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Sample records for potential electrode materials

  1. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  2. Chemical and structural indicators for large redox potentials in Fe-based positive electrode materials.

    PubMed

    Melot, Brent C; Scanlon, David O; Reynaud, Marine; Rousse, Gwenaëlle; Chotard, Jean-Noël; Henry, Marc; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2014-07-23

    Li-ion batteries have enabled a revolution in the way portable consumer-electronics are powered and will play an important role as large-scale electrochemical storage applications like electric vehicles and grid-storage are developed. The ability to identify and design promising new positive insertion electrodes will be vital in continuing to push Li-ion technology to its fullest potential. Utilizing a combination of computational tools and structural analysis, we report new indicators which will facilitate the recognition of phases with the desired redox potential. Most importantly of these, we find there is a strong correlation between the presence of Li ions sitting in close-proximity to the redox center of polyanionic phases and the open circuit voltage in Fe-based cathodes. This common structural feature suggests that the bonding associated with Li may have a secondary inductive effect which increases the ionic character of Fe bonds beyond what is typically expected based purely on arguments of electronegativity associated with the polyanionic group. This correlation is supported by ab initio calculations which show the Bader charge increases (reflecting an increased ionicity) in a nearly linear fashion with the experimental cell potentials. These features are demonstrated to be consistent across a wide variety of compositions and structures and should help to facilitate the design of new, high-potential, and environmentally sustainable insertion electrodes.

  3. Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.F.; Frank, A.J.

    1991-04-08

    A method is provided for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The method comprises treating (e.g., derivatizing) the electrode surface with an electrochemically active material; connecting the electrode to an electrical potential; and exposing the fluid medium to the electrode surface in a manner such that the charged particles become adsorbed on the electrode surface.

  4. Electrode stabilizing materials

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Odom, Susan A.

    2015-11-03

    An electrolyte includes a polar aprotic solvent; an alkali metal salt; and an electrode stabilizing compound that is a monomer, which when polymerized forms an electrically conductive polymer. The electrode stabilizing compound is a thiophene, a imidazole, a anilines, a benzene, a azulene, a carbazole, or a thiol. Electrochemical devices may incorporate such electrolytes.

  5. Electrode materials for rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abouimrane, Ali; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-14

    Selenium or selenium-containing compounds may be used as electroactive materials in electrodes or electrochemical devices. The selenium or selenium-containing compound is mixed with a carbon material.

  6. Moving Graphitic Carbon Nitride from Electrocatalysis and Photocatalysis to a Potential Electrode Material for Photoelectric Devices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingsan; Antonietti, Markus; Shalom, Menny

    2016-09-20

    Carbon nitride (g-CN) has attracted significant interest in the last years as a robust, low-cost alternative to metal-based materials in different fields due to its low price, environmentally benign character, simple synthesis and tunable properties. In particular, g-CN demonstrates promising activity in energy-related applications such as photo and heterogeneous catalysis, batteries and electrolysis. However, while g-CN is already well-established as a photocatalyst, its utilization in (opto)electronic devices is still at an early stage. This Focus Review concentrates on the utilization of g-CN in solar and photoelectrochemical cells, electrolyzers and light emitting diode alongside the recap of new synthetic approaches. This review is expected to provide useful insights into the design and fabrication of g-CN based photoelectronic devices as well as g-CN working principles, including the main challenges toward its integration in optoelectronic devices.

  7. Redox electrode materials for supercapatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Linpo; Chen, George Z.

    2016-09-01

    Redox electrode materials, including transition metal oxides and electronically conducting polymers, are capable of faradaic charge transfer reactions, and play important roles in most electrochemical energy storage devices, such as supercapacitor, battery and supercapattery. Batteries are often based on redox materials with low power capability and safety concerns in some cases. Supercapacitors, particularly those based on redox inactive materials, e.g. activated carbon, can offer high power output, but have relatively low energy capacity. Combining the merits of supercapacitor and battery into a hybrid, the supercapattery can possess energy as much as the battery and output a power almost as high as the supercapacitor. Redox electrode materials are essential in the supercapattery design. However, it is hard to utilise these materials easily because of their intrinsic characteristics, such as the low conductivity of metal oxides and the poor mechanical strength of conducting polymers. This article offers a brief introduction of redox electrode materials, the basics of supercapattery and its relationship with pseudocapacitors, and reviews selectively some recent progresses in the relevant research and development.

  8. Electrode materials for rechargeable battery

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Christopher; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2015-09-08

    A positive electrode is disclosed for a non-aqueous electrolyte lithium rechargeable cell or battery. The electrode comprises a lithium containing material of the formula Na.sub.yLi.sub.xNi.sub.zMn.sub.1-z-z'M.sub.z'O.sub.d, wherein M is a metal cation, x+y>1, 0material preferably has a spinel or spinel-like component in its structure. The value of y preferably is less than about 0.2, and M comprises one or more metal cations selected preferably from one or more monovalent, divalent, trivalent or tetravalent cations, such as Mg.sup.2+, Co.sup.2+, Co.sup.3+, B.sup.3+, Ga.sup.3+, Fe.sup.2+, Fe.sup.3+, Al.sup.3+, and Ti.sup.4+. The electrode material can be synthesized using an ion-exchange reaction with a lithium salt in an organic-based solvent to partially replace sodium ions of a precursor material with lithium ions.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and application of electrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lin

    1995-07-07

    It has been known that significant advances in electrochemistry really depend on improvements in the sensitivity, selectivity, convenience, and/or economy of working electrodes, especially through the development of new working electrode materials. The advancement of solid state chemistry and materials science makes it possible to provide the materials which may be required as satisfactory electrode materials. The combination of solid state techniques with electrochemistry expands the applications of solid state materials and leads to the improvement of electrocatalysis. The study of Ru-Ti4O7 and Pt-Ti4O7 microelectrode arrays as introduced in paper 1 and paper 4, respectively, focuses on their synthesis and characterization. The synthesis is described by high temperature techniques for Ru or Pt microelectrode arrays within a conductive Ti4O7ceramic matrix. The characterization is based on the data obtained by x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, voltammetry and amperometry. These microelectrode arrays show significant enhancement in current densities in comparison to solid Ru and Pt electrodes. Electrocatalysis at pyrochlore oxide Bi2Ru2O7.3 and Bi2Ir2O7 electrodes are described in paper 2 and paper 3, respectively. Details are reported for the synthesis and characterization of composite Bi2Ru2O7.3 electrodes. Voltammetric data are examined for evidence that oxidation can occur with transfer of oxygen to the oxidation products in the potential region corresponding to anodic discharge of H2O with simultaneous evolution of O2. Paper 3 includes electrocatalytic activities of composite Bi2Ir2O7 disk electrodes for the oxidation of I- and the reduction of IO3-.

  10. Polarized potential and electrode materials implication on electro-fermentative di-hydrogen production: Microbial assemblages and hydrogenase gene copy variation.

    PubMed

    Arunasri, Kotakonda; Annie Modestra, J; Yeruva, Dileep Kumar; Vamshi Krishna, K; Venkata Mohan, S

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the changes in microbial diversity in response to different electrode materials viz., stainless steel mesh (SS) and graphite plate as anodes in two microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) each poised at 0.2V, 0.4V, 0.6V and 0.8V. Changes in microbiota prior to and after pretreatment along with microbiota enriched in response to various poised potentials with SS and graphite are monitored by 16S rRNA gene based DGGE profiling. Significant shifts in microbial community were noticed at all these experimental conditions. Correspondingly, the level of hydrogenase belonging to genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Rhodopseudomonas and Clostridium was studied by quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) at various applied potentials. DGGE based 16S rRNA gene profiling revealed enriched members belonging to phylum Firmicutes predominantly present at 0.8V in both MECs contributing to high hydrogen production. This study first time explored the growth behavior of mixed consortia in response to poised potentials and electrode materials.

  11. Screening of redox couples and electrode materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.; Swette, L.; Cahill, K.

    1976-01-01

    Electrochemical parameters of selected redox couples that might be potentially promising for application in bulk energy storage systems were investigated. This was carried out in two phases: a broad investigation of the basic characteristics and behavior of various redox couples, followed by a more limited investigation of their electrochemical performance in a redox flow reactor configuration. In the first phase of the program, eight redox couples were evaluated under a variety of conditions in terms of their exchange current densities as measured by the rotating disk electrode procedure. The second phase of the program involved the testing of four couples in a redox reactor under flow conditions with a varity of electrode materials and structures.

  12. Measurements of Plasma Potential Distribution in Segmented Electrode Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Raitses; D. Staack; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-16

    Use of a segmented electrode placed at the Hall thruster exit can substantially reduce the voltage potential drop in the fringing magnetic field outside the thruster channel. In this paper, we investigate the dependence of this effect on thruster operating conditions and segmented electrode configuration. A fast movable emissive probe is used to measure plasma potential in a 1 kW laboratory Hall thruster with semented electrodes made of a graphite material. Relatively small probe-induced perturbations of the thruster discharge in the vicinity of the thruster exit allow a reasonable comparison of the measured results for different thruster configurations. It is shown that the plasma potential distribution is almost not sensitive to changes of the electrode potential, but depends on the magnetic field distribution and the electrode placement.

  13. A new electrode-active material for polymer batteries: Polyvinylferrocene

    SciTech Connect

    Iwakura, C.; Kawai, T.; Nojima, M.; Yoneyama, H.

    1987-04-01

    The electrochemical characteristics of polyvinylferrocene (PVF) was investigated for use as an electrode-active material rechargeable batteries. Charge-discharge curves of the PVF electrodes showed excellent potential flatness and very high coulombic efficiencies in both nonaqueous and aqueous solutions. The dispersion of graphite powder in PVF was very useful for increasing the discharge rate and PVF utilization. The self-discharge rates were found to be as low as 1% in the first day. It is concluded that PVF is a promising material as an electrode-active material in rechargeable batteries.

  14. LOWER TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYTE AND ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Keqin Huang

    2003-04-30

    A thorough literature survey on low-temperature electrolyte and electrode materials for SOFC is given in this report. Thermodynamic stability of selected electrolyte and its chemical compatibility with cathode substrate were evaluated. Preliminary electrochemical characterizations were conducted on symmetrical cells consisting of the selected electrolyte and various electrode materials. Feasibility of plasma spraying new electrolyte material thin-film on cathode substrate was explored.

  15. Architecture engineering of supercapacitor electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Gong; Xue, Dongfeng

    2016-02-01

    The biggest challenge for today’s supercapacitor systems readily possessing high power density is their low energy density. Their electrode materials with controllable structure, specific surface area, electronic conductivity, and oxidation state, have long been highlighted. Architecture engineering of functional electrode materials toward powerful supercapacitor systems is becoming a big fashion in the community. The construction of ion-accessible tunnel structures can microscopically increase the specific capacitance and materials utilization; stiff 3D structures with high specific surface area can macroscopically assure high specific capacitance. Many exciting findings in electrode materials mainly focus on the construction of ice-folded graphene paper, in situ functionalized graphene, in situ crystallizing colloidal ionic particles and polymorphic metal oxides. This feature paper highlights some recent architecture engineering strategies toward high-energy supercapacitor electrode systems, including electric double-layer capacitance (EDLC) and pseudocapacitance.

  16. Advanced Materials for Neural Surface Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Schendel, Amelia A.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Williams, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    Designing electrodes for neural interfacing applications requires deep consideration of a multitude of materials factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, the stiffness, biocompatibility, biostability, dielectric, and conductivity properties of the materials involved. The combination of materials properties chosen not only determines the ability of the device to perform its intended function, but also the extent to which the body reacts to the presence of the device after implantation. Advances in the field of materials science continue to yield new and improved materials with properties well-suited for neural applications. Although many of these materials have been well-established for non-biological applications, their use in medical devices is still relatively novel. The intention of this review is to outline new material advances for neural electrode arrays, in particular those that interface with the surface of the nervous tissue, as well as to propose future directions for neural surface electrode development. PMID:26392802

  17. Advanced Materials for Neural Surface Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Schendel, Amelia A; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Williams, Justin C

    2014-12-01

    Designing electrodes for neural interfacing applications requires deep consideration of a multitude of materials factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, the stiffness, biocompatibility, biostability, dielectric, and conductivity properties of the materials involved. The combination of materials properties chosen not only determines the ability of the device to perform its intended function, but also the extent to which the body reacts to the presence of the device after implantation. Advances in the field of materials science continue to yield new and improved materials with properties well-suited for neural applications. Although many of these materials have been well-established for non-biological applications, their use in medical devices is still relatively novel. The intention of this review is to outline new material advances for neural electrode arrays, in particular those that interface with the surface of the nervous tissue, as well as to propose future directions for neural surface electrode development.

  18. The Encyclopedia of Chemical Electrode Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Antelman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Designed for industrial chemists concerned with chemical potential data in their day-to-day performance of experiments, The Encyclopedia of Chemical Electrode Potentials is the most comprehensive listing of chemical electrode potentials available today, including dat derived from many different reports, articles, and tabulations, and also previously unpublished complex formation EMF data. Thermodynamic calculations based on data reflecting varying conditions have made it possible to integrate results obtained at different pressures and electrolyte concentrations into a useful electromotive series. The electrochemical series which constitutes the core of the Encyclopedia embodies a novel arrangement which differentiates between anions, cations, complexes, and compounds. For the convenience of the practicing chemist, the data are made accessible in a number of different ways: all the information in the electrochemical series is reorganized into a listing of electrode potentials by element.

  19. LOWER TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYTE AND ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Keqin Huang

    2001-04-30

    A thorough literature survey on low-temperature electrolyte and electrode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is presented. Preliminary results of co-sintering LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM) film on the cathode substrate were also reported. The chemical stability of LSGM in various SOFC environments was thermodynamically assessed and verified by the molten-salt technique.

  20. Gallium Nitride Crystals: Novel Supercapacitor Electrode Materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shouzhi; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Changlong; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Lv, Jiaxin; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2016-05-01

    A type of single-crystal gallium nitride mesoporous membrane is fabricated and its supercapacitor properties are demonstrated for the first time. The supercapacitors exhibit high-rate capability, stable cycling life at high rates, and ultrahigh power density. This study may expand the range of crystals as high-performance electrode materials in the field of energy storage.

  1. Electrostatic atomization: Effect of electrode materials on electrostatic atomizer performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Abhilash; Staszel, Christopher; Kashir, Babak; Perri, Anthony; Mashayek, Farzad; Yarin, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Electrostatic atomization was studied experimentally with a pointed electrode in a converging nozzle. Experiments were carried out on poorly conductive canola oil where it was observed that electrode material may affect charge transfer. This points at the possible faradaic reactions that can occur at the surfaces of the electrodes. The supply voltage is applied to the sharp electrode and the grounded nozzle body constitutes the counter-electrode. The charge transfer is controlled by the electrochemical reactions on both the electrodes. The electrical performance study of the atomizer issuing a charged oil jet was conducted using three different nozzle body materials - brass, copper and stainless steel. Also, two sharp electrode materials - brass and stainless steel - were tested. The experimental results revealed that both the nozzle body material, as well as the sharp electrode material affected the spray and leak currents. Moreover, the effect of the sharp electrode material is quite significant. This research is supported by NSF Grant 1505276.

  2. The rise of organic electrode materials for energy storage.

    PubMed

    Schon, Tyler B; McAllister, Bryony T; Li, Peng-Fei; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-11-07

    Organic electrode materials are very attractive for electrochemical energy storage devices because they can be flexible, lightweight, low cost, benign to the environment, and used in a variety of device architectures. They are not mere alternatives to more traditional energy storage materials, rather, they have the potential to lead to disruptive technologies. Although organic electrode materials for energy storage have progressed in recent years, there are still significant challenges to overcome before reaching large-scale commercialization. This review provides an overview of energy storage systems as a whole, the metrics that are used to quantify the performance of electrodes, recent strategies that have been investigated to overcome the challenges associated with organic electrode materials, and the use of computational chemistry to design and study new materials and their properties. Design strategies are examined to overcome issues with capacity/capacitance, device voltage, rate capability, and cycling stability in order to guide future work in the area. The use of low cost materials is highlighted as a direction towards commercial realization.

  3. Vanadium based materials as electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Li, Bing; Guo, Wei; Pang, Huan; Xue, Huaiguo

    2016-10-01

    As a kind of supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors have attracted wide attention in recent years. The capacitance of the electrochemical capacitors based on pseudocapacitance arises mainly from redox reactions between electrolytes and active materials. These materials usually have several oxidation states for oxidation and reduction. Many research teams have focused on the development of an alternative material for electrochemical capacitors. Many transition metal oxides have been shown to be suitable as electrode materials of electrochemical capacitors. Among them, vanadium based materials are being developed for this purpose. Vanadium based materials are known as one of the best active materials for high power/energy density electrochemical capacitors due to its outstanding specific capacitance and long cycle life, high conductivity and good electrochemical reversibility. There are different kinds of synthetic methods such as sol-gel hydrothermal/solvothermal method, template method, electrospinning method, atomic layer deposition, and electrodeposition method that have been successfully applied to prepare vanadium based electrode materials. In our review, we give an overall summary and evaluation of the recent progress in the research of vanadium based materials for electrochemical capacitors that include synthesis methods, the electrochemical performances of the electrode materials and the devices.

  4. Electrode contamination effects of retarding potential analyzer.

    PubMed

    Fang, H K; Oyama, K-I; Cheng, C Z

    2014-01-01

    The electrode contamination in electrostatic analyzers such as Langmuir probes and retarding potential analyzers (RPA) is a serious problem for space measurements. The contamination layer acts as extra capacitance and resistance and leads to distortion in the measured I-V curve, which leads to erroneous measurement results. There are two main effects of the contamination layer: one is the impedance effect and the other is the charge attachment and accumulation due to the capacitance. The impedance effect can be reduced or eliminated by choosing the proper sweeping frequency. However, for RPA the charge accumulation effect becomes serious because the capacitance of the contamination layer is much larger than that of the Langmuir probe of similar dimension. The charge accumulation on the retarding potential grid causes the effective potential, that ions experience, to be changed from the applied voltage. Then, the number of ions that can pass through the retarding potential grid to reach the collector and, thus, the measured ion current are changed. This effect causes the measured ion drift velocity and ion temperature to be changed from the actual values. The error caused by the RPA electrode contamination is expected to be significant for sounding rocket measurements with low rocket velocity (1-2 km/s) and low ion temperature of 200-300 K in the height range of 100-300 km. In this paper we discuss the effects associated with the RPA contaminated electrodes based on theoretical analysis and experiments performed in a space plasma operation chamber. Finally, the development of a contamination-free RPA for sounding rocket missions is presented.

  5. Lithium Manganese Silicate Positive Electrode Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiong

    As the fast development of the electronic portable devices and drastic fading of fossil energy sources. The need for portable secondary energy sources is increasingly urgent. As a result, lithium ion batteries are being investigated intensely to meet the performance requirements. Among various electrode materials, the most expensive and capacity limiting component is the positive materials. Based on this, researches have been mostly focused on the development of novel cathode materials with high capacity and energy density and the lithium transition metal orthosilicates have been identified as possible high performance cathodes. Here in, we report the synthesis of a kind of lithium transition metal orthosilicates electrode lithium manganese silicate. Lithium manganese silicate has the advantage of high theoretical capacity, low cost raw material and safety. In this thesis, lithium manganese silicate are prepared using different silicon sources. The structure of silicon sources preferred are examined. Nonionic block copolymers surfactant, P123, is tried as carbon source and mophology directing agent. Lithium manganese silicate's performances are improved by adding P123.

  6. Plasmonic Imaging of the Interfacial Potential Distribution on Bipolar Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hasheminejad, Meisam; Fang, Yimin; Li, Meng; Jiang, Yingyan; Wang, Wei; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Bipolar electrochemistry is based on the gradient distribution of free-electron density along an electrically isolated electrode, which causes a positive electrode potential at one end and a negative potential at the other, allowing for wide applications in analytical chemistry and materials science. To take full advantage of its wireless and high-throughput features, various types of optical probes, such as pH indicators and fluorescence and electrochemiluminescence reagents, have often been used to indirectly monitor the interfacial electron transfer through chromogenic or fluorogenic reactions. Herein, we report the first probe-free imaging approach that can directly visualize the distribution of the interfacial potential in bipolar electrodes, providing essential information for the validation and development of the theory and applications of bipolar electrochemistry. This approach is based on the sensitive dependence of surface plasmon resonance imaging on the local electron density in the electrode, which enables the direct mapping of potential with a spatial resolution close to the optical diffraction limit, a temporal resolution of 50 ms, and a sensitivity of 10 mV. In addition, in contrast to previous optical readouts that relied on faradaic reactions, the present work achieved the impedance-based measurements under non-faradaic conditions. It is anticipated that this technique will greatly expand the application of bipolar electrochemistry as a platform for chemical and biosensing.

  7. Improving Electrode Durability of PEF Chamber by selecting suitable material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corrosion resistance of four materials - titanium, platinized titanium, stainless steel, and boron carbide - as electrodes in a Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) system was studied to reduce electrode material migration into the food by electrode corrosion. The PEF process conditions were 28 kV/cm field s...

  8. Amorphous LiCoO2sbnd Li2SO4 active materials: Potential positive electrodes for bulk-type all-oxide solid-state lithium batteries with high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Kenji; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Deguchi, Minako; Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Mori, Shigeo; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2017-04-01

    Newly amorphous Li2-x/100Cox/100S1-x/100O4-x/50 (xLiCoO2·(100-x)Li2SO4 (mol%)) positive electrode active materials are synthesized using mechanochemical techniques. SEM observation indicates that average radii of the Li1.2Co0.8S0.2O2.4 (80LiCoO2·20Li2SO4 (mol%)) particles are about 3 μm. HR-TEM images indicate that the particles comprise nano-crystalline and amorphous phases. The crystalline phase is attributable to cubic LiCoO2 phase. These active materials exhibit a high electronic conductivity of around 10-5-10-1 S cm-1 and an ionic conductivity of around 10-7-10-6 S cm-1 at room temperature. Bulk-type all-oxide solid-state cells (Lisbnd In alloy/Li3BO3-based glass-ceramic electrolyte/amorphous Li2-x/100Cox/100S1-x/100O4-x/50) are fabricated by pressing at room temperature without high temperature sintering. Although the cell with the milled LiCoO2 shows no capacity, the cell using the Li1.2Co0.8S0.2O2.4 electrode with no conductive components (ca. 150 μm thickness) operates as a secondary battery at 100 °C, with an average discharge potential of 3.3 V (vs. Li+/Li) and discharge capacity of 163 mAh g-1. A positive electrode with large amounts of active materials is suitable for achieving high energy density in all-solid-state batteries. These newly synthesized amorphous Li2-x/100Cox/100S1-x/100O4-x/50 electrodes with ionic and electronic conductivities and good processability meet that demand.

  9. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hojin; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2015-01-01

    The advent of novel organic and inorganic nanomaterials in recent years, particularly nanostructured carbons, conducting polymers, and metal oxides, has enabled the fabrication of various energy devices with enhanced performance. In this paper, we review in detail different nanomaterials used in the fabrication of electrochemical capacitor electrodes and also give a brief overview of electric double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and hybrid capacitors. From a materials point of view, the latest trends in electrochemical capacitor research are also discussed through extensive analysis of the literature and by highlighting notable research examples (published mostly since 2013). Finally, a perspective on next-generation capacitor technology is also given, including the challenges that lie ahead. PMID:28347044

  10. Control of laser-ablation plasma potential with external electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Isono, Fumika Nakajima, Mitsuo; Hasegawa, Jun; Kawamura, Tohru; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-15

    The potential of a laser-ablation plasma was controlled stably up to +2 kV by using external ring electrodes. A stable electron sheath was formed between the plasma and the external electrodes by placing the ring electrodes away from the boundary of the drifting plasma. The plasma kept the potential for a few μs regardless of the flux change of the ablation plasma. We also found that the plasma potential changed with the expansion angle of the plasma from the target. By changing the distance between the plasma boundary and the external electrodes, we succeeded in controlling the potential of laser-ablation plasma.

  11. Using multivariate analyses to compare subsets of electrodes and potentials within an electrode array for predicting sugar concentrations in mixed solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, Christopher Lyle; Steen, William Arthur

    2008-04-01

    A non-selective electrode array is presented for the quantification of fructose, galactose, and glucose in mixed solutions. A unique feature of this electrode array relative to other published work is the wide diversity of electrode materials incorporated within the array, being constructed of 41 different metals and metal alloys. Cyclic voltammograms were acquired for solutions containing a single sugar at varying concentrations, and the correlation between current and sugar concentration was calculated as a function of potential and electrode array element. The correlation plots identified potential regions and electrodes that scaled most linearly with sugar concentration, and the number of electrodes used in building predictive models was reduced to 15. Partial least squares regression models relating electrochemical response to sugar concentration were constructed using data from single electrodes and multiple electrodes within the array, and the predictive abilities of these models were rigorously compared using a non-parametric Wilcoxon test. Models using single electrodes (Pt:Rh (90:10) for fructose, Au:Ni (82:18) for galactose, and Au for glucose) were judged to be statistically superior or indistinguishable from those built with multiple electrodes. Additionally, for each sugar, interval partial least squares regression successfully identified a subset of potentials within a given electrode that generated a model of statistically equivalent predictive ability relative to the full potential model. While including data from multiple electrodes offered no benefit in predicting sugar concentration, use of the array afforded the versatility and flexibility of selecting the best single electrode for each sugar.

  12. Extrusion of electrode material by liquid injection into extruder barrel

    DOEpatents

    Keller, David Gerard; Giovannoni, Richard Thomas; MacFadden, Kenneth Orville

    1998-01-01

    An electrode sheet product is formed using an extruder having a feed throat and a downstream section by separately mixing an active electrode material and a solid polymer electrolyte composition that contains lithium salt. The active electrode material is fed into the feed throat of the extruder, while a portion of at least one fluid component of the solid polymer electrolyte composition is introduced to the downstream section. The active electrode material and the solid polymer electrolyte composition are compounded in a downstream end of the extruder. The extruded sheets, adhered to current collectors, can be formed into battery cells.

  13. Extrusion of electrode material by liquid injection into extruder barrel

    DOEpatents

    Keller, D.G.; Giovannoni, R.T.; MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-03-10

    An electrode sheet product is formed using an extruder having a feed throat and a downstream section by separately mixing an active electrode material and a solid polymer electrolyte composition that contains lithium salt. The active electrode material is fed into the feed throat of the extruder, while a portion of at least one fluid component of the solid polymer electrolyte composition is introduced to the downstream section. The active electrode material and the solid polymer electrolyte composition are compounded in a downstream end of the extruder. The extruded sheets, adhered to current collectors, can be formed into battery cells. 1 fig.

  14. Aqueous processing of composite lithium ion electrode material

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jianlin; Armstrong, Beth L; Daniel, Claus; Wood, III, David L

    2015-02-17

    A method of making a battery electrode includes the steps of dispersing an active electrode material and a conductive additive in water with at least one dispersant to create a mixed dispersion; treating a surface of a current collector to raise the surface energy of the surface to at least the surface tension of the mixed dispersion; depositing the dispersed active electrode material and conductive additive on a current collector; and heating the coated surface to remove water from the coating.

  15. Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F.; Frank, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    Methods and techniques are described for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The methods are useful in a variety of applications. The biological materials may include microbes, proteins, and viruses. The electrode surface may consist of reversibly electroactive materials such as polyvinylferrocene, silicon-linked ferrocene or quinone.

  16. Reversibly immobilized biological materials in monolayer films on electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, P.F.; Frank, A.J.

    1993-05-04

    Methods and techniques are described for reversibly binding charged biological particles in a fluid medium to an electrode surface. The methods are useful in a variety of applications. The biological materials may include microbes, proteins, and viruses. The electrode surface may consist of reversibly electroactive materials such as polyvinylferrocene, silicon-linked ferrocene or quinone.

  17. Materials analyses and electrochemical impedance of implantable metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Howlader, Matiar M R; Ul Alam, Arif; Sharma, Rahul P; Deen, M Jamal

    2015-04-21

    Implantable electrodes with high flexibility, high mechanical fixation and low electrochemical impedance are desirable for neuromuscular activation because they provide safe, effective and stable stimulation. In this paper, we report on detailed materials and electrical analyses of three metal implantable electrodes - gold (Au), platinum (Pt) and titanium (Ti) - using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning acoustic microscopy, drop shape analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We investigated the cause of changes in electrochemical impedance of long-term immersed Au, Pt and Ti electrodes on liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). We analyzed the surface wettability, surface and interface defects and the elemental depth profile of the electrode-adhesion layers on the LCP. The impedance of the electrodes decreased at lower frequencies, but increased at higher frequencies compared with that of the short-term immersion. The increase of impedances was influenced by the oxidation of the electrode/adhesion-layers that affected the double layer capacitance behavior of the electrode/PBS. The oxidation of the adhesion layer for all the electrodes was confirmed by XPS. Alkali ions (sodium) were adsorbed on the Au and Pt surfaces, but diffused into the Ti electrode and LCPs. The Pt electrode showed a higher sensitivity to surface and interface defects than that of Ti and Au electrodes. These findings may be useful when designing electrodes for long-term implantable devices.

  18. Modified lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials products and methods

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kahaian, Arthur J.; Visser, Donald R.; Dees, Dennis W.; Benedek, Roy

    1999-12-21

    A method of improving certain vanadium oxide formulations is presented. The method concerns fluorine doping formulations having a nominal formula of LiV.sub.3 O.sub.8. Preferred average formulations are provided wherein the average oxidation state of the vanadium is at least 4.6. Herein preferred fluorine doped vanadium oxide materials, electrodes using such materials, and batteries including at least one electrode therein comprising such materials are provided.

  19. Electrochemical degradation of trichloroacetic acid in aqueous media: influence of the electrode material.

    PubMed

    Esclapez, M D; Díez-García, M I; Sàez, V; Bonete, P; González-García, José

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical degradation of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in water has been analysed through voltammetric studies with a rotating disc electrode and controlled-potential bulk electrolyses. The influence of the mass-transport conditions and initial concentration of TCAA for titanium, stainless steel and carbon electrodes has been studied. It is shown that the electrochemical reduction of TCAA takes place prior to the massive hydrogen evolution in the potential window for all electrode materials studied. The current efficiency is high (> 18%) compared with those normally reported in the literature, and the fractional conversion is above 50% for all the electrodes studied. Only dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and chloride anions were routinely detected as reduction products for any of the electrodes, and reasonable values of mass balance error were obtained. Of the three materials studied, the titanium cathode gave the best results.

  20. Micro-agar salt bridge in patch-clamp electrode holder stabilizes electrode potentials

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xuesi M.; Feldman, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining a stable electrode potential is critical for patch-clamp measurements. The electrode potential of conventional patch electrode-holder assembly, where an Ag/AgCl wire is in direct contact with the patch pipette filling solution, is subject to drift if the pipette solution contains a low concentration of chloride ions (Cl−). We developed an agar bridge of 3 M KCl filled in a polyimide microtubing which forms an electrical connection between an Ag/AgCl wire and the pipette solution. We examined the offset potentials of the micro-agar salt bridge electrode assembly in parallel with a conventional electrode assembly in generic recording conditions (the pipette solution contained 5 mM NaCl). The junction potential between the Ag/AgCl wire and the pipette filling solution in the conventional electrode contributed to most of the offset potential drift observed during the course of 30 min recordings. The drift was up to 27.3 mV after several changes of the glass pipette. In contrast, the micro-agar salt bridge stabilized the electrode potential within typically 2 mV without affecting the patch electrode resistance, capacitance or noise level. Numerical simulations showed that Cl− diffusion from the agar bridge to the tip caused a negligible 0.4 μM Cl− concentration change at the pipette tip within 30 min. This method is easy to implement and provides long-term recording stability. The micro-agar salt bridge can fit in most commercial patch electrode holders and can be conveniently maintained. PMID:16916545

  1. Advances in materials and current collecting networks for AMTEC electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Williams, R. M.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-01-01

    Electrode materials for the Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) play a significant role in the efficiency of the device. RhW and PtW alloys have been studied to determine the best performing material. While RhW electrodes typically have power densities somewhat lower than PtW electrodes, PtW performance is strongly influenced by the Pt/W ratio. The best performing Pt/W ratio is about 3.4. RhW electrodes sinter more slowly than PtW and are predicted to have operating lifetimes up to 40 years; PtW electrodes are predicted to have lifetimes up to 7 years. Interaction with the current collection network can significantly decrease lifetime by inducing metal migration and segregation and by accelerating the sintering rate.

  2. Rugged pressed disk electrode has low contact potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. L.; Mosier, B.

    1965-01-01

    Pressed-disk electrode with low contact potential monitors physiological processes. It consists of silver and silver chloride combined with bentonitic clay. The clay affords a surface that permits use over extended periods without contact deterioration.

  3. Fuel cell electrode interconnect contact material encapsulation and method

    DOEpatents

    Derose, Anthony J.; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Gudyka, Russell A.; Bonadies, Joseph V.; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2016-05-31

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of fuel cell cassettes each including a fuel cell with an anode and a cathode. Each fuel cell cassette also includes an electrode interconnect adjacent to the anode or the cathode for providing electrical communication between an adjacent fuel cell cassette and the anode or the cathode. The interconnect includes a plurality of electrode interconnect protrusions defining a flow passage along the anode or the cathode for communicating oxidant or fuel to the anode or the cathode. An electrically conductive material is disposed between at least one of the electrode interconnect protrusions and the anode or the cathode in order to provide a stable electrical contact between the electrode interconnect and the anode or cathode. An encapsulating arrangement segregates the electrically conductive material from the flow passage thereby, preventing volatilization of the electrically conductive material in use of the fuel cell stack.

  4. Towards uniformly dispersed battery electrode composite materials: Characteristics and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Yo Han Kwon; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Huie, Matthew M.; Choi, Dalsu; Chang, Mincheol; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2016-01-14

    Battery electrodes are complex mesoscale systems comprised of electroactive components, conductive additives, and binders. In this report, methods for processing electrodes with dispersion of the components are described. To investigate the degree of material dispersion, a spin-coating technique was adopted to provide a thin, uniform layer that enabled observation of the morphology. Distinct differences in the distribution profile of the electrode components arising from individual materials physical affinities were readily identified. Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) analysis revealed pertinent surface interactions associated with materials dispersivity. Further studies demonstrated that HSPs can provide an effective strategy to identify surface modification approaches for improved dispersions of battery electrode materials. Specifically, introduction of surfactantlike functionality such as oleic acid (OA) capping and P3HT-conjugated polymer wrapping on the surface of nanomaterials significantly enhanced material dispersity over the composite electrode. The approach to the surface treatment on the basis of HSP study can facilitate design of composite electrodes with uniformly dispersed morphology and may contribute to enhancing their electrical and electrochemical behaviors. The conductivity of the composites and their electrochemical performance was also characterized. In conclusion, the study illustrates the importance of considering electronic conductivity, electron transfer, and ion transport in the design of environments incorporating active nanomaterials.

  5. Towards uniformly dispersed battery electrode composite materials: Characteristics and performance

    DOE PAGES

    Yo Han Kwon; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Huie, Matthew M.; ...

    2016-01-14

    Battery electrodes are complex mesoscale systems comprised of electroactive components, conductive additives, and binders. In this report, methods for processing electrodes with dispersion of the components are described. To investigate the degree of material dispersion, a spin-coating technique was adopted to provide a thin, uniform layer that enabled observation of the morphology. Distinct differences in the distribution profile of the electrode components arising from individual materials physical affinities were readily identified. Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) analysis revealed pertinent surface interactions associated with materials dispersivity. Further studies demonstrated that HSPs can provide an effective strategy to identify surface modification approaches formore » improved dispersions of battery electrode materials. Specifically, introduction of surfactantlike functionality such as oleic acid (OA) capping and P3HT-conjugated polymer wrapping on the surface of nanomaterials significantly enhanced material dispersity over the composite electrode. The approach to the surface treatment on the basis of HSP study can facilitate design of composite electrodes with uniformly dispersed morphology and may contribute to enhancing their electrical and electrochemical behaviors. The conductivity of the composites and their electrochemical performance was also characterized. In conclusion, the study illustrates the importance of considering electronic conductivity, electron transfer, and ion transport in the design of environments incorporating active nanomaterials.« less

  6. Toward Uniformly Dispersed Battery Electrode Composite Materials: Characteristics and Performance.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yo Han; Huie, Matthew M; Choi, Dalsu; Chang, Mincheol; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2016-02-10

    Battery electrodes are complex mesoscale systems comprised of electroactive components, conductive additives, and binders. In this report, methods for processing electrodes with dispersion of the components are described. To investigate the degree of material dispersion, a spin-coating technique was adopted to provide a thin, uniform layer that enabled observation of the morphology. Distinct differences in the distribution profile of the electrode components arising from individual materials physical affinities were readily identified. Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) analysis revealed pertinent surface interactions associated with materials dispersivity. Further studies demonstrated that HSPs can provide an effective strategy to identify surface modification approaches for improved dispersions of battery electrode materials. Specifically, introduction of surfactantlike functionality such as oleic acid (OA) capping and P3HT-conjugated polymer wrapping on the surface of nanomaterials significantly enhanced material dispersity over the composite electrode. The approach to the surface treatment on the basis of HSP study can facilitate design of composite electrodes with uniformly dispersed morphology and may contribute to enhancing their electrical and electrochemical behaviors. The conductivity of the composites and their electrochemical performance was also characterized. The study illustrates the importance of considering electronic conductivity, electron transfer, and ion transport in the design of environments incorporating active nanomaterials.

  7. Electrode materials for biphenyl-based rectification devices.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Sweta; Srivastava, Pankaj; Pattanaik, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    An ab initio approach was utilized to explore the electronic transport properties of 4'-thiolate-biphenyl-4-dithiocarboxylate (TBDT) sandwiched between two electrodes made of various materials X (X = Cu, Ag, and Au). Analysis of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, rectification performance, transmission functions, and the projected density of states (PDOS) under various external voltage biases showed that the transport properties of these constructed systems are markedly impacted by the choice of electrode materials. Further, Cu electrodes yield the best rectifying behavior, followed by Ag and then Au electrodes. Interestingly, the rectification effects can be tuned by changing the torsion angle between the two phenyl rings, as well as by stretching the contact distances between the end group and the electrodes. For Cu, the maximum rectifying ratio increases by 37 % as the contact distance changes from 1.7 Å to 1.9 Å. This is due to an increase in coupling strength asymmetry between the molecule and the electrodes. Our findings are compared with the results reported for other systems. The present calculations are helpful not only for predicting the optimal electrode material for practical applications but also for achieving better control over rectifying performance in molecular devices.

  8. Effect of oxidation of carbon material on suspension electrodes for flow electrode capacitive deionization.

    PubMed

    Hatzell, Kelsey B; Hatzell, Marta C; Cook, Kevin M; Boota, Muhammad; Housel, Gabrielle M; McBride, Alexander; Kumbur, E Caglan; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-03-03

    Flow electrode deionization (FCDI) is an emerging area for continuous and scalable deionization, but the electrochemical and flow properties of the flow electrode need to be improved to minimize energy consumption. Chemical oxidation of granular activated carbon (AC) was examined here to study the role of surface heteroatoms on rheology and electrochemical performance of a flow electrode (carbon slurry) for deionization processes. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher mass densities could be used without increasing energy for pumping when using oxidized active material. High mass-loaded flow electrodes (28% carbon content) based on oxidized AC displayed similar viscosities (∼21 Pa s) to lower mass-loaded flow electrodes (20% carbon content) based on nonoxidized AC. The 40% increased mass loading (from 20% to 28%) resulted in a 25% increase in flow electrode gravimetric capacitance (from 65 to 83 F g(-1)) without sacrificing flowability (viscosity). The electrical energy required to remove ∼18% of the ions (desalt) from of the feed solution was observed to be significantly dependent on the mass loading and decreased (∼60%) from 92 ± 7 to 28 ± 2.7 J with increased mass densities from 5 to 23 wt %. It is shown that the surface chemistry of the active material in a flow electrode effects the electrical and pumping energy requirements of a FCDI system.

  9. Effect of oxidation of carbon material on suspension electrodes for flow electrode capacitive deionization

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzell, Kelsey B.; Hatzell, Marta C.; Cook, Kevin M.; Boota, Muhammad; Housel, Gabrielle M.; Mcbride, Alexander; Kumbur, E. Caglan; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-01-29

    Flow electrode deionization (FCDI) is an emerging area for continuous and scalable deionization, but the electrochemical and flow properties of the flow electrode need to be improved to minimize energy consumption. We examine chemical oxidation of granular activated carbon (AC) here to study the role of surface heteroatoms on rheology and electrochemical performance of a flow electrode (carbon slurry) for deionization processes. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher mass densities could be used without increasing energy for pumping when using oxidized active material. High mass-loaded flow electrodes (28% carbon content) based on oxidized AC displayed similar viscosities (~21 Pa s) to lower mass-loaded flow electrodes (20% carbon content) based on nonoxidized AC. The 40% increased mass loading (from 20% to 28%) resulted in a 25% increase in flow electrode gravimetric capacitance (from 65 to 83 F g–1) without sacrificing flowability (viscosity). The electrical energy required to remove ~18% of the ions (desalt) from of the feed solution was observed to be significantly dependent on the mass loading and decreased (~60%) from 92 ± 7 to 28 ± 2.7 J with increased mass densities from 5 to 23 wt %. Finally, it is shown that the surface chemistry of the active material in a flow electrode effects the electrical and pumping energy requirements of a FCDI system.

  10. Effect of oxidation of carbon material on suspension electrodes for flow electrode capacitive deionization

    DOE PAGES

    Hatzell, Kelsey B.; Hatzell, Marta C.; Cook, Kevin M.; ...

    2015-01-29

    Flow electrode deionization (FCDI) is an emerging area for continuous and scalable deionization, but the electrochemical and flow properties of the flow electrode need to be improved to minimize energy consumption. We examine chemical oxidation of granular activated carbon (AC) here to study the role of surface heteroatoms on rheology and electrochemical performance of a flow electrode (carbon slurry) for deionization processes. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher mass densities could be used without increasing energy for pumping when using oxidized active material. High mass-loaded flow electrodes (28% carbon content) based on oxidized AC displayed similar viscosities (~21 Pa s)more » to lower mass-loaded flow electrodes (20% carbon content) based on nonoxidized AC. The 40% increased mass loading (from 20% to 28%) resulted in a 25% increase in flow electrode gravimetric capacitance (from 65 to 83 F g–1) without sacrificing flowability (viscosity). The electrical energy required to remove ~18% of the ions (desalt) from of the feed solution was observed to be significantly dependent on the mass loading and decreased (~60%) from 92 ± 7 to 28 ± 2.7 J with increased mass densities from 5 to 23 wt %. Finally, it is shown that the surface chemistry of the active material in a flow electrode effects the electrical and pumping energy requirements of a FCDI system.« less

  11. Recording and assessment of evoked potentials with electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Miljković, N; Malešević, N; Kojić, V; Bijelić, G; Keller, T; Popović, D B

    2015-09-01

    In order to optimize procedure for the assessment of evoked potentials and to provide visualization of the flow of action potentials along the motor systems, we introduced array electrodes for stimulation and recording and developed software for the analysis of the recordings. The system uses a stimulator connected to an electrode array for the generation of evoked potentials, an electrode array connected to the amplifier, A/D converter and computer for the recording of evoked potentials, and a dedicated software application. The method has been tested for the assessment of the H-reflex on the triceps surae muscle in six healthy humans. The electrode array with 16 pads was positioned over the posterior aspect of the thigh, while the recording electrode array with 16 pads was positioned over the triceps surae muscle. The stimulator activated all the pads of the stimulation electrode array asynchronously, while the signals were recorded continuously at all the recording sites. The results are topography maps (spatial distribution of evoked potentials) and matrices (spatial visualization of nerve excitability). The software allows the automatic selection of the lowest stimulation intensity to achieve maximal H-reflex amplitude and selection of the recording/stimulation pads according to predefined criteria. The analysis of results shows that the method provides rich information compared with the conventional recording of the H-reflex with regard the spatial distribution.

  12. Effects of the electrode oxidizing potential on underwater wet welds

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, A.M.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Depth greatly affects the chemical composition and mechanical properties of underwater wet (UWW) welds. It is well documented in the literature that as depth increases, the amount of oxygen in the weld increases while the deoxidants decrease in concentration. To understand the influence of oxygen on the characteristics and properties of UWW welds, deposits of electrodes with different oxidizing potentials were studied. The oxidizing potentials of these electrodes were varied through additions of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to the covering of a ruffle electrode. No metallic deoxidants were used in the coverings, but MgO was added to one of the oxidizing electrodes as a possible way to control oxygen. The welds were made at 0.5 m of water depth. Chemical analysis showed that increasing oxidizing potential of the electrodes increased the weld metal oxygen content eventually reaching a plateau value of approximately 2,100 ppm. This concentration plateau is determined by the solubility limit of FeO in the liquid iron at the solidification temperature. The MgO addition was sufficient to reduce the oxygen level to 1,700 ppm. The results also showed that the effects of increasing oxidizing potential of the electrode covering on weld metal composition and microstructure are similar to those of increasing water depth. This finding is very significant since it allows for the simulation of deep water weld metal microstructures in shallow waters by controlling the oxidizing potential of the consumables used. Finally, studying the properties of oxidizing electrodes in shallow depths will also be useful in developing welding electrodes for deep waters.

  13. Cell voltage versus electrode potential range in aqueous supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zengxin; Peng, Chuang; Chae, Jung Hoon; Ng, Kok Chiang; Chen, George Z.

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors with aqueous electrolytes and nanostructured composite electrodes are attractive because of their high charging-discharging speed, long cycle life, low environmental impact and wide commercial affordability. However, the energy capacity of aqueous supercapacitors is limited by the electrochemical window of water. In this paper, a recently reported engineering strategy is further developed and demonstrated to correlate the maximum charging voltage of a supercapacitor with the capacitive potential ranges and the capacitance ratio of the two electrodes. Beyond the maximum charging voltage, a supercapacitor may still operate, but at the expense of a reduced cycle life. In addition, it is shown that the supercapacitor performance is strongly affected by the initial and zero charge potentials of the electrodes. Further, the differences are highlighted and elaborated between freshly prepared, aged under open circuit conditions, and cycled electrodes of composites of conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes. The first voltammetric charging-discharging cycle has an electrode conditioning effect to change the electrodes from their initial potentials to the potential of zero voltage, and reduce the irreversibility. PMID:25897670

  14. Electrode materials for coal-fired MHD generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, R. A.

    1980-10-01

    Metallic materials are evaluated as electrodes for coal fired MHD generators. A laboratory test that simulates the electrochemical and corrosive environment was developed and used to characterize electrode behavior in a diffuse current flow (nonarcing) mode of operation. High current density requires that an electron transport mechanism of current flow be maintained. With inert, stable electrodes, anode polarization occurs and ionic conduction prevails, limiting current to low values. The nature of this behavior and approaches to overcoming anodic polarization are studied as a function of electrode material, slag composition, and temperature. By operating at high temperatures and with controlled slag chemistries to produce a very fluid slag, depolarization may be achieved by mechanical mixing. Interrupted current flow are required to aid in breaking down anodic polarization.

  15. Investigation of electrode materials for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcand, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    A number of amalgam electrode systems were investigated for possible use as high rate anodes and cathodes. The systems examined include: lithium, sodium, and potassium in Group 1, magnesium, calcium, and barium in Group 2, aluminum in Group 3, lead in Group 4, copper in Group 1b, and zinc and cadmium in Group 2b. The K(Hg) and Na(Hg) anodes in 10 VF and 15 VF (an unambiguous expression of concentration that indicates the number of formula weights of solute dissolved in a liter of solution) hydroxide solutions have proven satisfactory; some of these have produced current densities of more than 8 A/sq cm. None of the amalgam cathodes have approached this performance although the TI(Hg) has delivered 1 A/sq cm. Se(Hg) and Te(Hg) cathodes have given very stable discharges. Zn(Hg) and Cd(Hg) electrodes did not show good high rate characteristics, 200 to 300 mA/sq cm being about the maximum current densities obtainable. Both anodes are charged through a two-step process in which M(Hg) is first formed electrochemically and subsequently reduces Zn(II or Cd(II) to form the corresponding amalgam. The second step is extremely rapid for zinc and very slow for cadmium.

  16. Effect of Different Electrode Materials on the Electropolymerization Process of Aniline in Nitric Acid Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaozong; Yi, Yun; Yang, Weifang; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    The electropolymerization process of aniline on different electrode surfaces such as Pt, Au, RuTi and polyaniline film in nitric acid solution containing 1 M aniline was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Proposed electrical equivalent circuits were used to give a further analysis. Results show that the electrode materials accelerate the aniline electropolymerization remarkably as a catalyst, especially the electrochemical oxidation process of monomer aniline to its cation radical, which is the key step to incur the electropolymerization reaction of aniline on the electrode surface. The polymerization of aniline on RuTi electrode has the lowest reaction resistance for its adsorption sites, and the catalytic effects of these different electrodes decrease in the order: RuTi > polyaniline film > Pt > Au. The results also show that several states of polyaniline films are formed during the potential linear scan process in nitric acid solution and the corresponding oxidation and reduction reaction are reversible.

  17. Coaxial fiber supercapacitor using all-carbon material electrodes.

    PubMed

    Le, Viet Thong; Kim, Heetae; Ghosh, Arunabha; Kim, Jaesu; Chang, Jian; Vu, Quoc An; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Young Hee

    2013-07-23

    We report a coaxial fiber supercapacitor, which consists of carbon microfiber bundles coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a core electrode and carbon nanofiber paper as an outer electrode. The ratio of electrode volumes was determined by a half-cell test of each electrode. The capacitance reached 6.3 mF cm(-1) (86.8 mF cm(-2)) at a core electrode diameter of 230 μm and the measured energy density was 0.7 μWh cm(-1) (9.8 μWh cm(-2)) at a power density of 13.7 μW cm(-1) (189.4 μW cm(-2)), which were much higher than the previous reports. The change in the cyclic voltammetry characteristics was negligible at 180° bending, with excellent cycling performance. The high capacitance, high energy density, and power density of the coaxial fiber supercapacitor are attributed to not only high effective surface area due to its coaxial structure and bundle of the core electrode, but also all-carbon materials electrodes which have high conductivity. Our coaxial fiber supercapacitor can promote the development of textile electronics in near future.

  18. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Belharouak, Ilias; Liu, Jun

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  19. Polyanion‐Type Electrode Materials for Sodium‐Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qiao; Wu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Sodium‐ion batteries, representative members of the post‐lithium‐battery club, are very attractive and promising for large‐scale energy storage applications. The increasing technological improvements in sodium‐ion batteries (Na‐ion batteries) are being driven by the demand for Na‐based electrode materials that are resource‐abundant, cost‐effective, and long lasting. Polyanion‐type compounds are among the most promising electrode materials for Na‐ion batteries due to their stability, safety, and suitable operating voltages. The most representative polyanion‐type electrode materials are Na3V2(PO4)3 and NaTi2(PO4)3 for Na‐based cathode and anode materials, respectively. Both show superior electrochemical properties and attractive prospects in terms of their development and application in Na‐ion batteries. Carbonophosphate Na3MnCO3PO4 and amorphous FePO4 have also recently emerged and are contributing to further developing the research scope of polyanion‐type Na‐ion batteries. However, the typical low conductivity and relatively low capacity performance of such materials still restrict their development. This paper presents a brief review of the research progress of polyanion‐type electrode materials for Na‐ion batteries, summarizing recent accomplishments, highlighting emerging strategies, and discussing the remaining challenges of such systems. PMID:28331782

  20. Polyanion-Type Electrode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qiao; Bai, Ying; Wu, Feng; Wu, Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Sodium-ion batteries, representative members of the post-lithium-battery club, are very attractive and promising for large-scale energy storage applications. The increasing technological improvements in sodium-ion batteries (Na-ion batteries) are being driven by the demand for Na-based electrode materials that are resource-abundant, cost-effective, and long lasting. Polyanion-type compounds are among the most promising electrode materials for Na-ion batteries due to their stability, safety, and suitable operating voltages. The most representative polyanion-type electrode materials are Na3V2(PO4)3 and NaTi2(PO4)3 for Na-based cathode and anode materials, respectively. Both show superior electrochemical properties and attractive prospects in terms of their development and application in Na-ion batteries. Carbonophosphate Na3MnCO3PO4 and amorphous FePO4 have also recently emerged and are contributing to further developing the research scope of polyanion-type Na-ion batteries. However, the typical low conductivity and relatively low capacity performance of such materials still restrict their development. This paper presents a brief review of the research progress of polyanion-type electrode materials for Na-ion batteries, summarizing recent accomplishments, highlighting emerging strategies, and discussing the remaining challenges of such systems.

  1. Recent progress in nickel based materials for high performance pseudocapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Liangdong; Zhu, Yufu; Ding, Hongyan; Ni, Chaoying

    2014-12-01

    Nickel based materials have been intensively investigated and considered as good potential electrode materials for pseudocapacitors due to their high theoretical specific capacity values, high chemical and thermal stability, ready availability, environmentally benign nature and lower cost. This review firstly examines recent progress in nickel oxides or nickel hydroxides for high performance pseudocapacitor electrodes. The advances of hybrid electrodes are then assessed to include hybrid systems of nickel based materials with compounds such as carbonaceous materials, metal and transition metal oxides or hydroxides, in which various strategies have been adopted to improve the electrical conductivity of nickel oxides or hydroxides. Furthermore, the energy density and power density of some recently reported NiO, nickel based composites and NiCo2O4 are summarized and discussed. Finally, we provide some perspectives as to the future directions of this intriguing field.

  2. Organic Materials as Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-04

    technology and research towards finding new materials to improve the performance are underway. Conductive organic polymers have been proposed as...indigo carmine conjugated carbonyl organic dye can be used for storing reversibly, both lithium and sodium ions for rechargeable battery applications ...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 May 2013 – 14 May 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Organic materials as Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries

  3. Surface modification of active material structures in battery electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Michael; Tikhonov, Konstantin

    2016-02-02

    Provided herein are methods of processing electrode active material structures for use in electrochemical cells or, more specifically, methods of forming surface layers on these structures. The structures are combined with a liquid to form a mixture. The mixture includes a surface reagent that chemically reacts and forms a surface layer covalently bound to the structures. The surface reagent may be a part of the initial liquid or added to the mixture after the liquid is combined with the structures. In some embodiments, the mixture may be processed to form a powder containing the structures with the surface layer thereon. Alternatively, the mixture may be deposited onto a current collecting substrate and dried to form an electrode layer. Furthermore, the liquid may be an electrolyte containing the surface reagent and a salt. The liquid soaks the previously arranged electrodes in order to contact the structures with the surface reagent.

  4. Sol-gel derived electrode materials for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chuan

    1998-12-01

    Electrochemical capacitors have been receiving increasing interest in recent years for use in energy storage systems because of their high energy and power density and long cycle lifes. Possible applications of electrochemical capacitors include high power pulsed lasers, hybrid power system for electric vehicles, etc. In this dissertation, the preparation of electrode materials for use as electrochemical capacitors has been studied using the sol-gel process. The high surface area electrode materials explored in this work include a synthetic carbon xerogel for use in a double-layer capacitor, a cobalt oxide xerogel for use in a pseudocapacitor, and a carbon-ruthenium xerogel composite, which utilizes both double-layer and faradaic capacitances. The preparation conditions of these materials were investigated in detail to maximize the surface area and optimize the pore size so that more energy could be stored while minimizing mass transfer limitations. The microstructures of the materials were also correlated with their performance as electrochemical capacitors to improve their energy and power densities. Finally, an idealistic mathematical model, including both double-layer and faradaic processes, was developed and solved numerically. This model can be used to perform the parametric studies of an electrochemical capacitor so as to gain a better understanding of how the capacitor works and also how to improve cell operations and electrode materials design.

  5. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    DOEpatents

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2014-07-15

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  6. Enhanced control of electrochemical response in metallic materials in neural stimulation electrode applications

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, K.G.; Steen, W.M.; Manna, I.

    1996-12-31

    New means have been investigated for the production of electrode devices (stimulation electrodes) which could be implanted in the human body in order to control pain, activate paralysed limbs or provide electrode arrays for cochlear implants for the deaf or for the relief of tinitus. To achieve this ion implantation and laser materials processing techniques were employed. Ir was ion implanted in Ti-6Al-4V alloy and the surface subsequently enriched in the noble metal by dissolution in sulphuric acid. For laser materials processing techniques, investigation has been carried out on the laser cladding and laser alloying of Ir in Ti wire. A particular aim has been the determination of conditions required for the formation of a two phase Ir, Ir-rich, and Ti-rich microstructure which would enable subsequent removal of the non-noble phase to leave a highly porous noble metal with large real surface area and hence improved charge carrying capacity compared with conventional non porous electrodes. Evaluation of the materials produced has been carried out using repetitive cyclic voltammetry, amongst other techniques. For laser alloyed Ir on Ti wire, it has been found that differences in the melting point and density of the materials makes control of the cladding or alloying process difficult. Investigation of laser process parameters for the control of alloying and cladding in this system was carried out and a set of conditions for the successful production of two phase Ir-rich and Ti-rich components in a coating layer with strong metallurgical bonding to the Ti alloy substrate was derived. The laser processed material displays excellent potential for further development in providing stimulation electrodes with the current carrying capacity of Ir but in a form which is malleable and hence capable of formation into smaller electrodes with improved spatial resolution compared with presently employed electrodes.

  7. Materials and fabrication of electrode scaffolds for deposition of MnO2 and their true performance in supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianyun; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Yaming; Walsh, Frank C.; Ouyang, Jia-Hu; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-10-01

    MnO2 is a promising electrode material for high energy supercapacitors because of its large pseudo-capacitance. However, MnO2 suffers from low electronic conductivity and poor cation diffusivity, which results in poor utilization and limited rate performance of traditional MnO2 powder electrodes, obtained by pressing a mixed paste of MnO2 powder, conductive additive and polymer binder onto metallic current collectors. Developing binder-free MnO2 electrodes by loading nanoscale MnO2 deposits on pre-fabricated device-ready electrode scaffolds is an effective way to achieve both high power and energy performance. These electrode scaffolds, with interconnected skeletons and pore structures, will not only provide mechanical support and electron collection as traditional current collectors but also fast ion transfer tunnels, leading to high MnO2 utilization and rate performance. This review covers design strategies, materials and fabrication methods for the electrode scaffolds. Rational evaluation of the true performance of these electrodes is carried out, which clarifies that some of the electrodes with as-claimed exceptional performances lack potential in practical applications due to poor mass loading of MnO2 and large dead volume of inert scaffold materials/void spaces in the electrode structure. Possible ways to meet this challenge and bring MnO2 electrodes from laboratory studies to real-world applications are considered.

  8. Characterization of solid electrode materials using chronoamperometry: A study of the alkaline γ-MnO 2 electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Aaron P.; Donne, Scott W.

    Large voltage step chronoamperometry is shown to be a time-efficient means to examine solid electrode materials compared with conventional electrochemical methods such as linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and step potential electrochemical spectroscopy (SPECS), all the while providing comparable information concerning the rate capability of a material and its capacity. The applicability of the technique is demonstrated through a study of the alkaline γ-MnO 2 electrode. By sampling the current (and hence the charge) at various times after the chronoamperometric voltage step, the compatibility between chronoamperometry and LSV is disclosed. Furthermore, modelling of the chronoamperometric data using two curves based on a spherical diffusion model representing fast and slow discharge processes are found to be statistically suitable. From this modelling, values of A√ D (where A is the electrochemically active surface area and D is the diffusion coefficient) for the two processes are 3.89 × 10 -4 and 0.70 × 10 -4 cm 3 s -1/2 g -1, respectively, both of which are comparable with A√ D data extracted from a SPECS experiment on an identical electrode.

  9. Nanostructured pseudocapacitive materials decorated 3D graphene foam electrodes for next generation supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Umakant; Lee, Su Chan; Kulkarni, Sachin; Sohn, Ji Soo; Nam, Min Sik; Han, Suhyun; Jun, Seong Chan

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, advancement in performance of proficient multifarious electrode materials lies conclusively at the core of research concerning energy storage devices. To accomplish superior capacitance performance the requirements of high capacity, better cyclic stability and good rate capability can be expected from integration of electrochemical double layer capacitor based carbonaceous materials (high power density) and pseudocapacitive based metal hydroxides/oxides or conducting polymers (high energy density). The envisioned three dimensional (3D) graphene foams are predominantly advantageous to extend potential applicability by offering a large active surface area and a highly conductive continuous porous network for fast charge transfer with decoration of nanosized pseudocapacitive materials. In this article, we review the latest methodologies and performance evaluation for several 3D graphene based metal oxides/hydroxides and conducting polymer electrodes with improved electrochemical properties for next-generation supercapacitors. The most recent research advancements of our and other groups in the field of 3D graphene based electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. To assess the studied materials fully, a careful interpretation and rigorous scrutiny of their electrochemical characteristics is essential. Auspiciously, both nano-structuration as well as confinement of metal hydroxides/oxides and conducting polymers onto a conducting porous 3D graphene matrix play a great role in improving the performance of electrodes mainly due to: (i) active material access over large surface area with fast charge transportation; (ii) synergetic effect of electric double layer and pseudocapacitive based charge storing.

  10. 2D Hybrid Nanostructured Dirac Materials for Broadband Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yunfan; Lin, Li; Zhao, Shuli; Deng, Bing; Chen, Hongliang; Ma, Bangjun; Wu, Jinxiong; Yin, Jianbo; Liu, Zhongfan; Peng, Hailin

    2015-08-05

    Broadband transparent electrodes based on 2D hybrid nanostructured Dirac materials between Bi2 Se3 and graphene are synthesized using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Bi2 Se3 nanoplates are preferentially grown along graphene grain boundaries as "smart" conductive patches to bridge the graphene boundary. These hybrid films increase by one- to threefold in conductivity while remaining highly transparent over broadband wavelength. They also display outstanding chemical stability and mechanical flexibility.

  11. Methods for making lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials

    DOEpatents

    Schutts, Scott M.; Kinney, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of making vanadium oxide formulations is presented. In one method of preparing lithium vanadium oxide for use as an electrode material, the method involves: admixing a particulate form of a lithium compound and a particulate form of a vanadium compound; jet milling the particulate admixture of the lithium and vanadium compounds; and heating the jet milled particulate admixture at a temperature below the melting temperature of the admixture to form lithium vanadium oxide.

  12. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Baudry, Michelle

    2000-12-05

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  13. High surface area electrode materials by direct metallization of porous substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chyan, O.; Chen, J.J.; Liu, M.; Richmond, M.G.; Yang, K.

    1995-12-31

    Recent advances in high surface area (HSA) electrode materials have played an important role in the development of high-performance batteries and fuel cells. HSA electrodes can significantly increase the power-density of batteries and fuel cells by enhancing the heterogeneous electrochemical reaction rate and concurrently reducing battery and fuel cell size and weight. The compactness of HSA electrodes can also reduce the ohmic potential drop, which has the clear advantage of reducing power losses. This paper reports results on utilizing direct metallization of porous substrates to prepare new HSA electrode materials. Specifically, Nickel HSA electrode materials, relevant to the Ni-Cd and metal-hydride rechargeable batteries, were prepared on porous carbon substrates by direct thermolysis of organometallic precursors and/or electroless Ni plating. SEM and XPS characterization results indicate a Ni metallic film was conformally coated over the porous carbon skeleton. The real electroactive areas were determined electrochemically in NaOH solution and results will be discussed in correlation with the metallization conditions.

  14. Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators

    DOEpatents

    Caplan, Malcolm; Vinogradov, Sergel Evge'evich; Ribin, Valeri Vasil'evich; Shekalov, Valentin Ivanovich; Rutberg, Philip Grigor'evich; Safronov, Alexi Anatol'evich

    2008-12-09

    Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators. The material contains a porous metal matrix impregnated with a material emitting electrons. The material uses a mixture of copper and iron powders as a porous metal matrix and a Group IIIB metal component such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 is used as a material emitting electrons at, for example, the proportion of the components, mass %: iron: 3-30; Y.sub.2O.sub.3:0.05-1; copper: the remainder. Copper provides a high level of heat conduction and electric conductance, iron decreases intensity of copper evaporation in the process of plasma creation providing increased strength and lifetime, Y.sub.2O.sub.3 provides decreasing of electronic work function and stability of arc burning. The material can be used for producing the electrodes of low temperature AC plasma generators used for destruction of liquid organic wastes, medical wastes, and municipal wastes as well as for decontamination of low level radioactive waste, the destruction of chemical weapons, warfare toxic agents, etc.

  15. Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators

    DOEpatents

    Caplan, Malcolm; Vinogradov, Sergel Evge'evich; Ribin, Valeri Vasil'evich; Shekalov, Valentin Ivanovich; Rutberg, Philip Grigor'evich; Safronov, Alexi Anatol'evich; Shiryaev, Vasili Nikolaevich

    2010-03-02

    Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators. The material contains a porous metal matrix impregnated with a material emitting electrons. The material uses a mixture of copper and iron powders as a porous metal matrix and a Group IIIB metal component such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 is used as a material emitting electrons at, for example, the proportion of the components, mass %: iron:3-30; Y.sub.2O.sub.3:0.05-1; copper: the remainder. Copper provides a high level of heat conduction and electric conductance, iron decreases intensity of copper evaporation in the process of plasma creation providing increased strength and lifetime, Y.sub.2O.sub.3 provides decreasing of electronic work function and stability of arc burning. The material can be used for producing the electrodes of low temperature AC plasma generators used for destruction of liquid organic wastes, medical wastes, municipal wastes as well as for decontamination of low level radioactive waste, the destruction of chemical weapons, warfare toxic agents, etc.

  16. Thick electrodes including nanoparticles having electroactive materials and methods of making same

    DOEpatents

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.

    2017-02-21

    Electrodes having nanostructure and/or utilizing nanoparticles of active materials and having high mass loadings of the active materials can be made to be physically robust and free of cracks and pinholes. The electrodes include nanoparticles having electroactive material, which nanoparticles are aggregated with carbon into larger secondary particles. The secondary particles can be bound with a binder to form the electrode.

  17. Recent Development of Advanced Electrode Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Electrode materials play a decisive role in almost all electrochemical energy storage devices, determining their overall performance. Proper selection, design and fabrication of electrode materials have thus been regarded as one of the most critical steps in achieving high electrochemical energy storage performance. As an advanced nanotechnology for thin films and surfaces with conformal interfacial features and well controllable deposition thickness, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been successfully developed for deposition and surface modification of electrode materials, where there are considerable issues of interfacial and surface chemistry at atomic and nanometer scale. In addition, ALD has shown great potential in construction of novel nanostructured active materials that otherwise can be hardly obtained by other processing techniques, such as those solution‐based processing and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. This review focuses on the recent development of ALD for the design and delivery of advanced electrode materials in electrochemical energy storage devices, where typical examples will be highlighted and analyzed, and the merits and challenges of ALD for applications in energy storage will also be discussed. PMID:27840793

  18. Recent Development of Advanced Electrode Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2016-10-01

    Electrode materials play a decisive role in almost all electrochemical energy storage devices, determining their overall performance. Proper selection, design and fabrication of electrode materials have thus been regarded as one of the most critical steps in achieving high electrochemical energy storage performance. As an advanced nanotechnology for thin films and surfaces with conformal interfacial features and well controllable deposition thickness, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been successfully developed for deposition and surface modification of electrode materials, where there are considerable issues of interfacial and surface chemistry at atomic and nanometer scale. In addition, ALD has shown great potential in construction of novel nanostructured active materials that otherwise can be hardly obtained by other processing techniques, such as those solution-based processing and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. This review focuses on the recent development of ALD for the design and delivery of advanced electrode materials in electrochemical energy storage devices, where typical examples will be highlighted and analyzed, and the merits and challenges of ALD for applications in energy storage will also be discussed.

  19. High performance lithium insertion negative electrode materials for electrochemical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channu, V. S. Reddy; Rambabu, B.; Kumari, Kusum; Kalluru, Rajmohan R.; Holze, Rudolf

    2016-11-01

    Spinel LiCrTiO4 oxides to be used as electrode materials for a lithium ion battery and an asymmetric supercapacitor were synthesized using a soft-chemical method with and without chelating agents followed by calcination at 700 °C for 10 h. Structural and morphological properties were studied with powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Particles of 50-10 nm in size are observed in the microscopic images. The presence of Cr and Ti is confirmed from the EDS spectrum. Electrochemical properties of LiCrTiO4 electrode were examined in a lithium ion battery. The electrode prepared with oxalic acid-assisted LiCrTiO4 shows higher specific capacity.This LiCrTiO4 is also used as anode material for an asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor. The cell exhibits a specific capacity of 65 mAh/g at 1 mA/cm2. The specific capacity decreases with increasing current densities.

  20. Electrochemical Techniques for Intercalation Electrode Materials in Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yujie; Gao, Tao; Fan, Xiulin; Han, Fudong; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-03-16

    Understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of electrode materials is of great importance to develop new materials for high performance rechargeable batteries. Compared with computational understanding of physical and chemical properties of electrode materials, experimental methods provide direct and convenient evaluation of these properties. Often, the information gained from experimental work can not only offer feedback for the computational methods but also provide useful insights for improving the performance of materials. However, accurate experimental quantification of some properties can still be challenging. Among them, chemical diffusion coefficient is one representative example. It is one of the most crucial parameters determining the kinetics of intercalation compounds, which are by far the dominant electrode type used in rechargeable batteries. Therefore, it is of significance to quantitatively evaluate this parameter. For this purpose, various electrochemical techniques have been invented, for example, galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). One salient advantage of these electrochemical techniques over other characterization techniques is that some implicit thermodynamic and kinetic quantities can be linked with the readily measurable electrical signals, current, and voltage, with very high precision. Nevertheless, proper application of these techniques requires not just an understanding of the structure and chemistry of the studied materials but sufficient knowledge of the physical model for ion transport within solid host materials and the analysis method to solve for chemical diffusion coefficient. Our group has been focusing on using various electrochemical techniques to investigate battery materials, as well as developing models for studying some emerging materials. In this Account, the

  1. Polyaniline nanostructures expedient as working electrode materials in supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedela, Venkata Ramana; Srikanth, Vadali Venkata Satya Siva

    2014-04-01

    Granular type polyaniline (PANi), PANi nanofibers (NFs), and PANi nanotubes (NTs) expedient as working electrode materials for supercapacitors are synthesized. The synthesis procedure used in this work facilitates not only the synthesis of solid powders of the PANi nanostructures, but also thin films constituted by the same PANi nanostructures in the same experiment. PANi NFs are found to exhibit faster electrode kinetics and better capacitance when compared to PANi NTs and granular PANi. Specific capacitance and energy storage per unit mass of PANi NFs are 239.47 Fg-1 (at 0.5 Ag-1) and 43.2 Wh kg-1, respectively. Electrical conductivity of PANi NFs is also better when compared to the other two nanostructures. Properties of the three PANi nanostructures are explicated in correlation with crystallinity, intrinsic oxidation state, doping degree, BET surface area, and ordered mesoporosity pertaining to the nanostructures.

  2. Spiral configuration of electrodes and dielectric material for sensing an environmental property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric G. (Inventor); Stephens, James B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A reliable moisture-indicating capactive sensor is provided with wire electrodes at least one of which includes a coating of moisture-absorbing dielectric material by spirally twisting the wire electrodes about each other, thereby establishing a pair of electrodes in contact with opposite surfaces of a layer of dielectric material, and assuring consistent contact of each electrode with the dielectric material despite changes in environmental conditions.

  3. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Braiek, Mohamed; Namour, Philippe; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2016-11-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However, MgAl LDH shows better performance than ZnAl LDH, due to the presence of magnesium cations in the layers. Following the structural, morphological and electrochemical behavior studies of both synthesized LDHs, the prepared LDH modified electrodes were tested through microbial fuel cell configuration, revealing a remarkable, potential new pathway for high-performance and cost-effective electrode use in electrochemical power devices.

  4. Molecular Engineering with Organic Carbonyl Electrode Materials for Advanced Stationary and Redox Flow Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2017-04-03

    Organic carbonyl electrode materials that have the advantages of high capacity, low cost and being environmentally friendly, are regarded as powerful candidates for next-generation stationary and redox flow rechargeable batteries (RFBs). However, low carbonyl utilization, poor electronic conductivity and undesired dissolution in electrolyte are urgent issues to be solved. Here, we summarize a molecular engineering approach for tuning the capacity, working potential, concentration of active species, kinetics, and stability of stationary and redox flow batteries, which well resolves the problems of organic carbonyl electrode materials. As an example, in stationary batteries, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) with two carbonyls delivers a capacity of 257 mAh g(-1) (2.27 V vs Li(+) /Li), while increasing the number of carbonyls to four with the formation of 5,7,12,14-pentacenetetrone results in a higher capacity of 317 mAh g(-1) (2.60 V vs Li(+) /Li). In RFBs, AQ, which is less soluble in aqueous electrolyte, reaches 1 M by grafting -SO3 H with the formation of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid, resulting in a power density exceeding 0.6 W cm(-2) with long cycling life. Therefore, through regulating substituent groups, conjugated structures, Coulomb interactions, and the molecular weight, the electrochemical performance of carbonyl electrode materials can be rationally optimized. This review offers fundamental principles and insight into designing advanced carbonyl materials for the electrodes of next-generation rechargeable batteries.

  5. Recent Advances in Polymeric Materials Used as Electron Mediators and Immobilizing Matrices in Developing Enzyme Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Moyo, Mambo; Okonkwo, Jonathan O.; Agyei, Nana M.

    2012-01-01

    Different classes of polymeric materials such as nanomaterials, sol-gel materials, conducting polymers, functional polymers and biomaterials have been used in the design of sensors and biosensors. Various methods have been used, for example from direct adsorption, covalent bonding, crossing-linking with glutaraldehyde on composites to mixing the enzymes or use of functionalized beads for the design of sensors and biosensors using these polymeric materials in recent years. It is widely acknowledged that analytical sensing at electrodes modified with polymeric materials results in low detection limits, high sensitivities, lower applied potential, good stability, efficient electron transfer and easier immobilization of enzymes on electrodes such that sensing and biosensing of environmental pollutants is made easier. However, there are a number of challenges to be addressed in order to fulfill the applications of polymeric based polymers such as cost and shortening the long laboratory synthetic pathways involved in sensor preparation. Furthermore, the toxicological effects on flora and fauna of some of these polymeric materials have not been well studied. Given these disadvantages, efforts are now geared towards introducing low cost biomaterials that can serve as alternatives for the development of novel electrochemical sensors and biosensors. This review highlights recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on different polymeric material. The synergistic action of some of these polymeric materials and nanocomposites imposed when combined on electrode during sensing is discussed. PMID:22368503

  6. Alternate electrode materials for the SP100 reactor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Randich, E.

    1992-05-01

    This work was performed in response to a request by the Astro-Space Division of the General Electric Co. to develop alternate electrodes materials for the electrodes of the PD2 modules to be used in the SP100 thermoelectric power conversion system. Initially, the project consisted of four tasks: (1) development of a ZrB{sub 2} (C) CVD coating on SiMo substrates, (2) development of a ZrB{sub 2} (C) CVD coating on SiGe substrates, (3) development of CVI W for porous graphite electrodes, and (4) technology transfer of pertinent developed processes. The project evolved initially into developing only ZrB{sub 2} coatings on SiGe and graphite substrates, and later into developing ZrB{sub 2} coatings only on graphite substrates. Several sizes of graphite and pyrolytic carbon-coated graphite substrates were coated with ZrB{sub 2} during the project. For budgetary reasons, the project was terminated after half the allotted time had passed. Apart from the production of coated specimens for evaluation, the major accomplishment of the project was the development of the CVD processing to produce the desired coatings.

  7. Electrode potentials of tungsten in fused alkali chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Volkovich, V. A.; Poskryakov, D. A.; Vasin, B. D.; Griffiths, T. R.

    2016-09-01

    Anodic dissolution of tungsten was studied at 823-1173 K in the melts based on NaCl-CsCl, NaCl-KCl-CsCl and LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic mixtures. The process results in the formation of W(IV) ions. Prolonged contact with silica results in oxidation W(IV) ions and decreasing tungsten concentration in the electrolyte due to formation of volatile higher oxidation state chloro- and oxychloro-species. Tungsten electrode potentials were measured in NaCl-CsCl and NaCl-KCl-CsCl based melts using potentiometry.

  8. Is Cu a stable electrode material in hybrid perovskite solar cells for a 30-year lifetime?

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Jingjing; Zheng, Xiaopeng; Deng, Yehao; ...

    2016-10-28

    One grand challenge for long-lived perovskite solar cells is that the common electrode materials in solar cells, such as silver and aluminum or even gold, strongly react with hybrid perovskites. Here we report the evaluation of the potential of copper (Cu) as the electrode material in perovskite solar cells for long-term stability. In encapsulated devices which limit exposure to oxygen and moisture, Cu in direct contact with CH3NH3PbI3 showed no reaction at laboratory time scales, and is predicted to be stable for almost 170 years at room temperature and over 22 years at the nominal operating cell temperature of 40more » °C. No diffusion of Cu into CH3NH3PbI3 has been observed after thermal annealing for over 100 hours at 80 °C, nor does Cu cause charge trap states in direct contact with CH3NH3PbI3 after long-term thermal annealing or illumination. High performance devices with efficiency above 20% with Cu electrode retains 98% of the initial efficiency after 816 hours storage in ambient environment without encapsulation. Finally, the results indicate Cu is a promising low-cost electrode material for perovskite solar cells for long-term operation.« less

  9. Is Cu a stable electrode material in hybrid perovskite solar cells for a 30-year lifetime?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jingjing; Zheng, Xiaopeng; Deng, Yehao; Li, Tao; Shao, Yuchuan; Gruverman, Alexei; Shield, Jeffrey; Huang, Jinsong

    2016-10-28

    One grand challenge for long-lived perovskite solar cells is that the common electrode materials in solar cells, such as silver and aluminum or even gold, strongly react with hybrid perovskites. Here we report the evaluation of the potential of copper (Cu) as the electrode material in perovskite solar cells for long-term stability. In encapsulated devices which limit exposure to oxygen and moisture, Cu in direct contact with CH3NH3PbI3 showed no reaction at laboratory time scales, and is predicted to be stable for almost 170 years at room temperature and over 22 years at the nominal operating cell temperature of 40 °C. No diffusion of Cu into CH3NH3PbI3 has been observed after thermal annealing for over 100 hours at 80 °C, nor does Cu cause charge trap states in direct contact with CH3NH3PbI3 after long-term thermal annealing or illumination. High performance devices with efficiency above 20% with Cu electrode retains 98% of the initial efficiency after 816 hours storage in ambient environment without encapsulation. Finally, the results indicate Cu is a promising low-cost electrode material for perovskite solar cells for long-term operation.

  10. Anodes - Materials for negative electrodes in electrochemical energy technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holze, Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    The basic concepts of electrodes and electrochemical cells (including both galvanic and electrolytic ones) are introduced and illustrated with practical examples. Particular attention is paid to negative electrodes in primary and secondary cells, fuel cell electrodes and electrodes in redox flow batteries. General features and arguments pertaining to selection, optimization and further development are highlighted.

  11. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    The introduction of the first commercially produced Li-ion battery by Sony in 1990 sparked a period of unprecedented growth in the consumer electronics industry. Now, with increasing efforts to move away from fossil-fuel-derived energy sources, a substantial amount of current research is focused on the development of an electrified transportation fleet. Unfortunately, existent battery technologies are unable to provide the necessary performance for electric vehicles (EV's) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV's) vehicles at a competitive cost. The cost and performance metrics of current Li-ion batteries are mainly determined by the positive electrode materials. The work here is concerned with understanding the structural and electrochemical consequences of cost-lowering mechanisms in two separate classes of Li-ion cathode materials; the LiMO2 (M = Ni, Mn, Co) layered oxides and the LiMPO4 olivine materials; with the goal of improving performance. Al-substitution for Co in LiNizMnzCo1-2zO 2 ("NMC") materials not only decreases the costly Co-content, but also improves the safety aspects and, notably, enhances the cycling stability of the layered oxide electrodes. The structural and electrochemical effects of Al-substitution are investigated here in a model NMC compound, LiNi0.45 Mn0.45Co0.1-yAlyO2. In addition to electrochemical measurements, various synchrotron-based characterization methods are utilized, including high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD), in situ X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Al-substitution causes a slight distortion of the as-synthesized hexagonal layered oxide lattice, lowering the inherent octahedral strain within the transition metal layer. The presence of Al also is observed to limit the structural variation of the NMC materials upon Li-deintercalation, as well as extended cycling of the electrodes. Various olivine materials, Li

  12. Nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianluo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Mei, Yueni; Huang, Yunhui

    2015-04-21

    The development of advanced energy storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. Nanostructured materials are advantageous in offering huge surface to volume ratios, favorable transport features, and attractive physicochemical properties. They have been extensively explored in various fields of energy storage and conversion. This review is focused largely on the recent progress in nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials including molybdenum oxides (MoO(x), 2 ≤ x ≤ 3), dichalconides (MoX2, X = S, Se), and oxysalts for rechargeable lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and supercapacitors. Mo-based compounds including MoO2, MoO3, MoO(3-y) (0 < y < 1), MMo(x)O(y) (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Ca, Mn, Zn, Mg, or Cd; x = 1, y = 4; x = 3, y = 8), MoS2, MoSe2, (MoO2)2P2O7, LiMoO2, Li2MoO3, etc. possess multiple valence states and exhibit rich chemistry. They are very attractive candidates for efficient electrochemical energy storage systems because of their unique physicochemical properties, such as conductivity, mechanical and thermal stability, and cyclability. In this review, we aim to provide a systematic summary of the synthesis, modification, and electrochemical performance of nanostructured Mo-based compounds, as well as their energy storage applications in lithium/sodium-ion batteries, Mg batteries, and pseudocapacitors. The relationship between nanoarchitectures and electrochemical performances as well as the related charge-storage mechanism is discussed. Moreover, remarks on the challenges and perspectives of Mo-containing compounds for further development in electrochemical energy storage applications are proposed. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of advanced rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors with nanostructured Mo-based electrode materials.

  13. Surface modifications of electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, L. J.; Liu, H.; Li, C.; Wu, Y. P.; Rahm, E.; Holze, R.; Wu, H. Q.

    2006-02-01

    Since the birth of the lithium ion battery in the early 1990s, its development has been very rapid and it has been widely applied as power source for a lot of light and high value electronics due to its significant advantages over traditional rechargeable battery systems. Recent research demonstrates the importance of surface structural features of electrode materials for their electrochemical performance, and in this paper the latest progress on this aspect is reviewed. Electrode materials are either anodic or cathodic ones. The former mainly include graphitic carbons, whose surfaces can be modified by mild oxidation, deposition of metals and metal oxides, coating with polymers and other kinds of carbons. Through these modifications, the surface structures of the graphitic carbon anodes are improved, and these improvements include: (1) smoothing the active edge surfaces by removing some reactive sites and/or defects on the graphite surface, (2) forming a dense oxide layer on the graphite surface, and (3) covering active edge structures on the graphite surface. Meanwhile, other accompanying changes occur: (1) production of nanochannels/micropores, (2) an increase in the electronic conductivity, (3) an inhibition of structural changes during cycling, (4) a reduction of the thickness of the SEI (solid-electrolyte-interface) layer, and (5) an increase in the number of host sites for lithium storage. As a result, the direct contact of graphite with the electrolyte solution is prevented, its surface reactivity with electrolytes, the decomposition of electrolytes, the co-intercalation of the solvated lithium ions and the charge-transfer resistance are decreased, and the movement of graphene sheets is inhibited. When the surfaces of cathode materials, mainly including LiCoO 2, LiNiO 2 and LiMn 2O 4, are coated with oxides such as MgO, Al 2O 3, ZnO, SnO 2, ZrO 2, Li 2Oṡ2B 2O 3 glass and other electroactive oxides, the coating can prevent their direct contact with the

  14. Nickel-Tin Electrode Materials for Nonaqueous Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Grant M.; Durand, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Experimental materials made from mixtures of nickel and tin powders have shown promise for use as the negative electrodes of rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical power cells. During charging (or discharging) of a lithium-ion cell, lithium ions are absorbed into (or desorbed from, respectively) the negative electrode, typically through an intercalation or alloying process. The negative electrodes (for this purpose, designated as anodes) in state-of-the-art Li-ion cells are made of graphite, in which intercalation occurs. Alternatively, the anodes can be made from metals, in which alloying can occur. For reasons having to do with the electrochemical potential of intercalated lithium, metallic anode materials (especially materials containing tin) are regarded as safer than graphite ones; in addition, such metallic anode materials have been investigated in the hope of obtaining reversible charge/discharge capacities greater than those of graphite anodes. However, until now, each of the tin-containing metallic anode formulations tested has been found to be inadequate in some respect.

  15. Work function determination of promising electrode materials for thermionic converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, D.

    1977-01-01

    Work performed on this contract was primarily for the evaluation of selected electrode materials for thermionic energy converters. The original objective was to characterize selected nickel based superalloys up to temperatures of 1400 K. It was found that an early selection, Inconel 800 produced a high vapor pressure which interfered with the vacuum emission measurements. The program then shifted to two other areas. The first area was to obtain emission from the superalloys in a cesiated atmosphere. The cesium plasma helps to suppress the vaporization interference. The second area involved characterization of the Lanthanum-Boron series as thermionic emitters. These final two areas resulted in three journal publications which are attached to this report.

  16. Method of making an air electrode material having controlled sinterability

    DOEpatents

    Vasilow, Theodore R.; Kuo, Lewis J. H.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1994-01-01

    A tubular, porous ceramic electrode structure (3) is made from the sintered admixture of doped lanthanum manganite and an additive containing cerium where a solid electrolyte (4), substantially surrounds the air electrode, and a porous outer fuel electrode (7) substantially surrounds the electrolyte, to form a fuel cell (1).

  17. Method of making an air electrode material having controlled sinterability

    DOEpatents

    Vasilow, T.R.; Kuo, L.J.H.; Ruka, R.J.

    1994-08-30

    A tubular, porous ceramic electrode structure is made from the sintered admixture of doped lanthanum manganite and an additive containing cerium where a solid electrolyte, substantially surrounds the air electrode, and a porous outer fuel electrode substantially surrounds the electrolyte, to form a fuel cell. 2 figs.

  18. Black Conductive Titanium Oxide High-Capacity Materials for Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Han, W.

    2011-05-18

    Stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is one of the most widely studied transitionmetal oxides because of its many potential applications in photoelectrochemical systems, such as dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} electrodes for photovoltaic solar cells, and water-splitting catalysts for hydrogen generation, and in environmental purification for creating or degrading specific compounds. However, TiO{sub 2} has a wide bandgap and high electrical resistivity, which limits its use as an electrode. A set of non-stoichiometric titanium oxides called the Magneli phases, having a general formula of Ti{sub n}O{sub 2n-1} with n between 4 and 10, exhibits lower bandgaps and resistivities, with the highest electrical conductivities reported for Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7}. These phases have been formulated under different conditions, but in all reported cases the resulting oxides have minimum grain sizes on the order of micrometers, regardless of the size of the starting titanium compounds. In this method, nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates are first coated with carbon using either wet or dry chemistry methods. During this process the size and shape of the nanoparticles are 'locked in.' Subsequently the carbon-coated nanoparticles are heated. This results in the transformation of the original TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates to Magneli phases without coarsening, so that the original size and shape of the nanoparticles are maintained to a precise degree. People who work on batteries, fuel cells, ultracapacitors, electrosynthesis cells, electro-chemical devices, and soil remediation have applications that could benefit from using nanoscale Magneli phases of titanium oxide. Application of these electrode materials may not be limited to substitution for TiO{sub 2} electrodes. Combining the robustness and photosensitivity of TiO{sub 2} with higher electrical conductivity may result in a general electrode material.

  19. Drop detachment and motion on fuel cell electrode materials.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Eric; Hellstern, Thomas; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G; Benziger, Jay

    2012-02-01

    Liquid water is pushed through flow channels of fuel cells, where one surface is a porous carbon electrode made up of carbon fibers. Water drops grow on the fibrous carbon surface in the gas flow channel. The drops adhere to the superficial fiber surfaces but exhibit little penetration into the voids between the fibers. The fibrous surfaces are hydrophobic, but there is a substantial threshold force necessary to initiate water drop motion. Once the water drops begin to move, however, the adhesive force decreases and drops move with minimal friction, similar to motion on superhydrophobic materials. We report here studies of water wetting and water drop motion on typical porous carbon materials (carbon paper and carbon cloth) employed in fuel cells. The static coefficient of friction on these textured surfaces is comparable to that for smooth Teflon. But the dynamic coefficient of friction is several orders of magnitude smaller on the textured surfaces than on smooth Teflon. Carbon cloth displays a much smaller static contact angle hysteresis than carbon paper due to its two-scale roughness. The dynamic contact angle hysteresis for carbon paper is greatly reduced compared to the static contact angle hysteresis. Enhanced dynamic hydrophobicity is suggested to result from the extent to which a dynamic contact line can track topological heterogeneities of the liquid/solid interface.

  20. Fabrication of a three-electrode battery using hydrogen-storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Chi-Woo; Seo, Jung-Yong; Moon, Hyung-Seok; Park, Hyun-Young; Nam, Na-Yun; Cho, Sung Min; Yoo, Pil J.; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an energy storage device using a three-electrode battery is fabricated. The charging process takes place during electrolysis of the alkaline electrolyte where hydrogen is stored at the palladium bifunctional electrode. Upon discharging, power is generated by operating the alkaline fuel cell using hydrogen which is accumulated in the palladium hydride bifunctional electrode during the charging process. The bifunctional palladium electrode is prepared by electrodeposition using a hydrogen bubble template followed by a galvanic displacement reaction of platinum in order to functionalize the electrode to work not only as a hydrogen storage material but also as an anode in a fuel cell. This bifunctional electrode has a sufficiently high surface area and the platinum catalyst populates at the surface of electrode to operate the fuel cell. The charging and discharging performance of the three-electrode battery are characterized. In addition, the cycle stability is investigated.

  1. Electrode-active material for electrochemical batteries and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Ravi

    1987-01-01

    A battery electrode material comprising a non-stoichiometric electrode-active material which forms a redox pair with the battery electrolyte, an electrically conductive polymer present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 5% by weight of the electrode-active material, and a binder. The conductive polymer provides improved proton or ion conductivity and is a ligand resulting in metal ion or negative ion vacancies of less than about 0.1 atom percent. Specific electrodes of nickel and lead are disclosed.

  2. Spatially resolved, in situ potential measurements through porous electrodes as applied to fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Hess, Katherine C; Epting, William K; Litster, Shawn

    2011-12-15

    We report the development and use of a microstructured electrode scaffold (MES) to make spatially resolved, in situ, electrolyte potential measurements through the thickness of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) electrode. This new approach uses a microfabricated apparatus to analyze the coupled transport and electrochemical phenomena in porous electrodes at the microscale. In this study, the MES allows the fuel cell to run under near-standard operating conditions, while providing electrolyte potential measurements at discrete distances through the electrode's thickness. Here we use spatial distributions of electrolyte potential to evaluate the effects of Ohmic and mass transport resistances on the through-plane reaction distribution for various operating conditions. Additionally, we use the potential distributions to estimate the ionic conductivity of the electrode. Our results indicate the in situ conductivity is higher than typically estimated for PEFC electrodes based on bulk polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) conductivity.

  3. Embedded reference electrodes for corrosion potential monitoring, electrochemical characterization, and controlled-potential cathodic protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merten, Bobbi Jo Elizabeth

    A thin wire Ag/AgCl reference electrode was prepared using 50 mum Ag wire in dilute FeCl3. The wire was embedded beneath the polyurethane topcoat of two sacrificial coating systems to monitor their corrosion potential. This is the first report of a reference electrode embedded between organic coating layers to monitor substrate health. The embedded reference electrode (ERE) successfully monitored the corrosion potential of Mg primer on AA 2024-T3 for 800 days of constant immersion in dilute Harrison's solution. Zn primer on steel had low accuracy in comparison. This is in part due to short circuiting by Zn oxidation products, which are much more conductive than Mg corrosion products. Data interpretation was improved through statistical analysis. On average, ERE corrosion potentials are 0.1 to 0.2 V and 0.2 to 0.3 V more positive than a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) in solution for AA 2024-T3 and steel coating systems, respectively. Further research may confirm that ERE obtains corrosion potential information not possible by an exterior, conventional reference electrode. The ERE is stable under polarization. AA 2024-T3 was polarized to -0.95 V vs ERE to emulate controlled potential cathodic protection (CPCP) applications. Polarizations of -0.75 V vs ERE are recommended for future experiments to minimize cathodic delamination. The ERE was utilized to analyze coating mixtures of lithium carbonate, magnesium nitrate, and Mg metal on AA2024-T3. Corrosion potential, low frequency impedance by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and noise resistance by electrochemical noise method (ENM) were reported. Coating performance ranking is consistent with standard electrochemical characterization and visual analyses. The results suggest anti-corrosion resistance superior to a standard Mg primer following 1600 hours of B117 salt spray. Both lithium carbonate and magnesium nitrate are necessary to achieve corrosion protection. Unique corrosion protective coatings for

  4. Niobium doped lanthanum calcium ferrite perovskite as a novel electrode material for symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiaowei; Zhou, Xiaoliang; Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Development of cost-effective and efficient electrochemical catalysts for the fuel cells electrode is of prime importance to emerging renewable energy technologies. Here, we report for the first time the novel La0.9Ca0.1Fe0.9Nb0.1O3-δ (LCFNb) perovskite with good potentiality for the electrode material of the symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells (SSOFC). The Sc0.2Zr0.8O2-δ (SSZ) electrolyte supported symmetrical cells with impregnated LCFNb and LCFNb/SDC (Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ) electrodes achieve relatively high power outputs with maximum power densities (MPDs) reaching up to 392 and 528.6 mW cm-2 at 850 °C in dry H2, respectively, indicating the excellent electro-catalytic activity of LCFNb towards both hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction. Besides, the MPDs of the symmetrical cells with LCFNb/SDC composite electrodes in CO and syngas (CO: H2 = 1:1) are almost identical to those in H2, implying that LCFNb material has similar catalytic activities to carbon monoxide compared with hydrogen. High durability in both H2, CO and syngas during the short term stability tests for 50 h are also obtained, showing desirable structure stability, and carbon deposition resistance of LCFNb based electrodes. The present results indicate that the LCFNb perovskite with remarkable cell performance is a promising electrode material for symmetrical SOFCs.

  5. Restructuring of an Ir(210) electrode surface by potential cycling.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Khaled A; Kolb, Dieter M; Kibler, Ludwig A; Jacob, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the electrochemical surface faceting and restructuring of Ir(210) single crystal electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements and in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy are used to probe structural changes and variations in the electrochemical behaviour after potential cycling of Ir(210) in 0.1 M H2SO4. Faceted structures are obtained electrochemically as a function of time by cycling at a scanrate of 1 V·s(-1) between -0.28 and 0.70 V vs SCE, i.e., between the onset of hydrogen evolution and the surface oxidation regime. The electrochemical behaviour in sulfuric acid solution is compared with that of thermally faceted Ir(210), which shows a sharp characteristic voltammetric peak for (311) facets. Structures similar to thermally-induced faceted Ir(210) are obtained electrochemically, which typically correspond to polyoriented facets at nano-pyramids. These structures grow anisotropically in a preferred direction and reach a height of about 5 nm after 4 h of cycling. The structural changes are reflected in variations of the electrocatalytic activity towards carbon monoxide adlayer oxidation.

  6. Restructuring of an Ir(210) electrode surface by potential cycling

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Khaled A; Kolb, Dieter M; Jacob, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study addresses the electrochemical surface faceting and restructuring of Ir(210) single crystal electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements and in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy are used to probe structural changes and variations in the electrochemical behaviour after potential cycling of Ir(210) in 0.1 M H2SO4. Faceted structures are obtained electrochemically as a function of time by cycling at a scanrate of 1 V·s−1 between −0.28 and 0.70 V vs SCE, i.e., between the onset of hydrogen evolution and the surface oxidation regime. The electrochemical behaviour in sulfuric acid solution is compared with that of thermally faceted Ir(210), which shows a sharp characteristic voltammetric peak for (311) facets. Structures similar to thermally-induced faceted Ir(210) are obtained electrochemically, which typically correspond to polyoriented facets at nano-pyramids. These structures grow anisotropically in a preferred direction and reach a height of about 5 nm after 4 h of cycling. The structural changes are reflected in variations of the electrocatalytic activity towards carbon monoxide adlayer oxidation. PMID:25247118

  7. Fabrication of Dry Electrode for Recording Bio-potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Guo, Kai; Pei, Wei-Hua; Gui, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Qian; Chen, Hong-Da; Yang, Jian-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Development of minimally invasive dry electrodes for recording biopotentials is presented. The detailed fabrication process is outlined. A dry electrode is formed by a number of microneedles. The lengths of the microneedles are about 150μm and the diameters are about 50μm. The tips of the microneedles are sharp enough to penetrate into the skin. The silver/silver chloride is grown on microneedle arrays and demonstrates good character. The electrocardiogram shows that the dry electrode is suitable for recording biopotentials.

  8. Novel synthesis of Ni-ferrite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) electrode material for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, V.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-24

    Novel nanocrystalline NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been synthesized through combustion route using citric acid as a fuel. Phase of the synthesized material was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction. The XRD study revealed the formation of spinel phase cubic NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high crystallinity. The average crystallite size of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanomaterial was calculated from scherrer equation. The electrochemical properties were realized by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode material shows a maximum specific capacitance of 454 F/g with pseudocapacitive behavior. High capacitance retention of electrode material over 1000 continuous charging-discharging cycles suggests its excellent electrochemical stability. The results revealed that the nickel ferrite electrode is a potential candidate for energy storage applications in supercapacitor.

  9. Novel synthesis of Ni-ferrite (NiFe2O4) electrode material for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, V.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-01

    Novel nanocrystalline NiFe2O4 has been synthesized through combustion route using citric acid as a fuel. Phase of the synthesized material was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction. The XRD study revealed the formation of spinel phase cubic NiFe2O4 with high crystallinity. The average crystallite size of NiFe2O4 nanomaterial was calculated from scherrer equation. The electrochemical properties were realized by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode material shows a maximum specific capacitance of 454 F/g with pseudocapacitive behavior. High capacitance retention of electrode material over 1000 continuous charging-discharging cycles suggests its excellent electrochemical stability. The results revealed that the nickel ferrite electrode is a potential candidate for energy storage applications in supercapacitor.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of NiCo2O4 nanoplates as efficient electrode materials for electrochemical supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taehyun; Ramadoss, Ananthakumar; Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Veerasubramani, Ganesh Kumar; Kim, Sang Jae

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, NiCo2O4 nanoplates were prepared by a facile, low temperature, hydrothermal method, followed by thermal annealing and used supercapacitor applications. The physico-chemical characterization of as-prepared materials were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the NiCo2O4 nanoplates electrode (NC-5) exhibits a high specific capacitance of 332 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1 and also retained about 86% of the initial specific capacitance value even after 2000 cycles at a current density of 2.5 A g-1. These results suggest that the fabricated electrode material has huge potential as a novel electrode material for electrochemical capacitors.

  11. Effects of Electrode Material on the Voltage of a Tree-Based Energy Generator

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The voltage between a standing tree and its surrounding soil is regarded as an innovative renewable energy source. This source is expected to provide a new power generation system for the low-power electrical equipment used in forestry. However, the voltage is weak, which has caused great difficulty in application. Consequently, the development of a method to increase the voltage is a key issue that must be addressed in this area of applied research. As the front-end component for energy harvesting, a metal electrode has a material effect on the level and stability of the voltage obtained. This study aimed to preliminarily ascertain the rules and mechanisms that underlie the effects of electrode material on voltage. Electrodes of different materials were used to measure the tree-source voltage, and the data were employed in a comparative analysis. The results indicate that the conductivity of the metal electrode significantly affects the contact resistance of the electrode-soil and electrode-trunk contact surfaces, thereby influencing the voltage level. The metal reactivity of the electrode has no significant effect on the voltage. However, passivation of the electrode materials markedly reduces the voltage. Suitable electrode materials are demonstrated and recommended. PMID:26302491

  12. Effects of Electrode Material on the Voltage of a Tree-Based Energy Generator.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhibin; Wang, Guozhu; Li, Wenbin; Zhang, Junguo; Kan, Jiangming

    2015-01-01

    The voltage between a standing tree and its surrounding soil is regarded as an innovative renewable energy source. This source is expected to provide a new power generation system for the low-power electrical equipment used in forestry. However, the voltage is weak, which has caused great difficulty in application. Consequently, the development of a method to increase the voltage is a key issue that must be addressed in this area of applied research. As the front-end component for energy harvesting, a metal electrode has a material effect on the level and stability of the voltage obtained. This study aimed to preliminarily ascertain the rules and mechanisms that underlie the effects of electrode material on voltage. Electrodes of different materials were used to measure the tree-source voltage, and the data were employed in a comparative analysis. The results indicate that the conductivity of the metal electrode significantly affects the contact resistance of the electrode-soil and electrode-trunk contact surfaces, thereby influencing the voltage level. The metal reactivity of the electrode has no significant effect on the voltage. However, passivation of the electrode materials markedly reduces the voltage. Suitable electrode materials are demonstrated and recommended.

  13. Recent research progress on iron- and manganese-based positive electrode materials for rechargeable sodium batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale high-energy batteries with electrode materials made from the Earth-abundant elements are needed to achieve sustainable energy development. On the basis of material abundance, rechargeable sodium batteries with iron- and manganese-based positive electrode materials are the ideal candidates for large-scale batteries. In this review, iron- and manganese-based electrode materials, oxides, phosphates, fluorides, etc, as positive electrodes for rechargeable sodium batteries are reviewed. Iron and manganese compounds with sodium ions provide high structural flexibility. Two layered polymorphs, O3- and P2-type layered structures, show different electrode performance in Na cells related to the different phase transition and sodium migration processes on sodium extraction/insertion. Similar to layered oxides, iron/manganese phosphates and pyrophosphates also provide the different framework structures, which are used as sodium insertion host materials. Electrode performance and reaction mechanisms of the iron- and manganese-based electrode materials in Na cells are described and the similarities and differences with lithium counterparts are also discussed. Together with these results, the possibility of the high-energy battery system with electrode materials made from only Earth-abundant elements is reviewed. PMID:27877694

  14. Recent research progress on iron- and manganese-based positive electrode materials for rechargeable sodium batteries.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale high-energy batteries with electrode materials made from the Earth-abundant elements are needed to achieve sustainable energy development. On the basis of material abundance, rechargeable sodium batteries with iron- and manganese-based positive electrode materials are the ideal candidates for large-scale batteries. In this review, iron- and manganese-based electrode materials, oxides, phosphates, fluorides, etc, as positive electrodes for rechargeable sodium batteries are reviewed. Iron and manganese compounds with sodium ions provide high structural flexibility. Two layered polymorphs, O3- and P2-type layered structures, show different electrode performance in Na cells related to the different phase transition and sodium migration processes on sodium extraction/insertion. Similar to layered oxides, iron/manganese phosphates and pyrophosphates also provide the different framework structures, which are used as sodium insertion host materials. Electrode performance and reaction mechanisms of the iron- and manganese-based electrode materials in Na cells are described and the similarities and differences with lithium counterparts are also discussed. Together with these results, the possibility of the high-energy battery system with electrode materials made from only Earth-abundant elements is reviewed.

  15. Recent research progress on iron- and manganese-based positive electrode materials for rechargeable sodium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale high-energy batteries with electrode materials made from the Earth-abundant elements are needed to achieve sustainable energy development. On the basis of material abundance, rechargeable sodium batteries with iron- and manganese-based positive electrode materials are the ideal candidates for large-scale batteries. In this review, iron- and manganese-based electrode materials, oxides, phosphates, fluorides, etc, as positive electrodes for rechargeable sodium batteries are reviewed. Iron and manganese compounds with sodium ions provide high structural flexibility. Two layered polymorphs, O3- and P2-type layered structures, show different electrode performance in Na cells related to the different phase transition and sodium migration processes on sodium extraction/insertion. Similar to layered oxides, iron/manganese phosphates and pyrophosphates also provide the different framework structures, which are used as sodium insertion host materials. Electrode performance and reaction mechanisms of the iron- and manganese-based electrode materials in Na cells are described and the similarities and differences with lithium counterparts are also discussed. Together with these results, the possibility of the high-energy battery system with electrode materials made from only Earth-abundant elements is reviewed.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of buckypaper-based nanostructured electrodes as a novel material for biofuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Laith; Urban, Gerald; Krüger, Michael

    2011-04-07

    The fabrication process of buckypapers (BPs) made from stable suspensions of as-received or functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with high purity (97.5 wt%, Baytubes), their characterization and their utilization towards novel biofuel cell electrode applications are reported. The BPs can vary in thickness between 1 μm and 200 μm, are mechanically robust, flexible, stable in solvents, possess high meso-porosities as well as high apparent electrical conductivities of up to 2500 S m(-1). Potentiodynamic measurements of biocathodes based on bilirubin oxidase (BOD)-decorated BPs for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in neutral media (phosphate buffer solution) containing glucose indicate that BP electrodes based on functionalized MWCNTs (fBPs) perform better than BP electrodes of as-received MWCNTs and have high potential as an effective electrode material in biofuel cells and biosensors.

  17. Tungsten materials as durable catalyst supports for fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perchthaler, M.; Ossiander, T.; Juhart, V.; Mitzel, J.; Heinzl, C.; Scheu, C.; Hacker, V.

    2013-12-01

    Durable platinum catalyst support materials, e.g. tungsten carbide (WC), tungsten oxide (WOx) and self-synthesized tungsten oxide (WOxs) were evaluated for the use in High-Temperature Proton Exchange Fuel Cells (HT-PEM) based on phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole as electrolyte. The support materials and the catalyst loaded support materials were characterized ex-situ by cyclic voltammetry in HClO4, potential cycling, CO-stripping, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. The tungsten oxide and tungsten carbide based supported catalysts were compared to High Surface Area Carbon (HSAC), each coated with platinum via the same in-house manufacturing procedures. The in-house manufacturing procedures resulted in catalyst particle sizes on HSAC of 3-4 nm with a uniform distribution. The in-situ Potential Cycling experiments of WOx or WOxs supported catalysts showed much lower degradation rates compared to High Surface Area Carbons. The formation of WOx species on WC was proven by ex- and in-situ cyclic voltammetric studies and thermogravimetric analyses. X-ray diffraction, ex-situ cyclic voltammetry and in-situ cyclic voltammetry showed that WOx is formed from WC as starting material under oxidizing conditions. Finally a 1000 h durability test with WOx as catalyst support material on the anode was done in a HT-PEM fuel cell with reformed methanol on the anode.

  18. Monte Carlo modelling the dosimetric effects of electrode material on diamond detectors.

    PubMed

    Baluti, Florentina; Deloar, Hossain M; Lansley, Stuart P; Meyer, Juergen

    2015-03-01

    Diamond detectors for radiation dosimetry were modelled using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to investigate the influence of electrode material and detector orientation on the absorbed dose. The small dimensions of the electrode/diamond/electrode detector structure required very thin voxels and the use of non-standard DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo model parameters. The interface phenomena was investigated by simulating a 6 MV beam and detectors with different electrode materials, namely Al, Ag, Cu and Au, with thickens of 0.1 µm for the electrodes and 0.1 mm for the diamond, in both perpendicular and parallel detector orientation with regards to the incident beam. The smallest perturbations were observed for the parallel detector orientation and Al electrodes (Z = 13). In summary, EGSnrc Monte Carlo code is well suited for modelling small detector geometries. The Monte Carlo model developed is a useful tool to investigate the dosimetric effects caused by different electrode materials. To minimise perturbations cause by the detector electrodes, it is recommended that the electrodes should be made from a low-atomic number material and placed parallel to the beam direction.

  19. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Raju, Muralikrishna; Watson, Valerie J.; Stack, Andrew G.; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-11-03

    We report that the amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10–5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g–1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in the LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g–1) had a negative rise potential (₋31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to ₋6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. In conclusion, these results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.

  20. Effect of strong acid functional groups on electrode rise potential in capacitive mixing by double layer expansion.

    PubMed

    Hatzell, Marta C; Raju, Muralikrishna; Watson, Valerie J; Stack, Andrew G; van Duin, Adri C T; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-12-02

    The amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10(–5)) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g(–1)) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in the LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g(–1)) had a negative rise potential (−31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to −6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. These results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.

  1. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    DOE PAGES

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Raju, Muralikrishna; Watson, Valerie J.; ...

    2014-11-03

    We report that the amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10–5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g–1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in themore » LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g–1) had a negative rise potential (₋31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to ₋6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. In conclusion, these results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.« less

  2. Nanostructured electrode materials for Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaya, Palani; Saravanan, Kuppan; Hariharan, Srirama

    2010-04-01

    Nanostructured materials have triggered a great excitement in recent times due to both fundamental interest as well as technological impact relevant for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Size reduction in nanocrystals leads to a variety of unexpected exciting phenomena due to enhanced surface-to-volume ratio and reduced transport length. We will consider a few examples of nanostructured electrode materials in the context of lithium batteries for achieving high storage and high rate performances: 1) LiFePO4 nanoplates synthesized using solvothermal method could store Li-ions comparable to its theoretical capacity at C/10, while at 30C, they exhibit storage capacity up to 45 mAh/g. Size reduction (~30 nm) at the b-axis favors the fast Li-ion diffusion. In addition to this, uniform ~5 nm carbon coating throughout the plates provides excellent electronically conducting path for electrons. This nano architecture enables fast insertion/extraction of both Li-ions as well as electrons; 2) Mesporous-TiO2 with high surface area (135m2/g) synthesized using soft-template method exhibits high volumetric density compared to commercial nanopowder (P25), with excellent Li-storage behavior. C16 meso-TiO2 synthesized from CTAB exhibits reversible storage capacity of 288mAh/g at 0.2C and 109 mAh/g at 30C; 3) Zero strain Li4Ti5O12 anode material has been synthesized using several wet chemical routes. The best condition has been optimized to achieve storage capability close to theoretical limit of 175mAh/g at C/10. At 10C, we could retain lithium storage up to 88 mAh/g; 4) We report our recent results on α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe2O3 using conversion reaction, providing insight for a better storage capability in γ-phase than the α-phase at 2C resulting solely from the nanocrystallinity.

  3. Active C4 Electrodes for Local Field Potential Recording Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Freedman, David; Sahin, Mesut; Ünlü, M. Selim; Knepper, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular neural recording, with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs), is a powerful method used to study neural function at the network level. However, in a high density array, it can be costly and time consuming to integrate the active circuit with the expensive electrodes. In this paper, we present a 4 mm × 4 mm neural recording integrated circuit (IC) chip, utilizing IBM C4 bumps as recording electrodes, which enable a seamless active chip and electrode integration. The IC chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process for both in vitro and in vivo applications. It has an input-referred noise of 4.6 μVrms for the bandwidth of 10 Hz to 10 kHz and a power dissipation of 11.25 mW at 2.5 V, or 43.9 μW per input channel. This prototype is scalable for implementing larger number and higher density electrode arrays. To validate the functionality of the chip, electrical testing results and acute in vivo recordings from a rat barrel cortex are presented. PMID:26861324

  4. Biological Potential of Extraterrestrial Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautner, Michael N.; Conner, Anthony J.; Killham, Kenneth; Deamer, David W.

    1997-09-01

    Meteoritic materials are investigated as potential early planetary nutrients. Aqueous extracts of the Murchison C2 carbonaceous meteorite are utilized as a sole carbon source by microorganisms, as demonstrated by the genetically modifiedPseudomonas fluorescenceequipped with theluxgene. Nutrient effects are observed also with the soil microorganismsNocardia asteroidesandArthrobacter pascensthat reach populations up to 5 × 107CFU/ml in meteorite extracts, similar to populations in terrestrial soil extracts. Plant tissue cultures ofAsparagus officinalisandSolanum tuberosum(potato) exhibit enhanced pigmentation and some enhanced growth when meteorite extracts are added to partial nutrient media, but inhibited growth when added to full nutrient solution. The meteorite extracts lead to large increases in S, Ca, Mg, and Fe plant tissue contents as shown by X-ray fluorescence, while P, K, and Cl contents show mixed effects. In both microbiological and plant tissue experiments, the nutrient and inhibitory effects appear to be best balanced for growth at about 1:20 (extracted solid:H2O) ratios. The results suggest that solutions in cavities in meteorites can provide efficient concentrated biogenic and early nutrient environments, including high phosphate levels, which may be the limiting nutrient. The results also suggest that carbonaceous asteroid resources can sustain soil microbial activity and provide essential macronutrients for future space-based eco- systems.

  5. Materials Science of Electrodes and Interfaces for High-Performance Organic Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Tobin

    2016-11-18

    The science of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells has made dramatic advances over the past three years with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) now reaching ~12%. The upper PCE limit of light-to-electrical power conversion for single-junction OPVs as predicted by theory is ~23%. With further basic research, the vision of such devices, composed of non-toxic, earth-abundant, readily easily processed materials replacing/supplementing current-generation inorganic solar cells may become a reality. Organic cells offer potentially low-cost, roll-to-roll manufacturable, and durable solar power for diverse in-door and out-door applications. Importantly, further gains in efficiency and durability, to that competitive with inorganic PVs, will require fundamental, understanding-based advances in transparent electrode and interfacial materials science and engineering. This team-science research effort brought together an experienced and highly collaborative interdisciplinary group with expertise in hard and soft matter materials chemistry, materials electronic structure theory, solar cell fabrication and characterization, microstructure characterization, and low temperature materials processing. We addressed in unconventional ways critical electrode-interfacial issues underlying OPV performance -- controlling band offsets between transparent electrodes and organic active-materials, addressing current loss/leakage phenomena at interfaces, and new techniques in cost-effective low temperature and large area cell fabrication. The research foci were: 1) Theory-guided design and synthesis of advanced crystalline and amorphous transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layers which test our basic understanding of TCO structure-transport property relationships, and have high conductivity, transparency, and tunable work functions but without (or minimizing) the dependence on indium. 2) Development of theory-based understanding of optimum configurations for the interfaces between oxide electrodes

  6. Metallic sulfide additives for positive electrode material within a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, William J.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Yao, Neng-ping; Koura, Kobuyuki

    1976-01-01

    An improved active material for use within the positive electrode of a secondary electrochemical cell includes a mixture of iron disulfide and a sulfide of a polyvalent metal. Various metal sulfides, particularly sulfides of cobalt, nickel, copper, cerium and manganese, are added in minor weight proportion in respect to iron disulfide for improving the electrode performance and reducing current collector requirements.

  7. Method for determining trace quantities of chloride in polymeric materials using ion selective electrodes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Salary, J.

    1987-02-01

    A method for determining trace quantities of chloride in polymeric materials has been developed. Ion-selective electrodes and the standard addition method were used in all the analyses. The ion-selective electrode method was compared with neutron activation, ion chromatography and chloridometer titration. The ion-selective electrode technique results for chloride were similar to those of neutron activation, which is the acknowledged referee method. This ion-selective electrode method showed the highest standard recovery when compared with the ion chromatography and chloridometer titration methods.

  8. Amorphous carbon nitride as an alternative electrode material in electroanalysis: simultaneous determination of dopamine and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Roberta A; Matos, Roberto; Benchikh, Abdelkader; Saidani, Boualem; Debiemme-Chouvy, Catherine; Deslouis, Claude; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2013-10-03

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) films are excellent electrode materials, whose electrochemical activity for some analytes can be tuned by controlling their surface termination, most commonly either to predominantly hydrogen or oxygen. This tuning can be accomplished by e.g. suitable cathodic or anodic electrochemical pretreatments. Recently, it has been shown that amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) films may present electrochemical characteristics similar to those of BDD, including the influence of surface termination on their electrochemical activity toward some analytes. In this work, we report for the first time a complete electroanalytical method using an a-CNx electrode. Thus, an a-CNx film deposited on a stainless steel foil by DC magnetron sputtering is proposed as an alternative electrode for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) in synthetic biological samples by square-wave voltammetry. The obtained results are compared with those attained using a BDD electrode. For both electrodes, a same anodic pretreatment in 0.1 mol L(-1) KOH was necessary to attain an adequate and equivalent separation of the DA and AA oxidation potential peaks of about 330 mV. The detection limits obtained for the simultaneous determination of these analytes using the a-CNx electrode were 0.0656 μmol L(-1) for DA and 1.05 μmol L(-1) for AA, whereas with the BDD electrode these values were 0.283 μmol L(-1) and 0.968 μmol L(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the results obtained in the analysis of the analytes in synthetic biological samples were satisfactory, attesting the potential application of the a-CNx electrode in electroanalysis.

  9. Rotating ring-disk electrode with dual dynamic potential control: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Vesztergom, Soma; Barankai, Norbert; Kovács, Noémi; Ujvári, Mária; Wandlowski, Thomas; Láng, Győző G

    2014-01-01

    Using the LabVIEW™ graphical programming language designed by National Instruments®, a digital simulation model has been developed in order to describe electrochemical processes occurring at rotating ring-disk electrodes. The model allows for taking into consideration independent potential control of the two working electrodes, homogeneous electrode reactions, as well as spatial inhomogeneities of the working electrode surfaces. The main programming concepts, as well as the operation of the simulation software is presented. Several test simulations have been carried out in order to evaluate the accuracy of the calculations.

  10. Penternary chalcogenides nanocrystals as catalytic materials for efficient counter electrodes in dye-synthesized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Özel, Faruk; Sarılmaz, Adem; İstanbullu, Bilal; Aljabour, Abdalaziz; Kuş, Mahmut; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş

    2016-01-01

    The penternary chalcogenides Cu2CoSn(SeS)4 and Cu2ZnSn(SeS)4 were successfully synthesized by hot-injection method, and employed as a catalytic materials for efficient counter electrodes in dye-synthesized solar cells (DSSCs). The structural, compositional, morphological and optical properties of these pentenary semiconductors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy. The Cu2CoSn(SeS)4 and Cu2ZnSn(SeS)4 nanocrystals had a single crystalline, kesterite phase, adequate stoichiometric ratio, 18–25 nm particle sizes which are forming nanospheres, and band gap energy of 1.18 and 1.45 eV, respectively. Furthermore, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammograms indicated that Cu2CoSn(SeS)4 nanocrystals as counter electrodes exhibited better electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of iodine/iodide electrolyte than that of Cu2ZnSn(SeS)4 nanocrystals and conventional platinum (Pt). The photovoltaic results demonstrated that DSSC with a Cu2CoSn(SeS)4 nanocrystals-based counter electrode achieved the best efficiency of 6.47%, which is higher than the same photoanode employing a Cu2ZnSn(SeS)4 nanocrystals (3.18%) and Pt (5.41%) counter electrodes. These promising results highlight the potential application of penternary chalcogen Cu2CoSn(SeS)4 nanocrystals in low-cost, high-efficiency, Pt-free DSSCs. PMID:27380957

  11. Penternary chalcogenides nanocrystals as catalytic materials for efficient counter electrodes in dye-synthesized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özel, Faruk; Sarılmaz, Adem; Istanbullu, Bilal; Aljabour, Abdalaziz; Kuş, Mahmut; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş

    2016-07-01

    The penternary chalcogenides Cu2CoSn(SeS)4 and Cu2ZnSn(SeS)4 were successfully synthesized by hot-injection method, and employed as a catalytic materials for efficient counter electrodes in dye-synthesized solar cells (DSSCs). The structural, compositional, morphological and optical properties of these pentenary semiconductors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy. The Cu2CoSn(SeS)4 and Cu2ZnSn(SeS)4 nanocrystals had a single crystalline, kesterite phase, adequate stoichiometric ratio, 18–25 nm particle sizes which are forming nanospheres, and band gap energy of 1.18 and 1.45 eV, respectively. Furthermore, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammograms indicated that Cu2CoSn(SeS)4 nanocrystals as counter electrodes exhibited better electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of iodine/iodide electrolyte than that of Cu2ZnSn(SeS)4 nanocrystals and conventional platinum (Pt). The photovoltaic results demonstrated that DSSC with a Cu2CoSn(SeS)4 nanocrystals-based counter electrode achieved the best efficiency of 6.47%, which is higher than the same photoanode employing a Cu2ZnSn(SeS)4 nanocrystals (3.18%) and Pt (5.41%) counter electrodes. These promising results highlight the potential application of penternary chalcogen Cu2CoSn(SeS)4 nanocrystals in low-cost, high-efficiency, Pt-free DSSCs.

  12. The activity of nanocrystalline Fe-based alloys as electrode materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christian Immanuel; Sellschopp, Kai; Tegel, Marcus; Rauscher, Thomas; Kieback, Bernd; Röntzsch, Lars

    2016-02-01

    In view of alkaline water electrolysis, the activities for the hydrogen evolution reaction of nanocrystalline Fe-based electrode materials were investigated and compared with the activities of polycrystalline Fe and Ni. Electrochemical methods were used to elucidate the overpotential value, the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacity. Structural properties of the electrode surface were determined with SEM, XRD and XPS analyses. Thus, a correlation between electrochemical and structural parameters was found. In this context, we report on a cyclic voltammetric activation procedure which causes a significant increase of the surface area of Fe-based electrodes leading to a boost in effective activity of the activated electrodes. It was found that the intrinsic activity of activated Fe-based electrodes is very high due to the formation of a nanocrystalline surface layer. In contrast, the activation procedure influences only the intrinsic activity of the Ni electrodes without the formation of a porous surface layer.

  13. Surface-treated carbon electrodes with modified potential of zero charge for capacitive deionization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Wang, Gang; Zhan, Fei; Dong, Qiang; Ren, Qidi; Wang, Jianren; Qiu, Jieshan

    2016-04-15

    The potential of zero charge (Epzc) of electrodes can greatly influence the salt removal capacity, charge efficiency and cyclic stability of capacitive deionization (CDI). Thus optimizing the Epzc of CDI electrodes is of great importance. A simple strategy to negatively shift the Epzc of CDI electrodes by modifying commercial activated carbon with quaternized poly (4-vinylpyridine) (AC-QPVP) is reported in this work. The Epzc of the prepared AC-QPVP composite electrode is as negative as -0.745 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Benefiting from the optimized Epzc of electrodes, the asymmetric CDI cell which consists of the AC-QPVP electrode and a nitric acid treated activated carbon (AC-HNO3) electrode exhibits excellent CDI performance. For inverted CDI, the working potential window of the asymmetric CDI cell can reach 1.4 V, and its salt removal capacity can be as high as 9.6 mg/g. For extended voltage CDI, the salt removal capacity of the asymmetric CDI cell at 1.2/-1.2 V is 20.6 mg/g, which is comparable to that of membrane CDI using pristine activated carbon as the electrodes (19.5 mg/g). The present work provides a simple method to prepare highly positively charged CDI electrodes and may pave the way for the development of high-performance CDI cells.

  14. A comparison of retinal prosthesis electrode array substrate materials.

    PubMed

    Weiland, James D; Humayun, Mark S; Eckhardt, Helmut; Ufer, Stefan; Laude, Lucien; Basinger, Brooke; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2009-01-01

    Simulations of artificial vision suggest that 1000 electrodes may be required to restore vision to individuals with diseases of the outer retina. In order to achieve such an implant, new technology is needed, since the state-of-the-art implantable neural stimulator has at most 22 contacts with neural tissue. A critical component of this system is the multi-channel, stimulating electrode array. This array must meet very challenging, competing requirements for manufacturing, integration, surgical handling, and biocompatibility. Our lab has evaluated 3 polymers as retinal prosthesis substrates: polyimide, parylene, and silicone.

  15. Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Clere, T.M.

    1983-08-30

    A 3-dimensional electrode is disclosed having substantially coplanar and substantially flat portions and ribbon-like curved portions, said curved portions being symmetrical and alternating in rows above and below said substantially coplanar, substantially flat portions, respectively, and a geometric configuration presenting in one sectional aspect the appearance of a series of ribbon-like oblate spheroids interrupted by said flat portions and in another sectional aspect, 90/sup 0/ from said one aspect, the appearance of a square wave pattern.

  16. High voltage, rechargeable lithium batteries using newly-developed carbon for negative electrode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaura, Junichi; Ozaki, Yoshiyuki; Morita, Akiyoshi; Ohta, Akira

    1993-03-01

    Carbon is a good candidate for negative electrodes because it can take the form of lithium intercalation compounds. We discussed the characteristics of typical carbon materials which have been studied as negative electrode materials. We have found that the mesophase pitch-based carbon microbead (MCMB) of high graphitization stage which have been graphitized at a high temperature such as 2800 C gives good characteristics as a negative electrode for rechargeable lithium batteries. The cylindrical 'AA-size' batteries of our trial products using LiCoO2 as the positive electrode and the M CMB graphitized at 2800 C as the negative electrode have been found to provide large capacities of 500 mA h and high voltages of 3.7 V with high energy densities of 240 W h/l, 100 W h/kg.

  17. Characterization of CNT-MnO2 nanocomposite by electrophoretic deposition as potential electrode for supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darari, Alfin; Ardiansah, Hafidh Rahman; Arifin, Rismaningsih, Nurmanita; Ningrum, Andini Novia; Subagio, Agus

    2016-04-01

    Energy crisis that occured in Indonesia suggests that energy supply could not offset the high rate request and needs an electric energy saving device which can save high voltage, safety, and unlimited lifetime. The weakness of batteries is durable but has a low power density while the capacitor has a high power density but it doesn't durable. The renewal of this study is CNT-MnO2 thin film fabrication method using electrophoretic deposition. Electrophoretic deposition is a newest method to deposited CNT using power supply with cheap, and make a good result. The result of FTIR analysis showed that the best CNT-MnO2 composition is 75:25 and C-C bond is detected in fingerprint area. The result is electrode thin film homogen and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks 2θ=26,63° is characterization of graphite, and 2θ=43,97° is characterization of diamond Carbon type and measured by Scherrer formula results 52,3 nm material average size .EIS test results its capacitance about 7,86 F. from the data it can be concluded that CNT-MnO2 potential electrode very promising for further study and has a potential to be a high capacitance, and fast charge supercapacitor which can be applied for electronic devices, energy converter, even electric car.

  18. Method for producing electrodes using microscale or nanoscale materials obtained from hydrogendriven metallurgical reactions

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, James J.; Adzic, Gordana D.; Johnson, John R.; Vogt, Thomas; McBreen, James

    2003-09-02

    A method is provided for producing electrodes using microscale and nanoscale metal materials formed from hydrogen driven metallurgical processes; such a the HD (hydriding, dehydriding) process, the HDDR (hydriding, dehydriding, disproportionation, and recombination) process, and variants thereof.

  19. Thin film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices fabricated with nanocomposite electrode materials

    DOEpatents

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland

    2014-02-04

    Thin-film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices (10) are fabricated with positive electrodes (12) comprising a nanocomposite material composed of lithiated metal oxide nanoparticles (40) dispersed in a matrix composed of lithium tungsten oxide.

  20. Engineering hybrid nanostructures of active materials: Applications as electrode materials in lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan

    Aiming to significantly improve the electrochemical properties of electroactive materials for lithium ion batteries, three novel hybrid nanostructures were developed in this thesis. These include nanostructure A: V2O 5 coated on polymer electrolyte-grafted carbon black, nanostructure B: electrode materials incorporated into an electronically conductive carbon web, and nanostructure C: electrode materials dispersed in a conductive porous carbon matrix. Nanocomposites possessing nanostructure A are fast electronic and ionic transport materials. The improved kinetic properties are due to the incorporated carbon core and the grafted polymer electrolyte in the unique structure. The V2O5 xerogel coated polymer electrolyte-grafted carbon blacks, or V2O5/C-PEG, can reach a capacity as high as 320 mAh/g, and exhibit outstanding rate sustainability (e.g. 190 mAh/g at 14C). This class of nanostructured composites is promising for high power/current applications. Nanostructure B was extremely successful when applied to very poorly conductive active materials, such as LiFePO4 and Li3V 2(PO4)3. In this nanostructure, the web-like carbon framework not only supplies a facile electron transport path, but also provides excellent electronic contact between carbon and the insulating active materials. At room temperature, the LiFePO4/C nanocomposite successfully reaches almost full capacity, along with greatly improved rate sustainability and excellent cycling stability. At elevated temperatures (e.g. 40°C and 60°C), the full capacity is readily accessible over a wide rate range, even at a very fast rate of 2C or 5C. The Li3V2(PO4) 3/C nanocomposite can extract all three lithium in the formula at a rate of 1C, resulting in a high capacity of 200 mAh/g. Therefore, through designing hybrid nanostructures with nanostructure B, we can make insulating active materials into good cathode materials. Nanostructure C was employed for Sn-based anode materials, in order to improve their cycling

  1. Direct laser immobilization of photosynthetic material on screen printed electrodes for amperometric biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Boutopoulos, Christos; Zergioti, Ioanna; Touloupakis, Eleftherios; Pezzotti, Ittalo; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2011-02-28

    This letter demonstrates the direct laser printing of photosynthetic material onto low cost nonfunctionalized screen printed electrodes for the fabrication of photosynthesis-based amperometric biosensors. The high kinetic energy of the transferred material induces direct immobilization of the thylakoids onto the electrodes without the use of linkers. This type of immobilization is able to establish efficient electrochemical contact between proteins and electrode, stabilizing the photosynthetic biomolecule and transporting electrons to the solid state device with high efficiency. The functionality of the laser printed biosensors was evaluated by the detection of a common herbicide such as Linuron.

  2. Theory of Frequency-Dependent Polarization of General Planar Electrodes with Zeta Potentials of Arbitrary Magnitude in Ionic Media.

    PubMed

    Scott; Paul; Kaler

    2000-10-15

    Electrode polarization effects have long aggravated the efforts of low frequency analysis, particularly those investigations carried out on biological material or in highly conductive media. Beginning from elementary equations of electrostatics and hydrodynamics, a comprehensive model is devised to account for the screening of a general planar electrode by an ionic double layer. The surface geometry of the planar electrode is left unspecified to include any type of micromachined array. Building on the previous work by DeLacey and White (1982, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 78, 457) using a variational theorem, we extend their numerical results with compact analytic solutions, analogous to the Debye-Hückel potential for dc systems, but applicable now to dynamic ac experiments. The variational approach generates functions that are not restricted by perturbation expansions or numerical convergence, representing optimal approximations to the exact solutions. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Response of the plasma to the size of an anode electrode biased near the plasma potential

    SciTech Connect

    Barnat, E. V.; Laity, G. R.; Baalrud, S. D.

    2014-10-15

    As the size of a positively biased electrode increases, the nature of the interface formed between the electrode and the host plasma undergoes a transition from an electron-rich structure (electron sheath) to an intermediate structure containing both ion and electron rich regions (double layer) and ultimately forms an electron-depleted structure (ion sheath). In this study, measurements are performed to further test how the size of an electron-collecting electrode impacts the plasma discharge the electrode is immersed in. This is accomplished using a segmented disk electrode in which individual segments are individually biased to change the effective surface area of the anode. Measurements of bulk plasma parameters such as the collected current density, plasma potential, electron density, electron temperature and optical emission are made as both the size and the bias placed on the electrode are varied. Abrupt transitions in the plasma parameters resulting from changing the electrode surface area are identified in both argon and helium discharges and are compared to the interface transitions predicted by global current balance [S. D. Baalrud, N. Hershkowitz, and B. Longmier, Phys. Plasmas 14, 042109 (2007)]. While the size-dependent transitions in argon agree, the size-dependent transitions observed in helium systematically occur at lower electrode sizes than those nominally derived from prediction. The discrepancy in helium is anticipated to be caused by the finite size of the interface that increases the effective area offered to the plasma for electron loss to the electrode.

  4. Optoelectric patterning: Effect of electrode material and thickness on laser-induced AC electrothermal flow.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Avanish; Khor, Jian-Wei; Clayton, Katherine N; Williams, Stuart J; Pan, Xudong; Kinzer-Ursem, Tamara; Wereley, Steve

    2016-02-01

    Rapid electrokinetic patterning (REP) is an emerging optoelectric technique that takes advantage of laser-induced AC electrothermal flow and particle-electrode interactions to trap and translate particles. The electrothermal flow in REP is driven by the temperature rise induced by the laser absorption in the thin electrode layer. In previous REP applications 350-700 nm indium tin oxide (ITO) layers have been used as electrodes. In this study, we show that ITO is an inefficient electrode choice as more than 92% of the irradiated laser on the ITO electrodes is transmitted without absorption. Using theoretical, computational, and experimental approaches, we demonstrate that for a given laser power the temperature rise is controlled by both the electrode material and its thickness. A 25-nm thick Ti electrode creates an electrothermal flow of the same speed as a 700-nm thick ITO electrode while requiring only 14% of the laser power used by ITO. These results represent an important step in the design of low-cost portable REP systems by lowering the material cost and power consumption of the system.

  5. Involvement of flocculin in negative potential-applied ITO electrode adhesion of yeast cells

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Sumihiro; Tsubouchi, Taishi; Usui, Keiko; Uematsu, Katsuyuki; Tame, Akihiro; Nogi, Yuichi; Ohta, Yukari; Hatada, Yuji; Kato, Chiaki; Miwa, Tetsuya; Toyofuku, Takashi; Nagahama, Takehiko; Konishi, Masaaki; Nagano, Yuriko; Abe, Fumiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel methods for attachment and cultivation of specifically positioned single yeast cells on a microelectrode surface with the application of a weak electrical potential. Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid strains attached to an indium tin oxide/glass (ITO) electrode to which a negative potential between −0.2 and −0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl was applied, while they did not adhere to a gallium-doped zinc oxide/glass electrode surface. The yeast cells attached to the negative potential-applied ITO electrodes showed normal cell proliferation. We found that the flocculin FLO10 gene-disrupted diploid BY4743 mutant strain (flo10Δ /flo10Δ) almost completely lost the ability to adhere to the negative potential-applied ITO electrode. Our results indicate that the mechanisms of diploid BY4743 S. cerevisiae adhesion involve interaction between the negative potential-applied ITO electrode and the Flo10 protein on the cell wall surface. A combination of micropatterning techniques of living single yeast cell on the ITO electrode and omics technologies holds potential of novel, highly parallelized, microchip-based single-cell analysis that will contribute to new screening concepts and applications. PMID:26187908

  6. Sampling membrane potential, membrane resistance and electrode resistance with a glass electrode impaled into a single cell.

    PubMed

    Schiebe, M; Jaeger, U

    1980-04-01

    A method is demonstrated to measure membrane resistances and membrane potentials of single cells during impalement by a single glass microelectrode. The intention was to develop a procedure which would provide data almost continuously. Therefore, a frequency-dependent voltage divider network has been chosen to represent the basic electrical properties of the electrode and cell membrane, and used to explore its voltage response to a current stimulus, consisting of two rectangular pulses of different widths. It can be shown that the resolution of the method can be improved by inverting this stimulus so that each polarization becomes a relaxation and vice versa. In order to generate, analyze and display this signal continuously, a device has been designed which has been called 'Electrophysiological Monitor, (E1M2)'. E1M2 provides a current stimulus as input into a standard bridge network and can analyze the summed response of the electrode and cell by a set of sample-hold amplifiers. It then decodes and displays the data continuously, as membrane potential (Em), input resistance of the cell (Rinp) and the electrode resistance (Re) respectively. From Rinp the membrane resistance (Rm) can be deduced. The validity of the method has been examined by measuring these parameters in frog muscle cells. Technical design considerations, the accuracy and possible pitfalls with the suggested procedure are discussed.

  7. Compliant Electrode and Composite Material for Piezoelectric Wind and Mechanical Energy Conversions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Bin (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A thin film device for harvesting energy from wind. The thin film device includes one or more layers of a compliant piezoelectric material formed from a composite of a polymer and an inorganic material, such as a ceramic. Electrodes are disposed on a first side and a second side of the piezoelectric material. The electrodes are formed from a compliant material, such as carbon nanotubes or graphene. The thin film device exhibits improved resistance to structural fatigue upon application of large strains and repeated cyclic loadings.

  8. Inkjet printed electrode arrays for potential modulation of DNA self-assembled monolayers on gold.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunchao; Li, Paul C H; Parameswaran, M Ash; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2008-11-15

    In this paper, we report a novel and cost-effective fabrication technique to produce electrode arrays that can be used for monitoring and electrical manipulation of the molecular orientation of DNA self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold. The electrode arrays were prepared from gold coated glass sides or compact discs (CD-Rs) by using standard office inkjet printers without any hardware or software modifications. In this method, electrode arrays of varied shape and size (from submillimeter to centimeter) can be rapidly fabricated and are suitable for standard electrochemical measurements. We were able to use a dual-channel potentiostat to control the electrodes individually and a fluorescence (FL) scanner to image the electrode array simultaneously. With such an integrated modulation setup, the structural switching behavior (from "lying" to "standing" position) and the enhanced hybridization reactivity of thiolate DNA SAMs on gold under potential control have been successfully demonstrated.

  9. Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    This invention relates to a rechargeable battery or fuel cell. More particularly, this invention relates to a novel air electrode comprising a new carbon electrode support material and a method of making same. 3 figs.

  10. An adhesive conducting electrode material based on commercial mesoporous titanium dioxide as a support for Horseradish peroxidase for bioelectrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Rahemi, Vanoushe; Trashin, Stanislav; Meynen, Vera; De Wael, Karolien

    2016-01-01

    An adhesive conducting electrode material containing of graphite, biocompatible ion exchange polymer nafion(®) and commercial mesoporous TiO2 impregnated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is prepared and characterized by amperometric, UV-vis and N2 sorption methods. The factors influencing the performance of the resulting biosensor are studied in detail. The optimal electrode material consists of 45% graphite, 50% impregnated HRP-TiO2 and 5% nafion(®). The optimum conditions for H2O2 reduction are an applied potential of -0.3 V and 0.1 mM hydroquinone. Sensitivity and limit of detection in the optimum conditions are 1 A M(-1) cm(-2) and 1 µM correspondingly. The N2 sorption results show that the pore volume of TiO2 decreases sharply upon adsorption of HRP. The preparation process of the proposed enzyme electrode is straightforward and potentially can be used for preparation of carbon paste electrodes for bioelectrochemical detections.

  11. Impedance spectroscopy study of a catechol-modified activated carbon electrode as active material in electrochemical capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cougnon, C.; Lebègue, E.; Pognon, G.

    2015-01-01

    Modified activated carbon (Norit S-50) electrodes with electrochemical double layer (EDL) capacitance and redox capacitance contributions to the electric charge storage were tested in 1 M H2SO4 to quantify the benefit and the limitation of the surface redox reactions on the electrochemical performances of the resulting pseudo-capacitive materials. The electrochemical performances of an electrochemically anodized carbon electrode and a catechol-modified carbon electrode, which make use both EDL capacitance of the porous structure of the carbon and redox capacitance, were compared to the performances obtained for the pristine carbon. Nitrogen gas adsorption measurements have been used for studying the impact of the grafting on the BET surface area, pore size distribution, pore volume and average pore diameter. The electrochemical behavior of carbon materials was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS data were discussed by using a complex capacitance model that allows defining the characteristic time constant, the global capacitance and the frequency at which the maximum charge stored is reached. The EIS measurements were achieved at different dc potential values where a redox activity occurs and the evolution of the capacitance and the capacitive relaxation time with the electrode potential are presented. Realistic galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements performed at different current rates corroborate the results obtained by impedance.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical investigation of novel electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Tracy Alexandra

    2002-08-01

    As the demand for better energy storage devices increases, finding new materials capable of improvement on existing technology becomes essential. Within this body of work, several new electrode materials of different structure type have been synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for their lithium insertion/deinsertion behavior in lithium ion batteries. Nanocomposites of novel alloy, and convertible oxide anode materials have been studied. Nanoparticles of Ge and Sn that are able to form lithium rich alloys have been synthesized, and their low potential lithium insertion behavior studied. In order to inhibit agglomeration of the tiny particles, a novel synthesis route was designed to attach ionically conducting polymers to their surfaces. Characterization by a combination of techniques (XRD, TEM, SEM and FTIR spectroscopy) verified the existence of nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix, albeit with some impurities. Electrochemical data show that even when the lithium insertion capacity within these materials is high, the process is extremely irreversible as lithium ions become trapped within the matrix, and only a very small anodic capacity is realized. The first convertible polymer/oxide nanocomposite (poly(para-phenylene)/MoO 3) to be evaluated as an anode material was synthesized using a novel surfactant mediated method. XRD data indicated a 5.2 A increase in the MoO3 layer spacing to 12.1 A after polymer incorporation. Low potential electrochemical insertion properties show that the polymer/oxide nanocomposite behaves in a similar manner to the host MoO3 material. A variety of cathode materials were also synthesized and evaluated for their high potential lithium insertion properties. A comparative study on the effect that synthetic procedure may have on the electrochemical properties of the poly(aniline)/MoO3 cathode material have been studied. Poly(aniline)/MoO 3 nanocomposites have been synthesized from a solution insertion route and via hydrothermal

  13. Method of preparation of carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Wang, James C. F.; Crocker, Robert W.; Ingersoll, David; Firsich, David W.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Electrodes prepared from these carbon materials exhibit intercalation efficiencies of .apprxeq.80% for lithium, low irreversible loss of lithium, long cycle life, are capable of sustaining a high rates of discharge and are cheap and easy to manufacture. The method comprises a novel two-step stabilization process in which polymeric precursor materials are stabilized by first heating in an inert atmosphere and subsequently heating in air. During the stabilization process, the polymeric precursor material can be agitated to reduce particle fusion and promote mass transfer of oxygen and water vapor. The stabilized, polymeric precursor materials can then be converted to a synthetic carbon, suitable for fabricating electrodes for use in rechargeable batteries, by heating to a high temperature in a flowing inert atmosphere.

  14. Method of preparation of carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Wang, J.C.F.; Crocker, R.W.; Ingersoll, D.; Firsich, D.W.

    1999-03-16

    A method is described for producing carbon materials for use as electrodes in rechargeable batteries. Electrodes prepared from these carbon materials exhibit intercalation efficiencies of {approx_equal} 80% for lithium, low irreversible loss of lithium, long cycle life, are capable of sustaining a high rates of discharge and are cheap and easy to manufacture. The method comprises a novel two-step stabilization process in which polymeric precursor materials are stabilized by first heating in an inert atmosphere and subsequently heating in air. During the stabilization process, the polymeric precursor material can be agitated to reduce particle fusion and promote mass transfer of oxygen and water vapor. The stabilized, polymeric precursor materials can then be converted to a synthetic carbon, suitable for fabricating electrodes for use in rechargeable batteries, by heating to a high temperature in a flowing inert atmosphere. 4 figs.

  15. Porous hollow carbon spheres for electrode material of supercapacitors and support material of dendritic Pt electrocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yang; Liu, Pei-Fang; Huang, Zhong-Yuan; Jiang, Tong-Wu; Yao, Kai-Li; Han, Ran

    2015-04-01

    Porous hollow carbon spheres (PHCSs) are prepared through hydrothermal carbonization of alginic acid and subsequent chemical activation by KOH. The porosity of the alginic acid derived PHCSs can be finely modulated by varying activation temperature in the range of 600-900 °C. The PHCSs activated at 900 °C possess the largest specific surface area (2421 m2 g-1), well-balanced micro- and mesoporosity, as well as high content of oxygen-containing functional groups. As the electrode material for supercapacitors, the PHCSs exhibit superior capacitive performance with specific capacitance of 314 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1. Pt nanodendrites supported on the PHCSs are synthesized by polyol reduction method which exhibit high electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). Moreover, CO-poisoning tolerance of the Pt nanodendrites is greatly enhanced owing to the surface chemical property of the PHCSs support.

  16. Method for making carbon super capacitor electrode materials

    DOEpatents

    Firsich, David W.; Ingersoll, David; Delnick, Frank M.

    1998-01-01

    A method for making near-net-shape, monolithic carbon electrodes for energy storage devices. The method includes the controlled pyrolysis and activation of a pressed shape of methyl cellulose powder with pyrolysis being carried out in two stages; pre-oxidation, preferably in air at a temperature between 200.degree.-250.degree. C., followed by carbonization under an inert atmosphere. An activation step to adjust the surface area of the carbon shape to a value desirable for the application being considered, including heating the carbon shape in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 300.degree. C., follows carbonization.

  17. Method for making carbon super capacitor electrode materials

    DOEpatents

    Firsich, D.W.; Ingersoll, D.; Delnick, F.M.

    1998-07-07

    A method is described for making near-net-shape, monolithic carbon electrodes for energy storage devices. The method includes the controlled pyrolysis and activation of a pressed shape of methyl cellulose powder with pyrolysis being carried out in two stages; pre-oxidation, preferably in air at a temperature between 200--250 C, followed by carbonization under an inert atmosphere. An activation step to adjust the surface area of the carbon shape to a value desirable for the application being considered, including heating the carbon shape in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 300 C, follows carbonization. 1 fig.

  18. Electrical properties of textile electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rattfalt, Linda; Chedid, Michel; Hult, Peter; Lindén, Maria; Ask, Per

    2007-01-01

    In this study we aim to explain the behavior of textile electrodes due to their construction techniques. Three textile electrodes were tested for electrode impedance and polarization potentials. The multifilament yarn (A) is favorable for its low thread resistance. Although, when knitted into electrodes, the staple fiber yarn (B) showed a comparable and satisfiable electrode impedance. The multifilament yarn had however a lower polarization potential drift then the other specimens. The monofilament yarn (C) had high electrode impedance and varying mean polarization potentials due to its conductive material and small contact area with the skin.

  19. Effect of electrode material and design on sensitivity and selectivity for high temperature impedancemetric NOx sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S; Novak, R F; Visser, J H

    2009-09-23

    Solid-state electrochemical sensors using two different sensing electrode compositions, gold and strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM), were evaluated for gas phase sensing of NO{sub x} (NO and NO{sub 2}) using an impedance-metric technique. An asymmetric cell design utilizing porous YSZ electrolyte exposed both electrodes to the test gas (i.e., no reference gas). Sensitivity to less than 5 ppm NO and response/recovery times (10-90%) less than 10 s were demonstrated. Using an LSM sensing electrode, virtual identical sensitivity towards NO and NO{sub 2} was obtained, indicating that the equilibrium gas concentration was measured by the sensing electrode. In contrast, for cells employing a gold sensing electrode the NO{sub x} sensitivity varied depending on the cell design: increasing the amount of porous YSZ electrolyte on the sensor surface produced higher NO{sub 2} sensitivity compared to NO. In order to achieve comparable sensitivity for both NO and NO{sub 2}, the cell with the LSM sensing electrode required operation at a lower temperature (575 C) than the cell with the gold sensing electrode (650 C). The role of surface reactions are proposed to explain the differences in NO and NO{sub 2} selectivity using the two different electrode materials.

  20. Evaluation of electrode materials for all-copper hybrid flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Puiki; Palma, Jesus; Garcia-Quismondo, Enrique; Sanz, Laura; Mohamed, M. R.; Anderson, Marc

    2016-04-01

    This work evaluates a number of two- and three-dimensional electrodes for the reactions of an all-copper hybrid flow battery. Half- and full-cell experiments are conducted by minimizing the crossover effect of the copper(II) species. The battery incorporates a Nafion® cation exchange membrane and the negative electrolyte is maintained at the monovalent (colourless) state by the incorporating copper turnings in the electrolyte reservoir. Under such conditions, the half-cell coulombic efficiencies of the negative electrode reactions are all higher than 90% regardless of electrode materials and the state-of-charge (SOC). With charge-discharge cycling the half-cell from a 0% SOC, the coulombic efficiencies of the positive electrode reactions are lower than 76% with the planar carbon electrode, which further decrease in shorter charge-discharge cycles. Polarization and half-cell charge-discharge experiments suggest that the high-surface-area electrodes effectively reduce the overpotentials and improve the coulombic efficiencies of both electrode reactions. When copper fibres and carbon felt are used as the negative and positive electrodes, the average coulombic and voltage efficiencies of an all-copper flow battery are as high as c.a. 99% and c.a. 60% at 50 mA cm-2 for 35 cycles.

  1. Understanding the influence of the electrode material on microbial fuel cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, David V. P.

    In this thesis, I deploy sets of electrodes into microbial fuel cells (MFC), characterize their performance, and evaluate the influence of both platinum catalysts and carbon-based electrodes on current production. The platinum work centers on improving current production by optimizing the use of the catalyst using nano-fabrication techniques. The carbon-electrode work seeks to determine the influence of the bare electrode on biofilm-anode current production. The development of electrodes for MFCs has boomed over the past decade, however, experiments aimed at identifying how catalyst deposition methods and electrode properties influence current production have been limited. The research conducted here is an attempt to expand this knowledge base for platinum catalysts and carbon electrodes. In the initial chapters (4 and 5), I discuss our attempt to decrease catalyst loadings while increasing current production through the use of platinum nanoparticles. The results demonstrate that incorporating platinum nanoparticles throughout the anode and cathode is an efficient means of increasing MFC current production relative to surface deposition because it increases catalyst surface area. The later chapters (chapters 6 and 7) develop an understanding of the importance of electrode properties (i.e. surface area, activation resistance, conductivity, surface morphology) by electrochemically evaluating well-studied anode-respiring pure cultures on different carbon electrode architectures. Two different architectures are produced by using tubular and platelet shaped constituent materials (i.e. carbon fibers and graphene nanoplatelets) and the morphologies of the electrodes are varied by altering the size of the constituent material. The electrodes are characterized and evaluated in MFCs using either Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 or Geobacter sulfurreducens as the innoculant because their bioelectrochemical physiologies are the most documented in the literature. Using the

  2. Studies on two classes of positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, James Douglas

    2008-12-01

    The development of advanced lithium-ion batteries is key to the success of many technologies, and in particular, hybrid electric vehicles. In addition to finding materials with higher energy and power densities, improvements in other factors such as cost, toxicity, lifetime, and safety are also required. Lithium transition metal oxide and LiFePO4/C composite materials offer several distinct advantages in achieving many of these goals and are the focus of this report. Two series of layered lithium transition metal oxides, namely LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M=Al, Co, Fe, Ti) and LiNi0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4O2 (M = Al, Co, Fe), have been synthesized. The effect of substitution on the crystal structure is related to shifts in transport properties and ultimately to the electrochemical performance. Partial aluminum substitution creates a high-rate positive electrode material capable of delivering twice the discharge capacity of unsubstituted materials. Iron substituted materials suffer from limited electrochemical performance and poor cycling stability due to the degradation of the layered structure. Titanium substitution creates a very high rate positive electrode material due to a decrease in the anti-site defect concentration. LiFePO4 is a very promising electrode material but suffers from poor electronic and ionic conductivity. To overcome this, two new techniques have been developed to synthesize high performance LiFePO4/C composite materials. The use of graphitization catalysts in conjunction with pyromellitic acid leads to a highly graphitic carbon coating on the surface of LiFePO4 particles. Under the proper conditions, the room temperature electronic conductivity can be improved by nearly five orders of magnitude over untreated materials. Using Raman spectroscopy, the improvement in conductivity and rate performance of

  3. Catechol-modified activated carbon prepared by the diazonium chemistry for application as active electrode material in electrochemical capacitor.

    PubMed

    Pognon, Grégory; Cougnon, Charles; Mayilukila, Dilungane; Bélanger, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Activated carbon (Black Pearls 2000) modified with electroactive catechol groups was evaluated for charge storage application as active composite electrode material in an aqueous electrochemical capacitor. High surface area Black Pearls 2000 carbon was functionalized by introduction of catechol groups by spontaneous reduction of catechol diazonium ions in situ prepared in aqueous solution from the corresponding amine. Change in the specific surface area and pore texture of the carbon following grafting was monitored by nitrogen gas adsorption measurements. The electrochemical properties and the chemical composition of the catechol-modified carbon electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Such carbon-modified electrode combines well the faradaic capacitance, originating from the redox activity of the surface immobilized catechol groups, to the electrochemical double layer capacitance of the high surface area Black Pearls carbon. Due to the faradaic contribution, the catechol-modified electrode exhibits a higher specific capacitance (250 F/g) than pristine carbon (150 F/g) over a potential range of -0.4 to 0.75 V in 1 M H(2)SO(4). The stability of the modified electrode evaluated by long-time charge/discharge cycling revealed a low decrease of the capacitance of the catechol-modified carbon due to the loss of the catechol redox activity. Nonetheless, it was demonstrated that the benefit of redox groups persists for 10, 000 constant current charge/discharge cycles.

  4. Posteroventrolateral pallidotomy through implanted DBS electrodes monitored by recording local field potentials.

    PubMed

    Franzini, Angelo; Cordella, Roberto; Penner, Federica; Rosa, Manuela; Messina, Giuseppe; Rizzi, Michele; Nardocci, Nardo; Priori, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the use of globus pallidus internus (Gpi) local field potentials recorded through pre-implanted deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes on a patient affected by generalized dystonia. The recordings were made both before and after radiofrequency-induced posteroventrolateral bilateral stereotactic pallidotomy. LFP patterns and macroelectrode impedances were modified after the pallidotomy, along with the improvement of dystonic symptoms. After implantation, the DBS electrodes were used for subsequent bedside pallidotomies that were required by the evolution and/or persistence of symptoms. In our hands, LFPs were safe and effective in monitoring pallidotomy performed through DBS electrodes.

  5. Effect of the electrode material on the breakdown voltage and space charge distribution of propylene carbonate under impulse voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qing; Jin, Yang; Sima, Wenxia; Liu, Mengna

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports three types of electrode materials (copper, aluminum, and stainless steel) that are used to measure the impulse breakdown voltage of propylene carbonate. The breakdown voltage of propylene carbonate with these electrode materials is different and is in decreasing order of stainless steel, copper, and aluminum. To explore how the electrode material affects the insulating properties of the liquid dielectric, the electric field distribution and space charge distribution of propylene carbonate under impulse voltage with the three electrode materials are measured on the basis of a Kerr electro-optic test. The space charge injection ability is highest for aluminum, followed by copper, and then the stainless steel electrodes. Furthermore, the electric field distortion rate decreased in the order of the aluminum, copper, and then the stainless steel electrode. This paper explains that the difference in the electric field distortion rate between the three electrode materials led to the difference in the impulse breakdown voltage of propylene carbonate.

  6. High-capacity electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage: Role of nanoscale effects

    DOE PAGES

    Nanda, Jagjit; Martha, Surendra K.; Kalyanaraman, Ramki

    2015-06-02

    In this review, we summarize the current state-of-the art electrode materials used for high-capacity lithium-ion-based batteries and their significant role towards revolutionizing the electrochemical energy storage landscape in the area of consumer electronics, transportation and grid storage application. We discuss the role of nanoscale effects on the electrochemical performance of high-capacity battery electrode materials. Decrease in the particle size of the primary electrode materials from micron to nanometre size improves the ionic and electronic diffusion rates significantly. Nanometre-thick solid electrolyte (such as lithium phosphorous oxynitride) and oxides (such as Al2O3, ZnO, TiO2 etc.) material coatings also improve the interfacial stabilitymore » and rate capability of a number of battery chemistries. Finally, we elucidate these effects in terms of different high-capacity battery chemistries based on intercalation and conversion mechanism.« less

  7. High-capacity electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage: Role of nanoscale effects

    SciTech Connect

    Nanda, Jagjit; Martha, Surendra K.; Kalyanaraman, Ramki

    2015-06-02

    In this review, we summarize the current state-of-the art electrode materials used for high-capacity lithium-ion-based batteries and their significant role towards revolutionizing the electrochemical energy storage landscape in the area of consumer electronics, transportation and grid storage application. We discuss the role of nanoscale effects on the electrochemical performance of high-capacity battery electrode materials. Decrease in the particle size of the primary electrode materials from micron to nanometre size improves the ionic and electronic diffusion rates significantly. Nanometre-thick solid electrolyte (such as lithium phosphorous oxynitride) and oxides (such as Al2O3, ZnO, TiO2 etc.) material coatings also improve the interfacial stability and rate capability of a number of battery chemistries. Finally, we elucidate these effects in terms of different high-capacity battery chemistries based on intercalation and conversion mechanism.

  8. Materials for suspension (semi-solid) electrodes for energy and water technologies.

    PubMed

    Hatzell, Kelsey B; Boota, Muhammad; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-12-07

    Suspension or semi-solid electrodes have recently gained increased attention for large-scale applications such as grid energy storage, capacitive water deionization, and wastewater treatment. A suspension electrode is a multiphase material system comprised of an active (charge storing) material suspended in ionic solution (electrolyte). Gravimetrically, the electrolyte is the majority component and aids in physical transport of the active material. This principle enables, for the first time, scalability of electrochemical energy storage devices (supercapacitors and batteries) previously limited to small and medium scale applications. This critical review describes the ongoing material challenges encompassing suspension-based systems. The research described here combines classical aspects of electrochemistry, colloidal science, material science, fluid mechanics, and rheology to describe ion and charge percolation, adsorption of ions, and redox charge storage processes in suspension electrodes. This review summarizes the growing inventory of material systems, methods and practices used to characterize suspension electrodes, and describes universal material system properties (rheological, electrical, and electrochemical) that are pivotal in the design of high performing systems. A discussion of the primary challenges and future research directions is included.

  9. Materials for suspension (semi-solid) electrodes for energy and water technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzell, Kelsey B.; Boota, Muhammad; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-01-01

    Suspension or semi-solid electrodes have recently gained increased attention for large-scale applications such as grid energy storage, capacitive water deionization, and wastewater treatment. A suspension electrode is a multiphase material system comprised of an active (charge storing) material suspended in ionic solution (electrolyte). Gravimetrically, the electrolyte is the majority component and aids in physical transport of the active material. For the first time, this principle enables, scalability of electrochemical energy storage devices (supercapacitors and batteries) previously limited to small and medium scale applications. This critical review describes the ongoing material challenges encompassing suspension-based systems. The research described here combines classical aspects of electrochemistry, colloidal science, material science, fluid mechanics, and rheology to describe ion and charge percolation, adsorption of ions, and redox charge storage processes in suspension electrodes. Our review summarizes the growing inventory of material systems, methods and practices used to characterize suspension electrodes, and describes universal material system properties (rheological, electrical, and electrochemical) that are pivotal in the design of high performing systems. We include a discussion of the primary challenges and future research directions.

  10. Rapid synthesis of monodispersed highly porous spinel nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) electrode material for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveen, A. Nirmalesh; Selladurai, S.

    2015-06-01

    Monodispersed highly porous spinel nickel cobaltite electrode material was successfully synthesized in a short time using combustion technique. Single phase cubic nature of the spinel nickel cobaltite with average crystallite size of 24 nm was determined from X-ray diffraction study. Functional groups present in the compound were determined from FTIR study and it further confirms the spinel formation. FESEM images reveal the porous nature of the prepared material and uniform size distribution of the particles. Electrochemical evaluation was performed using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) technique, Chronopotentiometry (CP) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Results reveal the typical pseudocapacitive behaviour of the material. Maximum capacitance of 754 F/g was calculated at the scan rate of 5 mV/s, high capacitance was due to the unique porous morphology of the electrode. Nyquist plot depicts the low resistance and good electrical conductivity of nickel cobaltite. It has been found that nickel cobaltite prepared by this typical method will be a potential electrode material for supercapcitor application.

  11. The Production and Characterization of Ceramic Carbon Electrode Materials for CuCl-HCl Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, Patrick

    Current H2 gas supplies are primarily produced through steam methane reforming and other fossil fuel based processes. This lack of viable large scale and environmentally friendly H2 gas production has hindered the wide spread adoption of H2 fuel cells. A potential solution to this problem is the Cu-Cl hybrid thermochemical cycle. The cycle captures waste heat to drive two thermochemical steps creating CuCl as well as O2 gas and HCl from CuCl2 and water. The CuCl is oxidized in HCl to produce H2 gas and regenerate CuCl2, this process occurs at potentials well below those required for water electrolysis. The electrolysis process occurs in a traditional PEM fuel-cell. In the aqueous anolyte media Cu(I) will form anionic complexes such as CuCl 2 - or CuCl32-. The slow transport of these species to the anode surface limits the overall electrolysis process. To improve this transport process we have produced ceramic carbon electrode (CCE) materials through a sol-gel method incorporating a selection of amine containing silanes with increasing numbers of primary and secondary amines. When protonated these amines allow for improved transport of anionic copper complexes. The electrochemical and physical characterization of these CCE materials in a half and full-cell electrolysis environment will be presented. Electrochemical analysis was performed using cell polarization, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  12. LDHs as electrode materials for electrochemical detection and energy storage: supercapacitor, battery and (bio)-sensor.

    PubMed

    Mousty, Christine; Leroux, Fabrice

    2012-11-01

    From an exhaustive overview based on applicative academic literature and patent domain, the relevance of Layered Double Hydroxide (LDHs) as electrode materials for electrochemical detection of organic molecules having environmental or health impact and energy storage is evaluated. Specifically the focus is driven on their application as supercapacitor, alkaline or lithium battery and (bio)-sensor. Inherent to the high versatility of their chemical composition, charge density, anion exchange capability, LDH-based materials are extensively studied and their performances for such applications are reported. Indeed the analytical characteristics (sensitivity and detection limit) of LDH-based electrodes are scrutinized, and their specific capacity or capacitance as electrode battery or supercapacitor materials, are detailed.

  13. Highly Sensitive Measurement of Bio-Electric Potentials by Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Electrodes for Plant Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Tago, Shoko; Hayashi, Mio; Fujishima, Akira

    2015-10-23

    We describe a sensitive plant monitoring system by the detection of the bioelectric potentials in plants with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. For sensor electrodes, we used commercially available BDD, Ag, and Pt plate electrodes. We tested this approach on a hybrid species in the genus Opuntia (potted) and three different trees (ground-planted) at different places in Japan. For the Opuntia, we artificially induced bioelectric potential changes by the surface potential using the fingers. We detected substantial changes in bioelectric potentials through all electrodes during finger touches on the surface of potted Opuntia hybrid plants, although the BDD electrodes were several times more sensitive to bioelectric potential change compared to the other electrodes. Similarly for ground-planted trees, we found that both BDD and Pt electrodes detected bioelectric potential change induced by changing environmental factors (temperature and humidity) for months without replacing/removing/changing electrodes, BDD electrodes were 5-10 times more sensitive in this detection than Pt electrodes. Given these results, we conclude that BDD electrodes on live plant tissue were able to consistently detect bioelectrical potential changes in plants.

  14. Highly Sensitive Measurement of Bio-Electric Potentials by Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Electrodes for Plant Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Tago, Shoko; Hayashi, Mio; Fujishima, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We describe a sensitive plant monitoring system by the detection of the bioelectric potentials in plants with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. For sensor electrodes, we used commercially available BDD, Ag, and Pt plate electrodes. We tested this approach on a hybrid species in the genus Opuntia (potted) and three different trees (ground-planted) at different places in Japan. For the Opuntia, we artificially induced bioelectric potential changes by the surface potential using the fingers. We detected substantial changes in bioelectric potentials through all electrodes during finger touches on the surface of potted Opuntia hybrid plants, although the BDD electrodes were several times more sensitive to bioelectric potential change compared to the other electrodes. Similarly for ground-planted trees, we found that both BDD and Pt electrodes detected bioelectric potential change induced by changing environmental factors (temperature and humidity) for months without replacing/removing/changing electrodes, BDD electrodes were 5–10 times more sensitive in this detection than Pt electrodes. Given these results, we conclude that BDD electrodes on live plant tissue were able to consistently detect bioelectrical potential changes in plants. PMID:26512663

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured graphene/polyaniline composites as high-capacitance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ronghua; Han, Meng; Zhao, Qiannan; Ren, Zonglin; Guo, Xiaolong; Xu, Chaohe; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2017-03-01

    As known to all, hydrothermal synthesis is a powerful technique for preparing inorganic and organic materials or composites with different architectures. In this reports, by controlling hydrothermal conditions, nanostructured polyaniline (PANi) in different morphologies were composited with graphene sheets (GNS) and used as electrode materials of supercapacitors. Specifically, ultrathin PANi layers with total thickness of 10–20 nm are uniformly composited with GNS by a two-step hydrothermal-assistant chemical oxidation polymerization process; while PANi nanofibers with diameter of 50~100 nm are obtained by a one-step direct hydrothermal process. Benefitting from the ultrathin layer and porous structure, the sheet-like GNS/PANi composites can deliver specific capacitances of 532.3 to 304.9 F/g at scan rates of 2 to 50 mV/s. And also, this active material showed very good stability with capacitance retention as high as ~99.6% at scan rate of 50 mV/s, indicating a great potential for using in supercapacitors. Furthermore, the effects of hydrothermal temperatures on the electrochemical performances were systematically studied and discussed.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured graphene/polyaniline composites as high-capacitance electrode materials for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ronghua; Han, Meng; Zhao, Qiannan; Ren, Zonglin; Guo, Xiaolong; Xu, Chaohe; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2017-03-14

    As known to all, hydrothermal synthesis is a powerful technique for preparing inorganic and organic materials or composites with different architectures. In this reports, by controlling hydrothermal conditions, nanostructured polyaniline (PANi) in different morphologies were composited with graphene sheets (GNS) and used as electrode materials of supercapacitors. Specifically, ultrathin PANi layers with total thickness of 10-20 nm are uniformly composited with GNS by a two-step hydrothermal-assistant chemical oxidation polymerization process; while PANi nanofibers with diameter of 50~100 nm are obtained by a one-step direct hydrothermal process. Benefitting from the ultrathin layer and porous structure, the sheet-like GNS/PANi composites can deliver specific capacitances of 532.3 to 304.9 F/g at scan rates of 2 to 50 mV/s. And also, this active material showed very good stability with capacitance retention as high as ~99.6% at scan rate of 50 mV/s, indicating a great potential for using in supercapacitors. Furthermore, the effects of hydrothermal temperatures on the electrochemical performances were systematically studied and discussed.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured graphene/polyaniline composites as high-capacitance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ronghua; Han, Meng; Zhao, Qiannan; Ren, Zonglin; Guo, Xiaolong; Xu, Chaohe; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2017-01-01

    As known to all, hydrothermal synthesis is a powerful technique for preparing inorganic and organic materials or composites with different architectures. In this reports, by controlling hydrothermal conditions, nanostructured polyaniline (PANi) in different morphologies were composited with graphene sheets (GNS) and used as electrode materials of supercapacitors. Specifically, ultrathin PANi layers with total thickness of 10–20 nm are uniformly composited with GNS by a two-step hydrothermal-assistant chemical oxidation polymerization process; while PANi nanofibers with diameter of 50~100 nm are obtained by a one-step direct hydrothermal process. Benefitting from the ultrathin layer and porous structure, the sheet-like GNS/PANi composites can deliver specific capacitances of 532.3 to 304.9 F/g at scan rates of 2 to 50 mV/s. And also, this active material showed very good stability with capacitance retention as high as ~99.6% at scan rate of 50 mV/s, indicating a great potential for using in supercapacitors. Furthermore, the effects of hydrothermal temperatures on the electrochemical performances were systematically studied and discussed. PMID:28291246

  18. Electrical characterization of conductive textile materials and its evaluation as electrodes for venous occlusion plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Goy, C B; Dominguez, J M; Gómez López, M A; Madrid, R E; Herrera, M C

    2013-08-01

    The ambulatory monitoring of biosignals involves the use of sensors, electrodes, actuators, processing tools and wireless communication modules. When a garment includes these elements with the purpose of recording vital signs and responding to specific situations it is call a 'Smart Wearable System'. Over the last years several authors have suggested that conductive textile material (e-textiles) could perform as electrode for these systems. This work aims at implementing an electrical characterization of e-textiles and an evaluation of their ability to act as textile electrodes for lower extremity venous occlusion plethysmography (LEVOP). The e-textile electrical characterization is carried out using two experimental set-ups (in vitro evaluation). Besides, LEVOP records are obtained from healthy volunteers (in vivo evaluation). Standard Ag/AgCl electrodes are used for comparison in all tests. Results shown that the proposed e-textiles are suitable for LEVOP recording and a good agreement between evaluations (in vivo and in vitro) is found.

  19. Combination of a novel electrode material and artificial mediators to enhance power generation in an MFC.

    PubMed

    Taskan, Ergin; Ozkaya, Bestamin; Hasar, Halil

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on two main aspects: developing a novel cost-effective electrode material and power production from domestic wastewater using three different mediators. Methylene blue (MB), neutral red (NR) and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (HNQ) were selected as electrode mediators with different concentrations. A tin-coated copper mesh electrode was tested as anode electrode. Maximum power density of the microbial fuel cell (MFC) with 300 μM MB was 636 mW/m². Optimal mediator concentrations with respect to the achieved maximum power output for MB, NR and HNQ were 300 μM, 200 μM and 50 μM, respectively. The results demonstrate that tin-coated copper mesh showed a higher biocompatibility and electrical conductivity.

  20. Determination of set potential voltages for cucumber mosaic virus detection using screen printed carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, M. N. A.; Hasfalina, C. M.; Samsuzana, A. A.; Faridah, S.; Rafidah A., R.; Hashim, U.; Ariffin, Shahrul A. B.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2017-03-01

    Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) is a most dangerous pathogen among the cucurbit plant which it striking cucumbers, zucchinis, squashes, watermelons but it also striking to non-cucurbit such as peppers, tobaccos, celeries, beans and tomatoes. Symptoms shown by this virus when they starting to strike are very significant and at the end can kill the hosts they infected. In order to detect these viruses, biosensor such as screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) is developed and fixes a set potential voltage is defined using Chronoamperometry (CM) immunosensor technique. For short introduction, CM is a process which is a constant applied potential voltage between the working and reference electrode is maintained in order to create an electrons transfer for the oxidation or reduction species taking place at the surface of working electrode is measured and in this manuscript, complete details about measurement were used to finding the stable set potential voltages will be pointed out.

  1. Design and Development of Non-Contact Bio-Potential Electrodes for Pervasive Health Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Portelli, Anthony J.; Nasuto, Slawomir J.

    2017-01-01

    For the advent of pervasive bio-potential monitoring, it will be necessary to utilize a combination of cheap, quick to apply, low-noise electrodes and compact electronics with wireless technologies. Once available, all electrical activity resulting from the processes of the human body could be actively and constantly monitored without the need for cumbersome application and maintenance. This could significantly improve the early diagnosis of a range of different conditions in high-risk individuals, opening the possibility for new treatments and interventions as conditions develop. This paper presents the design and implementation of compact, non-contact capacitive bio-potential electrodes utilising a low impedance current-to-voltage configuration and a bootstrapped voltage follower, demonstrating results applicable to research applications for capacitive electrocardiography and capacitive electromyography. The presented electrodes use few components, have a small surface area and are capable of acquiring a range of bio-potential signals. PMID:28045439

  2. Study of the contributions of the electrode materials to the plasma of a high-current vacuum spark

    SciTech Connect

    Bashutin, O. A.; Vovchenko, E. D.; Dodulad, E. I.; Savjolov, A. S.; Sarantsev, S. A.

    2012-03-15

    The contribution of the electrode material to the formation of the plasma of a low-inductive high-current vacuum spark and its influence on the process of discharge micropinching were studied using X-ray spectroscopy and laser diagnostics. Electrode system configurations are determined in which the contributions of the materials of both electrodes to the plasma emitting X-rays are comparable and in which the contribution of one electrode is dominating. It is found that discharge pinching occurs primarily in the vapor of the pointed electrode independently of its polarity. The experimental results indicate the formation of a suprathermal electron beam in the micropinch region.

  3. Standard Electrode Potentials Involving Radicals in Aqueous Solution: Inorganic Radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, David A.; Huie, Robert E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Merenyi, Gabor; Neta, Pedatsur; Ruscic, Branko; Stanbury, David M.; Steenken, Steen; Wardman, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Recommendations are made for standard potentials involving select inorganic radicals in aqueous solution at 25 °C. These recommendations are based on a critical and thorough literature review and also by performing derivations from various literature reports. The recommended data are summarized in tables of standard potentials, Gibbs energies of formation, radical pKa’s, and hemicolligation equilibrium constants. In all cases, current best estimates of the uncertainties are provided. An extensive set of Data Sheets is appended that provide original literature references, summarize the experimental results, and describe the decisions and procedures leading to each of the recommendations

  4. Table 3.1. Electrode potentials of zero charge of metal electrodes in contact with electrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holze, R.

    This document is part of Volume 9 `Electrochemistry', Subvolume A, of Landolt-Börnstein - Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. This document lists potentials of the following metal electrodes in contact with different electrolyte solutions, where no charge transfer takes place: silver (Ag), aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), gold (Au), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), bismuth (Bi), carbon (C), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cerium (Ce), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), mercury (Hg), indium (In), iridium (Ir), potassium (K), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), natrium (Na), niobium (Nb), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), rubidium (Rb), rhodium (Rh), antimony (Sb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), tantalum (Ta), tellurium (Te), Titanium (Ti), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W), zinc (Zn). The electrolyte solutions are specified, and the methods of determination of the potentials are given.

  5. Investigation of materials for inert electrodes in aluminum electrodeposition cells

    SciTech Connect

    Haggerty, J. S.; Sadoway, D. R.

    1987-09-14

    Work was divided into major efforts. The first was the growth and characterization of specimens; the second was Hall cell performance testing. Cathode and anode materials were the subject of investigation. Preparation of specimens included growth of single crystals and synthesis of ultra high purity powders. Special attention was paid to ferrites as they were considered to be the most promising anode materials. Ferrite anode corrosion rates were studied and the electrical conductivities of a set of copper-manganese ferrites were measured. Float Zone, Pendant Drop Cryolite Experiments were undertaken because unsatisfactory choices of candidate materials were being made on the basis of a flawed set of selection criteria applied to an incomplete and sometimes inaccurate data base. This experiment was then constructed to determine whether the apparatus used for float zone crystal growth could be adapted to make a variety of important based melts and their interactions with candidate inert anode materials. The third major topic was Non Consumable Anode (Data Base, Candidate Compositions), driven by our perception that the basis for prior selection of candidate materials was inadequate. Results are presented. 162 refs., 39 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Investigation of materials for inert electrodes in aluminum electrodeposition cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, J. S.; Sadoway, D. R.

    1987-09-01

    Work was divided into major efforts. The first was the growth and characterization of specimens; the second was Hall cell performance testing. Cathode and anode materials were the subject of investigation. Preparation of specimens included growth of single crystals and synthesis of ultra high purity powders. Special attention was paid to ferrites as they were considered to be the most promising anode materials. Ferrite anode corrosion rates were studied and the electrical conductivities of a set of copper-manganese ferrites were measured. Float Zone, Pendant Drop Cryolite Experiments were undertaken because unsatisfactory choices of candidate materials were being made on the basis of a flawed set of selection criteria applied to an incomplete and sometimes inaccurate data base. This experiment was then constructed to determine whether the apparatus used for float zone crystal growth could be adapted to make a variety of important based melts and their interactions with candidate inert anode materials. Compositions), driven by our perception that the basis for prior selection of candidate materials was inadequate. Results are presented.

  7. Electrode material dependence of two-dimensional electron and vapour density distribution over vacuum arc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Y.; Matsuoka, S.; Kumada, A.; Ikeda, H.; Hidaka, K.

    2017-03-01

    Electrode material dependence of intense-mode vacuum arc behaviour was systematically investigated by using the Shack-Hartmann method capable of simultaneously visualising two-dimensional electron and metal vapour density distributions from single-shot recordings. The electrode materials studied included Cu, CuCr (Cu75Cr25 wt. %), WC, and AgWC (Ag40WC60 wt. %). A comparison between the Cu and CuCr electrodes showed that the metal vapour densities for the CuCr decreased in an even shorter time scale than for the Cu. In the case of the WC electrodes, the widths of the electron density distributions became narrower as the arc current decreased although the electron densities hardly decreased in the decaying process of the arc current. The density measurements conducted at the late stage of the vacuum arcs demonstrated that the metal vapour densities around the anode were maintained at the highest value for the AgWC among the electrode materials in this study.

  8. Electrotonic potentials in Aloe vera L.: Effects of intercellular and external electrodes arrangement.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Scott, Jessenia M; Jackson, Mariah M Z; Greeman, Esther A; Greenidge, Ariane S; Cohen, Devin O; Volkova, Maia I; Shtessel, Yuri B

    2017-02-01

    Electrostimulation of plants can induce plant movements, activation of ion channels, ion transport, gene expression, enzymatic systems activation, electrical signaling, plant-cell damage, enhanced wound healing, and influence plant growth. Here we found that electrical networks in plant tissues have electrical differentiators. The amplitude of electrical responses decreases along a leaf and increases by decreasing the distance between polarizing Pt-electrodes. Intercellular Ag/AgCl electrodes inserted in a leaf and extracellular Ag/AgCl electrodes attached to the leaf surface were used to detect the electrotonic potential propagation along a leaf of Aloe vera. There is a difference in duration and amplitude of electrical potentials measured by electrodes inserted in a leaf and those attached to a leaf's surface. If the external reference electrode is located in the soil near the root, it changes the amplitude and duration of electrotonic potentials due to existence of additional resistance, capacitance, ion channels and ion pumps in the root. The information gained from this study can be used to elucidate extracellular and intercellular communication in the form of electrical signals within plants.

  9. Graphene antidot lattices as potential electrode materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lizhao; Yue, Xin; Zhao, Jijun; Cheng, Qian; Tang, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Thermodynamic stabilities and electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices with hexagonal holes were examined using density functional theory calculations and several crucial factors related to the applications of supercapacitors were discussed. For the graphene antidot lattices with different hole sizes, the formation energy per edge length is about 0.50∼0.60 eV/nm, which is comparable to that of graphene nanoribbon edges. Within a hole density of 10%, the graphene antidot lattices can maintain the excellent electronic properties of perfect graphene due to negligible intervalley scattering. Further increasing the hole density will open a band gap. Taking the potassium chloride (KCl) electrolyte as an example, we further investigated the diffusion behaviors of potassium (K) and chlorine (Cl) atoms through the graphene antidot lattices. It was shown that K and Cl atoms can go through the holes with nearly no barrier at an appropriate hole size of 0.54 nm, which gives an optimum pore diameter of ∼0.86 nm. Therefore, the excellent graphene-like electronic properties and good penetrability for ions suggest promising applications of graphene antidot lattices in the field of supercapacitors.

  10. Electrode materials for hydrobromic acid electrolysis in Texas Instruments' solar chemical converter

    SciTech Connect

    Luttmer, J.D.; Konrad, D.; Trachtenberg, I.

    1985-05-01

    Texas Instruments has developed a solar chemical converter (SCC) which converts solar energy into chemical energy via the electrolysis of hydrobromic acid. Various materials were evaluated as anodes and cathodes for the electrolysis of the acid. Emphasis was placed on obtaining low overvoltage electrodes with good long-term stability. Sputtered platinum-iridium thin films were identified as the best choice as the cathode material, and sputtered iridium and iridium oxide thin films were identified as the best choice as anode materials. Electrochemical measurements indicate that low overvoltage losses are encountered on these materials at operating current densitities in the SCC. Accelerated corrosion tests of the materials predict acceptable electrode stability for 20 years in an environment representative of onthe-roof service.

  11. Silver/silver chloride electrodes for measurement of potential difference in human bronchi

    PubMed Central

    Fajac, I.; Lacronique, J.; Lockhart, A.; Dall'Ava-Santucci, J.; Dusser, D.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—An easy and reliable method to measure potential difference (PD) in the lower airways would be of interest in the field of cystic fibrosis. We have developed silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes to measure PD in the lower airways.
METHODS—To validate this technique the nasal PD measured with Ag/AgCl electrodes and with conventional perfused electrodes was compared in 16 patients. The range of PD measured with Ag/AgCl electrodes in the lower airways during fibreoptic bronchoscopy was determined in 14 adult patients and in nine the reproducibility of this technique was examined.
RESULTS—Nasal PD values measured with Ag/AgCl and perfused electrodes were highly correlated (r = 0.985, p<0.0001) and the limits of agreement (mean ±2SD of the difference) between the two methods were -1.91 mV and 1.53 mV. In the lower airways a progressive and slight decrease in PD values with decreasing airway diameter was observed in most patients. The mean (2SD) of the differences between the two tracheal measurements was 0.21 (1.73) mV.
CONCLUSIONS—The use of Ag/AgCl electrodes gives a reliable and reproducible measurement of PD in the lower airways in humans.

 PMID:10193377

  12. Microbial community structure of different electrode materials in constructed wetland incorporating microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junfeng; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Yuhui; Abayneh, Befkadu; Ding, Yi; Yan, Denghua; Bai, Junhong

    2016-12-01

    The microbial fuel cell coupled with constructed wetland (CW-MFC) microcosms were operated under fed-batch mode for evaluating the effect of electrode materials on bioelectricity generation and microbial community composition. Experimental results indicated that the bioenergy output in CW-MFC increased with the substrate concentration; maximum average voltage (177mV) was observed in CW-MFC with carbon fiber felt (CFF). In addition, the four different materials resulted in the formation of significantly different microbial community distribution around the anode electrode. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria in CFF and foamed nickel (FN) was significantly higher than that in stainless steel mesh (SSM) and graphite rod (GR) samples. Notably, the findings indicate that CW-MFC utilizing FN anode electrode could apparently improve relative abundance of Dechloromonas, which has been regarded as a denitrifying and phosphate accumulating microorganism.

  13. Layer by Layer Ex-Situ Deposited Cobalt-Manganese Oxide as Composite Electrode Material for Electrochemical Capacitor

    PubMed Central

    Rusi; Chan, P. Y.; Majid, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    The composite metal oxide electrode films were fabricated using ex situ electrodeposition method with further heating treatment at 300°C. The obtained composite metal oxide film had a spherical structure with mass loading from 0.13 to 0.21 mg cm-2. The structure and elements of the composite was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The electrochemical performance of different composite metal oxides was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD). As an active electrode material for a supercapacitor, the Co-Mn composite electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 285 Fg-1 at current density of 1.85 Ag-1 in 0.5M Na2SO4 electrolyte. The best composite electrode, Co-Mn electrode was then further studied in various electrolytes (i.e., 0.5M KOH and 0.5M KOH/0.04M K3Fe(CN) 6 electrolytes). The pseudocapacitive nature of the material of Co-Mn lead to a high specific capacitance of 2.2 x 103 Fg-1 and an energy density of 309 Whkg-1 in a 0.5MKOH/0.04MK3Fe(CN) 6 electrolyte at a current density of 10 Ag-1. The specific capacitance retention obtained 67% of its initial value after 750 cycles. The results indicate that the ex situ deposited composite metal oxide nanoparticles have promising potential in future practical applications. PMID:26158447

  14. Graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials and use as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Tour, James M.; Zhu, Yu; Li, Lei; Yan, Zheng; Lin, Jian

    2016-09-27

    Provided are methods of making graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials. Such methods generally include: (1) associating a graphene film with a substrate; (2) applying a catalyst and a carbon source to the graphene film; and (3) growing carbon nanotubes on the graphene film. The grown carbon nanotubes become covalently linked to the graphene film through carbon-carbon bonds that are located at one or more junctions between the carbon nanotubes and the graphene film. In addition, the grown carbon nanotubes are in ohmic contact with the graphene film through the carbon-carbon bonds at the one or more junctions. The one or more junctions may include seven-membered carbon rings. Also provided are the formed graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials.

  15. Chapter A6. Section 6.5. Reduction-Oxidation Potential (Electrode Method)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, Darrell Kirk; Wilde, Franceska D.

    2005-01-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) potential--also referred to as Eh--is a measure of the equilibrium potential, relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, developed at the interface between a noble metal electrode and an aqueous solution containing electroactive chemical species. Measurements of Eh are used to evaluate geochemical speciation models, and Eh data can provide insights on the evolution and status of water chemistry in an aqueous system. Nevertheless, the measurement is fraught with inherent interferences and limitations that must be understood and considered to determine applicability to the aqueous system being studied. For this reason, Eh determination is not one of the field parameters routinely measured by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes the equipment and procedures needed to measure Eh in water using a platinum electrode. Guidance as to the limitations and interpretation of Eh measurement also is included.

  16. Recent Advancements in Flexible and Stretchable Electrodes for Electromechanical Sensors: Strategies, Materials, and Features.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Songfang; Li, Jinhui; Cao, Duxia; Zhang, Guoping; Li, Jia; Li, Kui; Yang, Yang; Wang, Wei; Jin, Yufeng; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2017-03-30

    Stretchable and flexible sensors attached onto the surface of the human body can perceive external stimuli, thus attracting extensive attention due to their lightweight, low modulus, low cost, high flexibility, and stretchability. Recently, a myriad of efforts have been devoted to improving the performance and functionality of wearable sensors. Herein, this review focuses on recent remarkable advancements in the development of flexible and stretchable sensors. Multifunction of these wearable sensors is realized by incorporating some desired features (e.g., self-healing, self-powering, linearity, and printing). Next, focusing on the characteristics of carbon nanomaterials, nanostructured metal, conductive polymer, or their hybrid composites, two major strategies (e.g., materials that stretch and structures that stretch) and diverse design approaches have been developed to achieve highly flexible and stretchable electrodes. Strain sensing performances of recently reported sensors indicate that the appropriate choice of geometric engineering as well as intrinsically stretchable materials is essential for high-performance strain sensing. Finally, some important directions and challenges of a fully sensor-integrated wearable platform are proposed to realize their potential applications for human motion monitoring and human-machine interfaces.

  17. α MnMoO₄/graphene hybrid composite: high energy density supercapacitor electrode material.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasis; Giri, Soumen; Moniruzzaman, Md; Basu, Tanya; Mandal, Manas; Das, Chapal Kumar

    2014-07-28

    A unique and cost effective hydrothermal procedure has been carried out for the synthesis of hexahedron shaped α MnMoO4 and its hybrid composite with graphene using three different weight percentages of graphene. Characterization techniques, such as XRD, Raman and FTIR analysis, established the phase and formation of the composite. The electrochemical characterization of the pseudocapacitive MnMoO4 and the MnMoO4/graphene composites in 1 M Na2SO4 displayed highest specific capacitances of 234 F g(-1) and 364 F g(-1), respectively at a current density of 2 A g(-1). Unlike many other pseudocapacitive electrode materials our prepared materials responded in a wide range of working potentials of (-)1 V to (+)1 V, which indeed resulted in a high energy density without substantial loss of power density. The highest energy densities of 130 Wh kg(-1) and 202.2 Wh kg(-1) were achieved, respectively for the MnMoO4 and the MnMoO4/graphene composite at a constant power delivery rate of 2000 W kg(-1). The synergistic effect of the graphene with the pseudocapacitive MnMoO4 caused an increased cycle stability of 88% specific capacitance retention after 1000 consecutive charge discharge cycles at 8 A g(-1) constant current density, which was higher than the virgin MnMoO4 with 84% specific capacitance retention.

  18. Concrete: Potential material for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1992-01-01

    To build a permanent orbiting space station in the next decade is NASA's most challenging and exciting undertaking. The space station will serve as a center for a vast number of scientific products. As a potential material for the space station, reinforced concrete was studied, which has many material and structural merits for the proposed space station. Its cost-effectiveness depends on the availability of lunar materials. With such materials, only 1 percent or less of the mass of a concrete space structure would have to be transported from earth.

  19. Fluorescence quenching studies of potential-dependent DNA reorientation dynamics at glassy carbon electrode surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Cui, Chenchen; Higgins, Daniel A; Li, Jun

    2012-09-05

    The potential-dependent reorientation dynamics of double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) attached to planar glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surfaces were investigated. The orientation state of surface-bound ds-DNA was followed by monitoring the fluorescence from a 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM6) fluorophore covalently linked to the distal end of the DNA. Positive potentials (i.e., +0.2 V vs open circuit potential, OCP) caused the ds-DNA to align parallel to the electrode surface, resulting in strong dipole-electrode quenching of FAM6 fluorescence. Switching of the GCE potential to negative values (i.e., -0.2 V vs OCP) caused the ds-DNA to reorient perpendicular to the electrode surface, with a concomitant increase in FAM6 fluorescence. In addition to the very fast (submilliseconds) dynamics of the initial reorientation process, slow (0.1-0.9 s) relaxation of FAM6 fluorescence to intermediate levels was also observed after potential switching. These dynamics have not been previously described in the literature. They are too slow to be explained by double layer charging, and chronoamperometry data showed no evidence of such effects. Both the amplitude and rate of the dynamics were found to depend upon buffer concentration, and ds-DNA length, demonstrating a dependence on the double layer field. The dynamics are concluded to arise from previously undetected complexities in the mechanism of potential-dependent ds-DNA reorientation. The possible origins of these dynamics are discussed. A better understanding of these dynamics will lead to improved models for potential-dependent ds-DNA reorientation at electrode surfaces and will facilitate the development of advanced electrochemical devices for detection of target DNAs.

  20. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, Apurva; Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource; Doeff, Marca M.; Chen, Guoying; Cabana, Jordi; Richardson, Thomas J.; Mehta, Apurva; Shirpour, Mona; Duncan, Hugues; Kim, Chunjoong; Kam, Kinson C.; Conry, Thomas

    2013-04-30

    We describe the use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to probe details of intercalation/deintercalation processes in electrode materials for Li ion and Na ion batteries. Both in situ and ex situ experiments are used to understand structural behavior relevant to the operation of devices.

  1. Prototype for Automatable, Dielectrophoretically-Accessed Intracellular Membrane–Potential Measurements by Metal Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sukhorukov, Vladimir L.; Zimmermann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Functional access to membrane proteins, for example, ion channels, of individual cells is an important prerequisite in drug discovery studies. The highly sophisticated patch-clamp method is widely used for electrogenic membrane proteins, but is demanding for the operator, and its automation remains challenging. The dielectrophoretically-accessed, intracellular membrane–potential measurement (DAIMM) method is a new technique showing high potential for automation of electrophysiological data recording in the whole-cell configuration. A cell suspension is brought between a mm-scaled planar electrode and a μm-scaled tip electrode, placed opposite to each other. Due to the asymmetric electrode configuration, the application of alternating electric fields (1–5 MHz) provokes a dielectrophoretic force acting on the target cell. As a consequence, the cell is accelerated and pierced by the tip electrode, hence functioning as the internal (working) electrode. We used the light-gated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2 as a reporter protein expressed in HEK293 cells to characterize the DAIMM method in comparison with the patch-clamp technique. PMID:22994967

  2. Electrode behavior RE-visited: Monitoring potential windows, capacity loss, and impedance changes in Li1.03 (Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3)0.97O2/silicon-graphite full cells

    DOE PAGES

    Klett, Matilda; Gilbert, James A.; Trask, Stephen E.; ...

    2016-03-04

    Here, the capacity and power performance of lithium-ion battery cells evolve over time. The mechanisms leading to these changes can often be identified through knowledge of electrode potentials, which contain information about electrochemical processes at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. In this study we monitor electrode potentials within full cells containing a Li1.03(Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3)0.97O2–based (NCM523) positive electrode, a silicon-graphite negative electrode, and an LiPF6-bearing electrolyte, with and without fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) or vinylene carbonate (VC) additives. The electrode potentials are monitored with a Li-metal reference electrode (RE) positioned besides the electrode stack; changes in these potentials are used to examine electrode state-of-charge (SOC)more » shifts, material utilization, and loss of electrochemically active material. Electrode impedances are obtained with a LixSn RE located within the stack; the data display the effect of cell voltage and electrode SOC changes on the measured values after formation cycling and after aging. Our measurements confirm the beneficial effect of FEC and VC electrolyte additives in reducing full cell capacity loss and impedance rise after cycling in a 3.0–4.2 V range. Comparisons with data from a full cell containing a graphite-based negative highlight the consequences of including silicon in the electrode. Our observations on electrode potentials, capacity, and impedance changes on cycling are crucial to designing long-lasting, silicon-bearing, lithium-ion cells.« less

  3. Kinetic enhancement in nanoscale electrochemical systems caused by non-normal distributions of the electrode potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Morales, Vladimir; Krischer, Katharina

    2011-06-01

    We have recently shown [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 4528 (2010)] that the discreteness and stochasticity of an electron transfer event on a resistively coupled nanoelectrode causes mesoscopic fluctuations in time of the electrode potential. These fluctuations give rise to a time-average faradaic current density substantially larger than in the macroscopic limit. The deviations result to a large extent from the potentiostatic control, which imposes a constraint on the evolution of the electrode potential that leads to non-normal distributions. The degree of freedom of the electrode potential requires a resistance between nanoelectrode and metallic support. In this article, we study the dependence of the mesoscopic stochastic dynamics on this resistance (assumed to be ohmic). We show that the enhancement of the reaction rate vanishes in both limits, zero and infinite resistance. The distribution of the electrode potential continuously transforms from a normal distribution at infinite resistance (the galvanostatic limit), through a more and more peaked distribution with increasingly important rare events to the deterministic behavior at zero resistance.

  4. Simulation of 2D Brain's Potential Distribution Based on Two Electrodes ECVT Using Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirait, S. H.; Edison, R. E.; Baidillah, M. R.; Taruno, W. P.; Haryanto, F.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to simulate the potential distribution of 2D brain geometry based on two electrodes ECVT. ECVT (electrical capacitance tomography) is a tomography modality which produces dielectric distribution image of a subject from several capacitance electrodes measurements. This study begins by producing the geometry of 2D brain based on MRI image and then setting the boundary conditions on the boundaries of the geometry. The values of boundary conditions follow the potential values used in two electrodes brain ECVT, and for this reason the first boundary is set to 20 volt and 2.5 MHz signal and another boundary is set to ground. Poisson equation is implemented as the governing equation in the 2D brain geometry and finite element method is used to solve the equation. Simulated Hodgkin-Huxley action potential is applied as disturbance potential in the geometry. We divide this study into two which comprises simulation without disturbance potential and simulation with disturbance potential. From this study, each of time dependent potential distributions from non-disturbance and disturbance potential of the 2D brain geometry has been generated.

  5. The Science of Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Fultz, Brent

    2007-03-15

    Rechargeable lithium batteries continue to play the central role in power systems for portable electronics, and could play a role of increasing importance for hybrid transportation systems that use either hydrogen or fossil fuels. For example, fuel cells provide a steady supply of power, whereas batteries are superior when bursts of power are needed. The National Research Council recently concluded that for dismounted soldiers "Among all possible energy sources, hybrid systems provide the most versatile solutions for meeting the diverse needs of the Future Force Warrior. The key advantage of hybrid systems is their ability to provide power over varying levels of energy use, by combining two power sources." The relative capacities of batteries versus fuel cells in a hybrid power system will depend on the capabilities of both. In the longer term, improvements in the cost and safety of lithium batteries should lead to a substantial role for electrochemical energy storage subsystems as components in fuel cell or hybrid vehicles. We have completed a basic research program for DOE BES on anode and cathode materials for lithium batteries, extending over 6 years with a 1 year phaseout period. The emphasis was on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the lithiation reaction, and how these pertain to basic electrochemical properties that we measure experimentally — voltage and capacity in particular. In the course of this work we also studied the kinetic processes of capacity fade after cycling, with unusual results for nanostructued Si and Ge materials, and the dynamics underlying electronic and ionic transport in LiFePO4. This document is the final report for this work.

  6. Adsorption of acridine on silver electrode: SERS spectra potential dependence as a probe of adsorbate state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyeva, Elena V.; Myund, Liubov A.; Dem'yanchuk, Evgeniya M.; Makarov, Artiom A.; Denisova, Anna S.

    2013-02-01

    This work investigates acridine adsorption on the silver electrode surface. The dependence of the acridine SERS spectra on the electrode potential proved to be quite different for azaheterocycle molecules, while the pH effect as expected. The changes in the acridine SERS spectrum caused by the double electric layer (DEL) rearrangement can be explained by sorption/desorption rather than the adsorbate molecule reorientation. The presence of chloride anions close to the silver surface is important not only for the SERS-active properties but for the formation of the stabilised surface complexes of the protonated acridine as well.

  7. Nanostructured core-shell electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Long-bo; Yuan, Xing-zhong; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Hou; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2016-11-01

    Core-shell nanostructure represents a unique system for applications in electrochemical energy storage devices. Owing to the unique characteristics featuring high power delivery and long-term cycling stability, electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have emerged as one of the most attractive electrochemical storage systems since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review aims to summarize recent progress on core-shell nanostructures for advanced supercapacitor applications in view of their hierarchical architecture which not only create the desired hierarchical porous channels, but also possess higher electrical conductivity and better structural mechanical stability. The core-shell nanostructures include carbon/carbon, carbon/metal oxide, carbon/conducting polymer, metal oxide/metal oxide, metal oxide/conducting polymer, conducting polymer/conducting polymer, and even more complex ternary core-shell nanoparticles. The preparation strategies, electrochemical performances, and structural stabilities of core-shell materials for ECs are summarized. The relationship between core-shell nanostructure and electrochemical performance is discussed in detail. In addition, the challenges and new trends in core-shell nanomaterials development have also been proposed.

  8. PEDOT-based composites as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiheng; Richardson, Georgia F.; Meng, Qingshi; Zhu, Shenmin; Kuan, Hsu-Chiang; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (denoted PEDOT) already has a brief history of being used as an active material in supercapacitors. It has many advantages such as low-cost, flexibility, and good electrical conductivity and pseudocapacitance. However, the major drawback is low stability, which means an obvious capacitance drop after a certain number of charge-discharge cycles. Another disadvantage is its limited capacitance and this becomes an issue for industrial applications. To solve these problems, there are several approaches including the addition of conducting nanofillers to increase conductivity, and mixing or depositing metal oxide to enhance capacitance. Furthermore, expanding the surface area of PEDOT is one of the main methods to improve its performance in energy storage applications through special processes; for example using a three-dimensional substrate or preparing PEDOT aerogel through freeze drying. This paper reviews recent techniques and outcomes of PEDOT based composites for supercapacitors, as well as detailed calculations about capacitances. Finally, this paper outlines the new direction and recent challenges of PEDOT based composites for supercapacitor applications.

  9. Potential-modulated intercalation of alkali cations into metal hexacyanoferrate coated electrodes. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.T.

    1998-06-01

    'This program is studying potential-driven cation intercalation and deintercalation in metal hexacyanoferrate compounds, with the eventual goal of creating materials with high selectivity for cesium separations and long cycle lifetimes. The separation of radiocesium from other benign cations has important implications for the cost of processing a variety of cesium contaminated DOE wasteforms. This report summarizes results after nine months of work. Much of the initial efforts have been directed towards quantitatively characterizing the selectivity of nickel hexacyanoferrate derivatized electrodes for intercalating cesium preferentially over other alkali metal cations. Using energy dispersive xray spectroscopy (ex-situ, but non-destructive) and ICP analysis (ex-situ and destructive), the authors have demonstrated that the nickel hexacyanoferrate lattice has a strong preference for intercalated cesium over sodium. For example, when ions are reversibly loaded into a nickel hexacyanoferrate thin film from a solution containing 0.9999 M Na{sup +} and 0.0001 M Cs{sup +}, the film intercalates 40% as much Cs{sup +} as when loaded from pure 1 M Cs{sup +} containing electrolyte (all electrolytes use nitrates as the common anion). The authors have also shown that, contrary to the common assumptions found in the literature, a significant fraction of the thin film is not active initially. A new near infrared laser has been purchased and is being added to the Raman spectroscopy facilities to allow in-situ studies of the intercalation processes.'

  10. Method of preparing an electrode material of lithium-aluminum alloy

    DOEpatents

    Settle, Jack L.; Myles, Kevin M.; Battles, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A solid compact having a uniform alloy composition of lithium and aluminum is prepared as a negative electrode for an electrochemical cell. Lithium losses during preparation are minimized by dissolving aluminum within a lithium-rich melt at temperatures near the liquidus temperatures. The desired alloy composition is then solidified and fragmented. The fragments are homogenized to a uniform composition by annealing at a temperature near the solidus temperature. After comminuting to fine particles, the alloy material can be blended with powdered electrolyte and pressed into a solid compact having the desired electrode shape. In the preparation of some electrodes, an electrically conductive metal mesh is embedded into the compact as a current collector.

  11. MgO-templated carbon as a negative electrode material for Na-ion capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kado, Yuya; Soneda, Yasushi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, MgO-templated carbon with different pore structures was investigated as a negative electrode material for Na-ion capacitors. With increasing the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, the irreversible capacity increased, and the coulombic efficiency of the 1st cycle decreased because of the formation of solid electrolyte interface layers. MgO-templated carbon annealed at 1000 °C exhibited the highest capacity and best rate performance, suggesting that an appropriate balance between surface area and crystallinity is imperative for fast Na-ion storage, attributed to the storage mechanism: combination of non-faradaic electric double-layer capacitance and faradaic Na intercalation in the carbon layers. Finally, a Na-ion capacitor cell using MgO-templated carbon and activated carbon as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively, exhibited an energy density at high power density significantly greater than that exhibited by the cell using a commercial hard carbon negative electrode.

  12. Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Personna, Yves Robert; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Slater, Lee; Yee, Nathan; O'Brien, Michael; Hubbard, Susan

    2008-06-01

    Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface. We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS-) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (˜-630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between anaerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP data showed ˜10 mrad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.

  13. Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Susan; Personna, Y.R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.; O'Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-02-15

    Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface.We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfo vibriovulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between an aerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP data showed 10m rad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.

  14. Mapping redox energies of electrode materials for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhi, Akshaya Kumar

    A comparative study of oxides containing tetrahedral polyanions forming 3D-framework host structures with octahedral-site transition-metal oxidant cations addresses the following issues: (i) Chemical versatility of the framework structures allows one to determine the redox couples for different transition-metal cations with respect to the Fermi energy of a lithium anode and how they vary with changes of host structure, choice of polyanion, or degree of lithiation. (ii) Exploration of the advantage of a more open framework for Li+-ion diffusion versus the disadvantage of polaronic conduction. (iii) Identification of the cause of a reversible capacity fade with increasing current density. (iv) The design of new materials for secondary batteries. Variation of a redox energy at an M atom in an oxide depends on two factors: (a) the Madelung energy of the cation and (b) the covalent contribution to the M-O bonding, which may be modulated by a counter cation through the inductive effect. Electrochemical characterization of the spinel system Li1+x[ Mn1.5M0.5] O4, M = Co or Ni, indicates an overlap of the Mn4+/Mn3+ and M3+/M2+ redox energies at x = 0.5. The family of V (LiM) O4 spinels with M = Mn, Co or Ni has M3+/M2+ redox couples at 3.8, 4.2, and 4.8 eV, respectively, below the Fermi energy of a lithium anode, which indicates formation of (VO4)3- polyanions. Replacement of VO4 by PO4 yields ordered- olivine structures LiMPO4; Li1-xFePO4 and Li1-xFe0.5Mn0.5PO4 show Fe3+/Fe2+ and Mn3+/Mn2+ redox couples at 3.4 and 4.1 V vs. lithium, respectively. Reversible Li insertion into FePO4 retains a 3.4 V plateau vs. lithium with increasing current density, but shows a capacity that fades reversibly with current density as a result of a dynamic process. A change of about 0.8 eV between isostructural sulfates and phosphates for the Ti4/Ti3+, V3+/V2+ and Fe3+/Fe2+ couples is due to the inductive effect. These shifts illustrate that the relative positions of the redox energies remain

  15. Studies on Supercapacitor Electrode Material from Activated Lignin-Derived Mesoporous Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Dipendu; Li, Yunchao; Bi, Zhonghe; Chen, Jihua; Keum, Jong Kahk; Hensley, Dale K; Grappe, Hippolyte A.; Meyer III, Harry M; Dai, Sheng; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Naskar, Amit K

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized mesoporous carbon from pre-cross-linked lignin gel impregnated with a surfactant as the pore-forming agent, and then activated the carbon through physical and chemical methods to obtain activated mesoporous carbon. The activated mesoporous carbons exhibited 1.5- to 6-fold increases in porosity with a maximum BET specific surface area of 1148 m2/g and a pore volume of 1.0 cm3/g. Slow physical activation helped retain dominant mesoporosity; however, aggressive chemical activation caused some loss of the mesopore volume fraction. Plots of cyclic voltammetric data with the capacitor electrode made from these carbons showed an almost rectangular curve depicting the behavior of ideal double-layer capacitance. Although the pristine mesoporous carbon exhibited the same range of surface-area-based capacitance as that of other known carbon-based supercapacitors, activation decreased the surface-area-based specific capacitance and increased the gravimetric-specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbons. Surface activation lowered bulk density and electrical conductivity. Warburg impedance as a vertical tail in the lower frequency domain of Nyquist plots supported good supercapacitor behavior for the activated mesoporous carbons. Our work demonstrated that biomass-derived mesoporous carbon materials continue to show potential for use in specific electrochemical applications.

  16. Microbial fuel cells: the effects of configurations, electrolyte solutions, and electrode materials on power generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengxiang; Sharma, Yogesh; Lei, Yu; Li, Baikun; Zhou, Qixing

    2010-01-01

    This objective of this study is to conduct a systematic investigation of the effects of configurations, electrolyte solutions, and electrode materials on the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC). A comparison of voltage generation, power density, and acclimation period of electrogenic bacteria was performed for a variety of MFCs. In terms of MFC configuration, membrane-less two-chamber MFCs (ML-2CMFC) had lower internal resistance, shorter acclimation period, and higher voltage generation than the conventional two-chamber MFCs (2CMFC). In terms of anode solutions (as electron donors), the two-chamber MFCs fed with anaerobic treated wastewater (AF-2CMFCs) had the power density 19 times as the two-chamber MFCs fed with acetate (NO(3)(-)2CMFCs). In terms of cathode solutions (as electron acceptors), AF-2CMFCs with ferricyanide had higher voltage generation than that of ML-2CMFCs with nitrate (NO(3)(-)ML-2CMFCs). In terms of electrode materials, ML-2CMFCs with granular-activated carbon as the electrode (GAC-ML-2CMFCs) had a power density 2.5 times as ML-2CMFCs with carbon cloth as the electrode. GAC-ML-2CMFCs had the highest columbic efficiency and power output among all the MFCs tested, indicating that the high surface area of GAC facilitate the biofilm formation, accelerate the degradation of organic substrates, and improve power generation.

  17. Niobium Nitride Nb4N5 as a New High‐Performance Electrode Material for Supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Houlei; Zhu, Guilian; Liu, Xiangye; Liu, Fengxin; Xie, Yian; Yang, Chongyin; Lin, Tianquan; Gu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors suffer either from low capacitance for carbon or derivate electrodes or from poor electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability for metal oxide or conducting polymer electrodes. Transition metal nitrides possess fair electrical conductivity but superior chemical stability, which may be desirable candidates for supercapacitors. Herein, niobium nitride, Nb4N5, is explored to be an excellent capacitive material for the first time. An areal capacitance of 225.8 mF cm−2, with a reasonable rate capability (60.8% retention from 0.5 to 10 mA cm−2) and cycling stability (70.9% retention after 2000 cycles), is achieved in Nb4N5 nanochannels electrode with prominent electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity. Faradaic pseudocapacitance is confirmed by the mechanistic studies, deriving from the proton incorporation/chemisorption reaction owing to the copious +5 valence Nb ions in Nb4N5. Moreover, this Nb4N5 nanochannels electrode with an ultrathin carbon coating exhibits nearly 100% capacitance retention after 2000 CV cycles, which is an excellent cycling stability for metal nitride materials. Thus, the Nb4N5 nanochannels are qualified for a candidate for supercapacitors and other energy storage applications. PMID:27980920

  18. Thermal-stability studies of electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Junwei

    2005-07-01

    The thermal stability of lithium-ion batteries has recently attracted attention for two major reasons. (1) Attempts to make large-size cells used in power tools, E-bikes and EVs. Large cells have lower surface area to volume ratios and hence heat dissipation is more problematic than 18650-size cells. Safety problems, therefore, for large cells are more serious. (2) Next generation high-capacity electrodes will increase the energy density of lithium-ion cells meaning even an 18650-size cell may face safety concerns. This thesis presents studies of the thermal stability of electrode materials in electrolytes to understand their reactivity. A search for new positive electrode materials with high thermal stability was made. The thermal stability of two common electrode materials (Li0.81 C6 and Li0.5CoO2) in lithium-ion cells was studied by Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC). Li0.81C 6 has much lower reactivity with lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) electrolyte compared to LiPF6 electrolyte. It is not the case, however, for Li0.5CoO2. Oven tests of full LiCoO 2/C 18650-size cells with LiBOB or LiPF6 electrolytes, confirmed the ARC results. ARC was then used to study the reactivity of existing electrode materials. The thermal stability of a negative electrode material was found to increase with the binding energy of Li atoms hosted in the material. Li0.5VO 2 (B) has a higher lithium binding energy (2.45 eV vs. Li) than Li 0.81C6 (0.1 eV vs. Li) and Li7Ti5O 12 (1.55 eV) and it shows the highest thermal stability in EC/DEC among the three materials. The reactivity of two existing positive electrode materials, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4, was studied. Cell systems expected to be highly tolerant to thermal abuse were suggested: LiFePO 4/C or Li4Ti5O12 in LiBOB electrolytes. The system, x Li[Ni1/2Mn1/2]O2 • y LiCoO2 • z Li[Li1/3Mn2/3]O2 (x + y + z = 1), was explored for new positive electrode materials with large capacity and high thermal stability. Li[(Ni0.5Mn0.5) xCo1-x]O2 (0

  19. Hierarchical Heterostructures of NiCo2O4@XMoO4 (X = Ni, Co) as an Electrode Material for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiyu; Qian, Feng; Song, Guosheng; Wang, Linlin

    2016-05-01

    Hierarchical heterostructures of NiCo2O4@XMoO4 (X = Ni, Co) were developed as an electrode material for supercapacitor with improved pseudocapacitive performance. Within these hierarchical heterostructures, the mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays directly grown on the Ni foam can not only act as an excellent pseudocapacitive material but also serve as a hierarchical scaffold for growing NiMoO4 or CoMoO4 electroactive materials (nanosheets). The electrode made of NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 presented a highest areal capacitance of 3.74 F/cm2 at 2 mA/cm2, which was much higher than the electrodes made of NiCo2O4@CoMoO4 (2.452 F/cm2) and NiCo2O4 (0.456 F/cm2), respectively. Meanwhile, the NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 electrode exhibited good rate capability. It suggested the potential of the hierarchical heterostructures of NiCo2O4@CoMoO4 as an electrode material in supercapacitors.

  20. Hierarchical Heterostructures of NiCo2O4@XMoO4 (X = Ni, Co) as an Electrode Material for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiyu; Qian, Feng; Song, Guosheng; Wang, Linlin

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical heterostructures of NiCo2O4@XMoO4 (X = Ni, Co) were developed as an electrode material for supercapacitor with improved pseudocapacitive performance. Within these hierarchical heterostructures, the mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanosheet arrays directly grown on the Ni foam can not only act as an excellent pseudocapacitive material but also serve as a hierarchical scaffold for growing NiMoO4 or CoMoO4 electroactive materials (nanosheets). The electrode made of NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 presented a highest areal capacitance of 3.74 F/cm(2) at 2 mA/cm(2), which was much higher than the electrodes made of NiCo2O4@CoMoO4 (2.452 F/cm(2)) and NiCo2O4 (0.456 F/cm(2)), respectively. Meanwhile, the NiCo2O4@NiMoO4 electrode exhibited good rate capability. It suggested the potential of the hierarchical heterostructures of NiCo2O4@CoMoO4 as an electrode material in supercapacitors.

  1. Anode potential influences the structure and function of anodic electrode and electrolyte-associated microbiomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Paul G.; Virdis, Bernardino; Vanwonterghem, Inka; Hassan, Alif; Hugenholtz, Phil; Tyson, Gene W.; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-12-01

    Three bioelectrochemical systems were operated with set anode potentials of +300 mV, +550 mV and +800 mV vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE) to test the hypothesis that anode potential influences microbial diversity and is positively associated with microbial biomass and activity. Bacterial and archaeal diversity was characterized using 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and biofilm thickness was measured as a proxy for biomass. Current production and substrate utilization patterns were used as measures of microbial activity and the mid-point potentials of putative terminal oxidases were assessed using cyclic voltammetry. All measurements were performed after 4, 16, 23, 30 and 38 days. Microbial biomass and activity differed significantly between anode potentials and were lower at the highest potential. Anodic electrode and electrolyte associated community composition was also significantly influenced by anode potential. While biofilms at +800 mV were thinner, transferred less charge and oxidized less substrate than those at lower potentials, they were also associated with putative terminal oxidases with higher mid-point potentials and generated more biomass per unit charge. This indicates that microbes at +800 mV were unable to capitalize on the potential for additional energy gain due to a lack of adaptive traits to high potential solid electron acceptors and/or sensitivity to oxidative stress.

  2. Anode potential influences the structure and function of anodic electrode and electrolyte-associated microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Paul G.; Virdis, Bernardino; Vanwonterghem, Inka; Hassan, Alif; Hugenholtz, Phil; Tyson, Gene W.; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-01-01

    Three bioelectrochemical systems were operated with set anode potentials of +300 mV, +550 mV and +800 mV vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE) to test the hypothesis that anode potential influences microbial diversity and is positively associated with microbial biomass and activity. Bacterial and archaeal diversity was characterized using 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and biofilm thickness was measured as a proxy for biomass. Current production and substrate utilization patterns were used as measures of microbial activity and the mid-point potentials of putative terminal oxidases were assessed using cyclic voltammetry. All measurements were performed after 4, 16, 23, 30 and 38 days. Microbial biomass and activity differed significantly between anode potentials and were lower at the highest potential. Anodic electrode and electrolyte associated community composition was also significantly influenced by anode potential. While biofilms at +800 mV were thinner, transferred less charge and oxidized less substrate than those at lower potentials, they were also associated with putative terminal oxidases with higher mid-point potentials and generated more biomass per unit charge. This indicates that microbes at +800 mV were unable to capitalize on the potential for additional energy gain due to a lack of adaptive traits to high potential solid electron acceptors and/or sensitivity to oxidative stress. PMID:27991591

  3. Evaluation of materials proposed for the construction of the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell (PEPC) on beamlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D.; Robb, C.; Deyoreo, J.; Atherton, J.

    1992-11-01

    The proposed upgrade of the NOVA laser system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory employs a multipass architecture that requires an optical switch to emit the laser light at the appropriate fluence. This Pockels cell-based optical switch does not use traditional ring or thin-film electrodes because of the large aperture and high fluence of the laser system. Rather, it uses a plasma electrode Pockels cell with a KD*P crystal as the electro-optical medium. A discharge plasma is formed on each side of the electro-optic crystal and high voltage is applied across the crystal through the plasma electrode to initiate optical switching. In October 1991 we began evaluating materials suggested for the large aperture plasma electrode optical switch. Previous experiments suggested that switching performance could be significantly affected by the deterioration of cell materials. The final prototype switch tested used polyethylene for the switch body, Mykroy for the mid-plane and a silicone vulcanite to encapsulate the KD*P crystal. The encapsulant easily compensated for the effect of assembling the optical switch and no strain-induced birefringence in the crystal after encapsulation was measured. Oxygen was eventually added to the plasma to react with the sputtered carbon from the cathode and produce a gaseous effluent. As an added benefit, the production of ozone absorbed most of the ultraviolet radiation affecting the encapsulant. All the materials tested decomposed and produced volatiles, although no change in the damage threshold of exposed optical surfaces tested to date was seen. An evaluation of the recommended materials for major cell components using published manufacturers data, experimental results from our Material Evaluation Apparatus, and outgassing performance and sputtering data produced at the Laboratory's Vacuum Process Lab is presented.

  4. Using evoked potentials to match interaural electrode pairs with bilateral cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Zachary M; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2007-03-01

    Bilateral cochlear implantation seeks to restore the advantages of binaural hearing to the profoundly deaf by providing binaural cues normally important for accurate sound localization and speech reception in noise. Psychophysical observations suggest that a key issue for the implementation of a successful binaural prosthesis is the ability to match the cochlear positions of stimulation channels in each ear. We used a cat model of bilateral cochlear implants with eight-electrode arrays implanted in each cochlea to develop and test a noninvasive method based on evoked potentials for matching interaural electrodes. The arrays allowed the cochlear location of stimulation to be independently varied in each ear. The binaural interaction component (BIC) of the electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR) was used as an assay of binaural processing. BIC amplitude peaked for interaural electrode pairs at the same relative cochlear position and dropped with increasing cochlear separation in either direction. To test the hypothesis that BIC amplitude peaks when electrodes from the two sides activate maximally overlapping neural populations, we measured multiunit neural activity along the tonotopic gradient of the inferior colliculus (IC) with 16-channel recording probes and determined the spatial pattern of IC activation for each stimulating electrode. We found that the interaural electrode pairings that produced the best aligned IC activation patterns were also those that yielded maximum BIC amplitude. These results suggest that EABR measurements may provide a method for assigning frequency-channel mappings in bilateral implant recipients, such as pediatric patients, for which psychophysical measures of pitch ranking or binaural fusion are unavailable.

  5. Nanomechanical and Electro-mechanical Characterization of Materials for Flexible Electrodes Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng

    Flexible electronics attract research and commercial interests in last 2 decades for its flexibility, low cost, light weight and etc. To develop and improve the electro-mechanical properties of flexible electrodes is the most critical and important step. In this work, we have performed nanomechanical and electromechanical characterization of materials for flexible electrode applications, including metallic nanowires (NWs), indium tin oxide (ITO)-based and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based electrodes. First, we designed and developed four different testing platforms for nanomechanical and electro-mechanical characterization purpose. For the nano/sub-micro size samples, the micro mechanical devices can be used for uniaxial and bi-axial loading tests. For the macro size samples, the micro tester will be used for in situ monotonic tensile test, while the fatigue tester can be used for in situ cyclic tensile or bending testing purpose. Secondly, we have investigated mechanical behaviors of single crystalline Ni nanowires and single crystalline Cu nanowires under uni-axial tensile loading inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber. We demonstrated both size and strain-rate dependence on yield stress of single-crystalline Ni NWs with varying diameters (from 100 nm to 300 nm), and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation helped to confirm and understand the experimental phenomena. Also, two different fracture modes, namely ductile and brittle-like fractures, were found in the same batch of Cu nanowire samples. Finally, we studied the electro-mechanical behaviors of flexible electrodes in macro scale. We reported a coherent study integrating in situ electro-mechanical experiments and mechanics modeling to decipher the failure mechanics of ITO-based and CNTbased electrodes under tension. It is believed that our combined experimental and simulation results provide some further insights into the important yet complicated deformation mechanisms for nanoscale metals and

  6. Microwave processing of lunar materials: potential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, T.T.; Cocks, F.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Wright, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The microwave processing of lunar materials holds promise for the production of either water, oxygen, primary metals, or ceramic materials. Extra high frequency microwave (EHF) at between 100 and 500 gigahertz have the potential for selective coupling to specific atomic species and a concomitant low energy requirement for the extraction of specific materials, such as oxygen, from lunar ores. The coupling of ultra high frequency (UHF) (e.g., 2.45 gigahertz) microwave frequencies to hydrogen-oxygen bonds might enable the preferential and low energy cost removal (as H/sub 2/O) of implanted protons from the sun or of adosrbed water which might be found in lunar dust in permanently shadowed polar areas. Microwave melting and selective phase melting of lunar materials could also be used either in the preparation of simplified ceramic geometries (e.g., bricks) with custom-tailored microstructures, or for the direct preparation of hermetic walls in underground structures. Speculatively, the preparation of photovoltaic devices based on lunar materials, especially ilmenite, may be a potential use of microwave processing on the moon. Preliminary experiments on UHF melting of terrestrial basalt, basalt/ilmenite and mixtures show that microwave processing is feasible.

  7. Temperature Prediction in a Free-Burning Arc and Electrodes for Nanostructured Materials and Systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Ho; Kim, Youn-Jea; Lee, Jong-Chul

    2015-11-01

    Temperature in a free-burning arc used for synthesis of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials is generally around 20,000 K just below the cathode, falling to about 15,000 K just above the anode, and decreasing rapidly in the radial direction. Therefore, the electrode erosion is indispensable for these atmospheric plasma systems, as well as for switching devices, due to the high heat flux transferred from high temperature arcs to electrodes, but experimental and theoretical works have not identified the characteristic phenomena because of the complex physical processes. To the previous study, we have focused on the arc self-induced fluid flow in a free-burning arc using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. At this time, our investigation is concerned with the whole region of free-burning high-intensity arcs including the tungsten cathode, the arc plasma and the anode using a unified numerical model for applying synthesis of nanoparticles and nanostructured materials practically.

  8. Electrodes and electrochemical storage cells utilizing tin-modified active materials

    DOEpatents

    Anani, Anaba; Johnson, John; Lim, Hong S.; Reilly, James; Schwarz, Ricardo; Srinivasan, Supramaniam

    1995-01-01

    An electrode has a substrate and a finely divided active material on the substrate. The active material is ANi.sub.x-y-z Co.sub.y Sn.sub.z, wherein A is a mischmetal or La.sub.1-w M.sub.w, M is Ce, Nd, or Zr, w is from about 0.05 to about 1.0, x is from about 4.5 to about 5.5, y is from 0 to about 3.0, and z is from about 0.05 to about 0.5. An electrochemical storage cell utilizes such an electrode as the anode. The storage cell further has a cathode, a separator between the cathode and the anode, and an electrolyte.

  9. Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1990-01-01

    A novel carbonaceous electrode support material is disclosed characterized by a corrosion rate of 0.03 wt. %/hour or less when measured a5 550 millivolts vs. a Hg/HgO electrode in a 30 wt. % KOH electrolyte a5 30.degree. C. The electrode support material comprises a preselected carbon black material which has been heat-treated by heating the material to a temperature of from about 2500.degree. to about 3000.degree. C. over a period of from about 1 to about 5 hours in an inert atmosphere and then maintaining the preselected carbon black material at this temperature for a period of at least about 1 hour, and preferably about 2 hours, in the inert atmosphere. A carbonaceous electrode suitable for use as an air electrode in a metal-air cell may be made from the electrode support material by shaping and forming it into a catalyst support and then impregnating it with a catalytically active material capable of catalyzing the reaction with oxygen at the air electrode of metal-air cell.

  10. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOEpatents

    Knosp, Bernard; Bouet, Jacques; Jordy, Christian; Mimoun, Michel; Gicquel, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  11. Toxic Potential of Materials at the Nanolevel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nel, Andre; Xia, Tian; Mädler, Lutz; Li, Ning

    2006-02-01

    Nanomaterials are engineered structures with at least one dimension of 100 nanometers or less. These materials are increasingly being used for commercial purposes such as fillers, opacifiers, catalysts, semiconductors, cosmetics, microelectronics, and drug carriers. Materials in this size range may approach the length scale at which some specific physical or chemical interactions with their environment can occur. As a result, their properties differ substantially from those bulk materials of the same composition, allowing them to perform exceptional feats of conductivity, reactivity, and optical sensitivity. Possible undesirable results of these capabilities are harmful interactions with biological systems and the environment, with the potential to generate toxicity. The establishment of principles and test procedures to ensure safe manufacture and use of nanomaterials in the marketplace is urgently required and achievable.

  12. Potential Applications of Biotechnology to Aerospace Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    from low - grade ores and industrial wastes. Other organisms that have demonstrated ability to solu- bilize metals include heterotrophic bacteria, molds...cadmium, scandium, erbium, yttrium, and titanium. The potential advantage of biomining is the ability to concentrate metals from low - grade materials...organisms and/ or biological molecules to produce or aid in production of a commercial product. This is a broad definition of a relatively young

  13. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, Lewis J. H.; Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.; Vasilow, Theodore R.; Bratton, Raymond J.

    1997-01-01

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

  14. Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

    1997-11-11

    A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

  15. Nickel/silicon core/shell nanosheet arrays as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.H. Zhang, P.; Wu, J.B.; Lin, Y.; Guo, R.Q.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Ni nanosheet arrays is the core and Si layer is the shell. • Ni nanosheet arrays act as a three-dimensional current collector to support Si. • Ni nanosheet arrays can improve the conductivity and stability of the electrode. • Ni/Si nanosheet arrays exhibit excellent cyclic and rate performance. - Abstract: Ni/Si core/shell nanosheet arrays are proposed to enhance the electrochemical lithium-storage properties of silicon. The arrays are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The arrays are micro-sized in height, which are constructed by interconnected Ni nanosheet as the core and Si coating layer as the shell. The electrochemical properties as anode materials of lithium ion batteries are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The arrays can achieve high reversible capacity, good cycle stability and high rate capability. It is believed that the enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the electrode structure, because the interconnected Ni nanosheet can act as a three-dimensional current collector, and it has the ability of improving the electrode conductivity, enlarging the electrochemical reaction interface, and suppressing the electrode pulverization.

  16. The effect of electrode material on the electrogenerated chemiluminescence of luminol

    SciTech Connect

    Vitt, J.E.; Johnson, D.C. ); Engstrom, R.C. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports on the oxidation of luminol and its concomitant electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) which were studied at several electrode materials by voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The ECL intensity (I{sub ECL}) was inversely related to the activity of the electrodes. The lowest I{sub ECL}) was measured when luminol was oxidized to 3-aminophthalate (n {approx equal}4 eq mol{sup {minus}1}) at a nearly mass-transport limited rate at glassy carbon. The ECL kinetics were studied and the order of the reaction with respect to luminol was 3/2 at concentrations to ca. 1 mM when O{sub 2} was the coreactant. In the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the ECL reaction was first order with respect to luminol. A reaction mechanism is proposed that is consistent with the inetic data and the inverse relationship between electrode activity and I{sub ECL}. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to imaging the spatial distribution of current density at electrode surfaces, including that of PbO{sub 2} films activated by adsorbed Bi(V). A value of 6.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1} was determined for the diffusion coefficient of luminol in 0.1M NaOH.

  17. In vivo neuronal action potential recordings via three-dimensional microscale needle-electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Fujishiro, Akifumi; Kaneko, Hidekazu; Kawashima, Takahiro; Ishida, Makoto; Kawano, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Very fine needle-electrode arrays potentially offer both low invasiveness and high spatial resolution of electrophysiological neuronal recordings in vivo. Herein we report the penetrating and recording capabilities of silicon-growth-based three-dimensional microscale-diameter needle-electrodes arrays. The fabricated needles exhibit a circular-cone shape with a 3-μm-diameter tip and a 210-μm length. Due to the microscale diameter, our silicon needles are more flexible than other microfabricated silicon needles with larger diameters. Coating the microscale-needle-tip with platinum black results in an impedance of ~600 kΩ in saline with output/input signal amplitude ratios of more than 90% at 40 Hz–10 kHz. The needles can penetrate into the whisker barrel area of a rat's cerebral cortex, and the action potentials recorded from some neurons exhibit peak-to-peak amplitudes of ~300 μVpp. These results demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo neuronal action potential recordings with a microscale needle-electrode array fabricated using silicon growth technology. PMID:24785307

  18. Study of mixed ternary transition metal ferrites as potential electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhujun, Bhamini; Tan, Michelle T. T.; Shanmugam, Anandan S.

    Nanocrystallites of three mixed ternary transition metal ferrite (MTTMF) were prepared by a facile sol-gel method and adopted as electrode material for supercapacitors. The phase development of the samples was determined using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the formation of a single-phase spinel ferrite in CuCoFe2O4 (CuCoF), NiCoFe2O4 (NiCoF) and NiCuFe2O4 (NiCuF). The surface characteristics and elemental composition of the nanocomposites have been studied by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The electrochemical performance of the nanomaterials was evaluated using a two-electrode configuration by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic technique in 1 M KOH electrolyte and was found to be in the order of: CuCoF > NiCoF > NiCuF. A maximum specific capacitance of 221 Fg-1 was obtained with CuCoF at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1. In addition to an excellent cycling stability, an energy density of 7.9 kW kg-1 was obtained at a current density of 1 Ag-1. The high electrochemical performance of the MTTMF nanocomposites obtained indicates that these materials are promising electrodes for supercapacitors.

  19. Comparison of carbon materials as electrodes for enzyme electrocatalysis: hydrogenase as a case study.

    PubMed

    Quinson, Jonathan; Hidalgo, Ricardo; Ash, Philip A; Dillon, Frank; Grobert, Nicole; Vincent, Kylie A

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of electrocatalysis by an enzyme adsorbed on a range of carbon materials, with different size, surface area, morphology and graphitic structure, which are either commercially available or prepared via simple, established protocols. We choose as our model enzyme the hydrogenase I from E. coli (Hyd-1), which is an active catalyst for H2 oxidation, is relatively robust and has been demonstrated in H2 fuel cells and H2-driven chemical synthesis. The carbon materials were characterised according to their surface area, surface morphology and graphitic character, and we use the electrocatalytic H2 oxidation current for Hyd-1 adsorbed on these materials to evaluate their effectiveness as enzyme electrodes. Here, we show that a variety of carbon materials are suitable for adsorbing hydrogenases in an electroactive configuration. This unified study provides insight into selection and design of carbon materials for study of redox enzymes and different applications of enzyme electrocatalysis.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cells, and air electrode and electrical interconnection materials therefor

    DOEpatents

    Bates, J.L.

    1992-09-01

    In one aspect of the invention, an air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell comprises Y[sub 1[minus]a]Q[sub a]MnO[sub 3], where Q is selected from the group consisting of Ca and Sr or mixtures thereof and a' is from 0.1 to 0.8. Preferably, a' is from 0.4 to 0.7. In another aspect of the invention, an electrical interconnection material for a solid oxide fuel cell comprises Y[sub 1[minus]b]Ca[sub b]Cr[sub 1[minus]c]Al[sub c]O[sub 3], where b' is from 0.1 to 0.6 and c' is from 0 to 9.3. Preferably, b' is from 0.3 to 0.5 and c' is from 0.05 to 0.1. A composite solid oxide electrochemical fuel cell incorporating these materials comprises: a solid oxide air electrode and an adjacent solid oxide electrical interconnection which commonly include the cation Y, the air electrode comprising Y[sub 1[minus]a]Q[sub a]MnO[sub 3], where Q is selected from the group consisting of Ca and Sr or mixtures thereof and a' is from 0.1 to 0.8, the electrical interconnection comprising Y[sub 1[minus]b]Ca[sub b]Cr[sub 1[minus]c]Al[sub c]O[sub 3], where b' is from 0.1 to 0.6 and c' is from 0.0 to 0.3; a yttrium stabilized solid electrolyte comprising (1[minus]d)ZrO[sub 2]-(d)Y[sub 2]O[sub 3] where d' is from 0.06 to 0.5; and a solid fuel electrode comprising X-ZrO[sub 2], where X' is an elemental metal. 5 figs.

  1. Solid oxide fuel cells, and air electrode and electrical interconnection materials therefor

    DOEpatents

    Bates, J. Lambert

    1992-01-01

    In one aspect of the invention, an air electrode material for a solid oxide fuel cell comprises Y.sub.1-a Q.sub.a MnO.sub.3, where "Q" is selected from the group consisting of Ca and Sr or mixtures thereof and "a" is from 0.1 to 0.8. Preferably, "a" is from 0.4 to 0.7. In another aspect of the invention, an electrical interconnection material for a solid oxide fuel cell comprises Y.sub.1-b Ca.sub.b Cr.sub.1-c Al.sub.c O.sub.3, where "b" is from 0.1 to 0.6 and "c" is from 0 to 9.3. Preferably, "b" is from 0.3 to 0.5 and "c" is from 0.05 to 0.1. A composite solid oxide electrochemical fuel cell incorporating these materials comprises: a solid oxide air electrode and an adjacent solid oxide electrical interconnection which commonly include the cation Y, the air electrode comprising Y.sub.1-a Q.sub.a MnO.sub.3, where "Q" is selected from the group consisting of Ca and Sr or mixtures thereof and "a" is from 0.1 to 0.8, the electrical interconnection comprising Y.sub.1-b Ca.sub.b Cr.sub.1-c Al.sub.c O.sub.3, where "b" is from 0.1 to 0.6 and "c" is from 0.0 to 0.3; a yttrium stabilized solid electrolyte comprising (1-d)ZrO.sub.2 -(d)Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 where "d" is from 0.06 to 0.5; and a solid fuel electrode comprising X-ZrO.sub.2, where "X" is an elemental metal.

  2. Potential effects of gallium on cladding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Besmann, T.M.; DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Gat, U.; Greene, S.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Worley, B.A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper identifies and examines issues concerning the incorporation of gallium in weapons derived plutonium in light water reactor (LWR) MOX fuels. Particular attention is given to the more likely effects of the gallium on the behavior of the cladding material. The chemistry of weapons grade (WG) MOX, including possible consequences of gallium within plutonium agglomerates, was assessed. Based on the calculated oxidation potentials of MOX fuel, the effect that gallium may have on reactions involving fission products and possible impact on cladding performance were postulated. Gallium transport mechanisms are discussed. With an understanding of oxidation potentials and assumptions of mechanisms for gallium transport, possible effects of gallium on corrosion of cladding were evaluated. Potential and unresolved issues and suggested research and development (R and D) required to provide missing information are presented.

  3. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE CORROSION POTENTIAL OF THE 241-AN-102 MULTI PROBE CORROSION MONITORING SYSTEM SECONDARY REFERENCE ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect

    EDGEMON GL; TAYLOR TM

    2008-09-30

    A test program using 241-AN-102 waste simulants and metallic secondary reference electrodes similar to those used on the 241-AN-102 MPCMS was performed to characterize the relationship between temperature and secondary reference electrode open-circuit corrosion potential. This program showed that the secondary reference electrodes can be used to make tank and tank steel corrosion potential measurements, but that a correction factor of approximately 2 mV per degree Celsius of temperature difference must be applied, where temperature difference is defined as the difference between tank temperature at the time of measurement and 30 C, the average tank temperature during the first several months of 241-AN-102 MPCMS operation (when the corrosion potentials of the secondary reference electrodes were being recorded relative to the primary reference electrodes).

  4. The reaction current distribution in battery electrode materials revealed by XPS-based state-of-charge mapping.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Alexander J; Gillette, Eleanor; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W

    2016-07-28

    Morphologically complex electrochemical systems such as composite or nanostructured lithium ion battery electrodes exhibit spatially inhomogeneous internal current distributions, particularly when driven at high total currents, due to resistances in the electrodes and electrolyte, distributions of diffusion path lengths, and nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. Measuring and controlling these distributions is interesting from both an engineering standpoint, as nonhomogenous currents lead to lower utilization of electrode material, as well as from a fundamental standpoint, as comparisons between theory and experiment are relatively scarce. Here we describe a new approach using a deliberately simple model battery electrode to examine the current distribution in a electrode material limited by poor electronic conductivity. We utilize quantitative spatially resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the spatial distribution of the state-of-charge of a V2O5 model electrode as a proxy measure for the current distribution on electrodes discharged at varying current densities. We show that the current at the electrode-electrolyte interface falls off with distance from the current collector, and that the current distribution is a strong function of total current. We compare the observed distributions with a simple analytical model which reproduces the dependence of the distribution on total current, but fails to predict the correct length scale. A more complete numerical simulation suggests that dynamic changes in the electronic conductivity of the V2O5 concurrent with lithium insertion may contribute to the differences between theory and experiment. Our observations should help inform design criteria for future electrode architectures.

  5. PEDOT:PSS as multi-functional composite material for enhanced Li-air-battery air electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dae Ho; Yoon, Seon Hye; Ryu, Kwang-Sun; Park, Yong Joon

    2016-01-01

    We propose PEDOT:PSS as a multi-functional composite material for an enhanced Li-air-battery air electrode. The PEDOT:PSS layer was coated on the surface of carbon (graphene) using simple method. A electrode containing PEDOT:PSS-coated graphene (PEDOT electrode) could be prepared without binder (such as PVDF) because of high adhesion of PEDOT:PSS. PEDOT electrode presented considerable discharge and charge capacity at all current densities. These results shows that PEDOT:PSS acts as a redox reaction matrix and conducting binder in the air electrode. Moreover, after cycling, the accumulation of reaction products due to side reaction in the electrode was significantly reduced through the use of PEDOT:PSS. This implies that PEDOT:PSS coating layer can suppress the undesirable side reactions between the carbon and electrolyte (and/or Li2O2), which causes enhanced Li-air cell cyclic performance. PMID:26813852

  6. Nickel cobalt oxide nanowire-reduced graphite oxide composite material and its application for high performance supercapacitor electrode material.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Yan, Chaoyi; Sumboja, Afriyanti; Lee, Pooi See

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report a facile synthesis method of mesoporous nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo2O4) nanowire-reduced graphite oxide (rGO) composite material by urea induced hydrolysis reaction, followed by sintering at 300 degrees C. P123 was used to stabilize the GO during synthesis, which resulted in a uniform coating of NiCo2O4 nanowire on rGO sheet. The growth mechanism of the composite material is discussed in detail. The NiCo2O4-rGO composite material showed an outstanding electrochemical performance of 873 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 512 F g(-1) at 40 A g(-1). This method provides a promising approach towards low cost and large scale production of supercapacitor electrode material.

  7. Pyrometallurgical Extraction of Valuable Elements in Ni-Metal Hydride Battery Electrode Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yin-ju; Deng, Yong-chun; Bu, Wen-gang

    2015-10-01

    Gas selective reduction-oxidation (redox) and melting separation were consecutively applied to electrode materials of AB5-type Ni-metal hydride batteries leading to the production of a Ni-Co alloy and slag enriched with rare earth oxides (REO). In the selective redox process, electrode materials were treated with H2/H2O at 1073 K and 1173 K (800 °C and 900 °C). Active elements such as REs, Al, and Mn were oxidized whereas relatively inert elements such as Ni and Co were transformed into their elemental states in the treated materials. SiO2 and Al2O3 powders were added into the treated materials as fluxes which were then melted at 1823 K (1550 °C) to yield a Ni-Co alloy and a REO-SiO2-Al2O3-MnO slag. The high-purity Ni-Co alloy produced can be used as a raw material for AB5-type hydrogen-storage alloy. The REO content in slag was very high, i.e., 48.51 pct, therefore it can be used to recycle rare earth oxides.

  8. Emerging Prototype Sodium-Ion Full Cells with Nanostructured Electrode Materials.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenhao; Zhu, Zixuan; An, Qinyou; Mai, Liqiang

    2017-04-10

    Due to steadily increasing energy consumption, the demand of renewable energy sources is more urgent than ever. Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have emerged as a cost-effective alternative because of the earth abundance of Na resources and their competitive electrochemical behaviors. Before practical application, it is essential to establish a bridge between the sodium half-cell and the commercial battery from a full cell perspective. An overview of the major challenges, most recent advances, and outlooks of non-aqueous and aqueous sodium-ion full cells (SIFCs) is presented. Considering the intimate relationship between SIFCs and electrode materials, including structure, composition and mutual matching principle, both the advance of various prototype SIFCs and the electrochemistry development of nanostructured electrode materials are reviewed. It is noted that a series of SIFCs combined with layered oxides and hard carbon are capable of providing a high specific gravimetric energy above 200 Wh kg(-1) , and an NaCrO2 //hard carbon full cell is able to deliver a high rate capability over 100 C. To achieve industrialization of SIBs, more systematic work should focus on electrode construction, component compatibility, and battery technologies.

  9. Development of materials for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD): ceramic electrode. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.L.; Marchant, D.D.

    1986-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory, supported by the US Department of Energy, developed advanced materials for use in open-cycle, closed cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation, an advanced energy conversion system in which the flow of electrically conducting fluid interacts with an electric field to convert the energy directly into electricity. The purpose of the PNL work was to develop electrodes for the MHD channel. Such electrodes must have: (1) electrical conductivity above 0.01 (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ from near room temperature to 1900/sup 0/K, (2) resistance to both electrochemical and chemical corrosion by both slag and potassium seed, (3) resistance to erosion by high-velocity gases and particles, (4) resistance to thermal shock, (5) adequate thermal conductivity, (6) compatibility with other channel components, particularly the electrical insulators, (7) oxidation-reduction stability, and (8) adequate thermionic emission. This report describes the concept and development of high-temperature, graded ceramic composite electrode materials and their electrical and structural properties. 47 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Magnetic control of electrochemical processes at electrode surface using iron-rich graphene materials with dual functionality.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chee Shan; Ambrosi, Adriano; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2014-07-07

    Metal-doped graphene hybrid materials demonstrate promising capabilities in catalysis and various sensing applications. There also exists great interest for on-demand control of the selectivity of many electrochemical processes. In this work, an iron-doped thermally reduced graphene oxide (Fe-TRGO) was prepared and used to investigate the possibility of a reproducible, magnetically controlled method to modulate electrochemical reactivities through a scalable method. We made use of the presence of both magnetic and electrocatalytic properties in the Fe-TRGOs to induce attraction and removal of the Fe-TRGO material onto and off the working electrode surfaces magnetically, thereby controlling the electrochemical oxidation and reduction processes. The outstanding electrochemical performance of the Fe-TRGO material was evident, with enhanced current signals and lower peak potentials observed upon magnetic activation. Reversible and reproducible cycles of activation and deactivation were obtained as the peak heights and peak potentials remained relatively consistent with no apparent carryover between every step. Both components of Fe-TRGO play an electrocatalytic role in the electrochemical sensing. In the cases of the oxygen reduction reaction and reduction of cumene hydroperoxide, the iron oxide plays the role of an electrocatalyst, while in the cases of ascorbic acid, the enhanced electroactivity originates from the high surface area of the graphene portion in the Fe-TRGO hybrid material. The feasibility of this magnetically switchable method for on-demand sensing and energy production thus brings about potential developments for future electrochemical applications.

  11. Magnetic control of electrochemical processes at electrode surface using iron-rich graphene materials with dual functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chee Shan; Ambrosi, Adriano; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Metal-doped graphene hybrid materials demonstrate promising capabilities in catalysis and various sensing applications. There also exists great interest for on-demand control of the selectivity of many electrochemical processes. In this work, an iron-doped thermally reduced graphene oxide (Fe-TRGO) was prepared and used to investigate the possibility of a reproducible, magnetically controlled method to modulate electrochemical reactivities through a scalable method. We made use of the presence of both magnetic and electrocatalytic properties in the Fe-TRGOs to induce attraction and removal of the Fe-TRGO material onto and off the working electrode surfaces magnetically, thereby controlling the electrochemical oxidation and reduction processes. The outstanding electrochemical performance of the Fe-TRGO material was evident, with enhanced current signals and lower peak potentials observed upon magnetic activation. Reversible and reproducible cycles of activation and deactivation were obtained as the peak heights and peak potentials remained relatively consistent with no apparent carryover between every step. Both components of Fe-TRGO play an electrocatalytic role in the electrochemical sensing. In the cases of the oxygen reduction reaction and reduction of cumene hydroperoxide, the iron oxide plays the role of an electrocatalyst, while in the cases of ascorbic acid, the enhanced electroactivity originates from the high surface area of the graphene portion in the Fe-TRGO hybrid material. The feasibility of this magnetically switchable method for on-demand sensing and energy production thus brings about potential developments for future electrochemical applications.

  12. Carbon nanotube multi-electrode array chips for noninvasive real-time measurement of dopamine, action potentials, and postsynaptic potentials.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ikuro; Fukuda, Mao; Shirakawa, Keiichi; Jiko, Hideyasu; Gotoh, Masao

    2013-11-15

    Multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) can be used for noninvasive, real-time, and long-term recording of electrophysiological activity and changes in the extracellular chemical microenvironment. Neural network organization, neuronal excitability, synaptic and phenotypic plasticity, and drug responses may be monitored by MEAs, but it is still difficult to measure presynaptic activity, such as neurotransmitter release, from the presynaptic bouton. In this study, we describe the development of planar carbon nanotube (CNT)-MEA chips that can measure both the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine as well as electrophysiological responses such as field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) and action potentials (APs). These CNT-MEA chips were fabricated by electroplating the indium-tin oxide (ITO) microelectrode surfaces. The CNT-plated ITO electrode exhibited electrochemical response, having much higher current density compared with the bare ITO electrode. Chronoamperometric measurements using these CNT-MEA chips detected dopamine at nanomolar concentrations. By placing mouse striatal brain slices on the CNT-MEA chip, we successfully measured synaptic dopamine release from spontaneous firings with a high S/N ratio of 62. Furthermore, APs and fPSPs were measured from cultured hippocampal neurons and slices with high temporal resolution and a 100-fold greater S/N ratio. Our CNT-MEA chips made it possible to measure neurotransmitter dopamine (presynaptic activities), postsynaptic potentials, and action potentials, which have a central role in information processing in the neuronal network. CNT-MEA chips could prove useful for in vitro studies of stem cell differentiation, drug screening and toxicity, synaptic plasticity, and pathogenic processes involved in epilepsy, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Spatial distribution of cardiac transmembrane potentials around an extracellular electrode: dependence on fiber orientation.

    PubMed Central

    Neunlist, M; Tung, L

    1995-01-01

    Recent theoretical models of cardiac electrical stimulation or defibrillation predict a complex spatial pattern of transmembrane potential (Vm) around a stimulating electrode, resulting from the formation of virtual electrodes of reversed polarity. The pattern of membrane polarization has been attributed to the anisotropic structure of the tissue. To verify such model predictions experimentally, an optical technique using a fluorescent voltage-sensitive dye was used to map the spatial distribution of Vm around a 150-microns-radius extracellular unipolar electrode. An S1-S2 stimulation protocol was used, and vm was measured during an S2 pulse having an intensity equal to 10x the cathodal diastolic threshold of excitation. The recordings were obtained on the endocardial surface of bullfrog atrium in directions parallel and perpendicular to the cardiac fibers. In the longitudinal fiber direction, the membrane depolarized for cathodal pulses (and hyperpolarized for anodal pulses) but only in a region within 445 +/- 112 microns (and 616 +/- 78 microns for anodal pulses) from the center of the electrode (n = 9). Outside this region, vm reversed polarity and reached a local maximum at 922 +/- 136 microns (and 988 +/- 117 microns for anodal pulses) (n = 9). Beyond this point vm decayed to zero over a distance of 1.5-2 mm. In the transverse fiber direction, the membrane depolarized for cathodal pulses (and hyperpolarized for anodal pulses) at all distances from the electrode. The amplitude of the response decreased with distance from the electrode with an exponential decay constant of 343 +/- 110 microns for cathodal pulses and 253 +/- 91 microns for anodal pulses (n = 7). The results were qualitatively similar in both fiber directions when the atrium was bathed in a solution containing ionic channel blockers. A two-dimensional computer model was formulated for the case of highly anisotropic cardiac tissue and qualitatively accounts for nearly all the observed spatial and

  14. Determination of chromium(VI) in electronics materials using trioctylamine modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Kong, Yong; Wang, Wenchang; Chen, Zhidong; Yao, Shiping

    2009-12-01

    A trioctylamine (TOA) modified carbon paste electrode (TOA/CPE) was firstly utilized to determine Cr(VI) in electronics materials. The effects of preconcentration conditions, that is, TOA amount and accumulation time on Cr(VI) accumulation were examined and the optimum experiment conditions for the determination were identified. A sensitive reduction peak in the stripping voltammogram at -0.45 V, a characteristic of trace Cr(VI), was detected when the accumulation time was 10 min. Under optimized conditions, TOA/CPE demonstrated an enhanced sensitivity for Cr(VI), providing a low detection limit (S/N = 3) at 3.4 x 10(-9) M. Interference studies also displayed high selectivity of the TOA/CPE for Cr(VI); this electrode can accurately determine Cr(VI) in the presence of Cr(III) (600-fold concentration) and other interfering cations.

  15. The catalytic role of tungsten electrode material in the plasmachemical activity of a pulsed corona discharge in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, Petr; Clupek, Martin; Babicky, Vaclav; Sisrova, Irena; Janda, Vaclav

    2011-06-01

    The effects of tungsten material used as a high-voltage needle electrode on the production of hydrogen peroxide and the degradation of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) caused by a pulsed corona discharge in water were investigated. A reactor of needle-plate electrode geometry was used. The erosion of the tungsten electrodes by the discharge was evaluated. The yields of H2O2 production and the decomposition of DMSO by the discharge, which were obtained using the tungsten electrodes, were compared with those determined for titanium electrodes. The electrode erosion increased significantly with an increase in the solution conductivity. A large fraction (50-70%) of the eroded tungsten electrode material was released into the solution in dissolved form as tungstate WO_4^{2-} ions. A correlation between the amount of eroded tungsten material released into the solution and the chemical effects induced by the discharge was determined. Lower yields of H2O2 and a higher degradation of DMSO by the discharge were obtained using the tungsten electrodes than were determined using titanium electrodes. Tungstate ions were shown to play a dominant role in the decomposition of H2O2, which was produced by the discharge using a tungsten electrode. The higher degradation of DMSO that was determined for tungsten was attributed to the tungstate-catalyzed oxidation of DMSO by H2O2, in addition to the oxidation of DMSO by OH radicals. Such a mechanism was supported by the detection of degradation by-products of DMSO (methanesulfonate, sulfate and dimethyl sulfone). The catalytic role of tungstate ions in the plasmachemical activity of the discharge generated using a tungsten electrode was also demonstrated on a pH-dependent decomposition of H2O2 and DMSO.

  16. Small-Scale and Low Cost Electrodes for "Standard" Reduction Potential Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd; Kvittingen, Lise

    2007-01-01

    The construction of three simple and inexpensive electrodes, hydrogen, and chlorine and copper electrode is described. This simple method will encourage students to construct their own electrode and better help in understanding precipitation and other electrochemistry concepts.

  17. End-of-life Zn-MnO2 batteries: electrode materials characterization.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Marta; Pedrosa, F; Margarido, F; Nogueira, C A

    2013-01-01

    Physical and chemical characterization of several sizes and shapes of alkaline and saline spent Zn-MnO2 batteries was carried out, aiming at contributing for a better definition of the applicable recycling processes. The characterization essays included the mass balance of the components, cathode and anode elemental analysis, the identification of zinc and manganese bearing phases and the morphology analysis of the electrode particles. The electrode materials correspond to 64-79% of the total weigh of the batteries, with the cathodes having clearly the highest contribution (usually more than 50%). The steel components, mainly from the cases, are also important (17-30%). Elemental analysis showed that the electrodes are highly concentrated in zinc (from 48-87% in anodes) and manganese (from 35-50% in cathodes). X-Ray powder diffraction allowed for identifying several phases in the electrodes, namely zinc oxide, in the anodes of all the types of saline and alkaline batteries tested, while zinc hydroxide chloride and ammine zinc chloride only appear in some types of saline batteries. The manganese found in the cathode materials is present as two main phases, MnO x Mn2O3 and ZnO x Mn2O3, the latter corroborating that zinc migration from anode to cathode occurs during the batteries lifespan. A unreacted MnO2 phase was also found presenting a low crystalline level. Leaching trials with diluted HCI solutions of alkaline and saline battery samples showed that all zinc species are reactive attaining easily over than 90% leaching yields, and about 30% of manganese, present as Mn(II/III) forms. The MnO2 phase is less reactive and requires higher temperatures to achieve a more efficient solubilization.

  18. Identification and Mitigation of Generated Solid By-Products during Advanced Electrode Materials Processing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Candace S J; Dysart, Arthur D; Beltz, Jay H; Pol, Vilas G

    2016-03-01

    A scalable, solid-state elevated-temperature process was developed to produce high-capacity carbonaceous electrode materials for energy storage devices via decomposition of a starch-based precursor in an inert atmosphere. In a separate study, it is shown that the fabricated carbonaceous architectures are useful as an excellent electrode material for lithium-ion, sodium-ion, and lithium-sulfur batteries. This article focuses on the study and analysis of the formed nanometer-sized by-products during the lab-scale synthesis of the carbon material. The material production process was studied in operando (that is, during the entire duration of heat treatment). The unknown downstream particles in the process exhaust were collected and characterized via aerosol and liquid suspensions, and they were quantified using direct-reading instruments for number and mass concentrations. The airborne emissions were collected using the Tsai diffusion sampler (TDS) for characterization and further analysis. Released by-product aerosols collected in a deionized (DI) water trap were analyzed, and the aerosols emitted from the post-water-suspension were collected and characterized. After long-term sampling, individual particles in the nanometer size range were observed in the exhaust aerosol with layer-structured aggregates formed on the sampling substrate. Upon the characterization of the released aerosol by-products, methods were identified to mitigate possible human and environmental exposures upon industrial implementation.

  19. Highly Ordered Mesostructured Vanadium Phosphonate toward Electrode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Mei, Peng; Pramanik, Malay; Lee, Jaewoo; Ide, Yusuke; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2017-03-28

    Highly ordered mesostructured vanadium phosphonates (VP) have been synthesized in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a structure-directing agent. Nitrilotris(methylene)triphosphonic acid (NMPA) and (ammonium/sodium) metavanadate (NH4 VO3 /NaVO3 ) have been used for the construction of pore walls. The CTAB templates are removed from the materials by an extraction process without destroying the parent mesostructure. The formation mechanism for the ordered mesoporous structure and its impact on electrochemical application in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are explained by considering the structural and electrochemical stability of the framework. The results demonstrate that the counter cations (NH4(+) /Na(+) ) of the metavanadate precursors have a crucial role in stabilizing the mesoporous structure of the mesoporous VP materials. Mesoporous VP materials with highly ordered structure have great applicability as high-performance electrode materials in LIBs due to the advantages of their large contact area with electrolyte and short transport paths for lithium ions. Mesoporous VP electrodes exhibit high reversible specific capacity with superb cycling stability (100 cycles) and excellent retention of capacity (92 %).

  20. Integration of microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection using an epoxy-based molding method to embed multiple electrode materials.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alicia S; Selimovic, Asmira; Martin, R Scott

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the use of epoxy-encapsulated electrodes to integrate microchip-based electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Devices with various electrode combinations can easily be developed. This includes a palladium decoupler with a downstream working electrode material of either gold, mercury/gold, platinum, glassy carbon, or a carbon fiber bundle. Additional device components such as the platinum wires for the electrophoresis separation and the counter electrode for detection can also be integrated into the epoxy base. The effect of the decoupler configuration was studied in terms of the separation performance, detector noise, and the ability to analyze samples of a high ionic strength. The ability of both glassy carbon and carbon fiber bundle electrodes to analyze a complex mixture was demonstrated. It was also shown that a PDMS-based valving microchip can be used along with the epoxy-embedded electrodes to integrate microdialysis sampling with microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection, with the microdialysis tubing also being embedded in the epoxy substrate. This approach enables one to vary the detection electrode material as desired in a manner where the electrodes can be polished and modified as is done with electrochemical flow cells used in liquid chromatography.

  1. Prediction of visual evoked potentials at any surface location from a set of three recording electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mazinani, Babac A E; Waberski, Till D; van Ooyen, Andre; Walter, Peter

    2008-05-01

    Purpose of this study was to introduce a mathematical model which allows the calculation of a source dipole as the origin of the evoked activity based on the data of three simultaneously recorded VEPs from different locations at the scalp surface to predict field potentials at any neighboring location and to validate this model by comparison with actual recordings. In 10 healthy subjects (25-38, mean 29 years) continuous VEPs were recorded via 96 channels. On the base of the recordings at the positions POz', O1' and O2', a source dipole vector was calculated for each time point of the recordings and VEP responses were back projected for any of the 96 electrode positions. Differences between the calculated and the actually recorded responses were quantified by coefficients of variation (CV). The prediction precision and response size depended on the distance between the electrode of the predicted response and the recording electrodes. After compensating this relationship using a polynomial function, the CV of the mean difference between calculated and recorded responses of the 10 subjects was 2.8 +/- 1.2%. In conclusion, the "Mini-Brainmapping" model can provide precise topographical information with minimal additional recording efforts with good reliability. The implementation of this method in a routine diagnostic setting as an "easy-to-do" procedure would allow to examine a large number of patients and normal subjects in a short time, and thus, a solid data base could be created to correlate well defined pathologies with topographical VEP changes.

  2. Potential energy sputtering of EUVL materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pomeroy, J M; Ratliff, L P; Gillaspy, J D; Bajt, S

    2004-07-02

    Of the many candidates employed for understanding the erosion of critical Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) components, potential energy damage remains relatively uninvestigated. Unlike the familiar kinetic energy sputtering, which is a consequence of the momentum transferred by an ion to atoms in the target, potential energy sputtering occurs when an ion rapidly collects charge from the target as it neutralizes. Since the neutralization energy of a singly charged ion is typically on the order of 10 eV, potential energy effects are generally neglected for low charge state ions, and hence the bulk of the sputtering literature. As an ion's charge state is increased, the potential energy (PE) increases rapidly, e.g. PE(Xe{sup 1+})= 11 eV, PE(Xe{sup 10+}) = 810 eV, PE(Xe{sup 20+}) = 4.6 keV, etc. By comparison, the binding energy of a single atom on a surface is typically about 5 eV, so even relatively inefficient energy transfer mechanisms can lead to large quantities of material being removed, e.g. 25% efficiency for Xe{sup 10+} corresponds to {approx} 40 atoms/ion. By comparison, singly charged xenon ions with {approx} 20 keV of kinetic energy sputter only about 5 atoms/ion at normal incidence, and less than 1 atom/ion at typical EUV source energies. EUV light sources are optimized for producing approximately 10{sup 16} xenon ions per shot with an average charge state of q=10 in the core plasma. At operational rates of {approx}10 kHz, the number of ions produced per second becomes a whopping 10{sup 20}. Even if only one in a billion ions reaches the collector, erosion rates could reach {approx}10{sup 12} atoms per second, severely reducing the collector lifetime (for an average yield of 10 atoms/ion). In addition, efforts to reduce contamination effects may contribute to reduced neutralization and even larger potential energy damages rates (discussed further below). In order to provide accurate estimates for collector lifetimes and to develop mitigation schemes

  3. Transitions from near-surface to interior redox upon lithiation in conversion electrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    He, Kai; Xin, Huolin L.; Zhao, Kejie; Yu, Xiqian; Norlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Li, Jing; Jiang, Yi; Cadigan, Christopher A.; Richards, Ryan M.; Doeff, Marca M.; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Stach, Eric A.; Li, Ju; Lin, Feng; Su, Dong

    2015-01-29

    Nanoparticle electrodes in lithium-ion batteries have both near-surface and interior contributions to their redox capacity, each with distinct rate capabilities. Using combined electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray methods and ab initio calculations, we have investigated the lithiation pathways that occur in NiO electrodes. We find that the near-surface electroactive (Ni²⁺→Ni⁰) sites saturated very quickly, and then encounter unexpected difficulty in propagating the phase transition into the electrode (referred to as a “shrinking-core” mode). However, the interior capacity for Ni²⁺→Ni⁰ can be accessed efficiently following the nucleation of lithiation “fingers” which propagate into the sample bulk, but only after a certain incubation time. Our microstructural observations of the transition from a slow shrinking-core mode to a faster lithiation finger mode corroborate with synchrotron characterization of large-format batteries, and can be rationalized by stress effects on transport at high-rate discharge. The finite incubation time of the lithiation fingers sets the intrinsic limitation for the rate capability (and thus the power) of NiO for electrochemical energy storage devices. The present work unravels the link between the nanoscale reaction pathways and the C-rate-dependent capacity loss, and provides guidance for the further design of battery materials that favors high C-rate charging.

  4. Transitions from near-surface to interior redox upon lithiation in conversion electrode materials

    DOE PAGES

    He, Kai; Xin, Huolin L.; Zhao, Kejie; ...

    2015-01-29

    Nanoparticle electrodes in lithium-ion batteries have both near-surface and interior contributions to their redox capacity, each with distinct rate capabilities. Using combined electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray methods and ab initio calculations, we have investigated the lithiation pathways that occur in NiO electrodes. We find that the near-surface electroactive (Ni²⁺→Ni⁰) sites saturated very quickly, and then encounter unexpected difficulty in propagating the phase transition into the electrode (referred to as a “shrinking-core” mode). However, the interior capacity for Ni²⁺→Ni⁰ can be accessed efficiently following the nucleation of lithiation “fingers” which propagate into the sample bulk, but only after a certain incubationmore » time. Our microstructural observations of the transition from a slow shrinking-core mode to a faster lithiation finger mode corroborate with synchrotron characterization of large-format batteries, and can be rationalized by stress effects on transport at high-rate discharge. The finite incubation time of the lithiation fingers sets the intrinsic limitation for the rate capability (and thus the power) of NiO for electrochemical energy storage devices. The present work unravels the link between the nanoscale reaction pathways and the C-rate-dependent capacity loss, and provides guidance for the further design of battery materials that favors high C-rate charging.« less

  5. Potential active materials for photo-supercapacitor: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C. H.; Lim, H. N.; Hayase, S.; Harrison, I.; Pandikumar, A.; Huang, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    The need for an endless renewable energy supply, typically through the utilization of solar energy in most applications and systems, has driven the expansion, versatility, and diversification of marketed energy storage devices. Energy storage devices such as hybridized dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)-capacitors and DSSC-supercapacitors have been invented for energy reservation. The evolution and vast improvement of these devices in terms of their efficiencies and flexibilities have further sparked the invention of the photo-supercapacitor. The idea of coupling a DSSC and supercapacitor as a complete energy conversion and storage device arose because the solar energy absorbed by dye molecules can be efficiently transferred and converted to electrical energy by adopting a supercapacitor as the energy delivery system. The conversion efficiency of a photo-supercapacitor is mainly dependent on the use of active materials during its fabrication. The performances of the dye, photoactive metal oxide, counter electrode, redox electrolyte, and conducting polymer are the primary factors contributing to high-energy-efficient conversion, which enhances the performance and shelf-life of a photo-supercapacitor. Moreover, the introduction of compact layer as a primary adherent film has been earmarked as an effort in enhancing power conversion efficiency of solar cell. Additionally, the development of electrolyte-free solar cell such as the invention of hole-conductor or perovskite solar cell is currently being explored extensively. This paper reviews and analyzes the potential active materials for a photo-supercapacitor to enhance the conversion and storage efficiencies.

  6. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  7. Method of preparing porous, active material for use in electrodes of secondary electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1977-01-01

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure.The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  8. Physics of electron and lithium-ion transport in electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musheng, Wu; Bo, Xu; Chuying, Ouyang

    2016-01-01

    The physics of ionic and electrical conduction at electrode materials of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are briefly summarized here, besides, we review the current research on ionic and electrical conduction in electrode material incorporating experimental and simulation studies. Commercial LIBs have been widely used in portable electronic devices and are now developed for large-scale applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and stationary distributed power stations. However, due to the physical limits of the materials, the overall performance of today’s LIBs does not meet all the requirements for future applications, and the transport problem has been one of the main barriers to further improvement. The electron and Li-ion transport behaviors are important in determining the rate capacity of LIBs. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11234013 and 11264014), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant Nos. 20133ACB21010 and 20142BAB212002), and the Foundation of Jiangxi Education Committee, China (Grant Nos. GJJ14254 and KJLD14024). C. Y. Ouyang is also supported by the “Gan-po talent 555” Project of Jiangxi Province, China.

  9. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials.

  10. High rate, long cycle life battery electrode materials with an open framework structure

    DOEpatents

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert; Cui, Yi; Pasta, Mauro

    2015-02-10

    A battery includes a cathode, an anode, and an aqueous electrolyte disposed between the cathode and the anode and including a cation A. At least one of the cathode and the anode includes an electrode material having an open framework crystal structure into which the cation A is reversibly inserted during operation of the battery. The battery has a reference specific capacity when cycled at a reference rate, and at least 75% of the reference specific capacity is retained when the battery is cycled at 10 times the reference rate.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of high performance electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jian

    Lithium-ion batteries have revolutionized portable electronics. Electrode reactions in these electrochemical systems are based on reversible intercalation of Li+ ions into the host electrode material with a concomitant addition/removal of electrons into the host. If such batteries are to find a wider market such as the automotive industry, less expensive and higher capacity electrode materials will be required. The olivine phase lithium iron phosphate has attracted the most attention because of its low cost and safety (high thermal and chemical stability). However, it is an intriguing fundamental problem to understand the fast electrochemical response from the poorly electronic conducting two-phase LiFePO4/FePO 4 system. This thesis focuses on determining the rate-limit step of LiFePO4. First, a LiFePO4 material, with vanadium substituting on the P-site, was synthesized, and found that the crystal structure change may cause high lithium diffusivity. Since an accurate Li diffusion coefficient cannot be measured by traditional electrochemical method in a three-electrode cell due to the phase transformation during measurement, a new method to measure the intrinsic electronic and ionic conductivity of mixed conductive LiFePO 4 was developed. This was based on the conductivity measurements of mixed conductive solid electrolyte using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and blocking electrode. The effects of ionic/electronic conductivity and phase transformation on the rate performance of LiFePO4 were also first investigated by EIS and other electrochemical technologies. Based on the above fundamental kinetics studies, an optimized LiFePO4 was used as a target to deposit 1mum LiFePO4 thin film at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Similar to the carbon coated LiFePO4 powder electrode, the carbon-contained RF LiFePO4 film with no preferential orientation showed excellent capacity and rate capability both at 25°C and -20

  12. Pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates at gold electrodes with a two-step potential waveform

    SciTech Connect

    Neuburger, G.G.; Johnson, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A two-step potential waveform is demonstrated for the detection of carbohydrates at a Au electrode in alkaline solutions for application in flow injection and liquid chromatography systems. Pulsed amperometric detection of carbohydrates previously based on a three-step waveform is now extended to potentiostats capable of programming an asymmetric square waveform (e.g., normal-pulse voltammetric waveforms). Detection limits for glucose, sorbitol, and sucrose are approximately 1 nmol in a 50-..mu..L sample (i.e., ca. 200 ng of glucose and 360 ng of sucrose) in a flow injection system.

  13. Potential dependence of cuprous/cupric duplex film growth on copper electrode in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jian-Bo; Lu, Dao-Yong; Jin, Guan-Ping

    2006-11-01

    The duplex oxide film potentiostatically formed on copper in concentrated alkaline media has been investigated by XRD, XPS, negative-going voltammetry and cathodic chronopotentiometry. The interfacial capacity was also measured using fast triangular voltage method under quasi-stationary condition. The obvious differences in the thickness, composition, passivation degree and capacitance behavior were observed between the duplex film formed in lower potential region (-0.13 to 0.18 V versus Hg|HgO electrode with the same solution as the electrolyte) and that formed in higher potential region (0.18-0.60 V). Cuprous oxides could be formed and exist stably in the inner layer in the both potential regions, and three cupric species, soluble ions and Cu(OH) 2 and CuO, could be independently produced from the direct oxidation of metal copper, as indicated by three pairs of redox voltammetric peaks. One of the oxidation peaks appeared only after the scan was reversed from high potential and could be attributed to CuO formation upon the pre-accumulation of O 2- ions within the film under high anodic potentials. A new mechanism for the film growth on the investigated time scale from 1 to 30 min is proposed, that is, the growth of the duplex film in the lower potential region takes place at the film|solution interface to form a thick Cu(OH) 2 outer layer by field-assisted transfer of Cu 2+ ions through the film to solution, whereas the film in the higher potential region grows depressingly and slowly at the metal|film interface to form Cu 2O and less CuO by the transfer of O 2- ions through the film to electrode.

  14. Tungsten - Tungsten Trioxide Electrodes for the Long-term Monitoring of Corrosion Processes in Highly Alkaline Media and Concrete-based Materials.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Mitja; Doliška, Aleš; Svegl, Franc; Kalcher, Kurt

    2010-12-01

    The determination of pH in highly alkaline solutions and concrete materials is extremely important for monitoring or predicting the corrosion processes of reinforced concrete structures and to follow the hydration process of Portland cement, fly-ash, micro silica and other materials used in concrete manufacturing. The corrosion of reinforced concrete structures and the hydration of pozzolanic materials are long-term processes, which means, that appropriate durable, and resilient pH electrodes are needed, for direct implantation regarding solid concrete bodies. The purpose of this work was to characterise the potentiometric and surface properties of tungsten electrodes after exposure to extreme alkaline solutions. The tungsten wire surface was activated at 800 °C for 30 min within an oxygen flow. The formation of homogenous and compact multiple layers of WO3 crystals was observed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction of those tungsten electrodes exposed to saturated calcium hydroxide solution or the pore-water of cement-based materials during 10 months, indicated partly dissolved WO3. Two new compounds appeared on the electrodes surfaces; pure tungsten and CaWO4. The presence of tungsten was affecting any potentiometric response in acidic pH region (2-5) but in pH 5-12 region the response still remained linear with a slope of 42 ± 2 mV/pH unit. The W/WO3 electrode was suitable for the long-term monitoring of corrosion processes in concrete-based materials according to the pH changes as it has stable and repeatable responses to alkaline solutions (pH > 12). All the tested interferring ions had no significant influence on electrode potential. The W/WO3 electrode is simple, robust, inexpensive, and temperature resistant and can be applied in potentiometric titrations as well as in batch and flow-injection analysis. The prepared electrode is a highly promising pH sensor for the monitoring of pH changes in highly alkaline capillary

  15. Theoretical approach for optical response in electrochemical systems: Application to electrode potential dependence of surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Kenji; Noda, Masashi; Nobusada, Katsuyuki

    2014-09-28

    We propose a theoretical approach for optical response in electrochemical systems. The fundamental equation to be solved is based on a time-dependent density functional theory in real-time and real-space in combination with its finite temperature formula treating an electrode potential. Solvation effects are evaluated by a dielectric continuum theory. The approach allows us to treat optical response in electrochemical systems at the atomistic level of theory. We have applied the method to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 4-mercaptopyridine on an Ag electrode surface. It is shown that the SERS intensity has a peak as a function of the electrode potential. Furthermore, the real-space computational approach facilitates visualization of variation of the SERS intensity depending on an electrode potential.

  16. Nanoporous materials for reducing the over potential of creating hydrogen by water electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Marc A.; Leonard, Kevin C.

    2016-06-14

    Disclosed is an electrolyzer including an electrode including a nanoporous oxide-coated conducting material. Also disclosed is a method of producing a gas through electrolysis by contacting an aqueous solution with an electrode connected to an electrical power source, wherein the electrode includes a nanoporous oxide-coated conducting material.

  17. Recent developments, characteristics and potential applications of screen-printed electrodes in pharmaceutical and biological analysis.

    PubMed

    Couto, R A S; Lima, J L F C; Quinaz, M B

    2016-01-01

    Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) have gone through significant improvements over the past few decades with respect to both their format and their printing materials. Thus, SPEs have been successfully applied for the in situ detection of a plethora of analytes in a wide range of sample matrixes due to their advantageous material properties, such as disposability, simplicity, and rapid responses. In particular, the development of electrochemical sensors based on SPEs for pharmaceutical analysis has received massive consideration since they enable the rapid screening of the pharmaceutical compounds in complex matrixes, requiring small volumes of samples and no pre-treatment steps. This review summarizes the design and the working principles of electrochemical sensors based on SPEs applied to the quantification of pharmaceutical and biological compounds.

  18. Electrochemical and thermodynamic studies of the electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Hyun Joo

    profiles observed during the charge and discharge processes are related to the Li insertion/extraction reaction in the spinel host structure for both materials. The reversible heat generation due to the lithium insertion/extraction reaction in the host electrode is estimated on the basis of the cell entropy change. The heat generation calculated from DeltaS and the open circuit potential results is consistent with the heat profile (exothermic/endothermic) generated during the charge/discharge process and with the magnitude of the heat generation from the experimental results obtained from the IMC at a slow charge/discharge rate. The irreversible heat generation dependence on the current rate is discussed at different discharge rates.

  19. Improved Manufacturing Performance of Screen Printed Carbon Electrodes through Material Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Eifion; Philip, Bruce; Greenwood, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Printed carbon graphite materials are the primary common component in the majority of screen printed sensors. Screen printing allows a scalable manufacturing solution, accelerating the means by which novel sensing materials can make the transition from laboratory material to commercial product. A common bottleneck in any thick film printing process is the controlled drying of the carbon paste material. A study has been undertaken which examines the interaction between material solvent, printed film conductivity and process consistency. The study illustrates that it is possible to reduce the solvent boiling point to significantly increase process productivity while maintaining process consistency. The lower boiling point solvent also has a beneficial effect on the conductivity of the film, reducing the sheet resistance. It is proposed that this is a result of greater film stressing increasing charge percolation through greater inter particle contact. Simulations of material performance and drying illustrate that a multi layered printing provides a more time efficient manufacturing method. The findings have implications for the volume manufacturing of the carbon sensor electrodes but also have implications for other applications where conductive carbon is used, such as electrical circuits and photovoltaic devices. PMID:27355967

  20. Improved Manufacturing Performance of Screen Printed Carbon Electrodes through Material Formulation.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Eifion; Philip, Bruce; Greenwood, Peter

    2016-06-27

    Printed carbon graphite materials are the primary common component in the majority of screen printed sensors. Screen printing allows a scalable manufacturing solution, accelerating the means by which novel sensing materials can make the transition from laboratory material to commercial product. A common bottleneck in any thick film printing process is the controlled drying of the carbon paste material. A study has been undertaken which examines the interaction between material solvent, printed film conductivity and process consistency. The study illustrates that it is possible to reduce the solvent boiling point to significantly increase process productivity while maintaining process consistency. The lower boiling point solvent also has a beneficial effect on the conductivity of the film, reducing the sheet resistance. It is proposed that this is a result of greater film stressing increasing charge percolation through greater inter particle contact. Simulations of material performance and drying illustrate that a multi layered printing provides a more time efficient manufacturing method. The findings have implications for the volume manufacturing of the carbon sensor electrodes but also have implications for other applications where conductive carbon is used, such as electrical circuits and photovoltaic devices.

  1. Long-term stability of nanostructured thin film electrodes at operating potentials

    DOE PAGES

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Peng, J. -K.; Wang, X.; ...

    2017-02-09

    Long-term stability of nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts at operating potentials has been investigated. Compared to high surface area Pt/C catalysts, NSTF electrodes show 20–50x smaller F– emission rates (FER) because of their high specific activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but are susceptible to poisoning by the products of membrane degradation because of their low electrochemically active surface area (ECSA). The observed voltage degradation rates at potentials corresponding to 1–1.5 A/cm2 current density are much higher than the allowable 13–14 μV/h. Although F– is not itself responsible for performance decay, cumulative fluoride release (CFR) is a good marker formore » catalyst surface contamination. The observed performance decay is not only due to loss of active Pt sites but also adsorbed impurities impeding ORR kinetics. There is a strong correlation between measured CFR and observed decrease in specific ORR activity and limiting current density and increase in mass transfer overpotentials. Furthermore, the correlations indicate that the target of <10% lifetime performance degradation can be achieved by restricting CFR in NSTF electrodes to 0.7 μg/cm2, as may be possible with more stable membranes, higher surface area NSTF catalysts, and cell operation at lower temperatures and higher relative humidities.« less

  2. In Situ-Grown ZnCo2O4 on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Air Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Cao, Ruiguo; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-10-12

    Although lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries have great potential to be used as one of the next generation energy storage systems due to their ultrahigh theoretical specific energy, there are still many significant barriers before their practical applications. These barriers include electrolyte and electrode instability, poor ORR/OER efficiency and cycling capability, etc. Development of a highly efficient catalyst will not only enhance ORR/OER efficiency, it may also improve the stability of electrolyte because the reduced charge voltage. Here we report the synthesis of nano-sheet-assembled ZnCo2O4 spheres/single walled carbon nanotubes (ZCO/SWCNTs) composites as high performance air electrode materials for Li-O2 batteries. The ZCO catalyzed SWCNTs electrodes delivered high discharge capacities, decreased the onset of oxygen evolution reaction by 0.9 V during charge processes, and led to more stable cycling stability. These results indicate that ZCO/SWCNTs composite can be used as highly efficient air electrode for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. The highly enhanced catalytic activity by uniformly dispersed ZnCo2O4 catalyst on nanostructured electrodes is expected to inspire

  3. Electrode materials: a challenge for the exploitation of protonic solid oxide fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Emiliana; Pergolesi, Daniele; Traversa, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    High temperature proton conductor (HTPC) oxides are attracting extensive attention as electrolyte materials alternative to oxygen-ion conductors for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating at intermediate temperatures (400–700 °C). The need to lower the operating temperature is dictated by cost reduction for SOFC pervasive use. The major stake for the deployment of this technology is the availability of electrodes able to limit polarization losses at the reduced operation temperature. This review aims to comprehensively describe the state-of-the-art anode and cathode materials that have so far been tested with HTPC oxide electrolytes, offering guidelines and possible strategies to speed up the development of protonic SOFCs. PMID:27877342

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electrode materials: a challenge for the exploitation of protonic solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Emiliana; Pergolesi, Daniele; Traversa, Enrico

    2010-08-01

    High temperature proton conductor (HTPC) oxides are attracting extensive attention as electrolyte materials alternative to oxygen-ion conductors for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating at intermediate temperatures (400-700 °C). The need to lower the operating temperature is dictated by cost reduction for SOFC pervasive use. The major stake for the deployment of this technology is the availability of electrodes able to limit polarization losses at the reduced operation temperature. This review aims to comprehensively describe the state-of-the-art anode and cathode materials that have so far been tested with HTPC oxide electrolytes, offering guidelines and possible strategies to speed up the development of protonic SOFCs.

  5. Experimental and theoretical investigations of functionalized boron nitride as electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Nemeth, Karoly; Bareno, Javier; Dogan, Fulya; Bloom, Ira D.; Shaw, Leon L.

    2016-03-03

    The feasibility of synthesizing functionalized h-BN (FBN) via the reaction between molten LiOH and solid h-BN is studied for the first time and its first ever application as an electrode material in Li-ion batteries is evaluated. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to provide mechanistic understanding of the possible electrochemical reactions derived from the FBN. Various materials characterizations reveal that the melt-solid reaction can lead to exfoliation and functionalization of h-BN simultaneously, while electrochemical analysis proves that the FBN can reversibly store charges through surface redox reactions with good cycle stability and coulombic efficiency. As a result, the DFT calculations have provided physical insights into the observed electrochemical properties derived from the FBN.

  6. Experimental and theoretical investigations of functionalized boron nitride as electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Fan; Nemeth, Karoly; Bareno, Javier; ...

    2016-03-03

    The feasibility of synthesizing functionalized h-BN (FBN) via the reaction between molten LiOH and solid h-BN is studied for the first time and its first ever application as an electrode material in Li-ion batteries is evaluated. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to provide mechanistic understanding of the possible electrochemical reactions derived from the FBN. Various materials characterizations reveal that the melt-solid reaction can lead to exfoliation and functionalization of h-BN simultaneously, while electrochemical analysis proves that the FBN can reversibly store charges through surface redox reactions with good cycle stability and coulombic efficiency. As a result, the DFTmore » calculations have provided physical insights into the observed electrochemical properties derived from the FBN.« less

  7. Photoconductivity of high voltage space insulating materials: Measurements with metal electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, H. T.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The electrical conductivities of high voltage insulating materials were measured in the dark and under various intensities of illumination. The materials investigated included FEP Teflon, Kapton-H, fused quartz, and parylene. Conductivities were determined as functions of temperature between 22 and 100 C and light intensity between 0 and 2.5 kW/m2. The thickness dependence of the conductivity was determined for Teflon and Kapton, and the influence of spectral wavelengths on the conductivity was determined in several cases. All measurements were made in a vacuum to simulate a space environment, and all samples had metallic electrodes. The conductivity of Kapton was permanently increased by exposure to light; changes as great as five orders of magnitude were observed after six hours of illumination.

  8. Characterisation of porous carbon electrode materials used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells via gas adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt-Smith, M. J.; Rigby, S. P.; Ralph, T. R.; Walsh, F. C.

    Porous carbon materials are typically used in both the substrate (typically carbon paper) and the electrocatalyst supports (often platinised carbon) within proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Gravimetric nitrogen adsorption has been studied at a carbon paper substrate, two different Pt-loaded carbon paper electrodes and three particulate carbon blacks. N 2 BET surface areas and surface fractal dimensions were determined using the fractal BET and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill models for all but one of the materials studied. The fractal dimensions of the carbon blacks obtained from gas adsorption were compared with those obtained independently by small angle X-ray scattering and showed good agreement. Density functional theory was used to characterise one of the carbon blacks, as the standard BET model was not applicable.

  9. Secondary Electron Emission from Dielectric Materials of a Hall Thruster with Segmented Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    A. Dunaevsky; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2003-02-12

    The discharge parameters in Hall thrusters depend strongly on the yield of secondary electron emission from channel walls. Comparative measurements of the yield of secondary electron emission at low energies of primary electrons were performed for several dielectric materials used in Hall thrusters with segmented electrodes. The measurements showed that at low energies of primary electrons the actual energetic dependencies of the total yield of secondary electron emission could differ from fits, which are usually used in theoretical models. The observed differences might be caused by electron backscattering, which is dominant at lower energies and depends strongly on surface properties. Fits based on power or linear laws are relevant at higher energies of primary electrons, where the bulk material properties play a decisive role.

  10. Calcium phosphates deposited on titanium electrode surface--part 1: Effect of the electrode polarity and oxide film on the deposited materials.

    PubMed

    Okawa, Seigo; Watanabe, Kouichi; Kanatani, Mitsugu

    2013-01-01

    We report experimental results about the effect of polarity of electrode and anodized titanium oxide film on the deposited materials by electrolysis of an acidic calcium phosphate solution. Mirror-polished titanium and anodized titanium were used as anode or cathode, and a Pt plate was used as a counter electrode. The load voltage was held constant at 20 VDC. No deposited materials were found on the anode surface. On the other hand, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) was deposited on the cathode surface at the beginning of the electrolysis. After the electrolysis time 600 s, the non-stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HAp) with several hundred nanometers was formed on the specimen surface. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, the anodized oxide film contained both P(5+) and P(3+) ions. This characteristic of the oxide film and the electrolysis conditions were related to the behavior of the deposition of ultra fine HAp with high crystallinity.

  11. The optimal distance between two electrode tips during recording of compound nerve action potentials in the rat median nerve.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongping; Lao, Jie; Zhao, Xin; Tian, Dong; Zhu, Yi; Wei, Xiaochun

    2014-01-15

    The distance between the two electrode tips can greatly influence the parameters used for recording compound nerve action potentials. To investigate the optimal parameters for these recordings in the rat median nerve, we dissociated the nerve using different methods and compound nerve action potentials were orthodromically or antidromically recorded with different electrode spacings. Compound nerve action potentials could be consistently recorded using a method in which the middle part of the median nerve was intact, with both ends dissociated from the surrounding fascia and a ground wire inserted into the muscle close to the intact part. When the distance between two stimulating electrode tips was increased, the threshold and supramaximal stimulating intensity of compound nerve action potentials were gradually decreased, but the amplitude was not changed significantly. When the distance between two recording electrode tips was increased, the amplitude was gradually increased, but the threshold and supramaximal stimulating intensity exhibited no significant change. Different distances between recording and stimulating sites did not produce significant effects on the aforementioned parameters. A distance of 5 mm between recording and stimulating electrodes and a distance of 10 mm between recording and stimulating sites were found to be optimal for compound nerve action potential recording in the rat median nerve. In addition, the orthodromic compound action potential, with a biphasic waveform that was more stable and displayed less interference (however also required a higher threshold and higher supramaximal stimulus), was found to be superior to the antidromic compound action potential.

  12. Development of Novel Metal Hydride-Carbon Nanomaterial Based Nanocomposites as Anode Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-30

    and pG-f-MWNT after the first cycle. These may be attributed to the lithium ion consumption during the electrolyte decomposition and formation of... solid electrolyte interface film around the electrodes with large surface areas.25 After the 30th and the 100th cycle SEG yielded a reversible discharge...anode electrode materials for Lithium ion battery Objectives:- The aim of this study is to develop metal hydride–carbon nanomaterial based

  13. Effects of pulsed potential on address electrode in a surface-discharge alternating-current plasma display panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jeong Chull; Shintani, Youichi; Tachibana, Kunihide; Sakai, Tetsuo; Kosugi, Naoki

    2003-06-01

    The influence of pulsed potential application onto the address electrode of an ac-type plasma display panel was investigated from the observation of front and side views of Xe atom densities in the metastable (1s5) and excited (2p) states in a unit discharge cell by using microscopic laser absorption spectroscopy and optical emission spectroscopy. It was seen that a predischarge occurs between the address electrode and one of the sustain electrode worked as a preceding anode, which is a similar effect found previously by applying a higher sustain voltage. The predischarge partially erases the surface charge accumulated in the preceding pulse, but it induces a faster main sustain discharge, bowing towards the address electrode, and enhances the production efficiency of Xe(1s5) atoms, if the applied potential is within an optimal range.

  14. Influence of carbon electrode material on energy recovery from winery wastewater using a dual-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Penteado, Eduardo D; Fernandez-Marchante, Carmen M; Zaiat, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Ernesto R; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2016-09-12

    The aim of this work was to evaluate three carbon materials as anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), clarifying their influence on the generation of electricity and on the treatability of winery wastewater, a highly organic-loaded waste. The electrode materials tested were carbon felt, carbon cloth and carbon paper and they were used at the same time as anode and cathode in the tests. The MFC equipped with carbon felt reached the highest voltage and power (72 mV and 420 mW m(-2), respectively), while the lowest values were observed when carbon paper was used as electrode (0.2 mV and 8.37·10(-6) mW m(-2), respectively). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from the wastewater was observed to depend on the electrode material, as well. When carbon felt was used, the MFC showed the highest average organic matter consumption rate (650 mg COD L(-1) d(-1)), whereas by using carbon paper the rate decreased to 270 mg COD L(-1) d(-1). Therefore, both electricity generation and organic matter removal are strongly related not to the chemical composition of the electrode (which was graphite carbon in the three electrodes), but to its surface features and, consequently, to the amount of biomass adhered to the electrode surface.

  15. Evaluation of the potential of various aquatic eco-systems in harnessing bioelectricity through benthic fuel cell: effect of electrode assembly and water characteristics.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Srikanth, S; Veer Raghuvulu, S; Mohanakrishna, G; Kiran Kumar, A; Sarma, P N

    2009-04-01

    Six different types of ecological water bodies were evaluated to assess their potential to generate bioelectricity using benthic type fuel cell assemblies. Experiments were designed with various combinations of electrode assemblies, surface area of anode and anodic materials. Among the 32 experiments conducted, nine combinations evidenced stable electron-discharge/current. Nature, flow conditions and characteristics of water bodies showed significant influence on the power generation apart from electrode assemblies, surface area of anode and anodic material. Stagnant water bodies showed comparatively higher power output than the running water bodies. Placement of cathode on algal mat (as bio-cathode) documented several folds increment in power output. Electron-discharge started at 1000 Omega resistance in polluted water bodies (Nacaharam cheruvu, Hussain Sagar lake Musi river), whereas, in relatively less polluted water bodies (Uppal pond/stream, Godavari river) electron-discharge was observed at low resistances (500/750 Omega).

  16. Application of infrared spectroscopy to monitoring gas insulated high-voltage equipment: electrode material-dependent SF(6) decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kurte, R; Beyer, C; Heise, H M; Klockow, D

    2002-08-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride is a chemically inert gas which is used in gas insulated substations (GIS) and other high-voltage equipment, leading to a significant enhancement of apparatus lifetime and reductions in installation size and maintenance requirements compared to conventional air insulated substations. However, component failures due to aging of the gas through electrical discharges may occur, and on-site monitoring for risk assessment is needed. Infrared spectroscopy was used for the analysis of gaseous by-products generated from electrical discharges in sulfur hexafluoride gas. An infrared monitoring system was developed using a micro-cell coupled to an FTIR spectrometer by silver halide fibers. Partial least-squares calibration was applied by using a limited number of optimally selected spectral variables. Emphasis was placed on the determination of main decomposition products, such as SOF(2), SOF(4), and SO(2)F(2). Besides the different electrical conditions, the material of the plane counter electrode of the discharge chamber was also varied between silver, aluminum, copper, tungsten, or tungsten/copper alloy. For the spark experiments the point electrode was the same material as chosen for the plane electrode, whereas for partial discharges a stainless steel needle was employed. Complementary investigations on the chemical composition within the solid counter electrode material by secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) were also carried out. Under sparking conditions, the electrode material plays an important role in the decomposition rates of the gas-phase, but no relevant material dependence could be observed under partial discharge conditions.

  17. Atomic-scale structure evolution in a quasi-equilibrated electrochemical process of electrode materials for rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Gu, Lin; Xiao, Dongdong; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2015-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have proven to be extremely attractive candidates for applications in portable electronics, electric vehicles, and smart grid in terms of energy density, power density, and service life. Further performance optimization to satisfy ever-increasing demands on energy storage of such applications is highly desired. In most of cases, the kinetics and stability of electrode materials are strongly correlated to the transport and storage behaviors of lithium ions in the lattice of the host. Therefore, information about structural evolution of electrode materials at an atomic scale is always helpful to explain the electrochemical performances of batteries at a macroscale. The annular-bright-field (ABF) imaging in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows simultaneous imaging of light and heavy elements, providing an unprecedented opportunity to probe the nearly equilibrated local structure of electrode materials after electrochemical cycling at atomic resolution. Recent progress toward unraveling the atomic-scale structure of selected electrode materials with different charge and/or discharge state to extend the current understanding of electrochemical reaction mechanism with the ABF and high angle annular dark field STEM imaging is presented here. Future research on the relationship between atomic-level structure evolution and microscopic reaction mechanisms of electrode materials for rechargeable batteries is envisaged.

  18. Lactose electroisomerization into lactulose: effect of the electrode material, active membrane surface area-to-electrode surface area ratio, and interelectrode-membrane distance.

    PubMed

    Aït-Aissa, Amara; Aïder, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study and develop an innovative, clean, and environmentally friendly process for lactulose synthesis by electroactivation of lactose. In this work, the electrode material (type 304 stainless steel, titanium, and copper), dimensionless interelectrode-membrane distance at the cathodic compartment (0.36, 0.68, and 1), and the membrane:electrode surface area ratio (0.23, 0.06, and 0.015) were considered to be the factors that could affect the kinetic conversion of lactose into lactulose. The reactions were conducted under an initial lactose concentration of 0.15mol/L at 10°C, Froude number (mixing speed) of 2.05×10(-2), and electric current intensity of 300mA for 30min. The highest lactulose formation yield of 32.50% (0.05mol/L) was obtained by using a copper electrode, interelectrode-membrane distance of 0.36, and membrane:electrode surface area ratio of 0.23. The 2-parameter Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models were used for the prediction of the lactose isomerization kinetics as well as the 3-parameter Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model. It was shown that the lactose isomerization kinetics into lactulose followed the Temkin and Langmuir-Freundlich models with coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.90 and a relative error of 1.42 to 1.56% and 4.27 to 4.37%, respectively.

  19. Subject combination and electrode selection in cooperative brain-computer interface based on event related potentials.

    PubMed

    Cecotti, Hubert; Rivet, Bertrand

    2014-04-30

    New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject's will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP) based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications.

  20. Simulation of Electric Potentials and Ion Motion in Planar Electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Garimella, Sandilya V. B; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Webb, Ian K.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Zhang, Xinyu; Prost, Spencer A.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-09-26

    Here we report a conceptual study and computational evaluation of novel planar electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM). Planar electrode SLIM devices were designed that allow for flexible ion confinement, transport and storage using a combination of RF and DC fields. Effective potentials can be generated that provide near ideal regions for confining ions in the presence of a gas. Ion trajectory simulations using SIMION 8.1 demonstrated the capability for lossless ion motion in these devices over a wide m/z range and a range of electric fields at low pressures (e.g. a few torr). More complex ion manipulations, e.g. turning ions by 90° and dynamically switching selected ion species into orthogonal channels, are also feasible. Lastly, the performance of SLIM devices at ~4 torr pressure for performing ion mobility based separations (IMS) is computationally evaluated and compared to initial experimental results, and both of which agree closely with experimental and theoretical IMS performance for a conventional drift tube design.

  1. Simulation of Electric Potentials and Ion Motion in Planar Electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM)

    PubMed Central

    Garimella, Sandilya V.B.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Webb, Ian K.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Zhang, Xinyu; Prost, Spencer A.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    We report a conceptual study and computational evaluation of novel planar electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM). Planar electrode SLIM devices were designed that allow for flexible ion confinement, transport and storage using a combination of RF and DC fields. Effective potentials can be generated that provide near ideal regions for confining and manipulating ions in the presence of a gas. Ion trajectory simulations using SIMION 8.1 demonstrated the capability for lossless ion motion in these devices over a wide m/z range and a range of electric fields at low pressures (e.g. a few torr). More complex ion manipulations, e.g. turning ions by 90° and dynamically switching selected ion species into orthogonal channels, are also shown feasible. The performance of SLIM devices at ~4 torr pressure for performing ion mobility based separations (IMS) is computationally evaluated and compared to initial experimental results, and both of which are also shown to agree closely with experimental and theoretical IMS performance for a conventional drift tube design. PMID:25257188

  2. Simulation of Electric Potentials and Ion Motion in Planar Electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM)

    DOE PAGES

    Garimella, Sandilya V. B; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Webb, Ian K.; ...

    2014-09-26

    Here we report a conceptual study and computational evaluation of novel planar electrode Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM). Planar electrode SLIM devices were designed that allow for flexible ion confinement, transport and storage using a combination of RF and DC fields. Effective potentials can be generated that provide near ideal regions for confining ions in the presence of a gas. Ion trajectory simulations using SIMION 8.1 demonstrated the capability for lossless ion motion in these devices over a wide m/z range and a range of electric fields at low pressures (e.g. a few torr). More complex ion manipulations, e.g.more » turning ions by 90° and dynamically switching selected ion species into orthogonal channels, are also feasible. Lastly, the performance of SLIM devices at ~4 torr pressure for performing ion mobility based separations (IMS) is computationally evaluated and compared to initial experimental results, and both of which agree closely with experimental and theoretical IMS performance for a conventional drift tube design.« less

  3. Analytic potential in a linear radio-frequency quadrupole trap with cylindrical electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melbourne, R. K.; Prestage, J. D.; Maleki, L.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical expression is derived for a radio-frequency ion trap of novel configuration consisting of a four-sectored hollow cylinder enclosed between two end caps. The cylindrical geometry of the sectored trap provides shielding against the buildup of charge and also makes it possible to calculate the potential within the trap by solving Laplace's equation for given boundary conditions. Equations are presented for calculating the time-averaged potential generated by the RF fields, the end-cap potential, and the potential arising from the application of a dc bias on two of the four electrode sectors. It is shown that, near the ends of this trap, the effective potential arising from the RF fields acts to propel ions out of the trap and that the addition of a dc bias on two neighboring sectors generates an inhomogeneous field in the trap which produces a force on the ions along the trap's long axis in a direction dependent on the sign of the bias.

  4. Supercapacitor electrode materials with hierarchically structured pores from carbonization of MWCNTs and ZIF-8 composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueqin; Hao, Changlong; Tang, Bochong; Wang, Yue; Liu, Mei; Wang, Yuanwei; Zhu, Yihua; Lu, Chenguang; Tang, Zhiyong

    2017-02-09

    Due to their high specific surface area and good electric conductivity, nitrogen-doped porous carbons (NPCs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention for electrochemical energy storage applications. In the present work, we firstly prepared MWCNT/ZIF-8 composites by decoration of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF-8) onto the surface of multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), then obtained MWCNT/NPCs by the direct carbonization of MWCNT/ZIF-8. By controlling the reaction conditions, MWCNT/ZIF-8 with three different particle sizes were synthesized. The effect of NPCs size on capacitance performance has been evaluated in detail. The MWCNT/NPC with large-sized NPC (MWCNT/NPC-L) displayed the highest specific capacitance of 293.4 F g(-1) at the scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) and only lost 4.2% of capacitance after 10 000 cyclic voltammetry cycles, which was attributed to the hierarchically structured pores, N-doping and high electrical conductivity. The studies of symmetric two-electrode supercapacitor cells also confirmed MWCNT/NPC-L as efficient electrode materials that have good electrochemical performance, especially for high-rate applications.

  5. Biochar as a sustainable electrode material for electricity production in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Tyler; Wang, Heming; Kearns, Joshua; Jenkins, Peter; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-04-01

    Wood-based biochars were used as microbial fuel cell electrodes to significantly reduce cost and carbon footprint. The biochar was made using forestry residue (BCc) and compressed milling residue (BCp). Side-by-side comparison show the specific area of BCp (469.9m(2)g(-1)) and BCc (428.6cm(2)g(-1)) is lower than granular activated carbon (GAC) (1247.8m(2)g(-1)) but higher than graphite granule (GG) (0.44m(2)g(-1)). Both biochars showed power outputs of 532±18mWm(-2) (BCp) and 457±20mWm(-2) (BCc), comparable with GAC (674±10mWm(-2)) and GG (566±5mWm(-2)). However, lower material expenses made their power output cost 17-35US$W(-1), 90% cheaper than GAC (402US$W(-1)) or GG (392US$W(-1)). Biochar from waste also reduced the energy and carbon footprint associated with electrode manufacturing and the disposal of which could have additional agronomic benefits.

  6. Quantifying Bulk Electrode Strain and Material Displacement within Lithium Batteries via High‐Speed Operando Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Finegan, Donal P.; Tudisco, Erika; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O.; Eastwood, David S.; Lee, Peter D.; Di Michiel, Marco; Bay, Brian; Hall, Stephen A.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the dynamic morphology of active materials during operation of lithium batteries is essential for identifying causes of performance loss. Digital volume correlation (DVC) is applied to high‐speed operando synchrotron X‐ray computed tomography of a commercial Li/MnO2 primary battery during discharge. Real‐time electrode material displacement is captured in 3D allowing degradation mechanisms such as delamination of the electrode from the current collector and electrode crack formation to be identified. Continuum DVC of consecutive images during discharge is used to quantify local displacements and strains in 3D throughout discharge, facilitating tracking of the progression of swelling due to lithiation within the electrode material in a commercial, spiral‐wound battery during normal operation. Displacement of the rigid current collector and cell materials contribute to severe electrode detachment and crack formation during discharge, which is monitored by a separate DVC approach. Use of time‐lapse X‐ray computed tomography coupled with DVC is thus demonstrated as an effective diagnostic technique to identify causes of performance loss within commercial lithium batteries; this novel approach is expected to guide the development of more effective commercial cell designs. PMID:27610334

  7. A novel high capacity positive electrode material with tunnel-type structure for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yuesheng; Mu, Linqin; Liu, Jue; ...

    2015-08-06

    In this study, aqueous sodium-ion batteries have shown desired properties of high safety characteristics and low-cost for large-scale energy storage applications such as smart grid, because of the abundant sodium resources as well as the inherently safer aqueous electrolytes. Among various Na insertion electrode materials, tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 has been widely investigated as a positive electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. However, the low achievable capacity hinders its practical applications. Here we report a novel sodium rich tunnel-type positive material with a nominal composition of Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2. The tunnel-type structure of Na0.44MnO2 obtained for this compound was confirmed by XRD and atomic-scale STEM/EELS.more » When cycled as positive electrode in full cells using NaTi2(PO4)3/C as negative electrode in 1M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, this material shows the highest capacity of 76 mAh g-1 among the Na insertion oxides with an average operating voltage of 1.2 V at a current rate of 2C. These results demonstrate that Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2 is a promising positive electrode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  8. Rapid synthesis of monodispersed highly porous spinel nickel cobaltite (NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}) electrode material for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Naveen, A. Nirmalesh Selladurai, S.

    2015-06-24

    Monodispersed highly porous spinel nickel cobaltite electrode material was successfully synthesized in a short time using combustion technique. Single phase cubic nature of the spinel nickel cobaltite with average crystallite size of 24 nm was determined from X-ray diffraction study. Functional groups present in the compound were determined from FTIR study and it further confirms the spinel formation. FESEM images reveal the porous nature of the prepared material and uniform size distribution of the particles. Electrochemical evaluation was performed using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) technique, Chronopotentiometry (CP) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Results reveal the typical pseudocapacitive behaviour of the material. Maximum capacitance of 754 F/g was calculated at the scan rate of 5 mV/s, high capacitance was due to the unique porous morphology of the electrode. Nyquist plot depicts the low resistance and good electrical conductivity of nickel cobaltite. It has been found that nickel cobaltite prepared by this typical method will be a potential electrode material for supercapcitor application.

  9. A MoO2 sheet as a promising electrode material: ultrafast Li-diffusion and astonishing Li-storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yungang; Geng, Cheng

    2017-03-01

    The potential of MoO2 crystal as an electrode material is reported, and nanostructural MoO2 systems, including nanoparticles, nanospheres, nanobelts and nanowires, were synthesized and proved to be advanced electrode materials. A two-dimensional (2D) geometric structure represents an extreme of surface-to-volume ratio, and thus is more suitable as an electrode material in general. Stimulated by the recent fabrication of 2D MoO2, we adopted an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and density functional theory calculation to study the stability and electrochemical properties of a MoO2 sheet. Identified by a phonon dispersion curve and potential energy curve calculations, the MoO2 sheet proved to be dynamically and thermally stable. After lithiation, similar to most promising 2D structures, we found that a Li atom can strongly adsorb on a MoO2 sheet, and the lithiated MoO2 sheet presented excellent metallic properties. Note that, compared with most promising 2D structures, we unexpectedly revealed that the diffusion barrier of the Li atom on the MoO2 sheet was much lower and the storage capacity of the MoO2 sheet was much larger. The calculated energy barrier for the diffusion of Li on the MoO2 sheet was only 75 meV, and, due to multilayer adsorption, the theoretical capacity of the MoO2 sheet can reach up to 2513 mA h g‑1. Benefiting from general properties, such as strong Li-binding and excellent conductivity, and unique phenomena, such as ultrafast diffusion capacity and astonishing storage capacity, we highlight a new promising electrode material for the Li-ion battery.

  10. Electrodes for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Niederhauser, Thomas; Haeberlin, Andreas; Marisa, Thanks; Jungo, Michael; Goette, Josef; Jacomet, Marcel; Abacherli, Roger; Vogel, Rolf

    2013-09-01

    The emerging application of long-term and high-quality ECG recording requires alternative electrodes to improve the signal quality and recording capability of surface skin electrodes. The esophageal ECG has the potential to overcome these limitations but necessitates novel recorder and lead designs. The electrode material is of particular interest, since the material has to ensure conflicting requirements like excellent biopotential recording properties and inertness. To this end, novel electrode materials like PEDOT and silver-PDMS as well as established electrode materials such as stainless steel, platinum, gold, iridium oxide, titanium nitride, and glassy carbon were investigated by long-term electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and model-based signal analysis using the derived in vitro interfacial properties in conjunction with a dedicated ECG amplifier. The results of this novel approach show that titanium nitride and iridium oxide featuring microstructured surfaces did not degrade when exposed to artificial acidic saliva. These materials provide low electrode potential drifts and insignificant signal distortion superior to surface skin electrodes making them compatible with accepted standards for ambulatory ECG. They are superior to the noble and polarizable metals such as platinum, silver, and gold that induced more signal distortions and are superior to esophageal stainless steel electrodes that corrode in artificial saliva. The study provides rigorous criteria for the selection of electrode materials for prolonged ECG recording by combining long-term in vitro electrode material properties with ECG signal quality assessment.

  11. Conformal coating of thin polymer electrolyte layer on nanostructured electrode materials for three-dimensional battery applications.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Sanketh R; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Shaijumon, Manikoth M; Zhan, Xiaobo; Ci, Lijie; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2011-01-12

    Various three-dimensional (3D) battery architectures have been proposed to address effective power delivery in micro/nanoscale devices and for increasing the stored energy per electrode footprint area. One step toward obtaining 3D configurations in batteries is the formation of core-shell nanowires that combines electrode and electrolyte materials. One of the major challenges however in creating such architectures has been the coating of conformal thin nanolayers of polymer electrolytes around nanostructured electrodes. Here we show conformal coatings of 25-30 nm poly(methyl methacralate) electrolyte layers around individual Ni-Sn nanowires used as anodes for Li ion battery. This configuration shows high discharge capacity and excellent capacity retention even at high rates over extended cycling, allowing for scalable increase in areal capacity with electrode thickness. Our results demonstrate conformal nanoscale anode-electrolyte architectures for an efficient Li ion battery system.

  12. Disulfide-Bridged (Mo3S11) Cluster Polymer: Molecular Dynamics and Application as Electrode Material for a Rechargeable Magnesium Battery.

    PubMed

    Truong, Quang Duc; Kempaiah Devaraju, Murukanahally; Nguyen, Duc N; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Nayuki, Keiichiro; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Tran, Phong D; Honma, Itaru

    2016-09-14

    Exploring novel electrode materials is critical for the development of a next-generation rechargeable magnesium battery with high volumetric capacity. Here, we showed that a distinct amorphous molybdenum sulfide, being a coordination polymer of disulfide-bridged (Mo3S11) clusters, has great potential as a rechargeable magnesium battery cathode. This material provided good reversible capacity, attributed to its unique structure with high flexibility and capability of deformation upon Mg insertion. Free-terminal disulfide moiety may act as the active site for reversible insertion and extraction of magnesium.

  13. Hollow graphitic nanocapsules as efficient electrode materials for sensitive hydrogen peroxide detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Na; Ding, Ding; Song, Zhi-Ling; Bian, Xia; Nie, Xiang-Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Chen, Zhuo; Tan, Weihong

    2014-02-15

    Carbon nanomaterials are typically used in electrochemical biosensing applications for their unique properties. We report a hollow graphitic nanocapsule (HGN) utilized as an efficient electrode material for sensitive hydrogen peroxide detection. Methylene blue (MB) molecules could be efficiently adsorbed on the HGN surfaces, and this adsorption capability remained very stable under different pH regimes. HGNs were used as three-dimensional matrices for coimmobilization of MB electron mediators and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to build an HGN-HRP-MB reagentless amperometric sensing platform to detect hydrogen peroxide. This simple HGN-HRP-MB complex demonstrated very sensitive and selective hydrogen peroxide detection capability, as well as high reproducibility and stability. The HGNs could also be utilized as matrices for immobilization of other enzymes, proteins or small molecules and for different biomedical applications.

  14. Preliminary result on the enhancement of Ufer electrodes using recycle additives materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, Muhammad Haziq Aniq Bin; Ahmad, Hussein Bin

    2016-11-01

    Ground building pillars is to be used as ground rod. The pillars are design, fabricated, and formulated with new ground fillers. The additives will be used from recycle waste materials mainly from the palm oil plant process. Micro scale building pillars will be fabricated and install in the test ground at all of the location. Earth tester meter are used to measure and collect the data of the soil resistivity when the research is conducted. In collecting these data, 3-terminal methods are used to carry the measurements. This experiment will be conducted for 30 weeks and regular measurements at the test ground copper grids will be conducted to measure the ground electrode resistance. The study will mainly base on IEC 62503-3. The used of reinforcing rods and mixture of recycle additives could produce a better grounding system that are suitable and can be used in all kind of soil condition and large industries.

  15. Response of a doublet to a nearby dc electrode of uniform potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Christopher L.; Nuthalapati, Sri Harsha

    2016-10-01

    The electric-field-assisted directed assembly of spherical colloidal particles near an electrode has been studied for nearly three decades. Recently, focus has shifted to the electric-field-assisted assembly and propulsion of nonspherical (i.e., anisotropic) particles. This paper describes calculations and results for a doublet of asymmetric ζ potential and size responding to a dc electric field. The doublet experienced a net vertical force that depended on both the asymmetry in ζ potential and lobe size. In addition, the doublet experienced a net lateral force perpendicular to the applied electric field. The lateral force depended on the difference in ζ potential of the two lobes, the lobe size asymmetry, and also the angle of inclination of the doublet. The net force was used to predict an apparent lateral velocity, which was found to be perpendicular to the applied electric field. In addition, the particle experienced rotation from a net torque that depended on the lobe size asymmetry and also the angle of inclination of the doublet. The magnitude of the predicted velocity was of the same order of magnitude as has been observed for particles responding to ac electric fields in experiments. These results demonstrate that lobe ζ potential, lobe size, and orientation of a colloidal doublet can be tuned to achieve propulsion.

  16. In situ surface potential evolution along Au/Gd:CeO2 electrode interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiaxin; Wang, Jiaying; Mebane, David S.; Nonnenmann, Stephen S.

    2017-04-01

    We present an investigation of electroactive Au/gadolinium doped ceria electrode interfaces under CO2/CO co-electrolysis environments using a combination of in situ high temperature scanning surface potential microscopy (HT-SSPM) and modified Poisson-Cahn (PC) models. Here charged surface adsorbate-oxygen vacancy interactions manifested in HT-SSPM potential profiles as small perturbations of opposite sign in reference to the applied biases. The positive deviation of surface potential on Au from applied cathodic biases is attributed to the work function difference between gold (ϕAu ˜ 5.31 eV) and graphitic carbon deposits (ϕC ˜ 5.0 eV) formed through CO disproportionation. The negative potential deviation from the applied anodic bias is attributed to negatively charged carboxylates. Results of the PC model confirmed the affinity of oxygen vacancies for the surface, thus supporting in situ experimental evidence of surface vacancy accumulation/depletion processes induced by cathodic/anodic biases.

  17. Processing of famous faces and medial temporal lobe event-related potentials: a depth electrode study.

    PubMed

    Dietl, T; Trautner, P; Staedtgen, M; Vannucci, M; Vannuchi, M; Mecklinger, A; Grunwald, T; Clusmann, H; Elger, C E; Kurthen, M

    2005-04-01

    The present study aims at analyzing the modulation of two types of event-related potentials originating from the human medial temporal lobe, the rhinal AMTL-N400 and the hippocampal P600 by the processing of famous faces. Therefore, we used a face recognition paradigm in which subjects had to discriminate the faces of famous persons from the faces of non-famous persons. Eleven patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy undergoing intrahippocampal depth electrode recording for presurgical evaluation participated in this study. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a sequence of famous and non-famous faces was presented to the patients. The presentation of each face was repeated. The faces evoked N400-like potentials (anterior medial temporal lobe N400, AMTL-N400) in the rhinal cortex and P600-like potentials in the hippocampus. ERPs elicited by famous faces were contrasted with ERPs elicited by non-famous faces. The first presentation of famous faces elicited an enhanced AMTL-N400 and an enhanced hippocampal P600 in comparison to the second presentations of the famous faces or the (first and second presentation of the) non-famous faces. This findings are discussed in terms of associative semantic memory processes and the retrieval of person-specific information from long-term memory stores triggered by the processing of famous faces.

  18. Calcium manganite as oxygen electrode materials for reversible solid oxide fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Ni, Chengsheng; Irvine, John T S

    2015-01-01

    For an efficient high-temperature reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC), the oxygen electrode should be highly active for the conversion between oxygen anions and oxygen gas. CaMnO(3-δ) (CM) is a perovskite that can be readily reduced with the formation of Mn(3+) giving rise to oxygen defective phases. CM is examined here as the oxygen electrode for a RSOFC. CaMn(0.9)Nb(0.1)O(3-δ) (CMN) with Nb doping shows superior electric conductivity (125 S cm(-1) at 700 °C) compared with CM (1-5 S cm(-1) at 700 °C) in air which is also examined for comparison. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that CM and CMN are compatible with the widely used yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte up to 950 °C. Both materials show a thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) close to 10.8-10.9 ppm K(-1) in the temperature range between 100-750 °C, compatible with that of YSZ. Polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectra for both fuel cell and steam electrolysis modes were investigated at 700 °C, showing that CM presented a polarization resistance of 0.059 Ω cm(2) under a cathodic bias of -0.4 V while CMN gave a polarization resistance of 0.081 Ω cm(2) under an anodic bias of 0.4 V. The phase stability up to 900 °C of these materials was investigated with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and variable temperature XRD.

  19. Few-layer MoS2-anchored graphene aerogel paper for free-standing electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wee Siang Vincent; Peng, Erwin; Loh, Tamie Ai Jia; Huang, Xiaolei; Xue, Jun Min

    2016-04-01

    To reduce the reliance on polymeric binders, conductive additives, and metallic current collectors during the electrode preparation process, as well as to assess the true performance of lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes, a free-standing electrode has to be meticulously designed. Graphene aerogel is a popular scaffolding material that has been widely used with embedded nanoparticles for application in LIB anodes. However, the current graphene aerogel/nanoparticle composite systems still involve decomposition into powder and the addition of additives during electrode preparation because of the thick aerogel structure. To further enhance the capacity of the system, MoS2 was anchored onto a graphene aerogel paper and the composite was used directly as an LIB anode. The resultant additive-free MoS2/graphene aerogel paper composite exhibited long cyclic performance with 101.1% retention after 700 cycles, which demonstrates the importance of free-standing electrodes in enhancing cyclic stability.To reduce the reliance on polymeric binders, conductive additives, and metallic current collectors during the electrode preparation process, as well as to assess the true performance of lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes, a free-standing electrode has to be meticulously designed. Graphene aerogel is a popular scaffolding material that has been widely used with embedded nanoparticles for application in LIB anodes. However, the current graphene aerogel/nanoparticle composite systems still involve decomposition into powder and the addition of additives during electrode preparation because of the thick aerogel structure. To further enhance the capacity of the system, MoS2 was anchored onto a graphene aerogel paper and the composite was used directly as an LIB anode. The resultant additive-free MoS2/graphene aerogel paper composite exhibited long cyclic performance with 101.1% retention after 700 cycles, which demonstrates the importance of free-standing electrodes in enhancing cyclic

  20. In vivo potentiostatic studies at the electrode tissue interface: filter properties of the monophasic action potential (Ag/AgCl) electrode in living rat heart.

    PubMed

    Chou, H A; Ovadia, M; Moskowitz, M; Zavitz, D H

    2000-03-01

    The monophasic action potential (Franz) catheter is regarded as the criterion standard for high fidelity recording of a class of physiological signals. However, its signal modulation characteristics have never been reported. Broadband impedance spectroscopy was performed in perfused living rat heart in a three-electrode potentiostatic configuration to determine the filtering characteristics of the MAP and model Ag/AgCl electrode-tissue interfaces. The filter transfer function H(f) (attenuation [dB] vs log(f) [log(Hz)]) was derived for the frequency range 10 Hz-10(6) Hz. As a filter, the MAP interface is characterized by two ranges of filtering behavior. At high frequency the MAP interface is a high-pass filter with passband frequency 54 kHz-549 kHz (median 321 kHz) and with -3 dB cutoff points ranging from 10 kHz to 302 kHz. In this high frequency range the transfer function is characterized by decreasing attenuation per decade. However, in the lower frequency range relevant to physiological signals (the monophasic action potential, 0.1-40 Hz), it is a severely attenuating nondiodic high-pass filter element with an average attenuation of 16.87 dB relative to passband. In this physiological range, rolloff is nonlinear with increasing attenuation per decade. While the MAP electrode and model Ag/AgCl electrodes are high-pass filters with robust transfer functions for high frequency signals in the living heart, the attenuation of signals in a frequency range relevant to in vivo physiological recording imparts extreme attenuation that may distort physiological signals unpredictably. This disadvantage may be mitigated by amplitude scaling to a calibrated pure tone signal within the physiological frequency band to recover a reproducible signal.

  1. Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide as electrode material for high rate supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śliwak, Agata; Grzyb, Bartosz; Díez, Noel; Gryglewicz, Grażyna

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxides (N-rGOs) have been synthesized at various temperatures by a facile hydrothermal route involving the doping of an aqueous graphene oxide dispersion with amitrole. The N-rGOs had a nitrogen content ranging from 10.9 to 13.4 at%, which is among the highest reported for this type of material. The predominant nitrogen species were pyridinic followed by amide/amine, pyrrolic, and quaternary nitrogen. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy measurements performed on the N-doped and nitrogen-free samples revealed that nitrogen fixation provided the material with pseudocapacitive behaviour and improved ion diffusion and charge propagation. A high specific capacitance of 244 F g-1 was obtained at a high scan rate of 100 mV s-1 for the N-rGO with the highest nitrogen content. An outstanding rate capability for the N-rGO, with increasing scan rates, of 98% was obtained, while only 70% was obtained for the non-doped rGO. 92% of the initial capacitance was maintained over 5000 charge/discharge cycles due to the high stability of the electrochemically active nitrogen moieties. Hydrothermal synthesis using amitrole as a nitrogen dopant represents a simple route for the synthesis of graphene with very high nitrogen content and exceptional behaviour for use as electrode material in high-power supercapacitors.

  2. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of composite electrode from activated carbon/conductive materials/ruthenium oxide for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Taer, E.; Awitdrus,; Farma, R.; Deraman, M. Talib, I. A.; Ishak, M. M.; Omar, R.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Basri, N. H.; Othman, M. A. R.; Kanwal, S.

    2015-04-16

    Activated carbon powders (ACP) were produced from the KOH treated pre-carbonized rubber wood sawdust. Different conductive materials (graphite, carbon black and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) were added with a binder (polivinylidene fluoride (PVDF)) into ACP to improve the supercapacitive performance of the activated carbon (AC) electrodes. Symmetric supercapacitor cells, fabricated using these AC electrodes and 1 molar H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, were analyzed using a standard electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The addition of graphite, carbon black and CNTs was found effective in reducing the cell resistance from 165 to 68, 23 and 49 Ohm respectively, and increasing the specific capacitance of the AC electrodes from 3 to 7, 17, 32 F g{sup −1} respectively. Since the addition of CNTs can produce the highest specific capacitance, CNTs were chosen as a conductive material to produce AC composite electrodes that were added with 2.5 %, 5 % and 10 % (by weight) electro-active material namely ruthenium oxide; PVDF binder and CNTs contents were kept at 5 % by weight in each AC composite produced. The highest specific capacitance of the cells obtained in this study was 86 F g{sup −1}, i.e. for the cell with the resistance of 15 Ohm and composite electrode consists of 5 % ruthenium oxide.

  3. Evaluation of Niobium as Candidate Electrode Material for DC High Voltage Photoelectron Guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    BastaniNejad, M.; Mohamed, Abdullah; Elmustafa, A. A.; Adderley, P.; Clark, J.; Covert, S.; Hansknecht, J.; Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M.; Mammei, R.; Surles-Law, K.; Williams, P.

    2012-01-01

    The field emission characteristics of niobium electrodes were compared to those of stainless steel electrodes using a DC high voltage field emission test apparatus. A total of eight electrodes were evaluated: two 304 stainless steel electrodes polished to mirror-like finish with diamond grit and six niobium electrodes (two single-crystal, two large-grain, and two fine-grain) that were chemically polished using a buffered-chemical acid solution. Upon the first application of high voltage, the best large-grain and single-crystal niobium electrodes performed better than the best stainless steel electrodes, exhibiting less field emission at comparable voltage and field strength. In all cases, field emission from electrodes (stainless steel and/or niobium) could be significantly reduced and sometimes completely eliminated, by introducing krypton gas into the vacuum chamber while the electrode was biased at high voltage. Of all the electrodes tested, a large-grain niobium electrode performed the best, exhibiting no measurable field emission (< 10 pA) at 225 kV with 20 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a field strength of 18:7 MV/m.

  4. A facile synthesis of graphene foam as electrode material for supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaprakash, S.; Sivaprakash, Prabhavathy

    2016-07-01

    We report here a versatile fabrication approach of graphene foam (GF) with three dimensional (3D) porous conductive networks which reveal great potential for application in energy storage devices. This facile fabrication technique is believed to be favorable for supercapacitor application as the 3D-GF comprises conductive continuous porous networks with large active surface area. Supercapacitors utilize this high surface area electrode to attain improved capacitance. The resulting graphene foam exhibited satisfactory double layer capacitive behavior with improved electrochemical performance having good electrochemical cycling stability and high specific capacitance of 310 F g-1 at current density of 5 A g-1 and 160 F g-1 at current density of 20 A g-1.

  5. Laboratory-scale testing of non-consumable anode materials: Inert Electrodes Program

    SciTech Connect

    Marschman, S.C.

    1989-03-01

    Development of inert anode materials for use in the electrolytic production of aluminum is one of the major goals of the Inert Electrodes Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Programs, at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objectives of the Materials Development and Testing Task include the selection, fabrication, and evaluation of candidate non-consumable anode materials. Research performed in FY 1987 focused primarily on the development and evaluation of cermets that are based on the two-phase oxide system NiO/endash/NiFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and contain a third, electrically conductive metal phase composed primarily of copper and nickel. The efforts of this task were focused on three areas: materials fabrication, small-scale materials testing, and laboratory-scale testing. This report summarizes the development and testing results of the laboratory-scale testing effort during FY 1987. The laboratory-scale electrolysis testing effort was instrumental in partially determining electrolysis cell operating parameters. Although not optimized, NiO/endash/NiFe/sub 2/O/sub 4//endash/Cu-based cermets were successfully operated for 20 h in cryolite-based electrolytes ranging in bath ratios from 1.1 to 1.35, in electrolytes that contained 1.5 wt % LiF, and at conditions slightly less than Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ saturation. The operating conditions that lead to anode degradation have been partly identified, and rudimentary control methods have been developed to ensure proper operation of small electrolysis cells using nonconsumable anodes. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Impact of temperature and electrical potentials on the stability and structure of collagen adsorbed on the gold electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiners, Frank; Ahlers, Michael; Brand, Izabella; Wittstock, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    The morphology and structure of collagen type I adsorbed on gold electrodes were studied as a function of electrode potential and temperature by means of capacitance measurements, polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy and scanning force microscopy at temperatures of 37 °C, 43 °C and 50 °C. The selected temperatures corresponded to the normal body temperature, temperature of denaturation of collagen molecules and denaturation of collagen fibrils, respectively. Independently of the solution temperature, collagen was adsorbed on gold electrodes in the potential range - 0.7 V < E < 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl, where the protein film was very stable. Fragments of collagen molecules made a direct contact to the gold surface and water was present in the film. Protein molecules were oriented preferentially with their long axis towards the gold surface. Collagen molecules in the adsorbed state preserved their native triple helical structure even at temperatures corresponding to collagen denaturation in aqueous solutions. Application of E < - 0.75 V vs. Ag/AgCl leads to the swelling of the protein film by water and desorption from the electrode surface. IR spectra provided no evidence of the thermal denaturation of adsorbed collagen molecules. A temperature increase to 50 °C leads to a distortion of the collagen film. The processes of aggregation and fibrilization were preferred over thermal denaturation for collagen adsorbed on the electrode surface and exposed to changing potentials.

  7. Switching and memory characteristics of thin films of an ambipolar organic compound: effects of device processing and electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myung-Won; Pearson, Christopher; Moon, Tae Jung; Fisher, Alison L.; Petty, Michael C.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the effects of device processing conditions, and of changing the electrode materials, on the switching and negative differential resistance (NDR) behaviour of metal/organic thin film/metal structures. The organic material was an ambipolar molecule containing both electron transporting (oxadiazole) and hole transporting (carbazole) chemical groups. Switching and NDR effects are observed for device architectures with both electrodes consisting of aluminium; optimized switching behaviour is achieved for structures incorporating gold nanoparticles. If one of the Al electrodes is replaced by a higher work function metal or coated with an electron-blocking layer, switching and NDR are no longer observed. The results are consistent with a model based on the creation and destruction of Al filaments within the thin organic layer.

  8. Development of Nano-structured Electrode Materials for High Performance Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhendong

    Systematic studies have been done to develop a low cost, environmental-friendly facile fabrication process for the preparation of high performance nanostructured electrode materials and to fully understand the influence factors on the electrochemical performance in the application of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) or supercapacitors. For LIBs, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) with a 1D porous structure has been developed as cathode material. The tube-like 1D structure consists of inter-linked, multi-facet nanoparticles of approximately 100-500nm in diameter. The microscopically porous structure originates from the honeycomb-shaped precursor foaming gel, which serves as self-template during the stepwise calcination process. The 1D NCM presents specific capacities of 153, 140, 130 and 118mAh·g-1 at current densities of 0.1C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C, respectively. Subsequently, a novel stepwise crystallization process consisting of a higher crystallization temperature and longer period for grain growth is employed to prepare single crystal NCM nanoparticles. The modified sol-gel process followed by optimized crystallization process results in significant improvements in chemical and physical characteristics of the NCM particles. They include a fully-developed single crystal NCM with uniform composition and a porous NCM architecture with a reduced degree of fusion and a large specific surface area. The NCM cathode material with these structural modifications in turn presents significantly enhanced specific capacities of 173.9, 166.9, 158.3 and 142.3mAh·g -1 at 0.1C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C, respectively. Carbon nanotube (CNT) is used to improve the relative low power capability and poor cyclic stability of NCM caused by its poor electrical conductivity. The NCM/CNT nanocomposites cathodes are prepared through simply mixing of the two component materials followed by a thermal treatment. The CNTs were functionalized to obtain uniformly-dispersed MWCNTs in the NCM matrix. The electrochemical

  9. Cerium oxide nanoparticles/multi-wall carbon nanotubes composites: Facile synthesis and electrochemical performances as supercapacitor electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Dongyang; Chen, Nan; Li, Yuxiu; Xing, Xinxin; Liu, Xu; Xiao, Xuechun; Wang, Yude

    2017-02-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method without any surfactant or template. The morphology and microstructure of samples are examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transition electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical properties of the MWCNTs, the pure CeO2, and the CeO2/MWCNTs nanocomposites electrodes are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge (GDC) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The CeO2/MWCNTs nanocomposite (at the mole ratio of 1:1) electrode exhibits much larger specific capacitance compared with both the MWCNTs electrode and the pure CeO2 electrode and significantly improves cycling stability compared to the pure CeO2 electrode. The CeO2/MWCNTs nanocomposite (at the mole ratio of 1:1) achieves a specific capacitance of 455.6 F g-1 at the current density of 1 A g-1. Therefore, the as prepared CeO2/MWCNTs nanocomposite is a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  10. One-step electrochemical synthesis of 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-napthalene-sulfonic acid functionalized graphene for green energy storage electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuila, Tapas; Khanra, Partha; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kuk Choi, Sung; Yun, Hyung Joong; Lee, Joong Hee

    2013-09-01

    A green approach for the one-step electrochemical synthesis of water dispersible graphene is reported. An alkaline solution of 6-amino-4-hydroxy-2-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (ANS) serves the role of electrolyte as well as surface modifier. High-purity graphite rods are used as electrodes which can be exfoliated under a constant electrical potential (˜20 V) to form ANS functionalized graphene (ANEG). The aqueous dispersion of ANEG obeyed Beer’s law at moderate concentrations, as evidenced from ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis suggests complete exfoliation of graphite into graphene. Fourier transform infrared and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy not only confirm the functionalization of graphene with ANS, but also suggest the formation of oxygen containing functional groups on the surface of ANEG. Raman spectra analysis indicates the presence of defects in ANEG as compared to pure graphite. Cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge measurements of ANEG using three electrode systems show a specific capacitance of 115 F g-1 at a current density of 4 A g-1. The ANEG electrode exhibits 93% retention in specific capacitance after 1000 charge-discharge cycles, confirming its utility as a green energy storage electrode material.

  11. Lithium potential variations for metastable materials: case study of nanocrystalline and amorphous LiFePO4.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changbao; Mu, Xiaoke; Popovic, Jelena; Weichert, Katja; van Aken, Peter A; Yu, Yan; Maier, Joachim

    2014-09-10

    Much attention has been paid to metastable materials in the lithium battery field, especially to nanocrystalline and amorphous materials. Nonetheless, fundamental issues such as lithium potential variations have not been pertinently addressed. Using LiFePO4 as a model system, we inspect such lithium potential variations for various lithium storage modes and evaluate them thermodynamically. The conclusions of this work are essential for an adequate understanding of the behavior of electrode materials and even helpful in the search for new energy materials.

  12. Synthesis of NiMnO3/C nano-composite electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakvand, Pejman; Safi Rahmanifar, Mohammad; El-Kady, Maher F.; Pendashteh, Afshin; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Hashami, Masumeh; Najafi, Mohsen; Abbasi, Ali; Mousavi, Mir F.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2016-08-01

    Demand for high-performance energy storage materials has motivated research activities to develop nano-engineered composites that benefit from both high-rate and high-capacitance materials. Herein, NiMnO3 (NMO) nanoparticles have been synthesized through a facile co-precipitation method. As-prepared NMO samples are then employed for the synthesis of nano-composites with graphite (Gr) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Various samples, including pure NMO, NMO-graphite blend, as well as NMO/Gr and NMO/RGO nano-composites have been electrochemically investigated as active materials in supercapacitors. The NMO/RGO sample exhibited a high specific capacitance of 285 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1, much higher than the other samples (237 F g-1 for NMO/Gr, 170 F g-1 for NMO-Gr and 70 F g-1 for NMO). Moreover, the NMO/RGO nano-composite has shown excellent cycle stability with a 93.5% capacitance retention over 1000 cycles at 2 A g-1 and still delivered around 87% of its initial capacitance after cycling for 4000 cycles. An NMO/RGO composite was assessed in practical applications by assembling NMO/RGO//NMO/RGO symmetric devices, exhibiting high specific energy (27.3 Wh kg-1), high specific power (7.5 kW kg-1), and good cycle stability over a broad working voltage of 1.5 V. All the obtained results demonstrate the promise of NMO/RGO nano-composite as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

  13. Synthesis of NiMnO3/C nano-composite electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors.

    PubMed

    Kakvand, Pejman; Rahmanifar, Mohammad Safi; El-Kady, Maher F; Pendashteh, Afshin; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Hashami, Masumeh; Najafi, Mohsen; Abbasi, Ali; Mousavi, Mir F; Kaner, Richard B

    2016-08-05

    Demand for high-performance energy storage materials has motivated research activities to develop nano-engineered composites that benefit from both high-rate and high-capacitance materials. Herein, NiMnO3 (NMO) nanoparticles have been synthesized through a facile co-precipitation method. As-prepared NMO samples are then employed for the synthesis of nano-composites with graphite (Gr) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Various samples, including pure NMO, NMO-graphite blend, as well as NMO/Gr and NMO/RGO nano-composites have been electrochemically investigated as active materials in supercapacitors. The NMO/RGO sample exhibited a high specific capacitance of 285 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), much higher than the other samples (237 F g(-1) for NMO/Gr, 170 F g(-1) for NMO-Gr and 70 F g(-1) for NMO). Moreover, the NMO/RGO nano-composite has shown excellent cycle stability with a 93.5% capacitance retention over 1000 cycles at 2 A g(-1) and still delivered around 87% of its initial capacitance after cycling for 4000 cycles. An NMO/RGO composite was assessed in practical applications by assembling NMO/RGO//NMO/RGO symmetric devices, exhibiting high specific energy (27.3 Wh kg(-1)), high specific power (7.5 kW kg(-1)), and good cycle stability over a broad working voltage of 1.5 V. All the obtained results demonstrate the promise of NMO/RGO nano-composite as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

  14. A low-power bio-potential acquisition system with flexible PDMS dry electrodes for portable ubiquitous healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yuan; Chang, Chia-Lin; Chang, Chih-Wei; Lai, Shin-Chi; Chien, Tsung-Fu; Huang, Hong-Yi; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Luo, Ching-Hsing

    2013-03-04

    This work describes a bio-potential acquisition system for portable ubiquitous healthcare applications using flexible polydimethylsiloxane dry electrodes (FPDEs) and a low-power recording circuit. This novel FPDE used Au as the skin contact layer, which was made using a CO2 laser and replica method technology. The FPDE was revised from a commercial bio-potential electrode with a conductive snap using dry electrodes rather than wet electrodes that proposed reliable and robust attachment for the purpose of measurement, and attaching velcro made it wearable on the forearm for bio-potential applications. Furthermore, this study proposes a recording device to store bio-potential signal data and provides portability and low-power consumption for the proposed acquisition system. To acquire differential bio-potentials, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, the proposed recording device includes a low-power front-end acquisition chip fabricated using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process, a commercial microcontroller (MSP430F149), and a secure digital (SD) card for portable healthcare applications. The proposed system can obtain ECG signals efficiently and are comfortable to the skin. The power consumption of the system is about 85 mW for continuous working over a 3 day period with two AA batteries. It can also be used as a compact Holter ECG system.

  15. Ultra-small vanadium nitride quantum dots embedded in porous carbon as high performance electrode materials for capacitive energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunlong; Zhao, Lei; Shen, Kuiwen; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiaoning; Wu, Yage; Wang, Yanqin; Ran, Fen

    2016-11-01

    Ultra-small vanadium nitride quantum dots embedded in porous carbon (VNQDs/PC) were fabricated by a thermal treatment process of NH4VO3/C3H6N6 under nitrogen atmosphere. The specific capacitance of VNQDs/PC was 1008 mF cm-2 at a current density of 0.004 A cm-2, whereas the VN/carbon hybrid material obtained by a solid-state blending of NH4VO3 and C3H6N6 just exhibited a capacitance of 432 mF cm-2 at the same current density. By mediating the ratio of NH4VO3 and C3H6N6, a maximum specific capacitance of 1124 mF cm-2 was achieved at a current density of 0.002 A cm-2 in aqueous 6 mol/L KOH electrolyte with the potential range from 0 to -1.15 V when it reached 1: 7 (wt./wt.). Additionally, symmetrical supercapacitor fabricated with synthesized VNQDs/PC presented a high specific capacitance of 215 mF cm-2 at 0.002 A cm-2 based on the entire cell, and exhibited a high capacitance retention of 86.6% with current density increased to 5 A g-1. The VNQDs/PC negative electrodes were combined with Ni(OH)2 positive electrodes for the fabrication of hybrid supercapacitors. Remarkably, at a power density of 828.7 W kg-1, the device delivered an ultrahigh energy density of 47.2 Wh kg-1.

  16. Ionic Liquid Directed Mesoporous Carbon Nanoflakes as an Effiencient Electrode material

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lirong; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors are considered to be the most promising approach to meet the pressing requirements for energy storage devices. The electrode materials for supercapacitors have close relationship with their electrochemical properties and thus become the key point to improve their energy storage efficiency. Herein, by using poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and ionic liquid as the dual templates, polyacrylonitrile as the carbon precursor, a flake-like carbon material was prepared by a direct carbonization method. In this method, poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) worked as the separator for the formation of isolated carbon flakes while aggregated ionic liquid worked as the pore template. The obtained carbon flakes exhibited a specific capacitance of 170 F/g at 0.1 A/g, a high energy density of 12.2 Wh/kg and a high power density of 5 kW/kg at the current of 10 A/g. It also maintained a high capacitance retention capability with almost no declination after 500 charge-discharge cycles. The ionic liquid directed method developed here also provided a new idea for the preparation of hierarchically porous carbon nanomaterials. PMID:26656464

  17. CuSbS2 as a negative electrode material for sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, C.; Block, T.; Pöttgen, R.; Villevieille, C.

    2017-02-01

    CuSbS2 was tested as a negative electrode material for sodium-ion batteries. The material synthesized by ball milling offers a specific charge of 730 mAh g-1, close to the theoretical value (751 mAh g-1), over a few cycles. The reaction mechanism was investigated by means of operando X-ray diffraction, 121Sb Mössbauer spectroscopy, and Cu K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These studies reveal a sodiation mechanism that involves an original conversion reaction in two steps, through the formation of a ternary phase, CuSb(1-x)S(2-y), as well as a NaxS alloy and Sb, followed by an alloying reaction involving the previously formed Sb. The desodiation process ends with the reformation of the ternary phase, CuSb(1-x‧)S(2-y‧), deficient in Sb and S; this phase is responsible for the good reversibility observed upon cycling.

  18. Hexagonal CeO2 nanostructures: an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Maheswari, Nallappan; Muralidharan, Gopalan

    2016-09-28

    Cerium oxide (CeO2) has emerged as a new and promising pseudocapacitive material due to its prominent valance states and extensive applications in various fields. In the present study, hexagonal CeO2 nanostructures have been prepared via the hydrothermal method employing cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). CTAB ensures a slow rate of hydrolysis to form small sized CeO2 nanostructures. The role of calcination temperature on the morphological, structural, electrochemical properties and cyclic stability has been assessed for supercapacitor applications. The mesoscopic hexagonal architecture endows the CeO2 with not only a higher specific capacity, but also with an excellent rate capability and cyclability. When the charge/discharge current density is increased from 2 to 10 A g(-1) the reversible charge capacity decreased from 927 F g(-1) to 475 F g(-1) while 100% capacity retention at a high current density of 20 A g(-1) even after 1500 cycles could be achieved. Furthermore, the asymmetric supercapacitor based on CeO2 exhibited a significantly higher energy density of 45.6 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 187.5 W kg(-1) with good cyclic stability. The electrochemical richness of the CeO2 nanostructure makes it a suitable electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  19. Kinetic modelling of molten carbonate fuel cells: Effects of cathode water and electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arato, E.; Audasso, E.; Barelli, L.; Bosio, B.; Discepoli, G.

    2016-10-01

    Through previous campaigns the authors developed a semi-empirical kinetic model to describe MCFC performance for industrial and laboratory simulation. Although effective in a wide range of operating conditions, the model was validated for specific electrode materials and dry feeding cathode compositions. The new aim is to prove that with appropriate improvements it is possible to apply the model to MCFC provided by different suppliers and to new sets of reactant gases. Specifically, this paper describes the procedures to modify the model to switch among different materials and identify a new parameter taking into account the effects of cathode water vapour. The new equation is integrated as the kinetic core within the SIMFC (SIMulation of Fuel Cells) code, an MCFC 3D model set up by the PERT group of the University of Genova, for reliability test. Validation is performed using data collected through tests carried out at the University of Perugia using single cells. The results are discussed giving examples of the simulated performance with varying operating conditions. The final formulation average percentage error obtained for all the simulated cases with respect to experimental results is maintained around 1%, despite the difference between the basic and the new conditions and facilities.

  20. Sodium titanate nanotubes as negative electrode materials for sodium-ion capacitors.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jiao; Qi, Li; Wang, Hongyu

    2012-05-01

    The lithium-based energy storage technology is currently being considered for electric automotive industry and even electric grid storage. However, the hungry demand for vast energy sources in the modern society will conflict with the shortage of lithium resources on the earth. The first alternative choice may be sodium-related materials. Herein, we propose an electric energy storage system (sodium-ion capacitor) based on porous carbon and sodium titanate nanotubes (Na-TNT, Na(+)-insertion compounds) as positive and negative electrode materials, respectively, in conjunction with Na(+)-containing non-aqueous electrolytes. As a low-voltage (0.1-2 V) sodium insertion nanomaterial, Na-TNT was synthesized via a simple hydrothermal reaction. Compared with bulk sodium titanate, the predominance of Na-TNT is the excellent rate performance, which exactly caters to the need for electrochemical capacitors. The sodium-ion capacitors exhibited desirable energy density and power density (34 Wh kg(-1), 889 W kg(-1)). Furthermore, the sodium-ion capacitors had long cycling life (1000 cycles) and high coulombic efficiency (≈ 98 % after the second cycle). More importantly, the conception of sodium-ion capacitor has been put forward.

  1. Novel Materials, Processing, and Device Technologies for Space Exploration with Potential Dual-Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Bailey, S. G.; McNatt, J. S.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Harris, J. D.; Rusch, A. W.; Nogales, K. A.; Goettsche, K. V.; Hanson, W.; Amos, D.; Vendra, V. K.; Woodbury, C.; Hari, P.; Roberts, K. P.; Jones, A. D., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    We highlight results of a broad spectrum of efforts on lower-temperature processing of nanomaterials, novel approaches to energy conversion, and environmentally rugged devices. Solution-processed quantum dots of copper indium chalcogenide semiconductors and multi-walled carbon nanotubes from lower-temperature spray pyrolysis are enabled by novel (precursor) chemistry. Metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured components of photovoltaic cells have been grown in solution at low temperature on a conductive indium tin oxide substrate. Arrays of ZnO nanorods can be templated and decorated with various semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles. Utilizing ZnO in a more broadly defined energy conversion sense as photocatalysts, unwanted organic waste materials can potentially be re-purposed. Current efforts on charge carrier dynamics in nanoscale electrode architectures used in photoelectrochemical cells for generating solar electricity and fuels are described. The objective is to develop oxide nanowire-based electrode architectures that exhibit improved charge separation, charge collection and allow for efficient light absorption. Investigation of the charge carrier transport and recombination properties of the electrodes will aid in the understanding of how nanowire architectures improve performance of electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanomaterials can be incorporated in a number of advanced higher-performance (i.e. mass specific power) photovoltaic arrays. Advanced technologies for the deposition of 4H-silicon carbide are described. The use of novel precursors, advanced processing, and process studies, including modeling are discussed from the perspective of enhancing the performance of this promising material for enabling technologies such as solar electric propulsion. Potential impact(s) of these technologies for a variety of aerospace applications are highlighted throughout. Finally, examples are given of technologies with potential spin-offs for dual

  2. Novel Materials, Processing and Device Technologies for Space Exploration with Potential Dual-Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, A. F.; Bailey, S. G.; McNatt, J. S.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Harris, J. D.; Rusch, A. W.; Nogales, K. A.; Goettsche, K.V.; Hanson, W.; Amos, D.; Vendra, M. K.; Woodbury, C.; Hari, P.; Roberts, K. P.; Jones, A. D., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    We highlight results of a broad spectrum of efforts on lower-temperature processing of nanomaterials, novel approaches to energy conversion, and environmentally rugged devices. Solution-processed quantum dots of copper indium chalcogenide semiconductors and multiwalled carbon nanotubes from lower-temperature spray pyrolysis are enabled by novel (precursor) chemistry. Metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured components of photovoltaic cells have been grown in solution at low temperature on a conductive indium tin oxide substrate. Arrays of ZnO nanorods can be templated and decorated with various semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles. Utilizing ZnO in a more broadly defined energy conversion sense as photocatalysts, unwanted organic waste materials can potentially be repurposed. Current efforts on charge carrier dynamics in nanoscale electrode architectures used in photoelectrochemical cells for generating solar electricity and fuels are described. The objective is to develop oxide nanowire-based electrode architectures that exhibit improved charge separation, charge collection and allow for efficient light absorption. Investigation of the charge carrier transport and recombination properties of the electrodes will aid in the understanding of how nanowire architectures improve performance of electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanomaterials can be incorporated in a number of advanced higher-performance (i.e. mass specific power) photovoltaic arrays. Advanced technologies for the deposition of 4H-silicon carbide are described. The use of novel precursors, advanced processing, and process studies, including modeling are discussed from the perspective of enhancing the performance of this promising material for enabling technologies such as solar electric propulsion. Potential impact(s) of these technologies for a variety of aerospace applications are highlighted throughout. Finally, examples are given of technologies with potential spin-offs for dual-use or

  3. Polyaniline silver nanoparticle coffee waste extracted porous graphene oxide nanocomposite structures as novel electrode material for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundriyal, Poonam; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2017-03-01

    The exploration of new and advanced electrode materials are required in electronic and electrical devices for power storage applications. Also, there has been a continuous endeavour to formulate strategies for extraction of high performance electrode materials from naturally obtained waste products. In this work, we have developed an in situ hybrid nanocomposite from coffee waste extracted porous graphene oxide (CEPG), polyaniline (PANI) and silver nanoparticles (Ag) and have found this novel composite to serve as an efficient electrode material for batteries. The successful interaction among the three phases of the nano-composite i.e. CEPG–PANI–Ag have been thoroughly understood through RAMAN, Fourier transform infrared and x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, morphological studies through field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of the nano-composite demonstrates higher thermal stability up-to a temperature of 495 °C. Further BET studies through nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms confirm the presence of micro/meso and macro-pores in the nanocomposite sample. The cyclic-voltammetry (CV) analysis performed on CEPG–PANI–Ag nanocomposite exhibits a purely faradic behaviour using nickel foam as a current collector thus suggests the prepared nanocomposite as a battery electrode material. The nanocomposite reports a maximum specific capacity of 1428 C g‑1 and excellent cyclic stability up-to 5000 cycles.

  4. Electrochemical sensing of membrane potential and enzyme function using gallium arsenide electrodes functionalized with supported membranes.

    PubMed

    Gassull, Daniel; Ulman, Abraham; Grunze, Michael; Tanaka, Motomu

    2008-05-08

    We deposit phospholipid monolayers on highly doped p-GaAs electrodes that are precoated with methyl-mercaptobiphenyl monolayers and operate such a biofunctional electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) setup as an analogue of a metal-oxide-semiconductor setup. Electrochemical impedance spectra measured over a wide frequency range demonstrate that the presence of a lipid monolayer remarkably slows down the diffusion of ions so that the membrane-functionalized GaAs can be subjected to electrochemical investigations for more than 3 days with no sign of degradation. The biofunctional EIS setup enables us to translate changes in the surface charge density Q and bias potentials Ubias into the change in the interface capacitance Cp. Since Cp is governed by the capacitance of semiconductor space charge region CSC, the linear relationships obtained for 1/Cp2 vs Q and 1/Cp2 vs Ubias suggests that Cp can be used to detect the surface charges with a high sensitivity (1 charge per 18 nm2). Furthermore, the kinetics of phospholipids degradation by phospholipase A2 can also be monitored by a significant decrease in diffusion coefficients through the membrane by a factor of 104. Thus, the operation of GaAs membrane composites established here allows for electrochemical sensing of surface potential and barrier capability of biological membranes in a quantitative manner.

  5. Facile electrosynthesis of nano flower like metal-organic framework and its nanocomposite with conjugated polymer as a novel and hybrid electrode material for highly capacitive pseudocapacitors.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Maryam; Fotouhi, Lida; Ehsani, Ali; Dehghanpour, Saeed

    2016-12-15

    The [Cu(btec)0.5DMF] (H4btec=1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate acid) was electrosynthesized on the graphite working electrode by applying catholic potential. The [Cu(btec)0.5DMF] grows on a graphite surface which results from the coordination of 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate anions with Cu(2+) cations. The electrosynthesized [Cu(btec)0.5DMF] was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, POAP/Cu(btec)0.5DMF nanocomposite film electrosynthesized on the surface of the carbon paste electrode by cyclic voltammetry. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are carried out in order to investigate the performance of the system. This work introduces new nanocomposite materials for electrochemical redox capacitors with advantages including ease synthesis, high active surface area and stability in an aqueous electrolyte.

  6. Simulation of deep water wet weld microstructures using electrodes with high oxidizing potential

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, A.M.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The properties of underwater wet (UWW) welds are greatly affected by water depth. Ibarra and Olson [1] showed that the oxygen content of the weld increases with increasing depth while the amount of deoxidants such as Mn and Si decreases. This change in chemical composition adversely affects both the tensile strength and toughness of the weld. The present research was designed to understand the influence of oxidizing ingredients in the electrode covering on the chemical composition, weld bead appearance and microstructure of wet welds. Changes in the ability of the electrode to supply oxygen to the weld pool were made through modifications of the hematite to rutile (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}) ratio in the covering.The weld deposited by the rutile electrode (no hematite addition) presented the lowest oxygen content (1700 ppm). When the oxidizing character of the electrode increased the concentration of inclusions, mainly FeO, in the weld also increased. However, the increase in oxygen pickup was not monotonous but reached a `saturation` value at approximately 2100 ppm. These results suggest that the microstructure and properties of wet welds deposited at great depths by rutile electrodes will be similar to those made by oxidizing electrodes at much shallower depths. Hence studying oxidizing electrodes and improving their properties will help the development of electrodes for wet welding at greater depths. It is also a much cheaper way of `simulating` welding at higher pressures.

  7. ELECTRODE MEASUREMENT OF REDOX POTENTIAL IN ANAEROBIC FERRIC/FERROUS CHLORIDE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The behaviour of two inert redox electrodes (Pt and wax-impregnated graphite) was investigated in anaerobic ferrous and ferric chloride solutions in order to establish if these electrodes respond to the Fe3+/Fe2+ couple in a Nernstian manner. A new method fo...

  8. Electrode behavior RE-visited: Monitoring potential windows, capacity loss, and impedance changes in Li1.03 (Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3)0.97O2/silicon-graphite full cells

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, Matilda; Gilbert, James A.; Trask, Stephen E.; Polzin, Bryant J.; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2016-03-04

    Here, the capacity and power performance of lithium-ion battery cells evolve over time. The mechanisms leading to these changes can often be identified through knowledge of electrode potentials, which contain information about electrochemical processes at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. In this study we monitor electrode potentials within full cells containing a Li1.03(Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3)0.97O2–based (NCM523) positive electrode, a silicon-graphite negative electrode, and an LiPF6-bearing electrolyte, with and without fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) or vinylene carbonate (VC) additives. The electrode potentials are monitored with a Li-metal reference electrode (RE) positioned besides the electrode stack; changes in these potentials are used to examine electrode state-of-charge (SOC) shifts, material utilization, and loss of electrochemically active material. Electrode impedances are obtained with a LixSn RE located within the stack; the data display the effect of cell voltage and electrode SOC changes on the measured values after formation cycling and after aging. Our measurements confirm the beneficial effect of FEC and VC electrolyte additives in reducing full cell capacity loss and impedance rise after cycling in a 3.0–4.2 V range. Comparisons with data from a full cell containing a graphite-based negative highlight the consequences of including silicon in the electrode. Our observations on electrode potentials, capacity, and impedance changes on cycling are crucial to designing long-lasting, silicon-bearing, lithium-ion cells.

  9. A negative working potential supercapacitor electrode consisting of a continuous nanoporous Fe-Ni network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yunsong; Chen, Yunpeng; Zhou, Yang; Unruh, Karl M.; Xiao, John Q.

    2016-06-01

    A new class of electrochemical electrodes operating in a negative voltage window has been developed by sintering chemically prepared Fe-Ni nanoparticles into a porous nanoscale mixture of an Fe-rich BCC Fe(Ni) phase and a Ni-rich FCC Fe-Ni phase. The selective conversion of the Fe-rich phase to hydroxides provides the electrochemically active component of the electrodes while the Ni-rich phase provides high conductivity and structural stability. The compositionally optimized electrodes exhibit a specific capacitance in excess of 350 F g-1 (all normalizations are to the total electrode mass rather than the much smaller electrochemically active mass) and retain more than 85% of their maximum specific capacitance after 2000 charging/discharging cycles. In addition to their inexpensive constituents, these electrodes are self-supporting and their thickness and mass loading density of about 65 μm and 20 mg cm-2 are compatible with the established manufacturing processes. This desirable combination of physical and electrochemical properties suggests that these electrodes may be useful as the negative electrode in high performance asymmetric supercapacitors.A new class of electrochemical electrodes operating in a negative voltage window has been developed by sintering chemically prepared Fe-Ni nanoparticles into a porous nanoscale mixture of an Fe-rich BCC Fe(Ni) phase and a Ni-rich FCC Fe-Ni phase. The selective conversion of the Fe-rich phase to hydroxides provides the electrochemically active component of the electrodes while the Ni-rich phase provides high conductivity and structural stability. The compositionally optimized electrodes exhibit a specific capacitance in excess of 350 F g-1 (all normalizations are to the total electrode mass rather than the much smaller electrochemically active mass) and retain more than 85% of their maximum specific capacitance after 2000 charging/discharging cycles. In addition to their inexpensive constituents, these electrodes are

  10. Some characteristics of potential backfill materials

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    A backfill material is one of the multiple barriers that may be involved in the disposal of nuclear waste. Such backfill should be a desiccant with the hydrous product having acceptable stability; it should sorb any released radioisotopes, and it should reseal any breached site. The backfill must also have acceptable thermal conductivity. This report presents data on the rate of hydration and the nature of the product of reaction of some candidate backfill materials with water and with brine. Thermal conductivity data is reported for both the reactants and the products. Granular MgO at 150/sup 0/C completely hydrates in less than 10 hours. At 60/sup 0/C and 20/sup 0/C, such extensive hydration requires about 100 and 1000 hours, respectively. The product of the reaction is stable to more than 300/sup 0/C. A doped discalcium silicate was less reactive and the product contains less water of crystallization than the MgO. The reaction product of dicalcium silicate is cementous, but it has low thermal stability. Bentonite readily reacts with water and expands. The reaction product has the properties of vermiculite, which indicates that magnesium ions have diffused into the bentonite structure and are not simply adsorbed on the surface. If bentonite is emplaced in a saline environment, the properties of vermiculite, the reaction product, should also be considered. The thermal conductivity of MgO, discalcium silicate, and bentonite is primarily dependent on the porosity of the sample. A slight increase in thermal conductivity was found with increased temperature, in contrast to most rocks. If the conductive data for the different materials is equated to the same porosity, MgO has the superior thermal conductivity compared to bentonite or discalcium silicate.

  11. Materials Evaluated as Potential Soil Stabilizers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    21.0 168 270 +153 Lithium hydroxide 0.59 20.8 168 198 +85 Sodium sulfite 1.0 21.2 168 322 +200 Sodium carbonate 1.0 20.5 168 375 +250 Sodium bicarbonate...fluoride, sodium 1.0, and 2.0% rates fluoborate , and sodium tetraborate Mixing Material Form* Type of Soil Treated Capability Powder Silt Good Effective...used (sodiun fluosilicate, sodium fluoride, sodium fluoborate , ET-218, and sodium tetraborate) were either detrimental when added to the cement or no

  12. Electrochemical properties of an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery with an in-situ formed electrode material grown from a lithium conductive glass ceramics sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiki, Yuichi; Sagane, Fumihiro; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Sudoh, Masao; Motoyama, Munekazu; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2013-11-01

    A lithium insertion reaction in a Li+ conductive glass ceramics solid electrolyte (lithium aluminum titanium phosphate: LATP) sheet produces an in-situ formed electrode active material, which operates at 2.35 V vs. Li/Li+ in the vicinity of the LATP-sheet/current-collector interface. Electron energy loss spectroscopy clarifies that titanium in the LATP sheet in the vicinity of the current collector/LATP-sheet interface is preferentially reduced by this lithium insertion reaction. Charge transfer resistance between the in-situ-formed-electrode and the LATP-sheet is less than 100 Ω cm2, which is smaller than that of the common LiPON/LiCoO2 interface. A thin film of LiCoO2 is deposited on one side of the LATP-sheet as a Li+ source for developing the in-situ formed electrode material. Eventually, a Pt/LATP-sheet/LiCoO2/Au multilayer is fabricated. The multilayer structure successfully works as an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery operating at 1.5 V. A redox peak of the battery is observed even at 100 mV s-1 in the potential sweep curve. Additionally, charge-discharge reactions are repeated stably even after 25 cycles.

  13. Segmented electrode hall thruster with reduced plume

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2004-08-17

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with segmented electrodes along the channel, which make the acceleration region as localized as possible. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to minimize erosion and arcing. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to produce a substantial reduction in plume divergence. The use of electrodes made of emissive material will reduce the radial potential drop within the channel, further decreasing the plume divergence. Also disclosed is a method of arranging and powering these electrodes so as to provide variable mode operation.

  14. Development of Novel Electrode Materials for the Electrocatalysis of Oxygen-Transfer and Hydrogen-Transfer Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Brett Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Throughout this thesis, the fundamental aspects involved in the electrocatalysis of anodic O-transfer reactions and cathodic H-transfer reactions have been studied. The investigation into anodic O-transfer reactions at undoped and Fe(III)[doped MnO2 films] revealed that MnO2 film electrodes prepared by a cycling voltammetry deposition show improved response for DMSO oxidation at the film electrodes vs. the Au substrate. Doping of the MnO2 films with Fe(III) further enhanced electrode activity. Reasons for this increase are believed to involve the adsorption of DMSO by the Fe(III) sites. The investigation into anodic O-transfer reactions at undoped and Fe(III)-doped RuO2 films showed that the Fe(III)-doped RuO2-film electrodes are applicable for anodic detection of sulfur compounds. The Fe(III) sites in the Fe-RuO2 films are speculated to act as adsorption sites for the sulfur species while the Ru(IV) sites function for anodic discharge of H2O to generate the adsorbed OH species. The investigation into cathodic H-transfer reactions, specifically nitrate reduction, at various pure metals and their alloys demonstrated that the incorporation of metals into alloy materials can create a material that exhibits bifunctional properties for the various steps involved in the overall nitrate reduction reaction. The Sb10Sn20Ti70, Cu63Ni37 and Cu25Ni75 alloy electrodes exhibited improved activity for nitrate reduction as compared to their pure component metals. The Cu63Ni37 alloy displayed the highest activity for nitrate reduction. The final investigation was a detailed study of the electrocatalytic activity of cathodic H-transfer reactions (nitrate reduction) at various compositions of Cu-Ni alloy electrodes. Voltammetric response for NO3- at the Cu-Ni alloy electrode is superior to

  15. A novel high capacity positive electrode material with tunnel-type structure for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuesheng; Mu, Linqin; Liu, Jue; Yang, Zhenzhong; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong -Sheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Chen, Liquan; Huang, Xuejie

    2015-08-06

    In this study, aqueous sodium-ion batteries have shown desired properties of high safety characteristics and low-cost for large-scale energy storage applications such as smart grid, because of the abundant sodium resources as well as the inherently safer aqueous electrolytes. Among various Na insertion electrode materials, tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 has been widely investigated as a positive electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. However, the low achievable capacity hinders its practical applications. Here we report a novel sodium rich tunnel-type positive material with a nominal composition of Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2. The tunnel-type structure of Na0.44MnO2 obtained for this compound was confirmed by XRD and atomic-scale STEM/EELS. When cycled as positive electrode in full cells using NaTi2(PO4)3/C as negative electrode in 1M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, this material shows the highest capacity of 76 mAh g-1 among the Na insertion oxides with an average operating voltage of 1.2 V at a current rate of 2C. These results demonstrate that Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2 is a promising positive electrode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries.

  16. Study of structure and properties of oxide electrode materials (Fe3O4, AZO, SRO) and their device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olga, Chichvarina

    Ferroelectric thin film capacitor heterostructures have attracted considerable attention in the last decade because of their potential applications in piezoelectric sensors, actuators, power generators and non-volatile memory devices. Strongly correlated all-perovskite oxide heterojunctions are of a particular interest, as their material properties (electronic, structural, magnetic and optical, etc.) can be tuned via doping, interface effect, applied electrical field, and formation of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), etc. The right selection of electrode material for this type of capacitor-like structures may modify and enhance the performance of a device, as the electrode/barrier layer interfaces can significantly influence its macroscopic properties. Although there is a number of reports on the effect of electrode interfaces on the properties of PZT capacitors deposited on SRO buffered STO substrate, very little is known about Fe3O4/PZT and AZO/PZT electrode interfaces. This thesis comprises two parts. In the first part we present a systematic study of the structural, transport, magnetic and optical properties of oxide thin films: AZO, Fe3O4 and SRO. These monolayers were fabricated via pulsed laser deposition technique on quartz, MgO and STO substrates respectively. The second part of this thesis elucidates the behaviour of these three oxides as electrode components in PZT/SRO/STO heteroepitaxial structures. The highlights of the work are summarized below: 1) Zinc-blende (ZB) phase of ZnO was predicted to possess higher values of conductivity and higher doping efficiency compared to its wurzite counterpart and thus has greater chances of facilitating the fabrication of ZnO-electrode-based devices. However, zinc-blende is a metastable phase, and it is challenging to obtain single-phase ZB. To tackle this challenge we tuned parameters such-as film thickness, substrate and annealing effect, and achieved a ZB phase of Ti-doped ZnO, ZB-(Zn1-xTix)O thin film. An

  17. Pre-Polarized Hydrophobic Conducting Polymer Solid-Contact Ion-Selective Electrodes with Improved Potential Reproducibility.

    PubMed

    He, Ning; Papp, Soma; Lindfors, Tom; Höfler, Lajos; Latonen, Rose-Marie; Gyurcsányi, Róbert E

    2017-02-21

    Electrically conducting polymers (ECPs) are one of the most popular types of materials to interface ion-selective membranes (ISMs) with electron-conducting substrates to construct solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (SCISEs). For optimal ion-to-electron transduction and potential stability, the p-doped ECPs with low oxidation potentials such as PPy need to be generally in their conducting form along with providing a sufficiently hydrophobic interface to counteract the aqueous layer formation. The first criterion requires that the ECPs are in their oxidized state, but the high charge density of this state is detrimental for the prevention of the aqueous layer formation. We offer here a solution to this paradox by implementing a highly hydrophobic perfluorinated anion (perfluorooctanesulfonate, PFOS(-)) as doping ion by which the oxidized form of the ECP becomes hydrophobic. The proof of concept is shown by using polypyrrole (PPy) films doped with PFOS(-) (PPy-PFOS) as the solid contact in K(+)-selective SCISEs (K(+)-SCISE). Prior to applying the plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) ISM, the oxidation state of the electrodeposited PPy-PFOS was adjusted by polarization to the known open-circuit potential of the solid contact in 0.1 M KCl. We show that the prepolarization results in a hydrophobic PPy-PFOS film with a water contact angle of 97 ± 5°, which effectively prevents the aqueous layer formation under the ISM. Under optimal conditions the K(+)-SCISEs had a very low standard deviation of E(0) of only 501.0 ± 0.7 mV that is the best E(0) reproducibility reported for ECP-based SCISEs.

  18. In Situ Powder Diffraction Studies of Electrode Materials in Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeraj; Pang, Wei Kong; Guo, Zaiping; Peterson, Vanessa K

    2015-09-07

    The ability to directly track the charge carrier in a battery as it inserts/extracts from an electrode during charge/discharge provides unparalleled insight for researchers into the working mechanism of the device. This crystallographic-electrochemical information can be used to design new materials or modify electrochemical conditions to improve battery performance characteristics, such as lifetime. Critical to collecting operando data used to obtain such information in situ while a battery functions are X-ray and neutron diffractometers with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to capture complex and subtle structural changes. The number of operando battery experiments has dramatically increased in recent years, particularly those involving neutron powder diffraction. Herein, the importance of structure-property relationships to understanding battery function, why in situ experimentation is critical to this, and the types of experiments and electrochemical cells required to obtain such information are described. For each battery type, selected research that showcases the power of in situ and operando diffraction experiments to understand battery function is highlighted and future opportunities for such experiments are discussed. The intention is to encourage researchers to use in situ and operando techniques and to provide a concise overview of this area of research.

  19. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of Zn4Sb3 Thermoelectric Material with Cu Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. C.; Lee, K. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.; Hsu, C. C.; Chen, S. C.; Chuang, T. H.

    2016-10-01

    The ZnSb intermetallic compound may have thermoelectric applications because it is low in cost and environmentally friendly. In this study, a Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric element coated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer was bonded with a Ag-coated Cu electrode using a Ag/Sn/Ag solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding process. The results indicated that a Ni5Zn21 intermetallic phase formed easily at the Zn4Sb3/Ni interface, leading to sound adhesion. In addition, Sn film was found to react completely with the Ag layer to form a Ag3Sn intermetallic layer having a melting point of 480°C. The resulting Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric module can be applied at the optimized operation temperature (400°C) of Zn4Sb3 material as a thermoelectric element. The bonding strengths ranged from 14.9 MPa to 25.0 MPa, and shear tests revealed that the Zn4Sb3/Cu-joints fractured through the interior of the thermoelectric elements.

  20. Sulfonated graphene oxide and its nanocomposites with electroactive conjugated polymer as effective pseudocapacitor electrode materials.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, A; Kowsari, E; Boorboor Ajdari, F; Safari, R; Mohammad Shiri, H

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we synthesized amine functionalized graphene oxide (GOA), by using of 1-methyl, 3-butyl Imidazole ionic liquid, triphenylphosphine, 1,6-diamino hexane in DMSO medium. Afterward, dried GOA used for sulfonated graphene oxide (GOS). For improving electrochemical properties of the poly ortho aminophenol (POAP), we fabricated POAP/GOS films by electro-polymerization of POAP in the presence of GOS to serve as the active electrode for electrochemical supercapacitor. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are carried out in order to investigate the performance of the system. Finally, the local charge and energy transfer of the molecular system is calculated, using DFT/AIM theories. Results show that the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of phenyl (Ph)/(Ph-OH) rings and -Ph-CO-N-R-N-R″ -SO3H ended functional group, play domain role in intra-molecular charge and energy transfer. The major aim of this computational study method is to propose or effective design electro-chemical molecular systems having different atomic basins/functional groups response (sensitivities) to external voltage. This work introduces new most efficient materials for electrochemical redox capacitors with advantages including ease synthesis, high active surface area and stability in an aqueous electrolyte.

  1. Sensitive determination of carbendazim in orange juice by electrode modified with hybrid material.

    PubMed

    Razzino, Claudia A; Sgobbi, Lívia F; Canevari, Thiago C; Cancino, Juliana; Machado, Sergio A S

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the application of a glassy carbon electrode modified with a thin film of mesoporous silica/multiwalled carbon nanotubes for voltammetric determination of the fungicide carbendazim (CBZ). The hybrid material, (SiO2/MWCNT), was obtained by a sol-gel process using HF as the catalyst. The amperometric response to CBZ was measured at +0.73 V vs. Ag/AgCl by square wave voltammetry at pH 8.0. SiO2/MWCNT/GCE responded to CBZ in the linear range from 0.2 to 4.0 μmol L(-1). The calculated detection limit was 0.056 μmol L(-1), obtained using statistical methods. The SiO2/MWCNT/GCE sensor presented as the main characteristics high sensitivity, low detection limit and robustness, allowing CBZ determination in untreated real samples. In addition, this strategy afforded remarkable selectivity for CBZ against ascorbic and citric acid which are the main compounds of the orange juice. The excellent sensitivity and selectivity yielded feasible application for CBZ detection in orange juice sample.

  2. Borophene as an extremely high capacity electrode material for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Hu, Junping; Cheng, Yingchun; Yang, Hui Ying; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A

    2016-08-18

    "Two-dimensional (2D) materials as electrodes" is believed to be the trend for future Li-ion and Na-ion battery technologies. Here, by using first-principles methods, we predict that the recently reported borophene (2D boron sheets) can serve as an ideal electrode material with high electrochemical performance for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The calculations are performed on two experimentally stable borophene structures, namely β12 and χ3 structures. The optimized Li and Na adsorption sites are identified, and the host materials are found to maintain good electric conductivity before and after adsorption. Besides advantages including small diffusion barriers and low average open-circuit voltages, most remarkably, the storage capacity can be as high as 1984 mA h g(-1) in β12 borophene and 1240 mA h g(-1) in χ3 borophene for both Li and Na, which are several times higher than the commercial graphite electrode and are the highest among all the 2D materials discovered to date. Our results highly support that borophenes can be appealing anode materials for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries with extremely high power density.

  3. High-capacity electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li3NbO4-based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure

    PubMed Central

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Nakayama, Masanobu; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakayama, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Endo, Daisuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo; Sato, Kei; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have rapidly risen to prominence as fundamental devices for green and sustainable energy development. Lithium batteries are now used as power sources for electric vehicles. However, materials innovations are still needed to satisfy the growing demand for increasing energy density of lithium batteries. In the past decade, lithium-excess compounds, Li2MeO3 (Me = Mn4+, Ru4+, etc.), have been extensively studied as high-capacity positive electrode materials. Although the origin as the high reversible capacity has been a debatable subject for a long time, recently it has been confirmed that charge compensation is partly achieved by solid-state redox of nonmetal anions (i.e., oxide ions), coupled with solid-state redox of transition metals, which is the basic theory used for classic lithium insertion materials, such as LiMeO2 (Me = Co3+, Ni3+, etc.). Herein, as a compound with further excess lithium contents, a cation-ordered rocksalt phase with lithium and pentavalent niobium ions, Li3NbO4, is first examined as the host structure of a new series of high-capacity positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Approximately 300 mAh⋅g−1 of high-reversible capacity at 50 °C is experimentally observed, which partly originates from charge compensation by solid-state redox of oxide ions. It is proposed that such a charge compensation process by oxide ions is effectively stabilized by the presence of electrochemically inactive niobium ions. These results will contribute to the development of a new class of high-capacity electrode materials, potentially with further lithium enrichment (and fewer transition metals) in the close-packed framework structure with oxide ions. PMID:26056288

  4. High-capacity electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li3NbO4-based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Nakayama, Masanobu; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakayama, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Endo, Daisuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo; Sato, Kei; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-06-23

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have rapidly risen to prominence as fundamental devices for green and sustainable energy development. Lithium batteries are now used as power sources for electric vehicles. However, materials innovations are still needed to satisfy the growing demand for increasing energy density of lithium batteries. In the past decade, lithium-excess compounds, Li2MeO3 (Me = Mn(4+), Ru(4+), etc.), have been extensively studied as high-capacity positive electrode materials. Although the origin as the high reversible capacity has been a debatable subject for a long time, recently it has been confirmed that charge compensation is partly achieved by solid-state redox of nonmetal anions (i.e., oxide ions), coupled with solid-state redox of transition metals, which is the basic theory used for classic lithium insertion materials, such as LiMeO2 (Me = Co(3+), Ni(3+), etc.). Herein, as a compound with further excess lithium contents, a cation-ordered rocksalt phase with lithium and pentavalent niobium ions, Li3NbO4, is first examined as the host structure of a new series of high-capacity positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Approximately 300 mAh ⋅ g(-1) of high-reversible capacity at 50 °C is experimentally observed, which partly originates from charge compensation by solid-state redox of oxide ions. It is proposed that such a charge compensation process by oxide ions is effectively stabilized by the presence of electrochemically inactive niobium ions. These results will contribute to the development of a new class of high-capacity electrode materials, potentially with further lithium enrichment (and fewer transition metals) in the close-packed framework structure with oxide ions.

  5. Control of secondary electrons from ion beam impact using a positive potential electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, T. P.; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P. J.

    2016-11-01

    Secondary electrons emitted when an ion beam impacts a detector can amplify the ion beam signal, but also introduce errors if electrons from one detector propagate to another. A potassium ion beam and a detector comprised of ten impact wires, four split-plates, and a pair of biased electrodes were used to demonstrate that a low-voltage, positive electrode can be used to maintain the beneficial amplification effect while greatly reducing the error introduced from the electrons traveling between detector elements.

  6. Bioelectricity generation in continuously-fed microbial fuel cell: effects of anode electrode material and hydraulic retention time.

    PubMed

    Akman, Dilek; Cirik, Kevser; Ozdemir, Sebnem; Ozkaya, Bestamin; Cinar, Ozer

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of this study is to investigate the bioelectricity production in continuously-fed dual chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC). Initially, MFC was operated with different anode electrode material at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2d to evaluate the effect of electrode material on electricity production. Pt electrode yielded about 642 mW/m(2) power density, which was 4 times higher than that of the MFC with the mixed metal oxide titanium (Ti-TiO2). Further, MFC equipped with Pt electrode was operated at varying HRT (2-0.5d). The power density generation increased with decreasing HRT, corresponding to 1313 mW/m(2) which was maximum value obtained during this study. Additionally, decreasing HRT from 2 to 0.5d resulted in increasing effluent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration from 1.92 g/L to 2.23 g/L, corresponding to DOC removal efficiencies of 46% and 38%, respectively.

  7. Carbon-coated LiCrTiO4 electrode material promoting phase transition to reduce asymmetric polarization for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianwen; Yan, Bo; Ye, Jing; Li, Xue; Liu, Yansheng; You, Haiping

    2014-02-21

    In this work, carbon-free and carbon-coated spinel LiCrTiO4 oxides were synthesized by a conventional solid state reaction. The lithium-ion diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity of prepared electrode materials were systematically investigated using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The rate performances of the prepared materials were evaluated by galvanostatic charge-discharge. Carefully comparing the charge-discharge polarization potential of both materials, we unexpectedly discovered that the pristine LiCrTiO4 electrode demonstrated asymmetric polarization during the charging-discharging process, which is possibly attributed to the nonuniform electron conductivity between the endmember of a two-phase reaction, whereas carbon coating could level this phenomenon. Additionally, using an asymmetric core-shell model from the microscopic point of view can easily explain this common phenomenon. Meanwhile, this new research perspective can be extended to other active materials in lithium ion batteries.

  8. Graphene-based biomimetic materials targeting urine metabolite as potential cancer biomarker: application over different conductive materials for potentiometric transduction

    PubMed Central

    Truta, Liliana A.A.N.A.; Ferreira, Nádia S.; Sales, M. Goreti F.

    2015-01-01

    This works presents a novel surface Smart Polymer Antibody Material (SPAM) for Carnitine (CRT, a potential biomarker of ovarian cancer), tested for the first time as ionophore in potentiometric electrodes of unconventional configuration. The SPAM material consisted of a 3D polymeric network created by surface imprinting on graphene layers. The polymer was obtained by radical polymerization of (vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium chloride and 4-styrenesulfonic acid (signaling the binding sites), and vinyl pivalate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (surroundings). Non-imprinted material (NIM) was prepared as control, by excluding the template from the procedure. These materials were then used to produce several plasticized PVC membranes, testing the relevance of including the SPAM as ionophore, and the need for a charged lipophilic additive. The membranes were casted over solid conductive supports of graphite or ITO/FTO. The effect of pH upon the potentiometric response was evaluated for different pHs (2-9) with different buffer compositions. Overall, the best performance was achieved for membranes with SPAM ionophore, having a cationic lipophilic additive and tested in HEPES (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid) buffer, pH 5.1. Better slopes were achieved when the membrane was casted on conductive glass (−57.4mV/decade), while the best detection limits were obtained for graphite-based conductive supports (3.6×10−5mol/L). Good selectivity was observed against BSA, ascorbic acid, glucose, creatinine and urea, tested for concentrations up to their normal physiologic levels in urine. The application of the devices to the analysis of spiked samples showed recoveries ranging from 91% (± 6.8%) to 118% (± 11.2%). Overall, the combination of the SPAM sensory material with a suitable selective membrane composition and electrode design has lead to a promising tool for point-of-care applications. PMID:26456975

  9. Graphene-based biomimetic materials targeting urine metabolite as potential cancer biomarker: application over different conductive materials for potentiometric transduction.

    PubMed

    Truta, Liliana A A N A; Ferreira, Nádia S; Sales, M Goreti F

    2014-12-20

    This works presents a novel surface Smart Polymer Antibody Material (SPAM) for Carnitine (CRT, a potential biomarker of ovarian cancer), tested for the first time as ionophore in potentiometric electrodes of unconventional configuration. The SPAM material consisted of a 3D polymeric network created by surface imprinting on graphene layers. The polymer was obtained by radical polymerization of (vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium chloride and 4-styrenesulfonic acid (signaling the binding sites), and vinyl pivalate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (surroundings). Non-imprinted material (NIM) was prepared as control, by excluding the template from the procedure. These materials were then used to produce several plasticized PVC membranes, testing the relevance of including the SPAM as ionophore, and the need for a charged lipophilic additive. The membranes were casted over solid conductive supports of graphite or ITO/FTO. The effect of pH upon the potentiometric response was evaluated for different pHs (2-9) with different buffer compositions. Overall, the best performance was achieved for membranes with SPAM ionophore, having a cationic lipophilic additive and tested in HEPES (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid) buffer, pH 5.1. Better slopes were achieved when the membrane was casted on conductive glass (-57.4mV/decade), while the best detection limits were obtained for graphite-based conductive supports (3.6×10(-5)mol/L). Good selectivity was observed against BSA, ascorbic acid, glucose, creatinine and urea, tested for concentrations up to their normal physiologic levels in urine. The application of the devices to the analysis of spiked samples showed recoveries ranging from 91% (± 6.8%) to 118% (± 11.2%). Overall, the combination of the SPAM sensory material with a suitable selective membrane composition and electrode design has lead to a promising tool for point-of-care applications.

  10. Thin film mixed potential sensors

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Brosha, Eric L.; Mukundan, Rangachary

    2007-09-04

    A mixed potential sensor for oxidizable or reducible gases and a method of making. A substrate is provided and two electrodes are formed on a first surface of the substrate, each electrode being formed of a different catalytic material selected to produce a differential voltage between the electrodes from electrochemical reactions of the gases catalyzed by the electrode materials. An electrolytic layer of an electrolyte is formed over the electrodes to cover a first portion of the electrodes from direct exposure to the gases with a second portion of the electrodes uncovered for direct exposure to the gases.

  11. Point of zero potential of single-crystal electrode/inert electrolyte interface.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Piotr; Preočanin, Tajana

    2012-03-15

    Most of the environmentally important processes occur at the specific hydrated mineral faces. Their rates and mechanisms are in part controlled by the interfacial electrostatics, which can be quantitatively described by the point of zero potential (PZP). Unfortunately, the PZP value of specific crystal face is very difficult to be experimentally determined. Here we show that PZP can be extracted from a single-crystal electrode potentiometric titration, assuming the stable electrochemical cell resistivity and lack of specific electrolyte ions sorption. Our method is based on determining a common intersection point of the electrochemical cell electromotive force at various ionic strengths, and it is illustrated for a few selected surfaces of rutile, hematite, silver chloride, and bromide monocrystals. In the case of metal oxides, we have observed the higher PZP values than those theoretically predicted using the MultiSite Complexation Model (MUSIC), that is, 8.4 for (001) hematite (MUSIC-predicted ~6), 8.7 for (110) rutile (MUSIC-predicted ~6), and about 7 for (001) rutile (MUSIC-predicted 6.6). In the case of silver halides, the order of estimated PZP values (6.4 for AgCl<6.5 for AgBr) agrees well with sequence estimated from the silver halide solubility products; however, the halide anions (Cl(-), Br(-)) are attracted toward surface much stronger than the Ag(+) cations. The observed PZPs sequence and strong anions affinity toward silver halide surface can be correlated with ions hydration energies. Presented approach is the complementary one to the hysteresis method reported previously [P. Zarzycki, S. Chatman, T. Preočanin, K.M. Rosso, Langmuir 27 (2011) 7986-7990]. A unique experimental characterization of specific crystal faces provided by these two methods is essential in deeper understanding of environmentally important processes, including migration of heavy and radioactive ions in soils and groundwaters.

  12. HSPES membrane electrode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved fuel cell electrode, as well as fuel cells and membrane electrode assemblies that include such an electrode, in which the electrode includes a backing layer having a sintered layer thereon, and a non-sintered free-catalyst layer. The invention also features a method of forming the electrode by sintering a backing material with a catalyst material and then applying a free-catalyst layer.

  13. 3D Interconnected Electrode Materials with Ultrahigh Areal Sulfur Loading for Li-S Batteries.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ruopian; Zhao, Shiyong; Hou, Pengxiang; Cheng, Min; Wang, Shaogang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Liu, Chang; Li, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Sulfur electrodes based on a 3D integrated hollow carbon fiber foam (HCFF) are synthesized with high sulfur loadings of 6.2-21.2 mg cm(-2) . Benefiting from the high electrolyte absorbability of the HCFF and the multiple conductive channels, the obtained electrode demonstrates excellent cycling stability and a high areal capacity of 23.32 mAh cm(-2) , showing great promise in commercially viable Li-S batteries.

  14. Comprehensive comparison of a new tin-coated copper mesh and a graphite plate electrode as an anode material in microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Taskan, Ergin; Hasar, Halil

    2015-02-01

    This paper summarizes the comparison of a new tin-coated copper (t-coating Cu) mesh electrode with a graphite plate electrode for potential power generation and biocompatibility in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The study, which used domestic wastewater, demonstrated that t-coating Cu mesh electrode produced a power density (271 mW/m(2)) approximately three times higher than that produced by a graphite electrode (87 mW/m(2)). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results revealed that bacterial morphology on the two electrodes significantly varied. The t-coating Cu mesh electrode surface had higher bacterial diversity because the open three-dimensional macro-mesh structure allowed an excellent electro-biofilm attachment. Kinetic performances evaluated using the Nernst-Monod equation demonstrated that the t-coating Cu mesh electrode had both higher power density and good biocompatibility in a large surface area, high chemical stability, and favorable metallic conductivity.

  15. An effect of the electrode material on space charge relaxation in ferroelectric copolymers of vinylidene fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kochervinskii, Valentin Pavlov, Alexey; Pakuro, Natalia; Bessonova, Natalia; Shmakova, Nina; Malyshkina, Inna; Bedin, Sergey

    2015-12-28

    Processes of relaxation of space charges formed by impurities carriers in isotropic films of vinylidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene copolymers of the composition 71/29 and 94/6 were studied. Al and Au symmetric electrodes deposited by evaporation in vacuum have been used. In the case of Al electrodes at temperatures above 100 °C, giant low frequency dielectric dispersion was observed, while it is absent in films with Au electrodes. Causes of this phenomenon were studied by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was shown that at Al deposition, new functional groups, such as Al-C, Al-F, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which are not characteristic of the copolymer film surface, formed. They were supposed to be traps for impurity carriers and because of this the electrode became partially blocked. This led to appearance of the giant electrode polarization on the metal-polymer boundary, which did not take place in the case of Au electrodes. Parameters of the Au4f line for the copolymer with different contents of fluorine atoms in the chain were analyzed. An increase in the number of these atoms was shown to result in the line shift to higher energies. This phenomenon was associated with an increase in the shift of the electron density from Au atoms to the F ones which has a high affinity to electrons.

  16. Ultra-fast dry microwave preparation of SnSb used as negative electrode material for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antitomaso, P.; Fraisse, B.; Sougrati, M. T.; Morato-Lallemand, F.; Biscaglia, S.; Aymé-Perrot, D.; Girard, P.; Monconduit, L.

    2016-09-01

    Tin antimonide alloy was obtained for the first time using a very simple dry microwave route. Up to 1 g of well crystallized SnSb can be easily prepared in 90 s under air in an open crucible. A full characterization by X-ray diffraction and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy demonstrated the benefit of carbon as susceptor, which avoid any oxide contamination. The microwave-prepared SnSb was tested as negative electrode material in Li batteries. Interesting results in terms of capacity and rate capability were obtained with up to 700 mAh/g sustained after 50 cycles at variable current. These results pave the way for the introduction of microwave synthesis as realistic route for a rapid, low cost and up-scalable production of electrode material for Li batteries or other large scale application types.

  17. Graphene coated with controllable N-doped carbon layer by molecular layer deposition as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yao; Gao, Zhe; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Shichao; Qin, Yong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, graphene is coated with nitrogen-doped carbon layer, which is produced by a carbonization process of aromatic polyimide (PI) films deposited on the surfaces of graphene by molecular layer deposition (MLD). The utilization of MLD not only allows uniform coating of PI layers on the surfaces of pristine graphene without any surface treatment, but also enables homogenous dispersion of doped nitrogen atoms in the carbonized products. The as-prepared N-doped carbon layer coated graphene (NC-G) exhibited remarkable capacitance performance as electrode materials for supercapacitor, showing a high specific capacitance of 290.2 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte, meanwhile maintaining good rate performance and stable cycle capability. The NC-G synthesized by this way represents an alternative promising candidate as electrode material for supercapacitors.

  18. Hierarchically ordered mesoporous carbon/graphene composites as supercapacitor electrode materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanjie; Li, Zhu; Guo, Kunkun; Shao, Ting

    2016-08-25

    Hierarchically ordered mesoporous carbon/graphene (OMC/G) composites have been fabricated by means of a solvent-evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method. The structures of these composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K. These results indicate that OMC/G composites possess the hierarchically ordered hexagonal p6mm mesostructure with the lattice unit parameter and pore diameter close to 10 nm and 3 nm, respectively. The specific surface area of OMC/G composites after KOH activation is high up to 2109.2 m(2) g(-1), which is significantly greater than OMC after activation (1474.6 m(2) g(-1)). Subsequently, the resulting OMC/G composites as supercapacitor electrode materials exhibit an outstanding capacitance as high as 329.5 F g(-1) in 6 M KOH electrolyte at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1), which is much higher than both OMC (234.2 F g(-1)) and a sample made by mechanical mixing of OMC with graphene (217.7 F g(-1)). In addition, the obtained OMC/G composites display good cyclic stability, and the final capacitance retention is approximately 96% after 5000 cycles. These ordered mesopores in the OMC/G composites are beneficial to the accessibility and rapid diffusion of the electrolyte, while graphene in OMC/G composites can also facilitate the transport of electrons during the processes of charging and discharging owing to its high conductivity, thereby leading to an excellent energy storage performance. The method demonstrated in this work would open up a new route to design and develop graphene-based architectures for supercapacitor applications.

  19. Effects of applied potential and the initial gap between electrodes on localized electrochemical deposition of micrometer copper columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuliang; Xiao, Hongbin; He, Hu

    2016-05-01

    Micrometer copper columns were fabricated via a technology named localized electrochemical deposition (LECD). This paper studies the effects of applied potential and the initial gap between electrodes on the LECD process. The surface and cross sectional morphologies, as well as the average deposition rate were investigated to evaluate the quality of the deposited copper columns. Results demonstrated that the copper columns tended to be cylinder-shape with few voids inside at lower potential (<2.4 V). Whereas,the copper columns tended to be dendriform-shape with lots of voids inside at larger potential (>2.8 V). The average deposition rate increased with the raise of potential. In addition, the copper columns tended to be cylinder-shape with the initial gap between electrodes to be 10 μm or below. However, the copper columns tended to be cone-shape when the initial gap between electrodes became larger (35 μm or above). The number of voids inside the copper column and the average deposition rate both decreased with the increase of the initial gap. Moreover, the process of LECD under varied electric field has also been simulated using COMSOL software, and the formation of cylindrical and conical copper columns was further explained based on the electric field distribution at the cathode.

  20. Ion beam treatment of potential space materials at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussmaul, Michael; Mirtich, Michael J.; Curren, Arthur

    1992-01-01

    Ion source systems in different configurations, have been used to generate unique morphologies for several NASA space applications. The discharge chamber of a 30 cm ion source was successfully used to texture potential space radiator materials for the purpose of obtaining values of thermal emittance greater than 0.85 at 700 and 900 K. High absorptance surfaces were obtained using ion beam seed texturing, for space radiator materials that were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for 5.8 years in space. An ion source discharge chamber was also used to develop electrode surfaces with suppressed secondary electron emission characteristics for use in collectors in microwave amplifier traveling wave tubes. This was accomplished by sputtering textured carbon onto copper as well as texturing copper using tantalum and molybdenum as sacrificial texture inducing seeding materials. In a third configuration, a dual ion beam system was used to generate high transmittance diamondlike carbon (DLC) films.

  1. Impedances of electrochemically impregnated nickel electrodes as functions of potential, KOH concentration, and impregnation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Margaret A.

    1989-01-01

    Impedances of fifteen electrodes form each of the four U.S. manufactures were measured at 0.200 V vs. the Hg/HgO reference electrode. This corresponds to a voltage of 1.145 for a Ni/H2 cell. Measurements were also made of a representative sample of these at 0.44 V. At the higher voltage, the impedances were small and very similar, but at the lower voltage there were major differences between manufacturers. Electrodes from the same manufacturers showed only small differences. The impedances of electrodes from two manufacturers were considerably different in 26 percent KOH from those in 31 percent KOH. These preliminary results seen to correlate with the limited data from earlier life testing of cells from these manufacturers. The impedances of cells being tested for Space Station Freedom are being followed, and more impendance measurements of electrodes are being performed as functions of manufacturer, voltage, electrolyte concentration, and cycle history in hopes of finding better correlations of impedance with life.

  2. Correction of the power law of ac conductivity in ion-conducting materials due to the electrode polarization effect.

    PubMed

    Khamzin, A A; Popov, I I; Nigmatullin, R R

    2014-03-01

    Based on the supposition related to fractal nature of transport processes in ion-conducting materials, an expression for the low-frequency ac conductivity dependence was derived. This expression for the ac conductivity generalizes the power-law dependence and gives a possibility to take into account the influence of the electrode polarization effect. The ac conductivity expression obtained is in excellent agreement with experimental data for a wide frequency range.

  3. Wurtzite copper-zinc-tin sulfide as a superior counter electrode material for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Wurtzite and kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals were employed as counter electrode (CE) materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Compared to kesterite CZTS, the wurtzite CZTS exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity for catalyzing reduction of iodide electrolyte and better conductivity. Accordingly, the DSSC with wurtzite CZTS CE generated higher power conversion efficiency (6.89%) than that of Pt (6.23%) and kesterite CZTS (4.89%) CEs. PMID:24191954

  4. Transition-Metal Carbodiimides as Molecular Negative Electrode Materials for Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries with Excellent Cycling Properties.

    PubMed

    Sougrati, Moulay T; Darwiche, Ali; Liu, Xiaohiu; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah; Hermann, Raphael P; Jouen, Samuel; Monconduit, Laure; Dronskowski, Richard; Stievano, Lorenzo

    2016-04-11

    We report evidence for the electrochemical activity of transition-metal carbodiimides versus lithium and sodium. In particular, iron carbodiimide, FeNCN, can be efficiently used as negative electrode material for alkali-metal-ion batteries, similar to its oxide analogue FeO. Based on (57)Fe Mössbauer and infrared spectroscopy (IR) data, the electrochemical reaction mechanism can be explained by the reversible transformation of the Fe-NCN into Li/Na-NCN bonds during discharge and charge. These new electrode materials exhibit higher capacity compared to well-established negative electrode references such as graphite or hard carbon. Contrary to its oxide analogue, iron carbodiimide does not require heavy treatments (such as nanoscale tailoring, sophisticated textures, or coating) to obtain long cycle life with current density as high as 9 A g(-1) for hundreds of charge-discharge cycles. Similar to the iron compound, several other transition-metal carbodiimides M(x)(NCN)y with M=Mn, Cr, Zn can cycle successfully versus lithium and sodium. Their electrochemical activity and performance open the way to the design of a novel family of anode materials.

  5. Transition-Metal Carbodiimides as Molecular Negative Electrode Materials for Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries with Excellent Cycling Properties

    DOE PAGES

    Sougrati, Moulay T.; Darwiche, Ali; Liu, Xiaohiu; ...

    2016-03-16

    Here we report evidence for the electrochemical activity of transition-metal carbodiimides versus lithium and sodium. In particular, iron carbodiimide, FeNCN, can be efficiently used as a negative electrode material for alkali-metal-ion batteries, similar to its oxide analogue FeO. Based on 57Fe M ssbauer and infrared spectroscopy (IR) data, the electrochemical reaction mechanism can be explained by the reversible transformation of the Fe NCN into Li/Na NCN bonds during discharge and charge. These new electrode materials exhibit higher capacity compared to well-established negative electrode references such as graphite or hard carbon. Contrary to its oxide analogue, iron carbodiimide does not requiremore » heavy treatments (nanoscale tailoring, sophisticated textures, coating etc.) to obtain long cycle life with density current as high as 9 A/g-1 for hundreds of charge/discharge cycles. Similar to the iron compound, several other transition-metal carbodiimides Mx(NCN)y with M = Mn, Cr, Zn can cycle successfully versus lithium and sodium. Ultimately, their electrochemical activity and performances open the way to the design of a novel family of anode materials.« less

  6. Transition-Metal Carbodiimides as Molecular Negative Electrode Materials for Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries with Excellent Cycling Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sougrati, Moulay T.; Darwiche, Ali; Liu, Xiaohiu; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah; Hermann, Raphael P.; Jouen, Samuel; Monconduit, Laure; Dronskowski, Richard; Stievano, Lorenzo

    2016-03-16

    Here we report evidence for the electrochemical activity of transition-metal carbodiimides versus lithium and sodium. In particular, iron carbodiimide, FeNCN, can be efficiently used as a negative electrode material for alkali-metal-ion batteries, similar to its oxide analogue FeO. Based on 57Fe M ssbauer and infrared spectroscopy (IR) data, the electrochemical reaction mechanism can be explained by the reversible transformation of the Fe NCN into Li/Na NCN bonds during discharge and charge. These new electrode materials exhibit higher capacity compared to well-established negative electrode references such as graphite or hard carbon. Contrary to its oxide analogue, iron carbodiimide does not require heavy treatments (nanoscale tailoring, sophisticated textures, coating etc.) to obtain long cycle life with density current as high as 9 A/g-1 for hundreds of charge/discharge cycles. Similar to the iron compound, several other transition-metal carbodiimides Mx(NCN)y with M = Mn, Cr, Zn can cycle successfully versus lithium and sodium. Ultimately, their electrochemical activity and performances open the way to the design of a novel family of anode materials.

  7. Preparation and photoelectrocatalytic performance of N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhi-Lin; Han, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    A novel composite electrode material based on a N-doped TiO2-loaded NaY zeolite membrane (N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane) for photoelectrocatalysis was presented. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization techniques were used to analyze the structure of the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane. The XRD and SEM results verified that the N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with the size of ca. 20 nm have been successfully loaded on the porous stainless steel-supported NaY zeolite membrane. The UV-vis result showed that the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane exhibited a more obvious red-shift than that of N-TiO2 nanoparticles. The XPS characterization revealed that the doping of N element into TiO2 was successfully achieved. The photoelectrocatalysis performance of the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material was evaluated by phenol removal and also the effects of reaction conditions on the catalytic performance were investigated. Owing to exhibiting an excellent catalytic activity and good recycling stability, the N-doped TiO2/NaY zeolite membrane composite electrode material was of promising application for photoelectrocatalysis in wastewater treatment.

  8. Evaluating biomass-derived hierarchically porous carbon as the positive electrode material for hybrid Na-ion capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jizhang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Mei, Changtong; Xu, Junling; Zhou, Shuang; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2017-02-01

    As a promising renewable resource, biomass has several advantages such as wide availability, low cost, and versatility. In this study, we use peanut shell, wheat straw, rice straw, corn stalk, cotton stalk, and soybean stalk as the precursors to synthesize hierarchically porous carbon as the positive electrode material for hybrid Na-ion capacitors, aiming to establish a criterion of choosing suitable biomass precursors. The carbon derived from wood-like cotton stalk has abundant interconnected macropores, high surface area of 1994 m2 g-1, and large pore volume of 1.107 cm3 g-1, thanks to which it exhibits high reversible capacitance of 160.5 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 and great rate capability, along with excellent cyclability. The carbonaceous positive electrode material is combined with a Na2Ti2.97Nb0.03O7 negative electrode material to assemble a hybrid Na-ion capacitor, which delivers a high specific energy of 169.4 Wh kg-1 at 120.5 W kg-1, ranking among the best-performed hybrid ion capacitors.

  9. A MoO2 sheet as a promising electrode material: ultrafast Li-diffusion and astonishing Li-storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yungang; Geng, Cheng

    2017-03-10

    The potential of MoO2 crystal as an electrode material is reported, and nanostructural MoO2 systems, including nanoparticles, nanospheres, nanobelts and nanowires, were synthesized and proved to be advanced electrode materials. A two-dimensional (2D) geometric structure represents an extreme of surface-to-volume ratio, and thus is more suitable as an electrode material in general. Stimulated by the recent fabrication of 2D MoO2, we adopted an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and density functional theory calculation to study the stability and electrochemical properties of a MoO2 sheet. Identified by a phonon dispersion curve and potential energy curve calculations, the MoO2 sheet proved to be dynamically and thermally stable. After lithiation, similar to most promising 2D structures, we found that a Li atom can strongly adsorb on a MoO2 sheet, and the lithiated MoO2 sheet presented excellent metallic properties. Note that, compared with most promising 2D structures, we unexpectedly revealed that the diffusion barrier of the Li atom on the MoO2 sheet was much lower and the storage capacity of the MoO2 sheet was much larger. The calculated energy barrier for the diffusion of Li on the MoO2 sheet was only 75 meV, and, due to multilayer adsorption, the theoretical capacity of the MoO2 sheet can reach up to 2513 mA h g(-1). Benefiting from general properties, such as strong Li-binding and excellent conductivity, and unique phenomena, such as ultrafast diffusion capacity and astonishing storage capacity, we highlight a new promising electrode material for the Li-ion battery.

  10. Molybdenum polysulfide chalcogels as high-capacity, anion-redox-driven electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V. T.; Subrahmanyam, Kota S.; Butala, Megan M.; Gerbec, Jeffrey A.; Islam, Saiful M.; Kanipe, Katherine N.; Wilson, Catrina E.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Borkiewicz, Olaf J.; Chapman, Karena W.; Chupas, Peter J.; Moskovits, Martin; Dunn, Bruce S.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Seshadri, Ram

    2016-11-09

    Sulfur cathodes in conversion reaction batteries offer high gravimetric capacity but suffer from parasitic polysulfide shuttling. We demonstrate here that transition metal chalcogels of approximate formula MoS3.4 achieve a high gravimetric capacity close to 600 mAh g–1 (close to 1000 mAh g–1 on a sulfur basis) as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Transition metal chalcogels are amorphous and comprise polysulfide chains connected by inorganic linkers. The linkers appear to act as a “glue” in the electrode to prevent polysulfide shuttling. The Mo chalcogels function as electrodes in carbonate- and ether-based electrolytes, which further provides evidence of polysulfide solubility not being a limiting issue. We employ X-ray spectroscopy and operando pair distribution function techniques to elucidate the structural evolution of the electrode. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy track the chemical moieties that arise during the anion-redox-driven processes. As a result, we find the redox state of Mo remains unchanged across the electrochemical cycling and, correspondingly, the redox is anion-driven.

  11. Molybdenum polysulfide chalcogels as high-capacity, anion-redox-driven electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V. T.; Subrahmanyam, Kota S.; Butala, Megan M.; ...

    2016-11-09

    Sulfur cathodes in conversion reaction batteries offer high gravimetric capacity but suffer from parasitic polysulfide shuttling. We demonstrate here that transition metal chalcogels of approximate formula MoS3.4 achieve a high gravimetric capacity close to 600 mAh g–1 (close to 1000 mAh g–1 on a sulfur basis) as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Transition metal chalcogels are amorphous and comprise polysulfide chains connected by inorganic linkers. The linkers appear to act as a “glue” in the electrode to prevent polysulfide shuttling. The Mo chalcogels function as electrodes in carbonate- and ether-based electrolytes, which further provides evidence of polysulfide solubility not beingmore » a limiting issue. We employ X-ray spectroscopy and operando pair distribution function techniques to elucidate the structural evolution of the electrode. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy track the chemical moieties that arise during the anion-redox-driven processes. As a result, we find the redox state of Mo remains unchanged across the electrochemical cycling and, correspondingly, the redox is anion-driven.« less

  12. Conductive porous scaffolds as potential neural interface materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Hedberg-Dirk, Elizabeth L.; Cicotte, Kirsten N.; Buerger, Stephen P.; Reece, Gregory; Dirk, Shawn M.; Lin, Patrick P.

    2011-11-01

    Our overall intent is to develop improved prosthetic devices with the use of nerve interfaces through which transected nerves may grow, such that small groups of nerve fibers come into close contact with electrode sites, each of which is connected to electronics external to the interface. These interfaces must be physically structured to allow nerve fibers to grow through them, either by being porous or by including specific channels for the axons. They must be mechanically compatible with nerves such that they promote growth and do not harm the nervous system, and biocompatible to promote nerve fiber growth and to allow close integration with biological tissue. They must exhibit selective and structured conductivity to allow the connection of electrode sites with external circuitry, and electrical properties must be tuned to enable the transmission of neural signals. Finally, the interfaces must be capable of being physically connected to external circuitry, e.g. through attached wires. We have utilized electrospinning as a tool to create conductive, porous networks of non-woven biocompatible fibers in order to meet the materials requirements for the neural interface. The biocompatible fibers were based on the known biocompatible material poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) as well as a newer biomaterial developed in our laboratories, poly(butylene fumarate) (PBF). Both of the polymers cannot be electrospun using conventional electrospinning techniques due to their low glass transition temperatures, so in situ crosslinking methodologies were developed to facilitate micro- and nano-fiber formation during electrospinning. The conductivity of the electrospun fiber mats was controlled by controlling the loading with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Fabrication, electrical and materials characterization will be discussed along with initial in vivo experimental results.

  13. A Method for Monitoring Deposition at a Solid Cathode in an Electrorefiner for a Two-Species System Using Electrode Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Rappleye; M.-S. Yim; M.F. Simpson; R.M. Cumberland

    2013-10-01

    Currently, process monitoring of spent nuclear fuel electrorefining relies upon sampling and destructive analysis methods coupled with extrapolative thermodynamic process models for non-interrupted operations. Corrections to those models are performed infrequently, jeopardizing both the control of the process and safeguarding of nuclear material. Furthermore, the timeliness of obtaining the results is inadequate for application of international safeguards protocol. Alternatively, a system that dynamically utilizes electrical data such as electrode potentials and cell current can hypothetically be used to achieve real-time process monitoring and more robust control as well as improved safeguards. Efforts to develop an advanced model of the electrorefiner to date have focused on a forward modeling approach by using feed and salt compositions to determine the product composition, cell current and electrode potential response. Alternatively, an inverse model was developed, and reported here, to predict the product deposition rates on a cathode using the cell current, cathode potential, and fundamental relations of electrochemistry. The model was applied to the following cases: pure uranium deposition, co-deposition of uranium and plutonium, and co-deposition of uranium and zirconium. The deposition rates predicted by the inverse model were compared to those of a forward model, ERAD.

  14. Vertical motion of a charged colloidal particle near an AC polarized electrode with a nonuniform potential distribution: theory and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jeffrey A; Sides, Paul J; Prieve, Dennis C

    2004-06-08

    Electroosmotic flow in the vicinity of a colloidal particle suspended over an electrode accounts for observed changes in the average height of the particle when the electrode passes alternating current at 100 Hz. The main findings are (1) electroosmotic flow provides sufficient force to move the particle and (2) a phase shift between the purely electrical force on the particle and the particle's motion provides evidence of an E2 force acting on the particle. The electroosmotic force in this case arises from the boundary condition applied when faradaic reactions occur on the electrode. The presence of a potential-dependent electrode reaction moves the likely distribution of electrical current at the electrode surface toward uniform current density around the particle. In the presence of a particle the uniform current density is associated with a nonuniform potential; thus, the electric field around the particle has a nonzero radial component along the electrode surface, which interacts with unbalanced charge in the diffuse double layer on the electrode to create a flow pattern and impose an electroosmotic-flow-based force on the particle. Numerical solutions are presented for these additional height-dependent forces on the particle as a function of the current distribution on the electrode and for the time-dependent probability density of a charged colloidal particle near a planar electrode with a nonuniform electrical potential boundary condition. The electrical potential distribution on the electrode, combined with a phase difference between the electric field in solution and the electrode potential, can account for the experimentally observed motion of particles in ac electric fields in the frequency range from approximately 10 to 200 Hz.

  15. AN EVALUATION OF ELECTRODE INSERTION TECHNIQUES FOR MEASUREMENT OF REDOX POTENTIAL IN ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eh measurements by electrodes are commonly used to characterize redox status of sediments in freshwater, marine and estuarine studies, due to the relative ease and rapidity of data collection. In our studies of fine-grained estuarine seabeds, we observed that Eh values measured i...

  16. Electrochemistry of chemically lithiated NaV{sub 3}O{sub 8}: A positive electrode material for use in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Spahr, M.E. |; Novak, P.; Scheifele, W.; Haas, O.; Nesper, R.

    1998-02-01

    Monoclinic NaV{sub 3}O{sub 8} was prepared via aqueous precipitation and subsequently chemically lithiated using butyllithium in hexane as lithiation reagent. The topochemical lithiation process leads to materials with variable lithium content depending on the lithiation reaction conditions. Up to 3 Li{sup +}/mol could be inserted chemically in the lattice water-free NaV{sub 3}O{sub 8} and result in cleavage of the particles, which leads to highly dispersed materials. In contrast to the chemical insertion method, almost 3.5 Li{sup +}/mol could be electrochemically inserted in NaV{sub 3}O{sub 8}, corresponding to a specific charge of about 310 mAh/g. About 2.5 Li{sup +}/mol could be deinserted potentiodynamically in the potential range from 1.5 to 4.0 V vs Li/Li{sup +} from a chemically lithiated material with the composition Li{sub 3}NaV{sub 3}O{sub 8}. This corresponds to a specific charge of about 215 mAh/g. In galvanostatic cycling experiments, a specific charge of more than 200 mAh/g could be demonstrated for 100 cycles using this electrode material. The specific charges obtained are independent of the applied specific current up to 50 mA/g of the oxide. This behavior indicates that the sodium vanadate host material can support high lithium insertion and deinsertion rates, which make the chemically lithiated form an attractive candidate for lithium-containing positive electrode materials in high-power lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Carbon reduction potential from recycling in primary materials manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, R.N.

    1993-12-31

    This study assesses the potential for energy savings and carbon emissions reduction by increasing the recycled content of energy-intensive materials. Aluminum, steel, paper, plastics, and container glass are considered. Government policies to encourage higher recycling rates and increased recycled materials content are proposed.

  18. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    SciTech Connect

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi; Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  19. Zirconia-based mixed potential sensor with Pt electrode prepared by spin-coating of polymeric precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzan, A.; Woźniak, Ł.; Szymczewska, D.; Jasiński, P.

    2016-11-01

    Many types of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) based gas sensors have been explored extensively in recent years. Great attention have been directed to mixed-potential-type gas sensors. It is due to growing concerns with environmental issues. Not without a significance is the fact of very attractive performance of this type of sensor allowing to detect low concentration of pollutant gases. In this paper two types of YSZ based mixed-potential planar sensors were investigated, with platinum electrode painted using commercial paste and with spin coated platinum layer. Both types had second electrode in the form of porous gold. Measurements were performed at 400 °C in synthetic air and different concentrations of SO2. Gas flow was set to 100 cm3min-1 and the concentration of 50 ppm SO2 was tested. During this measurements the sensor was sintered in-situ at increasing temperatures. Sensor with 100 nm spin-coated platinum layer sintered at 700 °C was shown to exhibit two times smaller response than sensor with 5 μm porous electrode, while consisting of over 20 times smaller amount of Pt. The influence of sintering temperature on electrical conductivity of platinum films was also examined. Moreover, the platinum microstructure was investigated using SEM microscopy.

  20. Ion selective electrode for determination of chloride ion in biological materials, food products, soils and waste water.

    PubMed

    Sekerka, I; Lechner, J F

    1978-11-01

    The chloride ion selective electrode is used for a rapid, simple, and reliable determination of chloride ion in biological materials (blood serum, urine, fish, and plant tissues), food products (milk, beef extract, nutrient broth and orange, tomato, and grapefruit juices), soils, and waste water (industrial and municipal). The method consists of treating the samples with perchloric acid (pH 1) and potassium peroxydisulfate and determining the chloride content either by a calibration curve or by known addition or analyte addition, using the chloride ion selective electrode. Such sample treatment eliminates most of the interferences occurring in the samples, including iodide, complexing and reducing compounds, and macromolecular and surface-active species. The method is suitable for a wide range of chloride concentration, e.g., 5010 ppm Cl- in nutrient broth and 4890 ppm in beef extract and as low as 12 and 80 ppm in soil extracts.

  1. Nanostructured TiO2-coated activated carbon composite as an electrode material for asymmetric hybrid capacitors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Ok; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-02-01

    A nanostructured TiO2-coated activated carbon (TAC) composite was synthesized by a modified sol-gel reaction and employed it as a negative electrode active material for an asymmetric hybrid capacitor. The structural characterization showed that the TiO2 nano-layer was deposited on the surface of the activated carbon and the TAC composite has a highly mesoporous structure. The evaluation of electrochemical characteristics of the TAC electrode was carried out by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained specific capacitance of the TAC composite was 42.87 F/g, which showed by 27.1% higher than that of the activated carbon (AC). The TAC composite also exhibited an excellent cycle performance and kept 95% of initial capacitance over 500 cycles.

  2. Study of electrochemical properties of thin film materials obtained using plasma technologies for production of electrodes for pacemakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrezkov, O. I.; Vinogradov, V. P.; Krauz, V. I.; Mozgrin, D. V.; Guseva, I. A.; Andreev, E. S.; Zverev, A. A.; Starostin, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Studies of thin film materials (TFM) as coatings of tips of pacemaker electrodes implanted into the human heart have been performed. TFM coatings were deposited in vacuum by arc magnetron discharge plasma, by pulsed discharge of “Plasma Focus”, and by electron beam evaporation. Simulation of electric charge transfer to the heart in physiological blood- imitator solution and determination of electrochemical properties of the coatings were carried out. TFM of highly developed surface of contact with tissue was produced by argon plasma spraying of titanium powder with subsequent coating by titanium nitride in vacuum arc assisted by Ti ion implantation. The TFM coatings of pacemaker electrode have passed necessary clinical tests and were used in medical practice. They provide low voltage myocardium stimulation thresholds within the required operating time.

  3. Electrochemical Properties of Poly(Anthraquinonyl Sulfide)/Graphene Sheets Composites as Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonkyun; Suzuki, Shinya; Miyayama, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) (PAQS)/graphene sheets (GSs) composite was synthesized through in situ polymerization to evaluate its performance as an electrode material for electrochemical capacitors. PAQS was successfully synthesized in the presence of GSs with uniform distribution. PAQS/GSs showed a pair of reversible redox peaks at around 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The specific capacitance of PAQS/GSs was 349 F·g−1 (86 mAh·g−1) at a current density of 500 mA·g−1, and a capacitance of 305 F·g−1 was maintained even at a high current density of 5000 mA·g−1. The in situ polymerization of PAQS with GSs facilitated their interaction and enabled faster charge transfer and redox reaction, resulting in enhanced electrode properties.

  4. Electrochemical Properties of Poly(Anthraquinonyl Sulfide)/Graphene Sheets Composites as Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonkyun; Suzuki, Shinya; Miyayama, Masaru

    2014-07-30

    Poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) (PAQS)/graphene sheets (GSs) composite was synthesized through in situ polymerization to evaluate its performance as an electrode material for electrochemical capacitors. PAQS was successfully synthesized in the presence of GSs with uniform distribution. PAQS/GSs showed a pair of reversible redox peaks at around 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The specific capacitance of PAQS/GSs was 349 F·g(-1) (86 mAh·g(-1)) at a current density of 500 mA·g(-1), and a capacitance of 305 F·g(-1) was maintained even at a high current density of 5000 mA·g(-1). The in situ polymerization of PAQS with GSs facilitated their interaction and enabled faster charge transfer and redox reaction, resulting in enhanced electrode properties.

  5. MXenes: A New Family of Two-Dimensional Materials and its Application as Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmalak, Michael Naguib

    Two-dimensional, 2D, materials, such as graphene, possess a unique morphology compared to their 3D counterparts, from which interesting and novel properties arise. Currently, the number of non-oxide materials that have been exfoliated is limited to two fairly small groups, viz. hexagonal, van der Waals bonded structures (e.g. graphene and BN) and layered transition metal chalcogenides. The MAX phases are a well established family of layered ternary transition metal carbides and/or nitrides, with a composition of Mn +1AXn, where M is an early transition metal, A is one of A group elements, X is C and/or N; with n = 1, 2, or 3. The aim of this work is to exfoliate the MAX phases and produce 2D layers of transition metals carbides and/or nitrides by the selective etching of the A layers from the MAX phases. We labeled the resulting 2D M n+1Xn layers "MXenes" to emphasize the loss of the A group element from the MAX phases and the suffix "ene" to emphasize their 2D nature and their similarity to graphene. The etching process was carried out using aqueous hydrofluoric acid at room temperature. Thirteen different MXenes were produced as a result of this work, viz., Ti2C, Nb2C, V2C, Mo2C, (Ti0.5,Nb0.5)2C, (Ti 0.5,V0.5)2C, Ti3C2, (Ti 0.5,V0.5)3C2, (V0.5,Cr 0.5)3C2, Ti3CN, Ta4C 3, Nb4C3 and (Nb0.5,V0.5) 4C3. The as-synthesized MXenes were terminated with a mixture of OH, O, and/or F groups. Sonicating MXenes resulted in separating the stacked layers to a small extent. When Ti3C2 was intercalated with dimethylsulfoxide, however, followed by sonication in water, large-scale delamination occurred, which resulted in aqueous colloidal solutions that could in turn be fabricated into MXene "paper". MXenes were found to be electrically conductive, hydrophilic and stable in aqueous environments, a rare combination indeed, with huge potential in many applications, from energy storage, to sensors to catalysts. This work focused on the use of MXenes as electrode materials in Li

  6. rGO/SWCNT composites as novel electrode materials for electrochemical biosensing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu-Yen; Huang, Jen-Hsien; Wei, Hung-Yu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2013-05-15

    In this study we performed electrochemical sensing using conductive carbon composite films containing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as electrode modifiers on glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs). Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy all suggested that the rGO acted as a surfactant, covering and smoothing out the surface, and that the SWCNTs acted as a conducting bridge to connect the isolated rGO sheets, thereby (i) minimizing the barrier for charge transfer between the rGO sheets and (ii) increasing the conductivity of the film. We used the rGO/SWCNT-modified GCE as a sensor to analyze hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), obtaining substantial improvements in electrochemical reactivity and detection limits relative to those obtained from rGO- and SWCNT-modified electrodes, presumably because of the higher conductivity and greater coverage on the GCE, due to π-π interactions originating from the graphitic structures of the rGO and SWCNTs. The electrocatalysis response was measured by cyclic voltammetry and amperometric current-time (i-t) curve techniques. The linear concentration range of H2O2 and NADH detection at rGO/SWCNT-modified electrode is 0.5-5M and 20-400μM. The sensitivity for H2O2 and NADH detection is 2732.4 and 204μAmM(-1)cm(-2), and the limit of detection is 1.3 and 0.078μM respectively. Furthermore, interference tests indicated that the carbon composite film exhibited high selectivity toward H2O2 and NADH. Using GO as a solubilizing agent for SWCNTs establishes a new class of carbon electrodes for electrochemical sensors.

  7. Effect of structure on current and potential distributions in porous electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzi, Oscar; Landau, Uziel

    1987-01-01

    Porous electrodes generally contain constricted macropores and localized micropores. The effects of the macropore constrictions on the resistance of a capillary were studied and an analytical model was developed for predicting the current distribution in a constricted macropore which directly includes constriction effects and does not require an empirical tortuosity parameter. The current and concentration distributions in localized micropores were also investigated and it was shown that the microporous area is fully accessible to charge and mass transfer processes. From these analyses it was concluded that the micropores primarily affect the kinetics of the interfacial processes by contributing to the interfacial area, while the macropores impose ohmic and mass transport limitations through the volume of the porous electrode.

  8. Bacterial-cellulose-derived carbon nanofiber@MnO₂ and nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber electrode materials: an asymmetric supercapacitor with high energy and power density.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Feng; Huang, Zhi-Hong; Liang, Hai-Wei; Guan, Qing-Fang; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2013-09-14

    A new kind of high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor is designed with pyrolyzed bacterial cellulose (p-BC)-coated MnO₂ as a positive electrode material and nitrogen-doped p-BC as a negative electrode material via an easy, efficient, large-scale, and green fabrication approach. The optimal asymmetric device possesses an excellent supercapacitive behavior with quite high energy and power density.

  9. Laser processing of SnO2 electrode materials for manufacturing of 3D micro-batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, R.; Proell, J.; Ulrich, S.; Przybylski, M.; Pfleging, W.

    2011-03-01

    The material development for advanced lithium-ion batteries plays an important role in future mobile applications and energy storage systems. It is assumed that electrode materials made of nano-composited materials will improve battery lifetime and will lead to an enhancement of lithium diffusion and thus improve battery capacity and cyclability. A major problem concerning thin film electrodes is, that increasing film thickness leads to an increase in lithium diffusion path lengths and thereby a decrease in power density. To overcome this problem, the investigation of a 3D-battery system with an increased surface area is necessary. UV-laser micromachining was applied to create defined line or grating structures via mask imaging. SnO2 is a highly investigated anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Yet, the enormous volume changes occurring during electrochemical cycling lead to immense loss of capacity. The formation of micropatterns via laser ablation to create structures which enable the compensation of the volume expansion was investigated in detail. Thin films of SnO2 were deposited in Ar:O2 atmosphere via r.f. magnetron sputtering on silicon and stainless steel substrates. The thin films were studied with X-ray diffraction to determine their crystallinity. The electrochemical properties of the manufactured films were investigated via electrochemical cycling against a lithium anode.

  10. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-07

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  11. Li-Rich Li-Si Alloy As A Lithium-Containing Negative Electrode Material Towards High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Iwamura, Shinichiroh; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Ono, Yoshitaka; Morito, Haruhiko; Yamane, Hisanori; Nara, Hiroki; Osaka, Tetsuya; Kyotani, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are generally constructed by lithium-including positive electrode materials, such as LiCoO2, and lithium-free negative electrode materials, such as graphite. Recently, lithium-free positive electrode materials, such as sulfur, are gathering great attention from their very high capacities, thereby significantly increasing the energy density of LIBs. Though the lithium-free materials need to be combined with lithium-containing negative electrode materials, the latter has not been well developed yet. In this work, the feasibility of Li-rich Li-Si alloy is examined as a lithium-containing negative electrode material. Li-rich Li-Si alloy is prepared by the melt-solidification of Li and Si metals with the composition of Li21Si5. By repeating delithiation/lithiation cycles, Li-Si particles turn into porous structure, whereas the original particle size remains unchanged. Since Li-Si is free from severe constriction/expansion upon delithiation/lithiation, it shows much better cyclability than Si. The feasibility of the Li-Si alloy is further examined by constructing a full-cell together with a lithium-free positive electrode. Though Li-Si alloy is too active to be mixed with binder polymers, the coating with carbon-black powder by physical mixing is found to prevent the undesirable reactions of Li-Si alloy with binder polymers, and thus enables the construction of a more practical electrochemical cell. PMID:25626879

  12. Li-rich Li-Si alloy as a lithium-containing negative electrode material towards high energy lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Iwamura, Shinichiroh; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Ono, Yoshitaka; Morito, Haruhiko; Yamane, Hisanori; Nara, Hiroki; Osaka, Tetsuya; Kyotani, Takashi

    2015-01-28

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are generally constructed by lithium-including positive electrode materials, such as LiCoO2, and lithium-free negative electrode materials, such as graphite. Recently, lithium-free positive electrode materials, such as sulfur, are gathering great attention from their very high capacities, thereby significantly increasing the energy density of LIBs. Though the lithium-free materials need to be combined with lithium-containing negative electrode materials, the latter has not been well developed yet. In this work, the feasibility of Li-rich Li-Si alloy is examined as a lithium-containing negative electrode material. Li-rich Li-Si alloy is prepared by the melt-solidification of Li and Si metals with the composition of Li21Si5. By repeating delithiation/lithiation cycles, Li-Si particles turn into porous structure, whereas the original particle size remains unchanged. Since Li-Si is free from severe constriction/expansion upon delithiation/lithiation, it shows much better cyclability than Si. The feasibility of the Li-Si alloy is further examined by constructing a full-cell together with a lithium-free positive electrode. Though Li-Si alloy is too active to be mixed with binder polymers, the coating with carbon-black powder by physical mixing is found to prevent the undesirable reactions of Li-Si alloy with binder polymers, and thus enables the construction of a more practical electrochemical cell.

  13. Material Discovery and Design with Dynamic Charge Reactive Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnott, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Atomic scale computational simulations of multi-phase systems is increasingly important as our ability to simulate nanometer-sized systems becomes routine. The recently developed charge optimized many body potential (COMB) potentials have significantly enhanced our ability to carry out atomic-scale simulations of heterogeneous material systems. The formalism of this potential combines variable charge electrostatic interactions with a classical analytical bond-order potential. It therefore has the capacity to adaptively model metallic, covalent, ionic, and van der Waals bonding within the same simulation cell and dynamically determine the charges on individual atoms according to the local environment. The utility of the COMB potentials is illustrated for materials design and discovery by exploring the structure, stability, mechanical properties, and thermal properties of intermetallic systems and oxide-metal interfaces. They are also used to address key questions associated with corrosion, thin film growth, and heterogeneous catalysis.

  14. Evaluation of the electrochemical behavior and analytical potentialities of a carbon paste electrode modified with a ruthenium (III) piperidinedithiocarbamate complex.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Luiz Antônio; Cavalheiro, Eder Tadeu Gomes; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo

    2005-02-01

    The preparation and electrochemical characterization of a carbon paste electrode modified with bis(N,N-piperidinedithiocarbamate)-mu-tris(N,N-piperidinedithiocarbamate)diruthenium(III) complex, alpha-[Ru2(Pip)5]Cl are described. The best voltammetric response was obtained for a 10% (m/m) alpha-[Ru2(Pip)5]Cl content in the paste, potassium acid phthalate solution pH 4.0 as supporting electrolyte and scan rate of 100 mV s-1. The analytical potentialities of the electrode have been evaluated using L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) as a probe. A sensitive linear voltammetric response for L-ascorbic acid was obtained in the concentration range 4.50-113x10(-5) mol l-1 (7.92-200 mg l-1) with a slope of 1.12x10(4) microA mol-1, and a detection limit (3sigma/slope) of 7.00x10(-6) mol l-1 using cyclic voltammetry. The concentrations of L-ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations (tablets and liquid) were determined using the modified electrode and compared with an iodimetric procedure with good agreement at the 95% confidence and relative error lower than 1%.

  15. Electrode polarization vs. Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization in dielectric spectra of materials: Characteristic frequencies and scaling laws.

    PubMed

    Samet, M; Levchenko, V; Boiteux, G; Seytre, G; Kallel, A; Serghei, A

    2015-05-21

    The characteristic frequencies of electrode polarization and of interfacial polarization effects in dielectric spectra of ionic liquids and of polymer bi-layers are determined and systematically analyzed, based on dielectric measurements by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy, numerical simulations, and analytical calculations. It is shown that, to a large extent, identical scaling laws can be derived for these two dielectric phenomena taking place at external and internal interfaces. Surprisingly, a fundamentally different behavior concerning the interrelation between the characteristic frequencies is found. This brings direct evidence that different manifestations of the phenomenon of electrical polarization can be discriminated by examining the inter-relation governing their characteristic frequencies, which can be of significant importance in disseminating the nature of different contributions appearing in the dielectric spectra of complex materials. Based on our analysis, we derive a new formula, valid for both electrode polarization and interfacial polarization effects, that allows one to determine the conductivity value from the frequency position of the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars peak. An excellent agreement between experiment and calculations is obtained. The formula can be used, furthermore, to estimate the thickness of the interfacial layers formed due to electrode polarization effects. Values in the order of several nanometers, increasing with decreasing temperature, are reported.

  16. Overoxidized polypyrrole/graphene nanocomposite with good electrochemical performance as novel electrode material for the detection of adenine and guanine.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan-Sha; Xu, Jing-Kun; Lu, Li-Min; Wu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Kai-Xin; Nie, Tao; Zhu, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Yao

    2014-12-15

    Most conducting polymer/graphene composites have excellent electrical conductivity. However, the background currents of these composites modified electrodes are much larger. In order to improve the sensitivities of these methods, it is necessary to decrease the background signal. In this paper, porous structure films of overoxidized polypyrrole/graphene (PPyox/GR) have been electrochemically coated onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and successfully utilized as an efficient electrode material for the quantitive detection of adenine and guanine, two of the most important components of DNA and RNA. The permselective polymer coatings with low background current could improve the selectivity and sensitivity of microelectrodes for the electropositive purine bases. The GRs into these polymers would further improve sensitivity by increasing the electroactive surface area. The electrochemical sensor can be applied to the quantification of adenine and guanine with a linear range covering 0.06-100 µM and 0.04-100 µM, and a low detection limit of 0.02 μM and 0.01 μM, respectively. More importantly, the proposed method was applied to quantify adenine and guanine in calf thymus DNA with satisfactory results.

  17. Electrodes made with disordered active material and methods of making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Keem, J.E.; Bergeron, R.C.; Custer, R.C.; McCallum, R.W.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes a hydrogen storage electrode for an alkaline hydrogen storage electrochemical cell comprising at least one solid, metallic, amorphous electrochemically active body, capable of being self-supporting and formed by rapid solidification from a melt thereby having a non-particulate, dimensionally anisotropic shape characterized by a continuous amorphous structure throughout. The body has a composition comprising at least three elements, the three elements comprising titanium, nickel and at least one element selected from the group consisting of aluminum, boron, chromium, cobalt, hafnium, indium, lead, magnesium, molybdenum, niobium, palladium, tin, zirconium and rare earth metals. Each of the elements is preset in an effective amount so that the electrode is capable of being electrochemically charged with hydrogen to store energy and capable of electrochemically discharging hydrogen and releasing energy, while maintaining its structural integrity during electrochemical charge and discharge cycles.

  18. Interfacial behaviours between lithium ion conductors and electrode materials in various battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Bingbin; Wang, Shanyu; Evans IV, Willie J.; Deng, Daniel Z.; Yang, Jihui; Xiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    In recent years room temperature Li+ ion conductors have been intensively revisited in order to develop safe lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries and beyond that can be deployed in the electrical vehicles. Through careful modification on materials synthesis, promising solid Li+ conductors with high ionic conductivity, competitve with liquid electrolytes, have been demonstrated. However, the integration of those highly conductive solid electrolytes into the whole system is still very challenging mainly due to the high impedance existing in the different interfaces throughout the entire battery structure. Herein , this review paper focuses on the overview of the interfacial behaviors between Li+ conductors and cathode/anode materials. The origin, evolution and potential solutions to reuce these interfacial impedances are reviewed for various battery systems spanning from Li-ion, lithium sulfur (Li-S), lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries to lithium metal protection. The predicted gravimetric and volumetric energy densities at different scenarios are also discussed along with the prospectives for further development of solid state batteries.

  19. Interconnecting Carbon Fibers with the In-situ Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphene as Advanced Binder-free Electrode Materials for Flexible Supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Shuangyin

    2015-07-07

    Flexible energy storage devices are highly demanded for various applications. Carbon cloth (CC) woven by carbon fibers (CFs) is typically used as electrode or current collector for flexible devices. The low surface area of CC and the presence of big gaps (ca. micro-size) between individual CFs lead to poor performance. Herein, we interconnect individual CFs through the in-situ exfoliated graphene with high surface area by the electrochemical intercalation method. The interconnected CFs are used as both current collector and electrode materials for flexible supercapacitors, in which the in-situ exfoliated graphene act as active materials and conductive "binders". The in-situ electrochemical intercalation technique ensures the low contact resistance between electrode (graphene) and current collector (carbon cloth) with enhanced conductivity. The as-prepared electrode materials show significantly improved performance for flexible supercapacitors.

  20. Carbonaceous materials and their advances as a counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells: challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Kouhnavard, Mojgan; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad; Ghaffari, Babak V; Sopian, Kamarozzaman; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2015-05-11

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) serve as low-costing alternatives to silicon solar cells because of their low material and fabrication costs. Usually, they utilize Pt as the counter electrode (CE) to catalyze the iodine redox couple and to complete the electric circuit. Given that Pt is a rare and expensive metal, various carbon materials have been intensively investigated because of their low costs, high surface areas, excellent electrochemical stabilities, reasonable electrochemical activities, and high corrosion resistances. In this feature article, we provide an overview of recent studies on the electrochemical properties and photovoltaic performances of carbon-based CEs (e.g., activated carbon, nanosized carbon, carbon black, graphene, graphite, carbon nanotubes, and composite carbon). We focus on scientific challenges associated with each material and highlight recent advances achieved in overcoming these obstacles. Finally, we discuss possible future directions for this field of research aimed at obtaining highly efficient DSSCs.

  1. Conductive Polymer Binder for High-Tap-Density Nanosilicon Material for Lithium-Ion Battery Negative Electrode Application.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Wei, Yang; Qiao, Ruimin; Zhu, Chenhui; Zheng, Ziyan; Ling, Min; Jia, Zhe; Bai, Ying; Fu, Yanbao; Lei, Jinglei; Song, Xiangyun; Battaglia, Vincent S; Yang, Wanli; Messersmith, Phillip B; Liu, Gao

    2015-12-09

    High-tap-density silicon nanomaterials are highly desirable as anodes for lithium ion batteries, due to their small surface area and minimum first-cycle loss. However, this material poses formidable challenges to polymeric binder design. Binders adhere on to the small surface area to sustain the drastic volume changes during cycling; also the low porosities and small pore size resulting from this material are detrimental to lithium ion transport. This study introduces a new binder, poly(1-pyrenemethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (PPyMAA), for a high-tap-density nanosilicon electrode cycled in a stable manner with a first cycle efficiency of 82%-a value that is further improved to 87% when combined with graphite material. Incorporating the MAA acid functionalities does not change the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) features or lower the adhesion performance of the PPy homopolymer. Our single-molecule force microscopy measurement of PPyMAA reveals similar adhesion strength between polymer binder and anode surface when compared with conventional polymer such as homopolyacrylic acid (PAA), while being electronically conductive. The combined conductivity and adhesion afforded by the MAA and pyrene copolymer results in good cycling performance for the high-tap-density Si electrode.

  2. Effect of electrode material on characteristics of non-volatile resistive memory consisting of Ag2S nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jaewon

    2016-07-01

    In this study, Ag2S nanoparticles are synthesized and used as the active material for two-terminal resistance switching memory devices. Sintered Ag2S films are successfully crystallized on plastic substrates with synthesized Ag2S nanoparticles, after a relatively low-temperature sintering process (200 °C). After the sintering process, the crystallite size is increased from 6.8 nm to 80.3 nm. The high ratio of surface atoms to inner atoms of nanoparticles reduces the melting point temperature, deciding the sintering process temperature. In order to investigate the resistance switching characteristics, metal/Ag2S/metal structures are fabricated and tested. The effect of the electrode material on the non-volatile resistive memory characteristics is studied. The bottom electrochemically inert materials, such as Au and Pt, were critical for maintaining stable memory characteristics. By using Au and Pt inert bottom electrodes, we are able to significantly improve the memory endurance and retention to more than 103 cycles and 104 sec, respectively.

  3. Novel GO-LaSmO2 Nanocomposite as an Effective Electrode Material for Hydrogen Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Amin, Ayman A.; Othman, Abdelhameed M.

    2016-04-01

    Nano-composites of lanthanum-samarium oxide (LaSmO2) were prepared in the absence and presence of graphene oxide (GO) and characterized as an effective electrode material for hydrogen fuel cells. X-ray and scanning electron microscope investigations revealed grain sizes of 8 nm for LaSmO2 and 12 nm for GO-LaSmO2 composites. The x-ray diffraction pattern showed sharp peaks, indicating a well-crystallized phase indexable to a rhombohedral structure with space group R 3 C , and their structural refinement performed in the hexagonal mode. The ionic conductivity of LaSmO2 was found to be 4.12 × 10-5 S/cm, while in the presence of GO it was enhanced to 5.32 × 10-5 S/cm. The mechanism of conduction in the proposed nano-materials was investigated based on frequency exponent S. The values of S were observed to decrease with increasing temperature. This result was found to be in good agreement with the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. The present work revealed GO to be a conductivity enhancer that caused the GO-LaSmO2 composite to be an effective electrode material for hydrogen fuel cells.

  4. Facile construction of 3D graphene/MoS2 composites as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tianhua; Li, Zhangpeng; Liu, Xiaohong; Ma, Limin; Wang, Jinqing; Yang, Shengrong

    2016-11-01

    Flower-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) microstructures are synthesized based on three-dimensional graphene (3DG) skeleton via a simple and facile one-step hydrothermal method, aiming at constructing series of novel composite electrode materials of 3DG/MoS2 with high electrochemical performances for supercapacitors. The electrochemical properties of the samples are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Specifically, the optimal 3DG/MoS2 composite exhibits remarkable performances with a high specific capacitance of 410 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and an excellent cycling stability with ca. 80.3% capacitance retention after 10,000 continuous charge-discharge cycles at a high current density of 2 A g-1, making it adaptive for high-performance supercapacitors. The enhanced electrochemical performances can be ascribed to the combination of 3DG and flower-like MoS2, which provides excellent charge transfer network and electrolyte diffusion channels while effectively prevents the collapse, aggregation and morphology change of active materials during charge-discharge process. The results demonstrate that 3DG/MoS2 composite is one of the attractive electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  5. The preparation of copper fine particle paste and its application as the inner electrode material of a multilayered ceramic capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonezawa, Tetsu; Takeoka, Shinsuke; Kishi, Hiroshi; Ida, Kiyonobu; Tomonari, Masanori

    2008-04-01

    Well size-controlled copper fine particles (diameter: 100-300 nm) were used as the inner electrode material of multilayered ceramic capacitors (MLCCs). The particles were dispersed in terpineol to form a printing paste with 50 wt% copper particles. The MLCC precursor modules prepared by the layer-by-layer printing of copper and BaTiO3 particles were cosintered. Detailed observation of the particles, paste, and MLCCs before and after sintering was carried out by electron microscopy. The sintering temperature of Cu-MLCC was as low as 960 °C. The permittivity of these MLCCs was successfully measured with the copper inner layers.

  6. Potential structural material problems in a hydrogen energy system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Potential structural material problems that may be encountered in the three components of a hydrogen energy system - production, transmission/storage, and utilization - were identified. Hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion may occur during the production of hydrogen. Hydrogen embrittlement is of major concern during both transmission and utilization of hydrogen. Specific materials research and development programs necessary to support a hydrogen energy system are described.

  7. Stability enhancement of an electrically tunable colloidal photonic crystal using modified electrodes with a large electrochemical potential window

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, HongShik; Gyun Shin, Chang; Heo, Chul-Joon; Jeon, Seog-Jin; Jin, Haishun; Woo Kim, Jung; Jin, YongWan; Lee, SangYoon; Gyu Han, Moon E-mail: jinklee@snu.ac.kr; Lim, Joohyun; Lee, Jin-Kyu E-mail: jinklee@snu.ac.kr

    2014-02-03

    The color tuning behavior and switching stability of an electrically tunable colloidal photonic crystal system were studied with particular focus on the electrochemical aspects. Photonic color tuning of the colloidal arrays composed of monodisperse particles dispersed in water was achieved using external electric field through lattice constant manipulation. However, the number of effective color tuning cycle was limited due to generation of unwanted ions by electrolysis of the water medium during electrical switching. By introducing larger electrochemical potential window electrodes, such as conductive diamond-like carbon or boron-doped diamond, the switching stability was appreciably enhanced through reducing the number of ions generated.

  8. Potential Polymeric Sphere Construction Materials for a Spacecraft Electrostatic Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Smith, Trent; Williams, Martha; Youngquist, Robert; Mendell, Wendell

    2006-01-01

    An electrostatic shielding concept for spacecraft radiation protection under NASA s Exploration Systems Research and Technology Program was evaluated for its effectiveness and feasibility. The proposed shield design is reminiscent of a classic quadrupole with positively and negatively charged spheres surrounding the spacecraft. The project addressed materials, shield configuration, power supply, and compared its effectiveness to that of a passive shield. The report herein concerns the identification of commercially available materials that could be used in sphere fabrication. It was found that several materials were needed to potentially construct the spheres for an electrostatic shield operating at 300 MV.

  9. Controlled porosity in electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Bae, Chang-Jun; Halloran, John William; Fu, Qiang; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Erdonmez, Can K.

    2015-06-23

    Porous electrodes in which the porosity has a low tortuosity are generally provided. In some embodiments, the porous electrodes can be designed to be filled with electrolyte and used in batteries, and can include low tortuosity in the primary direction of ion transport during charge and discharge of the battery. In some embodiments, the electrodes can have a high volume fraction of electrode active material (i.e., low porosity). The attributes outlined above can allow the electrodes to be fabricated with a higher energy density, higher capacity per unit area of electrode (mAh/cm.sup.2), and greater thickness than comparable electrodes while still providing high utilization of the active material in the battery during use. Accordingly, the electrodes can be used to produce batteries with high energy densities, high power, or both compared to batteries using electrodes of conventional design with relatively highly tortuous pores.

  10. Assessment of potential exposure to friable insulation materials containing asbestos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W. S.; Kuivinen, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Asbestos and the procedures for assessing potential exposure hazards are discussed. Assessment includes testing a bulk sample of the suspected material for the presence of asbestos, and monitoring the air, if necessary. Based on field inspections and laboratory analyses, the health hazard is evaluated, and abatement measures are taken if a potential hazard exists. Throughout the assessment and abatement program, all applicable regulations are administered as specified by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

  11. Thin Film Electrode Materials Li4Ti5O12 and LiCoO2 Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, M.; Tani, J.; Kido, H.; Hayashi, A.; Tadanaga, K.; Tatsumisago, M.

    2011-05-01

    The Li4Ti5O12 and the LiCoO2 have been considered as promising candidates of electrode materials for all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries. The spray pyrolysis method is a useful economical technique to prepare various thicknesses of oxide films though have not been intensively studied for fabrication of thin film lithium batteries. Thin films of Li4Ti5O12 and LiCoO2 electrode materials about 100-400 nm were prepared on quartz and gold substrates by the spray pyrolysis method by using Liacac and, TiO(acac)4 or Co(acac)3 with DMF solvent as starting materials. Electric properties as electrode materials for lithium batteries were estimated by using 3 probe liquid cells with liquid electrolyte LiPF6 in EC-DMC and Li metal as reference and counter electrodes. Structure and morphology of the films were investigated by XRD and SEM. Crystalline Li4Ti5O12 and LiCoO2 thin films were found to be prepared over 700 °C of substrate temperature. Cyclic voltammograms of the Li4Ti5O12 electrode thin films showed sharp oxidation and reduction peaks around 1.6 and 1.5 V, respectively. Charge-discharge curves for both Li4Ti5O12 and LiCoO2 electrode thin films showed discharge plateaus around 1.4 and 3.8 V with about 80 mAhg-1 of capacity. These results showed that these electrode thin films prepared by the spray pyrolysis method are electrochemically active and spray pyrolysis method is a promising technique to prepare thin film electrode materials.

  12. Ion flow and sheath structure near positively biased electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, R.; Scheiner, B.; Baalrud, S. D.; Hopkins, M. M.; Barnat, E. V.; Yee, B. T.; Merlino, R. L.; Skiff, F.

    2016-11-01

    What effect does a dielectric material surrounding a small positively biased electrode have on the ion flow and sheath structure near the electrode? Measurements of the ion velocity distribution function and plasma potential near positively biased electrodes were made using laser-induced fluorescence and an emissive probe. The results were compared with 2D particle-in-cell simulations. Both measurements and simulations showed that when the positive electrode was surrounded by the dielectric material, ions were accelerated toward the electrode to approximately 0.5 times the ion sound speed before being deflected radially by the electron sheath potential barrier of the electrode. The axial potential profile in this case contained a virtual cathode. In comparison, when the dielectric material was removed from around the electrode, both the ion flow and virtual cathode depth near the electrode were dramatically reduced. These measurements suggest that the ion presheath from the dielectric material surrounding the electrode may enclose the electron sheath of the electrode, resulting in a virtual cathode that substantially influences the ion flow profile in the region.

  13. Synthesis of a novel electrode material containing phytic acid-polyaniline nanofibers for simultaneous determination of cadmium and lead ions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Zhu, Wencai; Gao, Xiaochun; Liu, Xiuyu; Ma, Houyi

    2016-12-01

    The development of nanostructured conducting polymers based materials for electrochemical applications has attracted intense attention due to their environmental stability, unique reversible redox properties, abundant electron active sites, rapid electron transfer and tunable conductivity. Here, a phytic acid doped polyaniline nanofibers based nanocomposite was synthesized using a simple and green method, the properties of the resulting nanomaterial was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). A glassy carbon electrode modified by the nanocomposite was evaluated as a new platform for the simultaneous detection of trace amounts of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). The synergistic contribution from PANI nanofibers and phytic acid enhances the accumulation efficiency and the charge transfer rate of metal ions during the DPASV analysis. Under the optimal conditions, good linear relationships were obtained for Cd(2+) in a range of 0.05-60 μg L(-1), with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.02 μg L(-1), and for Pb(2+) in a range of 0.1-60 μg L(-1), with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.05 μg L(-1). The new electrode was successfully applied to real water samples for simultaneous detection of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) with good recovery rates. Therefore, the new electrode material may be a capable candidate for the detection of trace levels of heavy metal ions.

  14. Pr4Ni3O10+δ: A new promising oxygen electrode material for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vibhu, Vaibhav; Rougier, Aline; Nicollet, Clément; Flura, Aurélien; Fourcade, Sébastien; Penin, Nicolas; Grenier, Jean-Claude; Bassat, Jean-Marc

    2016-06-01

    The present work is focused on the study of Pr4Ni3O10+δ as a new cathode material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs). The structural study leads to an indexation in orthorhombic structure with Fmmm space group, this structure being thermally stable throughout the temperature range up to 1000 °C under air and oxygen. The variation of oxygen content (10+δ) as a function of temperature under different atmospheres show that Pr4Ni3O10+δ is always oxygen over-stoichiometric, which further suggests its MIEC properties. The polarization resistance (Rp) of Pr4Ni3O10+δ electrode is measured for GDC/co-sintered and two-step sintered half cells. The Rp for co-sintered sample is found to be 0.16 Ω cm2 at 600 °C under air, which is as low as the one of highest performing Pr2NiO4+δ nickelate (Rp = 0.15 Ω cm2 at 600 °C). Moreover, an anode supported (Ni-YSZ//YSZ) single cell including GDC//Pr4Ni3O10+δ co-sintered electrode shows a maximum power density of 1.60 W cm-2 at 800 °C and 0.68 W cm-2 at 700 °C. Here, the work is emphasized on the very close electrochemical performance of Pr4Ni3O10+δ compared to the one of Pr2NiO4+δ with higher chemical stability, which gives great interests to consider this material as a very interesting oxygen-electrode for SOFCs.

  15. Amorphous thin film ruthenium oxide as an electrode material for electrochemical capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, T.R.; Zheng, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Ruthenium oxide thin films of an amorphous phase were successfully prepared on a titanium (Ti) substrate at temperatures below 160 C. The sol-gel process using metal alkoxide precursor in nonaqueous solvents was used to prepare these films. The preliminary results showed that a specific capacitance of 430 F/g can be achieved for amorphous ruthenium oxide electrode in sulfuric acid. Films prepared by this method are compared with the films prepared by the thermal decomposition of the aqueous ruthenium chloride solution at temperatures above 300 C. The specific capacitance, the crystalline structure, and the surface morphology of these films as a function of the preparation temperature were also discussed.

  16. Production of an ion-exchange membrane-catalytic electrode bonded material for electrolytic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takenaka, H.; Torikai, E.

    1986-01-01

    A good bond is achieved by placing a metal salt in solution on one side of a membrane and a reducing agent on the other side so that the reducing agent penetrates the membrane and reduces the metal. Thus, a solution containing Pt, Rh, etc., is placed on one side of the membrane and a reducing agent such as NaBH, is placed on the other side. The bonded metal layer obtained is superior in catalytic activity and is suitable as an electrode in a cell such as for solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis.

  17. In situ study of electrochemical activation and surface segregation of the SOFC electrode material La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O(3±δ).

    PubMed

    Huber, Anne-Katrin; Falk, Mareike; Rohnke, Marcus; Luerssen, Bjoern; Gregoratti, Luca; Amati, Matteo; Janek, Jürgen

    2012-01-14

    Mixed-conducting perovskite-type electrodes which are used as cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) exhibit pronounced performance improvement after cathodic polarization. The current in situ study addresses the mechanism of this activation process which is still unknown. We chose the new perovskite-type material La(0.75)Sr(0.25)Cr(0.5)Mn(0.5)O(3±δ) which is a potential candidate for use in symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells (SFCs). We prepared La(0.75)Sr(0.25)Cr(0.5)Mn(0.5)O(3±δ) thin film model electrodes on YSZ (111) single crystals by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements show that the kinetics of these electrodes can be drastically improved by applying a cathodic potential. To understand the origin of the enhanced electrocatalytic activity the surfaces of operating LSCrM electrodes were studied in situ (at low pressure) with spatially resolving X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (μ-ESCA, SPEM) and quasi static secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) after applying different electrical potentials in the SIMS chamber. We observed that the electrode surfaces which were annealed at 600 °C are enriched significantly in strontium. Subsequent cathodic polarization decreases the strontium surface concentration while anodic polarization increases the strontium accumulation at the electrode surface. We propose a mechanism based on the reversible incorporation of a passivating SrO surface phase into the LSCrM lattice to explain the observed activation/deactivation process.

  18. Study of C-coated LiFe{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 0.67}PO{sub 4} as positive electrode material for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Perea, A.; Castro, L.; Aldon, L.; Stievano, L.; Dedryvere, R.; Gonbeau, D.; Tran, N.; Nuspl, G.; Breger, J.; Tessier, C.

    2012-08-15

    Commercial C-LiFe{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 0.67}PO{sub 4} positive electrode material has been investigated by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). The combined use of these experimental techniques provides a better understanding of the electrochemical reaction involved during cycling. {sup 57}Fe MS is very efficient to directly follow oxidation state of Fe in the electrode, and gives surprisingly indirect information on the oxidation state of Mn as observed by XAS and XPS. The electrochemical mechanism is proposed based from in situ and operando investigations using both MS and XAS, and is consistent with XPS surface studies. XPS analysis of the electrodes at the end of charge (4.4 V) reveals enhanced electrode/electrolyte interface reactivity at this high potential. Aging of C-LiFe{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 0.67}PO{sub 4}/Li cells after 50 cycles at 60 Degree-Sign C indicates a rather good electrochemical behavior (low capacity fading) of the electrode material. Both {sup 57}Fe MS and XPS (Mn 2p and Fe 2p) clearly show no modification on Fe and Mn oxidation state compared to fresh electrode confirming the good electrochemical performances. - Graphical abstrct: Quantitative evaluation of the Fe{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 3+} content during the first charge/discharge cycle obtained from K-edge XANES spectra of C-LiFe{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 0.67}PO{sub 4} recorded upon cell operation at RT with C/10 rate. During the charge co-existence of Fe and Mn oxidation is observed between points 2 and 4 of the potential curve. At the end of the charge the cut-off voltage limits the oxidation at about 93%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C-LiFe{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 0.67}PO{sub 4} electrode material upon cycling vs. metallic lithium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy is a (in)direct probe for Fe(Mn) oxidation state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both K-Fe and K-Mn edges XAS show a simultaneous

  19. Laser printing and femtosecond laser structuring of electrode materials for the manufacturing of 3D lithium-ion micro-batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrek, P.; Kim, H.; Zheng, Y.; Seifert, H. J.; Piqué, A.; Pfleging, W.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, three-dimensional (3D) electrode architectures have attracted great interest for the development of lithium-ion micro-batteries applicable for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), sensors, and hearing aids. Since commercial available micro-batteries are mainly limited in overall cell capacity by their electrode footprint, new processing strategies for increasing both capacity and electrochemical performance have to be developed. In case of such standard microbatteries, two-dimensional (2D) electrode arrangements are applied with thicknesses up to 200 μm. These electrode layers are composed of active material, conductive agent, graphite, and polymeric binder. Nevertheless, with respect to the type of active material, the active material to conductive agent ratio, and the film thickness, such thick-films suffer from low ionic and electronic conductivities, poor electrolyte accessibility, and finally, limited electrochemical performance under challenging conditions. In order to overcome these drawbacks, 3D electrode arrangements are under intense investigation since they allow the reduction of lithium-ion diffusion pathways in between inter-digitated electrodes, even for electrodes with enhanced mass loadings. In this paper, we present how to combine laser-printing and femtosecond laser-structuring for the development of advanced 3D electrodes composed of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 (NMC). In a first step, NMC thick-films were laser-printed and calendered to achieve film thicknesses in the range of 50 μm - 80 μm. In a second step, femtosecond laser-structuring was carried out in order to generate 3D architectures directly into thick-films. Finally, electrochemical cycling of laser-processed films was performed in order to evaluate the most promising 3D electrode designs suitable for application in long life-time 3D micro-batteries.

  20. Reliability Evaluation of Base-Metal-Electrode Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors for Potential Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, David (Donhang); Sampson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Base-metal-electrode (BME) ceramic capacitors are being investigated for possible use in high-reliability spacelevel applications. This paper focuses on how BME capacitors construction and microstructure affects their lifetime and reliability. Examination of the construction and microstructure of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) BME capacitors reveals great variance in dielectric layer thickness, even among BME capacitors with the same rated voltage. Compared to PME (precious-metal-electrode) capacitors, BME capacitors exhibit a denser and more uniform microstructure, with an average grain size between 0.3 and 0.5 m, which is much less than that of most PME capacitors. BME capacitors can be fabricated with more internal electrode layers and thinner dielectric layers than PME capacitors because they have a fine-grained microstructure and do not shrink much during ceramic sintering. This makes it possible for BME capacitors to achieve a very high capacitance volumetric efficiency. The reliability of BME and PME capacitors was investigated using highly accelerated life testing (HALT). Most BME capacitors were found to fail with an early avalanche breakdown, followed by a regular dielectric wearout failure during the HALT test. When most of the early failures, characterized with avalanche breakdown, were removed, BME capacitors exhibited a minimum mean time-to-failure (MTTF) of more than 105 years at room temperature and rated voltage. Dielectric thickness was found to be a critical parameter for the reliability of BME capacitors. The number of stacked grains in a dielectric layer appears to play a significant role in determining BME capacitor reliability. Although dielectric layer thickness varies for a given rated voltage in BME capacitors, the number of stacked grains is relatively consistent, typically around 12 for a number of BME capacitors with a rated voltage of 25V. This may suggest that the number of grains per dielectric layer is more critical than the

  1. Preparation of Highly Dispersed Reduced Graphene Oxide Decorated with Chitosan Oligosaccharide as Electrode Material for Enhancing the Direct Electron Transfer of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhimin; Yang, Dongliang; Qi, Guangqin; Yuwen, Lihui; Zhang, Yuqian; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui; Huang, Wei

    2015-04-29

    Water-dispersed reduced graphene oxide/chitosan oligosaccharide (RGO-CTSO) was prepared by chemical reduction of graphene oxide and synchronous functionalization with biocompatible chitosan oligosaccharide (CTSO). ζ potential measurement indicated that RGO-CTSO was highly stable in the acidic aqueous solution. RGO-CTSO was used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as the growth template of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The enhanced direct electron transfer of E. coli on the RGO-CTSO-modified GCE was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Compared with GCE or RGO-modified GCE, RGO-CTSO-modified GCE was more suitable for the adhesion growth of E. coli to improve direct electron transfer. The biocompatibility and versatility of RGO-CTSO made it promising for use as an anode material in microbial fuel cells.

  2. Flexible and metal-free light-emitting electrochemical cells based on graphene and PEDOT-PSS as the electrode materials.

    PubMed

    Matyba, Piotr; Yamaguchi, Hisato; Chhowalla, Manish; Robinson, Nathaniel D; Edman, Ludvig

    2011-01-25

    We report flexible and metal-free light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) using exclusively solution-processed organic materials and illustrate interesting design opportunities offered by such conformable devices with transparent electrodes. Flexible LEC devices based on chemically derived graphene (CDG) as the cathode and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) mixed with poly(styrenesulfonate) as the anode exhibit a low turn-on voltage for yellow light emission (V = 2.8 V) and a good efficiency 2.4 (4.0) cd/A at a brightness of 100 (50) cd/m(2). We also find that CDG is electrochemically inert over a wide potential range (+1.2 to -2.8 V vs ferrocene/ferrocenium) and exploit this property to demonstrate planar LEC devices with CDG as both the anode and the cathode.

  3. CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a complete classification of all materials used in the construction of, or brought inside, homes and office buildings. n the classification tables Presented in the report, shaded entries are potential Sources of indoor air emissions. he classification system is b...

  4. Evaluation of the shedding potential of textile materials.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L; Lunstroot, K; Gason, F

    2010-12-01

    A practical method is proposed to assess the shedding potential of textile materials. The evaluation of the sheddability is based on the use of adhesive tapes and on comparison, using three different sheddability scales for cotton, wool and fine man-made fibres.

  5. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  6. Graphene-like carbon nanosheets as a new electrode material for electrochemical determination of hydroquinone and catechol.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongmei; Wang, Shuqin; Deng, Wenfang; Zhang, Youming; Tan, Yueming; Xie, Qingji; Ma, Ming

    2017-03-01

    We report here graphene-like carbon nanosheets (GCN) as a new electrode material for the electrochemical determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC). The GCN were prepared from maltose using ammonia chloride as a blowing agent and cobalt nitrate as a graphitization catalyst precursor. The as-prepared GCN material shows high graphitization degree, abundant porosity, and large specific surface area. Two well-separated anodic peaks for HQ and CC are obtained at GCN modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with a peak-to-peak separation of 118mV. The redox peak currents of HQ and CC at GCN/GCE were much higher than those at bare GCE and reduced graphene oxide modified GCE. For differential pulse voltammetric detection of HQ and CC, the GCN/GCE shows linear response ranges of 1×10(-7) ̶ 3×10(-5)M for HQ and 5×10(-7) ̶ 5×10(-5)M for CC, with detection limits of 2×10(-8)M for HQ, and 5×10(-8) M for CC. Satisfactory recoveries were achieved for the determination of HQ and CC in real water samples.

  7. Au-embedded ZnO/NiO hybrid with excellent electrochemical performance as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Yan, Xiaoqin; Sun, Yihui; Bai, Zhiming; Zhang, Guangjie; Shen, Yanwei; Liang, Qijie; Zhang, Yue

    2015-02-04

    Here we design a nanostructure by embedding Au nanoparticles into ZnO/NiO core-shell composites as supercapacitors electrodes materials. This optimized hybrid electrodes exhibited an excellent electrochemical performance including a long-term cycling stability and a maximum specific areal capacitance of 4.1 F/cm(2) at a current density of 5 mA/cm(2), which is much higher than that of ZnO/NiO hierarchical materials (0.5 F/cm(2)). Such an enhanced property is attributed to the increased electro-electrolyte interfaces, short electron diffusion pathways and good electrical conductivity. Apart from this, electrons can be temporarily trapped and accumulated at the Fermi level (EF') because of the localized schottky barrier at Au/NiO interface in charge process until fill the gap between ZnO and NiO, so that additional electrons can be released during discharge. These results demonstrate that suitable interface engineering may open up new opportunities in the development of high-performance supercapacitors.

  8. Effect of mesocelluar carbon foam electrode material on performance of vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sanghyun; An, Sunhyung; Jeong, Jooyoung; Lee, Jinwoo; Kwon, Yongchai

    2015-03-01

    Languid reaction rate of VO2+/VO2+ redox couple is a problem to solve for improving performance of vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). To facilitate the slow reaction materials including large pore sized mesocellular carbon foam (MSU-F-C and Pt/MSU-F-C) are used as new catalyst. Their catalytic activity and reaction reversibility are estimated and compared with other catalysts, while cycle tests of charge-discharge and polarization curve tests are implemented to evaluate energy efficiency (EE) and maximum power density (MPD). Their crystal structure, specific surface area and catalyst morphology are measured by XRD, BET and TEM. The new catalysts indicate high peak current ratio, small peak potential difference and high electron transfer rate constant, proving that their catalytic activity and reaction reversibility are superior. Regarding the charge-discharge and polarization curve tests, the VRFB single cells including new catalysts show high EE as well as low overpotential and internal resistance and high MPD. Such excellent results are due to mostly unique characteristics of MSU-F-C having large interconnected mesopores, high surface area and large contents of hydroxyl groups that serve as active sites for VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction and platinums (Pts) supporting the MSU-F-C. Indeed, employment of the catalysts including MSU-F-C leads to enhancement in performance of VRFB by facilitating the slow VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction.

  9. DC Potentials Applied to an End-cap Electrode of a 3-D Ion Trap for Enhanced MSn Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Boone M.; Xu, Wei; Ouyang, Zheng; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the application of various DC magnitudes and polarities to an end-cap of a 3-D quadrupole ion trap throughout a mass spectrometry experiment were investigated. Application of a monopolar DC field was achieved by applying a DC potential to the exit end-cap electrode, while maintaining the entrance end-cap electrode at ground potential. Control over the monopolar DC magnitude and polarity during time periods associated with ion accumulation, mass analysis, ion isolation, ion/ion reaction, and ion activation can have various desirable effects. Included amongst these are increased ion capture efficiency, increased ion ejection efficiency during mass analysis, effective isolation of ions using lower AC resonance ejection amplitudes, improved temporal control of the overlap of oppositely charged ion populations, and the performance of “broad-band” collision induced dissociation (CID). These results suggest general means to improve the performance of the 3-D ion trap in a variety of mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry experiments. PMID:21927573

  10. In-situ Spectroscopic and Structural Studies of Electrode Materials for Advanced Battery Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel A Scherson

    2013-03-14

    Techniques have been developed and implemented to gain insight into fundamental factors that affect the performance of electrodes in Li and Li-ion batteries and other energy storage devices. These include experimental strategies for monitoring the Raman scattering spectra of single microparticles of carbon and transition metal oxides as a function of their state of charge. Measurements were performed in electrolytes of direct relevance to Li and Li-Ion batteries both in the static and dynamic modes. In addition, novel strategies were devised for performing conventional experiments in ultrahigh vacuum environments under conditions which eliminate effects associated with presence of impurities, using ultrapure electrolytes, both of the polymeric and ionic liquid type that display no measurable vapor pressure. Also examined was the reactivity of conventional non aqueous solvent toward ultrapure Li films as monitored in ultrahigh vacuum with external reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Also pursued were efforts toward developing applying Raman-scattering for monitoring the flow of charge of a real Li ion battery. Such time-resolved, spatially-resolved measurements are key to validating the results of theoretical simulations involving real electrode structures.

  11. [A Case of Left Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Showing Evoked Potentials on Bilateral Electrode by the Left Vagus Nerve Stimulation to Electromyographic Tracheal Tube].

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Tatsuo; Uehara, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Shiraishi, Munehiro; Kinoshita, Yuki; Joyashiki, Takeshi; Enokida, Kengo

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we reported a case of brainstem cavernous hemangioma showing false positive responses to electromyographic tracheal tube (EMG tube). We concluded that the cause was spontaneous respiration accompanied by vocal cord movement. We report a case of left vertebral artery aneurysm showing evoked potentials on bilateral electrodes by the left vagus nerve stimulation to EMG tube. An 82-year-old woman underwent clipping of a left unruptured vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. General anesthesia was induced with remifentanil, propofol and suxamethonium, and was maintained with oxygen, air, remifentanil and propofol. We monitored somatosensory evoked potentials, motor evoked potentials, and electromyogram of the vocal cord. When the manipulation reached brainstem and the instrument touched the left vagus nerve, evoked potentials appeared on bilateral electrodes. EMG tube is equipped with two electrodes on both sides. We concluded that the left vagus nerve stimulation generated evoked potentials of the left laryngeal muscles, and they were simultaneously detected as potential difference between two electrodes on both sides. EMG tube is used to identify the vagus nerve. However, it is necessary to bear in mind that each vagus nerve stimulation inevitably generates evoked potentials on bilateral electrodes.

  12. Four-point potential drop measurements for materials characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The technique of measuring the voltage difference (potential drop) between two of the four electrodes of a four-point probe, in order to determine conductivity or surface resistivity of a test piece, is well established in the direct-current (dc) or quasi-dc regime. The technique finds wide usage in the semiconductor industry for the purpose of measuring surface resistivity of semiconductors, and also in the measurement of conductivity of metals, particularly of ferromagnetic metals for which conductivity cannot be easily measured using eddy-current nondestructive evaluation (NDE). In these applications, the conductivity of the test piece is deduced from an analytic formula that depends on the geometry of the probe and test piece. Such a formula requires, as an input, the measured value of the potential drop. Several analytical expressions exist for a variety of test-piece geometries and probe arrangements. Recently, it has been shown that broadband measurements of the potential drop, known as 'alternating current potential drop' (ac PD) measurements, can be used not only to obtain the conductivity of a test piece, but also its linear permeability μ. The beauty of this measurement is that the two parameters are completely decoupled in the quasi-static regime. In fact, μ does not appear in the quasi-static expression for σ. Hence, σ may be obtained from low-frequency ac PD measurements and then μ may be deduced as the frequency increases beyond the quasi-static regime, once σ is known. In this review, both dc and ac solutions that are useful in determining the conductivity of metals and semiconductors, and the permeability of ferromagnetic conductors, are summarized. In particular, flat test pieces with arbitrary thickness are considered. At the next level of complexity, a solution for a half-space coated with a surface layer is given, along with a discussion of the use of the four-point potential drop method for determining thickness of a surface layer, such

  13. New perspectives on potential hydrogen storage materials using high pressure.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang

    2013-09-21

    In addressing the global demand for clean and renewable energy, hydrogen stands out as the most suitable candidate for many fuel applications that require practical and efficient storage of hydrogen. Supplementary to the traditional hydrogen storage methods and materials, the high-pressure technique has emerged as a novel and unique approach to developing new potential hydrogen storage materials. Static compression of materials may result in significant changes in the structures, properties and performance that are important for hydrogen storage applications, and often lead to the formation of unprecedented phases or complexes that have profound implications for hydrogen storage. In this perspective article, 22 types of representative potential hydrogen storage materials that belong to four major classes--simple hydride, complex hydride, chemical hydride and hydrogen containing materials--were reviewed. In particular, their structures, stabilities, and pressure-induced transformations, which were reported in recent experimental works together with supporting theoretical studies, were provided. The important contextual aspects pertinent to hydrogen storage associated with novel structures and transitions were discussed. Finally, the summary of the recent advances reviewed and the insight into the future research in this direction were given.

  14. Estimating potential genotoxicity for direct coal-liquefaction materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Renne, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    Fuels derived from coal liquefaction processes are chemically complex, highly aromatic mixtures, the specific constituency of which is fairly process-dependent. Genotoxicity, when found in these materials, is generally confined to the heavy-end fractions or full boiling range materials which contain heavy ends. The moderately polar or nitrogen base fractions of these heavy-end materials are generally the most mutagenically active. In some SRC-II heavy-end bottoms and the SRC-I solid product, however, the highly polar fractions contribute substantially to the mutagenicity. Specific compounds presently recognized as contributors or potential contributors to genotoxicity of the coal liquids studied include polycyclic primary aromatic amines, and to a much lesser extent, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having four or more rings, certain polycyclic nitrogen heterocycles as well as certain polycyclic sulfur heterocyclics. The degree to which a given material has been subjected to reducing conditions during production appears to be an important parameter in determining its potential genotoxicity, the more severely reduced materials tending to be less genotoxic.

  15. Quantifying protein adsorption and function at nanostructured materials: enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase at GLAD structured electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Uffe B; Ferapontova, Elena E; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2012-07-31

    Nanostructured materials strongly modulate the behavior of adsorbed proteins; however, the characterization of such interactions is challenging. Here we present a novel method combining protein adsorption studies at nanostructured quartz crystal microbalance sensor surfaces (QCM-D) with optical (surface plasmon resonance SPR) and electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry CV) allowing quantification of both bound protein amount and activity. The redox enzyme glucose oxidase is studied as a model system to explore alterations in protein functional behavior caused by adsorption onto flat and nanostructured surfaces. This enzyme and such materials interactions are relevant for biosensor applications. Novel nanostructured gold electrode surfaces with controlled curvature were fabricated using colloidal lithography and glancing angle deposition (GLAD). The adsorption of enzyme to nanostructured interfaces was found to be significantly larger compared to flat interfaces even after normalization for the increased surface area, and no substantial desorption was observed within 24 h. A decreased enzymatic activity was observed over the same period of time, which indicates a slow conformational change of the adsorbed enzyme induced by the materials interface. Additionally, we make use of inherent localized surface plasmon resonances in these nanostructured materials to directly quantify the protein binding. We hereby demonstrate a QCM-D-based methodology to quantify protein binding at complex nanostructured materials. Our approach allows label free quantification of protein binding at nanostructured interfaces.

  16. Metal hydrides used as negative electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Sabrina; Cuevas, Fermin; Latroche, Michel

    2016-02-01

    Energy is a key issue for future generation. Researches are conducted worldwide to develop new efficient means for energy conversion and storage. Electrochemical storage is foreseen as an efficient way to handle intermittent renewable energy production. The most advanced batteries are nowadays based on lithium-ion technology though their specific capacities should be significantly increased to bring solution to mass storage. Conversion reactions are one way to step forward larger capacities at the anode. We here review the possibility to use metallic or complex hydrides as negative electrode using conversion reaction of hydride with lithium. Moreover, promising alloying of lithium with the metallic species might provide additional reversible capacities. Both binary and ternary systems are reviewed and results are compared in the frame of the electrochemical application.

  17. TiO2(B) nanoribbons as negative electrode material for lithium ion batteries with high rate performance.

    PubMed

    Beuvier, Thomas; Richard-Plouet, Mireille; Mancini-Le Granvalet, Maryline; Brousse, Thierry; Crosnier, Olivier; Brohan, Luc

    2010-09-20

    Nanosized TiO(2)(B) has been investigated as a possible candidate to replace Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) or graphite as the negative electrode for a Li-ion battery. Nanoribbon precursors, classically synthesized in autogenous conditions at temperatures higher than 170 °C in alkaline medium, have been obtained, under reflux (T ∼ 120 °C, P = 1 bar). After ionic exchange, these nanoribbons exhibit a surface area of 140 m(2) g(-1), larger than those obtained under autogenous conditions or by solid state chemistry. These nanoparticles transform after annealing to isomorphic titanium dioxide. They mainly crystallize as the TiO(2)(B) variety with only 5% of anatase. This quantification of the anatase/TiO(2)(B) ratio was deduced from Raman spectroscopy measurement. TEM analysis highlights the excellent crystallinity of the nanosized TiO(2)(B), crystallizing as 6 nm thin nanoribbons. These characteristics are essential in lithium batteries for a fast lithium ion solid state diffusion into the active material. In lithium batteries, the TiO(2)(B) nanoribbons exhibit a good capacity and an excellent rate capability (reversible capacity of 200 mA h g(-1) at C/3 rate (111 mA g(-1)), 100 mA h g(-1) at 15C rate (5030 mA g(-1)) for a 50% carbon black loaded electrode). The electrode formulation study highlights the importance of the electronic and ionic connection around the active particles. The cycleability of the nano-TiO(2)(B) is another interesting point with a capacity loss of 5% only, over 500 cycles at 3C.

  18. Solid-state sodium batteries using polymer electrolytes and sodium intercalation electrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Y. |

    1996-08-01

    Solid-state sodium cells using polymer electrolytes (polyethylene oxide mixed with sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate: PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) and sodium cobalt oxide positive electrodes are characterized in terms of discharge and charge characteristics, rate capability, cycle life, and energy and power densities. The P2 phase Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} can reversibly intercalate sodium in the range of x = 0.3 to 0.9, giving a theoretical specific energy of 440 Wh/kg and energy density of 1,600 Wh/l. Over one hundred cycles to 60% depth of discharge have been obtained at 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Experiments show that the electrolyte/Na interface is stable and is not the limiting factor to cell cycle life. Na{sub 0.7}CoO{sub 2} composite electrodes containing various amounts of carbon black additive are investigated. The transport properties of polymer electrolytes are the critical factors for performance. These properties (the ionic conductivity, salt diffusion coefficient, and ion transference number) are measured for the PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} system over a wide range of concentrations at 85 C. All the three transport properties are very salt-concentration dependent. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum at about n = 20. The transference number, diffusion coefficient, and thermodynamic factor all vary with salt concentration in a similar fashion, decreasing as the concentration increases, except for a local maximum. These results verify that polymer electrolytes cannot be treated as ideal solutions. The measured transport-property values are used to analyze and optimize the electrolytes by computer simulation and also cell testing. Salt precipitation is believed to be the rate limiting process for cells using highly concentrated solutions, as a result of lower values of these properties, while salt depletion is the limiting factor when a dilute solution is used.

  19. Comparison of effectiveness between cork-screw and peg-screw electrodes for transcranial motor evoked potential monitoring using the finite element method

    PubMed Central

    Tomio, Ryosuke; Akiyama, Takenori; Ohira, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intraoperative monitoring of motor evoked potentials by transcranial electric stimulation is popular in neurosurgery for monitoring motor function preservation. Some authors have reported that the peg-screw electrodes screwed into the skull can more effectively conduct current to the brain compared to subdermal cork-screw electrodes screwed into the skin. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of electrode design on transcranial motor evoked potential monitoring. We estimated differences in effectiveness between the cork-screw electrode, peg-screw electrode, and cortical electrode to produce electric fields in the brain. Methods: We used the finite element method to visualize electric fields in the brain generated by transcranial electric stimulation using realistic three-dimensional head models developed from T1-weighted images. Surfaces from five layers of the head were separated as accurately as possible. We created the “cork-screws model,” “1 peg-screw model,” “peg-screws model,” and “cortical electrode model”. Results: Electric fields in the brain radially diffused from the brain surface at a maximum just below the electrodes in coronal sections. The coronal sections and surface views of the brain showed higher electric field distributions under the peg-screw compared to the cork-screw. An extremely high electric field was observed under cortical electrodes. Conclusion: Our main finding was that the intensity of electric fields in the brain are higher in the peg-screw model than the cork-screw model. PMID:27920938

  20. Insulated ECG electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portnoy, W. M.; David, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Insulated, capacitively coupled electrode does not require electrolyte paste for attachment. Other features of electrode include wide range of nontoxic material that may be employed for dielectric because of sputtering technique used. Also, electrode size is reduced because there is no need for external compensating networks with FET operational amplifier.

  1. Aerospace electrode line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L.

    1980-04-01

    A facility which produces electrodes for spacecraft power supplies is described. The electrode assembly procedures are discussed. A number of design features in the production process are reported including a batch operation mode and an independent equipment module design approach for transfering the electrode materials from process tank to process tank.

  2. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  3. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  4. Analytical and numerical solutions of the potential and electric field generated by different electrode arrays in a tumor tissue under electrotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Electrotherapy is a relatively well established and efficient method of tumor treatment. In this paper we focus on analytical and numerical calculations of the potential and electric field distributions inside a tumor tissue in a two-dimensional model (2D-model) generated by means of electrode arrays with shapes of different conic sections (ellipse, parabola and hyperbola). Methods Analytical calculations of the potential and electric field distributions based on 2D-models for different electrode arrays are performed by solving the Laplace equation, meanwhile the numerical solution is solved by means of finite element method in two dimensions. Results Both analytical and numerical solutions reveal significant differences between the electric field distributions generated by electrode arrays with shapes of circle and different conic sections (elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic). Electrode arrays with circular, elliptical and hyperbolic shapes have the advantage of concentrating the electric field lines in the tumor. Conclusion The mathematical approach presented in this study provides a useful tool for the design of electrode arrays with different shapes of conic sections by means of the use of the unifying principle. At the same time, we verify the good correspondence between the analytical and numerical solutions for the potential and electric field distributions generated by the electrode array with different conic sections. PMID:21943385

  5. Solid-State Electrode Engineering and Material Processing for All-Solid-State Lithium and Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yersak, Thomas A.

    In this dissertation we demonstrate the full rechargeability of a FeS 2/lithium metal battery at 60°C. To enable the reversibility of the FeS2 redox chemistry we utilize a bulk all-solid-state battery architecture based upon the Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramic electrolyte. The glass-ceramic electrolyte's non-volatility and non-flammability allows us to use a lithium metal anode safely, while its solid nature confines FeS2's intermediate electroactive species to prevent active material loss and capacity fade. Based only on the weight of the active materials our battery stands to triple the specific energy (Wh kg-1) of conventional state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. We also observe ortho-FeS2 as a charge product and propose a new discharge mechanism which revises 30 years of research on the subject. Unfortunately, our laboratory FeS2/Li battery could not achieve a practical cell-level specific energy because the composite electrode was nearly 70 wt. % glass-ceramic electrolyte and carbon black. We also found that our batteries were not durable because the formation of lithium dendrites through the glass-ceramic electrolyte separator membrane frequently internally shorted test cells upon charge. The remainder of this dissertation outlines our work to develop an all-solid-state Li-ion battery to address the shorting issue and the work done to engineer better active material-electrolyte solid-solid interfaces in the composite electrode for high cell-level specific energy.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Killpatrick, Don H.

    1978-01-01

    An electrode capable of withstanding high temperatures and suitable for use as a current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator consists of a sintered powdered metal base portion, the upper surface of the base being coated with a first layer of nickel aluminide, an intermediate layer of a mixture of nickel aluminide - refractory ceramic on the first layer and a third or outer layer of a refractory ceramic material on the intermediate layer. The sintered powdered metal base resists spalling by the ceramic coatings and permits greater electrode compliance to thermal shock. The density of the powdered metal base can be varied to allow optimization of the thermal conductivity of the electrode and prevent excess heat loss from the channel.

  7. Status and potential of atmospheric plasma processing of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, Daphne

    2011-03-15

    This paper is a review of the current status and potential of atmospheric plasma technology for materials processing. The main focus is the recent developments in the area of dielectric barrier discharges with emphasis in the functionalization of polymers, deposition of organic and inorganic coatings, and plasma processing of biomaterials. A brief overview of both the equipment being used and the physicochemical reactions occurring in the gas phase is also presented. Atmospheric plasma technology offers major industrial, economic, and environmental advantages over other conventional processing methods. At the same time there is also tremendous potential for future research and applications involving both the industrial and academic world.

  8. Investigation of woven composites as potential cryogenic tank materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md. S.; Melendez-Soto, E.; Castellanos, A. G.; Prabhakar, P.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, carbon fiber and Kevlar® fiber woven composites were investigated as potential cryogenic tank materials for storing liquid fuel in spacecraft or rocket. Towards that end, both carbon and Kevlar® fiber composites were manufactured and tested with and without cryogenic exposure. The focus was on the investigation of the influence of initial cryogenic exposure on the degradation of the composite. Tensile, flexural and inter laminar shear strength (ILSS) tests were conducted, which indicate that Kevlar® and carbon textile composites are potential candidates for use under cryogenic exposure.

  9. Reduced graphene oxide/macrocyclic iron complex hybrid materials as counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chih-Hung; Huang, Wei-Chih; Wang, Wun-Shiuan; Shih, Chun-Jyun; Chi, Wen-Feng; Hu, Yu-Chung; Yu, Yuan-Hsiang

    2017-06-01

    A novel series of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/macrocyclic iron (Fe) complex hybrid materials were synthesized and then used in the production of counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The electrode properties of various CEs were comprehensively analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and cyclic voltammetry analyses. DSSCs, based on various CEs, were characterized using current density-voltage, incident monochromatic photon-to-current conversion efficiency, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. DSSCs fabricated using the RGO/macrocyclic Fe nanocomposite CEs yielded an efficiency of 6.75%. The RGO/Fe CEs exhibited efficient electrocatalytic capability because catalytic Fe particles were uniformly distributed on the surface of RGO. The results indicated that a DSSC with a RGO/Fe CE can exhibit an efficiency comparable to that of a platinum (Pt) CE DSSC and can therefore replace conventional Pt CE DSSCs to lower the cost of solar cells.

  10. Influences of internal resistance and specific surface area of electrode materials on characteristics of electric double layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yoshiyuki; Mizutani, Akitaka; Harigai, Toru; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Ue, Hitoshi; Umeda, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    We fabricated electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) using particulate and fibrous types of carbon nanomaterials with a wide range of specific surface areas and resistivity as an active material. The carbon nanomaterials used in this study are carbon nanoballoons (CNBs), onion-like carbon (OLC), and carbon nanocoils (CNCs). A commercially used activated carbon (AC) combined with a conductive agent was used as a comparison. We compared the EDLC performance using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge testing, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). OLC showed a poor EDLC performance, although it has the lowest resistivity among the carbon nanomaterials. CNB, which has a 1/16 lower specific surface area than AC but higher specific surface area than CNC and OLC, had a higher specific capacitance than CNC and OLC. Moreover, at current densities of 1.5 Ag-1 and larger, the specific capacitance of the EDLC using CNB was almost the same as that using AC. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the EDLCs revealed that the CNB and CNC electrodes had a much lower internal resistance than the AC electrode, which correlated with a low capacitance maintenance factor as the current density increased.

  11. In situ observation of nickel as an oxidizable electrode material for the solid-electrolyte-based resistive random access memory

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jun; Wu, Xing; Xu, Feng; Xu, Tao; Sun, Litao; Liu, Qi; Xie, Hongwei; Long, Shibing; Lv, Hangbing; Li, Yingtao; Liu, Ming

    2013-02-04

    In this letter, we dynamically investigate the resistive switching characteristics and physical mechanism of the Ni/ZrO{sub 2}/Pt device. The device shows stable bipolar resistive switching behaviors after forming process, which is similar to the Ag/ZrO{sub 2}/Pt and Cu/ZrO{sub 2}/Pt devices. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we observe in real time that several conductive filaments are formed across the ZrO{sub 2} layer between Ni and Pt electrodes after forming. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results confirm that Ni is the main composition of the conductive filaments. The ON-state resistance increases with increasing temperature, exhibiting the feature of metallic conduction. In addition, the calculated resistance temperature coefficient is equal to that of the 10-30 nm diameter Ni nanowire, further indicating that the nanoscale Ni conductive bridge is the physical origin of the observed conductive filaments. The resistive switching characteristics and the conductive filament's component of Ni/ZrO{sub 2}/Pt device are consistent with the characteristics of the typical solid-electrolyte-based resistive random access memory. Therefore, aside from Cu and Ag, Ni can also be used as an oxidizable electrode material for resistive random access memory applications.

  12. Thin Film Nanocrystalline TiO2 Electrodes: Dependence of Flat Band Potential on pH and Anion Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Minella, M; Maurino, V; Minero, C; Pelizzetti, E

    2015-05-01

    Thin nanocrystalline TiO2 films were produced on ITO conductive glass by dip-coating of a sol-gel TiO2 precursor. The transparent films were characterized from the optical and structural point of view with UV-Vis, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, the roughness of the coating by AFM. The changes in the electrochemical properties features of ITO/TiO2 electrodes were evaluated in the presence of different electrolytes (KCI, Na2SO4 and phosphate buffer) with the aim to clarify the role of the ion adsorption on the structure of the electrical double layer. Electrochemical tests (Cyclic Voltammetry, CV, and Impedance Electrochemical Spectroscopy, EIS) showed a strong influence of the electrolyte properties on the semiconductor band edge position in the electrochemical scale and on band bending. The CV profiles recorded can be explained by considering that the interface capacity is due to the charging of surface states (e.g., Ti(IV) surface sites coordinated by oxygen atoms, ≡Ti-OH or Ti-O-Ti). The surface charge is strongly affected also by the density and nature of adsorbed ions and by dissociation of surficial OH. Of interest the fact that for the produced nanocrystalline electrodes the flat band potential, measured from the Mott-Schottky analysis of the space charge layer capacity obtained with EIS, showed a non Nernstian behavior with the pH probably caused by a change in the surface acidity as a consequence of specific anion adsorption. The modulation of flat band potential with adsorbed ions is of interest for many applications, in particular for photocatalysis (change in the redox potential of photogenerated carriers) and for photovoltaic applications like DSSC (change in the photopotentials).

  13. Identification of Electrode Respiring, Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacterial Strain Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MK2 Highlights the Untapped Potential for Environmental Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2016-01-01

    Electrode respiring bacteria (ERB) possess a great potential for many biotechnological applications such as microbial electrochemical remediation systems (MERS) because of their exoelectrogenic capabilities to degrade xenobiotic pollutants. Very few ERB have been isolated from MERS, those exhibited a bioremediation potential toward organic contaminants. Here we report once such bacterial strain, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MK2, a facultative anaerobic bacterium isolated from a hydrocarbon fed MERS, showed a potent hydrocarbonoclastic behavior under aerobic and anaerobic environments. Distinct properties of the strain MK2 were anaerobic fermentation of the amino acids, electrode respiration, anaerobic nitrate reduction and the ability to metabolize n-alkane components (C8–C36) of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) including the biomarkers, pristine and phytane. The characteristic of diazoic dye decolorization was used as a criterion for pre-screening the possible electrochemically active microbial candidates. Bioelectricity generation with concomitant dye decolorization in MERS showed that the strain is electrochemically active. In acetate fed microbial fuel cells (MFCs), maximum current density of 273 ± 8 mA/m2 (1000 Ω) was produced (power density 113 ± 7 mW/m2) by strain MK2 with a coulombic efficiency of 34.8%. Further, the presence of possible alkane hydroxylase genes (alkB and rubA) in the strain MK2 indicated that the genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation are of diverse origin. Such observations demonstrated the potential of facultative hydrocarbon degradation in contaminated environments. Identification of such a novel petrochemical hydrocarbon degrading ERB is likely to offer a new route to the sustainable bioremedial process of source zone contamination with simultaneous energy generation through MERS. PMID:28018304

  14. Direct Observation of Active Material Concentration Gradients and Crystallinity Breakdown in LiFePO4 Electrodes During Charge/Discharge Cycling of Lithium Batteries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The phase changes that occur during discharge of an electrode comprised of LiFePO4, carbon, and PTFE binder have been studied in lithium half cells by using X-ray diffraction measurements in reflection geometry. Differences in the state of charge between the front and the back of LiFePO4 electrodes have been visualized. By modifying the X-ray incident angle the depth of penetration of the X-ray beam into the electrode was altered, allowing for the examination of any concentration gradients that were present within the electrode. At high rates of discharge the electrode side facing the current collector underwent limited lithium insertion while the electrode as a whole underwent greater than 50% of discharge. This behavior is consistent with depletion at high rate of the lithium content of the electrolyte contained in the electrode pores. Increases in the diffraction peak widths indicated a breakdown of crystallinity within the active material during cycling even during the relatively short duration of these experiments, which can also be linked to cycling at high rate. PMID:24790684

  15. Direct Observation of Active Material Concentration Gradients and Crystallinity Breakdown in LiFePO4 Electrodes During Charge/Discharge Cycling of Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Matthew R; Madsen, Alex; Nicklin, Chris; Rawle, Jonathan; Palmer, Michael G; Owen, John R; Hector, Andrew L

    2014-04-03

    The phase changes that occur during discharge of an electrode comprised of LiFePO4, carbon, and PTFE binder have been studied in lithium half cells by using X-ray diffraction measurements in reflection geometry. Differences in the state of charge between the front and the back of LiFePO4 electrodes have been visualized. By modifying the X-ray incident angle the depth of penetration of the X-ray beam into the electrode was altered, allowing for the examination of any concentration gradients that were present within the electrode. At high rates of discharge the electrode side facing the current collector underwent limited lithium insertion while the electrode as a whole underwent greater than 50% of discharge. This behavior is consistent with depletion at high rate of the lithium content of the electrolyte contained in the electrode pores. Increases in the diffraction peak widths indicated a breakdown of crystallinity within the active material during cycling even during the relatively short duration of these experiments, which can also be linked to cycling at high rate.

  16. Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal devices with graphene electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seok-Hwan; Noh, Hee Yeon

    2015-12-14

    Although polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) devices have considerable potential application in smart windows, the high material cost of the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes conventionally used in these devices hinders their wide usage. In this work, we explore the use of graphene electrodes as a potential substitute for ITO electrodes in PDLC devices. The fabricated PDLC devices with graphene electrodes exhibit higher contrast and faster response than PDLC devices with ITO electrodes fabricated using the same chemical formulation and polymerization process. However, they also exhibit higher operation voltage and haze, which is primarily attributed to the inherently large resistance and inhomogeneity of the large-area graphene sheets initially transferred onto the transparent substrates. PDLC devices with graphene electrodes are robust under standard operating conditions and also have the advantage of flexibility and stretchability, unlike PDLCs with ITO electrodes.

  17. A potential base substrate for deformable scintillation materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Sato, Nobuhiro; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2016-05-01

    Deformable scintillation materials for radiation detection are an original concept that will impact many applications. Here we reveal the optical characteristics of readily available, transparent grease that consists of adhesive aromatic ring polymers. The aromatic ring polymer is methyl phenyl polysiloxane, commonly used in cosmetics, lubrication, heat conduction, and mechanical damping. It has a 285-nm excitation maximum and emits short wavelength light that peaks at 315 nm. The stopping power for 1 MeV electrons is 1.78 MeV cm2/g. The light-yield distribution has distinct peaks at 976 keV from internal conversion electrons and at 5486 keV from alpha particles. In addition, this particular methyl phenyl polysiloxane is safe for use and disposal, which is an excellent advantage. These aromatic ring polymers are potential base substrates for deformable scintillation materials and make an important addition to the categories of scintillation materials.

  18. Drying of porous materials in a medium with variable potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.Y. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper presents an application of the Luikov system of heat and mass transfer equations in dimensionless form to predict the temperature and moisture distributions in a slab of capillary-porous material during drying. The heat and mass potentials of the external medium in the boundary conditions are assumed to vary linearly with time. The method of solution is illustrated by considering the drying of a slab of lumber. Numerical results based on the estimated thermophysical properties of spruce are presented.

  19. In vitro drug permeation enhancement potential of aloe gel materials.

    PubMed

    Lebitsa, Tebogo; Viljoen, Alvaro; Lu, Zhilei; Hamman, Josias

    2012-05-01

    Aloe vera gel previously showed the ability to increase the bioavailability of vitamins and to enhance the in vitro transport of a macromolecular drug across intestinal epithelial cell monolayers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of other species of aloe to act as drug absorption enhancement agents. The effect of gel materials from three South African aloes; Aloe ferox, A. marlothii and A. speciosa on the transepithelial electrical resistance and permeability of atenolol across excised intestinal tissue of the rat as well as the transport of FITC-dextran across Caco-2 cell monolayers was investigated. The aloe gel materials exhibited the ability to statistically significantly reduce the transepithelial electrical resistance of excised rat intestinal tissue but did not significantly increase the transport of atenolol across this in vitro tissue model at the concentrations tested. At least one concentration of each aloe gel material enhanced the transport of FITC-dextran statistically significantly across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The aloe gel materials showed potential to act as drug absorption enhancing agents across intestinal epithelia. The absorption enhancement effect was dependent on the type of in vitro model and type of drug was investigated.

  20. Compartmented electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1977-06-14

    Electrodes for secondary electrochemical cells are provided with compartments for containing particles of the electrode reactant. The compartments are defined by partitions that are generally impenetrable to the particles of reactant and, in some instances, to the liquid electrolyte used in the cell. During cycling of the cell, reactant material initially loaded into a particular compartment is prevented from migrating and concentrating within the lower portion of the electrode or those portions of the electrode that exhibit reduced electrical resistance.

  1. Aerosol jet printed p- and n-type electrolyte-gated transistors with a variety of electrode materials: exploring practical routes to printed electronics.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kihyon; Kim, Se Hyun; Mahajan, Ankit; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2014-11-12

    Printing electrically functional liquid inks is a promising approach for achieving low-cost, large-area, additive manufacturing of flexible electronic circuits. To print thin-film transistors, a basic building block of thin-film electronics, it is important to have several options for printable electrode materials that exhibit high conductivity, high stability, and low-cost. Here we report completely aerosol jet printed (AJP) p- and n-type electrolyte-gated transistors (EGTs) using a variety of different electrode materials including highly conductive metal nanoparticles (Ag), conducting polymers (polystyrenesulfonate doped poly(3,4-ethylendedioxythiophene, PEDOT:PSS), transparent conducting oxides (indium tin oxide), and carbon-based materials (reduced graphene oxide). Using these source-drain electrode materials and a PEDOT:PSS/ion gel gate stack, we demonstrated all-printed p- and n-type EGTs in combination with poly(3-hexythiophene) and ZnO semiconductors. All transistor components (including electrodes, semiconductors, and gate insulators) were printed by AJP. Both kinds of devices showed typical p- and n-type transistor characteristics, and exhibited both low-threshold voltages (<2 V) and high hole and electron mobilities. Our assessment suggests Ag electrodes may be the best option in terms of overall performance for both types of EGTs.

  2. Nanostructured Zinc Oxide Materials for Use as Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Working Electrodes and Photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Roger

    Since their invention in 1991, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have been the subject of intense research interest owing to their low cost, ease of manufacture and potential for low-light applications. In this thesis, the focus is on replacing TiO2 with ZnO, a semiconductor that exhibits much higher electron mobility. The shape of the ZnO nanomaterial is investigated in order to determine if shape and connectivity play a role in how best to exploit the high electron mobility of ZnO. When ZnO nanoparticles are replaced with 1-D nanowires in a DSC, it has been shown that electron transport is improved as measured by faster electron transport times and high electron diffusion coefficients. However, despite these electron transport advantages, ZnO nanowire-based DSCs still suffer from lower efficiencies than ZnO nanoparticle-based DSCs because of their much smaller surface area for dye loading. In the thesis work, zinc oxide nanorods are introduced as a compromise material that can maintain a large surface area, while taking advantage of 1-D fast electron transport. It is shown that by changing the shape of the semiconductor nanomaterial to elongated nanorods, electron transport time, electron lifetime, electron diffusivity and other measures of DSC performance are enhanced. Additionally, electrodeposition into hard templates was used to fabricate ZnO nanowires with magnetic Ni caps. The electrodeposited Ni-ZnO nanowires are shown to be useful in catalyzing the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) , a model organic dye, and the result is compared to ZnO nanoparticles. The elongated shape of the nanowires is expected to prevent the aggregation that reduces the catalytic efficacy of ZnO nanoparticles, whereas the Ni segment is expected to enhance photocatalysis by increasing the production of radical hydroxide species that degrade the dye. Our experiments show that Ni-ZnO nanowires are more effective photocatalysts than ZnO nanoparticles as measured by the decrease

  3. Tailoring the potential window of negative electrodes: A diagnostic method for understanding parasitic oxidation reactions in cells with 5 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 positive electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Mikhael D.; Dargel, Vadim; Shilina, Yuliya; Borgel, Valentina; Aurbach, Doron; Halalay, Ion C.

    2015-03-01

    We present herein a diagnostic method which provides insights into the interactions between parasitic reactions at battery electrodes and their consequences for battery performance degradation. We also provide a cautionary tale about misinterpreting or misrepresenting the significance of test data, as is sometimes found in the peer-reviewed literature or in developers' claims. Reversible cycling of the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 positive electrode in a full cell with an electrolyte solution containing no additives may appear achievable through tailoring of the operating potential window of the cell. Self-discharging of the negative stems from parasitic oxidation products formed on the positive. We show that either excess negative electrode capacity over the positive or initial pre-lithiation of the negative suppresses their detrimental effect on capacity retention. Simultaneous monitoring the potentials of the two electrodes vs. Li/Li+ during galvanostatic cycling of a full cell shows, however, that self-discharging of the negative still takes place. The latter process was tracked by the drift of the average potential of the cell towards higher values and leads to two characteristic patterns in the failure of full cells during their long-term cycling, depending on whether a cut-off voltage or a capacity limit is used as the control criterion during cycling.

  4. Influence of the temperature of electrode material on its disintegration under the action of an arc discharge in hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolotov, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is made of the electrophysical processes occurring at the end surface of rod electrodes during constant and alternating arc discharge in hydrogen. Experiments are reported on the effect of surface temperature of tungsten electrodes on their erosion. The influence of activating additions of thorium oxide, the structure of the tungsten, and the gas surrounding the electrode on the specific thermal loading and the erosion of the electrodes is discussed.

  5. Electricity generation from young landfill leachate in a microbial fuel cell with a new electrode material.

    PubMed

    Özkaya, Bestamin; Cetinkaya, Afşin Yusuf; Cakmakci, Mehmet; Karadağ, Doğan; Sahinkaya, Erkan

    2013-04-01

    This study aims at evaluating the performance of a two-chambered continuously fed microbial fuel cell with new Ti-TiO₂ electrodes for bioelectricity generation from young landfill leachate at varying strength of wastewater (1-50 COD g/L) and hydraulic retention time (HRT, 0.25-2 days). The COD removal efficiency in the MFC increased with time and reached 45 % at full-strength leachate (50 g/L COD) feeding. The current generation increased with increasing leachate strength and decreasing HRT up to organic loading rate of 100 g COD/L/day. The maximum current density throughout the study was 11 A/m² at HRT of 0.5 day and organic loading rate of 67 g COD/L/day. Coulombic efficiency (CE) decreased from 57 % at feed COD concentration of 1 g/L to less than 1 % when feed COD concentration was 50 g/L. Increase in OLR resulted in increase in power output but decrease in CE.

  6. Electrochemical monitoring of biointeraction by graphene-based material modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Eksin, Ece; Zor, Erhan; Erdem, Arzum; Bingol, Haluk

    2017-06-15

    Recently, the low-cost effective biosensing systems based on advanced nanomaterials have received a key attention for development of novel assays for rapid and sequence-specific nucleic acid detection. The electrochemical biosensor based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) modified disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) were developed herein for electrochemical monitoring of DNA, and also for monitoring of biointeraction occurred between anticancer drug, Daunorubicin (DNR), and DNA. First, rGO was synthesized chemically and characterized by using UV-Vis, TGA, FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy and SEM techniques. Then, the quantity of rGO assembling onto the surface of PGE by passive adsorption was optimized. The electrochemical behavior of rGO-PGEs was examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV). rGO-PGEs were then utilized for electrochemical monitoring of surface-confined interaction between DNR and DNA using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique. Additionally, voltammetric results were complemented with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. Electrochemical monitoring of DNR and DNA was resulted with satisfying detection limits 0.55µM and 2.71µg/mL, respectively.

  7. Combination of porous silica monolith and gold thin films for electrode material of supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastre, A.; Cristini-Robbe, O.; Boé, A.; Raulin, K.; Branzea, D.; El Hamzaoui, H.; Kinowski, C.; Rolland, N.; Bernard, R.

    2015-12-01

    An all-solid electrical double layer supercapacitor was prepared, starting from a porous silica matrix coated with a gold thin-film. The metallization of the silica xerogel was performed by an original wet chemical process, based on the controlled growth of gold nanoparticles on two opposite faces of the silica monolith as a seed layer, followed by an electroless deposition of a continuous gold thin film. The thickness of the metallic thin film was assessed to be 700 nm. The silica plays two major roles: (1) it is used as a porous matrix for the gold electrode, creating a large specific surface area, and (2) it acts as a separator (non-metallized part of the silica). The silica monolith was soaked in a polyvinyl alcohol and phosphoric acid mixture which is used as polymer electrolyte. Capacitance effect was demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry experiments. The specific capacitance was found to be equal to 0.95 mF cm- 2 (9.5 F g-1). No major degradation occurs within more than 3000 cycles.

  8. Bifurcation in the Steady-State Height of Colloidal Particles near an Electrode in Oscillatory Electric Fields: Evidence for a Tertiary Potential Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woehl, T. J.; Chen, B. J.; Heatley, K. L.; Talken, N. H.; Bukosky, S. C.; Dutcher, C. S.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2015-01-01

    Application of an oscillatory electric field is known to alter the separation distance between micron-scale colloidal particles and an adjacent electrode. This behavior is believed to be partially due to a lift force caused by electrohydrodynamic flow generated around each particle, with previous work focused on identifying a single steady-state "height" of the individual particles over the electrode. Here, we report the existence of a pronounced bifurcation in the particle height in response to low-frequency electric fields. Optical and confocal microscopy observations reveal that application of a ˜100 Hz field induces some of the particles to rapidly move several particle diameters up from the electrode, while the others move closer to the electrode. Statistics compiled from repeated trials demonstrate that the likelihood for a particle to move up follows a binomial distribution, indicating that the height bifurcation is random and does not result from membership in some distinct subpopulation of particles. The fraction of particles that move up increases with increased applied potential and decreased frequency, in a fashion qualitatively consistent with an energy landscape predicated on competition between electrohydrodynamic flow, colloidal interactions, and gravitational forces. Taken together, the results provide evidence for the existence of a deep tertiary minimum in the effective electrode-particle interaction potential at a surprisingly large distance from the electrode.

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

    DOEpatents

    McPheeters, Charles C.; Nelson, Paul A.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed therebetween, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material.

  10. Partial conversion of current collectors into nickel copper oxide electrode materials for high-performance energy storage devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liuyang; Gong, Hao

    2015-07-22

    A novel substrate sacrifice process is proposed and developed for converting part of a current collector into supercapacitor active materials, which provides a new route in achieving high energy density of supercapacitor device. Part of a copper foam current collector is successfully converted into highly porous nickel copper oxide electrode for light- and high-performance supercapacitors. Remarkably, this strategy circumvents the problem associated with poor contact interface between electrode and current collector. Meanwhile, the overall weight of the supercapacitor could be minimized. The charge transfer kinetics is improved while the advantage of the excellent mechanical properties of metal current collector is not traded off. By virtue of this unique current collector self-involved architecture, the material derived from the current collector manifests large areal capacitance of 3.13 F cm(-2) at a current density of 1 A g(-1). The capacitance can retain 2.97 F cm(-2) at a much higher density (4 A g(-1)). Only a small decay of 6.5% appears at 4 A g(-1) after 1600 cycles. The strategy reported here sheds light on new strategies in making additional use of the metal current collector. Furthermore, asymmetric supercapacitor using both solid-state gel electrolyte and liquid counterpart are obtained and analyzed. The liquid asymmetric supercapacitor can deliver a high energy density up to 0.5 mWh cm(-2) (53 Wh kg(-1)) at a power density of 13 mW cm(-2) (1.4 kW kg(-1)).

  11. Optimized spherical manganese oxide-ferroferric oxide-tin oxide ternary composites as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Tang, Shaochun; Vongehr, Sascha; Xie, Hao; Meng, Xiangkang

    2015-09-18

    Inexpensive MnO2 is a promising material for supercapacitors (SCs), but its application is limited by poor electrical conductivity and low specific surface area. We design and fabricate hierarchical MnO2-based ternary composite nanostructures showing superior electrochemical performance via doping with electrochemically active Fe3O4 in the interior and electrically conductive SnO2 nanoparticles in the surface layer. Optimization composition results in a MnO2-Fe3O4-SnO2 composite electrode material with 5.9 wt.% Fe3O4 and 5.3 wt.% SnO2, leading to a high specific areal capacitance of 1.12 F cm(-2) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1). This is two to three times the values for MnO2-based binary nanostructures at the same scan rate. The low amount of SnO2 almost doubles the capacitance of porous MnO2-Fe3O4 (before SnO2 addition), which is attributed to an improved conductivity and remaining porosity. In addition, the optimal ternary composite has a good rate capability and an excellent cycling performance with stable capacitance retention of ~90% after 5000 charge/discharge cycles at 7.5 mA cm(-2). All-solid-state SCs are assembled with such electrodes using polyvinyl alcohol/Na2SO4 electrolyte. An integrated device made by connecting two identical SCs in series can power a light-emitting diode indicator for more than 10 min.

  12. Development of dielectric barrier discharge-type ozone generator constructed with piezoelectric transformers: effect of dielectric electrode materials on ozone generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, Kenji; Shimomura, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Susumu; Itoh, Haruo

    2009-11-01

    The dependence of ozone generation on the types of dielectric electrode material has been investigated using an ozone generator constructed with the piezoelectric transformer developed in our laboratory. The ozone generator is based on the excitation of the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), which has the advantage of a compact configuration for generating ozone. Four kinds of dielectric materials are prepared for dielectric barrier electrodes. Electrical properties of the DBD and the ozone generation characteristics are investigated for the different dielectric materials. Differences in the discharge mode among the barrier electrode materials are recognized and discussed on the basis of the results of the Lissajous figures and voltage-current waveforms. During the continuous running of the generator, a temporal decrease in ozone concentration is observed owing to the temperature increase inside the reactor. Although the ozone generation characteristics are influenced by many properties of dielectrics, two important factors for achieving high-efficiency ozone generation are identified in this study. One is the use of a high-thermal conductivity material for the dielectric electrode, which functions well as a heat sink for transferring the generated heat to the outside through the material. The other factor is the control of the discharge mode. Our results show that the discharge mode that is considered as Townsend-like DBD is suitable for high-efficiency ozone generation.

  13. Hierarchical micro- and mesoporous carbide-derived carbon as a high-performance electrode material in supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Rose, Marcus; Korenblit, Yair; Kockrick, Emanuel; Borchardt, Lars; Oschatz, Martin; Kaskel, Stefan; Yushin, Gleb

    2011-04-18

    Ordered mesoporous carbide-derived carbon (OM-CDC) materials produced by nanocasting of ordered mesoporous silica templates are characterized by a bimodal pore size distribution with a high ratio of micropores. The micropores result in outstanding adsorption capacities and the well-defined mesopores facilitate enhanced kinetics in adsorption processes. Here, for the first time, a systematic study is presented, in which the effects of synthesis temperature on the electrochemical performance of these materials in supercapacitors based on a 1 M aqueous solution of sulfuric acid and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid are reported. Cyclic voltammetry shows the specific capacitance of the OM-CDC materials exceeds 200 F g(-1) in the aqueous electrolyte and 185 F g(-1) in the ionic liquid, when measured in a symmetric configuration in voltage ranges of up to 0.6 and 2 V, respectively. The ordered mesoporous channels in the produced OM-CDC materials serve as ion-highways and allow for very fast ionic transport into the bulk of the OM-CDC particles. At room temperature the enhanced ion transport leads to 75% and 90% of the capacitance retention at current densities in excess of ∼10 A g(-1) in ionic liquid and aqueous electrolytes, respectively. The supercapacitors based on 250-300 μm OM-CDC electrodes demonstrate an operating frequency of up to 7 Hz in aqueous electrolyte. The combination of high specific capacitance and outstanding rate capabilities of the OM-CDC materials is unmatched by state-of-the art activated carbons and strictly microporous CDC materials.

  14. Investigation of magnetically self-insulated effect in an ion diode with an explosive emission potential electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Pushkarev, A. I.; Isakova, J. I.; Saltimakov, M. S.; Sazonov, R. V.

    2010-01-15

    The results of an experimental investigation of a magnetically self-insulated effect in an ion diode in bipolar-pulse mode are presented. The investigations were accomplished at the TEMP-4M accelerator by formation of a first negative pulse (100 ns, 150-200 kV) and a second positive pulse (80 ns, 200-300 kV) [G. E. Remnev et al., Surf. Coat. Technol. 114, 206 (1999)]. Plasma behavior in the anode-cathode gap was analyzed according to the current-voltage characteristics of the diode with a time resolution of 0.5 ns. It is shown that during the discrete emissive surface mode, the magnetic field influence on plasma dynamics is slight. During the space charge limitation mode, the current-voltage characteristics of the diode are well-described by the Child-Langmuir ratio. The drift speed of electrons in the diode exceeds 80 mm/ns and the effect of magnetic insulation is insignificant. It was discovered, when plasma formation at the potential electrode is complete and up until the second positive pulse that the plasma speed is constant and equals to 1.3+-0.2 cm/mus. After the voltage polarity at the potential electrode changes (second pulse), plasma breakup at the anode-cathode gap takes place. The impedance of the diode begins to increase and, when the total current is more than 30 kA, the diode impedance exceeds the calculated values by more than three times. The energy efficiency and limiting characteristics of the magnetically self-insulated diode are determined.

  15. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

  16. Neural stimulation and recording electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cogan, Stuart F

    2008-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of nerve tissue and recording of neural electrical activity are the basis of emerging prostheses and treatments for spinal cord injury, stroke, sensory deficits, and neurological disorders. An understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms underlying the behavior of neural stimulation and recording electrodes is important for the development of chronically implanted devices, particularly those employing large numbers of microelectrodes. For stimulation, materials that support charge injection by capacitive and faradaic mechanisms are available. These include titanium nitride, platinum, and iridium oxide, each with certain advantages and limitations. The use of charge-balanced waveforms and maximum electrochemical potential excursions as criteria for reversible charge injection with these electrode materials are described and critiqued. Techniques for characterizing electrochemical properties relevant to stimulation and recording are described with examples of differences in the in vitro and in vivo response of electrodes.

  17. Photon absorption potential coefficient as a tool for materials engineering