seeking novel therapies which are capable of specifically targeting cancer cells. Given that fundamental differences exist between the cellular membranes of healthy cells and tumor cells, novel therapies based on targeting membrane lipids in cancer cells is a promising approach that deserves attention in the field of anticancer drug development. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a lipid membrane component which exists only in the inner leaflet of cell membrane under normal circumstances, has increased surface representation on the outer membrane of tumor cells with disrupted membrane asymmetry. PE thus represents a potential chemotherapeutic target as the higher exposure of PE on the membrane surface of cancer cells. This feature as well as a high degree of expression of PE on endothelial cells in tumor vasculature, makes PE an attractive molecular target for future cancer interventions. There have already been several small molecules and membrane-active peptides identified which bind specifically to the PE molecules on the cancer cell membrane, subsequently inducing membrane disruption leading to cell lysis. This approach opens up a new front in the battle against cancer, and is of particular interest as it may be a strategy that may be prove effective against tumors that respond poorly to current chemotherapeutic agents. We aim to highlight the evidence suggesting that PE is a strong candidate to be explored as a potential molecular target for membrane targeted novel anticancer therapy. PMID:28167913

  6. Drug target prediction using adverse event report systems: a pharmacogenomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Takarabe, Masataka; Kotera, Masaaki; Nishimura, Yosuke; Goto, Susumu; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Unexpected drug activities derived from off-targets are usually undesired and harmful; however, they can occasionally be beneficial for different therapeutic indications. There are many uncharacterized drugs whose target proteins (including the primary target and off-targets) remain unknown. The identification of all potential drug targets has become an important issue in drug repositioning to reuse known drugs for new therapeutic indications. Results: We defined pharmacological similarity for all possible drugs using the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) adverse event reporting system (AERS) and developed a new method to predict unknown drug–target interactions on a large scale from the integration of pharmacological similarity of drugs and genomic sequence similarity of target proteins in the framework of a pharmacogenomic approach. The proposed method was applicable to a large number of drugs and it was useful especially for predicting unknown drug–target interactions that could not be expected from drug chemical structures. We made a comprehensive prediction for potential off-targets of 1874 drugs with known targets and potential target profiles of 2519 drugs without known targets, which suggests many potential drug–target interactions that were not predicted by previous chemogenomic or pharmacogenomic approaches. Availability: Softwares are available upon request. Contact: yamanishi@bioreg.kyushu-u.ac.jp Supplementary Information: Datasets and all results are available at http://cbio.ensmp.fr/~yyamanishi/aers/. PMID:22962489

  7. New drugs targeting the cardiac ultra-rapid delayed-rectifier current (I Kur): rationale, pharmacology and evidence for potential therapeutic value.

    PubMed

    Ford, John W; Milnes, James T

    2008-08-01

    There is a clear unmet medical need for new pharmacologic therapies for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) with improved efficacy and safety. This article reviews the development of new and novel Kv1.5/ultra-rapid delayed-rectifier current (I Kur) inhibitors and presents evidence that Kv1.5 modulation provides an atrial-selective mechanism for treating AF. Academia and industry have invested heavily in Kv1.5 (>500 scientific publications and >50 patents published since 1993); however, to realize the full value of this therapeutic drug target, clinical efficacy and safety data are required for a selective Kv1.5 modulator. The reward for demonstrating clinical efficacy and safety in a pivotal Phase 3 trial, on regulatory approval, is "first in class" status.

  8. The role of estrogen receptor {beta} (ER{beta}) in malignant diseases-A new potential target for antiproliferative drugs in prevention and treatment of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2010-05-21

    The discovery of ER{beta} in the middle of the 1990s represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of estrogen signaling. It has turned out that estrogen action is not mediated by one receptor, ER{alpha}, but by two balancing factors, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, which are often antagonistic to one another. Excitingly, ER{beta} has been shown to be widespread in the body and to be involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological events. This has led to a strong interest of the pharmaceutical industry to target ER{beta} by drugs against various diseases. In this review, focus is on the role of ER{beta} in malignant diseases where the anti proliferative activity of ER{beta} gives hope of new therapeutic approaches.

  9. Preclinical validation of Aurora kinases-targeting drugs in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Tavanti, E; Sero, V; Vella, S; Fanelli, M; Michelacci, F; Landuzzi, L; Magagnoli, G; Versteeg, R; Picci, P; Hattinger, C M; Serra, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aurora kinases are key regulators of cell cycle and represent new promising therapeutic targets in several human tumours. Methods: Biological relevance of Aurora kinase-A and -B was assessed on osteosarcoma clinical samples and by silencing these genes with specific siRNA in three human osteosarcoma cell lines. In vitro efficacy of two Aurora kinases-targeting drugs (VX-680 and ZM447439) was evaluated on a panel of four drug-sensitive and six drug-resistant human osteosarcoma cell lines. Results: Human osteosarcoma cell lines proved to be highly sensitive to both drugs. A decreased drug sensitivity was observed in doxorubicin-resistant cell lines, most probably related to ABCB1/MDR1 overexpression. Both drugs variably induced hyperploidy and apoptosis in the majority of cell lines. VX-680 also reduced in vitro cell motility and soft-agar cloning efficiency. Drug association experiments showed that VX-680 positively interacts with all conventional drugs used in osteosarcoma chemotherapy, overcoming the cross-resistance observed in the single-drug treatments. Conclusion: Aurora kinase-A and -B represent new candidate therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma. In vitro analysis of the Aurora kinases inhibitors VX-680 and ZM447439 indicated in VX-680 a new promising drug of potential clinical usefulness in association with conventional osteosarcoma chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24129234

  10. Nuclear receptors: emerging drug targets for parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu; Schaffer, Nathaniel E; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2017-02-06

    Parasitic worms infect billions of people worldwide. Current treatments rely on a small group of drugs that have been used for decades. A shortcoming of these drugs is their inability to target the intractable infectious stage of the parasite. As well-known therapeutic targets in mammals, nuclear receptors have begun to be studied in parasitic worms, where they are widely distributed and play key roles in governing metabolic and developmental transcriptional networks. One such nuclear receptor is DAF-12, which is required for normal nematode development, including the all-important infectious stage. Here we review the emerging literature that implicates DAF-12 and potentially other nuclear receptors as novel anthelmintic targets.

  11. The drug-minded protein interaction database (DrumPID) for efficient target analysis and drug development.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Meik; Liang, Chunguang; Nilla, Santosh; Cecil, Alexander; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The drug-minded protein interaction database (DrumPID) has been designed to provide fast, tailored information on drugs and their protein networks including indications, protein targets and side-targets. Starting queries include compound, target and protein interactions and organism-specific protein families. Furthermore, drug name, chemical structures and their SMILES notation, affected proteins (potential drug targets), organisms as well as diseases can be queried including various combinations and refinement of searches. Drugs and protein interactions are analyzed in detail with reference to protein structures and catalytic domains, related compound structures as well as potential targets in other organisms. DrumPID considers drug functionality, compound similarity, target structure, interactome analysis and organismic range for a compound, useful for drug development, predicting drug side-effects and structure-activity relationships.Database URL:http://drumpid.bioapps.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de.

  12. The drug-minded protein interaction database (DrumPID) for efficient target analysis and drug development

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Meik; Liang, Chunguang; Nilla, Santosh; Cecil, Alexander; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The drug-minded protein interaction database (DrumPID) has been designed to provide fast, tailored information on drugs and their protein networks including indications, protein targets and side-targets. Starting queries include compound, target and protein interactions and organism-specific protein families. Furthermore, drug name, chemical structures and their SMILES notation, affected proteins (potential drug targets), organisms as well as diseases can be queried including various combinations and refinement of searches. Drugs and protein interactions are analyzed in detail with reference to protein structures and catalytic domains, related compound structures as well as potential targets in other organisms. DrumPID considers drug functionality, compound similarity, target structure, interactome analysis and organismic range for a compound, useful for drug development, predicting drug side-effects and structure–activity relationships. Database URL: http://drumpid.bioapps.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de PMID:27055828

  13. Structural and functional characterization of the recombinant thioredoxin reductase from Candida albicans as a potential target for vaccine and drug design.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Janine Silva Ribeiro; Kioshima, Érika Seki; Abadio, Ana Karina Rodrigues; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; de Freitas, Sonia Maria; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2016-05-01

    The thioredoxin system plays a critical role in maintaining the cytoplasm redox state, participating in functions that are important to the cellular viability of fungi. Although functional and structural information on targets in human pathogenic fungi has been scarcely described in the literature, such studies are essential for in silico drug design and biotechnological applications. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to produce recombinant proteins of the thioredoxin system from Candida albicans and evaluate their possible use as prophylactic or alternative therapies against the most important pathogenic fungus associated with nosocomial infections. We focused on biochemical and structural analyses of recombinant thioredoxin reductase from C. albicans with His-tag (CaTrxR-His) for further biotechnology applications. Heterologous CaTrxR-His was efficiently expressed in the soluble fraction of the Escherichia coli lysate. CaTrxR-His was obtained with a high level of purity and presented specific enzymatic activity. Conformational changes of the protein were observed at different pHs and temperatures, with higher thermal stability at pH 8.0. The CaTrxR-His vaccine was shown to effectively induce high levels of CaTrxR-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in Balb/c mice and reduce the renal fungal burden of experimental disseminated candidiasis in mice. These data may greatly impact future development strategies for vaccine and drug designs against C. albicans infection.

  14. Injected nanocrystals for targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Li, Ye; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystals are pure drug crystals with sizes in the nanometer range. Due to the advantages of high drug loading, platform stability, and ease of scaling-up, nanocrystals have been widely used to deliver poorly water-soluble drugs. Nanocrystals in the blood stream can be recognized and sequestered as exogenous materials by mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) cells, leading to passive accumulation in MPS-rich organs, such as liver, spleen and lung. Particle size, morphology and surface modification affect the biodistribution of nanocrystals. Ligand conjugation and stimuli-responsive polymers can also be used to target nanocrystals to specific pathogenic sites. In this review, the progress on injected nanocrystals for targeted drug delivery is discussed following a brief introduction to nanocrystal preparation methods, i.e., top-down and bottom-up technologies. PMID:27006893

  15. Detecting drug targets with minimum side effects in metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Wang, R-S; Zhang, X-S; Chen, L

    2009-11-01

    High-throughput techniques produce massive data on a genome-wide scale which facilitate pharmaceutical research. Drug target discovery is a crucial step in the drug discovery process and also plays a vital role in therapeutics. In this study, the problem of detecting drug targets was addressed, which finds a set of enzymes whose inhibition stops the production of a given set of target compounds and meanwhile minimally eliminates non-target compounds in the context of metabolic networks. The model aims to make the side effects of drugs as small as possible and thus has practical significance of potential pharmaceutical applications. Specifically, by exploiting special features of metabolic systems, a novel approach was proposed to exactly formulate this drug target detection problem as an integer linear programming model, which ensures that optimal solutions can be found efficiently without any heuristic manipulations. To verify the effectiveness of our approach, computational experiments on both Escherichia coli and Homo sapiens metabolic pathways were conducted. The results show that our approach can identify the optimal drug targets in an exact and efficient manner. In particular, it can be applied to large-scale networks including the whole metabolic networks from most organisms.

  16. Computational Drug Target Screening through Protein Interaction Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Santiago; Quezada, Elías; Uriarte, Eugenio; Costanzi, Stefano; Borges, Fernanda; Viña, Dolores; Hripcsak, George

    2016-01-01

    The development of computational methods to discover novel drug-target interactions on a large scale is of great interest. We propose a new method for virtual screening based on protein interaction profile similarity to discover new targets for molecules, including existing drugs. We calculated Target Interaction Profile Fingerprints (TIPFs) based on ChEMBL database to evaluate drug similarity and generated new putative compound-target candidates from the non-intersecting targets in each pair of compounds. A set of drugs was further studied in monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzyme through molecular docking and experimental assays. The drug ethoxzolamide and the natural compound piperlongumine, present in Piper longum L, showed hMAO-B activity with IC50 values of 25 and 65 μM respectively. Five candidates, including lapatinib, SB-202190, RO-316233, GW786460X and indirubin-3′-monoxime were tested against human COX-1. Compounds SB-202190 and RO-316233 showed a IC50 in hCOX-1 of 24 and 25 μM respectively (similar range as potent inhibitors such as diclofenac and indomethacin in the same experimental conditions). Lapatinib and indirubin-3′-monoxime showed moderate hCOX-1 activity (19.5% and 28% of enzyme inhibition at 25 μM respectively). Our modeling constitutes a multi-target predictor for large scale virtual screening with potential in lead discovery, repositioning and drug safety. PMID:27845365

  17. Nanoparticles for intracellular-targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, Cristiana S. O.; Pires das Neves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Lino S.

    2011-12-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are very promising for the intracellular delivery of anticancer and immunomodulatory drugs, stem cell differentiation biomolecules and cell activity modulators. Although initial studies in the area of intracellular drug delivery have been performed in the delivery of DNA, there is an increasing interest in the use of other molecules to modulate cell activity. Herein, we review the latest advances in the intracellular-targeted delivery of short interference RNA, proteins and small molecules using NPs. In most cases, the drugs act at different cellular organelles and therefore the drug-containing NPs should be directed to precise locations within the cell. This will lead to the desired magnitude and duration of the drug effects. The spatial control in the intracellular delivery might open new avenues to modulate cell activity while avoiding side-effects.

  18. Is hippocampal atrophy a future drug target?

    PubMed

    Dhikav, Vikas; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2007-01-01

    atrophy would be clinically useful in affecting disease, viz slowing its progression, reducing morbidity, complications or positively affecting the outcome of one or more of its clinically important aspects. If the answer to this is yes, we would have to know at what stage of the disease we use the drugs, dose, duration, follow-up and efficacy. The use of these drugs in the above mentioned conditions can not only test the potential of atrophy as a future drug target, but could also help in learning more about the hippocampus in both health and diseases.

  19. Updates on drug-target network; facilitating polypharmacology and data integration by growth of DrugBank database.

    PubMed

    Barneh, Farnaz; Jafari, Mohieddin; Mirzaie, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    Network pharmacology elucidates the relationship between drugs and targets. As the identified targets for each drug increases, the corresponding drug-target network (DTN) evolves from solely reflection of the pharmaceutical industry trend to a portrait of polypharmacology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentials of DrugBank database in advancing systems pharmacology. We constructed and analyzed DTN from drugs and targets associations in the DrugBank 4.0 database. Our results showed that in bipartite DTN, increased ratio of identified targets for drugs augmented density and connectivity of drugs and targets and decreased modular structure. To clear up the details in the network structure, the DTNs were projected into two networks namely, drug similarity network (DSN) and target similarity network (TSN). In DSN, various classes of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs with distinct therapeutic categories were linked together based on shared targets. Projected TSN also showed complexity because of promiscuity of the drugs. By including investigational drugs that are currently being tested in clinical trials, the networks manifested more connectivity and pictured the upcoming pharmacological space in the future years. Diverse biological processes and protein-protein interactions were manipulated by new drugs, which can extend possible target combinations. We conclude that network-based organization of DrugBank 4.0 data not only reveals the potential for repurposing of existing drugs, also allows generating novel predictions about drugs off-targets, drug-drug interactions and their side effects. Our results also encourage further effort for high-throughput identification of targets to build networks that can be integrated into disease networks.

  20. Proteomic profiling predicts drug response to novel targeted anticancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fan; Li, Zilin; Hua, Yunfen; Lim, Yoon Pin

    2016-01-01

    Most recently approved anti-cancer drugs by the US FDA are targeted therapeutic agents and this represents an important trend for future anticancer therapy. Unlike conventional chemotherapy that rarely considers individual differences, it is crucial for targeted therapies to identify the beneficial subgroup of patients for the treatment. Currently, genomics and transcriptomics are the major 'omic' analytics used in studies of drug response prediction. However, proteomic profiling excels both in its advantages of directly detecting an instantaneous dynamic of the whole proteome, which contains most current diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Moreover, proteomic profiling improves understanding of the mechanism for drug resistance and helps finding optimal combination therapy. This article reviews the recent success of applications of proteomic analytics in predicting the response to targeted anticancer therapeutics, and discusses the potential avenues and pitfalls of proteomic platforms and techniques used most in the field.

  1. Potential Drug - Drug Interactions among Medications Prescribed to Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Barna

    2014-01-01

    Context: Drug-drug interactions(DDIs) are significant but avoidable causes of iatrogenic morbidity and hospital admission. Aim: To detect potential drug-drug interactions among medications received by hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: Patients of both sex and all adult age groups, who were attending medicine out -patient department (OPD) of a tertiary care teaching rural hospital since last six months and were being prescribed antihypertensive drug/s for essential hypertension, were selected for the study. Hypertensive patient with co-morbities diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart diseases, congestive heart failure, and chronic renal diseases were also included in the study. Potential drug drug interactions were checked with medscape drug interaction software. Results: With the help of medscape drug interaction software, 71.50% prescriptions were identified having atleast one drug-drug interaction. Total 918 DDIs were found in between 58 drug pairs. 55.23% DDIs were pharmacodynamic, 4.79% pharmacokinetic type of DDIs. 32.24% DDIs were found affecting serum potassium level. 95.42% DDIs were found significant type of DDIs. Drug drug interaction between atenolol & amlodipine was the most common DDI (136) followed by metoprolol and amlodine (88) in this study. Atenolol and amlodipine ( 25.92%) was the most common drugs to cause DDIs in our study. Conclusion: We detected a significant number of drug drug interaction in hypertensive patients. These interactions were between antihypertensive agents or between hypertensive and drug for co-morbid condition. PMID:25584241

  2. Existing drugs and their application in drug discovery targeting cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Junfang; Shim, Joong Sup

    2015-09-01

    Despite standard cancer therapies such as chemotherapy and targeted therapy have shown some efficacies, the cancer in many cases eventually relapses and metastasizes upon stopping the treatment. There is a small subpopulation of cancer cells within tumor, with specific characters similar to those found in stem cells. This group of cancer cells is known as tumor-initiating or cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have an ability to self-renew and give rise to cancer cell progeny. CSCs are related with drug resistance, metastasis and relapse of cancer, hence emerging as a crucial drug target for eliminating cancer. Rapid advancement of CSC biology has enabled researchers to isolate and culture CSCs in vitro, making the cells amenable to high-throughput drug screening. Recently, drug repositioning, which utilizes existing drugs to develop potential new indications, has been gaining popularity as an alternative approach for the drug discovery. As existing drugs have favorable bioavailability and safety profiles, drug repositioning is now actively exploited for prompt development of therapeutics for many serious diseases, such as cancer. In this review, we will introduce latest examples of attempted drug repositioning targeting CSCs and discuss potential use of the repositioned drugs for cancer therapy.

  3. Carrier-free, functionalized pure drug nanorods as a novel cancer-targeted drug delivery platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanan; Yang, Yinlong; An, Feifei; Liu, Zhuang; Zhang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    A one-dimensional drug delivery system (1D DDS) is highly attractive since it has distinct advantages such as enhanced drug efficiency and better pharmacokinetics. However, drugs in 1D DDSs are all encapsulated in inert carriers, and problems such as low drug loading content and possible undesirable side effects caused by the carriers remain a serious challenge. In this paper, a novel, carrier-free, pure drug nanorod-based, tumor-targeted 1D DDS has been developed. Drugs are first prepared as nanorods and then surface functionalized to achieve excellent water dispersity and stability. The resulting drug nanorods show enhanced internalization rates mainly through energy-dependent endocytosis, with the shape-mediated nanorod (NR) diffusion process as a secondary pathway. The multiple endocytotic mechanisms lead to significantly improved drug efficiency of functionalized NRs with nearly ten times higher cytotoxicity than those of free molecules and unfunctionalized NRs. A targeted drug delivery system can be readily achieved through surface functionalization with targeting group linked amphipathic surfactant, which exhibits significantly enhanced drug efficacy and discriminates between cell lines with high selectivity. These results clearly show that this tumor-targeting DDS demonstrates high potential toward specific cancer cell lines.

  4. Large-scale Direct Targeting for Drug Repositioning and Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chunli; Guo, Zihu; Huang, Chao; Wu, Ziyin; Li, Yan; Chen, Xuetong; Fu, Yingxue; Ru, Jinlong; Ali Shar, Piar; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    A system-level identification of drug-target direct interactions is vital to drug repositioning and discovery. However, the biological means on a large scale remains challenging and expensive even nowadays. The available computational models mainly focus on predicting indirect interactions or direct interactions on a small scale. To address these problems, in this work, a novel algorithm termed weighted ensemble similarity (WES) has been developed to identify drug direct targets based on a large-scale of 98,327 drug-target relationships. WES includes: (1) identifying the key ligand structural features that are highly-related to the pharmacological properties in a framework of ensemble; (2) determining a drug’s affiliation of a target by evaluation of the overall similarity (ensemble) rather than a single ligand judgment; and (3) integrating the standardized ensemble similarities (Z score) by Bayesian network and multi-variate kernel approach to make predictions. All these lead WES to predict drug direct targets with external and experimental test accuracies of 70% and 71%, respectively. This shows that the WES method provides a potential in silico model for drug repositioning and discovery. PMID:26155766

  5. Targeted Drug Delivery to Treat Pain and Cerebral Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Limited drug penetration is an obstacle that is often encountered in treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases including pain and cerebral hypoxia. Over the past several years, biochemical characteristics of the brain (i.e., tight junction protein complexes at brain barrier sites, expression of influx and efflux transporters) have been shown to be directly involved in determining CNS permeation of therapeutic agents; however, the vast majority of these studies have focused on understanding those mechanisms that prevent drugs from entering the CNS. Recently, this paradigm has shifted toward identifying and characterizing brain targets that facilitate CNS drug delivery. Such targets include the organic anion–transporting polypeptides (OATPs in humans; Oatps in rodents), a family of sodium-independent transporters that are endogenously expressed in the brain and are involved in drug uptake. OATP/Oatp substrates include drugs that are efficacious in treatment of pain and/or cerebral hypoxia (i.e., opioid analgesic peptides, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors). This clearly suggests that OATP/Oatp isoforms are viable transporter targets that can be exploited for optimization of drug delivery to the brain and, therefore, improved treatment of CNS diseases. This review summarizes recent knowledge in this area and emphasizes the potential that therapeutic targeting of OATP/Oatp isoforms may have in facilitating CNS drug delivery and distribution. Additionally, information presented in this review will point to novel strategies that can be used for treatment of pain and cerebral hypoxia. PMID:23343976

  6. Amphotericin B formulations and drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Torrado, J J; Espada, R; Ballesteros, M P; Torrado-Santiago, S

    2008-07-01

    Amphotericin B is a low-soluble polyene antibiotic which is able to self-aggregate. The aggregation state can modify its activity and pharmacokinetical characteristics. In spite of its high toxicity it is still widely employed for the treatment of systemic fungal infections and parasitic disease and different formulations are marketed. Some of these formulations, such as liposomal formulations, can be considered as classical examples of drug targeting. The pharmacokinetics, toxicity and activity are clearly dependent on the type of amphotericin B formulation. New drug delivery systems such as liposomes, nanospheres and microspheres can result in higher concentrations of AMB in the liver and spleen, but lower concentrations in kidney and lungs, so decreasing its toxicity. Moreover, the administration of these drug delivery systems can enhance the drug accessibility to organs and tissues (e.g., bone marrow) otherwise inaccessible to the free drug. During the last few years, new AMB formulations (AmBisome, Abelcet, and Amphotec) with an improved efficacy/toxicity ratio have been marketed. This review compares the different formulations of amphotericin B in terms of pharmacokinetics, toxicity and activity and discusses the possible drug targeting effect of some of these new formulations.

  7. Targeted proteins for diabetes drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan Trang Nguyen, Ngoc; Thi Le, Ly

    2012-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common metabolism disorder characterized by high glucose in the bloodstream, especially in the case of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Nowadays, it is very common in middle-aged people and involves such dangerous symptoms as increasing risk of stroke, obesity and heart failure. In Vietnam, besides the common treatment of insulin injection, some herbal medication is used but no unified optimum remedy for the disease yet exists and there is no production of antidiabetic drugs in the domestic market yet. In the development of nanomedicine at the present time, drug design is considered as an innovative tool for researchers to study the mechanisms of diseases at the molecular level. The aim of this article is to review some common protein targets involved in type 2 diabetes, offering a new idea for designing new drug candidates to produce antidiabetic drugs against type 2 diabetes for Vietnamese people.

  8. Obesity: Current and potential pharmacotherapeutics and targets.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswami, Vidya; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior. Dysregulation of one or more of these homeostatic components results in obesity. Coincident with obesity, reward mechanisms that regulate hedonic aspects of food intake override the homeostatic regulation of eating. In addition to functional interactions between homeostatic and reward systems in the regulation of food intake, homeostatic signals have the ability to alter vulnerability to drug abuse. Regarding the treatment of obesity, pharmacological monotherapies primarily focus on a single protein target. FDA-approved monotherapy options include phentermine (Adipex-P®), orlistat (Xenical®), lorcaserin (Belviq®) and liraglutide (Saxenda®). However, monotherapies have limited efficacy, in part due to the recruitment of alternate and counter-regulatory pathways. Consequently, a multi-target approach may provide greater benefit. Recently, two combination products have been approved by the FDA to treat obesity, including phentermine/topiramate (Qsymia®) and naltrexone/bupropion (Contrave®). The current review provides an overview of homeostatic and reward mechanisms that regulate energy balance, potential therapeutic targets for obesity and current treatment options, including some candidate therapeutics in clinical development. Finally, challenges in anti-obesity drug development are discussed.

  9. Target-Independent Prediction of Drug Synergies Using Only Drug Lipophilicity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of compounds have been instrumental in selecting lead compounds with increased drug-likeness. However, the relationship between physicochemical properties of constituent drugs and the tendency to exhibit drug interaction has not been systematically studied. We assembled physicochemical descriptors for a set of antifungal compounds (“drugs”) previously examined for interaction. Analyzing the relationship between molecular weight, lipophilicity, H-bond donor, and H-bond acceptor values for drugs and their propensity to show pairwise antifungal drug synergy, we found that combinations of two lipophilic drugs had a greater tendency to show drug synergy. We developed a more refined decision tree model that successfully predicted drug synergy in stringent cross-validation tests based on only lipophilicity of drugs. Our predictions achieved a precision of 63% and allowed successful prediction for 58% of synergistic drug pairs, suggesting that this phenomenon can extend our understanding for a substantial fraction of synergistic drug interactions. We also generated and analyzed a large-scale synergistic human toxicity network, in which we observed that combinations of lipophilic compounds show a tendency for increased toxicity. Thus, lipophilicity, a simple and easily determined molecular descriptor, is a powerful predictor of drug synergy. It is well established that lipophilic compounds (i) are promiscuous, having many targets in the cell, and (ii) often penetrate into the cell via the cellular membrane by passive diffusion. We discuss the positive relationship between drug lipophilicity and drug synergy in the context of potential drug synergy mechanisms. PMID:25026390

  10. Functional differentiation of cytotoxic cancer drugs and targeted cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Gian C; Barle, Ester Lovsin; Galati, Giuseppe; Kluwe, William M

    2014-10-01

    There is no nationally or internationally binding definition of the term "cytotoxic drug" although this term is used in a variety of regulations for pharmaceutical development and manufacturing of drugs as well as in regulations for protecting medical personnel from occupational exposure in pharmacy, hospital, and other healthcare settings. The term "cytotoxic drug" is frequently used as a synonym for any and all oncology or antineoplastic drugs. Pharmaceutical companies generate and receive requests for assessments of the potential hazards of drugs regularly - including cytotoxicity. This publication is intended to provide functional definitions that help to differentiate between generically-cytotoxic cancer drugs of significant risk to normal human tissues, and targeted cancer therapeutics that pose much lesser risks. Together with specific assessments, it provides comprehensible guidance on how to assess the relevant properties of cancer drugs, and how targeted therapeutics discriminate between cancer and normal cells. The position of several regulatory agencies in the long-term is clearly to regulate all drugs regardless of classification, according to scientific risk based data. Despite ongoing discussions on how to replace the term "cytotoxic drugs" in current regulations, it is expected that its use will continue for the near future.

  11. Membrane Transporters: Structure, Function and Targets for Drug Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravna, Aina W.; Sager, Georg; Dahl, Svein G.; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    Current therapeutic drugs act on four main types of molecular targets: enzymes, receptors, ion channels and transporters, among which a major part (60-70%) are membrane proteins. This review discusses the molecular structures and potential impact of membrane transporter proteins on new drug discovery. The three-dimensional (3D) molecular structure of a protein contains information about the active site and possible ligand binding, and about evolutionary relationships within the protein family. Transporters have a recognition site for a particular substrate, which may be used as a target for drugs inhibiting the transporter or acting as a false substrate. Three groups of transporters have particular interest as drug targets: the major facilitator superfamily, which includes almost 4000 different proteins transporting sugars, polyols, drugs, neurotransmitters, metabolites, amino acids, peptides, organic and inorganic anions and many other substrates; the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, which plays an important role in multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy; and the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter family, which includes the molecular targets for some of the most widely used psychotropic drugs. Recent technical advances have increased the number of known 3D structures of membrane transporters, and demonstrated that they form a divergent group of proteins with large conformational flexibility which facilitates transport of the substrate.

  12. [The new era of epithelium-targeted drug development].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yoshimi; Nagase, Shotaro; Yagi, Kiyohito; Kondoh, Masuo

    2014-01-01

    Epithelium plays pivotal roles in biological barrier separating the inside of body and the outside environment. Ninety percent of malignant tumors are derived from epithelium. Most pathological microorganisms invade into the body from mucosal epithelium. Thus, epithelium is potential targets for drug development. Claudins (CLs), a family of tetra-transmembrane protein consisting of over 20 members, are structural and functional components of tight junction-seals in epithelium. Modulation of CL-seals enhanced mucosal absorption of drugs. CLs are often over-expressed in malignant tumors. CL-4 expression is increased in the epithelial cells covering the mucosal immune tissues. Very recently, CLs are also expected to be targets for traumatic brain injury and regenerative therapy. In this review, we overview the past, the present and the future of CLs-targeted drug development.

  13. Putative Drugs and Targets for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Carlos A.; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Current pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder (BPD) is generally unsatisfactory for a large number of patients. Even with adequate modern bipolar pharmacological therapies, many afflicted individuals continue to have persistent mood episode relapses, residual symptoms, functional impairment and psychosocial disability. Creating novel therapeutics for BPD is urgently needed. Promising drug targets and compounds for BPD worthy of further study involve the following systems: purinergic, dynorphin opioid neuropeptide, cholinergic (muscarinic and nicotinic), melatonin and serotonin (5-HT2C receptor), glutamatergic, hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis have all been implicated. Intracellular pathways and targets worthy of further study include glycogen synthase kinase-3 protein, protein kinase C, arachidonic acid cascade. PMID:18704977

  14. Histone as future drug target for malaria.

    PubMed

    Rawat, D S; Lumb, V; Sharma, Y D; Pasha, S T; Singh, G

    2007-06-01

    Malaria continues to be a major cause of mortality and morbidity in tropical countries and affecting around 100 countries of the world. As per WHO estimates, 300-500 million are being infected and 1-3 million deaths annually due to malaria. With the emerging knowledge about genome sequence of all the three counterparts involved in the disease of malaria, the parasite Plasmodium, vector Anopheles and host Homo sapien have helped the scientists to understand interactions between them. Simultaneous advancement in technology further improves the prospects to discover new targets for vaccines and drugs. Though the malaria vaccine is still far away in this situation there is need to develop a potent and affordable drug(s). Histones are the key protein of chromatin and play an important role in DNA packaging, replication and gene expression. They also show frequent post-translation modifications. The specific combinations of these posttranslational modifications are thought to alter chromatin structure by forming epigenetic bar codes that specify either transient or heritable patterns of genome function. Chromatin regulators and upstream pathways are therefore seen as promising targets for development of therapeutic drugs.

  15. TACC3 overexpression in cholangiocarcinoma correlates with poor prognosis and is a potential anti-cancer molecular drug target for HDAC inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-ming; Schemmer, Peter; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yan; Qian, Ya-wei; Qi, Wei-peng; Zhang, Jian; Shen, Qi; Yang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been implicated in multiple malignant tumors, and HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) exert anti-cancer effects. However, the expression of HDACs and the anti-tumor mechanism of HDACIs in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we found that expression of HDACs 2, 3, and 8 were up-regulated in CCA tissues and those patients with high expression of HDAC2 and/or HDAC3 had a worse prognosis. In CCA cells, two HDACIs, trichostatin (TSA) and vorinostat (SAHA), suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis and G2/M cycle arrest. Microarray analysis revealed that TACC3 mRNA was down-regulated in CCA cells treated with TSA. TACC3 was highly expressed in CCA tissues and predicted a poor prognosis in CCA patients. TACC3 knockdown induced G2/M cycle arrest and suppressed the invasion, metastasis, and proliferation of CCA cells, both in vitro and in vivo. TACC3 overexpression reversed the effects of its knockdown. These findings suggest TACC3 may be a useful prognostic biomarker for CCA and is a potential therapeutic target for HDACIs. PMID:27705912

  16. Tumour macrophages as potential targets of bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    bisphosphonates in model studies; In vitro, zoledronic acid causes increased apoptotic cell death; in vivo the drug has been shown to inhibit the production of pro-angiogenic factor MMP-9, as well as most recent evidence showing it can trigger the reversal of the TAMs phenotype from pro-tumoral M2 to tumoricidal M1. There is thus accumulating evidence supporting the hypothesis that effects on TAMs may contribute to the anti-tumour effect of bisphosphonates. This review will focus in detail on the role of tumour associated macrophages in breast cancer progression, the actions of bisphosphonates on macrophages in vitro and in tumour models in vivo and summarise the evidence supporting the potential for the targeting of tumour macrophages with bisphosphonates. PMID:22005011

  17. Protein tyrosine phosphatases as potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    He, Rong-jun; Yu, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Ruo-yu; Zhang, Zhong-yin

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a key regulatory process in virtually all aspects of cellular functions. Dysregulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a major cause of human diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, and neurological diseases. Indeed, protein tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated signaling events offer ample therapeutic targets, and drug discovery efforts to date have brought over two dozen kinase inhibitors to the clinic. Accordingly, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are considered next-generation drug targets. For instance, PTP1B is a well-known targets of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and recent studies indicate that it is also a promising target for breast cancer. SHP2 is a bona-fide oncoprotein, mutations of which cause juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors. In addition, LYP is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes and many other autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes recent findings on several highly recognized PTP family drug targets, including PTP1B, Src homology phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2(SHP2), lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), CD45, Fas associated phosphatase-1 (FAP-1), striatal enriched tyrosine phosphatases (STEP), mitogen-activated protein kinase/dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), phosphatases of regenerating liver-1 (PRL), low molecular weight PTPs (LMWPTP), and CDC25. Given that there are over 100 family members, we hope this review will serve as a road map for innovative drug discovery targeting PTPs. PMID:25220640

  18. Effect of functionalization on drug delivery potential of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sonam; Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Keerti; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of the present investigation was to explore the effect of functionalization on drug delivery potential of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and to compare the in vitro and in vivo cancer targeting potential of doxorubicin HCL (DOX)-loaded ox-/multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), DOX-loaded PEG-MWCNTs and DOX-loaded FA-PEG-MWCNTs. The DOX/PEG-FA-MWCNTs showed enhanced cytotoxicity and were most preferentially taken up by the cancerous cells. The obtained results also support the extended resistance time and sustained release profile of drug-loaded surface-engineered MWCNTs. Overall, we concluded that the developed MWCNTs nanoformulations have higher cancer targeting potential.

  19. A smart multifunctional drug delivery nanoplatform for targeting cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoop, M.; Mushtaq, F.; Hurter, C.; Chen, X.-Z.; Nelson, B. J.; Pané, S.

    2016-06-01

    Wirelessly guided magnetic nanomachines are promising vectors for targeted drug delivery, which have the potential to minimize the interaction between anticancer agents and healthy tissues. In this work, we propose a smart multifunctional drug delivery nanomachine for targeted drug delivery that incorporates a stimuli-responsive building block. The nanomachine consists of a magnetic nickel (Ni) nanotube that contains a pH-responsive chitosan hydrogel in its inner cavity. The chitosan inside the nanotube serves as a matrix that can selectively release drugs in acidic environments, such as the extracellular space of most tumors. Approximately a 2.5 times higher drug release from Ni nanotubes at pH = 6 is achieved compared to that at pH = 7.4. The outside of the Ni tube is coated with gold. A fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled thiol-ssDNA, a biological marker, was conjugated on its surface by thiol-gold click chemistry, which enables traceability. The Ni nanotube allows the propulsion of the device by means of external magnetic fields. As the proposed nanoarchitecture integrates different functional building blocks, our drug delivery nanoplatform can be employed for carrying molecular drug conjugates and for performing targeted combinatorial therapies, which can provide an alternative and supplementary solution to current drug delivery technologies.Wirelessly guided magnetic nanomachines are promising vectors for targeted drug delivery, which have the potential to minimize the interaction between anticancer agents and healthy tissues. In this work, we propose a smart multifunctional drug delivery nanomachine for targeted drug delivery that incorporates a stimuli-responsive building block. The nanomachine consists of a magnetic nickel (Ni) nanotube that contains a pH-responsive chitosan hydrogel in its inner cavity. The chitosan inside the nanotube serves as a matrix that can selectively release drugs in acidic environments, such as the extracellular space of

  20. Parasitic diarrheal disease: drug development and targets

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Amir; Peerzada, Mudasir N.; Ahmad, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is the manifestation of gastrointestinal infection and is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity specifically among the children of less than 5 years age worldwide. Moreover, in recent years there has been a rise in the number of reports of intestinal infections continuously in the industrialized world. These are largely related to waterborne and food borne outbreaks. These occur by the pathogenesis of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms like bacteria and parasites. The parasitic intestinal infection has remained mostly unexplored and under assessed in terms of therapeutic development. The lack of new drugs and the risk of resistance have led us to carry out this review on drug development for parasitic diarrheal diseases. The major focus has been depicted on commercially available drugs, currently synthesized active heterocyclic compounds and unique drug targets, that are vital for the existence and growth of the parasites and can be further exploited for the search of therapeutically active anti-parasitic agents. PMID:26617574

  1. Mycobacterial DNA Replication As a target For Antituberculosis Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Płocińska, Renata; Korycka-Machała, Małgorzata; Płociński, Przemysław; Dziadek, Jarosław

    2017-01-30

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), the causative agent of tuberculosis, is a leading infectious disease organism, causing millions of deaths each year. This serious pathogen has been greatly spread worldwide and recent years have observed an increase in the number of multi-drug resistant and totally drug resistant M. tuberculosis strains (WHO report, 2014). The danger of tuberculosis becoming an incurable disease has emphasized the need for the discovery of a new generation of antimicrobial agents. The development of novel alternative medical strategies, new drugs and the search for optimal drug targets are top priority areas of tuberculosis research. Key characteristics of mycobacteria include: slow growth, the ability to transform into a metabolically silent - latent state, intrinsic drug resistance and the relatively rapid development of acquired drug resistance. These factors make finding an ideal antituberculosis drug enormously challenging, even if it is designed to treat drug sensitive tuberculosis strains. A vast majority of canonical antibiotics including antituberculosis agents target bacterial cell wall biosynthesis or DNA/RNA processing. Novel therapeutic approaches are being tested to target mycobacterial cell division, two-component regulatory factors, lipid synthesis and the transition between the latent and actively growing states. This review discusses the choice of cellular targets for an antituberculosis therapy, describes putative drug targets evaluated in the recent literature and summarizes potential candidates under clinical and pre-clinical development. We focus on the key cellular process of DNA replication, as a prominent target for future antituberculosis therapy. We describe two main pathways: the biosynthesis of nucleic acids precursors - the nucleotides, and the synthesis of DNA molecules. We summarize data regarding replication associated proteins that are critical for nucleotide synthesis, initiation, unwinding and

  2. New drugs and treatment targets in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Kristian; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the increased understanding of the pathophysiology of psoriasis has resulted in several new treatments. The success of ustekinumab proved the importance of the IL-23/T helper cell 17 axis in psoriatic diseases. Several new biologics targeting this axis will reach the clinic in the next years. Biologics are costly, require injections, and some patients experience tacaphylaxis, thus, the development of orally available, small-molecule inhibitors is desirable. Among small-molecules under investigation are A3 adenosine receptor agonists, Janus kinase inhibitors, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. We review published clinical trials, and conference abstracts presented during the last years, concerned with new drugs under development for the treatment of psoriasis. In conclusion, our psoriasis armamentarium will be filled with several new effective therapeutic options the coming years. We need to be aware of the limitations of drug safety data when selecting new novel treatments. Monitoring and clinical registries are still important tools.

  3. The tuberculosis drug discovery and development pipeline and emerging drug targets.

    PubMed

    Mdluli, Khisimuzi; Kaneko, Takushi; Upton, Anna

    2015-01-29

    The recent accelerated approval for use in extensively drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis (MDR-TB) of two first-in-class TB drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, has reinvigorated the TB drug discovery and development field. However, although several promising clinical development programs are ongoing to evaluate new TB drugs and regimens, the number of novel series represented is few. The global early-development pipeline is also woefully thin. To have a chance of achieving the goal of better, shorter, safer TB drug regimens with utility against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant disease, a robust and diverse global TB drug discovery pipeline is key, including innovative approaches that make use of recently acquired knowledge on the biology of TB. Fortunately, drug discovery for TB has resurged in recent years, generating compounds with varying potential for progression into developable leads. In parallel, advances have been made in understanding TB pathogenesis. It is now possible to apply the lessons learned from recent TB hit generation efforts and newly validated TB drug targets to generate the next wave of TB drug leads. Use of currently underexploited sources of chemical matter and lead-optimization strategies may also improve the efficiency of future TB drug discovery. Novel TB drug regimens with shorter treatment durations must target all subpopulations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis existing in an infection, including those responsible for the protracted TB treatment duration. This review summarizes the current TB drug development pipeline and proposes strategies for generating improved hits and leads in the discovery phase that could help achieve this goal.

  4. Drug Targets in Mycobacterial Sulfur Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Devayani P.; Muse, Wilson B.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of new antibacterial targets is urgently needed to address multidrug resistant and latent tuberculosis infection. Sulfur metabolic pathways are essential for survival and the expression of virulence in many pathogenic bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, microbial sulfur metabolic pathways are largely absent in humans and therefore, represent unique targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the enzymes associated with the production of sulfated and reduced sulfur-containing metabolites in Mycobacteria. Small molecule inhibitors of these catalysts represent valuable chemical tools that can be used to investigate the role of sulfur metabolism throughout the Mycobacterial lifecycle and may also represent new leads for drug development. In this light, we also summarize recent progress in the development of inhibitors of sulfur metabolism enzymes. PMID:17970225

  5. Increasing the Structural Coverage of Tuberculosis Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Baugh, Loren; Phan, Isabelle; Begley, Darren W.; Clifton, Matthew C.; Armour, Brianna; Dranow, David M.; Taylor, Brandy M.; Muruthi, Marvin M.; Abendroth, Jan; Fairman, James W.; Fox, David; Dieterich, Shellie H.; Staker, Bart L.; Gardberg, Anna S.; Choi, Ryan; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Myers, Janette; Barrett, Lynn K.; Zhang, Yang; Ferrell, Micah; Mundt, Elizabeth; Thompkins, Katie; Tran, Ngoc; Lyons-Abbott, Sally; Abramov, Ariel; Sekar, Aarthi; Serbzhinskiy, Dmitri; Lorimer, Don; Buchko, Garry W.; Stacy, Robin; Stewart, Lance J.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional structures of essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins provide templates for TB drug design, but are available for only a small fraction of the Mtb proteome. Here we evaluate an intra-genus “homolog-rescue” strategy to increase the structural information available for TB drug discovery by using mycobacterial homologs with conserved active sites. Of 179 potential TB drug targets selected for x-ray structure determination, only 16 yielded a crystal structure. By adding 1675 homologs from nine other mycobacterial species to the pipeline, structures representing an additional 52 otherwise intractable targets were solved. To determine whether these homolog structures would be useful surrogates in TB drug design, we compared the active sites of 106 pairs of Mtb and non-TB mycobacterial (NTM) enzyme homologs with experimentally determined structures, using three metrics of active site similarity, including superposition of continuous pharmacophoric property distributions. Pair-wise structural comparisons revealed that 19/22 pairs with >55% overall sequence identity had active site Cα RMSD <1Å, >85% side chain identity, and ≥80% PSAPF (similarity based on pharmacophoric properties) indicating highly conserved active site shape and chemistry. Applying these results to the 52 NTM structures described above, 41 shared >55% sequence identity with the Mtb target, thus increasing the effective structural coverage of the 179 Mtb targets over three-fold (from 9% to 32%). The utility of these structures in TB drug design can be tested by designing inhibitors using the homolog structure and assaying the cognate Mtb enzyme; a promising test case, Mtb cytidylate kinase, is described. The homolog-rescue strategy evaluated here for TB is also generalizable to drug targets for other diseases. PMID:25613812

  6. Increasing the structural coverage of tuberculosis drug targets

    SciTech Connect

    Baugh, Loren; Phan, Isabelle; Begley, Darren W.; Clifton, Matthew C.; Armour, Brianna; Dranow, David M.; Taylor, Brandy M.; Muruthi, Marvin M.; Abendroth, Jan; Fairman, James W.; Fox, David; Dieterich, Shellie H.; Staker, Bart L.; Gardberg, Anna S.; Choi, Ryan; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Myers, Janette; Barrett, Lynn K.; Zhang, Yang; Ferrell, Micah; Mundt, Elizabeth; Thompkins, Katie; Tran, Ngoc; Lyons-Abbott, Sally; Abramov, Ariel; Sekar, Aarthi; Serbzhinskiy, Dmitri; Lorimer, Don; Buchko, Garry W.; Stacy, Robin; Stewart, Lance J.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

    2014-12-19

    High-resolution three-dimensional structures of essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins provide templates for TB drug design, but are available for only a small fraction of the Mtb proteome. Here we evaluate an intra-genus “homolog-rescue” strategy to increase the structural information available for TB drug discovery by using mycobacterial homologs with conserved active sites. We found that of 179 potential TB drug targets selected for x-ray structure determination, only 16 yielded a crystal structure. By adding 1675 homologs from nine other mycobacterial species to the pipeline, structures representing an additional 52 otherwise intractable targets were solved. To determine whether these homolog structures would be useful surrogates in TB drug design, we compared the active sites of 106 pairs of Mtb and non-TB mycobacterial (NTM) enzyme homologs with experimentally determined structures, using three metrics of active site similarity, including superposition of continuous pharmacophoric property distributions. Pair-wise structural comparisons revealed that 19/22 pairs with >55% overall sequence identity had active site Cα RMSD <1 Å, >85% side chain identity, and ≥80% PSAPF (similarity based on pharmacophoric properties) indicating highly conserved active site shape and chemistry. Applying these results to the 52 NTM structures described above, 41 shared >55% sequence identity with the Mtb target, thus increasing the effective structural coverage of the 179 Mtb targets over three-fold (from 9% to 32%). The utility of these structures in TB drug design can be tested by designing inhibitors using the homolog structure and assaying the cognate Mtb enzyme; a promising test case, Mtb cytidylate kinase, is described. The homolog-rescue strategy evaluated here for TB is also generalizable to drug targets for other diseases.

  7. Increasing the structural coverage of tuberculosis drug targets

    DOE PAGES

    Baugh, Loren; Phan, Isabelle; Begley, Darren W.; ...

    2014-12-19

    High-resolution three-dimensional structures of essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins provide templates for TB drug design, but are available for only a small fraction of the Mtb proteome. Here we evaluate an intra-genus “homolog-rescue” strategy to increase the structural information available for TB drug discovery by using mycobacterial homologs with conserved active sites. We found that of 179 potential TB drug targets selected for x-ray structure determination, only 16 yielded a crystal structure. By adding 1675 homologs from nine other mycobacterial species to the pipeline, structures representing an additional 52 otherwise intractable targets were solved. To determine whether these homolog structuresmore » would be useful surrogates in TB drug design, we compared the active sites of 106 pairs of Mtb and non-TB mycobacterial (NTM) enzyme homologs with experimentally determined structures, using three metrics of active site similarity, including superposition of continuous pharmacophoric property distributions. Pair-wise structural comparisons revealed that 19/22 pairs with >55% overall sequence identity had active site Cα RMSD <1 Å, >85% side chain identity, and ≥80% PSAPF (similarity based on pharmacophoric properties) indicating highly conserved active site shape and chemistry. Applying these results to the 52 NTM structures described above, 41 shared >55% sequence identity with the Mtb target, thus increasing the effective structural coverage of the 179 Mtb targets over three-fold (from 9% to 32%). The utility of these structures in TB drug design can be tested by designing inhibitors using the homolog structure and assaying the cognate Mtb enzyme; a promising test case, Mtb cytidylate kinase, is described. The homolog-rescue strategy evaluated here for TB is also generalizable to drug targets for other diseases.« less

  8. Carbon Nanotubes: An Emerging Drug Carrier for Targeting Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Shiv Sankar; Mishra, Arun Kumar; Verma, Navneet; Verma, Anurag; Pandit, Jayanta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    During recent years carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been attracted by many researchers as a drug delivery carrier. CNTs are the third allotropic form of carbon-fullerenes which were rolled into cylindrical tubes. To be integrated into the biological systems, CNTs can be chemically modified or functionalised with therapeutically active molecules by forming stable covalent bonds or supramolecular assemblies based on noncovalent interactions. Owing to their high carrying capacity, biocompatibility, and specificity to cells, various cancer cells have been explored with CNTs for evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters, cell viability, cytotoxicty, and drug delivery in tumor cells. This review attempts to highlight all aspects of CNTs which render them as an effective anticancer drug carrier and imaging agent. Also the potential application of CNT in targeting metastatic cancer cells by entrapping biomolecules and anticancer drugs has been covered in this review. PMID:24872894

  9. Molecular Characteristics of Multicorn, a New Large Proteolytic Assembly and Potential Anti-Cancer Drug Target, in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    highly complex posttranslational modifications of TPPII. Task 3: months 6 - 18; expressing the gene(s) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe or mammalian...trends of increasing dead cell count and decreasing number of viable cells for different doses of the drugs remained the same as for the 48 hours...with AAF-CMAC were briefly washed with cold 50% ethanol , dried in air and wet-mounted on slides with PBS containing 0.3 mg/ml of PI. Synthesis of AAF

  10. [Site-specific drug delivery systems. I. Colon targeted delivery].

    PubMed

    Szente, Virág; Zelkó, Romána

    2007-01-01

    Colon specific drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of the drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon like Chron's disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, cancer or infections, but also for the potential it holds for the systemic delivery of proteins (e.g. insulin) and therapeutic peptides. These systems enable the protection of healthy tissues from the side effects of drugs and the drug intake of targeted cells, as well. The formulation of colon specific drug delivery systems is of great impact in the case of diseases having circadian rhythm (midnight gerd). Such circadian rhythm release drug delivery systems are designed to provide a plasma concentration--time profile, which varies according to physiological need at different times during the dosing period, i.e., mimicking the circadian rhythm and severity/manifestation of gastric acid secretion (and/or midnight gerd). In general four primary approaches have been proposed for colon targeted delivery namely pH-dependent systems, time dependent systems, colonic microflora activated systems and prodrugs.

  11. Predicting drug-target interactions using probabilistic matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    Cobanoglu, Murat Can; Liu, Chang; Hu, Feizhuo; Oltvai, Zoltán N; Bahar, Ivet

    2013-12-23

    Quantitative analysis of known drug-target interactions emerged in recent years as a useful approach for drug repurposing and assessing side effects. In the present study, we present a method that uses probabilistic matrix factorization (PMF) for this purpose, which is particularly useful for analyzing large interaction networks. DrugBank drugs clustered based on PMF latent variables show phenotypic similarity even in the absence of 3D shape similarity. Benchmarking computations show that the method outperforms those recently introduced provided that the input data set of known interactions is sufficiently large--which is the case for enzymes and ion channels, but not for G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and nuclear receptors. Runs performed on DrugBank after hiding 70% of known interactions show that, on average, 88 of the top 100 predictions hit the hidden interactions. De novo predictions permit us to identify new potential interactions. Drug-target pairs implicated in neurobiological disorders are overrepresented among de novo predictions.

  12. P2X Receptors as Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    The study of P2X receptors has long been handicapped by a poverty of small-molecule tools that serve as selective agonists and antagonists. There has been progress, particularly in the past 10 years, as cell-based high-throughput screening methods were applied, together with large chemical libraries. This has delivered some drug-like molecules in several chemical classes that selectively target P2X1, P2X3, or P2X7 receptors. Some of these are, or have been, in clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis, pain, and cough. Current preclinical research programs are studying P2X receptor involvement in pain, inflammation, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, and bladder dysfunction. The determination of the atomic structure of P2X receptors in closed and open (ATP-bound) states by X-ray crystallography is now allowing new approaches by molecular modeling. This is supported by a large body of previous work using mutagenesis and functional expression, and is now being supplemented by molecular dynamic simulations and in silico ligand docking. These approaches should lead to P2X receptors soon taking their place alongside other ion channel proteins as therapeutically important drug targets. PMID:23253448

  13. NSAIDs: Old Drugs Reveal New Anticancer Targets.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Gary A; Keeton, Adam B; Tinsley, Heather N; Whitt, Jason D; Gary, Bernard D; Mathew, Bini; Singh, Raj; Grizzle, William E; Reynolds, Robert C

    2010-05-25

    There is compelling evidence that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors have antineoplastic activity, but toxicity from cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition and the suppression of physiologically important prostaglandins limits their use for cancer chemoprevention. Previous studies as reviewed here suggest that the mechanism for their anticancer properties does not require COX inhibition, but instead involves an off-target effect. In support of this possibility, recent molecular modeling studies have shown that the NSAID sulindac can be chemically modified to selectively design out its COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activity. Unexpectedly, certain derivatives that were synthesized based on in silico modeling displayed increased potency to inhibit tumor cell growth. Other experiments have shown that sulindac can inhibit phosphodiesterase to increase intracellular cyclic GMP levels and that this activity is closely associated with its ability to selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Together, these studies suggest that COX-independent mechanisms can be targeted to develop safer and more efficacious drugs for cancer chemoprevention.

  14. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  15. Cancer stem cells and drug resistance: the potential of nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei; Wei, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Properties of the small group of cancer cells called tumor-initiating or cancer stem cells (CSCs) involved in drug resistance, metastasis and relapse of cancers can significantly affect tumor therapy. Importantly, tumor drug resistance seems to be closely related to many intrinsic or acquired properties of CSCs, such as quiescence, specific morphology, DNA repair ability and overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins, drug efflux transporters and detoxifying enzymes. The specific microenvironment (niche) and hypoxic stability provide additional protection against anticancer therapy for CSCs. Thus, CSC-focused therapy is destined to form the core of any effective anticancer strategy. Nanomedicine has great potential in the development of CSC-targeting drugs, controlled drug delivery and release, and the design of novel gene-specific drugs and diagnostic modalities. This review is focused on tumor drug resistance-related properties of CSCs and describes current nanomedicine approaches, which could form the basis of novel combination therapies for eliminating metastatic and CSCs. PMID:22471722

  16. Target-Based Drug Repositioning Using Large-Scale Chemical-Protein Interactome Data.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Ryusuke; Iwata, Hiroaki; Mizutani, Sayaka; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro

    2015-12-28

    Drug repositioning, or the identification of new indications for known drugs, is a useful strategy for drug discovery. In this study, we developed novel computational methods to predict potential drug targets and new drug indications for systematic drug repositioning using large-scale chemical-protein interactome data. We explored the target space of drugs (including primary targets and off-targets) based on chemical structure similarity and phenotypic effect similarity by making optimal use of millions of compound-protein interactions. On the basis of the target profiles of drugs, we constructed statistical models to predict new drug indications for a wide range of diseases with various molecular features. The proposed method outperformed previous methods in terms of interpretability, applicability, and accuracy. Finally, we conducted a comprehensive prediction of the drug-target-disease association network for 8270 drugs and 1401 diseases and showed biologically meaningful examples of newly predicted drug targets and drug indications. The predictive model is useful to understand the mechanisms of the predicted drug indications.

  17. Bacterial Transcription as a Target for Antibacterial Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cong; Yang, Xiao; Lewis, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Transcription, the first step of gene expression, is carried out by the enzyme RNA polymerase (RNAP) and is regulated through interaction with a series of protein transcription factors. RNAP and its associated transcription factors are highly conserved across the bacterial domain and represent excellent targets for broad-spectrum antibacterial agent discovery. Despite the numerous antibiotics on the market, there are only two series currently approved that target transcription. The determination of the three-dimensional structures of RNAP and transcription complexes at high resolution over the last 15 years has led to renewed interest in targeting this essential process for antibiotic development by utilizing rational structure-based approaches. In this review, we describe the inhibition of the bacterial transcription process with respect to structural studies of RNAP, highlight recent progress toward the discovery of novel transcription inhibitors, and suggest additional potential antibacterial targets for rational drug design.

  18. Bacterial Transcription as a Target for Antibacterial Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cong; Yang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Transcription, the first step of gene expression, is carried out by the enzyme RNA polymerase (RNAP) and is regulated through interaction with a series of protein transcription factors. RNAP and its associated transcription factors are highly conserved across the bacterial domain and represent excellent targets for broad-spectrum antibacterial agent discovery. Despite the numerous antibiotics on the market, there are only two series currently approved that target transcription. The determination of the three-dimensional structures of RNAP and transcription complexes at high resolution over the last 15 years has led to renewed interest in targeting this essential process for antibiotic development by utilizing rational structure-based approaches. In this review, we describe the inhibition of the bacterial transcription process with respect to structural studies of RNAP, highlight recent progress toward the discovery of novel transcription inhibitors, and suggest additional potential antibacterial targets for rational drug design. PMID:26764017

  19. Intracranial Self-Stimulation to Evaluate Abuse Potential of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laurence L.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a behavioral procedure in which operant responding is maintained by pulses of electrical brain stimulation. In research to study abuse-related drug effects, ICSS relies on electrode placements that target the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus, and experimental sessions manipulate frequency or amplitude of stimulation to engender a wide range of baseline response rates or response probabilities. Under these conditions, drug-induced increases in low rates/probabilities of responding maintained by low frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation are interpreted as an abuse-related effect. Conversely, drug-induced decreases in high rates/probabilities of responding maintained by high frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation can be interpreted as an abuse-limiting effect. Overall abuse potential can be inferred from the relative expression of abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects. The sensitivity and selectivity of ICSS to detect abuse potential of many classes of abused drugs is similar to the sensitivity and selectivity of drug self-administration procedures. Moreover, similar to progressive-ratio drug self-administration procedures, ICSS data can be used to rank the relative abuse potential of different drugs. Strengths of ICSS in comparison with drug self-administration include 1) potential for simultaneous evaluation of both abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects, 2) flexibility for use with various routes of drug administration or drug vehicles, 3) utility for studies in drug-naive subjects as well as in subjects with controlled levels of prior drug exposure, and 4) utility for studies of drug time course. Taken together, these considerations suggest that ICSS can make significant contributions to the practice of abuse potential testing. PMID:24973197

  20. CYP4 enzymes as potential drug targets: focus on enzyme multiplicity, inducers and inhibitors, and therapeutic modulation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) synthase and fatty acid ω-hydroxylase activities.

    PubMed

    Edson, Katheryne Z; Rettie, Allan E

    2013-01-01

    The Cytochrome P450 4 (CYP4) family of enzymes in humans is comprised of thirteen isozymes that typically catalyze the ω-oxidation of endogenous fatty acids and eicosanoids. Several CYP4 enzymes can biosynthesize 20- hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, or 20-HETE, an important signaling eicosanoid involved in regulation of vascular tone and kidney reabsorption. Additionally, accumulation of certain fatty acids is a hallmark of the rare genetic disorders, Refsum disease and X-ALD. Therefore, modulation of CYP4 enzyme activity, either by inhibition or induction, is a potential strategy for drug discovery. Here we review the substrate specificities, sites of expression, genetic regulation, and inhibition by exogenous chemicals of the human CYP4 enzymes, and discuss the targeting of CYP4 enzymes in the development of new treatments for hypertension, stroke, certain cancers and the fatty acid-linked orphan diseases.

  1. [Monogenic hypercholesterolemias: new genes, new drug targets].

    PubMed

    Mandel'shtam, M Iu; Vasil'ev, V B

    2008-10-01

    This review is focused on recent data on structure and functions of PCSK9 proprotein convertase, a newly identified participant in cholesterol metabolism in mammalian organisms, including humans. Proprotein convertase acts as a molecular chaperone for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, targeting it to the lysosomal degradation pathway. Various mutations increasing the PCSK9 affinity toward the LDL receptor cause autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in PCSK9 gene decrease the blood plasma cholesterol level, thus acting as a protection factor against atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. It is supposed that pharmacological agents inhibiting the interaction between PCSK9 and LDL receptor may substantially amplify the benefits of drugs--statins and cholesterol absorption blockers--in the treatment of all types of hypercholesterolemia, including its widespread multigenic and multifactorial forms.

  2. Rhamnogalacturonan-I Based Microcapsules for Targeted Drug Release

    PubMed Central

    Kusic, Anja; De Gobba, Cristian; Larsen, Flemming H.; Sassene, Philip; Zhou, Qi; van de Weert, Marco; Mullertz, Anette; Jørgensen, Bodil; Ulvskov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Drug targeting to the colon via the oral administration route for local treatment of e.g. inflammatory bowel disease and colonic cancer has several advantages such as needle-free administration and low infection risk. A new source for delivery is plant-polysaccharide based delivery platforms such as Rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I). In the gastro-intestinal tract the RG-I is only degraded by the action of the colonic microflora. For assessment of potential drug delivery properties, RG-I based microcapsules (~1 μm in diameter) were prepared by an interfacial poly-addition reaction. The cross-linked capsules were loaded with a fluorescent dye (model drug). The capsules showed negligible and very little in vitro release when subjected to media simulating gastric and intestinal fluids, respectively. However, upon exposure to a cocktail of commercial RG-I cleaving enzymes, ~ 9 times higher release was observed, demonstrating that the capsules can be opened by enzymatic degradation. The combined results suggest a potential platform for targeted drug delivery in the terminal gastro-intestinal tract. PMID:27992455

  3. The drug target genes show higher evolutionary conservation than non-target genes.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wenhua; Xu, Yongdeng; Guo, Yiying; Yu, Ziqi; Feng, Guanglong; Liu, Panpan; Luan, Meiwei; Zhu, Hongjie; Liu, Guiyou; Zhang, Mingming; Lv, Hongchao; Duan, Lian; Shang, Zhenwei; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yongshuai; Zhang, Ruijie

    2016-01-26

    Although evidence indicates that drug target genes share some common evolutionary features, there have been few studies analyzing evolutionary features of drug targets from an overall level. Therefore, we conducted an analysis which aimed to investigate the evolutionary characteristics of drug target genes. We compared the evolutionary conservation between human drug target genes and non-target genes by combining both the evolutionary features and network topological properties in human protein-protein interaction network. The evolution rate, conservation score and the percentage of orthologous genes of 21 species were included in our study. Meanwhile, four topological features including the average shortest path length, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficient and degree were considered for comparison analysis. Then we got four results as following: compared with non-drug target genes, 1) drug target genes had lower evolutionary rates; 2) drug target genes had higher conservation scores; 3) drug target genes had higher percentages of orthologous genes and 4) drug target genes had a tighter network structure including higher degrees, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficients and lower average shortest path lengths. These results demonstrate that drug target genes are more evolutionarily conserved than non-drug target genes. We hope that our study will provide valuable information for other researchers who are interested in evolutionary conservation of drug targets.

  4. Voltage-gated Potassium Channels as Therapeutic Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Heike; Castle, Neil A.; Pardo, Luis A.

    2009-01-01

    The human genome contains 40 voltage-gated potassium channels (KV) which are involved in diverse physiological processes ranging from repolarization of neuronal or cardiac action potentials, over regulating calcium signaling and cell volume, to driving cellular proliferation and migration. KV channels offer tremendous opportunities for the development of new drugs for cancer, autoimmune diseases and metabolic, neurological and cardiovascular disorders. This review first discusses pharmacological strategies for targeting KV channels with venom peptides, antibodies and small molecules and then highlights recent progress in the preclinical and clinical development of drugs targeting KV1.x, KV7.x (KCNQ), KV10.1 (EAG1) and KV11.1 (hERG) channels. PMID:19949402

  5. Neuronal and Cardiovascular Potassium Channels as Therapeutic Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Edward S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Potassium (K+) channels, with their diversity, often tissue-defined distribution, and critical role in controlling cellular excitability, have long held promise of being important drug targets for the treatment of dysrhythmias in the heart and abnormal neuronal activity within the brain. With the exception of drugs that target one particular class, ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, very few selective K+ channel activators or inhibitors are currently licensed for clinical use in cardiovascular and neurological disease. Here we review what a range of human genetic disorders have told us about the role of specific K+ channel subunits, explore the potential of activators and inhibitors of specific channel populations as a therapeutic strategy, and discuss possible reasons for the difficulty in designing clinically relevant K+ channel modulators. PMID:26303307

  6. Targeting caveolae for vesicular drug transport.

    PubMed

    Gumbleton, Mark; Hollins, Andrew J; Omidi, Yadollah; Campbell, Lee; Taylor, Glyn

    2003-02-21

    Caveolae are morphologically evident as omega-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane with a diameter of 50-100 nm. They may also exist in a variety of other forms including flattened domains indistinguishable from the plasma membrane itself. At least in some cell types caveolae undertake transport functions including that of the endocytic and transcytotic movement of macromolecules, and indeed microbes and microbial toxins. Opportunities exist for basic and applied investigators working within the pharmaceutical sciences to exploit caveolae membrane interactions with the aim to develop of novel cellular or transcellular drug delivery strategies. This overview article will provide: pertinent information on the biology of the caveolae membrane system; review the various caveolae isolation methods; highlight some of the literature evidence showing that caveolae are functional with regard to macromolecule transport; discuss the role that caveolae could fulfill in the pulmonary absorption of therapeutic proteins from alveolar airspace to capillary blood following inhalational drug delivery, and finally review some very recent work showing proof-of-principle that caveolae domains can be targeted in a tissue-specific manner with highly selective ligands.

  7. Neighborhood Regularized Logistic Matrix Factorization for Drug-Target Interaction Prediction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wu, Min; Miao, Chunyan; Zhao, Peilin; Li, Xiao-Li

    2016-02-01

    In pharmaceutical sciences, a crucial step of the drug discovery process is the identification of drug-target interactions. However, only a small portion of the drug-target interactions have been experimentally validated, as the experimental validation is laborious and costly. To improve the drug discovery efficiency, there is a great need for the development of accurate computational approaches that can predict potential drug-target interactions to direct the experimental verification. In this paper, we propose a novel drug-target interaction prediction algorithm, namely neighborhood regularized logistic matrix factorization (NRLMF). Specifically, the proposed NRLMF method focuses on modeling the probability that a drug would interact with a target by logistic matrix factorization, where the properties of drugs and targets are represented by drug-specific and target-specific latent vectors, respectively. Moreover, NRLMF assigns higher importance levels to positive observations (i.e., the observed interacting drug-target pairs) than negative observations (i.e., the unknown pairs). Because the positive observations are already experimentally verified, they are usually more trustworthy. Furthermore, the local structure of the drug-target interaction data has also been exploited via neighborhood regularization to achieve better prediction accuracy. We conducted extensive experiments over four benchmark datasets, and NRLMF demonstrated its effectiveness compared with five state-of-the-art approaches.

  8. Network-assisted investigation of antipsychotic drugs and their targets.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingchun; Xu, Hua; Zhao, Zhongming

    2012-05-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are tranquilizing psychiatric medications primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and similar severe mental disorders. So far, most of these drugs have been discovered without knowing much on the molecular mechanisms of their actions. The available large amount of pharmacogenetics, pharmacometabolomics, and pharmacoproteomics data for many drugs makes it possible to systematically explore the molecular mechanisms underlying drug actions. In this study, we applied a unique network-based approach to investigate antipsychotic drugs and their targets. We first retrieved 43 antipsychotic drugs, 42 unique target genes, and 46 adverse drug interactions from the DrugBank database and then generated a drug-gene network and a drug-drug interaction network. Through drug-gene network analysis, we found that seven atypical antipsychotic drugs tended to form two clusters that could be defined by drugs with different target receptor profiles. In the drug-drug interaction network, we found that three drugs (zuclopenthixol, ziprasidone, and thiothixene) tended to have more adverse drug interactions than others, while clozapine had fewer adverse drug interactions. This investigation indicated that these antipsychotics might have different molecular mechanisms underlying the drug actions. This pilot network-assisted investigation of antipsychotics demonstrates that network-based analysis is useful for uncovering the molecular actions of antipsychotics.

  9. [Development of molecular targeting drugs for the treatment of cancer-therapeutic potential and issues to be addressed in global development].

    PubMed

    Akaza, H; Aiba, K; Isonishi, S; Ogawa, O; Shibuya, M; Sone, S; Tsuruo, T; Noguchi, S; Hinotsu, S; Kono, S; Mikami, O; Blackledge, G; Vose, B; Stribling, D

    2000-10-01

    A survey of cancer treatment in a sample of hospitals > 100 beds conducted in 1998 compared with experience in the US showed that good progress has been achieved in Japan in the screening and early treatment of gastric cancer, and that the prognosis for breast cancer is better than in the West. Although in the past, the cytotoxic therapies available to physicians in Japan vs the West have been different, recent acceleration of regulatory review will result in a convergence of treatment paradigms and some improvement in acute response in many tumour types. However, world wide there is a need for new improved therapies in all cancers evaluated. Particular needs are in the management of NSCLC, advanced disease and cancers which form micrometastases. The eventual hope is that cancer can be turned from a lethal disease into a chronic disease where patients maintain a good QOL. Apart from anti hormonal therapies, the usual approach has been to kill the cancerous cells. However, the new approaches to intervening in the growth and migration of cancerous cells or the host tissue response by molecular targeting offer the promise of achieving a step change in therapy. Although EGF tyrosine Kinase inhibitors such as ZD 1839 have been shown to cause a conventional tumour response in NSCLC, many of these new approaches are unlikely to show a short term response even if they have the capacity to affect tumour development and increase disease free survival. Some compounds will require combination therapy with a conventional cytotoxic or radiotherapy to show their full benefit. For conventional cytotoxics, the usual approach to development has been to select the maximum tolerated dose and then evaluate the efficacy in advanced disease. However, for the new approaches which will not have such severe dose limiting toxicities, it will be necessary to select a surrogate marker of the intended biological effect to select the optimal biological dose (OBD) and dose regimen in phase I

  10. The potential of magneto-electric nanocarriers for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Sagar, Vidya; Nair, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The development and design of personalized nanomedicine for better health quality is receiving great attention. In order to deliver and release a therapeutic concentration at the target site, novel nanocarriers (NCs) were designed, for example, magneto-electric (ME) which possess ideal properties of high drug loading, site-specificity and precise on-demand controlled drug delivery. Areas covered This review explores the potential of ME-NCs for on-demand and site-specific drug delivery and release for personalized therapeutics. The main features including effect of magnetism, improvement in drug loading, drug transport across blood-brain barriers and on-demand controlled release are also discussed. The future directions and possible impacts on upcoming nanomedicine are highlighted. Expert opinion Numerous reports suggest that there is an urgent need to explore novel NC formulations for safe and targeted drug delivery and release at specific disease sites. The challenges of formulation lie in the development of NCs that improve biocompatibility and surface modifications for optimum drug loading/preservation/transmigration and tailoring of electrical–magnetic properties for on-demand drug release. Thus, the development of novel NCs is anticipated to overcome the problems of targeted delivery of therapeutic agents with desired precision that may lead to better patient compliance. PMID:24986772

  11. Theoretical study of zeatin - A plant hormone and potential drug for neural diseases - On the basis of DFT, MP2 and target docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xueping; Bereźniak, Tomasz; Panek, Jarosław Jan; Jezierska-Mazzarello, Aneta

    2013-02-01

    Zeatin, a cytokinin of the adenine family, originally isolated from Zea mays L., exhibits also bioeffects towards human cells: it is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and can potentially inhibit amyloid β-protein formation. The role of zeatin in neural disease treatment is yet to be established. This computational study describes a hierarchy of interactions between zeatin and a receptor, a protein from the nodulin family. DFT in hybrid and dispersion-corrected form as well as MP2 approaches were used to derive interaction energies. Docking procedure was employed to investigate the role of selected interaction for anchoring the ligand.

  12. The opioid receptors as targets for drug abuse medication.

    PubMed

    Noble, Florence; Lenoir, Magalie; Marie, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    The endogenous opioid system is largely expressed in the brain, and both endogenous opioid peptides and receptors are present in areas associated with reward and motivation. It is well known that this endogenous system plays a key role in many aspects of addictive behaviours. The present review summarizes the modifications of the opioid system induced by chronic treatment with drugs of abuse reported in preclinical and clinical studies, as well as the action of opioid antagonists and agonists on the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, with therapeutic perspectives. We have focused on the effects of chronic psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine exposure. Taken together, the changes in both opioid peptides and opioid receptors in different brain structures following acute or chronic exposure to these drugs of abuse clearly identify the opioid system as a potential target for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of relapse.

  13. The opioid receptors as targets for drug abuse medication

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Florence; Lenoir, Magalie; Marie, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system is largely expressed in the brain, and both endogenous opioid peptides and receptors are present in areas associated with reward and motivation. It is well known that this endogenous system plays a key role in many aspects of addictive behaviours. The present review summarizes the modifications of the opioid system induced by chronic treatment with drugs of abuse reported in preclinical and clinical studies, as well as the action of opioid antagonists and agonists on the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, with therapeutic perspectives. We have focused on the effects of chronic psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine exposure. Taken together, the changes in both opioid peptides and opioid receptors in different brain structures following acute or chronic exposure to these drugs of abuse clearly identify the opioid system as a potential target for the development of effective pharmacotherapy for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of relapse. PMID:25988826

  14. Evaluation of Giardia lamblia thioredoxin reductase as drug activating enzyme and as drug target.

    PubMed

    Leitsch, David; Müller, Joachim; Müller, Norbert

    2016-12-01

    The antioxidative enzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) has been suggested to be a drug target in several pathogens, including the protist parasite Giardia lamblia. TrxR is also believed to catalyse the reduction of nitro drugs, e.g. metronidazole and furazolidone, a reaction required to render these compounds toxic to G. lamblia and other microaerophiles/anaerobes. It was the objective of this study to assess the potential of TrxR as a drug target in G. lamblia and to find direct evidence for the role of this enzyme in the activation of metronidazole and other nitro drugs. TrxR was overexpressed approximately 10-fold in G. lamblia WB C6 cells by placing the trxR gene behind the arginine deiminase (ADI) promoter on a plasmid. Likewise, a mutant TrxR with a defective disulphide reductase catalytic site was strongly expressed in another G. lamblia WB C6 cell line. Susceptibilities to five antigiardial drugs, i.e. metronidazole, furazolidone, nitazoxanide, albendazole and auranofin were determined in both transfectant cell lines and compared to wildtype. Further, the impact of all five drugs on TrxR activity in vivo was measured. Overexpression of TrxR rendered G. lamblia WB C6 more susceptible to metronidazole and furazolidone but not to nitazoxanide, albendazole, and auranofin. Of all five drugs tested, only auranofin had an appreciably negative effect on TrxR activity in vivo, albeit to a much smaller extent than expected. Overexpression of TrxR and mutant TrxR had hardly any impact on growth of G. lamblia WB C6, although the enzyme also exerts a strong NADPH oxidase activity which is a source of oxidative stress. Our results constitute first direct evidence for the notion that TrxR is an activator of metronidazole and furazolidone but rather question that it is a relevant drug target of presently used antigiardial drugs.

  15. Two-stage flux balance analysis of metabolic networks for drug target identification

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Efficient identification of drug targets is one of major challenges for drug discovery and drug development. Traditional approaches to drug target identification include literature search-based target prioritization and in vitro binding assays which are both time-consuming and labor intensive. Computational integration of different knowledge sources is a more effective alternative. Wealth of omics data generated from genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques changes the way researchers view drug targets and provides unprecedent opportunities for drug target identification. Results In this paper, we develop a method based on flux balance analysis (FBA) of metabolic networks to identify potential drug targets. This method consists of two linear programming (LP) models, which first finds the steady optimal fluxes of reactions and the mass flows of metabolites in the pathologic state and then determines the fluxes and mass flows in the medication state with the minimal side effect caused by the medication. Drug targets are identified by comparing the fluxes of reactions in both states and examining the change of reaction fluxes. We give an illustrative example to show that the drug target identification problem can be solved effectively by our method, then apply it to a hyperuricemia-related purine metabolic pathway. Known drug targets for hyperuricemia are correctly identified by our two-stage FBA method, and the side effects of these targets are also taken into account. A number of other promising drug targets are found to be both effective and safe. Conclusions Our method is an efficient procedure for drug target identification through flux balance analysis of large-scale metabolic networks. It can generate testable predictions, provide insights into drug action mechanisms and guide experimental design of drug discovery. PMID:21689470

  16. Carbon nanotubes: a potential concept for drug delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Dhanawat, Meenakshi; Kumar, Sudhir; Singh, Brahma N; Pandit, Jayant K; Sinha, Vivek R

    2014-04-01

    The unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them a highly interesting and demandable nanocarrier in the field of nanoscience. CNTs facilitate efficient delivery of therapeutics like drugs, proteins, genes, nucleic acids, vitamins and lot more. Even though highly beneficial, the biocompatibility of CNTs is a major issue in their questioning their potential application in targeting drug delivery. Studies confirmed subdued toxicity of CNTs following slight modifications like functionalization, controlled dimensions, purification etc. A well-established mechanism for cellular internalization is an insistent need to attain a more efficient and targeted delivery. Recent patents have been thoroughly discussed in the text below.

  17. Aquaporins: important but elusive drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Anderson, Marc O.; Papadopoulos, Marios C.

    2014-01-01

    The aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of small, integral membrane proteins that facilitate water transport across the plasma membranes of cells in response to osmotic gradients. Data from knockout mice support the involvement of AQPs in epithelial fluid secretion, cell migration, brain oedema and adipocyte metabolism, which suggests that modulation of AQP function or expression could have therapeutic potential in oedema, cancer, obesity, brain injury, glaucoma and several other conditions. Moreover, loss-of-function mutations in human AQPs cause congenital cataracts (AQP0) and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (AQP2), and autoantibodies against AQP4 cause the autoimmune demyelinating disease neuromyelitis optica. Although some potential AQP modulators have been identified, challenges associated with the development of better modulators include the druggability of the target and the suitability of the assay methods used to identify modulators. PMID:24625825

  18. The Human Kinome Targeted by FDA Approved Multi-Target Drugs and Combination Products: A Comparative Study from the Drug-Target Interaction Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chun Yan; Yang, Hong; Zhou, Jin; Xue, Wei Wei; Tan, Jun; Zhu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The human kinome is one of the most productive classes of drug target, and there is emerging necessity for treating complex diseases by means of polypharmacology (multi-target drugs and combination products). However, the advantages of the multi-target drugs and the combination products are still under debate. A comparative analysis between FDA approved multi-target drugs and combination products, targeting the human kinome, was conducted by mapping targets onto the phylogenetic tree of the human kinome. The approach of network medicine illustrating the drug-target interactions was applied to identify popular targets of multi-target drugs and combination products. As identified, the multi-target drugs tended to inhibit target pairs in the human kinome, especially the receptor tyrosine kinase family, while the combination products were able to against targets of distant homology relationship. This finding asked for choosing the combination products as a better solution for designing drugs aiming at targets of distant homology relationship. Moreover, sub-networks of drug-target interactions in specific disease were generated, and mechanisms shared by multi-target drugs and combination products were identified. In conclusion, this study performed an analysis between approved multi-target drugs and combination products against the human kinome, which could assist the discovery of next generation polypharmacology. PMID:27828998

  19. An Efficient Targeted Drug Delivery through Apotransferrin Loaded Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Golla; Kondapi, Anand Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancerous state is a highly stimulated environment of metabolically active cells. The cells under these conditions over express selective receptors for assimilation of factors essential for growth and transformation. Such receptors would serve as potential targets for the specific ligand mediated transport of pharmaceutically active molecules. The present study demonstrates the specificity and efficacy of protein nanoparticle of apotransferrin for targeted delivery of doxorubicin. Methodology/Principal Findings Apotransferrin nanoparticles were developed by sol-oil chemistry. A comparative analysis of efficiency of drug delivery in conjugated and non-conjugated forms of doxorubicin to apotransferrin nanoparticle is presented. The spherical shaped apotransferrin nanoparticles (nano) have diameters of 25–50 ηm, which increase to 60–80 ηm upon direct loading of drug (direct-nano), and showed further increase in dimension (75–95 ηm) in conjugated nanoparticles (conj-nano). The competitive experiments with the transferrin receptor specific antibody showed the entry of both conj-nano and direct-nano into the cells through transferrin receptor mediated endocytosis. Results of various studies conducted clearly establish the superiority of the direct-nano over conj-nano viz. (a) localization studies showed complete release of drug very early, even as early as 30 min after treatment, with the drug localizing in the target organelle (nucleus) (b) pharmacokinetic studies showed enhanced drug concentrations, in circulation with sustainable half-life (c) the studies also demonstrated efficient drug delivery, and an enhanced inhibition of proliferation in cancer cells. Tissue distribution analysis showed intravenous administration of direct nano lead to higher drug localization in liver, and blood as compared to relatively lesser localization in heart, kidney and spleen. Experiments using rat cancer model confirmed the efficacy of the formulation in regression

  20. Potential and problems in ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Du, Li-Na; Lu, Cui-Tao; Jin, Yi-Guang; Ge, Shu-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound is an important local stimulus for triggering drug release at the target tissue. Ultrasound-responsive drug delivery systems (URDDS) have become an important research focus in targeted therapy. URDDS include many different formulations, such as microbubbles, nanobubbles, nanodroplets, liposomes, emulsions, and micelles. Drugs that can be loaded into URDDS include small molecules, biomacromolecules, and inorganic substances. Fields of clinical application include anticancer therapy, treatment of ischemic myocardium, induction of an immune response, cartilage tissue engineering, transdermal drug delivery, treatment of Huntington’s disease, thrombolysis, and disruption of the blood–brain barrier. This review focuses on recent advances in URDDS, and discusses their formulations, clinical application, and problems, as well as a perspective on their potential use in the future. PMID:23637531

  1. Target Essentiality and Centrality Characterize Drug Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiyuan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate factors contributing to drug side effects, we systematically examine relationships between 4,199 side effects associated with 996 drugs and their 647 human protein targets. We find that it is the number of essential targets, not the number of total targets, that determines the side effects of corresponding drugs. Furthermore, within the context of a three-dimensional interaction network with atomic-resolution interaction interfaces, we find that drugs causing more side effects are also characterized by high degree and betweenness of their targets and highly shared interaction interfaces on these targets. Our findings suggest that both essentiality and centrality of a drug target are key factors contributing to side effects and should be taken into consideration in rational drug design. PMID:23874169

  2. Core as a Novel Viral Target for Hepatitis C Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Strosberg, Arthur Donny; Kota, Smitha; Takahashi, Virginia; Snyder, John K.; Mousseau, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects over 130 million people worldwide and is a major cause of liver disease. No vaccine is available. Novel specific drugs for HCV are urgently required, since the standard-of-care treatment of pegylated interferon combined with ribavirin is poorly tolerated and cures less than half of the treated patients. Promising, effective direct-acting drugs currently in the clinic have been described for three of the ten potential HCV target proteins: NS3/NS4A protease, NS5B polymerase and NS5A, a regulatory phosphoprotein. We here present core, the viral capsid protein, as another attractive, non-enzymatic target, against which a new class of anti-HCV drugs can be raised. Core plays a major role in the virion’s formation, and interacts with several cellular proteins, some of which are involved in host defense mechanisms against the virus. This most conserved of all HCV proteins requires oligomerization to function as the organizer of viral particle assembly. Using core dimerization as the basis of transfer-of-energy screening assays, peptides and small molecules were identified which not only inhibit core-core interaction, but also block viral production in cell culture. Initial chemical optimization resulted in compounds active in single digit micromolar concentrations. Core inhibitors could be used in combination with other HCV drugs in order to provide novel treatments of Hepatitis C. PMID:21994704

  3. Encapsulation of methotrexate loaded magnetic microcapsules for magnetic drug targeting and controlled drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakkarapani, Prabu; Subbiah, Latha; Palanisamy, Selvamani; Bibiana, Arputha; Ahrentorp, Fredrik; Jonasson, Christian; Johansson, Christer

    2015-04-01

    We report on the development and evaluation of methotrexate magnetic microcapsules (MMC) for targeted rheumatoid arthritis therapy. Methotrexate was loaded into CaCO3-PSS (poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)) doped microparticles that were coated successively with poly (allylamine hydrochloride) and poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) by layer-by-layer technique. Ferrofluid was incorporated between the polyelectrolyte layers. CaCO3-PSS core was etched by incubation with EDTA yielding spherical MMC. The MMC were evaluated for various physicochemical, pharmaceutical parameters and magnetic properties. Surface morphology, crystallinity, particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, drug release pattern, release kinetics and AC susceptibility studies revealed spherical particles of ~3 μm size were obtained with a net zeta potential of +24.5 mV, 56% encapsulation and 18.6% drug loading capacity, 96% of cumulative drug release obeyed Hixson-Crowell model release kinetics. Drug excipient interaction, surface area, thermal and storage stability studies for the prepared MMC was also evaluated. The developed MMC offer a promising mode of targeted and sustained release drug delivery for rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

  4. Targeted cancer therapy; nanotechnology approaches for overcoming drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Shen, Jacson K; Milane, Lara; Hornicek, Francis J; Amiji, Mansoor M; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in cancer molecular biology have resulted in parallel and unprecedented progress in the development of targeted cancer therapy. Targeted therapy can provide higher efficacy and lower toxicity than conventional chemotherapy for cancer. However, like traditional chemotherapy, molecularly targeted cancer therapy also faces the challenge of drug resistance. Multiple mechanisms are responsible for chemotherapy resistance in tumors, including over-expression of efflux transporters, somatic alterations of drug targets, deregulation of apoptosis, and numerous pharmacokinetic issues. Nanotechnology based approaches are proving to be efficacious in overcoming drug resistance in cancer. Combination of targeted therapies with nanotechnology approaches is a promising strategy to overcome targeted therapy drug resistance in cancer treatment. This review discusses the mechanisms of targeted drug resistance in cancer and discusses nanotechnology approaches to circumvent this resistance.

  5. RFDT: A Rotation Forest-based Predictor for Predicting Drug-Target Interactions using Drug Structure and Protein Sequence Information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; You, Zhu-Hong; Chen, Xing; Yan, Xin; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-11-14

    Identification of interaction between drugs and target proteins plays an important role in discovering new drug candidates. However, through the experimental method to identify the drug-target interactions remain to be extremely time-consuming, expensive and challenging even nowadays. Therefore, it is urgent to develop new computational methods to predict potential drug-target interactions (DTI). In this article, a novel computational model is developed for predicting potential drug-target interactions under the theory that each drug-target interaction pair can be represented by the structural properties from drugs and evolutionary information derived from proteins. Specifically, the protein sequences are encoded as Position-Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) descriptor which contains information of biological evolutionary and the drug molecules are encoded as fingerprint feature vector which represents the existence of certain functional groups or fragments. Four benchmark datasets involving enzymes, ion channels, GPCRs and nuclear receptors, are independently used for establishing predictive models with Rotation Forest (RF) model. The proposed method achieved the prediction accuracy of 91.3%, 89.1%, 84.1% and 71.1% for four datasets respectively. In order to make our method more persuasive, we compared our classifier with the state-of-the-art Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. We also compared the proposed method with other excellent methods. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in the prediction of DTI, and can provide assistance for new drug research and development.

  6. Weighted feature value based Drug Target Protein prediction.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Bo-ra; Jung, Hwiesung; Jang, Woo-Hyuk; Jung, Suk Hoon; Han, Dong-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Drug discovery is a long process in which only a few successful new therapeutic discoveries are made and identification of drug target candidate proteins requires considerable time and efforts. However, the accumulation of information on drugs has made it possible to devise new computational methods for classifying drug target candidates. In this paper, we devise a Drug Target Protein (DT-P) classification method by the summation of weighted features which is extracted from known DT-P. The method is validated using Bayesian decision theory and SVM, and it was revealed to achieve high specificity of 89.5% with 88% accuracy.

  7. Drug target prioritization by perturbed gene expression and network information

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Zerrin; Baldow, Christoph; Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio; Schroeder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Drugs bind to their target proteins, which interact with downstream effectors and ultimately perturb the transcriptome of a cancer cell. These perturbations reveal information about their source, i.e., drugs’ targets. Here, we investigate whether these perturbations and protein interaction networks can uncover drug targets and key pathways. We performed the first systematic analysis of over 500 drugs from the Connectivity Map. First, we show that the gene expression of drug targets is usually not significantly affected by the drug perturbation. Hence, expression changes after drug treatment on their own are not sufficient to identify drug targets. However, ranking of candidate drug targets by network topological measures prioritizes the targets. We introduce a novel measure, local radiality, which combines perturbed genes and functional interaction network information. The new measure outperforms other methods in target prioritization and proposes cancer-specific pathways from drugs to affected genes for the first time. Local radiality identifies more diverse targets with fewer neighbors and possibly less side effects. PMID:26615774

  8. Drug-target interaction prediction: databases, web servers and computational models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Yan, Chenggang Clarence; Zhang, Xiaotian; Zhang, Xu; Dai, Feng; Yin, Jian; Zhang, Yongdong

    2016-07-01

    Identification of drug-target interactions is an important process in drug discovery. Although high-throughput screening and other biological assays are becoming available, experimental methods for drug-target interaction identification remain to be extremely costly, time-consuming and challenging even nowadays. Therefore, various computational models have been developed to predict potential drug-target associations on a large scale. In this review, databases and web servers involved in drug-target identification and drug discovery are summarized. In addition, we mainly introduced some state-of-the-art computational models for drug-target interactions prediction, including network-based method, machine learning-based method and so on. Specially, for the machine learning-based method, much attention was paid to supervised and semi-supervised models, which have essential difference in the adoption of negative samples. Although significant improvements for drug-target interaction prediction have been obtained by many effective computational models, both network-based and machine learning-based methods have their disadvantages, respectively. Furthermore, we discuss the future directions of the network-based drug discovery and network approach for personalized drug discovery based on personalized medicine, genome sequencing, tumor clone-based network and cancer hallmark-based network. Finally, we discussed the new evaluation validation framework and the formulation of drug-target interactions prediction problem by more realistic regression formulation based on quantitative bioactivity data.

  9. Internalized compartments encapsulated nanogels for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Ranson, Davis; Ye, Yanqi; Weng, Yuyan; Gu, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The resulting nanogels loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) displayed enhanced internalization efficiency to the source cells through a specific homotypic affinity in vitro. However, when treated with the non-source cells, the EM-NGs exhibited insignificant difference in therapeutic efficiency compared to a bare HA nanogel with DOX. This study illustrates the potential of utilizing an internalized compartments encapsulated formulation for targeted cancer therapy, and offers guidelines for developing a natural particulate-inspired drug delivery system.Drug delivery systems inspired by natural particulates hold great promise for targeted cancer therapy. An endosome formed by internalization of plasma membrane has a massive amount of membrane proteins and receptors on the surface, which is able to specifically target the homotypic cells. Herein, we describe a simple method to fabricate an internalized compartments encapsulated nanogel with endosome membrane components (EM-NG) from source cancer cells. Following intracellular uptake of methacrylated hyaluronic acid (m-HA) adsorbed SiO2/Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulating a crosslinker and a photoinitiator, EM-NG was readily prepared through in situ crosslinking initiated under UV irradiation after internalization. The

  10. Anti-malarial Drug Design by Targeting Apicoplasts: New Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Avinaba; Sadhukhan, Gobinda Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Malaria has been a major global health problem in recent times with increasing mortality. Current treatment methods include parasiticidal drugs and vaccinations. However, resistance among malarial parasites to the existing drugs has emerged as a significant area of concern in anti-malarial drug design. Researchers are now desperately looking for new targets to develop anti-malarials drug which is more target specific. Malarial parasites harbor a plastid-like organelle known as the ‘apicoplast’, which is thought to provide an exciting new outlook for the development of drugs to be used against the parasite. This review elaborates on the current state of development of novel compounds targeted againstemerging malaria parasites. Methods: The apicoplast, originates by an endosymbiotic process, contains a range of metabolic pathways and housekeeping processes that differ from the host body and thereby presents ideal strategies for anti-malarial drug therapy. Drugs are designed by targeting the unique mechanism of the apicoplasts genetic machinery. Several anabolic and catabolic processes, like fatty acid, isopenetyl diphosphate and heme synthess in this organelle, have also been targeted by drugs. Results: Apicoplasts offer exciting opportunities for the development of malarial treatment specific drugs have been found to act by disrupting this organelle’s function, which wouldimpede the survival of the parasite. Conclusion: Recent advanced drugs, their modes of action, and their advantages in the treatment of malaria by using apicoplasts as a target are discussed in this review which thought to be very useful in desigining anti-malarial drugs. Targetting the genetic machinery of apicoplast shows a great advantange regarding anti-malarial drug design. Critical knowledge of these new drugs would give a healthier understanding for deciphering the mechanism of action of anti-malarial drugs when targeting apicoplasts to overcome drug resistance. PMID

  11. A survey of yeast genomic assays for drug and target discovery

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew M.; Ammar, Ron; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the development and application of chemical genomic assays using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae has provided powerful methods to identify the mechanism of action of known drugs and novel small molecules in vivo. These assays identify drug target candidates, genes involved in buffering drug target pathways and also help to define the general cellular response to small molecules. In this review, we examine current yeast chemical genomic assays and summarize the potential applications of each approach. PMID:20546776

  12. How specific are "target-specific" drugs? Celecoxib as a case in point.

    PubMed

    Sadée, Wolfgang; Bohn, Laura

    2006-08-01

    With the push to develop the next blockbuster drugs, continued surveillance of current bestsellers may not be given the full attention due. Upon wide-spread use, unexpected adverse effects begin to emerge. Although touted as highly specific, many of the newly developed drugs are likely to have secondary molecular targets-a potential cause of adverse effects. A molecular pharmacology approach that screens for multiple drug targets may shed light on the mechanisms that underlie both desired and adverse side-effects.

  13. Systems biology-embedded target validation: improving efficacy in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Drieke; Minke, Benedikt A; Fitzmaurice, William; Kholodenko, Boris N; Kolch, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is faced with a range of challenges with the ever-escalating costs of drug development and a drying out of drug pipelines. By harnessing advances in -omics technologies and moving away from the standard, reductionist model of drug discovery, there is significant potential to reduce costs and improve efficacy. Embedding systems biology approaches in drug discovery, which seek to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of potential drug targets in a network context, will reduce attrition rates by earlier target validation and the introduction of novel targets into the currently stagnant market. Systems biology approaches also have the potential to assist in the design of multidrug treatments and repositioning of existing drugs, while stratifying patients to give a greater personalization of medical treatment.

  14. Sequencing: Targeting Insurgents and Drugs in Colombia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    examines the overall effectiveness of two distinctly different strategies for dealing with the dual threat of drugs and terrorism in Colombia: President...Drug Trade, Coca, Counter-narcotics, FARC, FARC-EP, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, Government of Colombia, Insurgency, Terrorism , Plan...threat of drugs and terrorism in Colombia: President Pastrana’s “drugs first” strategy and President Uribe’s unified campaign against both guerrillas

  15. Drug Target Mining and Analysis of the Chinese Tree Shrew for Pharmacological Testing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lee, Wen-hui; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new drugs requires the development of improved animal models for drug testing. The Chinese tree shrew is considered to be a realistic candidate model. To assess the potential of the Chinese tree shrew for pharmacological testing, we performed drug target prediction and analysis on genomic and transcriptomic scales. Using our pipeline, 3,482 proteins were predicted to be drug targets. Of these predicted targets, 446 and 1,049 proteins with the highest rank and total scores, respectively, included homologs of targets for cancer chemotherapy, depression, age-related decline and cardiovascular disease. Based on comparative analyses, more than half of drug target proteins identified from the tree shrew genome were shown to be higher similarity to human targets than in the mouse. Target validation also demonstrated that the constitutive expression of the proteinase-activated receptors of tree shrew platelets is similar to that of human platelets but differs from that of mouse platelets. We developed an effective pipeline and search strategy for drug target prediction and the evaluation of model-based target identification for drug testing. This work provides useful information for future studies of the Chinese tree shrew as a source of novel targets for drug discovery research. PMID:25105297

  16. TRPV1: A Target for Rational Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Carnevale, Vincenzo; Rohacs, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective, Ca2+ permeable cation channel activated by noxious heat, and chemical ligands, such as capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX). Many compounds have been developed that either activate or inhibit TRPV1, but none of them are in routine clinical practice. This review will discuss the rationale for antagonists and agonists of TRPV1 for pain relief and other conditions, and strategies to develop new, better drugs to target this ion channel, using the newly available high-resolution structures. PMID:27563913

  17. Electrospun Nanofibers of Guar Galactomannan for Targeted Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hsiao Mei Annie

    2011-12-01

    Guar galactomannan is a biodegradable polysaccharide used widely in the food industry but also in the cosmetics, pharmaceutical, oil drilling, textile and paper industries. Guar consists of a mannose backbone and galactose side groups that are both susceptible to enzyme degradation, a unique property that can be explored for targeted drug delivery especially since those enzymes are naturally secreted by the microflora in human colon. The present study can be divided into three parts. In the first part, we discuss ways to modify guar to produce nanofibers by electrospinning, a process that involves the application of an electric field to a polymer solution or melt to facilitate production of fibers in the sub-micron range. Nanofibers are currently being explored as the next generation of drug carriers due to its many advantages, none more important than the fact that nanofibers are on a size scale that is a fraction of a hair's width and have large surface-to-volume ratio. The incorporation and controlled release of nano-sized drugs is one way in which nanofibers are being utilized in drug delivery. In the second part of the study, we explore various methods to crosslink guar nanofibers as a means to promote water-resistance in a potential drug carrier. The scope and utility of water-resistant guar nanofibers can only be fully appreciated when subsequent drug release studies are carried out. To that end, the third part of our study focuses on understanding the kinetics and diffusion mechanisms of a model drug, Rhodamine B, through moderately-swelling (crosslinked) hydrogel nanofibers in comparison to rapidly-swelling (non-crosslinked) nanofibers. Along the way, our investigations led us to a novel electrospinning set-up that has a unique collector designed to capture aligned nanofibers. These aligned nanofiber bundles can then be twisted to hold them together like yarn. From a practical standpoint, these yarns are advantageous because they come freely suspended and

  18. Potential Therapeutic Targets in Uterine Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Cuppens, Tine; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Amant, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Uterine sarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 3,4% of all uterine cancers. Even after radical hysterectomy, most patients relapse or present with distant metastases. The very limited clinical benefit of adjuvant cytotoxic treatments is reflected by high mortality rates, emphasizing the need for new treatment strategies. This review summarizes rising potential targets in four distinct subtypes of uterine sarcomas: leiomyosarcoma, low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. Based on clinical reports, promising approaches for uterine leiomyosarcoma patients include inhibition of VEGF and mTOR signaling, preferably in combination with other targeted or cytotoxic compounds. Currently, the only targeted therapy approved in leiomyosarcoma patients is pazopanib, a multitargeted inhibitor blocking VEGFR, PDGFR, FGFR, and c-KIT. Additionally, preclinical evidence suggests effect of the inhibition of histone deacetylases, tyrosine kinase receptors, and the mitotic checkpoint protein aurora kinase A. In low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, antihormonal therapies including aromatase inhibitors and progestins have proven activity. Other potential targets are PDGFR, VEGFR, and histone deacetylases. In high-grade ESS that carry the YWHAE/FAM22A/B fusion gene, the generated 14-3-3 oncoprotein is a putative target, next to c-KIT and the Wnt pathway. The observation of heterogeneity within uterine sarcoma subtypes warrants a personalized treatment approach. PMID:26576131

  19. Cognitive enhancers (Nootropics). Part 3: drugs interacting with targets other than receptors or enzymes. Disease-modifying drugs. Update 2014.

    PubMed

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Scientists working in the field of Alzheimer's disease and, in particular, cognitive enhancers, are very productive. The review "Drugs interacting with Targets other than Receptors or Enzymes. Disease-modifying Drugs" was accepted in October 2012. In the last 20 months, new targets for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease were identified. Enormous progress was realized in the pharmacological characterization of natural products with cognitive enhancing properties. This review covers the evolution of research in this field through May 2014.

  20. Oncogenic potential of bifunctional bioreductive drugs.

    PubMed

    Hei, T K; Liu, S X; Hall, E J

    1996-07-01

    Potential oncogenicity must be a factor of concern in the design and development of novel bioreductive drugs. In the present studies, the cytotoxicity and oncogenic transforming potential of a series of heterocyclic mono-N-oxides, designed to be used as bioreductive drugs, were examined using the mouse C3H 10T1/2 cell system. Exponential phase cultures of 10T1/2 cells were treated with graded doses of the bioreductive drugs for a 4 h period, either in air or hypoxia, at 37 degrees C. After treatment, cultures were replated for both survival and transformation assays. The fused pyrazine mono-N-oxide RB 90740 and its N-deoxy analogue, RB 92816, demonstrated a dose-dependent cytotoxicity and oncogenic transforming potency under aerobic conditions. Similarly, the indoloquinone E09 and the structurally related mitomycin C demonstrated dose dependence in both toxicity and oncogenic transforming potential. The most cytotoxic aromatic-N-oxides tested, RB 92816, also demonstrated the highest oncogenic transformation incidence. In hypoxia, the bioreductive metabolites of RB 90740 were substantially more cytotoxic and induced a higher oncogenic transformation yield than the drug in air. These data are consistent with the structure-activity relationship for bioreductive drugs in that heterocyclic-N-oxides with reactive side chains such as RB 92816 are cytotoxic and potentially carcinogenic.

  1. Preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic targets in dedifferentiated liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Hanes, Robert; Grad, Iwona; Lorenz, Susanne; Stratford, Eva W.; Munthe, Else; Reddy, Chilamakuri Chandra Sekhar; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A.; Myklebost, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Sarcomas are rare cancers with limited treatment options. Patients are generally treated by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery, and would benefit from new personalized approaches. In this study we demonstrate the potential of combining personal genomic characterization of patient tumors to identify targetable mutations with in vitro testing of specific drugs in patient-derived cell lines. We have analyzed three metastases from a patient with high-grade metastatic dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) by exome and transcriptome sequencing as well as DNA copy number analysis. Genomic aberrations of several potentially targetable genes, including amplification of KITLG and FRS2, in addition to amplification of CDK4 and MDM2, characteristic of this disease, were identified. We evaluated the efficacy of drugs targeting these aberrations or the corresponding signaling pathways in a cell line derived from the patient. Interestingly, the pan-FGFR inhibitor NVP-BGJ398, which targets FGFR upstream of FRS2, strongly inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and induced an accumulation of cells into the G0 phase of the cell cycle. This study indicates that FGFR inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the treatment of DDLPS with amplified FRS2. PMID:27409346

  2. Candidate Drug Targets for Prevention or Modification of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Varvel, Nicholas H.; Jiang, Jianxiong; Dingledine, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a prevalent neurological disorder afflicting nearly 50 million people worldwide. The disorder is characterized clinically by recurrent spontaneous seizures attributed to abnormal synchrony of brain neurons. Despite advances in the treatment of epilepsy, nearly one-third of patients are resistant to current therapies, and the underlying mechanisms whereby a healthy brain becomes epileptic remain unresolved. Therefore, researchers have a major impetus to identify and exploit new drug targets. Here we distinguish between epileptic effectors, or proteins that set the seizure threshold, and epileptogenic mediators, which control the expression or functional state of the effector proteins. Under this framework, we then discuss attempts to regulate the mediators to control epilepsy. Further insights into the complex processes that render the brain susceptible to seizures and the identification of novel mediators of these processes will lead the way to the development of drugs to modify disease outcome and, potentially, to prevent epileptogenesis. PMID:25196047

  3. Protein kinases as targets for antiparasitic chemotherapy drugs.

    PubMed

    Canduri, Fernanda; Perez, Patrícia Cardoso; Caceres, Rafael A; de Azevedo, Walter F

    2007-03-01

    Parasitic protozoa infecting humans have a great impact on public health, especially in the developing countries. In many instances, the parasites have developed resistance against available chemotherapeutic agents, making the search for alternative drugs a priority. In line with the current interest in Protein Kinase (PK) inhibitors as potential drugs against a variety of diseases, the possibility that PKs may represent targets for novel anti-parasitic agents is being explored. Research into parasite PKs has benefited greatly from genome and EST sequencing projects, with the genomes from a few species fully sequenced (notably that from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum) and several more under way, the structural features that are important to design specific inhibitors against these PKs will be reviewed in the present work.

  4. Drug targets for rational design against emerging coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Weber, Erin; Yang, Haitao

    2013-04-01

    The recent, fatal outbreak of the novel coronavirus strain in the Middle East highlights the real threat posed by this unique virus family. Neither pharmaceutical cures nor preventive vaccines are clinically available to fight against coronavirus associated syndromes, not to mention a lack of symptom soothing drugs. Development of treatment options is complicated by the unpredictable, recurring instances of cross-species viral transmission. The vastly distributing virus reservoir and the rapid rate of host-species exchange of coronavirus demands wide spectrum potency in an ideal therapeutic. Through summarizing the available information and progress in coronavirus research, this review provides a systematic assessment of the potential wide-spectrum features on the most popular drug targets including viral proteases, spike protein, RNA polymerases and editing enzymes as well as host-virus interaction pathways associated with coronaviruses.

  5. Avoiding drug resistance through extended drug target interfaces: a case for stapled peptides

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Siau Jia; Chee, Sharon; Yurlova, Larisa; Lane, David; Verma, Chandra; Brown, Christopher; Ghadessy, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Cancer drugs often fail due to the emergence of clinical resistance. This can manifest through mutations in target proteins that selectively exclude drug binding whilst retaining aberrant function. A priori knowledge of resistance-inducing mutations is therefore important for both drug design and clinical surveillance. Stapled peptides represent a novel class of antagonists capable of inhibiting therapeutically relevant protein-protein interactions. Here, we address the important question of potential resistance to stapled peptide inhibitors. HDM2 is the critical negative regulator of p53, and is often overexpressed in cancers that retain wild-type p53 function. Interrogation of a large collection of randomly mutated HDM2 proteins failed to identify point mutations that could selectively abrogate binding by a stapled peptide inhibitor (PM2). In contrast, the same interrogation methodology has previously uncovered point mutations that selectively inhibit binding by Nutlin, the prototypical small molecule inhibitor of HDM2. Our results demonstrate both the high level of structural p53 mimicry employed by PM2 to engage HDM2, and the potential resilience of stapled peptide antagonists to mutations in target proteins. This inherent feature could reduce clinical resistance should this class of drugs enter the clinic. PMID:27057630

  6. Aquaporins as targets for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Frigeri, Antonio; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Svelto, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The intracellular hydric balance is an essential process of mammalian cells. The water movement across cell membranes is driven by osmotic and hydrostatic forces and the speed of this process is dependent on the presence of specific aquaporin water channels. Since the molecular identification of the first water channel, AQP1, by Peter Agre's group, 13 homologous members have been found in mammals with varying degree of homology. The fundamental importance of these proteins in all living cells is suggested by their genetic conservation in eukaryotic organisms through plants to mammals. A number of recent studies have revealed the importance of mammalian AQPs in both physiology and pathophysiology and have suggested that pharmacological modulation of aquaporins expression and activity may provide new tools for the treatment of variety of human disorders, such as brain edema, glaucoma, tumour growth, congestive heart failure and obesity in which water and small solute transport may be involved. This review will highlight the physiological role and the pathological involvement of AQPs in mammals and the potential use of some recent therapeutic approaches, such as RNAi and immunotherapy, for AQP-related diseases. Furthermore, strategies that can be developed for the discovery of selective AQP-drugs will be introduced and discussed.

  7. Identification of Multiple Cryptococcal Fungicidal Drug Targets by Combined Gene Dosing and Drug Affinity Responsive Target Stability Screening

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon-Dong; Sun, Wei; Salas, Antonio; Antia, Avan; Carvajal, Cindy; Wang, Amy; Xu, Xin; Meng, Zhaojin; Zhou, Ming; Tawa, Gregory J.; Dehdashti, Jean; Zheng, Wei; Henderson, Christina M.; Zelazny, Adrian M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus that is responsible for up to half a million cases of meningitis globally, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Common fungistatic drugs, such as fluconazole, are less toxic for patients but have low efficacy for initial therapy of the disease. Effective therapy against the disease is provided by the fungicidal drug amphotericin B; however, due to its high toxicity and the difficulty in administering its intravenous formulation, it is imperative to find new therapies targeting the fungus. The antiparasitic drug bithionol has been recently identified as having potent fungicidal activity. In this study, we used a combined gene dosing and drug affinity responsive target stability (GD-DARTS) screen as well as protein modeling to identify a common drug binding site of bithionol within multiple NAD-dependent dehydrogenase drug targets. This combination genetic and proteomic method thus provides a powerful method for identifying novel fungicidal drug targets for further development. PMID:27486194

  8. Validating Aurora B as an anti-cancer drug target.

    PubMed

    Girdler, Fiona; Gascoigne, Karen E; Eyers, Patrick A; Hartmuth, Sonya; Crafter, Claire; Foote, Kevin M; Keen, Nicholas J; Taylor, Stephen S

    2006-09-01

    The Aurora kinases, a family of mitotic regulators, have received much attention as potential targets for novel anti-cancer therapeutics. Several Aurora kinase inhibitors have been described including ZM447439, which prevents chromosome alignment, spindle checkpoint function and cytokinesis. Subsequently, ZM447439-treated cells exit mitosis without dividing and lose viability. Because ZM447439 inhibits both Aurora A and B, we set out to determine which phenotypes are due to inhibition of which kinase. Using molecular genetic approaches, we show that inhibition of Aurora B kinase activity phenocopies ZM447439. Furthermore, a novel ZM compound, which is 100 times more selective for Aurora B over Aurora A in vitro, induces identical phenotypes. Importantly, inhibition of Aurora B kinase activity induces a penetrant anti-proliferative phenotype, indicating that Aurora B is an attractive anti-cancer drug target. Using molecular genetic and chemical-genetic approaches, we also probe the role of Aurora A kinase activity. We show that simultaneous repression of Aurora A plus induction of a catalytic mutant induces a monopolar phenotype. Consistently, another novel ZM-related inhibitor, which is 20 times as potent against Aurora A compared with ZM447439, induces a monopolar phenotype. Expression of a drug-resistant Aurora A mutant reverts this phenotype, demonstrating that Aurora A kinase activity is required for spindle bipolarity in human cells. Because small molecule-mediated inhibition of Aurora A and Aurora B yields distinct phenotypes, our observations indicate that the Auroras may present two avenues for anti-cancer drug discovery.

  9. Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis to overcome drug resistance to MAPK inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gao; Frederick, Dennie T.; Wu, Lawrence; Wei, Zhi; Krepler, Clemens; Srinivasan, Satish; Chae, Young Chan; Xu, Xiaowei; Choi, Harry; Dimwamwa, Elaida; Shannan, Batool; Basu, Devraj; Zhang, Dongmei; Guha, Manti; Xiao, Min; Randell, Sergio; Sproesser, Katrin; Xu, Wei; Liu, Jephrey; Karakousis, Giorgos C.; Schuchter, Lynn M.; Gangadhar, Tara C.; Amaravadi, Ravi K.; Gu, Mengnan; Xu, Caiyue; Ghosh, Abheek; Xu, Weiting; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Jie; Zha, Shijie; Brafford, Patricia; Weeraratna, Ashani; Davies, Michael A.; Wargo, Jennifer A.; Avadhani, Narayan G.; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Altieri, Dario C.; Flaherty, Keith T.

    2016-01-01

    Targeting multiple components of the MAPK pathway can prolong the survival of patients with BRAFV600E melanoma. This approach is not curative, as some BRAF-mutated melanoma cells are intrinsically resistant to MAPK inhibitors (MAPKi). At the systemic level, our knowledge of how signaling pathways underlie drug resistance needs to be further expanded. Here, we have shown that intrinsically resistant BRAF-mutated melanoma cells with a low basal level of mitochondrial biogenesis depend on this process to survive MAPKi. Intrinsically resistant cells exploited an integrated stress response, exhibited an increase in mitochondrial DNA content, and required oxidative phosphorylation to meet their bioenergetic needs. We determined that intrinsically resistant cells rely on the genes encoding TFAM, which controls mitochondrial genome replication and transcription, and TRAP1, which regulates mitochondrial protein folding. Therefore, we targeted mitochondrial biogenesis with a mitochondrium-targeted, small-molecule HSP90 inhibitor (Gamitrinib), which eradicated intrinsically resistant cells and augmented the efficacy of MAPKi by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting tumor bioenergetics. A subset of tumor biopsies from patients with disease progression despite MAPKi treatment showed increased mitochondrial biogenesis and tumor bioenergetics. A subset of acquired drug-resistant melanoma cell lines was sensitive to Gamitrinib. Our study establishes mitochondrial biogenesis, coupled with aberrant tumor bioenergetics, as a potential therapy escape mechanism and paves the way for a rationale-based combinatorial strategy to improve the efficacy of MAPKi. PMID:27043285

  10. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for drug delivery and targeting.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chia-Lang; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Fang, Jia-You

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are drug-delivery systems composed of both solid and liquid lipids as a core matrix. It was shown that NLCs reveal some advantages for drug therapy over conventional carriers, including increased solubility, the ability to enhance storage stability, improved permeability and bioavailability, reduced adverse effect, prolonged half-life, and tissue-targeted delivery. NLCs have attracted increasing attention in recent years. This review describes recent developments in drug delivery using NLCs strategies. The structures, preparation techniques, and physicochemical characterization of NLCs are systematically elucidated in this review. The potential of NLCs to be used for different administration routes is highlighted. Special attention is paid to parenteral injection and topical delivery since these are the most common routes for investigating NLCs. Relevant issues for the introduction of NLCs to market, including pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications, are discussed. The related patents of NLCs for drug delivery are also reviewed. Finally, the future development and current obstacles needing to be resolved are elucidated.

  11. New drugs in psychiatry: focus on new pharmacological targets

    PubMed Central

    Caraci, Filippo; Leggio, Gian Marco; Salomone, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    The approval of psychotropic drugs with novel mechanisms of action has been rare in recent years. To address this issue, further analysis of the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders is essential for identifying new pharmacological targets for psychotropic medications. In this report, we detail drug candidates being examined as treatments for psychiatric disorders. Particular emphasis is placed on agents with novel mechanisms of action that are being tested as therapies for depression, schizophrenia, or Alzheimer’s disease. All of the compounds considered were recently approved for human use or are in advanced clinical trials. Drugs included here are new antipsychotic medications endowed with a preferential affinity at dopamine D3 receptor (cariprazine) or at glutamatergic or cannabinoid receptors, as well as vortioxetine, a drug approved for managing the cognitive deficits associated with major depression. New mechanistic approaches for the treatment of depression include intravenous ketamine or esketamine or intranasal esketamine. As for Alzheimer’s disease, the possible value of passive immunotherapy with agents such as aducanumab is considered to be a potential disease-modifying approach that could slow or halt the progressive decline associated with this devastating disorder.

  12. DNA helicases as targets for anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sudha; Doherty, Kevin M; Brosh, Robert M

    2005-05-01

    DNA helicases have essential roles in nucleic acid metabolism by facilitating cellular processes including replication, recombination, DNA repair, and transcription. The vital roles of helicases in these pathways are reflected by their emerging importance in the maintenance of genomic stability. Recently, a number of human diseases with cancer predisposition have been shown to be genetically linked to a specific helicase defect. This has led researchers to further investigate the roles of helicases in cancer biology, and to study the efficacy of targeting human DNA helicases for anti-cancer drug treatment. Helicase-specific inhibition in malignant cells may compromise the high proliferation rates of cancerous tissues. The role of RecQ helicases in response to replicational stress suggests a molecular target for selectively eliminating malignant tumor cells by a cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Alternate DNA secondary structures such as G-quadruplexes that may form in regulatory regions of oncogenes or G-rich telomere sequences are potential targets for cancer therapy since these sequence-specific structures are proposed to affect gene expression and telomerase activation, respectively. Small molecule inhibitors of G-quadruplex helicases may be used to regulate cell cycle progression by modulating promotor activation or disrupting telomere maintenance, important processes of cellular transformation. The design of small molecules which deter helicase function at telomeres may provide a molecular target since telomerase activity is necessary for the proliferation of numerous immortal cells. Although evidence suggests that helicases are specifically inhibited by certain DNA binding compounds, another area of promise in anti-cancer therapy is siRNA technology. Specific knockdown of helicase expression can be utilized as a means to sensitize oncogenic proliferating cell lines. This review will address these topics in detail and summarize the current avenues of research in

  13. Application of RNAi to Genomic Drug Target Validation in Schistosomes

    PubMed Central

    Guidi, Alessandra; Mansour, Nuha R.; Paveley, Ross A.; Carruthers, Ian M.; Besnard, Jérémy; Hopkins, Andrew L.; Gilbert, Ian H.; Bickle, Quentin D.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the possibility of resistance developing to praziquantel (PZQ), has stimulated efforts to develop new drugs for schistosomiasis. In addition to the development of improved whole organism screens, the success of RNA interference (RNAi) in schistosomes offers great promise for the identification of potential drug targets to initiate drug discovery. In this study we set out to contribute to RNAi based validation of putative drug targets. Initially a list of 24 target candidates was compiled based on the identification of putative essential genes in schistosomes orthologous of C. elegans essential genes. Knockdown of Calmodulin (Smp_026560.2) (Sm-Calm), that topped this list, produced a phenotype characterised by waves of contraction in adult worms but no phenotype in schistosomula. Knockdown of the atypical Protein Kinase C (Smp_096310) (Sm-aPKC) resulted in loss of viability in both schistosomula and adults and led us to focus our attention on other kinase genes that were identified in the above list and through whole organism screening of known kinase inhibitor sets followed by chemogenomic evaluation. RNAi knockdown of these kinase genes failed to affect adult worm viability but, like Sm-aPKC, knockdown of Polo-like kinase 1, Sm-PLK1 (Smp_009600) and p38-MAPK, Sm-MAPK p38 (Smp_133020) resulted in an increased mortality of schistosomula after 2-3 weeks, an effect more marked in the presence of human red blood cells (hRBC). For Sm-PLK-1 the same effects were seen with the specific inhibitor, BI2536, which also affected viable egg production in adult worms. For Sm-PLK-1 and Sm-aPKC the in vitro effects were reflected in lower recoveries in vivo. We conclude that the use of RNAi combined with culture with hRBC is a reliable method for evaluating genes important for larval development. However, in view of the slow manifestation of the effects of Sm-aPKC knockdown in adults and the lack of effects of Sm-PLK-1 and Sm-MAPK p38 on adult viability, these

  14. Strategies and Advancement in Antibody-Drug Conjugate Optimization for Targeted Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunhee G.; Kim, Kristine M.

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates utilize the antibody as a delivery vehicle for highly potent cytotoxic molecules with specificity for tumor-associated antigens for cancer therapy. Critical parameters that govern successful antibody-drug conjugate development for clinical use include the selection of the tumor target antigen, the antibody against the target, the cytotoxic molecule, the linker bridging the cytotoxic molecule and the antibody, and the conjugation chemistry used for the attachment of the cytotoxic molecule to the antibody. Advancements in these core antibody-drug conjugate technology are reflected by recent approval of Adectris® (anti-CD30-drug conjugate) and Kadcyla® (anti-HER2 drug conjugate). The potential approval of an anti-CD22 conjugate and promising new clinical data for anti-CD19 and anti-CD33 conjugates are additional advancements. Enrichment of antibody-drug conjugates with newly developed potent cytotoxic molecules and linkers are also in the pipeline for various tumor targets. However, the complexity of antibody-drug conjugate components, conjugation methods, and off-target toxicities still pose challenges for the strategic design of antibody-drug conjugates to achieve their fullest therapeutic potential. This review will discuss the emergence of clinical antibody-drug conjugates, current trends in optimization strategies, and recent study results for antibody-drug conjugates that have incorporated the latest optimization strategies. Future challenges and perspectives toward making antibody-drug conjugates more amendable for broader disease indications are also discussed. PMID:26535074

  15. Drug efflux pump deficiency and drug target resistance masking in growing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Fange, David; Nilsson, Karin; Tenson, Tanel; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that drug efflux pump deficiency not only increases the susceptibility of pathogens to antibiotics, but also seems to “mask” the effects of mutations, that decrease the affinities of drugs to their intracellular targets, on the growth rates of drug-exposed bacteria. That is, in the presence of drugs, the growth rates of drug-exposed WT and target mutated strains are the same in a drug efflux pump deficient background, but the mutants grow faster than WT in a drug efflux pump proficient background. Here, we explain the mechanism of target resistance masking and show that it occurs in response to drug efflux pump inhibition among pathogens with high-affinity drug binding targets, low cell-membrane drug-permeability and insignificant intracellular drug degradation. We demonstrate that target resistance masking is fundamentally linked to growth-bistability, i.e., the existence of 2 different steady state growth rates for one and the same drug concentration in the growth medium. We speculate that target resistance masking provides a hitherto unknown mechanism for slowing down the evolution of target resistance among pathogens. PMID:19416855

  16. Scorpion peptides: potential use for new drug development.

    PubMed

    Hmed, Bennasr; Serria, Hammami Turky; Mounir, Zeghal Khaled

    2013-01-01

    Several peptides contained in scorpion fluids showed diverse array of biological activities with high specificities to their targeted sites. Many investigations outlined their potent effects against microbes and showed their potential to modulate various biological mechanisms that are involved in immune, nervous, cardiovascular, and neoplastic diseases. Because of their important structural and functional diversity, it is projected that scorpion-derived peptides could be used to develop new specific drugs. This review summarizes relevant findings improving their use as valuable tools for new drugs development.

  17. Nanomechanics of Drug-target Interactions and Antibacterial Resistance Detection

    PubMed Central

    Ndieyira, Joseph W.; Watari, Moyu; McKendry, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    The cantilever sensor, which acts as a transducer of reactions between model bacterial cell wall matrix immobilized on its surface and antibiotic drugs in solution, has shown considerable potential in biochemical sensing applications with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity1-5. The drug-target interactions generate surface stress, causing the cantilever to bend, and the signal can be analyzed optically when it is illuminated by a laser. The change in surface stress measured with nano-scale precision allows disruptions of the biomechanics of model bacterial cell wall targets to be tracked in real time. Despite offering considerable advantages, multiple cantilever sensor arrays have never been applied in quantifying drug-target binding interactions. Here, we report on the use of silicon multiple cantilever arrays coated with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers mimicking bacterial cell wall matrix to quantitatively study antibiotic binding interactions. To understand the impact of vancomycin on the mechanics of bacterial cell wall structures1,6,7. We developed a new model1 which proposes that cantilever bending can be described by two independent factors; i) namely a chemical factor, which is given by a classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm, from which we calculate the thermodynamic equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and ii) a geometrical factor, essentially a measure of how bacterial peptide receptors are distributed on the cantilever surface. The surface distribution of peptide receptors (p) is used to investigate the dependence of geometry and ligand loading. It is shown that a threshold value of p ~10% is critical to sensing applications. Below which there is no detectable bending signal while above this value, the bending signal increases almost linearly, revealing that stress is a product of a local chemical binding factor and a geometrical factor combined by the mechanical connectivity of reacted regions and provides a new paradigm for design of

  18. Targeted drug induces responses in aggressive lymphomas

    Cancer.gov

    Preliminary results from clinical trials in a subtype of lymphoma show that for a number of patients whose disease was not cured by other treatments, the drug ibrutinib can provide significant anti-cancer responses with modest side effects.

  19. Plasmodium Drug Targets Outside the Genetic Control of the Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Drug development often seeks to find “magic bullets” which target microbiologic proteins while not affecting host proteins. Paul Ehrlich tested methylene blue as an antimalarial but this dye was not superior to quinine. Many successful antimalarial therapies are “magic shotguns” which target many Plasmodium pathways with little interference in host metabolism. Two malaria drug classes, the 8-aminoquinolines and the artemisinins interact with cytochrome P450s and host iron protoporphyrin IX or iron, respectively, to generate toxic metabolites and/or radicals, which kill the parasite by interference with many proteins. The non 8-amino antimalarial quinolines like quinine or piperaquine bind heme to inhibit the process of heme crystallization, which results in multiple enzyme inhibition and membrane dysfunction. The quinolines and artemisinins are rapidly parasiticidal in contrast to metal chelators, which have a slower parasite clearance rate with higher drug concentrations. Iron chelators interfere with the artemisinins but otherwise represent a strategy of targeting multiple enzymes containing iron. Interest has been revived in antineoplastic drugs that target DNA metabolism as antimalarials. Specific drug targeting or investigation of the innate immunity directed to the more permeable trophozoite or schizont infected erythrocyte membrane has been under explored. Novel drug classes in the antimalarial development pipeline which either target multiple proteins or unchangeable cellular targets will slow the pace of drug resistance acquisition. PMID:22973888

  20. Identification of New Drug Targets in Multi-Drug Resistant Bacterial Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Identification of New Drug Targets in Multi-Drug Resistant Bacterial Infections PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew M. Gulick, PhD...Identification of New Drug Targets in Multi-Drug Resistant Bacterial Infections 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0218 5c... infections . Recently, community-acquired infections , infections in wounded U.S. service members, and infections in residents of long-term care facilities

  1. Bioactivation potential of thiophene-containing drugs.

    PubMed

    Gramec, Darja; Peterlin Mašič, Lucija; Sollner Dolenc, Marija

    2014-08-18

    Thiophene is a five-membered, sulfur-containing heteroaromatic ring commonly used as a building block in drugs. It is considered to be a structural alert, as its metabolism can lead to the formation of reactive metabolites. Thiophene S-oxides and thiophene epoxides are highly reactive electrophilic thiophene metabolites whose formation is cytochrome P450-dependent. These reactive thiophene-based metabolites are quite often responsible for drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Tienilic acid is an example of a thiophene-based drug that was withdrawn from the market after only a few months of use, due to severe cases of immune hepatitis. However, inclusion of the thiophene moiety in drugs does not necessarily result in toxic effects. The presence of other, less toxic metabolic pathways, as well as an effective detoxification system in our body, protects us from the bioactivation potential of the thiophene ring. Thus, the presence of a structural alert itself is insufficient to predict a compound's toxicity. The question therefore arises as to which factors significantly influence the toxicity of thiophene-containing drugs. There is no easy way to answer this question. However, the findings presented here indicate that, for a number of reasons, daily dose and alternative metabolic pathways are important factors when predicting toxicity and will therefore be discussed together with examples.

  2. Hemozoin Formation as a Target for Antimalarial Drug Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0030 TITLE: Hemozoin Formation as a Target for Antimalarial Drug Design PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael K. Riscoe, Ph.D...Formation as a Target for Antimalarial Drug Design DAMD17-03-1-0030 6. A UTHOR(S) Michael K. Riscoe, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZA TION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...Report: by Principal Investigator - Michael K. Riscoe, Ph.D. DAMD1 7-03-1-0030: "Hemozoin Formation as a Target for Antimalarial Drug Design " INTRODUCTION

  3. Cartilage-targeting drug delivery: can electrostatic interactions help?

    PubMed

    Bajpayee, Ambika G; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2017-03-01

    Current intra-articular drug delivery methods do not guarantee sufficient drug penetration into cartilage tissue to reach cell and matrix targets at the concentrations necessary to elicit the desired biological response. Here, we provide our perspective on the utilization of charge-charge (electrostatic) interactions to enhance drug penetration and transport into cartilage, and to enable sustained binding of drugs within the tissue's highly negatively charged extracellular matrix. By coupling drugs to positively charged nanocarriers that have optimal size and charge, cartilage can be converted from a drug barrier into a drug reservoir for sustained intra-tissue delivery. Alternatively, a wide variety of drugs themselves can be made cartilage-penetrating by functionalizing them with specialized positively charged protein domains. Finally, we emphasize that appropriate animal models, with cartilage thickness similar to that of humans, must be used for the study of drug transport and retention in cartilage.

  4. Potential new methods for antiepileptic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Robert S; Ho, Jet

    2002-01-01

    Use of novel drug delivery methods could enhance the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Slow-release oral forms of medication or depot drugs such as skin patches might improve compliance and therefore seizure control. In emergency situations, administration via rectal, nasal or buccal mucosa can deliver the drug more quickly than can oral administration. Slow-release oral forms and rectal forms of AEDs are already approved for use, nasal and buccal administration is currently off-label and skin patches for AEDs are an attractive but currently hypothetical option. Therapies under development may result in the delivery of AEDs directly to the regions of the brain involved in seizures. Experimental protocols are underway to allow continuous infusion of potent excitatory amino acid antagonists into the CSF. In experiments with animal models of epilepsy, AEDs have been delivered successfully to seizure foci in the brain by programmed infusion pumps, acting in response to computerised EEG seizure detection. Inactive prodrugs can be given systemically and activated at the site of the seizure focus by locally released compounds. One such drug under development is DP-VPA (or DP16), which is cleaved to valproic acid (sodium valproate) by phospholipases at the seizure focus. Liposomes and nanoparticles are engineered micro-reservoirs of a drug, with attached antibodies or receptor-specific binding agents designed to target the particles to a specific region of the body. Liposomes in theory could deliver a high concentration of an AED to a seizure focus. Penetration of the blood-brain barrier can be accomplished by linking large particles to iron transferrin or biological toxins that can cross the barrier. In the near future, it is likely that cell transplants that generate neurotransmitters and neuromodulators will accomplish renewable endogenous drug delivery. However, the survival and viability of transplanted cells have yet to be demonstrated

  5. A review on current nanomaterials and their drug conjugate for targeted breast cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna Jinling; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Che Abdullah, Che Azurahanim

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide, especially among women, with substantial after-treatment effects. The survival rates of breast cancer have decreased over the years even with the existence of various therapeutic strategies, specifically, chemotherapy. Clinical drugs administered for breast cancer appear to be non-targeting to specific cancer sites leading to severe side effects and potentially harming healthy cells instead of just killing cancer cells. This leads to the need for designing a targeted drug delivery system. Nanomaterials, both organic and inorganic, are potential drug nanocarriers with the ability of targeting, imaging and tracking. Various types of nanomaterials have been actively researched together with their drug conjugate. In this review, we focus on selected nanomaterials, namely solid-lipid, liposomal, polymeric, magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots, and carbon nanotubes and their drug conjugates, for breast cancer studies. Their advantages, disadvantages and previously conducted studies were highlighted. PMID:28392694

  6. Therapeutic potential of cannabis-related drugs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen P H

    2016-01-04

    In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit.

  7. Targeting melanocortin receptors as potential novel therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Getting, Stephen J

    2006-07-01

    Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH(1-39)) and the melanocortins (alpha, beta and gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone [MSH]) are derived from a larger precursor molecule known as the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) protein. They exert their numerous biological effects by activating 7 transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), leading to adenylyl cyclase activation and subsequent cAMP accumulation within the target cell. To date, 5 melanocortin receptors (MCR) have been identified and termed MC1R to MC5R, they have been shown to have a wide and varied distribution throughout the body, being found in the central nervous system (CNS), periphery and immune cells. Melanocortins have a multitude of actions including: (i) modulating disease pathologies including arthritis, asthma, obesity; (ii) affecting functions, for example erectile dysfunction, skin tanning; and (iii) organ systems, for example cardiovascular system. Recently a mechanistic approach has been identified with alpha-MSH preventing NF-kappaB activation via the preservation and expression of IkappaBalphaprotein. This leads to a reduction of pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines and inhibition of adhesion molecule expression, with subsequent reduction in leukocyte emigration. Development of selective ligands with an appropriate pharmacokinetic profile will enable a pharmacological evaluation of the potential beneficial effects of the melanocortins. In this review I have discussed the potential mechanistic action for the melanocortins and some of the disease pathologies shown to be modulated. This review proposes targeting the MCR with the ultimate aim of controlling many of the diseases that we face today.

  8. Structure-based DNA-targeting strategies with small molecule ligands for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jia; Gan, Jianhua; Huang, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    Nucleic acids are the molecular targets of many clinical anticancer drugs. However, compared with proteins, nucleic acids have traditionally attracted much less attention as drug targets in structure-based drug design, partially because limited structural information of nucleic acids complexed with potential drugs is available. Over the past several years, enormous progresses in nucleic acid crystallization, heavy-atom derivatization, phasing, and structural biology have been made. Many complicated nucleic acid structures have been determined, providing new insights into the molecular functions and interactions of nucleic acids, especially DNAs complexed with small molecule ligands. Thus, opportunities have been created to further discover nucleic acid-targeting drugs for disease treatments. This review focuses on the structure studies of DNAs complexed with small molecule ligands for discovering lead compounds, drug candidates, and/or therapeutics.

  9. Structure-Based DNA-Targeting Strategies with Small Molecule Ligands for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jia; Gan, Jianhua; Huang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acids are the molecular targets of many clinical anticancer drugs. However, compared with proteins, nucleic acids have traditionally attracted much less attention as drug targets in structure-based drug design, partially because limited structural information of nucleic acids complexed with potential drugs is available. Over the past several years, enormous progresses in nucleic acid crystallization, heavy-atom derivatization, phasing, and structural biology have been made. Many complicated nucleic acid structures have been determined, providing new insights into the molecular functions and interactions of nucleic acids, especially DNAs complexed with small molecule ligands. Thus, opportunities have been created to further discover nucleic acid-targeting drugs for disease treatments. This review focuses on the structure studies of DNAs complexed with small molecule ligands for discovering lead compounds, drug candidates, and/or therapeutics. PMID:23633219

  10. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  11. 21 CFR 314.104 - Drugs with potential for abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drugs with potential for abuse. 314.104 Section 314.104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and Abbreviated Applications § 314.104 Drugs with potential for abuse. The Food and...

  12. Design of Nanoparticle-Based Carriers for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Muqing; Duval, Kayla; Guo, Xing; Chen, Zi

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have shown promise as both drug delivery vehicles and direct antitumor systems, but they must be properly designed in order to maximize efficacy. Computational modeling is often used both to design new nanoparticles and to better understand existing ones. Modeled processes include the release of drugs at the tumor site and the physical interaction between the nanoparticle and cancer cells. In this article, we provide an overview of three different targeted drug delivery methods (passive targeting, active targeting and physical targeting), compare methods of action, advantages, limitations, and the current stage of research. For the most commonly used nanoparticle carriers, fabrication methods are also reviewed. This is followed by a review of computational simulations and models on nanoparticle-based drug delivery. PMID:27398083

  13. Leveraging big data to transform target selection and drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Butte, AJ

    2016-01-01

    The advances of genomics, sequencing, and high throughput technologies have led to the creation of large volumes of diverse datasets for drug discovery. Analyzing these datasets to better understand disease and discover new drugs is becoming more common. Recent open data initiatives in basic and clinical research have dramatically increased the types of data available to the public. The past few years have witnessed successful use of big data in many sectors across the whole drug discovery pipeline. In this review, we will highlight the state of the art in leveraging big data to identify new targets, drug indications, and drug response biomarkers in this era of precision medicine. PMID:26659699

  14. Computer Aided Drug Design for Multi-Target Drug Design: SAR /QSAR, Molecular Docking and Pharmacophore Methods.

    PubMed

    Abdolmaleki, Azizeh; Ghasemi, Jahan B; Ghasemi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Multi-target drugs against particular multiple targets get better protection, resistance profiles and curative influence by cooperative rules of a key beneficial target with resistance behavior and compensatory elements. Computational techniques can assist us in the efforts to design novel drugs (ligands) with a preferred bioactivity outline and alternative bioactive molecules at an early stage. A number of in silico methods have been explored extensively in order to facilitate the investigation of individual target agents and to propose a selective drug. A different, progressively more significant field which is used to predict the bioactivity of chemical compounds is the data mining method. Some of the previously mentioned methods have been investigated for multi-target drug design (MTDD) to find drug leads interact simultaneously with multiple targets. Several cheminformatics methods and structure-based approaches try to extract information from units working cooperatively in a biomolecular system to fulfill their task. To dominate the difficulties of the experimental specification of ligand-target structures, rational methods, namely molecular docking, SAR and QSAR are vital substitutes to obtain knowledge for each structure in atomic insight. These procedures are logically successful for the prediction of binding affinity and have shown promising potential in facilitating MTDD. Here, we review some of the important features of the multi-target therapeutics discoveries using the computational approach, highlighting the SAR, QSAR, docking and pharmacophore methods to discover interactions between drug-target that could be leveraged for curative benefits. A summary of each, followed by examples of its applications in drug design has been provided. Computational efficiency of each method has been represented according to its main strengths and limitations.

  15. Targeted drug delivery and enhanced intracellular release using functionalized liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Ashish

    The ability to target cancer cells using an appropriate drug delivery system can significantly reduce the associated side effects from cancer therapies and can help in improving the overall quality of life, post cancer survival. Integrin alpha5beta1 is expressed on several types of cancer cells, including colon cancer and plays an important role in tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, the ability to target the integrin alpha 5beta1 using an appropriate drug delivery nano-vector can significantly help in inhibiting tumor growth and reducing tumor metastasis. The work in this thesis focuses on designing and optimizing, functionalized stealth liposomes (liposomes covered with polyethylene glycol (PEG)) that specifically target the integrin alpha5beta1. The PEG provides a steric barrier allowing the liposomes to circulate in the blood for longer duration and the functionalizing moiety, PR_b peptide specifically recognizes and binds to integrin alpha5beta1 expressing cells. The work demonstrates that by optimizing the amount of PEG and PR_b on the liposomal interface, nano-vectors can be engineered that bind to CT26.WT colon cancer cells in a specific manner and internalize through alpha 5beta1-mediated endocytosis. To further improve the efficacy of the system, PR_b functionalized pH-sensitive stealth liposomes that exhibit triggered release under mild acidic conditions present in endocytotic vesicles were designed. The study showed that PR_b functionalized pH-sensitive stealth liposomes, undergo destabilization under mildly acidic conditions and incorporation of the PR_b peptide does not significantly affect the pH-sensitivity of the liposomes. PR_b functionalized pH-sensitive stealth liposomes bind to CT26.WT colon carcinoma cells that express integrin alpha5beta 1, undergo cellular internalization, and release their load intracellularly in a short period of time as compared to other formulations. PR_b-targeted pH-sensitive stealth liposomes encapsulating 5

  16. Oncolytic Virotherapy Targeting Lung Cancer Drug Resistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can exert a dual antitumor effect by triggering direct tumor lysis and eliciting tumor specific immunity. VSV can also...tumors, and the levels of infiltrating leukocytes were similar across the VSV-treated tumors. Altogether the data indicate that VSV-based therapy is...effective against a cisplatin-resistant lung tumor model. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Drug resistance, oncolytic virotherapy, vesicular stomatitis virus, lung

  17. Predicting drug-target interactions using restricted Boltzmann machines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuhao; Zeng, Jianyang

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: In silico prediction of drug-target interactions plays an important role toward identifying and developing new uses of existing or abandoned drugs. Network-based approaches have recently become a popular tool for discovering new drug-target interactions (DTIs). Unfortunately, most of these network-based approaches can only predict binary interactions between drugs and targets, and information about different types of interactions has not been well exploited for DTI prediction in previous studies. On the other hand, incorporating additional information about drug-target relationships or drug modes of action can improve prediction of DTIs. Furthermore, the predicted types of DTIs can broaden our understanding about the molecular basis of drug action. Results: We propose a first machine learning approach to integrate multiple types of DTIs and predict unknown drug-target relationships or drug modes of action. We cast the new DTI prediction problem into a two-layer graphical model, called restricted Boltzmann machine, and apply a practical learning algorithm to train our model and make predictions. Tests on two public databases show that our restricted Boltzmann machine model can effectively capture the latent features of a DTI network and achieve excellent performance on predicting different types of DTIs, with the area under precision-recall curve up to 89.6. In addition, we demonstrate that integrating multiple types of DTIs can significantly outperform other predictions either by simply mixing multiple types of interactions without distinction or using only a single interaction type. Further tests show that our approach can infer a high fraction of novel DTIs that has been validated by known experiments in the literature or other databases. These results indicate that our approach can have highly practical relevance to DTI prediction and drug repositioning, and hence advance the drug discovery process. Availability: Software and datasets are available

  18. Ex vivo investigation of magnetically targeted drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Fukui, S.; Fujimoto, S.; Mishima, F.; Takeda, S.; Izumi, Y.; Ohtani, S.; Fujitani, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2007-03-01

    In conventional systemic drug delivery the drug is administered by intravenous injection; it then travels to the heart from where it is pumped to all regions of the body. When the drug is aimed at a small target region, this method is extremely inefficient and leads to require much larger doses than those being necessary. In order to overcome this problem a number of targeted drug delivery methods are developed. One of these, magnetically targeted drug delivery system (MT-DDS) will be a promising way, which involves binding a drug to small biocompatible magnetic particles, injecting these into the blood stream and using a high gradient magnetic field to pull them out of suspension in the target region. In the present paper, we describe an ex vivo experimental work. It is also reported that navigation and accumulation test of the magnetic particles in the Y-shaped glass tube was performed in order to examine the threshold of the magnetic force for accumulation. It is found that accumulation of the magnetic particles was succeeded in the blood vessel when a permanent magnet was placed at the vicinity of the blood vessel. This result indicates the feasibility of the magnetically drug targeting in the blood vessel.

  19. CNIO cancer conference: targeted search for anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter M

    2003-06-01

    The topics discussed at the conference covered many aspects of cancer research, from the genetic search for new targets, target validation and drug discovery, all the way to preclinical and clinical development of oncology drugs. Here the presentations on new metabolic, angiogenic, cell cycle and other molecular targets, as well as recent developments with experimental drugs with action on some of these targets, are summarised. Particular emphasis is placed on the emerging realisation that changes in the metabolic phenotype lie at the heart of cellular transformation. New insights into the biological links between cancer cell metabolism and the balance between survival and death signalling are likely to lead to the identification of a new category of anticancer targets.

  20. Systematic Identification of Anti-Fungal Drug Targets by a Metabolic Network Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kaltdorf, Martin; Srivastava, Mugdha; Gupta, Shishir K.; Liang, Chunguang; Binder, Jasmin; Dietl, Anna-Maria; Meir, Zohar; Haas, Hubertus; Osherov, Nir; Krappmann, Sven; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    New antimycotic drugs are challenging to find, as potential target proteins may have close human orthologs. We here focus on identifying metabolic targets that are critical for fungal growth and have minimal similarity to targets among human proteins. We compare and combine here: (I) direct metabolic network modeling using elementary mode analysis and flux estimates approximations using expression data, (II) targeting metabolic genes by transcriptome analysis of condition-specific highly expressed enzymes, and (III) analysis of enzyme structure, enzyme interconnectedness (“hubs”), and identification of pathogen-specific enzymes using orthology relations. We have identified 64 targets including metabolic enzymes involved in vitamin synthesis, lipid, and amino acid biosynthesis including 18 targets validated from the literature, two validated and five currently examined in own genetic experiments, and 38 further promising novel target proteins which are non-orthologous to human proteins, involved in metabolism and are highly ranked drug targets from these pipelines. PMID:27379244

  1. Drug target identification in intracellular and extracellular protozoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Müller, Joachim; Hemphill, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The increasing demand for novel anti-parasitic drugs due to resistance formation to well-established chemotherapeutically important compounds has increased the demands for a better understanding of the mechanism(s) of action of existing drugs and of drugs in development. While different approaches have been developed to identify the targets and thus mode of action of anti-parasitic compounds, it has become clear that many drugs act not only on one, but possibly several parasite molecules or even pathways. Ideally, these targets are not present in any cells of the host. In the case of apicomplexan parasites, the unique apicoplast, provides a suitable target for compounds binding to DNA or ribosomal RNA of prokaryotic origin. In the case of intracellular pathogens, a given drug might not only affect the pathogen by directly acting on parasite-associated targets, but also indirectly, by altering the host cell physiology. This in turn could affect the parasite development and lead to parasite death. In this review, we provide an overview of strategies for target identification, and present examples of selected drug targets, ranging from proteins to nucleic acids to intermediary metabolism.

  2. NIH tools facilitate matching cancer drugs with gene targets

    Cancer.gov

    A new study details how a suite of web-based tools provides the research community with greatly improved capacity to compare data derived from large collections of genomic information against thousands of drugs. By comparing drugs and genetic targets, re

  3. Central nervous system myeloid cells as drug targets: current status and translational challenges.

    PubMed

    Biber, Knut; Möller, Thomas; Boddeke, Erik; Prinz, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Myeloid cells of the central nervous system (CNS), which include parenchymal microglia, macrophages at CNS interfaces and monocytes recruited from the circulation during disease, are increasingly being recognized as targets for therapeutic intervention in neurological and psychiatric diseases. The origin of these cells in the immune system distinguishes them from ectodermal neurons and other glia and endows them with potential drug targets distinct from classical CNS target groups. However, despite the identification of several promising therapeutic approaches and molecular targets, no agents directly targeting these cells are currently available. Here, we assess strategies for targeting CNS myeloid cells and address key issues associated with their translation into the clinic.

  4. Comparative genomics study for identification of putative drug targets in Salmonella typhi Ty2.

    PubMed

    Batool, Nisha; Waqar, Maleeha; Batool, Sidra

    2016-01-15

    Typhoid presents a major health concern in developing countries with an estimated annual infection rate of 21 million. The disease is caused by Salmonella typhi, a pathogenic bacterium acquiring multiple drug resistance. We aim to identify proteins that could prove to be putative drug targets in the genome of S. typhi str. Ty2. We employed comparative and subtractive genomics to identify targets that are absent in humans and are essential to S. typhi Ty2. We concluded that 46 proteins essential to pathogen are absent in the host genome. Filtration on the basis of drug target prioritization singled out 20 potentially therapeutic targets. Their absence in the host and specificity to S. typhi Ty2 makes them ideal targets for treating typhoid in Homo sapiens. 3D structures of two of the final target enzymes, MurA and MurB have been predicted via homology modeling which are then used for a docking study.

  5. Peptide-drug conjugate linked via a disulfide bond for kidney targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Geng, Qian; Sun, Xun; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhi-Rong

    2012-06-20

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem, and unfortunately, the therapeutic index of clinically available drugs is limited. Thus, there is a great need to exploit effective treatment strategies, and the carrier-drug approach is an attractive method to improve the kidney specificity of the therapeutic agents. The aim of this present study is to develop a peptide-drug conjugate for the kidney targeted delivery of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril (CAP), since G3-C12 peptide (ANTPCGPYTHDCPVKR) could specifically accumulate in the kidney after intravenous injection. Therefore, FITC labeled G3-C12 peptide (G3-C12-FITC) and peptide-drug conjugate (G3-C12-CAP) with a disulfide bond which can be cleaved by reduced glutathione in the kidney were prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis. The fluorescence imaging of G3-C12-FITC revealed that the labeled peptide specifically accumulated in the kidney soon after i.v. injection to mice, and the accumulation is due largely to the reabsorption of the peptide by the proximal renal tubule cells. Furthermore, in comparison with the corresponding nonconjugated form, a 2.7-fold increase in renal area under concentration-time curve produced by the conjugate was observed in mice. Interestingly, the CAP entirely released in the kidney even at 0.05 h postinjection through disulfide reduction. As a consequence, the in vivo renal ACE inhibition was significantly increased. In conclusion, these findings suggest the potential of G3-C12 peptide serving as a suitable candidate carrier for kidney-targeted drug delivery.

  6. Improved drug targeting of cancer cells by utilizing actively targetable folic acid-conjugated albumin nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zheyu; Li, Yan; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Oneill, Brian; Bi, Jingxiu

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid-conjugated albumin nanospheres (FA-AN) have been developed to provide an actively targetable drug delivery system for improved drug targeting of cancer cells with reduced side effects. The nanospheres were prepared by conjugating folic acid onto the surface of albumin nanospheres using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) as a catalyst. To test the efficacy of these nanospheres as a potential delivery platform, doxorubicin-loaded albumin nanospheres (DOX-AN) and doxorubicin-loaded FA-AN (FA-DOX-AN) were prepared by entrapping DOX (an anthracycline, antibiotic drug widely used in cancer chemotherapy that works by intercalating DNA) into AN and FA-AN nanoparticles. Cell uptake of the DOX was then measured. The results show that FA-AN was incorporated into HeLa cells (tumor cells) only after 2.0h incubation, whereas HeLa cells failed to incorporate albumin nanospheres without conjugated folic acid after 4.0h incubation. When HeLa cells were treated with the DOX-AN, FA-DOX-AN nanoparticles or free DOX, cell viability decreased with increasing culture time (i.e. cell death increases with time) over a 70h period. Cell viability was always the lowest for free DOX followed by FA-DOX-AN4 and then DOX-AN. In a second set of experiments, HeLa cells washed to remove excess DOX after an initial incubation for 2h were incubated for 70h. The corresponding cell viability was slightly higher when the cells were treated with FA-DOX-AN or free DOX whilst cells treated with DOX-AN nanoparticles remained viable. The above experiments were repeated for non-cancerous, aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMC). As expected, cell viability of the HeLa cells (with FA receptor alpha, FRα) and AoSMC cells (without FRα) decreased rapidly with time in the presence of free DOX, but treatment with FA-DOX-AN resulted in selective killing of the tumor cells. These results indicated that FA-AN may be used as a promising actively targetable drug delivery system to improve drug

  7. Dendrimeric micelles for controlled drug release and targeted delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ambade, Ashootosh V.; Savariar, Elamprakash N.; Thayumanavan, S.

    2008-01-01

    This review highlights the developments in dendrimer-based micelles for drug delivery. Dendrimers, the perfectly branched monodisperse macromolecules, have certain structural advantages that make them attractive candidates as drug carriers for controlled release or targeted delivery. As polymeric micelle-based approaches precede the work in dendrimers, these are also discussed briefly. The review concludes with a perspective on possible applications of biaryl-based dendrimeric micelles that exhibit environment-dependent conformations, in drug delivery. PMID:16053329

  8. Towards multifunctional, targeted drug delivery systems using mesoporous silica nanoparticles - opportunities & challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenholm, Jessica M.; Sahlgren, Cecilia; Lindén, Mika

    2010-10-01

    One of the big challenges of medicine today is to deliver drugs specifically to defected cells. Nanoparticulate drug carriers have the potential to answer to this call, as nanoparticles can cross physiological barriers and access different tissues, and also be provided in a targetable form aimed at enhancing cell specificity of the carrier. Recent developments within material science and strong collaborative efforts crossing disciplinary borders have highlighted the potential of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for such targeted drug delivery. Here we outline recent advances which in this sense push MSNs to the forefront of drug delivery development. Relatively straightforward inside-out tuning of the vehicles, high flexibility, and potential for sophisticated release mechanisms make these nanostructures promising candidates for targeted drug delivery such as `smart' cancer therapies. Moreover, due to the large surface area and the controllable surface functionality of MSNs, they can be controllably loaded with large amounts of drugs and coupled to homing molecules to facilitate active targeting, simultaneously carrying traceable (fluorescent or magnetically active) modalities, also making them highly interesting as theragnostic agents. However, the increased relative surface area and small size, and flexible surface functionalization which is beneficially exploited in nanomedicine, consequently also includes potential risks in their interactions with biological systems. Therefore, we also discuss some safety issues regarding MSNs and highlight how different features of the drug delivery platform influence their behaviour in a biological setting. Addressing these burning questions will facilitate the application of MSNs in nanomedicine.

  9. New drugs targeting Th2 lymphocytes in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Caramori, Gaetano; Groneberg, David; Ito, Kazuhiro; Casolari, Paolo; Adcock, Ian M; Papi, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Asthma represents a profound worldwide public health problem. The most effective anti-asthmatic drugs currently available include inhaled β2-agonists and glucocorticoids and control asthma in about 90-95% of patients. The current asthma therapies are not cures and symptoms return soon after treatment is stopped even after long term therapy. Although glucocorticoids are highly effective in controlling the inflammatory process in asthma, they appear to have little effect on the lower airway remodelling processes that appear to play a role in the pathophysiology of asthma at currently prescribed doses. The development of novel drugs may allow resolution of these changes. In addition, severe glucocorticoid-dependent and resistant asthma presents a great clinical burden and reducing the side-effects of glucocorticoids using novel steroid-sparing agents is needed. Furthermore, the mechanisms involved in the persistence of inflammation are poorly understood and the reasons why some patients have severe life threatening asthma and others have very mild disease are still unknown. Drug development for asthma has been directed at improving currently available drugs and findings new compounds that usually target the Th2-driven airway inflammatory response. Considering the apparently central role of T lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of asthma, drugs targeting disease-inducing Th2 cells are promising therapeutic strategies. However, although animal models of asthma suggest that this is feasible, the translation of these types of studies for the treatment of human asthma remains poor due to the limitations of the models currently used. The myriad of new compounds that are in development directed to modulate Th2 cells recruitment and/or activation will clarify in the near future the relative importance of these cells and their mediators in the complex interactions with the other pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cells and mediators responsible of the different asthmatic

  10. Scientometrics of drug discovery efforts: pain-related molecular targets.

    PubMed

    Kissin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make a scientometric assessment of drug discovery efforts centered on pain-related molecular targets. The following scientometric indices were used: the popularity index, representing the share of articles (or patents) on a specific topic among all articles (or patents) on pain over the same 5-year period; the index of change, representing the change in the number of articles (or patents) on a topic from one 5-year period to the next; the index of expectations, representing the ratio of the number of all types of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000) biomedical journals covered by PubMed over a 5-year period; the total number of articles representing Phase I-III trials of investigational drugs over a 5-year period; and the trial balance index, a ratio of Phase I-II publications to Phase III publications. Articles (PubMed database) and patents (US Patent and Trademark Office database) on 17 topics related to pain mechanisms were assessed during six 5-year periods from 1984 to 2013. During the most recent 5-year period (2009-2013), seven of 17 topics have demonstrated high research activity (purinergic receptors, serotonin, transient receptor potential channels, cytokines, gamma aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and protein kinases). However, even with these seven topics, the index of expectations decreased or did not change compared with the 2004-2008 period. In addition, publications representing Phase I-III trials of investigational drugs (2009-2013) did not indicate great enthusiasm on the part of the pharmaceutical industry regarding drugs specifically designed for treatment of pain. A promising development related to the new tool of molecular targeting, ie, monoclonal antibodies, for pain treatment has not yet resulted in real success. This approach has not yet demonstrated clinical effectiveness (at least with nerve growth factor) much beyond conventional analgesics, when its

  11. Scientometrics of drug discovery efforts: pain-related molecular targets

    PubMed Central

    Kissin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make a scientometric assessment of drug discovery efforts centered on pain-related molecular targets. The following scientometric indices were used: the popularity index, representing the share of articles (or patents) on a specific topic among all articles (or patents) on pain over the same 5-year period; the index of change, representing the change in the number of articles (or patents) on a topic from one 5-year period to the next; the index of expectations, representing the ratio of the number of all types of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000) biomedical journals covered by PubMed over a 5-year period; the total number of articles representing Phase I–III trials of investigational drugs over a 5-year period; and the trial balance index, a ratio of Phase I–II publications to Phase III publications. Articles (PubMed database) and patents (US Patent and Trademark Office database) on 17 topics related to pain mechanisms were assessed during six 5-year periods from 1984 to 2013. During the most recent 5-year period (2009–2013), seven of 17 topics have demonstrated high research activity (purinergic receptors, serotonin, transient receptor potential channels, cytokines, gamma aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and protein kinases). However, even with these seven topics, the index of expectations decreased or did not change compared with the 2004–2008 period. In addition, publications representing Phase I–III trials of investigational drugs (2009–2013) did not indicate great enthusiasm on the part of the pharmaceutical industry regarding drugs specifically designed for treatment of pain. A promising development related to the new tool of molecular targeting, ie, monoclonal antibodies, for pain treatment has not yet resulted in real success. This approach has not yet demonstrated clinical effectiveness (at least with nerve growth factor) much beyond conventional analgesics

  12. Epigenetic drug discovery: targeting DNA methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Foulks, Jason M; Parnell, K Mark; Nix, Rebecca N; Chau, Suzanna; Swierczek, Krzysztof; Saunders, Michael; Wright, Kevin; Hendrickson, Thomas F; Ho, Koc-Kan; McCullar, Michael V; Kanner, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic modification of DNA leads to changes in gene expression. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) comprise a family of nuclear enzymes that catalyze the methylation of CpG dinucleotides, resulting in an epigenetic methylome distinguished between normal cells and those in disease states such as cancer. Disrupting gene expression patterns through promoter methylation has been implicated in many malignancies and supports DNMTs as attractive therapeutic targets. This review focuses on the rationale of targeting DNMTs in cancer, the historical approach to DNMT inhibition, and current marketed hypomethylating therapeutics azacytidine and decitabine. In addition, we address novel DNMT inhibitory agents emerging in development, including CP-4200 and SGI-110, analogs of azacytidine and decitabine, respectively; the oligonucleotides MG98 and miR29a; and a number of reversible inhibitors, some of which appear to be selective against particular DNMT isoforms. Finally, we discuss future opportunities and challenges for next-generation therapeutics.

  13. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, Trudy M; Nikanjam, Mina

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  14. Predicting drug-target interaction for new drugs using enhanced similarity measures and super-target clustering.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian-Yu; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Li, Yiming; Leung, Henry C M; Chin, Francis Y L

    2015-07-15

    Predicting drug-target interaction using computational approaches is an important step in drug discovery and repositioning. To predict whether there will be an interaction between a drug and a target, most existing methods identify similar drugs and targets in the database. The prediction is then made based on the known interactions of these drugs and targets. This idea is promising. However, there are two shortcomings that have not yet been addressed appropriately. Firstly, most of the methods only use 2D chemical structures and protein sequences to measure the similarity of drugs and targets respectively. However, this information may not fully capture the characteristics determining whether a drug will interact with a target. Secondly, there are very few known interactions, i.e. many interactions are "missing" in the database. Existing approaches are biased towards known interactions and have no good solutions to handle possibly missing interactions which affect the accuracy of the prediction. In this paper, we enhance the similarity measures to include non-structural (and non-sequence-based) information and introduce the concept of a "super-target" to handle the problem of possibly missing interactions. Based on evaluations on real data, we show that our similarity measure is better than the existing measures and our approach is able to achieve higher accuracy than the two best existing algorithms, WNN-GIP and KBMF2K. Our approach is available at http://web.hku.hk/∼liym1018/projects/drug/drug.html or http://www.bmlnwpu.org/us/tools/PredictingDTI_S2/METHODS.html.

  15. Drug targeting systems for cancer therapy: nanotechnological approach.

    PubMed

    Tigli Aydin, R Seda

    2015-01-01

    Progress in cancer treatment remains challenging because of the great nature of tumor cells to be drug resistant. However, advances in the field of nanotechnology have enabled the delivery of drugs for cancer treatment by passively and actively targeting to tumor cells with nanoparticles. Dramatic improvements in nanotherapeutics, as applied to cancer, have rapidly accelerated clinical investigations. In this review, drug-targeting systems using nanotechnology and approved and clinically investigated nanoparticles for cancer therapy are discussed. In addition, the rationale for a nanotechnological approach to cancer therapy is emphasized because of its promising advances in the treatment of cancer patients.

  16. Dendrimers in drug delivery and targeting: Drug-dendrimer interactions and toxicity issues

    PubMed Central

    Madaan, Kanika; Kumar, Sandeep; Poonia, Neelam; Lather, Viney; Pandita, Deepti

    2014-01-01

    Dendrimers are the emerging polymeric architectures that are known for their defined structures, versatility in drug delivery and high functionality whose properties resemble with biomolecules. These nanostructured macromolecules have shown their potential abilities in entrapping and/or conjugating the high molecular weight hydrophilic/hydrophobic entities by host-guest interactions and covalent bonding (prodrug approach) respectively. Moreover, high ratio of surface groups to molecular volume has made them a promising synthetic vector for gene delivery. Owing to these properties dendrimers have fascinated the researchers in the development of new drug carriers and they have been implicated in many therapeutic and biomedical applications. Despite of their extensive applications, their use in biological systems is limited due to toxicity issues associated with them. Considering this, the present review has focused on the different strategies of their synthesis, drug delivery and targeting, gene delivery and other biomedical applications, interactions involved in formation of drug-dendrimer complex along with characterization techniques employed for their evaluation, toxicity problems and associated approaches to alleviate their inherent toxicity. PMID:25035633

  17. A Review of Computational Methods for Predicting Drug Targets.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guohua; Yan, Fengxia; Tan, Duoduo

    2016-11-14

    Drug discovery and development is not only a time-consuming and labor-intensive process but also full of risk. Identifying targets of small molecules helps evaluate safety of drugs and find new therapeutic applications. The biotechnology measures a wide variety of properties related to drug and targets from different perspectives, thus generating a large body of data. This undoubtedly provides a solid foundation to explore relationships between drugs and targets. A large number of computational techniques have recently been developed for drug target prediction. In this paper, we summarize these computational methods and classify them into structure-based, molecular activity-based, side-effect-based and multi-omics-based predictions according to the used data for inference. The multi-omics-based methods are further grouped into two types: classifier-based and network-based predictions. Furthermore,the advantages and limitations of each type of methods are discussed. Finally, we point out the future directions of computational predictions for drug targets.

  18. Targeted drug delivery using genetically engineered diatom biosilica.

    PubMed

    Delalat, Bahman; Sheppard, Vonda C; Rasi Ghaemi, Soraya; Rao, Shasha; Prestidge, Clive A; McPhee, Gordon; Rogers, Mary-Louise; Donoghue, Jacqueline F; Pillay, Vinochani; Johns, Terrance G; Kröger, Nils; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-11-10

    The ability to selectively kill cancerous cell populations while leaving healthy cells unaffected is a key goal in anticancer therapeutics. The use of nanoporous silica-based materials as drug-delivery vehicles has recently proven successful, yet production of these materials requires costly and toxic chemicals. Here we use diatom microalgae-derived nanoporous biosilica to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to cancer cells. The diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana is genetically engineered to display an IgG-binding domain of protein G on the biosilica surface, enabling attachment of cell-targeting antibodies. Neuroblastoma and B-lymphoma cells are selectively targeted and killed by biosilica displaying specific antibodies sorbed with drug-loaded nanoparticles. Treatment with the same biosilica leads to tumour growth regression in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model of neuroblastoma. These data indicate that genetically engineered biosilica frustules may be used as versatile 'backpacks' for the targeted delivery of poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs to tumour sites.

  19. Marked enhancement of lysosomal targeting and efficacy of ErbB2-targeted drug delivery by HSP90 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Bhopal; Luan, Haitao; Soni, Kruti; Zhang, Jinjin; Storck, Matthew A.; Feng, Dan; Bielecki, Timothy A.; Band, Vimla; Cohen, Samuel M.; Bronich, Tatiana K.; Band, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to tumor cells using monoclonal antibodies against oncogenic cell surface receptors is an emerging therapeutic strategy. These strategies include drugs directly conjugated to monoclonal antibodies through chemical linkers (Antibody-Drug Conjugates, ADCs) or those encapsulated within nanoparticles that in turn are conjugated to targeting antibodies (Antibody-Nanoparticle Conjugates, ANPs). The recent FDA approval of the ADC Trastuzumab-TDM1 (Kadcyla®; Genentech; San Francisco) for the treatment of ErbB2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer patients has validated the strong potential of these strategies. Even though the activity of ANPs and ADCs is dependent on lysosomal traffic, the roles of the endocytic route traversed by the targeted receptor and of cancer cell-specific alterations in receptor dynamics on the efficiency of drug delivery have not been considered in these new targeted therapies. For example, constitutive association with the molecular chaperone HSP90 is thought to either retard ErbB2 endocytosis or to promote its recycling, traits undesirable for targeted therapy with ANPs and ADCs. HSP90 inhibitors are known to promote ErbB2 ubiquitination, targeting to lysosome and degradation. We therefore hypothesized that ErbB2-targeted drug delivery using Trastuzumab-conjugated nanoparticles could be significantly improved by HSP90 inhibitor-promoted lysosomal traffic of ErbB2. Studies reported here validate this hypothesis and demonstrate, both in vitro and in vivo, that HSP90 inhibition facilitates the intracellular delivery of Trastuzumab-conjugated ANPs carrying a model chemotherapeutic agent, Doxorubicin, specifically into ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, resulting in improved antitumor activity. These novel findings highlight the need to consider oncogene-specific alterations in receptor traffic in the design of targeted drug delivery strategies. We suggest that combination of agents that enhance

  20. Marked enhancement of lysosomal targeting and efficacy of ErbB2-targeted drug delivery by HSP90 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Raja, Srikumar M; Desale, Swapnil S; Mohapatra, Bhopal; Luan, Haitao; Soni, Kruti; Zhang, Jinjin; Storck, Matthew A; Feng, Dan; Bielecki, Timothy A; Band, Vimla; Cohen, Samuel M; Bronich, Tatiana K; Band, Hamid

    2016-03-01

    Targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to tumor cells using monoclonal antibodies against oncogenic cell surface receptors is an emerging therapeutic strategy. These strategies include drugs directly conjugated to monoclonal antibodies through chemical linkers (Antibody-Drug Conjugates, ADCs) or those encapsulated within nanoparticles that in turn are conjugated to targeting antibodies (Antibody-Nanoparticle Conjugates, ANPs). The recent FDA approval of the ADC Trastuzumab-TDM1 (Kadcyla; Genentech; San Francisco) for the treatment of ErbB2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer patients has validated the strong potential of these strategies. Even though the activity of ANPs and ADCs is dependent on lysosomal traffic, the roles of the endocytic route traversed by the targeted receptor and of cancer cell-specific alterations in receptor dynamics on the efficiency of drug delivery have not been considered in these new targeted therapies. For example, constitutive association with the molecular chaperone HSP90 is thought to either retard ErbB2 endocytosis or to promote its recycling, traits undesirable for targeted therapy with ANPs and ADCs. HSP90 inhibitors are known to promote ErbB2 ubiquitination, targeting to lysosome and degradation. We therefore hypothesized that ErbB2-targeted drug delivery using Trastuzumab-conjugated nanoparticles could be significantly improved by HSP90 inhibitor-promoted lysosomal traffic of ErbB2. Studies reported here validate this hypothesis and demonstrate, both in vitro and in vivo, that HSP90 inhibition facilitates the intracellular delivery of Trastuzumab-conjugated ANPs carrying a model chemotherapeutic agent, Doxorubicin, specifically into ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, resulting in improved antitumor activity. These novel findings highlight the need to consider oncogene-specific alterations in receptor traffic in the design of targeted drug delivery strategies. We suggest that combination of agents that enhance receptor

  1. Molecular approaches to target discovery:--evaluating targets for anti-tuberculosis drug discovery programmes.

    PubMed

    Balganesh, T S; Furr, B J A

    2007-06-01

    Selection of appropriate targets for launching antituberculosis drug discovery programmes is challenging. This challenge is magnified by the limited repertoire of 'validated targets' and the paucity of clinically successful drugs. However, continued understanding of the biology of the microbe and its interaction with the host has enabled detailed evaluation of several interesting pathways and novel targets. The value of a target that is suitable for antituberculosis drug discovery needs to be defined not only in the context of its 'essentiality' for survival in vitro but also against a variety of properties relevant to activities in the drug discovery process, e.g.; selectivity, vulnerability, suitability for structural studies, ability to monitor inhibition in whole cells etc. It is also rarely feasible to obtain all the relevant information on the target prior to the launch of a discovery programme. Thus, there is a continuous confidence-building exercise on the validity of a target. Several novel approaches have enabled exploitation of the mycobacterial genome and prioritisation of putative targets; the concept of 'sterilisation' is now being evaluated not only through the availability of structurally diverse probe compounds but also by the ability to characterise metabolic pathways in vivo. The impact of the current knowledge base on the different facets of 'target validation' relevant to antituberculosis drug discovery is discussed in this article with emphasis on developing appropriate matrix systems to prioritise them. The article also discusses the influence of lead generation approaches with specific reference to antibacterial drug discovery.

  2. Targeting efflux pumps to overcome antifungal drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ann R; Cardno, Tony S; Strouse, J Jacob; Ivnitski-Steele, Irena; Keniya, Mikhail V; Lackovic, Kurt; Monk, Brian C; Sklar, Larry A; Cannon, Richard D

    2016-08-01

    Resistance to antifungal drugs is an increasingly significant clinical problem. The most common antifungal resistance encountered is efflux pump-mediated resistance of Candida species to azole drugs. One approach to overcome this resistance is to inhibit the pumps and chemosensitize resistant strains to azole drugs. Drug discovery targeting fungal efflux pumps could thus result in the development of azole-enhancing combination therapy. Heterologous expression of fungal efflux pumps in Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a versatile system for screening for pump inhibitors. Fungal efflux pumps transport a range of xenobiotics including fluorescent compounds. This enables the use of fluorescence-based detection, as well as growth inhibition assays, in screens to discover compounds targeting efflux-mediated antifungal drug resistance. A variety of medium- and high-throughput screens have been used to identify a number of chemical entities that inhibit fungal efflux pumps.

  3. TASK-3 as a Potential Antidepressant Target

    PubMed Central

    Gotter, Anthony L.; Santarelli, Vincent P.; Doran, Scott M.; Tannenbaum, Pamela L.; Kraus, Richard L.; Rosahl, Thomas W.; Meziane, Hamid; Montial, Marina; Reiss, Duane R.; Wessner, Keith; McCampbell, Alexander; Stevens, Joanne; Brunner, Joseph; Fox, Steven V.; Uebele, Victor N.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Winrow, Christopher J.; Renger, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Modulation of TASK-3 (Kcnk9) potassium channels affect neurotransmitter release in thalamocortical centers and other sleep-related nuclei having the capacity to regulate arousal cycles and REM sleep changes associated with mood disorders and antidepressant action. Circumstantial evidence from this and previous studies suggest the potential for TASK-3 to be a novel antidepressant therapeutic target; TASK-3 knock-out mice display augmented circadian amplitude and exhibit sleep architecture characterized by suppressed REM activity. Detailed analysis of locomotor activity indicate that the amplitude of activity bout duration and bout number are augmented in TASK-3 mutants well beyond that seen wildtypes, findings substantiated by amplitude increases in body temperature and EEG recordings of sleep stage bouts. Polysomnographic analysis of TASK-3 mutants reveal increases in nocturnal active wake and suppressed REM sleep time while increased slow wave sleep typifies the inactive phase, findings that have implications for the cognitive impact of reduced TASK-3 activity. In direct measures of their resistance to despair behavior, TASK-3 knock-outs displayed significant decreases in immobility relative to wildtype controls in both tail suspension and forced swim tests. Treatment of wildtype animals with the antidepressant Fluoxetine markedly reduced REM sleep, while leaving active wake and slow wave sleep relatively intact. Remarkably, these effects were absent in TASK-3 mutants indicating that TASK-3 is either directly involved in the mechanism of this drug’s action, or participates in parallel pathways that achieve the same effect. Together, these results support the TASK-3 channel to act as a therapeutic target for antidepressant action. PMID:21885038

  4. Drug targeting by macromolecules without recognition unit?

    PubMed

    Hudecz, Ferenc; Reményi, Judit; Szabó, Rita; Kóczán, György; Mezo, Gábor; Kovács, Péter; Gaál, Dezso

    2003-01-01

    his review will summarize available information on the ability of macromolecular conjugates containing no specific recognition motifs to deliver anthracyclines (daunomycin, adriamycin) or methotrexate to target cells such as tumour cells or macrophages. Conjugates with natural (proteins, DNA, carbohydrates) and synthetic macromolecules (linear and branched chain poly-alpha-amino acids, non-biodegradable DIVEMA, HPMA etc.) will be reviewed. Experimental data from several laboratories indicate that these conjugates are taken up by cells mainly by fluid-phase or adsorptive endocytosis. It is believed that these processes do not involve 'specific receptors'. Two examples of methotrexate and daunomycin conjugates will be discussed to show the effect of the chemical structure of branched chain polypeptides on the uptake and antitumour or antiparasitic (Leishmania donovani infection) efficacy of conjugates.

  5. Drug elucidation: invertebrate genetics sheds new light on the molecular targets of CNS drugs

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Donard S.; Aamodt, Eric; Cohen, Bruce; Buttner, Edgar A.

    2014-01-01

    Many important drugs approved to treat common human diseases were discovered by serendipity, without a firm understanding of their modes of action. As a result, the side effects and interactions of these medications are often unpredictable, and there is limited guidance for improving the design of next-generation drugs. Here, we review the innovative use of simple model organisms, especially Caenorhabditis elegans, to gain fresh insights into the complex biological effects of approved CNS medications. Whereas drug discovery involves the identification of new drug targets and lead compounds/biologics, and drug development spans preclinical testing to FDA approval, drug elucidation refers to the process of understanding the mechanisms of action of marketed drugs by studying their novel effects in model organisms. Drug elucidation studies have revealed new pathways affected by antipsychotic drugs, e.g., the insulin signaling pathway, a trace amine receptor and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Similarly, novel targets of antidepressant drugs and lithium have been identified in C. elegans, including lipid-binding/transport proteins and the SGK-1 signaling pathway, respectively. Elucidation of the mode of action of anesthetic agents has shown that anesthesia can involve mitochondrial targets, leak currents, and gap junctions. The general approach reviewed in this article has advanced our knowledge about important drugs for CNS disorders and can guide future drug discovery efforts. PMID:25120487

  6. Potential for Developing Purinergic Drugs for Gastrointestinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Cortes, Fernando; Liñán-Rico, Andromeda; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Christofi, Fievos L.

    2014-01-01

    Treatments for IBD, IBS, FD or motility disorders are not adequate, and purinergic drugs offer exciting new possibilities. GI symptoms that could be targeted for therapy include visceral pain, inflammatory pain, dysmotility, constipation and diarrhea. The focus of this review is on potential for developing purinergic drugs for clinical trials to treat GI symptoms. Purinergic receptors are divided into adenosine P1 (A1,A2A,A2B,A3), ionotropic ATP-gated P2X ion channel (P2X1–7) or metabotropic P2Y1,2,4,6,11–14 receptors. There is good experimental evidence for targeting A2A, A2B, A3, P2X7, P2X3 receptors or increasing endogenous adenosine levels to treat IBD, inflammatory pain, IBS/visceral pain, inflammatory-diarrhea and motility disorders. Purine genes are also potential biomarkers of disease. Advances in medicinal-chemistry have an accelerated pace toward clinical trials: Methotrexate and sulfasalazine, used to treat IBD, act by stimulating CD73-dependent adenosine production. ATP protects against NSAID-induced enteropathy and has pain-relieving properties in humans. A P2X7R antagonist AZD9056 is in clinical trials for CD. A3 AR drugs target inflammatory diseases (e.g. CF101; CF102). Dipyridamole, a nucleoside uptake-inhibitor, is in trials for endotoxemia. Drugs for pain in clinical-trials include P2X3/P2X2/3(AF-219) and P2X7(GSK1482160) antagonists and A1(GW493838) or A2A(BVT.115959) agonists. IberogastR is a phytopharmacon targeting purine-mechanisms with efficacy in IBS and FD. Purinergic drugs have excellent safety/efficacy profile for prospective clinical trials in IBD, IBS, FD and inflammatory-diarrhea. Genetic polymorphisms and caffeine consumption may affect susceptibility to treatment. Further studies in animals can clarify mechanisms and test new-generation drugs. Finally, there is still a huge gap in our knowledge of human pathophysiology of purinergic signaling. PMID:24859298

  7. Structure-guided, target-based drug discovery - exploiting genome information from HIV to mycobacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sony; Thomas, Sherine E; Ochoa Montano, Bernardo; Blundell, Tom L

    2016-01-01

    The use of protein crystallography in structure-guided drug discovery allows identification of potential inhibitor-binding sites and optimisation of interactions of hits and lead compounds with a target protein. An early example of this approach was the use of the structure of HIV protease in designing AIDS antivirals. More recently, use of structure-guided design with fragment-based drug discovery, which reduces the size of screening libraries by decreasing complexity, has improved ligand efficiency in drug design. Here, we discuss the use of structure-guided target identification and lead optimisation using fragment-based approaches in the development of new antimicrobials for mycobacterial infections.

  8. Trypanothione Reductase: A Target for the Development of Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi drugs.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Karina; Paulino, Margot; Salas, Cristian O; Zarate-Ramos, Juan J; Vera, Brenda; Rivera, Gildardo

    2017-03-15

    Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is a major parasitic disease in Latin America with treatment available via two drugs: nifurtimox and benznidazole. These two treatments are ineffective in the chronic phase of the disease. Therefore, there is a need for the development of new, efficient and safe drugs for the treatment of these diseases. With this goal, one of the promising targets proposed is the trypanothione reductase (TR), a key enzyme important in the metabolism of Trypanosoma cruzi. In this review, we analyze the importance of TR as a drug target, as well as their compounds inhibitors reported in the last decade as potential therapeutic agents for Chagas disease.

  9. Endocrine function as a target of perinatal drug effects: methodologic issues.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, C; Ignar, D; Windh, R

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to indicate potential endocrine targets of perinatal drug exposure, to describe the methodologic issues involved in detecting changes in hormone secretion, and to provide examples of several endocrine systems in which exposure to drugs during development significantly impaired normal endocrine development. Finally, we attempted to show that endocrine function is both a target and useful marker for detecting effects of drug of abuse on development that provides the advantages of accurate quantitation and relative response stability across ontogeny.

  10. Nicotine and Nicotinic Receptor Drugs: Potential for Parkinson's Disease and Drug-Induced Movement Disorders.

    PubMed

    Quik, Maryka; Bordia, Tanuja; Zhang, Danhui; Perez, Xiomara A

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, as well as nonmotor symptoms including autonomic impairments, olfactory dysfunction, sleep disturbances, depression, and dementia. Although the major neurological deficit is a loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, multiple neurotransmitters systems are compromised in Parkinson's disease. Consistent with this observation, dopamine replacement therapy dramatically improves Parkinson's disease motor symptoms. Additionally, drugs targeting the serotonergic, glutamatergic, adenosine, and other neurotransmitter systems may be beneficial. Recent evidence also indicates that nicotinic cholinergic drugs may be useful for the management of Parkinson's disease. This possibility initially arose from the results of epidemiological studies, which showed that smoking was associated with a decreased incidence of Parkinson's disease, an effect mediated in part by the nicotine in smoke. Further evidence for this idea stemmed from preclinical studies which showed that nicotine administration reduced nigrostriatal damage in parkinsonian rodents and monkeys. In addition to a potential neuroprotective role, emerging work indicates that nicotinic receptor drugs improve the abnormal involuntary movements or dyskinesias that arise as a side effect of l-dopa treatment, the gold standard therapy for Parkinson's disease. Both nicotine and nicotinic receptor drugs reduced l-dopa-induced dyskinesias by over 50% in parkinsonian rodent and monkey models. Notably, nicotine also attenuated the abnormal involuntary movements or tardive dyskinesias that arise with antipsychotic treatment. These observations, coupled with reports that nicotinic receptor drugs have procognitive and antidepressant effects, suggest that central nervous system (CNS) nicotinic receptors may represent useful targets for the treatment of movement disorders.

  11. The Sodium Channel as a Target for Local Anesthetic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Fozzard, Harry A.; Sheets, Michael F.; Hanck, Dorothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Na channels are the source of excitatory currents for the nervous system and muscle. They are the target for a class of drugs called local anesthetics (LA), which have been used for local and regional anesthesia and for excitatory problems such as epilepsy and cardiac arrhythmia. These drugs are prototypes for new analgesic drugs. The drug-binding site has been localized to the inner pore of the channel, where drugs interact mainly with a phenylalanine in domain IV S6. Drug affinity is both voltage- and use-dependent. Voltage-dependency is the result of changes in the conformation of the inner pore during channel activation and opening, allowing high energy interaction of drugs with the phenylalanine. LA drugs also reduce the gating current of Na channels, which represents the movement of charged residues in the voltage sensors. Specifically, drug binding to phenylalanine locks the domain III S4 in its outward (activated) position, and slows recovery of the domain IV S4. Although strongly affecting gating, LA drugs almost certainly also block by steric occlusion of the pore. Molecular definition of the binding and blocking interactions may help in new drug development. PMID:22053156

  12. PCSK9: Regulation and Target for Drug Development for Dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Burke, Amy C; Dron, Jacqueline S; Hegele, Robert A; Huff, Murray W

    2017-01-06

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9) is a secreted zymogen expressed primarily in the liver. PCSK9 circulates in plasma, binds to cell surface low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, is internalized, and then targets the receptors to lysosomal degradation. Studies of naturally occurring PCSK9 gene variants that caused extreme plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) deviations and altered atherosclerosis risk unleashed a torrent of biological and pharmacological research. Rapid progress in understanding the physiological regulation of PCSK9 was soon translated into commercially available biological inhibitors of PCSK9 that reduced LDL-C levels and likely also cardiovascular outcomes. Here we review the swift evolution of PCSK9 from novel gene to drug target, to animal and human testing, and finally to outcome trials and clinical applications. In addition, we explore how the genetics-guided path to PCSK9 inhibitor development exemplifies a new paradigm in pharmacology. Finally, we consider some potential challenges as PCSK9 inhibition becomes established in the clinic.

  13. One for All? Hitting Multiple Alzheimer's Disease Targets with One Drug

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Rebecca E.; Nikolic, Katarina; Ramsay, Rona R.

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Many AD target combinations are being explored for multi-target drug design.New databases and models increase the potential of computational drug designLiraglutide and other antidiabetics are strong candidates for repurposing to AD.Donecopride a dual 5-HT/AChE inhibitor shows promise in pre-clinical studies Alzheimer's Disease is a complex and multifactorial disease for which the mechanism is still not fully understood. As new insights into disease progression are discovered, new drugs must be designed to target those aspects of the disease that cause neuronal damage rather than just the symptoms currently addressed by single target drugs. It is becoming possible to target several aspects of the disease pathology at once using multi-target drugs (MTDs). Intended as an introduction for non-experts, this review describes the key MTD design approaches, namely structure-based, in silico, and data-mining, to evaluate what is preventing compounds progressing through the clinic to the market. Repurposing current drugs using their off-target effects reduces the cost of development, time to launch, and the uncertainty associated with safety and pharmacokinetics. The most promising drugs currently being investigated for repurposing to Alzheimer's Disease are rasagiline, originally developed for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease, and liraglutide, an antidiabetic. Rational drug design can combine pharmacophores of multiple drugs, systematically change functional groups, and rank them by virtual screening. Hits confirmed experimentally are rationally modified to generate an effective multi-potent lead compound. Examples from this approach are ASS234 with properties similar to rasagiline, and donecopride, a hybrid of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and a 5-HT4 receptor agonist with pro-cognitive effects. Exploiting these interdisciplinary approaches, public-private collaborative lead factories promise faster delivery of new drugs to the clinic. PMID:27199640

  14. One for All? Hitting Multiple Alzheimer's Disease Targets with One Drug.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Rebecca E; Nikolic, Katarina; Ramsay, Rona R

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Many AD target combinations are being explored for multi-target drug design.New databases and models increase the potential of computational drug designLiraglutide and other antidiabetics are strong candidates for repurposing to AD.Donecopride a dual 5-HT/AChE inhibitor shows promise in pre-clinical studies Alzheimer's Disease is a complex and multifactorial disease for which the mechanism is still not fully understood. As new insights into disease progression are discovered, new drugs must be designed to target those aspects of the disease that cause neuronal damage rather than just the symptoms currently addressed by single target drugs. It is becoming possible to target several aspects of the disease pathology at once using multi-target drugs (MTDs). Intended as an introduction for non-experts, this review describes the key MTD design approaches, namely structure-based, in silico, and data-mining, to evaluate what is preventing compounds progressing through the clinic to the market. Repurposing current drugs using their off-target effects reduces the cost of development, time to launch, and the uncertainty associated with safety and pharmacokinetics. The most promising drugs currently being investigated for repurposing to Alzheimer's Disease are rasagiline, originally developed for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease, and liraglutide, an antidiabetic. Rational drug design can combine pharmacophores of multiple drugs, systematically change functional groups, and rank them by virtual screening. Hits confirmed experimentally are rationally modified to generate an effective multi-potent lead compound. Examples from this approach are ASS234 with properties similar to rasagiline, and donecopride, a hybrid of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and a 5-HT4 receptor agonist with pro-cognitive effects. Exploiting these interdisciplinary approaches, public-private collaborative lead factories promise faster delivery of new drugs to the clinic.

  15. Macrophages associated with tumors as potential targets and therapeutic intermediates.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Serguei; Warren, Galya; Wei, Xin

    2014-04-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) form approximately 50% of tumor mass. TAMs were shown to promote tumor growth by suppressing immunocompetent cells, inducing neovascularization and supporting cancer stem cells. TAMs retain mobility in tumor mass, which can potentially be employed for better intratumoral biodistribution of nanocarriers and effective tumor growth inhibition. Due to the importance of TAMs, they are increasingly becoming principal targets of novel therapeutic approaches. In this review, we compare features of macrophages and TAMs that are essential for TAM-directed therapies, and illustrate the advantages of nanomedicine that are related to the preferential capture of nanocarriers by Mϕ in the process of drug delivery. We discuss recent efforts in reprogramming or inhibiting tumor-protecting properties of TAMs, and potential strategies to increase efficacy of conventional chemotherapy by combining with macrophage-associated delivery of nanodrugs.

  16. Macrophages associated with tumors as potential targets and therapeutic intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei; Warren, Galya; Wei, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) form approximately 50% of tumor mass. TAMs were shown to promote tumor growth by suppressing immunocompetent cells, inducing neovascularization and supporting cancer stem cells. TAMs retain mobility in tumor mass, which can potentially be employed for better intratumoral biodistribution of nanocarriers and effective tumor growth inhibition. Due to the importance of TAMs, they are increasingly becoming principal targets of novel therapeutic approaches. In this review, we compare features of macrophages and TAMs that are essential for TAM-directed therapies, and illustrate the advantages of nanomedicine that are related to the preferential capture of nanocarriers by Mφ in the process of drug delivery. We discuss recent efforts in reprogramming or inhibiting tumor-protecting properties of TAMs, and potential strategies to increase efficacy of conventional chemotherapy by combining with macrophage-associated delivery of nanodrugs. PMID:24827844

  17. Ion channels in postnatal neurogenesis: potential targets for brain repair.

    PubMed

    Swayne, Leigh Anne; Wicki-Stordeur, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSC/NPCs) are unspecialized cells found in the adult peri-ventricular and sub-granular zones that are capable of self-renewal, migration, and differentiation into new neurons through the remarkable process of postnatal neurogenesis. We are now beginning to understand that the concerted action of ion channels, multi-pass transmembrane proteins that allow passage of ions across otherwise impermeable cellular membranes tightly regulate this process. Specific ion channels control proliferation, differentiation and survival. Furthermore, they have the potential to be highly selective drug targets due to their complex structures. As such, these proteins represent intriguing prospects for control and optimization of postnatal neurogenesis for neural regeneration following brain injury or disease. Here, we concentrate on ion channels identified in adult ventricular zone NSC/NPCs that have been found to influence the stages of neurogenesis. Finally, we outline the potential of these channels to elicit repair, and highlight the outstanding challenges.

  18. Liposomes and nanotechnology in drug development: focus on neurological targets

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro; Campos, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Neurological diseases represent a medical, social, and economic problem of paramount importance in developed countries. Although their etiology is generally known, developing therapeutic interventions for the central nervous system is challenging due to the impermeability of the blood–brain barrier. Thus, the fight against neurological diseases usually struggles “at the gates” of the brain. Flooding the bloodstream with drugs, where only a minor fraction reaches its target therapeutic site, is an inefficient, expensive, and dangerous procedure, because of the risk of side effects at nontargeted sites. Currently, advances in the field of nanotechnology have enabled development of a generation of multifunctional molecular platforms that are capable of transporting drugs across the blood–brain barrier, targeting specific cell types or functional states within the brain, releasing drugs in a controlled manner, and enabling visualization of processes in vivo using conventional imaging systems. The marriage between drug delivery and molecular imaging disciplines has resulted in a relatively new discipline, known as theranostics, which represents the basis of the concept of personalized medicine. In this study, we review the concepts of the blood–brain barrier and the strategies used to traverse/bypass it, the role of nanotechnology in theranostics, the wide range of nanoparticles (with emphasis on liposomes) that can be used as stealth drug carriers, imaging probes and targeting devices for the treatment of neurological diseases, and the targets and targeting strategies envisaged in the treatment of different types of brain pathology. PMID:23486739

  19. Prostate Cancer Relevant Antigens and Enzymes for Targeted Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Barve, Ashutosh; Jin, Wei; Cheng, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used approaches in combating advanced prostate cancer, but its therapeutic efficacy is usually insufficient due to lack of specificity and associated toxicity. Lack of targeted delivery to prostate cancer cells is also the primary obstacles in achieving feasible therapeutic effect of other promising agents including peptide, protein, and nucleic acid. Consequently, there remains a critical need for strategies to increase the selectivity of anti-prostate cancer agents. This review will focus on various prostate cancer-specific antigens and enzymes that could be exploited for prostate cancer targeted drug delivery. Among various targeting strategies, active targeting is the most advanced approach to specifically deliver drugs to their designated cancer cells. In this approach, drug carriers are modified with targeting ligands that can specifically bind to prostate cancer-specific antigens. Moreover, there are several specific enzymes in the tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer that can be exploited for stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems. These systems can specifically release the active drug in the tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer, leading to enhanced tumor penetration efficiency. PMID:24878184

  20. Exploiting EPR in polymer drug conjugate delivery for tumor targeting.

    PubMed

    Modi, Sweta; Prakash Jain, Jay; Domb, A J; Kumar, Neeraj

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of tumor tissue without affecting normal cells has always been formidable task for drug delivery scientists and this task is effectively executed by polymer drug conjugate (PDC) delivery. The novelty of this concept lies in the utilization of a physical mechanism called enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) for targeting tumors. EPR is a physiological phenomenon that is customary for fast growing tumor and solves the problem of targeting the miscreant tissue. PDCs offer added advantages of reduced deleterious effects of anticancer drugs and augmentation of its formulation capability (e.g. Solubility). There are now at least eleven PDCs that have entered phase I/II/III clinical trial as anticancer drugs. PDCs once entered into the tumor tissue, taking advantage of EPR, are endocytosed into the cell either by simple or receptor mediated endocytosis. Various polymeric carriers have been used with hydrolyzable linker arm for conjugation with bioactive moiety. The hydrolyzable linkages of PDC are broken down by acid hydrolyses of lysosomes and releases the drug. High concentrations of the chemotherapeutic agent are maintained near the nucleus, the target site. Passive targeting by PDCs is due to the physiological event of EPR, which is becoming one of the major thrust areas for targeting solid tumors.

  1. Drug-target interaction prediction from PSSM based evolutionary information.

    PubMed

    Mousavian, Zaynab; Khakabimamaghani, Sahand; Kavousi, Kaveh; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The labor-intensive and expensive experimental process of drug-target interaction prediction has motivated many researchers to focus on in silico prediction, which leads to the helpful information in supporting the experimental interaction data. Therefore, they have proposed several computational approaches for discovering new drug-target interactions. Several learning-based methods have been increasingly developed which can be categorized into two main groups: similarity-based and feature-based. In this paper, we firstly use the bi-gram features extracted from the Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) of proteins in predicting drug-target interactions. Our results demonstrate the high-confidence prediction ability of the Bigram-PSSM model in terms of several performance indicators specifically for enzymes and ion channels. Moreover, we investigate the impact of negative selection strategy on the performance of the prediction, which is not widely taken into account in the other relevant studies. This is important, as the number of non-interacting drug-target pairs are usually extremely large in comparison with the number of interacting ones in existing drug-target interaction data. An interesting observation is that different levels of performance reduction have been attained for four datasets when we change the sampling method from the random sampling to the balanced sampling.

  2. In vivo characteristics of targeted drug-carrying filamentous bacteriophage nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines are a new class of nanomedicines that combines biological and chemical components into a modular nanometric drug delivery system. The core of the system is a filamentous phage particle that is produced in the bacterial host Escherichia coli. Target specificity is provided by a targeting moiety, usually an antibody that is displayed on the tip of the phage particle. A large drug payload is chemically conjugated to the protein coat of the phage via a chemically or genetically engineered linker that provides for controlled release of the drug after the particle homed to the target cell. Recently we have shown that targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines can be used to eradicate pathogenic bacteria and cultured tumor cells with great potentiation over the activity of the free untargeted drug. We have also shown that poorly water soluble drugs can be efficiently conjugated to the phage coat by applying hydrophilic aminoglycosides as branched solubility-enhancing linkers. Results With an intention to move to animal experimentation of efficacy, we tested anti-bacterial drug-carrying phage nanomedicines for toxicity and immunogenicity and blood pharmacokinetics upon injection into mice. Here we show that anti-bacterial drug-carrying phage nanomedicines that carry the antibiotic chloramphenicol conjugated via an aminoglycoside linker are non-toxic to mice and are greatly reduced in immunogenicity in comparison to native phage particles or particles to which the drug is conjugated directly and are cleared from the blood more slowly in comparison to native phage particles. Conclusion Our results suggest that aminoglycosides may serve as branched solubility enhancing linkers for drug conjugation that also provide for a better safety profile of the targeted nanomedicine. PMID:22185583

  3. Nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajesh; Lillard, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology could be defined as the technology that has allowed for the control, manipulation, study, and manufacture of structures and devices in the “nanometer” size range. These nano-sized objects, e.g., “nanoparticles”, take on novel properties and functions that differ markedly from those seen from items made of identical materials. The small size, customized surface, improved solubility, and multi-functionality of nanoparticles will continue to open many doors and create new biomedical applications. Indeed, the novel properties of nanoparticles offer the ability to interact with complex cellular functions in new ways. This rapidly growing field requires cross-disciplinary research and provides opportunities to design and develop multifunctional devices that can target, diagnose, and treat devastating diseases such as cancer. This article presents an overview of nanotechnology for the biologist and discusses the attributes of our novel XPclad© nanoparticle formulation that has shown efficacy in treating solid tumors, for single dose vaccination, and oral delivery of therapeutic proteins. PMID:19186176

  4. Targeted Drug Delivery in Covalent Organic Nanosheets (CONs) via Sequential Postsynthetic Modification.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Shouvik; Sasmal, Himadri Sekhar; Kundu, Tanay; Kandambeth, Sharath; Illath, Kavya; Díaz Díaz, David; Banerjee, Rahul

    2017-03-29

    Covalent organic nanosheets (CONs) have emerged as a new class of functional two-dimensional (2D) porous organic polymeric materials with a high accessible surface, diverse functionality, and chemical stability. They could become versatile candidates for targeted drug delivery. Despite their many advantages, there are limitations to their use for target specific drug delivery. We anticipated that these drawbacks could be overturned by judicious postsynthetic modification steps to use CONs for targeted drug delivery. The postsynthetic modification would not only produce the desired functionality, it would also help to exfoliate to CONs as well. In order to meet this requirement, we have developed a facile, salt-mediated synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA). The COFs were subjected to sequential postsynthetic modifications to yield functionalized targeted CONs for targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to breast cancer cells. This postsynthetic modification resulted in simultaneous chemical delamination and functionalization to targeted CONs. Targeted CONs showed sustained release of the drug to the cancer cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, which led to cancer cell death via apoptosis. Considering the easy and facile COF synthesis, functionality based postsynthetic modifications, and chemical delamination to CONs for potential advantageous targeted drug delivery, this process can have a significant impact in biomedical applications.

  5. Targeting PARP-1 allosteric regulation offers therapeutic potential against cancer

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Jamin D.; Tholey, Renee M.; Langelier, Marie-France; Planck, Jamie L.; Schiewer, Matthew J.; Lal, Shruti; Bildzukewicz, Nikolai A.; Yeo, Charles J.; Knudsen, Karen E.; Brody, Jonathan R.; Pascal, John M.

    2014-01-01

    PARP-1 is a nuclear protein that has important roles in maintenance of genomic integrity. During genotoxic stress, PARP-1 recruits to sites of DNA damage where PARP-1 domain architecture initiates catalytic activation and subsequent poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent DNA repair. PARP-1 inhibition is a promising new way to selectively target cancers harboring DNA repair deficiencies. However, current inhibitors target other PARPs raising important questions concerning long-term off-target effects. Here we propose a new strategy that targets PARP-1 allosteric regulation as a selective way of inhibiting PARP-1. We found that disruption of PARP-1 domain-domain contacts through mutagenesis held no cellular consequences on recruitment to DNA damage or a model system of transcriptional regulation, but prevented DNA-damage dependent catalytic activation. Further, PARP-1 mutant overexpression in a pancreatic cancer cell line (MIA PaCa-2) increased sensitivity to platinum-based anti-cancer agents. These results not only highlight the potential of a synergistic drug combination of allosteric PARP inhibitors with DNA damaging agents in genomically unstable cancer cells (regardless of homologous recombination status), but also signify important applications of selective PARP-1 inhibition. Lastly, the development of a high-throughput (HT) PARP-1 assay is described as a tool to promote discovery of novel PARP-1 selective inhibitors. PMID:24189460

  6. Targeting PARP-1 allosteric regulation offers therapeutic potential against cancer.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Jamin D; Tholey, Renee M; Langelier, Marie-France; Planck, Jamie L; Schiewer, Matthew J; Lal, Shruti; Bildzukewicz, Nikolai A; Yeo, Charles J; Knudsen, Karen E; Brody, Jonathan R; Pascal, John M

    2014-01-01

    PARP-1 is a nuclear protein that has important roles in maintenance of genomic integrity. During genotoxic stress, PARP-1 recruits to sites of DNA damage where PARP-1 domain architecture initiates catalytic activation and subsequent poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent DNA repair. PARP-1 inhibition is a promising new way to selectively target cancers harboring DNA repair deficiencies. However, current inhibitors target other PARPs, raising important questions about long-term off-target effects. Here, we propose a new strategy that targets PARP-1 allosteric regulation as a selective way of inhibiting PARP-1. We found that disruption of PARP-1 domain-domain contacts through mutagenesis held no cellular consequences on recruitment to DNA damage or a model system of transcriptional regulation, but prevented DNA-damage-dependent catalytic activation. Furthermore, PARP-1 mutant overexpression in a pancreatic cancer cell line (MIA PaCa-2) increased sensitivity to platinum-based anticancer agents. These results not only highlight the potential of a synergistic drug combination of allosteric PARP inhibitors with DNA-damaging agents in genomically unstable cancer cells (regardless of homologous recombination status), but also signify important applications of selective PARP-1 inhibition. Finally, the development of a high-throughput PARP-1 assay is described as a tool to promote discovery of novel PARP-1 selective inhibitors.

  7. RGD-modified lipid disks as drug carriers for tumor targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jie; Xie, Cao; Zhang, Mingfei; Wei, Xiaoli; Yan, Zhiqiang; Ren, Yachao; Ying, Man; Lu, Weiyue

    2016-03-01

    Melittin, the major component of the European bee venom, is a potential anticancer candidate due to its lytic properties. However, in vivo applications of melittin are limited due to its main side effect, hemolysis, especially when applied through intravenous administration. The polyethylene glycol-stabilized lipid disk is a novel type of nanocarrier, and the rim of lipid disks has a high affinity to amphiphilic peptides. In our study, a c(RGDyK) modified lipid disk was developed as a tumor targeted drug delivery system for melittin. Cryo-TEM was used to confirm the shape and size of lipid disks with or without c(RGDyK) modification. In vitro and in vivo hemolysis analyses revealed that the hemolysis effect significantly decreased after melittin associated with lipid disks. Importantly, the results of our in vivo biodistribution and tumor growth inhibitory experiments showed that c(RGDyK) modification increased the distribution of lipid disks in the tumor and the anticancer efficacy of melittin loaded lipid disks. Thus, we successfully achieved a targeted drug delivery system for melittin and other amphiphilic peptides with a good therapeutic effect and low side effects.

  8. The role of acoustofluidics in targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Nilanjana; Zhang, Xunli; Maiti, Tapas K.; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-01-01

    With the fast development of acoustic systems in clinical and therapeutic applications, acoustically driven microbubbles have gained a prominent role as powerful tools to carry, transfer, direct, and target drug molecules in cells, tissues, and tumors in the expanding fields of targeted drug delivery and gene therapy. The aim of the present study is to establish a biocompatible acoustic microfluidic system and to demonstrate the generation of an acoustic field and its effects on microbubbles and biological cells in the microfluidic system. The acoustic field creates non-linear oscillations of the microbubble-clusters, which results in generation of shear stress on cells in such microsystems. This effectively helps in delivering extracellular probes in living cells by sonoporation. The sonoporation is investigated under the combined effects of acoustic stress and hydrodynamic stress during targeted drug and gene delivery. PMID:26339329

  9. Adenosine receptors as drug targets — what are the challenges?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine signalling has long been a target for drug development, with adenosine itself or its derivatives being used clinically since the 1940s. In addition, methylxanthines such as caffeine have profound biological effects as antagonists at adenosine receptors. Moreover, drugs such as dipyridamole and methotrexate act by enhancing the activation of adenosine receptors. There is strong evidence that adenosine has a functional role in many diseases, and several pharmacological compounds specifically targeting individual adenosine receptors — either directly or indirectly — have now entered the clinic. However, only one adenosine receptor-specific agent — the adenosine A2A receptor agonist regadenoson (Lexiscan; Astellas Pharma) — has so far gained approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Here, we focus on the biology of adenosine signalling to identify hurdles in the development of additional pharmacological compounds targeting adenosine receptors and discuss strategies to overcome these challenges. PMID:23535933

  10. Active Targeted Drug Delivery for Microbes Using Nano-Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yung-Sheng; Lee, Ming-Yuan; Yang, Chih-Hui; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Although vaccines and antibiotics could kill or inhibit microbes, many infectious diseases remain difficult to treat because of acquired resistance and adverse side effects. Nano-carriers-based technology has made significant progress for a long time and is introducing a new paradigm in drug delivery. However, it still has some challenges like lack of specificity toward targeting the infectious site. Nano-carriers utilized targeting ligands on their surface called ‘active target’ provide the promising way to solve the problems like accelerating drug delivery to infectious areas and preventing toxicity or side-effects. In this mini review, we demonstrate the recent studies using the active targeted strategy to kill or inhibit microbes. The four common nano-carriers (e.g. liposomes, nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes) delivering encapsulated drugs are introduced. PMID:25877093

  11. Receptor-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems Targeting to Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Meng, Ying; Li, Chengyi; Qian, Min; Huang, Rongqin

    2015-01-01

    Glioma has been considered to be the most frequent primary tumor within the central nervous system (CNS). The complexity of glioma, especially the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), makes the survival and prognosis of glioma remain poor even after a standard treatment based on surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. This provides a rationale for the development of some novel therapeutic strategies. Among them, receptor-mediated drug delivery is a specific pattern taking advantage of differential expression of receptors between tumors and normal tissues. The strategy can actively transport drugs, such as small molecular drugs, gene medicines, and therapeutic proteins to glioma while minimizing adverse reactions. This review will summarize recent progress on receptor-mediated drug delivery systems targeting to glioma, and conclude the challenges and prospects of receptor-mediated glioma-targeted therapy for future applications.

  12. Ion channels and drug transporters as targets for anthelmintics

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Infections with parasitic helminths such as schistosomes and soil-transmitted nematodes are hugely prevalent and responsible for a major portion of the global health and economic burdens associated with neglected tropical diseases. In addition, many of these parasites infect livestock and plants used in agriculture, resulting in further impoverishment. Treatment and control of these pathogens rely on anthelmintic drugs, which are few in number, and against which drug resistance can develop rapidly. The neuromuscular system of the parasite, and in particular, the ion channels and associated receptors underlying excitation and signaling, have proven to be outstanding targets for anthelmintics. This review will survey the different ion channels found in helminths, focusing on their unique characteristics and pharmacological sensitivities. It will also briefly review the literature on helminth multidrug efflux that may modulate parasite susceptibility to anthelmintics and may prove useful targets for new or repurposed agents that can enhance parasite drug susceptibility and perhaps overcome drug resistance. PMID:25554739

  13. Critical parameters in targeted drug development: the pharmacological audit trail.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Udai; Workman, Paul

    2016-08-01

    The Pharmacological Audit Trail (PhAT) comprises a set of critical questions that need to be asked during discovery and development of an anticancer drug. Key aspects include: (1) defining a patient population; (2) establishing pharmacokinetic characteristics; (3) providing evidence of target engagement, pathway modulation, and biological effect with proof of concept pharmacodynamic biomarkers; (4) determining intermediate biomarkers of response; (5) assessing tumor response; and (6) determining how to overcome resistance by combination or sequential therapy and new target/drug discovery. The questions asked in the PhAT should be viewed as a continuum and not used in isolation. Different drug development programmes derive different types of benefit from these questions. The PhAT is critical in making go-no-go decisions in the development of currently studied drugs and will continue to be relevant to discovery and development of future generations of anticancer agents.

  14. Recent discoveries of influenza A drug target sites to combat virus replication.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hershna; Kukol, Andreas

    2016-06-15

    Sequence variations in the binding sites of influenza A proteins are known to limit the effectiveness of current antiviral drugs. Clinically, this leads to increased rates of virus transmission and pathogenicity. Potential influenza A inhibitors are continually being discovered as a result of high-throughput cell based screening studies, whereas the application of computational tools to aid drug discovery has further increased the number of predicted inhibitors reported. This review brings together the aspects that relate to the identification of influenza A drug target sites and the findings from recent antiviral drug discovery strategies.

  15. New tuberculostatic agents targeting nucleic acid biosynthesis: drug design using QSAR approaches.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Renata V; Braga, Rodolpho C; Segretti, Natanael D; Ferreira, Elizabeth I; Trossini, Gustavo H G; Andrade, Carolina H

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among curable infectious diseases. The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB is a growing global health concern and there is an urgent need for new anti-TB drugs. Enzymes involved in DNA and ATP biosynthesis are potential targets for tuberculostatic drug design, since these enzymes are essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. This review presents the current progress and applications of structure-activity relationship analysis for the discovery of innovative tuberculostatic agents as inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase, DNA gyrase, ATP synthase, and thymidylate kinase enzymes, highlighting present challenges and new opportunities in TB drug design.

  16. Pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Gabizon, Alberto A; Shmeeda, Hilary; Zalipsky, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Coating of liposomes with polyethylene-glycol (PEG) by incorporation in the liposome bilayer of PEG-derivatized lipids results in inhibition of liposome uptake by the reticulo-endothelial system and significant prolongation of liposome residence time in the blood stream. Parallel developments in drug loading technology have improved the efficiency and stability of drug entrapment in liposomes, particularly with regard to cationic amphiphiles such as anthracyclines. An example of this new generation of liposomes is a formulation of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin known as Doxil or Caelyx, whose clinical pharmacokinetic profile is characterized by slow plasma clearance and small volume of distribution. A hallmark of these long-circulating liposomal drug carriers is their enhanced accumulation in tumors. The mechanism underlying this passive targeting effect is the phenomenon known as enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) which has been described in a broad variety of experimental tumor types. Further to the passive targeting effect, the liposome drug delivery platform offers the possibility of grafting tumor-specific ligands on the liposome membrane for active targeting to tumor cells, and potentially intracellular drug delivery. The pros and cons of the liposome platform in cancer targeting are discussed vis-à-vis nontargeted drugs, using as an example a liposome drug delivery system targeted to the folate receptor.

  17. Actin as a potential target for decavanadate.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Susana; Moura, José J G; Aureliano, Manuel

    2010-12-01

    ATP prevents G-actin cysteine oxidation and vanadyl formation specifically induced by decavanadate, suggesting that the oxometalate-protein interaction is affected by the nucleotide. The ATP exchange rate is increased by 2-fold due to the presence of decavanadate when compared with control actin (3.1×10(-3) s(-1)), and an apparent dissociation constant (k(dapp)) of 227.4±25.7 μM and 112.3±8.7 μM was obtained in absence or presence of 20 μM V(10), respectively. Moreover, concentrations as low as 50 μM of decameric vanadate species (V(10)) increases the relative G-actin intrinsic fluorescence intensity by approximately 80% whereas for a 10-fold concentration of monomeric vanadate (V(1)) no effects were observed. Upon decavanadate titration, it was observed a linear increase in G-actin hydrophobic surface (2.6-fold), while no changes were detected for V(1) (0-200 μM). Taken together, three major ideas arise: i) ATP prevents decavanadate-induced G-actin cysteine oxidation and vanadate reduction; ii) decavanadate promotes actin conformational changes resulting on its inactivation, iii) decavanadate has an effect on actin ATP binding site. Once it is demonstrated that actin is a new potential target for decavanadate, being the ATP binding site a suitable site for decavanadate binding, it is proposed that some of the biological effects of vanadate can be, at least in part, explained by decavanadate interactions with actin.

  18. Causes of CNS inflammation and potential targets for anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Falip, Mercé; Salas-Puig, Xavier; Cara, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Inflammation is one of the most important endogenous defence mechanisms in an organism. It has been suggested that inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of a number of human epilepsies and convulsive disorders, and there is clinical and experimental evidence to suggest that inflammatory processes within the CNS may either contribute to or be a consequence of epileptogenesis. This review discusses evidence from human studies on the role of inflammation in epilepsy and highlights potential new targets in the inflammatory cascade for antiepileptic drugs. A number of mechanisms have been shown to be involved in CNS inflammatory reactions. These include an inflammatory response at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), immune-mediated damage to the CNS, stress-induced release of inflammatory mediators and direct neuronal dysfunction or damage as a result of inflammatory reactions. Mediators of inflammation in the CNS include interleukin (IL)-1β, tumour necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor-κB and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). IL-1β, BBB and high-mobility group box-1-TLR4 signalling appear to be the most promising targets for anticonvulsant agents directed at inflammation. Such agents may provide effective therapy for drug-resistant epilepsies in the future.

  19. Target mRNA inhibition by oligonucleotide drugs in man

    PubMed Central

    Lightfoot, Helen L.; Hall, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Oligonucleotide delivery in vivo is commonly seen as the principal hurdle to the successful development of oligonucleotide drugs. In an analysis of 26 oligonucleotide drugs recently evaluated in late-stage clinical trials we found that to date at least half have demonstrated suppression of the target mRNA and/or protein levels in the relevant cell types in man, including those present in liver, muscle, bone marrow, lung, blood and solid tumors. Overall, this strongly implies that the drugs are being delivered to the appropriate disease tissues. Strikingly we also found that the majority of the drug targets of the oligonucleotides lie outside of the drugable genome and represent new mechanisms of action not previously investigated in a clinical setting. Despite the high risk of failure of novel mechanisms of action in the clinic, a subset of the targets has been validated by the drugs. While not wishing to downplay the technical challenges of oligonucleotide delivery in vivo, here we demonstrate that target selection and validation are of equal importance for the success of this field. PMID:22989709

  20. Current and potential applications of bismuth-based drugs.

    PubMed

    Keogan, Donal M; Griffith, Darren M

    2014-09-23

    : Bismuth compounds have been used extensively as medicines and in particular for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments. In addition to bismuth's well known gastroprotective effects and efficacy in treating H. pylori infection it also has broad anti-microbial, anti-leishmanial and anti-cancer properties. Aspects of the biological chemistry of bismuth are discussed and biomolecular targets associated with bismuth treatment are highlighted. This review strives to provide the reader with an up to date account of bismuth-based drugs currently used to treat patients and discuss potential medicinal applications of bismuth drugs with reference to recent developments in the literature. Ultimately this review aims to encourage original contributions to this exciting and important field.

  1. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles in target drug delivery system: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Charu; Nagaich, Upendra; Pal, Ashok Kumar; Gulati, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Due to lack of specification and solubility of drug molecules, patients have to take high doses of the drug to achieve the desired therapeutic effects for the treatment of diseases. To solve these problems, there are various drug carriers present in the pharmaceuticals, which can used to deliver therapeutic agents to the target site in the body. Mesoporous silica materials become known as a promising candidate that can overcome above problems and produce effects in a controllable and sustainable manner. In particular, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are widely used as a delivery reagent because silica possesses favorable chemical properties, thermal stability, and biocompatibility. The unique mesoporous structure of silica facilitates effective loading of drugs and their subsequent controlled release of the target site. The properties of mesoporous, including pore size, high drug loading, and porosity as well as the surface properties, can be altered depending on additives used to prepare MSNs. Active surface enables functionalization to changed surface properties and link therapeutic molecules. They are used as widely in the field of diagnosis, target drug delivery, bio-sensing, cellular uptake, etc., in the bio-medical field. This review aims to present the state of knowledge of silica containing mesoporous nanoparticles and specific application in various biomedical fields. PMID:26258053

  2. Formulation, Evaluation and Optimization of Pectin- Bora Rice Beads for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Ramteke, Kuldeep Hemraj; Nath, Lilakant

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to established new polysaccharide for the colon targeted drug delivery system, its formulation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Methods: Microspheres containing pectin and bora rice were prepared by ionotropic gelation technique using zinc acetate as cross linking agent and model drug used was glipizide. A 32 full factorial design was employed to study the effect of independent variables, polymer to drug ratio (A), and concentration of cross linking agent (B) on dependent variables, particle size, swelling index, drug entrapment efficiency and percentage drug release. Results: Results of trial batches indicated that polymer to drug ratio and concentration of cross linking agent affects characteristics of beads. Beads were discrete, spherical and free flowing. Beads exhibited small particle size and showed higher percentage of drug entrapment efficiency. The optimized batch P2 exhibited satisfactory drug entrapment efficiency 68% and drug release was also controlled for more than 24 hours. The polymer to drug ratio had a more significant effect on the dependent variables. In vivo gamma scintigraphy study of optimized pectin-bora rice beads demonstrated degradation of beads whenever they reached to the colon. Conclusion: Bora rice is potential polysaccharide for colon targeted drug delivery system. PMID:24511481

  3. Structure-based methods for predicting target mutation-induced drug resistance and rational drug design to overcome the problem.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ge-Fei; Yang, Guang-Fu; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2012-10-01

    Drug resistance has become one of the biggest challenges in drug discovery and/or development and has attracted great research interests worldwide. During the past decade, computational strategies have been developed to predict target mutation-induced drug resistance. Meanwhile, various molecular design strategies, including targeting protein backbone, targeting highly conserved residues and dual/multiple targeting, have been used to design novel inhibitors for combating the drug resistance. In this article we review recent advances in development of computational methods for target mutation-induced drug resistance prediction and strategies for rational design of novel inhibitors that could be effective against the possible drug-resistant mutants of the target.

  4. Breast Cancer-Targeted Nuclear Drug Delivery Overcoming Drug Resistance for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    TASK 3. To in vivo evaluate TCRNs’ anti-breast cancer efficacy (12 months) a. In vivo test biodistribution and tumor targeting efficiency using...the physiological temperature. The modified G5-PEG showed a promise as a drug carrier for cancer chemotherapy. 2.2 Synthesis of degradable...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0502 TITLE: Breast Cancer -Targeted Nuclear Drug

  5. Potential applications for halloysite nanotubes based drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lin

    Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a drug in the body. The purpose is to enhance the drug efficacy and to reduce side reactions, which can significantly improve treatment outcomes. Halloysite is a naturally occurred alumino-silicate clay with a tubular structure. It is a biocompatible material with a big surface area which can be used for attachment of targeted molecules. Besides, loaded molecules can present a sustained release manner in solution. These properties make halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) a good option for drug delivery. In this study, a drug delivery system was built based on halloysite via three different fabrication methods: physical adsorption, vacuum loading and layer-by-layer coating. Methotrexate was used as the model drug. Factors that may affect performance in both drug loading and release were tested. Results showed that methotrexate could be incorporated within the HNTs system and released in a sustained manner. Layer-by-layer coating showed a better potential than the other two methods in both MTX loading and release. Besides, lower pH could greatly improve MTX loading and release while the increased number of polyelectrolytes bilayers had a limited impact. Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy in children and adolescents. Postoperative recurrence and metastasis has become one of the leading causes for patient death after surgical remove of the tumor mass. A strategy could be a sustained release of chemotherapeutics directly at the primary tumor sites where recurrence would mostly occur. Then, this HNTs based system was tested with osteosarcoma cells in vitro to show the potential of delivering chemotherapeutics in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Methotrexate was incorporated within HNTs with a layer-bylayer coating technique, and drug coated HNTs were filled into nylon-6 which is a common material for surgical sutures in industry. Results showed that (1) methotrexate

  6. Targeted Drug Delivery Systems Mediated by a Novel Peptide in Breast Cancer Therapy and Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chien-Yu; Lin, Wei-Chuan; Yan, Shin-Long; Wang, Yi-Ping; Kuo, Yuan-Sung; Yeh, Chen-Yun; Lo, Albert; Wu, Han-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Targeted delivery of drugs to tumors represents a significant advance in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Therefore, development of novel tumor-specific ligands or pharmaceutical nanocarriers is highly desirable. In this study, we utilized phage display to identify a new targeting peptide, SP90, which specifically binds to breast cancer cells, and recognizes tumor tissues from breast cancer patients. We used confocal and electron microscopy to reveal that conjugation of SP90 with liposomes enables efficient delivery of drugs into cancer cells through endocytosis. Furthermore, in vivo fluorescent imaging demonstrated that SP90-conjugated quantum dots possess tumor-targeting properties. In tumor xenograft and orthotopic models, SP90-conjugated liposomal doxorubicin was found to improve the therapeutic index of the chemotherapeutic drug by selectively increasing its accumulation in tumors. We conclude that the targeting peptide SP90 has significant potential in improving the clinical benefits of chemotherapy in the treatment and the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:23776619

  7. The type III secretion system as a source of novel antibacterial drug targets.

    PubMed

    Kline, Toni; Felise, Heather B; Sanowar, Sarah; Miller, Samuel I

    2012-03-01

    Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are highly organized multi-protein nanomachines which translocate effector proteins from the bacterial cytosol directly into host cells. These systems are required for the pathogenesis of a wide array of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, and thus have attracted attention as potential antibacterial drug targets. A decade of research has enabled the identification of natural products, conventional small molecule drug-like structures, and proteins that inhibit T3SSs. The mechanism(s) of action and molecular target(s) of the majority of these inhibitors remain to be determined. At the same time, structural biology methods are providing an increasingly detailed picture of the functional arrangement of the T3SS component proteins. The confluence of these two research areas may ultimately identify non-classical drug targets and facilitate the development of novel therapeutics.

  8. Breast Cancer-Targeted Nuclear Drug Delivery Overcoming Drug Resistance for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    anti- cancer drugs. We developed various kinds of nuclear-targeted charge- reversal nanoparticles (TCRNs) which can directly localize and release drug...breast cancer chemotherapy (12 Months): a. In vitro test drug release profile at pH 7.4. b. Test stability in blood. c. In vitro test cellular...anti-breast cancer activity. TASK 3. To in vivo evaluate TCRNs’ anti-breast cancer efficacy (12 months) a. In vivo test biodistribution and tumor

  9. Identification of Potential Antituberculosis Drugs Through Docking and Virtual Screening.

    PubMed

    Anand, Richa

    2016-05-05

    Tuberculosis is the most prominent contagious disease and needs the new targets and drugs identification. Target identification and validation is a crucial step in drug discovery process. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, decaprenyl-phosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2'-oxidase is a potential target for antitubercular chemotherapy. It is encoded by genes dprE1 (Rv3790) and dprE2 (Rv3791). Three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction of selected target (461 amino acid residues) was intent by homology modeling using multitemplate approach based on crystal structure of 2EXR.pdb and 2Q4W.pdb with score = 48.9 bits and identities = 42/148 (29 %). A computed model was subjected to refinement based on consensus generated from two-dimensional structures and then evaluated using Structural Analysis and Verification Server to get reliable model. The final optimized model after analysis of Ramachandran plot revealed 86.5 % Core, 78.1 % Verify 3D score and 75.302 Errat values. Structure-based virtual screening against ZINC database was performed through molecular docking approach using Molegro Virtual Docker 4.2.0. The best 10 docked ligands were enumerated and validated based on their AutoDock Vina docking energy, scoring function and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion properties. The complex scoring function, docking energies and binding affinities revealed that these ligand molecules could be promising inhibitors against decaprenyl-phosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2'-oxidase. The present work also investigates the potential of computational molecular modeling.

  10. Metabolic isoenzyme shifts in cancer as potential novel therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Ononye, S N; Shi, W; Wali, V B; Aktas, B; Jiang, T; Hatzis, C; Pusztai, L

    2014-12-01

    The functional redundancy of metabolic enzyme expression may present a new strategy for developing targeted therapies in cancer. To satisfy the increased metabolic demand required during neoplastic transformations and proliferation, cancer cells may rely on additional isoforms of a metabolic enzyme to satisfy the increased demand for metabolic precursors, which could subsequently render cancer cells more vulnerable to isoform-specific inhibitors. In this review, we provide a survey of common isoenzyme shifts that have been reported to be important in cancer metabolism and link those to metabolic pathways that currently have drugs in various stages of development. This phenomenon suggests a potentially new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer by identifying shifts in the expression of metabolic isoenzymes between cancer and normal cells. We also delineate other putative metabolic isoenzymes that could be targets for novel targeted therapies for cancer. Changes in isoenzyme expression that occur during neoplastic transformations or in response to environmental pressure in cancer cells may result in isoenzyme diversity that may subsequently render cancer cells more vulnerable to isoform-specific inhibitors due to reliance on a single isoform to perform a vital enzymatic function.

  11. Deductive genomics: a functional approach to identify innovative drug targets in the post-genome era.

    PubMed

    Stumm, Gabriele; Russ, Andreas; Nehls, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has generated a drug discovery process that is based on sequence analysis and hypothesis-driven (inductive) prediction of gene function. This approach, which we term inductive genomics, is currently dominating the efforts of the pharmaceutical industry to identify new drug targets. According to recent studies, this sequence-driven discovery process is paradoxically increasing the average cost of drug development, thus falling short of the promise of the Human Genome Project to simplify the creation of much needed novel therapeutics. In the early stages of discovery, the flurry of new gene sequences makes it difficult to pick and prioritize the most promising product candidates for product development, as with existing technologies important decisions have to be based on circumstantial evidence that does not strongly predict therapeutic potential. This is because the physiological function of a potential target cannot be predicted by gene sequence analysis and in vitro technologies alone. In contrast, deductive genomics, or large-scale forward genetics, bridges the gap between sequence and function by providing a function-driven in vivo screen of a highly orthologous mammalian model genome for medically relevant physiological functions and drug targets. This approach allows drug discovery to move beyond the focus on sequence-driven identification of new members of classical drug-able protein families towards the biology-driven identification of innovative targets and biological pathways.

  12. Antibody fragment-conjugated polymeric micelles incorporating platinum drugs for targeted therapy of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jooyeon; Miura, Yutaka; Yamada, Naoki; Chida, Tsukasa; Liu, Xueying; Kim, Ahram; Sato, Ryuta; Tsumura, Ryo; Koga, Yoshikatsu; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Cabral, Horacio; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-mediated therapies including antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have shown much potential in cancer treatment by tumor-targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs. However, there is a limitation of payloads that can be delivered by ADCs. Integration of antibodies to drug-loaded nanocarriers broadens the applicability of antibodies to a wide range of therapeutics. Herein, we developed antibody fragment-installed polymeric micelles via maleimide-thiol conjugation for selectively delivering platinum drugs to pancreatic tumors. By tailoring the surface density of maleimide on the micelles, one tissue factor (TF)-targeting Fab' was conjugated to each carrier. Fab'-installed platinum-loaded micelles exhibited more than 15-fold increased cellular binding within 1 h and rapid cellular internalization compared to non-targeted micelles, leading to superior in vitro cytotoxicity. In vivo, Fab'-installed micelles significantly suppressed the growth of pancreatic tumor xenografts for more than 40 days, outperforming non-targeted micelles and free drugs. These results indicate the potential of Fab'-installed polymeric micelles for efficient drug delivery to solid tumors.

  13. Aurora kinase family: a new target for anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Macarulla, Teresa; Ramos, Francisco Javier; Tabernero, Josep

    2008-06-01

    Aurora kinases (AK) are the name given to a family of Serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases. These proteins represent a novel family of kinases crucial for cell cycle control. The cell division process is one of the hallmarks of every living organism. Within the complete cell-cycle process, mitosis constitutes one of the most critical steps. The main purpose of mitosis is to segregate sister chromatics into two daughters cells. It is a complex biologic process, and errors in this mechanism can lead to genomic instability, a condition associated with tumorigenesis. This process is tightly regulated by several proteins, some of them acting as check-points that ultimately ensure the correct temporal and spatial coordination of this critical biologic process. Among this network of mitotic regulators, AK play a critical role in cellular division by controlling chromatid segregation. Three AK family members have been identified in mammalian cells: A, B, and C. These proteins are implicated in several vital events in mitosis. In experimental models, overexpression of AK can induce spindle defects, chromosome mis-segregation, and malignant transformation. Conversely, downregulation of AK expression cause mitotic arrest and apoptosis in tumor cell lines. The expression levels of human AK are increased in certain types of cancer including breast, colon, pancreatic, ovarian, and gastric tumors. This observation has lent an interest to this family of kinases as potential drug targets for development of new anticancer therapies. This review focuses in recent progress in the role of AK in tumorogenesis and the development of new anticancer drug against AK proteins. This manuscript also includes some relevant patents as well.

  14. [TREK-1: a potential target for novel antidepressants].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2007-08-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT: 5-hydroxytryptamin) was suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of depression as well as in the mechanisms of antidepressant treatments. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology or treatment of depression are still poorly understood. A recent paper has shown that deletion of the two-pore domain potassium channel TREK-1 results in an antidepressant-like phenotype. TREK-1 -deficient mice behave as if they have been treated with an antidepressant drug, such as fluoxetine. Moreover, TREK-1-deficient mice showed a reduced elevation of corticosterone level under stress, an increased efficacy of 5-HT neurotransmission and an increased fluoxetine-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) inhibited not only the 5-HT transporter but also the TREK-1 channel. In this article, we review the molecular and functional properties of the TREK-1 channel, which is a potential target for novel antidepressants.

  15. Mitochondrial chaperones may be targets for anti-cancer drugs

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at NCI have found that a mitochondrial chaperone protein, TRAP1, may act indirectly as a tumor suppressor as well as a novel target for developing anti-cancer drugs. Chaperone proteins, such as TRAP1, help other proteins adapt to stress, but sc

  16. Nanoemulsion-based intranasal drug delivery system of saquinavir mesylate for brain targeting.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Hitendra S; Mahajan, Milind S; Nerkar, Pankaj P; Agrawal, Anshuman

    2014-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is an immunological privileged sanctuary site-providing reservoir for HIV-1 virus. Current anti-HIV drugs, although effective in reducing plasma viral levels, cannot eradicate the virus completely from the body. The low permeability of anti-HIV drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) leads to insufficient delivery. Therefore, developing a novel approaches enhancing the CNS delivery of anti-HIV drugs are required for the treatment of neuro-AIDS. The aim of this study was to develop intranasal nanoemulsion (NE) for enhanced bioavailability and CNS targeting of saquinavir mesylate (SQVM). SQVM is a protease inhibitor which is a poorly soluble drug widely used as antiretroviral drug, with oral bioavailability is about 4%. The spontaneous emulsification method was used to prepare drug-loaded o/w nanoemulsion, which was characterized by droplet size, zeta potential, pH, drug content. Moreover, ex-vivo permeation studies were performed using sheep nasal mucosa. The optimized NE showed a significant increase in drug permeation rate compared to the plain drug suspension (PDS). Cilia toxicity study on sheep nasal mucosa showed no significant adverse effect of SQVM-loaded NE. Results of in vivo biodistribution studies show higher drug concentration in brain after intranasal administration of NE than intravenous delivered PDS. The higher percentage of drug targeting efficiency (% DTE) and nose-to-brain drug direct transport percentage (% DTP) for optimized NE indicated effective CNS targeting of SQVM via intranasal route. Gamma scintigraphy imaging of the rat brain conclusively demonstrated transport of drug in the CNS at larger extent after intranasal administration as NE.

  17. A Critical Review of Pro-Cognitive Drug Targets in Psychosis: Convergence on Myelination and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kroken, Rune A.; Løberg, Else-Marie; Drønen, Tore; Grüner, Renate; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Kompus, Kristiina; Skrede, Silje; Johnsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs have thus far focused on dopaminergic antagonism at the D2 receptors, as counteracting the hyperdopaminergia in nigrostriatal and mesolimbic projections has been considered mandatory for the antipsychotic action of the drugs. Current drugs effectively target the positive symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations and delusions in the majority of patients, whereas effect sizes are smaller for negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions. With the understanding that neurocognitive dysfunction associated with schizophrenia have a greater impact on functional outcome than the positive symptoms, the focus in pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia has shifted to the potential effect of future drugs on cognitive enhancement. A major obstacle is, however, that the biological underpinnings of cognitive dysfunction remain largely unknown. With the availability of increasingly sophisticated techniques in molecular biology and brain imaging, this situation is about to change with major advances being made in identifying the neuronal substrates underlying schizophrenia, and putative pro-cognitive drug targets may be revealed. In relation to cognitive effects, this review focuses on evidence from basic neuroscience and clinical studies, taking two separate perspectives. One perspective is the identification of previously under-recognized treatment targets for existing antipsychotic drugs, including myelination and mediators of inflammation. A second perspective is the development of new drugs or novel treatment targets for well-known drugs, which act on recently discovered treatment targets for cognitive enhancement, and which may complement the existing drugs. This might pave the way for personalized treatment regimens for patients with schizophrenia aimed at improved functional outcome. The review also aims at identifying major current constraints for pro-cognitive drug development for patients with schizophrenia. PMID:24550848

  18. Phenotypic side effects prediction by optimizing correlation with chemical and target profiles of drugs.

    PubMed

    Kanji, Rakesh; Sharma, Abhinav; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-11-01

    Despite technological progresses and improved understanding of biological systems, discovery of novel drugs is an inefficient, arduous and expensive process. Research and development cost of drugs is unreasonably high, largely attributed to the high attrition rate of candidate drugs due to adverse drug reactions. Computational methods for accurate prediction of drug side effects, rooted in empirical data of drugs, have the potential to enhance the efficacy of the drug discovery process. Identification of features critical for specifying side effects would facilitate efficient computational procedures for their prediction. We devised a generalized ordinary canonical correlation model for prediction of drug side effects based on their chemical properties as well as their target profiles. While the former is based on 2D and 3D chemical features, the latter enumerates a systems-level property of drugs. We find that the model incorporating chemical features outperforms that incorporating target profiles. Furthermore we identified the 2D and 3D chemical properties that yield best results, thereby implying their relevance in specifying adverse drug reactions.

  19. TARGETED LIPID BASED DRUG CONJUGATES: A NOVEL STRATEGY FOR DRUG DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Kwatra, Deep; Earla, Ravinder; Samanta, Swapan K.; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2012-01-01

    A majority of studies involving prodrugs are directed to overcome low bioavailability of the parent drug. The aim of this study is to increase the bioavailability of acyclovir (ACV) by designing a novel prodrug delivery system which is more lipophilic, and at the same time site specific. In this study, a lipid raft has been conjugated to the parent drug molecule to impart lipophilicity. Simultaneously a targeting moiety that can be recognized by a specific transporter/receptor in the cell membrane has also been tethered to the other terminal of lipid raft. Targeted lipid prodrugs i.e., biotin-ricinoleicacid-acyclovir (B-R-ACV) and biotin-12hydroxystearicacid-acyclovir (B-12HS-ACV) were synthesized with ricinoleicacid and 12hydroxystearicacid as the lipophilic rafts and biotin as the targeting moiety. Biotin-ACV (B-ACV), ricinoleicacid-ACV (R-ACV) and 12hydroxystearicacid-ACV (12HS-ACV) were also synthesized to delineate the individual effects of the targeting and the lipid moieties. Cellular accumulation studies were performed in confluent MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells. The targeted lipid prodrugs B-R-ACV and B-12HS-ACV exhibited much higher cellular accumulation than B-ACV, R-ACV and 12HS-ACV in both cell lines. This result indicates that both the targeting and the lipid moiety act synergistically towards cellular uptake. The biotin conjugated prodrugs caused a decrease in the uptake of [3H] biotin suggesting the role of sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) in uptake. The affinity of these targeted lipid prodrugs towards SMVT was studied in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Both the targeted lipid prodrugs B-R-ACV (20.25 ± 1.74 µM) and B-12HS-ACV (23.99 ± 3.20 µM) demonstrated higher affinity towards SMVT than B-ACV (30.90 ± 4.19 µM). Further, dose dependent studies revealed a concentration dependent inhibitory effect on [3H] biotin uptake in the presence of biotinylated prodrugs. Transepithelial transport studies showed lowering of [3H] biotin permeability in the

  20. Targeted lipid based drug conjugates: a novel strategy for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Kwatra, Deep; Earla, Ravinder; Samanta, Swapan K; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-09-15

    A majority of studies involving prodrugs are directed to overcome low bioavailability of the parent drug. The aim of this study is to increase the bioavailability of acyclovir (ACV) by designing a novel prodrug delivery system which is more lipophilic, and at the same time site specific. In this study, a lipid raft has been conjugated to the parent drug molecule to impart lipophilicity. Simultaneously a targeting moiety that can be recognized by a specific transporter/receptor in the cell membrane has also been tethered to the other terminal of lipid raft. Targeted lipid prodrugs i.e., biotin-ricinoleicacid-acyclovir (B-R-ACV) and biotin-12hydroxystearicacid-acyclovir (B-12HS-ACV) were synthesized with ricinoleicacid and 12hydroxystearicacid as the lipophilic rafts and biotin as the targeting moiety. Biotin-ACV (B-ACV), ricinoleicacid-ACV (R-ACV) and 12hydroxystearicacid-ACV (12HS-ACV) were also synthesized to delineate the individual effects of the targeting and the lipid moieties. Cellular accumulation studies were performed in confluent MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cells. The targeted lipid prodrugs B-R-ACV and B-12HS-ACV exhibited much higher cellular accumulation than B-ACV, R-ACV and 12HS-ACV in both cell lines. This result indicates that both the targeting and the lipid moiety act synergistically toward cellular uptake. The biotin conjugated prodrugs caused a decrease in the uptake of [(3)H] biotin suggesting the role of sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) in uptake. The affinity of these targeted lipid prodrugs toward SMVT was studied in MDCK-MDR1 cells. Both the targeted lipid prodrugs B-R-ACV (20.25 ± 1.74 μM) and B-12HS-ACV (23.99 ± 3.20 μM) demonstrated higher affinity towards SMVT than B-ACV (30.90 ± 4.19 μM). Further, dose dependent studies revealed a concentration dependent inhibitory effect on [(3)H] biotin uptake in the presence of biotinylated prodrugs. Transepithelial transport studies showed lowering of [(3)H] biotin permeability in

  1. The Research and Applications of Quantum Dots as Nano-Carriers for Targeted Drug Delivery and Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mei-Xia; Zhu, Bing-Jie

    2016-04-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), nano-carriers for drugs, can help realize the targeting of drugs, and improve the bioavailability of drugs in biological fields. And, a QD nano-carrier system for drugs has the potential to realize early detection, monitoring, and localized treatments of specific disease sites. In addition, QD nano-carrier systems for drugs can improve stability of drugs, lengthen circulation time in vivo, enhance targeted absorption, and improve the distribution and metabolism process of drugs in organization. So, the development of QD nano-carriers for drugs has become a hotspot in the fields of nano-drug research in recent years. In this paper, we review the advantages and applications of the QD nano-carriers for drugs in biological fields.

  2. The Research and Applications of Quantum Dots as Nano-Carriers for Targeted Drug Delivery and Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei-Xia; Zhu, Bing-Jie

    2016-12-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), nano-carriers for drugs, can help realize the targeting of drugs, and improve the bioavailability of drugs in biological fields. And, a QD nano-carrier system for drugs has the potential to realize early detection, monitoring, and localized treatments of specific disease sites. In addition, QD nano-carrier systems for drugs can improve stability of drugs, lengthen circulation time in vivo, enhance targeted absorption, and improve the distribution and metabolism process of drugs in organization. So, the development of QD nano-carriers for drugs has become a hotspot in the fields of nano-drug research in recent years. In this paper, we review the advantages and applications of the QD nano-carriers for drugs in biological fields.

  3. Potential Vaccine Targets against Rabbit Coccidiosis by Immunoproteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hongyan; Dong, Ronglian; Qiu, Baofeng; Jing, Jin; Zhu, Shunxing; Liu, Chun; Jiang, Yingmei; Wu, Liucheng; Wang, Shengcun; Miao, Jin; Shao, Yixiang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify antigens for a vaccine or drug target to control rabbit coccidiosis. A combination of 2-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometric analysis were used to identify novel antigens from the sporozoites of Eimeria stiedae. Protein spots were recognized by the sera of New Zealand rabbits infected artificially with E. stiedae. The proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) analysis in combination with bioinformatics. Approximately 868 protein spots were detected by silver-staining, and a total of 41 immunoreactive protein spots were recognized by anti-E. stiedae sera. Finally, 23 protein spots were successfully identified. The proteins such as heat shock protein 70 and aspartyl protease may have potential as immunodiagnostic or vaccine antigens. The immunoreactive proteins were found to possess a wide range of biological functions. This study is the first to report the proteins recognized by sera of infected rabbits with E. stiedae, which might be helpful in identifying potential targets for vaccine development to control rabbit coccidiosis. PMID:28285502

  4. Potential Vaccine Targets against Rabbit Coccidiosis by Immunoproteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongyan; Dong, Ronglian; Qiu, Baofeng; Jing, Jin; Zhu, Shunxing; Liu, Chun; Jiang, Yingmei; Wu, Liucheng; Wang, Shengcun; Miao, Jin; Shao, Yixiang

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify antigens for a vaccine or drug target to control rabbit coccidiosis. A combination of 2-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometric analysis were used to identify novel antigens from the sporozoites of Eimeria stiedae. Protein spots were recognized by the sera of New Zealand rabbits infected artificially with E. stiedae. The proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) analysis in combination with bioinformatics. Approximately 868 protein spots were detected by silver-staining, and a total of 41 immunoreactive protein spots were recognized by anti-E. stiedae sera. Finally, 23 protein spots were successfully identified. The proteins such as heat shock protein 70 and aspartyl protease may have potential as immunodiagnostic or vaccine antigens. The immunoreactive proteins were found to possess a wide range of biological functions. This study is the first to report the proteins recognized by sera of infected rabbits with E. stiedae, which might be helpful in identifying potential targets for vaccine development to control rabbit coccidiosis.

  5. Targeting Energy Metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a New Paradigm in Antimycobacterial Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Bald, Dirk; Villellas, Cristina; Lu, Ping; Koul, Anil

    2017-04-11

    Drug-resistant mycobacterial infections are a serious global health challenge, leading to high mortality and socioeconomic burdens in developing countries worldwide. New innovative approaches, from identification of new targets to discovery of novel chemical scaffolds, are urgently needed. Recently, energy metabolism in mycobacteria, in particular the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, has emerged as an object of intense microbiological investigation and as a novel target pathway in drug discovery. New classes of antibacterials interfering with elements of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway are highly active in combating dormant or latent mycobacterial infections, with a promise of shortening tuberculosis chemotherapy. The regulatory approval of the ATP synthase inhibitor bedaquiline and the discovery of Q203, a candidate drug targeting the cytochrome bc1 complex, have highlighted the central importance of this new target pathway. In this review, we discuss key features and potential applications of inhibiting energy metabolism in our quest for discovering potent novel and sterilizing drug combinations for combating tuberculosis. We believe that the combination of drugs targeting elements of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway can lead to a completely new regimen for drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

  6. Targeting Energy Metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a New Paradigm in Antimycobacterial Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Villellas, Cristina; Lu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Drug-resistant mycobacterial infections are a serious global health challenge, leading to high mortality and socioeconomic burdens in developing countries worldwide. New innovative approaches, from identification of new targets to discovery of novel chemical scaffolds, are urgently needed. Recently, energy metabolism in mycobacteria, in particular the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, has emerged as an object of intense microbiological investigation and as a novel target pathway in drug discovery. New classes of antibacterials interfering with elements of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway are highly active in combating dormant or latent mycobacterial infections, with a promise of shortening tuberculosis chemotherapy. The regulatory approval of the ATP synthase inhibitor bedaquiline and the discovery of Q203, a candidate drug targeting the cytochrome bc1 complex, have highlighted the central importance of this new target pathway. In this review, we discuss key features and potential applications of inhibiting energy metabolism in our quest for discovering potent novel and sterilizing drug combinations for combating tuberculosis. We believe that the combination of drugs targeting elements of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway can lead to a completely new regimen for drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

  7. Potential of CXCR4/CXCL12 Chemokine Axis in Cancer Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xie, Ying; Oupický, David

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the potential of CXCR4 chemokine receptor in the design of anticancer and antimetastatic drug delivery systems. The role of CXCR4 in cancer progression and metastasis is discussed in the context of the development of several types of drug delivery strategies. Overview of drug delivery systems targeted to cancers that overexpress CXCR4 is provided, together with the main types of CXCR4-binding ligands used in targeting applications. Drug delivery applications that take advantage of CXCR4 inhibition to achieve enhanced anticancer and antimetastatic activity of combination treatments are also discussed. PMID:27088072

  8. Drug Target Identification and Elucidation of Natural Inhibitors for Bordetella petrii: An In Silico Study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Manisha; Pattnaik, Animesh; Pradhan, Sukanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Environmental microbes like Bordetella petrii has been established as a causative agent for various infectious diseases in human. Again, development of drug resistance in B. petrii challenged to combat against the infection. Identification of potential drug target and proposing a novel lead compound against the pathogen has a great aid and value. In this study, bioinformatics tools and technology have been applied to suggest a potential drug target by screening the proteome information of B. petrii DSM 12804 (accession No. PRJNA28135) from genome database of National Centre for Biotechnology information. In this regards, the inhibitory effect of nine natural compounds like ajoene (Allium sativum), allicin (A. sativum), cinnamaldehyde (Cinnamomum cassia), curcumin (Curcuma longa), gallotannin (active component of green tea and red wine), isoorientin (Anthopterus wardii), isovitexin (A. wardii), neral (Melissa officinalis), and vitexin (A. wardii) have been acknowledged with anti-bacterial properties and hence tested against identified drug target of B. petrii by implicating computational approach. The in silico studies revealed the hypothesis that lpxD could be a potential drug target and with recommendation of a strong inhibitory effect of selected natural compounds against infection caused due to B. petrii, would be further validated through in vitro experiments. PMID:28154518

  9. Folate receptor targeted liposomes encapsulating anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Anumita; Das, Surajit

    2015-01-01

    Among all available lipid based nanoparticulate systems, the success of liposomal drug delivery system is evident by the number of liposomal products available in the market or under advanced stages of preclinical and clinical trials. Liposome has the ability to deliver chemotherapeutic agents to the targeted tissues or even inside the cancerous cells by enhanced intracellular penetration or improved tumour targeting. In the last decade, folate receptor mediated tumour targeting has emerged as an attractive alternative method of active targeting of cancer cells through liposomes due to its numerous advantages over other targeting methods. Folate receptors, also known as folate binding proteins, allow the binding and internalization of folate or folic acid into the cells by a method called folate receptor mediated endocytosis. They have restricted presence in normal cells and are mostly expressed during malignant transformation. In this review article, folate receptor targeting capability of liposomes has been described. This review article has focussed on the different cancer drugs which have been encapsulated in folate receptor targeted liposomes and their in vitro as well as in vivo efficacies in several tumour models.

  10. Breakable mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Laura; Cabrera, Ingrid; Ruiz-Carretero, Amparo; Prasetyanto, Eko A; Robinet, Eric; De Cola, Luisa

    2016-04-07

    "Pop goes the particle". Here we report on the preparation of redox responsive mesoporous organo-silica nanoparticles containing disulfide (S-S) bridges (ss-NPs) that, even upon the exohedral grafting of targeting ligands, retained their ability to undergo structural degradation, and increase their local release activity when exposed to a reducing agent. This degradation could be observed also inside glioma C6 cancer cells. Moreover, when anticancer drug-loaded pristine and derivatized ss-NPs were fed to glioma C6 cells, the responsive hybrids were more effective in their cytotoxic action compared to non-breakable particles. The possibility of tailoring the surface functionalization of this hybrid, yet preserving its self-destructive behavior and enhanced drug delivery properties, paves the way for the development of effective biodegradable materials for in vivo targeted drug delivery.

  11. [Development of a Drug Discovery Method Targeted to Stromal Tissue].

    PubMed

    Kamada, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Several diseases are characterized by alterations in the molecular distribution of vascular structures, presenting the opportunity to use monoclonal antibodies for clinical therapies. This pharmaceutical strategy, often referred to as "vascular targeting", has promise in promoting the discovery and development of selective biological drugs to regulate angiogenesis-related diseases such as cancer. Various experimental approaches have been utilized to discover accessible vascular markers of health and disease at the protein level. Our group has developed a new chemical proteomics technology to identify and quantify accessible vascular proteins in normal organs and at disease sites. Our developed methodology relies on the perfusion of animal models with suitable ester derivatives of biotin, which react with the primary amine groups of proteins as soon as the molecules are attached. This presentation reports biomedical applications based on vascular targeting strategies, as well as methodologies that have been used to discover new vascular targets. The identification of antigens located in the stromal tissue of pathological blood vessels may provide attractive targets for the development of antibody drugs. This method will also provide an efficient discovery target that could lead to the development of novel antibody drugs.

  12. Intestinal targeting of drugs: rational design approaches and challenges.

    PubMed

    Filipski, Kevin J; Varma, Manthena V; El-Kattan, Ayman F; Ambler, Catherine M; Ruggeri, Roger B; Goosen, Theunis C; Cameron, Kimberly O

    2013-01-01

    Targeting drugs to the gastrointestinal tract has been and continues to be an active area of research. Gut-targeting is an effective means of increasing the local concentration of active substance at the desired site of action while minimizing concentrations elsewhere in the body that could lead to unwanted side-effects. Several approaches to intestinal targeting exist. Physicochemical property manipulation can drive molecules to large, polar, low absorption space or alternatively to lipophilic, high clearance space in order to minimize systemic exposure. Design of compounds that are substrates for transporters within the gastrointestinal tract, either uptake or efflux, or at the hepato-biliary interface, may help to increase intestinal concentration. Prodrug strategies have been shown to be effective particularly for colon targeting, and several different technology formulation approaches are currently being researched. This review provides examples of various approaches to intestinal targeting, and discusses challenges and areas in need of future scientific advances.

  13. Breakable mesoporous silica nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggini, Laura; Cabrera, Ingrid; Ruiz-Carretero, Amparo; Prasetyanto, Eko A.; Robinet, Eric; de Cola, Luisa

    2016-03-01

    ``Pop goes the particle''. Here we report on the preparation of redox responsive mesoporous organo-silica nanoparticles containing disulfide (S-S) bridges (ss-NPs) that, even upon the exohedral grafting of targeting ligands, retained their ability to undergo structural degradation, and increase their local release activity when exposed to a reducing agent. This degradation could be observed also inside glioma C6 cancer cells. Moreover, when anticancer drug-loaded pristine and derivatized ss-NPs were fed to glioma C6 cells, the responsive hybrids were more effective in their cytotoxic action compared to non-breakable particles. The possibility of tailoring the surface functionalization of this hybrid, yet preserving its self-destructive behavior and enhanced drug delivery properties, paves the way for the development of effective biodegradable materials for in vivo targeted drug delivery.``Pop goes the particle''. Here we report on the preparation of redox responsive mesoporous organo-silica nanoparticles containing disulfide (S-S) bridges (ss-NPs) that, even upon the exohedral grafting of targeting ligands, retained their ability to undergo structural degradation, and increase their local release activity when exposed to a reducing agent. This degradation could be observed also inside glioma C6 cancer cells. Moreover, when anticancer drug-loaded pristine and derivatized ss-NPs were fed to glioma C6 cells, the responsive hybrids were more effective in their cytotoxic action compared to non-breakable particles. The possibility of tailoring the surface functionalization of this hybrid, yet preserving its self-destructive behavior and enhanced drug delivery properties, paves the way for the development of effective biodegradable materials for in vivo targeted drug delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full experimental procedures, additional SEM and TEM images of particles, complete UV-Vis and PL-monitored characterization of the breakdown of

  14. Computational design of nanoparticle drug delivery systems for selective targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Gregg A.; Bevan, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles capable of selectively binding to diseased versus healthy cell populations are attractive for improved efficacy of nanoparticle-based drug and gene therapies. However, nanoparticles functionalized with high affinity targeting ligands may lead to undesired off-target binding to healthy cells. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantitatively determine net surface interactions, binding valency, and selectivity between targeted nanoparticles and cell surfaces. Dissociation constant, KD, and target membrane protein density, ρR, are explored over a range representative of healthy and cancerous cell surfaces. Our findings show highly selective binding to diseased cell surfaces can be achieved with multiple, weaker affinity targeting ligands that can be further optimized by varying the targeting ligand density, ρL. Using the approach developed in this work, nanomedicines can be optimally designed for exclusively targeting diseased cells and tissues.Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles capable of selectively binding to diseased versus healthy cell populations are attractive for improved efficacy of nanoparticle-based drug and gene therapies. However, nanoparticles functionalized with high affinity targeting ligands may lead to undesired off-target binding to healthy cells. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantitatively determine net surface interactions, binding valency, and selectivity between targeted nanoparticles and cell surfaces. Dissociation constant, KD, and target membrane protein density, ρR, are explored over a range representative of healthy and cancerous cell surfaces. Our findings show highly selective binding to diseased cell surfaces can be achieved with multiple, weaker affinity targeting ligands that can be further optimized by varying the targeting ligand density, ρL. Using the approach developed in this work, nanomedicines can be optimally designed for exclusively targeting

  15. Peptide drugs to target G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2010-09-01

    Major indications for use of peptide-based therapeutics include endocrine functions (especially diabetes mellitus and obesity), infectious diseases, and cancer. Whereas some peptide pharmaceuticals are drugs, acting as agonists or antagonists to directly treat cancer, others (including peptide diagnostics and tumour-targeting pharmaceuticals) use peptides to 'shuttle' a chemotherapeutic agent or a tracer to the tumour and allow sensitive imaging or targeted therapy. Significant progress has been made in the last few years to overcome disadvantages in peptide design such as short half-life, fast proteolytic cleavage, and low oral bioavailability. These advances include peptide PEGylation, lipidisation or multimerisation; the introduction of peptidomimetic elements into the sequences; and innovative uptake strategies such as liposomal, capsule or subcutaneous formulations. This review focuses on peptides targeting G protein-coupled receptors that are promising drug candidates or that have recently entered the pharmaceutical market.

  16. Preparation and characterization of novel chitosan-protamine nanoparticles for nucleus-targeted anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiwei; Hou, Jiahui; Shi, Yijie; Su, Chang; Zhao, Liang

    It is well known that most anticancer drugs commonly show high toxicity to the DNA of tumor cells and exert effects by combining with the DNA or associated enzymes in the nucleus. Most developed drugs are first delivered into the cytoplasm and then transferred to the nucleus through the membrane pores. Sometimes, the transportation of drugs from cytoplasm to nucleus is not efficient and often results in poor therapeutic effects. In this study, we developed special and novel nanoparticles (NPs) made of chitosan and protamine for targeted nuclear capture of drugs to enhance anticancer effects. The anticancer effects of nuclear targeted-delivery of drugs in NPs were also evaluated by investigating cytotoxicity, cellular uptake mechanism, and cell apoptosis on cells. Chitosan-protamine NPs were characterized by good drug entrapment, sustained release, small average particle size, low polydispersity index, and high encapsulation efficiency; and accomplished the efficient nuclear delivery of fluorouracil (5-Fu). Compared with free 5-Fu and 5-Fu-loaded chitosan NPs, treatment of A549 cells and HeLa cells with 5-Fu-loaded chitosan-protamine NPs showed the highest cytotoxicity and further induced the significant apoptosis of cells. In addition, 5-Fu-loaded chitosan-protamine NPs exhibited the best efficiency in inhibiting tumor growth than the other three formulations. 5-Fu-loaded chitosan-protamine NPs enhanced antitumor efficacy through the targeted nuclear capture of drugs and showed promising potential as a nanodelivery system for quickly locating drugs in the nucleus of cells.

  17. Potential drug interactions in patients given antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Wendel Mombaque; Secoli, Silvia Regina; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate potential drug-drug interactions (PDDI) in patients with HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted on 161 adults with HIV infection. Clinical, socio demographic, and antiretroviral treatment data were collected. To analyze the potential drug interactions, we used the software Micromedex(r). Statistical analysis was performed by binary logistic regression, with a p-value of ≤0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: of the participants, 52.2% were exposed to potential drug-drug interactions. In total, there were 218 potential drug-drug interactions, of which 79.8% occurred between drugs used for antiretroviral therapy. There was an association between the use of five or more medications and potential drug-drug interactions (p = 0.000) and between the time period of antiretroviral therapy being over six years and potential drug-drug interactions (p < 0.00). The clinical impact was prevalent sedation and cardiotoxicity. Conclusions: the PDDI identified in this study of moderate and higher severity are events that not only affect the therapeutic response leading to toxicity in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems, but also can interfere in tests used for detection of HIV resistance to antiretroviral drugs. PMID:27878224

  18. Severe potential drug-drug interactions in older adults with dementia and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Bogetti-Salazar, Michele; González-González, Cesar; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the main severe potential drug-drug interactions in older adults with dementia and to examine the factors associated with these interactions. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study. The enrolled patients were selected from six geriatrics clinics of tertiary care hospitals across Mexico City. The patients had received a clinical diagnosis of dementia based on the current standards and were further divided into the following two groups: those with severe drug-drug interactions (contraindicated/severe) (n=64) and those with non-severe drug-drug interactions (moderate/minor/absent) (n=117). Additional socio-demographic, clinical and caregiver data were included. Potential drug-drug interactions were identified using Micromedex Drug Reax 2.0® database. RESULTS: A total of 181 patients were enrolled, including 57 men (31.5%) and 124 women (68.5%) with a mean age of 80.11±8.28 years. One hundred and seven (59.1%) patients in our population had potential drug-drug interactions, of which 64 (59.81%) were severe/contraindicated. The main severe potential drug-drug interactions were caused by the combinations citalopram/anti-platelet (11.6%), clopidogrel/omeprazole (6.1%), and clopidogrel/aspirin (5.5%). Depression, the use of a higher number of medications, dementia severity and caregiver burden were the most significant factors associated with severe potential drug-drug interactions. CONCLUSIONS: Older people with dementia experience many severe potential drug-drug interactions. Anti-depressants, antiplatelets, anti-psychotics and omeprazole were the drugs most commonly involved in these interactions. Despite their frequent use, anti-dementia drugs were not involved in severe potential drug-drug interactions. The number and type of medications taken, dementia severity and depression in patients in addition to caregiver burden should be considered to avoid possible drug interactions in this population. PMID:26872079

  19. Development of peptides as potential drugs for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi Jie; Cho, Chi Hin

    2010-01-01

    The development of more selective agents focused on targeted delivery of imaging probes and drugs to different tumor sites is the current trend in cancer diagnosis and therapies. Peptides are small amino acid sequences that can be isolated to bind to a predetermined target and are potentially capable of interfering with its function. These specific peptides isolated can inhibit individual signaling components, which are essential in cancer development and progression. Phage display is a powerful technology for selecting and cloning peptides displayed on the surface of bacteriophage. Billionclone-peptide libraries can be rapidly and simultaneously selected by phage biopanning, leading to large numbers of hits. Although peptides account for only a small part of current therapeutic agents, their potential is being improved by new technologies affecting their modification, delivery, stability and their application in preclinical settings. This review will highlight how to isolate peptides that target pivotal molecules in cancer development and progression through phage library biopanning and how to modify these peptides to enhance their anticancer efficacy.

  20. Genetic and proteomic approaches to identify cancer drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Roti, G; Stegmaier, K

    2012-01-01

    While target-based small-molecule discovery has taken centre-stage in the pharmaceutical industry, there are many cancer-promoting proteins not easily addressed with a traditional target-based screening approach. In order to address this problem, as well as to identify modulators of biological states in the absence of knowing the protein target of the state switch, alternative phenotypic screening approaches, such as gene expression-based and high-content imaging, have been developed. With this renewed interest in phenotypic screening, however, comes the challenge of identifying the binding protein target(s) of small-molecule hits. Emerging technologies have the potential to improve the process of target identification. In this review, we discuss the application of genomic (gene expression-based), genetic (short hairpin RNA and open reading frame screening), and proteomic approaches to protein target identification. PMID:22166799

  1. pH-dependent drug-drug interactions for weak base drugs: potential implications for new drug development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Wu, F; Lee, S C; Zhao, H; Zhang, L

    2014-08-01

    Absorption of an orally administered drug with pH-dependent solubility may be altered when it is coadministered with a gastric acid-reducing agent (ARA). Assessing a drug's potential for pH-dependent drug-drug interactions (DDIs), considering study design elements for such DDI studies, and interpreting and communicating study results in the drug labeling to guide drug dosing are important for drug development. We collected pertinent information related to new molecular entities approved from January 2003 to May 2013 by the US Food and Drug Administration for which clinical DDI studies with ARAs were performed. On the basis of assessments of data on pH solubility and in vivo DDIs with ARAs, we proposed a conceptual framework for assessing the need for clinical pH-dependent DDI studies for weak base drugs (WBDs). Important study design considerations include selection of ARAs and timing of dosing of an ARA relative to the WBD in a DDI study. Labeling implications for drugs having DDIs with ARAs are also illustrated.

  2. Cancer metabolism: new validated targets for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Sotgia, Federica; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Lisanti, Michael P

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies in cancer metabolism directly implicate catabolic fibroblasts as a new rich source of i) energy and ii) biomass, for the growth and survival of anabolic cancer cells. Conversely, anabolic cancer cells upregulate oxidative mitochondrial metabolism, to take advantage of the abundant fibroblast fuel supply. This simple model of "metabolic-symbiosis" has now been independently validated in several different types of human cancers, including breast, ovarian, and prostate tumors. Biomarkers of metabolic-symbiosis are excellent predictors of tumor recurrence, metastasis, and drug resistance, as well as poor patient survival. New pre-clinical models of metabolic-symbiosis have been generated and they genetically validate that catabolic fibroblasts promote tumor growth and metastasis. Over 30 different stable lines of catabolic fibroblasts and >10 different lines of anabolic cancer cells have been created and are well-characterized. For example, catabolic fibroblasts harboring ATG16L1 increase tumor cell metastasis by >11.5-fold, despite the fact that genetically identical cancer cells were used. Taken together, these studies provide >40 novel validated targets, for new drug discovery and anti-cancer therapy. Since anabolic cancer cells amplify their capacity for oxidative mitochondrial metabolism, we should consider therapeutically targeting mitochondrial biogenesis and OXPHOS in epithelial cancer cells. As metabolic-symbiosis promotes drug-resistance and may represent the escape mechanism during anti-angiogenic therapy, new drugs targeting metabolic-symbiosis may also be effective in cancer patients with recurrent and advanced metastatic disease.

  3. Cancer Metabolism: New Validated Targets for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sotgia, Federica; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in cancer metabolism directly implicate catabolic fibroblasts as a new rich source of i) energy and ii) biomass, for the growth and survival of anabolic cancer cells. Conversely, anabolic cancer cells upregulate oxidative mitochondrial metabolism, to take advantage of the abundant fibroblast fuel supply. This simple model of “metabolic-symbiosis” has now been independently validated in several different types of human cancers, including breast, ovarian, and prostate tumors. Biomarkers of metabolic-symbiosis are excellent predictors of tumor recurrence, metastasis, and drug resistance, as well as poor patient survival. New pre-clinical models of metabolic-symbiosis have been generated and they genetically validate that catabolic fibroblasts promote tumor growth and metastasis. Over 30 different stable lines of catabolic fibroblasts and >10 different lines of anabolic cancer cells have been created and are well-characterized. For example, catabolic fibroblasts harboring ATG16L1 increase tumor cell metastasis by >11.5-fold, despite the fact that genetically identical cancer cells were used. Taken together, these studies provide >40 novel validated targets, for new drug discovery and anti-cancer therapy. Since anabolic cancer cells amplify their capacity for oxidative mitochondrial metabolism, we should consider therapeutically targeting mitochondrial biogenesis and OXPHOS in epithelial cancer cells. As metabolic-symbiosis promotes drug-resistance and may represent the escape mechanism during anti-angiogenic therapy, new drugs targeting metabolic-symbiosis may also be effective in cancer patients with recurrent and advanced metastatic disease. PMID:23896568

  4. Interactions of dendrimers with biological drug targets: reality or mystery - a gap in drug delivery and development research.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shaimaa; Vepuri, Suresh B; Kalhapure, Rahul S; Govender, Thirumala

    2016-07-21

    Dendrimers have emerged as novel and efficient materials that can be used as therapeutic agents/drugs or as drug delivery carriers to enhance therapeutic outcomes. Molecular dendrimer interactions are central to their applications and realising their potential. The molecular interactions of dendrimers with drugs or other materials in drug delivery systems or drug conjugates have been extensively reported in the literature. However, despite the growing application of dendrimers as biologically active materials, research focusing on the mechanistic analysis of dendrimer interactions with therapeutic biological targets is currently lacking in the literature. This comprehensive review on dendrimers over the last 15 years therefore attempts to identify the reasons behind the apparent lack of dendrimer-receptor research and proposes approaches to address this issue. The structure, hierarchy and applications of dendrimers are briefly highlighted, followed by a review of their various applications, specifically as biologically active materials, with a focus on their interactions at the target site. It concludes with a technical guide to assist researchers on how to employ various molecular modelling and computational approaches for research on dendrimer interactions with biological targets at a molecular level. This review highlights the impact of a mechanistic analysis of dendrimer interactions on a molecular level, serves to guide and optimise their discovery as medicinal agents, and hopes to stimulate multidisciplinary research between scientific, experimental and molecular modelling research teams.

  5. Drug carrier interaction with blood: a critical aspect for high-efficient vascular-targeted drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Sobczynski, Daniel J; Fish, Margaret B; Fromen, Catherine A; Carasco-Teja, Mariana; Coleman, Rhima M; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2015-01-01

    Vascular wall endothelial cells control several physiological processes and are implicated in many diseases, making them an attractive candidate for drug targeting. Vascular-targeted drug carriers (VTCs) offer potential for reduced side effects and improved therapeutic efficacy, however, only limited therapeutic success has been achieved to date. This is perhaps due to complex interactions of VTCs with blood components, which dictate VTC transport and adhesion to endothelial cells. This review focuses on VTC interaction with blood as well as novel ‘bio-inspired’ designs to mimic and exploit features of blood in VTC development. Advanced approaches for enhancing VTCs are discussed along with applications in regenerative medicine, an area of massive potential growth and expansion of VTC utility in the near future. PMID:26272334

  6. A Computational Drug Repositioning Approach for Targeting Oncogenic Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gayvert, Kaitlyn; Dardenne, Etienne; Cheung, Cynthia; Boland, Mary Regina; Lorberbaum, Tal; Wanjala, Jackline; Chen, Yu; Rubin, Mark; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Rickman, David; Elemento, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mutations in transcription factors (TFs) genes are frequently observed in tumors, often leading to aberrant transcriptional activity. Unfortunately, TFs are often considered undruggable due to the absence of targetable enzymatic activity. To address this problem, we developed CRAFTT, a Computational drug-Repositioning Approach For Targeting Transcription factor activity. CRAFTT combines ChIP-seq with drug-induced expression profiling to identify small molecules that can specifically perturb TF activity. Application to ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets revealed known drug-TF interactions and a global drug-protein network analysis further supported these predictions. Application of CRAFTT to ERG, a pro-invasive, frequently over-expressed oncogenic TF predicted that dexamethasone would inhibit ERG activity. Indeed, dexamethasone significantly decreased cell invasion and migration in an ERG-dependent manner. Furthermore, analysis of Electronic Medical Record data indicates a protective role for dexamethasone against prostate cancer. Altogether, our method provides a broadly applicable strategy to identify drugs that specifically modulate TF activity. PMID:27264179

  7. Functionalized mesoporous silicon for targeted-drug-delivery.

    PubMed

    Tabasi, Ozra; Falamaki, Cavus; Khalaj, Zahra

    2012-10-01

    The present work concerns a preliminary step in the production of anticancer drug loaded porous silicon (PSi) for targeted-drug-delivery applications. A successful procedure for the covalent attachment of folic acid, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and doxorubicin to hydrophilic mesoporous silicon layers is presented. A systematic approach has been followed to obtain the optimal composition of the N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC)/N-hydroxysuccimide (NHS) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution for the surface activation process of the undecylenic acid (UD) grafted molecules to take place with minimal undesired byproduct formation. The effect of reactant concentration and kind of solvent (aqueous or DMSO) on the attachment of folic acid to the activated PSi layer has been investigated. The covalent attachment of the doxorubicin molecules to the PSi layer functionalized with folic acid and PEG is discussed. The drug release kinetics as a function of pH has been studied. The functionalized PSi particles show a high cytotoxicity compared to the equivalent amount of free drug. Cell toxicity tests show clearly that the incorporation of folate molecules increases substantially the toxicity of the loaded PSi particles. Accordingly this new functionalized PSi may be considered a proper candidate for targeted drug delivery.

  8. Parasite neuropeptide biology: Seeding rational drug target selection?

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Paul; Atkinson, Louise; Marks, Nikki J.; Mousley, Angela; Dalzell, Johnathan J.; Sluder, Ann; Hammerland, Lance; Maule, Aaron G.

    2011-01-01

    The rationale for identifying drug targets within helminth neuromuscular signalling systems is based on the premise that adequate nerve and muscle function is essential for many of the key behavioural determinants of helminth parasitism, including sensory perception/host location, invasion, locomotion/orientation, attachment, feeding and reproduction. This premise is validated by the tendency of current anthelmintics to act on classical neurotransmitter-gated ion channels present on helminth nerve and/or muscle, yielding therapeutic endpoints associated with paralysis and/or death. Supplementary to classical neurotransmitters, helminth nervous systems are peptide-rich and encompass associated biosynthetic and signal transduction components – putative drug targets that remain to be exploited by anthelmintic chemotherapy. At this time, no neuropeptide system-targeting lead compounds have been reported, and given that our basic knowledge of neuropeptide biology in parasitic helminths remains inadequate, the short-term prospects for such drugs remain poor. Here, we review current knowledge of neuropeptide signalling in Nematoda and Platyhelminthes, and highlight a suite of 19 protein families that yield deleterious phenotypes in helminth reverse genetics screens. We suggest that orthologues of some of these peptidergic signalling components represent appealing therapeutic targets in parasitic helminths. PMID:24533265

  9. Intracarotid Delivery of Drugs: The Potential and the Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shailendra; Meyers, Phillip M.; Ornstein, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    The major efforts to selectively deliver drugs to the brain in the last decade have relied on smart molecular techniques to penetrate the blood brain barrier while intraarterial drug delivery has drawn relatively little attention. In the last decade there have been rapid advances in endovascular techniques. Modern endovascular procedures can permit highly targeted drug delivery by intracarotid route. Intracarotid drug delivery can be the primary route of drug delivery or it could be used to facilitate the delivery of smart-neuropharmaceuticals. There have been few attempts to systematically understand the kinetics of intracarotid drugs. Anecdotal data suggests that intracarotid drug delivery is effective in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm, thromboembolic strokes, and neoplasms. Neuroanesthesiologists are frequently involved in the care of such high-risk patients. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the applications of intracarotid drug delivery and the unusual kinetics of intracarotid drugs. PMID:18719453

  10. Computational Discovery of Putative Leads for Drug Repositioning through Drug-Target Interaction Prediction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    De novo experimental drug discovery is an expensive and time-consuming task. It requires the identification of drug-target interactions (DTIs) towards targets of biological interest, either to inhibit or enhance a specific molecular function. Dedicated computational models for protein simulation and DTI prediction are crucial for speed and to reduce the costs associated with DTI identification. In this paper we present a computational pipeline that enables the discovery of putative leads for drug repositioning that can be applied to any microbial proteome, as long as the interactome of interest is at least partially known. Network metrics calculated for the interactome of the bacterial organism of interest were used to identify putative drug-targets. Then, a random forest classification model for DTI prediction was constructed using known DTI data from publicly available databases, resulting in an area under the ROC curve of 0.91 for classification of out-of-sampling data. A drug-target network was created by combining 3,081 unique ligands and the expected ten best drug targets. This network was used to predict new DTIs and to calculate the probability of the positive class, allowing the scoring of the predicted instances. Molecular docking experiments were performed on the best scoring DTI pairs and the results were compared with those of the same ligands with their original targets. The results obtained suggest that the proposed pipeline can be used in the identification of new leads for drug repositioning. The proposed classification model is available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/software/dtipred/. PMID:27893735

  11. Potential Drug Development Candidates for Human Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases

    PubMed Central

    Olliaro, Piero; Seiler, Jürg; Kuesel, Annette; Horton, John; Clark, Jeffrey N.; Don, Robert; Keiser, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background Few drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH); the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole are the only drugs being used for preventive chemotherapy as they can be given in one single dose with no weight adjustment. While generally safe and effective in reducing intensity of infection, they are contra-indicated in first-trimester pregnancy and have suboptimal efficacy against Trichuris trichiura. In addition, drug resistance is a threat. It is therefore important to find alternatives. Methodology We searched the literature and the animal health marketed products and pipeline for potential drug development candidates. Recently registered veterinary products offer advantages in that they have undergone extensive and rigorous animal testing, thus reducing the risk, cost and time to approval for human trials. For selected compounds, we retrieved and summarised publicly available information (through US Freedom of Information (FoI) statements, European Public Assessment Reports (EPAR) and published literature). Concomitantly, we developed a target product profile (TPP) against which the products were compared. Principal Findings The paper summarizes the general findings including various classes of compounds, and more specific information on two veterinary anthelmintics (monepantel, emodepside) and nitazoxanide, an antiprotozoal drug, compiled from the EMA EPAR and FDA registration files. Conclusions/Significance Few of the compounds already approved for use in human or animal medicine qualify for development track decision. Fast-tracking to approval for human studies may be possible for veterinary compounds like emodepside and monepantel, but additional information remains to be acquired before an informed decision can be made. PMID:21695247

  12. Architecture and Conservation of the Bacterial DNA Replication Machinery, an Underexploited Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Andrew; Causer, Rebecca J; Dixon, Nicholas E

    2012-01-01

    New antibiotics with novel modes of action are required to combat the growing threat posed by multi-drug resistant bacteria. Over the last decade, genome sequencing and other high-throughput techniques have provided tremendous insight into the molecular processes underlying cellular functions in a wide range of bacterial species. We can now use these data to assess the degree of conservation of certain aspects of bacterial physiology, to help choose the best cellular targets for development of new broad-spectrum antibacterials. DNA replication is a conserved and essential process, and the large number of proteins that interact to replicate DNA in bacteria are distinct from those in eukaryotes and archaea; yet none of the antibiotics in current clinical use acts directly on the replication machinery. Bacterial DNA synthesis thus appears to be an underexploited drug target. However, before this system can be targeted for drug design, it is important to understand which parts are conserved and which are not, as this will have implications for the spectrum of activity of any new inhibitors against bacterial species, as well as the potential for development of drug resistance. In this review we assess similarities and differences in replication components and mechanisms across the bacteria, highlight current progress towards the discovery of novel replication inhibitors, and suggest those aspects of the replication machinery that have the greatest potential as drug targets. PMID:22206257

  13. Architecture and conservation of the bacterial DNA replication machinery, an underexploited drug target.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew; Causer, Rebecca J; Dixon, Nicholas E

    2012-03-01

    New antibiotics with novel modes of action are required to combat the growing threat posed by multi-drug resistant bacteria. Over the last decade, genome sequencing and other high-throughput techniques have provided tremendous insight into the molecular processes underlying cellular functions in a wide range of bacterial species. We can now use these data to assess the degree of conservation of certain aspects of bacterial physiology, to help choose the best cellular targets for development of new broad-spectrum antibacterials. DNA replication is a conserved and essential process, and the large number of proteins that interact to replicate DNA in bacteria are distinct from those in eukaryotes and archaea; yet none of the antibiotics in current clinical use acts directly on the replication machinery. Bacterial DNA synthesis thus appears to be an underexploited drug target. However, before this system can be targeted for drug design, it is important to understand which parts are conserved and which are not, as this will have implications for the spectrum of activity of any new inhibitors against bacterial species, as well as the potential for development of drug resistance. In this review we assess similarities and differences in replication components and mechanisms across the bacteria, highlight current progress towards the discovery of novel replication inhibitors, and suggest those aspects of the replication machinery that have the greatest potential as drug targets.

  14. Mitochondria and Fungal Pathogenesis: Drug Tolerance, Virulence, and Potential for Antifungal Therapy▿

    PubMed Central

    Shingu-Vazquez, Miguel; Traven, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Recently, mitochondria have been identified as important contributors to the virulence and drug tolerance of human fungal pathogens. In different scenarios, either hypo- or hypervirulence can result from changes in mitochondrial function. Similarly, specific mitochondrial mutations lead to either sensitivity or resistance to antifungal drugs. Here, we provide a synthesis of this emerging field, proposing that mitochondrial function in membrane lipid homeostasis is the common denominator underlying the observed effects of mitochondria in drug tolerance (both sensitivity and resistance). We discuss how the contrasting effects of mitochondrial dysfunction on fungal drug tolerance and virulence could be explained and the potential for targeting mitochondrial factors for future antifungal drug development. PMID:21926328

  15. Promises and challenges of anticancer drugs that target the epigenome.

    PubMed

    Verbrugge, Inge; Johnstone, Ricky W; Bots, Michael

    2011-10-01

    The occurrence of epigenetic aberrations in cancer and their role in promoting tumorigenesis has led to the development of various small molecule inhibitors that target epigenetic enzymes. In preclinical settings, many epigenetic inhibitors demonstrate promising activity against a variety of both hematological and solid tumors. The therapeutic efficacy of those inhibitors that have entered the clinic however, is restricted predominantly to hematological malignancies. Here we outline the observed epigenetic aberrations in various types of cancer and the clinical responses to epigenetic drugs. We furthermore discuss strategies to improve the responsiveness of both hematological and solid malignancies to epigenetic drugs.

  16. Microsomal cytochrome P450 as a target for drug discovery and repurposing.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2017-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are ancient electron-transfer-chain system of remarkable biological importance. Microsomal P450 enzymes are the P450 attached to endoplasmic reticulum, which, in humans, are critical for body's defenses against xenobiotics by mediating their metabolism, and cell signaling by mediating arachidonic acid (AA) transformation to several potent bioactive molecules. Only recently, modulating P450-mediated AA metabolism has risen as a promising new drug target. This review presents the therapeutic potential of finding effective, selective and safe treatments targeting P450-mediated AA metabolism, and the several approaches that have been used to find these treatments; among which, our focus was on modulators of P450 activities. We detailed the efforts done to develop new molecular entities designed to modulate P450, and the more recent efforts tried to employ our previous knowledge on drug metabolism to repurpose old drugs with the capacity to alter P450-mediated drug metabolism to target AA metabolism. Because of the long recognition of P450 role in xenobiotic metabolism, several clinically approved agents were identified to alter P450 activity. Repurposing old drugs as P450 modulators can facilitate bringing treatments targeting P450-mediated AA metabolism to clinical trials. However, the capacity of the modulation of P450-derived AA metabolites of clinically approved drugs has to be systematically investigated and validated for their new use in humans.

  17. Extracellularly activated nanocarriers: A new paradigm of tumor targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Gullotti, Emily; Yeo, Yoon

    2009-01-01

    One of the main goals of nanomedicine is to develop a nanocarrier that can selectively deliver anti-cancer drugs to the targeted tumors. Extensive efforts have resulted in several tumor-targeted nanocarriers, some of which are approved for clinical use. Most nanocarriers achieve tumor-selective accumulation through the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Targeting molecules such as antibodies, peptides, ligands, or nucleic acids attached to the nanocarriers further enhance their recognition and internalization by the target tissues. While both the stealth and targeting features are important for effective and selective drug delivery to the tumors, achieving both features simultaneously is often found to be difficult. Some of the recent targeting strategies have the potential to overcome this challenge. These strategies utilize the unique extracellular environment of tumors to change the long-circulating nanocarriers to release the drug or interact with cells in a tumor-specific manner. This review discusses the new targeting strategies with recent examples, which utilize the environmental stimuli to activate the nanocarriers. Traditional strategies for tumor-targeted nanocarriers are briefly discussed with an emphasis on their achievements and challenges. PMID:19366234

  18. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery treatments and specific targeting therapy for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tai-Chi; Hung, Kuo-Hsuan; Peng, Chi-Hsien; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Woung, Lin-Chung; Tsai, Ching-Yao; Chen, Shih-Jen; Chen, Yan-Ting; Hsu, Chih-Chien

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles combined with cells, drugs, and specially designed genes provide improved therapeutic efficacy in studies and clinical setting, demonstrating a new era of treatment strategy, especially in retinal diseases. Nanotechnology-based drugs can provide an essential platform for sustaining, releasing and a specific targeting design to treat retinal diseases. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid is the most widely used biocompatible and biodegradable polymer approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Many studies have attempted to develop special devices for delivering small-molecule drugs, proteins, and other macromolecules consistently and slowly. In this article, we first review current progress in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Then, we discuss the function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the pharmacological effects of anti-VEGF-A antibodies and soluble or modified VEGF receptors. Lastly, we summarize the combination of antiangiogenic therapy and nanomedicines, and review current potential targeting therapy in age-related macular degeneration.

  19. Predicting drug-target interactions by dual-network integrated logistic matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming; Bryant, Stephen H.; Wang, Yanli

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we propose a dual-network integrated logistic matrix factorization (DNILMF) algorithm to predict potential drug-target interactions (DTI). The prediction procedure consists of four steps: (1) inferring new drug/target profiles and constructing profile kernel matrix; (2) diffusing drug profile kernel matrix with drug structure kernel matrix; (3) diffusing target profile kernel matrix with target sequence kernel matrix; and (4) building DNILMF model and smoothing new drug/target predictions based on their neighbors. We compare our algorithm with the state-of-the-art method based on the benchmark dataset. Results indicate that the DNILMF algorithm outperforms the previously reported approaches in terms of AUPR (area under precision-recall curve) and AUC (area under curve of receiver operating characteristic) based on the 5 trials of 10-fold cross-validation. We conclude that the performance improvement depends on not only the proposed objective function, but also the used nonlinear diffusion technique which is important but under studied in the DTI prediction field. In addition, we also compile a new DTI dataset for increasing the diversity of currently available benchmark datasets. The top prediction results for the new dataset are confirmed by experimental studies or supported by other computational research.

  20. 'One-pot' synthesis of multifunctional GSH-CdTe quantum dots for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqin; Tang, Yajun; Cai, Bing; Fan, Hongsong

    2014-06-13

    A novel quantum dots-based multifunctional nanovehicle (DOX-QD-PEG-FA) was designed for targeted drug delivery, fluorescent imaging, tracking, and cancer therapy, in which the GSH-CdTe quantum dots play a key role in imaging and drug delivery. To exert curative effects, the antineoplastic drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) was loaded on the GSH-CdTe quantum dots through a condensation reaction. Meanwhile, a polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell was introduced to wrap the DOX-QD, thus stabilizing the structure and preventing clearance and drug release during systemic circulation. To actively target cancer cells and prevent the nanovehicles from being absorbed by normal cells, the nanoparticles were further decorated with folic acid (FA), allowing them to target HeLa cells that express the FA receptor. The multifunctional DOX-QD-PEG-FA conjugates were simply prepared using the 'one pot' method. In vitro study demonstrated that this simple, multifunctional nanovehicle can deliver DOX to the targeted cancer cells and localize the nanoparticles. After reaching the tumor cells, the FA on the DOX-QD-PEG surface allowed folate receptor recognition and increased the drug concentration to realize a higher curative effect. This novel, multifunctional DOX-QD-PEG-FA system shows great potential for tumor imaging, targeting, and therapy.

  1. Predicting drug-target interactions by dual-network integrated logistic matrix factorization

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ming; Bryant, Stephen H.; Wang, Yanli

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we propose a dual-network integrated logistic matrix factorization (DNILMF) algorithm to predict potential drug-target interactions (DTI). The prediction procedure consists of four steps: (1) inferring new drug/target profiles and constructing profile kernel matrix; (2) diffusing drug profile kernel matrix with drug structure kernel matrix; (3) diffusing target profile kernel matrix with target sequence kernel matrix; and (4) building DNILMF model and smoothing new drug/target predictions based on their neighbors. We compare our algorithm with the state-of-the-art method based on the benchmark dataset. Results indicate that the DNILMF algorithm outperforms the previously reported approaches in terms of AUPR (area under precision-recall curve) and AUC (area under curve of receiver operating characteristic) based on the 5 trials of 10-fold cross-validation. We conclude that the performance improvement depends on not only the proposed objective function, but also the used nonlinear diffusion technique which is important but under studied in the DTI prediction field. In addition, we also compile a new DTI dataset for increasing the diversity of currently available benchmark datasets. The top prediction results for the new dataset are confirmed by experimental studies or supported by other computational research. PMID:28079135

  2. Sphingolipid and Ceramide Homeostasis: Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Young, Simon A.; Mina, John G.; Denny, Paul W.; Smith, Terry K.

    2012-01-01

    Sphingolipids are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells where they have been attributed a plethora of functions from the formation of structural domains to polarized cellular trafficking and signal transduction. Recent research has identified and characterised many of the key enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism and this has led to a heightened interest in the possibility of targeting these processes for therapies against cancers, Alzheimer's disease, and numerous important human pathogens. In this paper we outline the major pathways in eukaryotic sphingolipid metabolism and discuss these in relation to disease and therapy for both chronic and infectious conditions. PMID:22400113

  3. SELF-BLM: Prediction of drug-target interactions via self-training SVM

    PubMed Central

    Keum, Jongsoo; Nam, Hojung

    2017-01-01

    Predicting drug-target interactions is important for the development of novel drugs and the repositioning of drugs. To predict such interactions, there are a number of methods based on drug and target protein similarity. Although these methods, such as the bipartite local model (BLM), show promise, they often categorize unknown interactions as negative interaction. Therefore, these methods are not ideal for finding potential drug-target interactions that have not yet been validated as positive interactions. Thus, here we propose a method that integrates machine learning techniques, such as self-training support vector machine (SVM) and BLM, to develop a self-training bipartite local model (SELF-BLM) that facilitates the identification of potential interactions. The method first categorizes unlabeled interactions and negative interactions among unknown interactions using a clustering method. Then, using the BLM method and self-training SVM, the unlabeled interactions are self-trained and final local classification models are constructed. When applied to four classes of proteins that include enzymes, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), ion channels, and nuclear receptors, SELF-BLM showed the best performance for predicting not only known interactions but also potential interactions in three protein classes compare to other related studies. The implemented software and supporting data are available at https://github.com/GIST-CSBL/SELF-BLM. PMID:28192537

  4. Thermal treatment of galactose-branched polyelectrolyte microcapsules to improve drug delivery with reserved targetability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fu; Wu, Qi; Liu, Li-Jun; Chen, Zhi-Chun; Lin, Xian-Fu

    2008-06-05

    A novel multilayered drug delivery system by LbL assembly of galactosylated polyelectrolyte, which is possible to have the potential in hepatic targeting by the presence of galactose residues at the microcapsule's surface, is designed. Thermal treatment was performed on the capsules and a dramatic thermal shrinkage up to 60% decrease of capsule diameter above 50 degrees C was observed. This thermal behavior was then used to manipulate drug loading capacity and release rate. Heating after drug loading could seal the capsule shell, enhancing the loading capacity and reducing the release rate significantly. Excellent affinity between galactose-binding lectin and heated galactose-containing microcapsules were observed, indicating a stable targeting potential even after high temperature elevating up to 90 degrees C.

  5. Ion Channels as Drug Targets in Central Nervous System Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Waszkielewicz, A.M; Gunia, A; Szkaradek, N; Słoczyńska, K; Krupińska, S; Marona, H

    2013-01-01

    Ion channel targeted drugs have always been related with either the central nervous system (CNS), the peripheral nervous system, or the cardiovascular system. Within the CNS, basic indications of drugs are: sleep disorders, anxiety, epilepsy, pain, etc. However, traditional channel blockers have multiple adverse events, mainly due to low specificity of mechanism of action. Lately, novel ion channel subtypes have been discovered, which gives premises to drug discovery process led towards specific channel subtypes. An example is Na+ channels, whose subtypes 1.3 and 1.7-1.9 are responsible for pain, and 1.1 and 1.2 – for epilepsy. Moreover, new drug candidates have been recognized. This review is focusing on ion channels subtypes, which play a significant role in current drug discovery and development process. The knowledge on channel subtypes has developed rapidly, giving new nomenclatures of ion channels. For example, Ca2+ channels are not any more divided to T, L, N, P/Q, and R, but they are described as Cav1.1-Cav3.3, with even newer nomenclature α1A-α1I and α1S. Moreover, new channels such as P2X1-P2X7, as well as TRPA1-TRPV1 have been discovered, giving premises for new types of analgesic drugs. PMID:23409712

  6. Iron Deprivation Affects Drug Susceptibilities of Mycobacteria Targeting Membrane Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Rahul; Hameed, Saif; Fatima, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) acquired by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) through continuous deployment of antitubercular drugs warrants immediate search for novel targets and mechanisms. The ability of MTB to sense and become accustomed to changes in the host is essential for survival and confers the basis of infection. A crucial condition that MTB must surmount is iron limitation, during the establishment of infection, since iron is required by both bacteria and humans. This study focuses on how iron deprivation affects drug susceptibilities of known anti-TB drugs in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a “surrogate of MTB.” We showed that iron deprivation leads to enhanced potency of most commonly used first line anti-TB drugs that could be reverted upon iron supplementation. We explored that membrane homeostasis is disrupted upon iron deprivation as revealed by enhanced membrane permeability and hypersensitivity to membrane perturbing agent leading to increased passive diffusion of drug and TEM images showing detectable differences in cell envelope thickness. Furthermore, iron seems to be indispensable to sustain genotoxic stress suggesting its possible role in DNA repair machinery. Taken together, we for the first time established a link between cellular iron and drug susceptibility of mycobacteria suggesting iron as novel determinant to combat MDR. PMID:26779346

  7. A review on proniosomal drug delivery system for targeted drug action

    PubMed Central

    Radha, G. V.; Rani, T. Sudha; Sarvani, B.

    2013-01-01

    Proniosomes are dry formulation of water soluble carrier particles that are coated with surfactant. They are rehydrated to form niosomal dispersion immediately before use on agitation in hot aqueous media within minutes. Proniosomes are physically stable during the storage and transport. Drug encapsulated in the vesicular structure of proniosomes prolong the existence of drug in the systematic circulation and enhances the penetration into target tissue and reduce toxicity. From a technical point of view, niosomes are promising drug carriers as they possess greater chemical stability and lack of many disadvantages associated with liposomes, such as high- cost and variable purity problems of phospholipids. The present review emphasizes on overall methods of preparation characterization and applicability of proniosomes in targeted drug action. PMID:24808669

  8. Predicting Drug Combination Index and Simulating the Network-Regulation Dynamics by Mathematical Modeling of Drug-Targeted EGFR-ERK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lu; Jiang, Yuyang; Chen, Yuzong

    2017-01-01

    Synergistic drug combinations enable enhanced therapeutics. Their discovery typically involves the measurement and assessment of drug combination index (CI), which can be facilitated by the development and applications of in-silico CI predictive tools. In this work, we developed and tested the ability of a mathematical model of drug-targeted EGFR-ERK pathway in predicting CIs and in analyzing multiple synergistic drug combinations against observations. Our mathematical model was validated against the literature reported signaling, drug response dynamics, and EGFR-MEK drug combination effect. The predicted CIs and combination therapeutic effects of the EGFR-BRaf, BRaf-MEK, FTI-MEK, and FTI-BRaf inhibitor combinations showed consistent synergism. Our results suggest that existing pathway models may be potentially extended for developing drug-targeted pathway models to predict drug combination CI values, isobolograms, and drug-response surfaces as well as to analyze the dynamics of individual and combinations of drugs. With our model, the efficacy of potential drug combinations can be predicted. Our method complements the developed in-silico methods (e.g. the chemogenomic profile and the statistically-inferenced network models) by predicting drug combination effects from the perspectives of pathway dynamics using experimental or validated molecular kinetic constants, thereby facilitating the collective prediction of drug combination effects in diverse ranges of disease systems. PMID:28102344

  9. Predicting Drug Combination Index and Simulating the Network-Regulation Dynamics by Mathematical Modeling of Drug-Targeted EGFR-ERK Signaling Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lu; Jiang, Yuyang; Chen, Yuzong

    2017-01-01

    Synergistic drug combinations enable enhanced therapeutics. Their discovery typically involves the measurement and assessment of drug combination index (CI), which can be facilitated by the development and applications of in-silico CI predictive tools. In this work, we developed and tested the ability of a mathematical model of drug-targeted EGFR-ERK pathway in predicting CIs and in analyzing multiple synergistic drug combinations against observations. Our mathematical model was validated against the literature reported signaling, drug response dynamics, and EGFR-MEK drug combination effect. The predicted CIs and combination therapeutic effects of the EGFR-BRaf, BRaf-MEK, FTI-MEK, and FTI-BRaf inhibitor combinations showed consistent synergism. Our results suggest that existing pathway models may be potentially extended for developing drug-targeted pathway models to predict drug combination CI values, isobolograms, and drug-response surfaces as well as to analyze the dynamics of individual and combinations of drugs. With our model, the efficacy of potential drug combinations can be predicted. Our method complements the developed in-silico methods (e.g. the chemogenomic profile and the statistically-inferenced network models) by predicting drug combination effects from the perspectives of pathway dynamics using experimental or validated molecular kinetic constants, thereby facilitating the collective prediction of drug combination effects in diverse ranges of disease systems.

  10. Predicting Drug Combination Index and Simulating the Network-Regulation Dynamics by Mathematical Modeling of Drug-Targeted EGFR-ERK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Jiang, Yuyang; Chen, Yuzong

    2017-01-19

    Synergistic drug combinations enable enhanced therapeutics. Their discovery typically involves the measurement and assessment of drug combination index (CI), which can be facilitated by the development and applications of in-silico CI predictive tools. In this work, we developed and tested the ability of a mathematical model of drug-targeted EGFR-ERK pathway in predicting CIs and in analyzing multiple synergistic drug combinations against observations. Our mathematical model was validated against the literature reported signaling, drug response dynamics, and EGFR-MEK drug combination effect. The predicted CIs and combination therapeutic effects of the EGFR-BRaf, BRaf-MEK, FTI-MEK, and FTI-BRaf inhibitor combinations showed consistent synergism. Our results suggest that existing pathway models may be potentially extended for developing drug-targeted pathway models to predict drug combination CI values, isobolograms, and drug-response surfaces as well as to analyze the dynamics of individual and combinations of drugs. With our model, the efficacy of potential drug combinations can be predicted. Our method complements the developed in-silico methods (e.g. the chemogenomic profile and the statistically-inferenced netw