Science.gov

Sample records for potential electronic resource

  1. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices.

  2. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  3. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  4. California's geothermal resource potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    According to a U.S. Geological Survey estimate, recoverable hydrothermal energy in California may amount to 19,000 MW of electric power for a 30-year period. At present, a geothermal installation in the Geysers region of the state provides 502 MWe of capacity; an additional 1500 MWe of electric generating capacity is scheduled to be in operation in geothermal fields by 1985. In addition to hydrothermal energy sources, hot-igneous and conduction-dominated resources are under investigation for possible development. Land-use conflicts, environmental concerns and lack of risk capital may limit this development.

  5. California's geothermal resource potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    According to a U.S. Geological Survey estimate, recoverable hydrothermal energy in California may amount to 19,000 MW of electric power for a 30-year period. At present, a geothermal installation in the Geysers region of the state provides 502 MWe of capacity; an additional 1500 MWe of electric generating capacity is scheduled to be in operation in geothermal fields by 1985. In addition to hydrothermal energy sources, hot-igneous and conduction-dominated resources are under investigation for possible development. Land-use conflicts, environmental concerns and lack of risk capital may limit this development.

  6. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    PubMed Central

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings. PMID:10427421

  7. Electronic Resources for Family and Consumer Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Elizabeth B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the following types of electronic resources relevant for family and consumer sciences: online and CD-ROM databases, numeric datafiles, and Internet resources (listservs, telnet sources, gopher/World Wide Web). (SK)

  8. Electronic Resources: A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Bradley L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the impact of electronic technology on libraries and scholarship. Focuses on some of the challenges of using electronic resources in research libraries, which include cost of acquiring electronic formats and the effect such expenditures have on other library services and collection development practices. Explores how electronic resources…

  9. Electronic Resources: A Wolf in Sheep's Clothing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Bradley L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the impact of electronic technology on libraries and scholarship. Focuses on some of the challenges of using electronic resources in research libraries, which include cost of acquiring electronic formats and the effect such expenditures have on other library services and collection development practices. Explores how electronic resources…

  10. University Facilities for Electronic Resource Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, David S.

    A report on electronic media investigates and reveals the basis for and the use of electronic resource systems on the university campus. Computer system facilities, environments, and equipment guidelines and criteria are given with the what, why and how aspects of the resource systems. The functions and categories of the university electronic…

  11. Searching Electronic Resources. Professional Growth Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.; And Others

    The ever-increasing availability of electronic information resources online and on CD-ROM presents library media specialists, teachers, and students with a new set of challenges for accessing information. Electronic information resources enable access to nonlinear information, which allows searchers to explore relationships and make connections…

  12. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  13. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  14. Information Skills for Electronic Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing strong skills in electronic searching and stresses the importance of teaching these skills across the curriculum. Several skill models, are suggested and components of search strategies are briefly outlined. (JKP)

  15. Metadata for Electronic Information Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Foundation, establishes a specific syntax for the DOI under the Handle framework. The DOI is the basis for a system called CrossRef . CrossRef is a DOI...Registration Agency formed by a consortium of electronic journal publishers. The members of CrossRef deposit their DOIs into a central repository...maintained by CrossRef . The purpose of CrossRef is to facilitate linking between electronic journals, primarily from the references at the end of an article

  16. Electronic Resource Sharing. SPEC Kit 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Donna R., Comp.; Dahlbach, Barbara J., Comp.

    The Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) surveyed Association of Research Libraries (ARL) institutions to measure the degree of electronic resource sharing in ARL libraries; to discover which resources are being shared and between what kinds of institutions; and what documentation is available. Of the 119 ARL institutions surveyed, 53…

  17. Resource letter EPA-1: Electronic polymers and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatchford, J. W.; Epstein, A. J.

    1996-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on electronic polymers and their potential applications. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: (i) theories of the electronic structure and excited states of conjugated polymers, the role of electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in determining these states, the mechanisms of charge transport, and the insulator-metal transition; (ii) information on the synthesis, structure, and morphology of representative polymers; (iii) results of transport, optical, and magnetic measurements on both conductive and semiconducting/insulating materials; and (iv) solid state device and other applications for conjugated polymers.

  18. Cataloging and Indexing of Electronic Information Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    Electronic Information Management for PfP Nations [La gestion electronique des informations pour les pays du PfP] To order the complete compilation...here is on electronic information resources, it should be noted that many other metadata schemes have been developed in support of e- commerce and... commerce . ONIX has elements for basic bibliographic, trade, evaluation and promotional information for books and e-books. Although initially focused on

  19. Classification of geothermal resources by potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybach, L.

    2015-03-01

    When considering and reporting resources, the term "geothermal potential" is often used without clearly stating what kind of potential is meant. For renewable energy resources it is nowadays common to use different potentials: theoretical, technical, economic, sustainable, developable - decreasing successively in size. In such a sequence, the potentials are progressively realizable and more and more rewarding financially. The theoretical potential describes the physically present energy, the technical potential the fraction of this energy that can be used by currently available technology and the economic potential the time- and location-dependent fraction of the previous category; the sustainable potential constrains the fraction of the economic potential that can be utilized in the long term; the developable potential is the fraction of the economic resource which can be developed under realistic conditions. In converting theoretical to technical potential, the recovery factor (the ratio extractable heat/heat present at depth) is of key importance. An example (global geothermal resources) is given, with numerical values of the various potentials. The proposed classification could and should be used as a kind of general template for future geothermal energy resources reporting.

  20. Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijerina, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and…

  1. Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijerina, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and…

  2. Electronic Resources: Selection and Bibliographic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattie, Ling-yuh W., Ed.; Cox, Bonnie Jean, Ed.

    This book is a baseline guide for professionals and library school students on issues that concern the selection and bibliographic control of electronic resources, from both conceptual and pragmatic standpoints. The book includes the following articles: (1) "Foreward" (Lois Mai Chan); (2) "Introduction" (Ling-yuh W. (Miko)…

  3. Herding Cats: Options for Organizing Electronic Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vellucci, Sherry L.

    1996-01-01

    Examines strengths and weaknesses of organizational systems developed to organize and access electronic resources available via the Internet. Highlights include library online catalogs; cataloging rules and MARC records; text encoding initiative (TEI) headers; the Internet union catalog; browsing lists; robot-generated indexes; a core data set of…

  4. Electronic Resources: Selection and Bibliographic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattie, Ling-yuh W., Ed.; Cox, Bonnie Jean, Ed.

    This book is a baseline guide for professionals and library school students on issues that concern the selection and bibliographic control of electronic resources, from both conceptual and pragmatic standpoints. The book includes the following articles: (1) "Foreward" (Lois Mai Chan); (2) "Introduction" (Ling-yuh W. (Miko)…

  5. Redesign of Library Workflows: Experimental Models for Electronic Resource Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Karen

    This paper explores the potential for and progress of a gradual transition from a highly centralized model for cataloging to an iterative, collaborative, and broadly distributed model for electronic resource description. The purpose is to alert library managers to some experiments underway and to help them conceptualize new methods for defining,…

  6. Remote Assessment of Lunar Resource Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the resource potential of the lunar surface requires a well-planned program to determine the chemical and mineralogical composition of the Moon's surface at a range of scales. The exploration program must include remote sensing measurements (from both Earth's surface and lunar orbit), robotic in situ analysis of specific places, and eventually, human field work by trained geologists. Remote sensing data is discussed. Resource assessment requires some idea of what resources will be needed. Studies thus far have concentrated on oxygen and hydrogen production for propellant and life support, He-3 for export as fuel for nuclear fusion reactors, and use of bulk regolith for shielding and construction materials. The measurement requirements for assessing these resources are given and discussed briefly.

  7. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  8. Imaging radar potentials for earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. E., Jr.; Elachi, C.

    1975-01-01

    The potentials of airborne and spacecraft borne imaging radars in earth resources applications are reviewed and discussed. The areas specifically addressed are: oceanography, coastal regions studies, glaciology, polar ice studies, geology, geomorphology and agriculture. The paper also addresses the main areas of emphasis for the next ten years.

  9. From Tedious to Timely: Screencasting to Troubleshoot Electronic Resource Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnett, Eric; Thompson, Carole

    2010-01-01

    The shift from traditional print materials to electronic resources, in conjunction with the rise in the number of distance education programs, has left many electronic resource librarians scrambling to keep up with the resulting inundation of electronic resource problems. When it comes to diagnosing these problems, words do not always convey all…

  10. From Tedious to Timely: Screencasting to Troubleshoot Electronic Resource Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnett, Eric; Thompson, Carole

    2010-01-01

    The shift from traditional print materials to electronic resources, in conjunction with the rise in the number of distance education programs, has left many electronic resource librarians scrambling to keep up with the resulting inundation of electronic resource problems. When it comes to diagnosing these problems, words do not always convey all…

  11. Constructing a dental electronic information resource (DEIR).

    PubMed

    Lang, W P

    1994-04-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a dental electronic information resource (DEIR). Development is based on the Internet gopher client/server model. Information is organized in a series of hierarchical menus. A DEIR can be browsed by traversing the menu hierarchy or by performing keyword searches. Searches can result in a menu of found items from across the Internet. Initially, contents of the DEIR will be text files. Electronic copy will be given to an editorial board that will review submissions for conformity to publication standards. A current estimate for electronic storage costs of a DEIR is $1.25/Mb per year. There will be additional costs associated with any purchases of data (e.g. Current Contents), production of data (e.g. development time), and editorial and managerial activities. The DEIR will be accessible from any computer or terminal that can connect to the Internet. Primary user groups will be faculty, staff, and students of dental schools. However, access to the DEIR will be free, and an extensive user community will be encouraged, including practicing dentists, dental associations, public health agencies, and dental insurance companies.

  12. Microelectronics/electronic packaging potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandeau, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The trend toward smaller and lighter electronic packages was examined. It is suggested that electronic packaging engineers and microelectronic designers closely associate and give full attention to optimization of both disciplines on all product lines. Extensive research and development work underway to explore innovative ideas and make new inroads into the technology base, is expected to satisfy the demands of the 1980's.

  13. Energy resource potential of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of large gas hydrate accumulations in terrestrial permafrost regions of the Arctic and beneath the sea along the outer continental margins of the world's oceans has heightened interest in gas hydrates as a possible energy resource. However, significant to potentially insurmountable technical issues must be resolved before gas hydrates can be considered a viable option for affordable supplies of natural gas. The combined information from Arctic gas hydrate studies shows that, in permafrost regions, gas hydrates may exist at subsurface depths ranging from about 130 to 2000 m. The presence of gas hydrates in offshore continental margins has been inferred mainly from anomalous seismic reflectors, known as bottom-simulating reflectors, that have been mapped at depths below the sea floor ranging from about 100 to 1100 m. Current estimates of the amount of gas in the world's marine and permafrost gas hydrate accumulations are in rough accord at about 20,000 trillion m3. Disagreements over fundamental issues such as the volume of gas stored within delineated gas hydrate accumulations and the concentration of gas hydrates within hydrate-bearing strata have demonstrated that we know little about gas hydrates. Recently, however, several countries, including Japan, India, and the United States, have launched ambitious national projects to further examine the resource potential of gas hydrates. These projects may help answer key questions dealing with the properties of gas hydrate reservoirs, the design of production systems, and, most important, the costs and economics of gas hydrate production.

  14. Use of Electronic Resources in Scholarly Electronic Journals: A Citation Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Susan Davis

    2002-01-01

    Describes a citation analysis of research articles from scholarly electronic journals published in 1999-2000 that focused on the extent to which scholars are using electronic resources and the types and subject areas of online resources that are being referenced. Results indicate a growing reliance on electronic resources, especially…

  15. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

  16. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

  17. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  18. You Have "How Many" Spreadsheets? Rethinking Electronic Resource Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rux, Erika; Borchert, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    As libraries face a veritable explosion of electronic resources and as the interconnectedness of print and online resources becomes increasingly complicated, many librarians are challenged to find efficient and cost-friendly ways to manage these resources. In this article, the authors describe how a team of people from various library departments…

  19. You Have "How Many" Spreadsheets? Rethinking Electronic Resource Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rux, Erika; Borchert, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    As libraries face a veritable explosion of electronic resources and as the interconnectedness of print and online resources becomes increasingly complicated, many librarians are challenged to find efficient and cost-friendly ways to manage these resources. In this article, the authors describe how a team of people from various library departments…

  20. Rocket-borne measurements of electron temperature and density with the Electron Retarding Potential Analyzer instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, I. J.; Widholm, M.; Lessard, M. R.; Riley, P.; Heavisides, J.; Moen, J. I.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Bekkeng, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    Determining electron temperature in the ionosphere is a fundamentally important measurement for space science. Obtaining measurements of electron temperatures at high altitudes (>700 km) is difficult because of limitations on ground-based radar and classic spacecraft instrumentation. In light of these limitations, the rocket-borne Electron Retarding Potential Analyzer (ERPA) was developed to allow for accurate in situ measurement of ionospheric electron temperature with a simple and low-resource instrument. The compact ERPA, a traditional retarding potential analyzer with multiple baffle collimators, allows for a straightforward calculation of electron temperature. Since its first mission in 2004, it has amassed significant flight heritage and obtained data used in multiple studies investigating a myriad of phenomena related to magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. In addition to highlighting the scientific contributions of the ERPA instrument, this paper outlines its theory and operation, the methodology used to obtain electron temperature measurements, and a comparative study suggesting that the ERPA can also provide electron density measurements.

  1. Do GPs use electronic mental health resources? - a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Austin, David; Pier, Ciaran; Mitchell, Joanna; Schattner, Peter; Wade, Victoria; Pierce, David; Klein, Britt

    2006-05-01

    The Better Outcomes in Mental Health Care (BOMHC) initiative encourages general practitioners to use electronic mental health resources (EMHRs) during consultation with patients requiring psychological assistance. However, there is little data on GPs' acceptance and use of EMHRs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 27 GPs to determine their attitude toward EMHRs, and their use during consultation with patients. Few GPs reported frequently using EMHRs in consultation. Identified barriers to use included lack of familiarity with information technology, and insufficient knowledge of available resources. Identified advantages of electronic resources included high patient acceptance, time efficiency, and improved quality of information. General practitioners recognise several advantages of utilising electronic resources for managing patients with mental illness. However, GPs are not sufficiently familiar with electronic resources to use them effectively. This could be overcome by education.

  2. Electron-Vector Potential Interaction Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, B

    2003-03-27

    The authors investigate an ambiguity inherent in the definition of the vector potential used in electron-electromagnetic field interactions. Two cases, Zeeman effect and Compton scattering, are studied.

  3. Electronic Media: A Motif for Shared Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightner, Stanley L.; Johnson, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of trade and industrial education supervisors from 10 states determined the degree of use of electronic education methods. Instructors in these states used presentation software and web-based exercises most often; fewer used video, CD-ROM, and distance technologies; 70% had been taught electronic presentation methods in preservice or…

  4. Electronic Media: A Motif for Shared Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightner, Stanley L.; Johnson, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of trade and industrial education supervisors from 10 states determined the degree of use of electronic education methods. Instructors in these states used presentation software and web-based exercises most often; fewer used video, CD-ROM, and distance technologies; 70% had been taught electronic presentation methods in preservice or…

  5. Geothermal resource potential of Cascade volcanic arc

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.R.

    1987-08-01

    The central and southern cascade volcanic arc has the following features that suggest a high potential for geothermal resources: (1) extensive Quaternary volcanism with some silicic to intermediate volcanoes, (2) hundreds of square kilometers with regional background heat flow in excess of 100 mW/m/sup 2/, (3) shallow (4-9 km) calculated depth to Curie point in the same areas that have heat flow in excess of 100 mW/m/sup 2/, (4) a thick pile of volcanic rock with moderate to low thermal conductivity, (5) hot springs with minimum reservoir temperatures of 174/sup 0/-186/sup 0/C (from the anhydrite geothermometer of Mariner, 1985), and (6) fault zones for fracture permeability. These features are the result of interactions between the North American plate (NAP), the Pacific plate (PP), and the subducted Gorda, Juan de Fuca, and Explorer plates (GJEP). Interactions between the NAP and the PP produce north-south compression and east-west extension, causing extensive development of north-south normal faults and partial melting episodes in upper mantle. Northeast-southwest convergence between the NAP and the GJEP produce subduction-related magmas and crustal deformation from northeast-southwest compression. NAP-GJEP interactions dominate in the northern part of the arc, whereas NAP-PP and NAP-GJEP interactions have combined in the central and southern part of the arc to produce rates of magmatism and heat flow higher than in the north.

  6. Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Resource Potential Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Katherine Young

    2016-06-30

    Compilation of data (spreadsheet and shapefiles) for several low-temperature resource types, including isolated springs and wells, delineated area convection systems, sedimentary basins and coastal plains sedimentary systems. For each system, we include estimates of the accessible resource base, mean extractable resource and beneficial heat. Data compiled from USGS and other sources. The paper (submitted to GRC 2016) describing the methodology and analysis is also included.

  7. Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Resource Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Katherine Young

    2016-06-30

    Compilation of data (spreadsheet and shapefiles) for several low-temperature resource types, including isolated springs and wells, delineated area convection systems, sedimentary basins and coastal plains sedimentary systems. For each system, we include estimates of the accessible resource base, mean extractable resource and beneficial heat. Data compiled from USGS and other sources. The paper (submitted to GRC 2016) describing the methodology and analysis is also included.

  8. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Jay M; Masters, Elizabeth T; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Smith, David M; Faulkner, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The management of fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR) database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years) with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1) ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Patients were predominantly female (81.4%), Caucasian (87.7%), with a mean (standard deviation) age of 54.4 (14.8) years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of "medication orders" and "physician office visits," with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5) drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1) office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001) 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients with specific comorbid conditions ranging from 6% (musculoskeletal pain or depression/bipolar disorder) to 21% (congestive heart failure). Factors significantly associated with increased medications ordered included being female (P<0.001) and specific comorbid conditions (P<0.05). Physician office visits and pharmacotherapy orders were key drivers of all-cause health care utilization, with

  9. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Jay M; Masters, Elizabeth T; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Smith, David M; Faulkner, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Objective The management of fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR) database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years) with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1) ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results Patients were predominantly female (81.4%), Caucasian (87.7%), with a mean (standard deviation) age of 54.4 (14.8) years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5) drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1) office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001) 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients with specific comorbid conditions ranging from 6% (musculoskeletal pain or depression/bipolar disorder) to 21% (congestive heart failure). Factors significantly associated with increased medications ordered included being female (P<0.001) and specific comorbid conditions (P<0.05). Conclusion Physician office visits and pharmacotherapy orders were key

  10. Effects of electron emission on sheath potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, Ansel; Khrabrov, Alexander; Kaganovich, Igor; Schamis, Hanna

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the potential profile of a sheath under the influence of surface electron emission. The plasma and sheath profiles are simulated using the Large Scale Plasma (LSP) particle-in-cell code. Using one dimensional models we corroborate the analytical relationship between sheath potential and plasma electron and emitted electron temperatures derived earlier. This work was made possible by funding from the Department of Energy for the Summer Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  11. Electronic neural network for dynamic resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Daud, T.

    1991-01-01

    A VLSI implementable neural network architecture for dynamic assignment is presented. The resource allocation problems involve assigning members of one set (e.g. resources) to those of another (e.g. consumers) such that the global 'cost' of the associations is minimized. The network consists of a matrix of sigmoidal processing elements (neurons), where the rows of the matrix represent resources and columns represent consumers. Unlike previous neural implementations, however, association costs are applied directly to the neurons, reducing connectivity of the network to VLSI-compatible 0 (number of neurons). Each row (and column) has an additional neuron associated with it to independently oversee activations of all the neurons in each row (and each column), providing a programmable 'k-winner-take-all' function. This function simultaneously enforces blocking (excitatory/inhibitory) constraints during convergence to control the number of active elements in each row and column within desired boundary conditions. Simulations show that the network, when implemented in fully parallel VLSI hardware, offers optimal (or near-optimal) solutions within only a fraction of a millisecond, for problems up to 128 resources and 128 consumers, orders of magnitude faster than conventional computing or heuristic search methods.

  12. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  13. The potential for crustal resources on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordell, Bruce M.; Gillett, Stephen L.

    1991-01-01

    Martian resources pose not only an interesting scientific challenge but also have immense astronautical significance because of their ability to enhance mission efficiency, lower launch and program costs, and stimulate the development of large Mars surface facilities. Although much terrestrial mineralization is associated with plate tectonics and Mars apparently possesses a thick, stationary lithosphere, the presence of crustal swells, rifting, volcanism, and abundant volatiles indicates that a number of sedimentary, hydrothermal, dry-magma mineral concentration processes may have operated on Mars. For example, in Colorado Plateau-style (roll-front) deposits, uranium precipitation is localized by redox variations in groundwater. Also, evaporites (either in salt pans or even interstitially in pore spaces) might concentrate Cl, Li, and K. Many Martian impact craters have been modified by volcanism and probably have been affected by rising magma bodies interacting with ground ice or water. Such conditions might produce hydrothermal circulations and element concentrations. If the high sulfur content found by the Viking landers typifies Martian abundances, sulfide ore bodies may have been formed locally. Mineral-rich Africa seems to share many volcanic and tectonic characteristics with portions of Mars and may suggest Mars' potential mineral wealth. For example, the rifts of Valles Marineris are similar to the rifts in east Africa, and may both result from a large mantle plume rising from the interior and disrupting the surface. The gigantic Bushveld complex of South Africa, an ancient layered igneous intrusion that contains ores of chromium and Pt-group metals, illustrates the sort of dry-magma processes that also could have formed local element concentrations on Mars, especially early in the planet's history when heat flow was higher.

  14. Negotiating two electronic resources for nursing.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, J; Kuipers, J

    1995-07-01

    The five primary knowledge resource databases available in the Virginia Henderson International Library are reviewed and other menu items are discussed including library services currently under development. This article guides nurse managers to access the library on their own computer. In addition, the opportunities and advantages of the new On-line Journal of Knowledge Synthesis for Nursing are related and requirements for accessing the journal are outlined.

  15. Integrating Print and Electronic Resources: Joyner Library's "Pirate Source"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nall, Clark; Lewis, Janice Steed

    2005-01-01

    Valuable information in print is often neglected because of the rapid proliferation of electronic resources and the bias of many library users against print sources. At Joyner Library, it was decided to construct an interactive subject guide database that included resources in all formats to offer users a convenient starting point for research and…

  16. Using XML technologies to organize electronic reference resources.

    PubMed

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  17. NWTC Helps Chart the World's Wind Resource Potential

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) provide the wind industry, policymakers, and other stakeholders with applied wind resource data, information, maps, and technical assistance. These tools, which emphasize wind resources at ever-increasing heights, help stakeholders evaluate the wind resource and development potential for a specific area.

  18. Resource efficiency potential of selected technologies, products and strategies.

    PubMed

    Rohn, Holger; Pastewski, Nico; Lettenmeier, Michael; Wiesen, Klaus; Bienge, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Despite rising prices for natural resources during the past 30 years, global consumption of natural resources is still growing. This leads to ecological, economical and social problems. So far, however, limited effort has been made to decrease the natural resource use of goods and services. While resource efficiency is already on the political agenda (EU and national resource strategies), there are still substantial knowledge gaps on the effectiveness of resource efficiency improvement strategies in different fields. In this context and within the project "Material Efficiency and Resource Conservation", the natural resource use of 22 technologies, products and strategies was calculated and their resource efficiency potential analysed. In a preliminary literature- and expert-based identification process, over 250 technologies, strategies, and products, which are regarded as resource efficient, were identified. Out of these, 22 subjects with high resource efficiency potential were selected. They cover a wide range of relevant technologies, products and strategies, such as energy supply and storage, Green IT, transportation, foodstuffs, agricultural engineering, design strategies, lightweight construction, as well as the concept "Using Instead of Owning". To assess the life-cycle-wide resource use of the selected subjects, the material footprint has been applied as a reliable indicator. In addition, sustainability criteria on a qualitative basis were considered. The results presented in this paper show significant resource efficiency potential for many technologies, products and strategies.

  19. Exchange potentials for semi-classical electrons.

    PubMed

    Herzfeld, Judith; Ekesan, Solen

    2016-11-09

    Semi-classical electrons offer access to efficient and intuitive simulations of chemical reactions. As for any treatment of fermions, the greatest difficulty is in accounting for anti-symmetry effects. Semi-classical efforts to-date either reference Slater-determinants from ab initio treatments or adopt a heuristic approach inspired by density functional treatments. Here we revisit the problem with a combined approach. We conclude that semi-classical electrons need to reference a non-conventional wave function and find that (1) contrary to earlier suppositions, contributions from the electrostatic terms in the Hamiltonian are of similar magnitude to those from the kinetic terms and (2) the former point to a need to supplement pair potentials with 3-body potentials. The first result explains features of reported heuristic potentials, and the second provides a firm footing for extending the transferability of potentials across a wider range of elements and bonding scenarios.

  20. Electronic Cigarettes. Potential Harms and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Dona

    2014-01-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes, devices that deliver a nicotine-containing vapor, has increased rapidly across the country and globally. Perceived and marketed as a “healthier alternative” to conventional cigarettes, few data exist regarding the safety of these devices and their efficacy in harm reduction and treatment of tobacco dependence; even less is known about their overall impact on population health. This review highlights the recent data regarding electronic cigarette toxicity, impact on lung function, and efficacy in smoking reduction and cessation. Studies show that the vapor generated from electronic cigarettes has variable amounts of nicotine and potential harmful toxins, albeit at levels lower than in conventional cigarettes. The long-term carcinogenic and lung function effects of electronic cigarettes are not known. Although some data demonstrate that electronic cigarettes may be effective in reducing conventional cigarette consumption, there are no data demonstrating the efficacy of electronic cigarettes as a tool to achieve cessation. Until robust longitudinal evaluations demonstrate the safety of electronic cigarettes and efficacy in treatment of tobacco dependence, their role as a harm reduction tool is unclear. PMID:24575993

  1. Resource constraints in petroleum production potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Geologic reasons indicate that the dominant position of the Middle East as a source of conventional petroleum will not be changed by new discoveries elsewhere. The share of world crude oil production coming from the Middle East could increase, within 10 to 20 years, to exceed 50 percent, under even modest increases in world consumption. Nonconventional resources of oil exist in large quantities, but because of their low production rates they can at best only mitigate extant trends. Increased production of natural gas outside the United States, however, offers an opportunity for geographically diversified energy supplies in the near future.

  2. Petroleum resource potential GIS of northern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinshouer, Douglas W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Hill, Ronald J.; Pribil, Michael J.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; King, J. David; Agena, Warren F.; Taylor, David J.; Amirzada, Abdulla; Selab, Amir Mohammad; Mutteh, Abdul-Salam; Haidari, Ghulam Naqshband; Wardak, Moeengul Gullabudeen

    2006-01-01

    The CD-ROM contains an ESRI ArcReader format GIS project presenting the results of a petroleum resource assessment of Northern Afghanistan, and other data used in the petroleum assessment. Geologic, structural, field, well, political, and other GIS layers covering Afghanistan, Northern Afghanistan and adjacent areas, along with associated geochemical and other data tables pertinent to a petroleum assessment are included. The purpose of this GIS is to provide the basic data layers and tables required to support the petroleum assessment, data for further exploration and development, and an index of known data.

  3. Electron Confinement in Cylindrical Potential Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltenkov, A. S.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2016-05-01

    We show that studying the solutions of the wave equation for an electron confined in a cylindrical potential well offers the possibility to analyze the confinement behavior of an electron executing one- or two-dimensional motion in the remaining three-dimensional space within the framework of the same mathematical model of the potential well. Some low-lying electronic states with different symmetries are considered and the corresponding wave functions are calculated. The behavior of their nodes and their peak positions with respect to the parameters of the cylindrical well is analyzed. Additionally, the momentum distributions of electrons in these states are calculated. The limiting cases of the ratio of the cylinder length H to its radius R0 are considered; when H significantly exceeds R0 and when R0 is much greater than H. The possible application of the results obtained here for the description of the general features in the behavior of electrons in nanowires with metallic type of conductivity (or nanotubes) and ultrathin epitaxial films (or graphene sheets) are discussed. Possible experiments are suggested as well where the quantum confinement can be manifested. Work supported by the Uzbek Foundation (ASB) and by the U.S. DOE, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Energy Research (AZM).

  4. Quantifying potential future impacts of energy resource development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, C.; Haines, S. S.; Semmens, D. J.; Diffendorfer, J.; Bagstad, K.; Garman, S.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling the potential development of subsurface energy resources and the interplay with surface resources is challenging for a number of reasons. There is a lack of knowledge about the exact location(s) where future development is likely to occur, the associated development footprint, and the type and condition of co-located surface resources. The level of information available for modeling any of these components can range from limited to highly detailed, or somewhere in between, requiring a consistent and robust approach that is insensitive to data abundance.A Monte Carlo simulation approach for assessing the potential impacts of future resource development will be demonstrated. The approach uses standardized, peer-reviewed U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continuous oil and gas assessments and data on ecological resources. USGS probabilistic assessments provide insight into the regional or basinal occurrence, accumulation, and volume of oil gas resources as well as related geologic uncertainties, while environmental and ecological data provide insight into the levels and patterns of ecosystem services in a region.Linking these multidisciplinary data and models at various scales through quantifiable relationships provides a mechanism for the assessment of multiple natural resources regardless of the level of information available. The approach provides reproducible estimates of the potential impacts of resource extraction that are consistent with the probabilistic nature of USGS energy resource assessments. This presentation will focus on application of the method with an illustration for potential development of continuous oil and gas resources in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado.

  5. Chiral electron transport: Scattering through helical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeganeh, Sina; Ratner, Mark A.; Medina, Ernesto; Mujica, Vladimiro

    2009-07-01

    We present a model for the transmission of spin-polarized electrons through oriented chiral molecules, where the chiral structure is represented by a helix. The scattering potential contains a confining term and a spin-orbit contribution that is responsible for the spin-dependent scattering of electrons by the molecular target. The differential scattering cross section is calculated for right- and left-handed helices and for arbitrary electron spin polarizations. We apply our model to explain chiral effects in the intensity of photoemitted polarized electrons transmitted through thin organic layers. These are molecular interfaces that exhibit spin-selective scattering with surprisingly large asymmetry factors as well as a number of remarkable magnetic properties. In our model, differences in intensity are generated by the preferential transmission of electron beams whose polarization is oriented in the same direction as the sense of advance of the helix. This model can be easily extended to the Landauer regime of conductance where conductance is due to elastic scattering, so that we can consider the conductance of chiral molecular junctions.

  6. Maintaining the uranium resources data system and assessing the 1991 US uranium potential resources

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, R.B. ); Finch, W.I.; Grundy, W.D.; Pierson, C.T. )

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Uranium Resource Assessment Data (URAD) System contains information on potential resources (undiscovered) of uranium in the United States. The purpose of this report is: (1) to describe the work carried out to maintain and update the URAD system; (2) to assess the 1991 U.S. uranium potential resources in various cost categories; and (3) to describe the progress that has been made to automate the generation of the assessment reports and their subsequent transmittal by diskette.

  7. Biogenic gas: Controls, habitats, and resource potential

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D. )

    1993-01-01

    As much as 20 percent of the world's natural-gas resource is estimated to have been generated by the decomposition of organic matter by anaerobic microbes at low temperatures. This gas is commonly referred to as biogenic gas. Most biogenic gas was generated early in the burial history of sediments. Some biogenic gas was also generated in relatively recent geologic time and is associated with groundwater flow. The factors that favor significant generation of biogenic gas are anoxic conditions, low sulfate content, low temperature, abundant organic matter, and sufficient pore space for the microbes to thrive. Conditions beneficial for the accumulation of biogenic gas include stratigraphic or early structural traps, adequate seals, low permeability, low pressure, early dissolution of the gas, and formation of gas hydrates. Rapid sediment deposition is critical to both the generation and the accumulation of biogenic gas generated during the early stage. Biogenic gas is distinguished by its molecular and isotopic composition. The hydrocarbon fraction is generally more than 99 percent methane, and the diagnostic isotopic composition of the methane component is as follows: [delta][sup 13]C values are generally lighter than -55 parts per thousand (permil), and [delta]D values are usually in the range of -150 to -250 permil. This isotopic composition indicates that the methane generally resulted from CO[sub 2] reduction. Significant accumulations of ancient biogenic gas have been discovered in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. These accumulations occur in Mississippian and younger rocks, at burial depths as much as 4,600 m. They are associated with a variety of rock types (carbonate, clastic, and coal), and occur in a variety of marine and nonmarine depositional settings generally characterized by rapid deposition. 111 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Conventional natural gas resource potential, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.

    2004-01-01

    An estimate of total natural gas resource potential of northern Alaska can be obtained by summing known gas reserves in oil and gas fields (35 TCF), mean estimates of undiscovered nonassociated (61 TCF) and associated (12 TCF) gas resources in NPRA, and mean estimates of undiscovered nonassociated (4 TCF) and associated (5 TCF) gas resources in the 1002 area of ANWR; this yields a total of 117 TCF. When estimates of undiscovered gas resources for non-Federal lands are released in 2005, that total will increase by a non-trivial amount. Thus, the conventional natural gas resource potential of onshore and State offshore areas totals well over 100 TCF. The inclusion of the MMS mean estimate (96 TCF) for undiscovered gas resources in the Beaufort and Chukchi planning areas of the Federal offshore extends that total above 200 TCF.

  9. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  10. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  11. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  12. Pricing of Electronic Resources: Interviews with Three Vendors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abels, Eileen G.

    1996-01-01

    Interviews with three vendors of electronic resources provide a historical perspective of pricing, a discussion of current pricing structures, and insight into the future of pricing from three different perspectives: a database producer (Disclosure, Inc.), an online services provider (Questel-Orbit, Inc.), and a commercial online service/consumer…

  13. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  14. Think Locally: A Prudent Approach to Electronic Resource Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson-Sundell, Nat

    2011-01-01

    A few articles have drawn some amount of attention specifically to the local causes of the success or failure of electronic resource management system (ERMS) implementations. In fact, it seems clear that local conditions will largely determine whether any given ERMS implementation will succeed or fail. This statement might seem obvious, but the…

  15. Electronic Resources: Access and Usage at Ashesi University College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadzie, Perpetua S.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Sets out to investigate the use of electronic resources by students and faculty of Ashesi University, Ghana, in order to determine the level of use, the type of information accessed and the effectiveness of the library's communication tools for information research. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based survey was utilized.…

  16. Biomass resource potential using energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.; Martin, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    Biomass energy crops can provide a significant and environmentally beneficial source of renewable energy feedstocks for the future. They can revitalize the agricultural sector of the US economy by providing profitable uses for marginal cropland. Energy crops include fast-growing trees, perennial grasses, and annual grasses, all capable of collecting solar energy and storing it as cellulosic compounds for several months to several years. Once solar energy is thus captured, it can be converted by means of currently available technologies to a wide variety of energy products such as electricity, heat, liquid transportation fuels, and gases. Experimental results from field trials have generated optimism that selected and improved energy crops, established on cropland with moderate limitations for crop production, have the potential for producing high yields. Both trees and grasses, under very good growing conditions, have produced average annual yields of 20 to 40 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1}. Sorghum has shown especially high yields in the Midwest. Hybrids between sugar cane and its wild relatives, called energy cane, have yielded as much as 50 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} in Florida. These experimental results demonstrate that some species have the genetic potential for very rapid growth rates. New wood energy crop systems developed by the Department of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program offer, at a minimum, a 100% increase in biomass production rates over the 2 to 4 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} of dry leafless woody biomass produced by most natural forest systems. Experimental data indicate that short rotation wood crops established on cropland with moderate limitations are capable of producing biomass yields of 8--20 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} with a present average about 11 dry Mg ha{sup {minus}1} year{sup {minus}1} on typical cropland sites.

  17. Eastern United States Hardwood Sawtimber Resources and Export Potential

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1987-01-01

    To look at the export potential of the Eastern hardwood sawtimber resources, including the Southern and Northern regions, hardwood resource data were compiled from USDA Forest Service state resorce evaluation reports on a set of select export species. The species are the select oaks, yellow birch, hard maple, black walnut, black cherry, and the ashes. These species...

  18. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  19. The resource potential of Russian lands for crop farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. L.; Savin, I. Yu.; Stolbovoy, V. S.

    2017-03-01

    Geoinformational analysis shows that the fraction of lands that are optimal for farming of the main crops in Russia is about 10% of the available land at best (for summer wheat, buckwheat). For the majority of other crop cultures, this value is a few percent at most. The available resources are used very incompletely. The index of completeness of land resource potential use is no more than 10% for the majority of crops. Only in the case of soy are the available resources almost completely involved, whereas available land resources of winter wheat, grain maize, and sunflowers are used at 20-30%.

  20. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Nathanial S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories—such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia—for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Methods Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Results Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Conclusions Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used

  1. MRPM: three visual basic programs for mineral resource potential mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongliang

    2004-11-01

    A traditional method for mineral resource potential mapping is to superimpose a number of indicator maps, and to combine geological information with or without the use of multivariate statistical models. More recently, GISs have become widely applied in mineral resource assessment and many statistical models for geological information synthesis have been proposed. GIS-based mineral resource potential mapping has facilitated modern mineral resource assessment. As a contribution to publicly available computer software for GIS-based mineral resource assessment, integrated three Visual Basic programs have been developed on MapInfo platform. The programs integrate map patterns using weights of evidence, applied general C-F, and evidence theory models, and generate posterior probability, combined certainty factor, and combined basic probability assignment maps, respectively. The software is demonstrated by a case study based on a real data set.

  2. E-Resources Management: How We Positioned Our Organization to Implement an Electronic Resources Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn; Sanders, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Information Services Division (ISD) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) positioned itself to successfully implement an electronic resources management system. This article highlights the ISD's unique ability to "team" across the organization to realize a common goal, develop leadership qualities in support of…

  3. E-Resources Management: How We Positioned Our Organization to Implement an Electronic Resources Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn; Sanders, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Information Services Division (ISD) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) positioned itself to successfully implement an electronic resources management system. This article highlights the ISD's unique ability to "team" across the organization to realize a common goal, develop leadership qualities in support of…

  4. Assessment of Global Wind Energy Resource Utilization Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, M.; He, B.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, H.; Song, S.

    2017-09-01

    Development of wind energy resource (WER) is a key to deal with climate change and energy structure adjustment. A crucial issue is to obtain the distribution and variability of WER, and mine the suitable location to exploit it. In this paper, a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) model is constructed by integrating resource richness and stability, utilization value and trend of resource, natural environment with weights. The global resource richness is assessed through wind power density (WPD) and multi-level wind speed. The utilizable value of resource is assessed by the frequency of effective wind. The resource stability is assessed by the coefficient of variation of WPD and the frequency of prevailing wind direction. Regression slope of long time series WPD is used to assess the trend of WER. All of the resource evaluation indicators are derived from the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim with spatial resolution 0.125°. The natural environment factors mainly refer to slope and land-use suitability, which are derived from multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED 2010) and GlobalCover2009. Besides, the global WER utilization potential map is produced, which shows most high potential regions are located in north of Africa. Additionally, by verifying that 22.22 % and 48.8 9% operational wind farms fall on medium-high and high potential regions respectively, the result can provide a basis for the macroscopic siting of wind farm.

  5. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Penev, M.; Heimiller, D.

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  6. Analysis of empty responses from electronic resources in infobutton managers

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jie; Hulse, Nathan C.; Tao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Infobuttons provide context-aware educational materials to both providers and patients and are becoming an important element in modern electronic health records (EHR) and patient health records (PHR). However, the content from different electronic resources (e-resource) as responses from infobutton manager has not been fully analyzed and evaluated. In this paper, we propose a method for automatically analyzing responses from infobutton manager. A tool is implemented to retrieve and analyze responses from infobutton manager. To test the tool, we extracted and sampled common and uncommon concepts from EHR usage data in Intermountain Healthcare’s enterprise data warehouse. From the output of the tool, we evaluate infobutton performance by multiple categories, including against the most and less common used concepts, grouped by different modules in patient portal, by different e-resources, and by type of access (standardized Health Level Seven (HL7) vs not). Based on the results of our evaluation, we provide suggestions for further enhancements of infobuttons to the current implementation, including suggesting accessing priorities of e-resources and encouraging the use of the HL7 standard. PMID:26958221

  7. Mineral resources and resource potential map of the Pyramid Peak Roadless Area, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calzia, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Geologic and geochemical data indicate that the study area has high resource potential for marble, and moderate resource potential for epithermal gold deposits and tungsten skarns. The Desert Divide Group and the Palm Canyon Complex contain large resources of marble quarried for Portland cement and for construction applications. Gold occurs in quartz veins and pegmatites in the Desert Divide Group and the Penrod Quartz Monzonite. Skarns in the Desert Divide Group contain scheelite and anomalous concentrations of arsenic and beryllium. Thin layers of tremolite asbestos along low-angle thrust faults occur outside of the study area.

  8. Maintaining the uranium resources data system and assessing the 1991 US uranium potential resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, R.B.; Finch, W.I.; Grundy, W.D.; Pierson, C.T.

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Uranium Resource Assessment Data (URAD) System contains information on potential resources (undiscovered) of uranium in the United States. The purpose of this report is: (1) to describe the work carried out to maintain and update the URAD system; (2)to assess the 1991 U.S. uranium potential resources in various cost categories; and (3) to describe the progress that has been made to automate the generation of the assessment reports and their subsequent transmittal by diskette.

  9. Electronic Resources Evaluation Central: Using Off-the-Shelf Software, Web 2.0 Tools, and LibGuides to Manage an Electronic Resources Evaluation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li

    2011-01-01

    A critical part of electronic resources management, the electronic resources evaluation process is multi-faceted and includes a seemingly endless range of resources and tools involving numerous library staff. A solution is to build a Web site to bring all of the components together that can be implemented quickly and result in an organizational…

  10. Electronic Resources Evaluation Central: Using Off-the-Shelf Software, Web 2.0 Tools, and LibGuides to Manage an Electronic Resources Evaluation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li

    2011-01-01

    A critical part of electronic resources management, the electronic resources evaluation process is multi-faceted and includes a seemingly endless range of resources and tools involving numerous library staff. A solution is to build a Web site to bring all of the components together that can be implemented quickly and result in an organizational…

  11. Potential Refrigerants for Power Electronics Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, M.R.

    2005-10-24

    In the past, automotive refrigerants have conventionally been used solely for the purpose of air conditioning. However, with the development of hybrid-electric vehicles and the incorporation of power electronics (PEs) into the automobile, automotive refrigerants are taking on a new role. Unfortunately, PEs have lifetimes and functionalities that are highly dependent on temperature and as a result thermal control plays an important role in the performance of PEs. Typically, PEs are placed in the engine compartment where the internal combustion engine (ICE) already produces substantial heat. Along with the ICE heat, the additional thermal energy produced by PEs themselves forces designers to use different cooling methods to prevent overheating. Generally, heat sinks and separate cooling loops are used to maintain the temperature. Disturbingly, the thermal control system can consume one third of the total volume and may weigh more than the PEs [1]. Hence, other avenues have been sought to cool PEs, including submerging PEs in automobile refrigerants to take advantage of two-phase cooling. The objective of this report is to explore the different automotive refrigerants presently available that could be used for PE cooling. Evaluation of the refrigerants will be done by comparing environmental effects and some thermo-physical properties important to two-phase cooling, specifically measuring the dielectric strengths of potential candidates. Results of this report will be used to assess the different candidates with good potential for future use in PE cooling.

  12. Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2004-01-01

    Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces. Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines in these two provinces. Alaskan coal resources have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The identified resources are near existing and planned infrastructure to promote development, transportation, and marketing of this low-sulfur coal. The relatively short distances to countries in the west Pacific Rim make them more exportable to these countries than to the lower 48 States of the United States. Another untapped but potential resource of large magnitude is coalbed methane, which has been estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters) by T.N. Smith 1995, Coalbed methane potential for Alaska and drilling results for the upper Cook Inlet Basin: Intergas, May 15 - 19, 1995, Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama, p. 1 - 21.

  13. Resources within Reason: Resources for Nurturing High Potential in Young Children of Diverse Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mary Ruth; Dennis, Allison; Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2011-01-01

    Nurturing potential is a critical aspect of development for young children with and without disabilities, especially if a child is gifted. This article provides resources that offer ideas for family members and professionals on how to recognize and support each child's strengths. Many of the materials specifically address nurturing potential in…

  14. Resources within Reason: Resources for Nurturing High Potential in Young Children of Diverse Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mary Ruth; Dennis, Allison; Hertzog, Nancy B.

    2011-01-01

    Nurturing potential is a critical aspect of development for young children with and without disabilities, especially if a child is gifted. This article provides resources that offer ideas for family members and professionals on how to recognize and support each child's strengths. Many of the materials specifically address nurturing potential in…

  15. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  16. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  17. Journals, Data and Abstracts Make an Integrated Electronic Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, P.

    1996-12-01

    Astronomy now has an integrated, Web-based information resource for research papers, data and bibliographic information. The major scholarly research journals, a comprehensive abstract service and the astronomical data centers are now linked together to provide an information resource which is not available to most other scientific disciplines. As of January, 1997, the Astrophysical Journal joins the ApJ Letters on the Web. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements now has a page image version. Elsevier's electronic journal New Astronomy has recently made its appearance. Over forty percent of the new peer-reviewed, astronomical literature is now available electronically. The main Astronomy and Astrophysics journal, the Astronomical Journal and others will be available by 1998, at which point ninety percent of the literature will be available electronically, a figure not approached by any other scientific discipline. With so many different sources, one of the challenges has been to integrate the on-line, peer-reviewed literature into a resource which serves the astronomical community in a unified and coherent manner. Following the lead of the AAS, the major publishers have chosen to rely upon the NASA-supported Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the astronomical data centers to provide the means by which the various separate journals can interoperate. The data centers and the ADS have developed unique identification codes for journal articles. By adopting the existing standard "bibcodes" and integrating them into their WWW links, each of the major astronomical journals are able to link to the abstracts of most of the referenced articles. Since the ADS also serves as an on-line repository for page images of the past twenty years of the major astronomical journals, the full text of many of the referenced articles are available, too. The articles in the ADS have recently been linked through their references, both forward and backward in time. With the "bibcode" providing

  18. Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.

    PubMed

    Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M

    2011-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs.

  19. Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo M. Flores; Gary D. Stricker; Scott A. Kinney

    2005-11-15

    Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces, Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines. Alaskan coals have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States and are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. Another untapped potential resource is coalbed methane estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters).

  20. Space Resource Utilization: Technologies and Potential Synergism with Terrestrial Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    Space Resources and Their Uses: The idea of using resources in space to support human exploration and settlement or for economic development and profit beyond the surface of Earth has been proposed and discussed for decades. Work on developing a method to extract oxygen from lunar regolith started even before humans set foot on the Moon for the first time. The use of space resources, commonly referred to as In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), involves the processes and operations to harness and utilize resources in space (both natural and discarded) to create products for subsequent use. Potential space resources include water, solar wind implanted volatiles (hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, etc.), vast quantities of metals and minerals in extraterrestrial soils, atmospheric constituents, unlimited solar energy, regions of permanent light and darkness, the vacuum and zero-gravity of space itself, trash and waste from human crew activities, and discarded hardware that has completed its primary purpose. ISRU covers a wide variety of concepts, technical disciplines, technologies, and processes. When considering all aspects of ISRU, there are 5 main areas that are relevant to human space exploration and the commercialization of space: 1. Resource Characterization and Mapping, 2. In Situ Consumables Production, 3. Civil Engineering and Construction, 4. In Situ Energy Production and Storage, and 5. In Situ Manufacturing.

  1. The potential of sustainable algal biofuel production using wastewater resources.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Jon K; Dean, Andrew P; Osundeko, Olumayowa

    2011-01-01

    The potential of microalgae as a source of renewable energy has received considerable interest, but if microalgal biofuel production is to be economically viable and sustainable, further optimization of mass culture conditions are needed. Wastewaters derived from municipal, agricultural and industrial activities potentially provide cost-effective and sustainable means of algal growth for biofuels. In addition, there is also potential for combining wastewater treatment by algae, such as nutrient removal, with biofuel production. Here we will review the current research on this topic and discuss the potential benefits and limitations of using wastewaters as resources for cost-effective microalgal biofuel production.

  2. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  3. The Potential Wind Power Resource in Australia: A New Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Australia’s wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia’s electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia’s energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia’s wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast’s electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it’s intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale. PMID:24988222

  4. The potential wind power resource in Australia: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Willow; Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Schlosser, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Australia's wind resource is considered to be very good, and the utilization of this renewable energy resource is increasing rapidly: wind power installed capacity increased by 35% from 2006 to 2011 and is predicted to account for over 12% of Australia's electricity generation in 2030. Due to this growth in the utilization of the wind resource and the increasing importance of wind power in Australia's energy mix, this study sets out to analyze and interpret the nature of Australia's wind resources using robust metrics of the abundance, variability and intermittency of wind power density, and analyzes the variation of these characteristics with current and potential wind turbine hub heights. We also assess the extent to which wind intermittency, on hourly or greater timescales, can potentially be mitigated by the aggregation of geographically dispersed wind farms, and in so doing, lessen the severe impact on wind power economic viability of long lulls in wind and power generated. Our results suggest that over much of Australia, areas that have high wind intermittency coincide with large expanses in which the aggregation of turbine output does not mitigate variability. These areas are also geographically remote, some are disconnected from the east coast's electricity grid and large population centers, which are factors that could decrease the potential economic viability of wind farms in these locations. However, on the eastern seaboard, even though the wind resource is weaker, it is less variable, much closer to large population centers, and there exists more potential to mitigate it's intermittency through aggregation. This study forms a necessary precursor to the analysis of the impact of large-scale circulations and oscillations on the wind resource at the mesoscale.

  5. Update to Enhanced Geothermal System Resource Potential Estimate: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, Chad

    2016-10-01

    The deep EGS electricity generation resource potential estimate maintained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory was updated using the most recent temperature-at-depth maps available from the Southern Methodist University Geothermal Laboratory. The previous study dates back to 2011 and was developed using the original temperature-at-depth maps showcased in the 2006 MIT Future of Geothermal Energy report. The methodology used to update the deep EGS resource potential is the same as in the previous study and is summarized in the paper. The updated deep EGS resource potential estimate was calculated for depths between 3 and 7 km and is binned in 25 degrees C increments. The updated deep EGS electricity generation resource potential estimate is 4,349 GWe. A comparison of the estimates from the previous and updated studies shows a net increase of 117 GWe in the 3-7 km depth range, due mainly to increases in the underlying temperature-at-depth estimates from the updated maps.

  6. Flickr's Potential as an Academic Image Resource: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Emma; Stuart, David; Thelwall, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Many web 2.0 sites are extremely popular and contain vast amounts of content, but how much of this content is useful in academia? This exploratory paper investigates the potential use of the popular web 2.0 image site Flickr as an academic image resource. The study identified images tagged with any one of 12 subject names derived from recognized…

  7. Potential for extending major land resource areas into northern Mexico

    Treesearch

    Roy S. Mann; Philip Heilman; Jeffry. Stone

    2013-01-01

    There is a significant history of cooperative efforts between Mexico and the United States on natural resource management issues. Mexico and the United States have jointly conducted research and developed range management technologies. Bringing these technologies together and improving technical communications are an ongoing process. This paper discusses a potential...

  8. Flickr's Potential as an Academic Image Resource: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Emma; Stuart, David; Thelwall, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Many web 2.0 sites are extremely popular and contain vast amounts of content, but how much of this content is useful in academia? This exploratory paper investigates the potential use of the popular web 2.0 image site Flickr as an academic image resource. The study identified images tagged with any one of 12 subject names derived from recognized…

  9. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  10. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  11. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  12. Potential for natural evaporation as a reliable renewable energy resource.

    PubMed

    Cavusoglu, Ahmet-Hamdi; Chen, Xi; Gentine, Pierre; Sahin, Ozgur

    2017-09-26

    About 50% of the solar energy absorbed at the Earth's surface drives evaporation, fueling the water cycle that affects various renewable energy resources, such as wind and hydropower. Recent advances demonstrate our nascent ability to convert evaporation energy into work, yet there is little understanding about the potential of this resource. Here we study the energy available from natural evaporation to predict the potential of this ubiquitous resource. We find that natural evaporation from open water surfaces could provide power densities comparable to current wind and solar technologies while cutting evaporative water losses by nearly half. We estimate up to 325 GW of power is potentially available in the United States. Strikingly, water's large heat capacity is sufficient to control power output by storing excess energy when demand is low, thus reducing intermittency and improving reliability. Our findings motivate the improvement of materials and devices that convert energy from evaporation.The evaporation of water represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Building on previous models of evaporation, Cavusoglu et al. show that the power available from this natural resource is comparable to wind and solar power, yet it does not suffer as much from varying weather conditions.

  13. Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2009-09-01

    With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

  14. Groundwater Resources Potential in Hard Rock Terrain: A Multivariate Approach.

    PubMed

    Earon, Robert; Dehkordi, S Emad; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater resources are limited and difficult to predict in crystalline bedrock due to heterogeneity and anisotropy in rock fracture systems. Municipal-level governments often lack the resources for traditional hydrogeological tests when planning for sustainable use of water resources. A new methodology for assessing groundwater resources potential (GRP) based on geological and topographical factors using principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was developed and tested. ANOVA results demonstrated statistically significant differences in classed variable groups as well as in classed GRP scores with regard to hydrogeological indicators, such as specific capacity (SC) and transmissivity. Results of PCA were used to govern the weight of the variables used in the prediction maps. GRP scores were able to identify 79% of wells in a verification dataset, which had SC values less than the total dataset median. GRP values showed statistically significant correlations using both parametric (using transformed datasets) and non-parametric methods. The method shows promise for municipal or regional level planning in crystalline terrains with high levels of heterogeneity and anisotropy as a hydrogeologically and statistically based tool to assist in assessing groundwater resources. The methodology is executed in a geographic information systems environment, and uses often readily available data, such as geological maps, feature maps and topography, and thus does not require expensive and time-consuming aquifer tests.

  15. Biomass potential resources identification in Togean Islands, Central Sulawesi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyamin, A.; Purnomo, D.

    2017-05-01

    Togean Islands is one of remote area in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Togean has been already well known for its great underwater scenery which fascinating many foreign tourists stay there. The large number of visits to Togean doesn’t mean at the same time it brings much improvement to local economy. People in Togean was used to live with limited utilities. Water and electricity are the two major problems that have been faced by the communities for many years. On the other hand, Togean has a very good potential for the development of biomass as a renewable energy source. This paper evaluated the potency of each resources using some parameters including availability, social support, technology feasibilities and sustainability aspect. Biomass potential resources that were investigated are hardwoods and forestry product, agroindustrial waste and by-products, and also household waste. Advanced analysis has concluded that the most feasible resources that eligible to be considered as future biomass resources is household waste followed by agro-industrial and agricultural waste then hardwood and forestry products.

  16. Computational resources for cryo-electron tomography in Bsoft.

    PubMed

    Heymann, J Bernard; Cardone, Giovanni; Winkler, Dennis C; Steven, Alasdair C

    2008-03-01

    The Bsoft package [Heymann, J.B., Belnap, D.M., 2007. Bsoft: image processing and molecular modeling for electron microscopy. J. Struct. Biol. 157, 3-18] has been enhanced by adding utilities for processing electron tomographic (ET) data; in particular, cryo-ET data characterized by low contrast and high noise. To handle the high computational load efficiently, a workflow was developed, based on the database-like parameter handling in Bsoft, aimed at minimizing user interaction and facilitating automation. To the same end, scripting elements distribute the processing among multiple processors on the same or different computers. The resolution of a tomogram depends on the precision of projection alignment, which is usually based on pinpointing fiducial markers (electron-dense gold particles). Alignment requires accurate specification of the tilt axis, and our protocol includes a procedure for determining it to adequate accuracy. Refinement of projection alignment provides information that allows assessment of its precision, as well as projection quality control. We implemented a reciprocal space algorithm that affords an alternative to back-projection or real space algorithms for calculating tomograms. Resources are also included that allow resolution assessment by cross-validation (NLOO2D); denoising and interpretation; and the extraction, mutual alignment, and averaging of tomographic sub-volumes.

  17. The petroleum resource potential of the Bering Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabanbark, A.

    2009-10-01

    The Bering Sea sedimentary basin comprises the Bering Sea and the adjacent intermontane depressions on the continents. It includes the following subordinate sedimentary basins: the Norton; Bethel; Saint Lawrence; Anadyr; Navarin; Khatyrka; Saint George; Bristol; Cook Inlet; and Aleutian consisting of the autonomous Aleutian, Bowers, and Komandor basins. All of them exhibit significant geological similarity. The Middle and Upper Miocene terrigenous sequences, which are petroliferous through the entire periphery of the Pacific Ocean, are characterized by their high petroleum resource potential in the Bering Sea continental margin as well, which is confirmed by the oil and gas pools discovered in neighboring onshore lowlands. The younger (Pliocene) and older (up to Upper Cretaceous) sedimentary formations are also promising with respect to hydrocarbons. The integral potential oil and gas resources of the Bering Sea sedimentary basin, including the continental slopes, are estimated by the US Geological Survey to be 1120 × 106 t and 965 × 109 m3, respectively.

  18. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  19. Geospatial analysis identifies critical mineral-resource potential in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan; Labay, Keith; Jacques, Katherine; Landowski, Claire

    2017-03-03

    Alaska consists of more than 663,000 square miles (1,717,000 square kilometers) of land—more than a sixth of the total area of the United States—and large tracts of it have not been systematically studied or sampled for mineral-resource potential. Many regions of the State are known to have significant mineral-resource potential, and there are currently six operating mines in the State along with numerous active mineral exploration projects. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys have developed a new geospatial tool that integrates and analyzes publicly available databases of geologic information and estimates the mineral-resource potential for critical minerals, which was recently used to evaluate Alaska. The results of the analyses highlight areas that have known mineral deposits and also reveal areas that were not previously considered to be prospective for these deposit types. These results will inform land management decisions by Federal, State, and private landholders, and will also help guide future exploration activities and scientific investigations in Alaska.

  20. Potentially exploitable supercritical geothermal resources in the ductile crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watanabe, Noriaki; Numakura, Tatsuya; Sakaguchi, Kiyotoshi; Saishu, Hanae; Okamoto, Atsushi; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis that the brittle–ductile transition (BDT) drastically reduces permeability implies that potentially exploitable geothermal resources (permeability >10−16 m2) consisting of supercritical water could occur only in rocks with unusually high transition temperatures such as basalt. However, tensile fracturing is possible even in ductile rocks, and some permeability–depth relations proposed for the continental crust show no drastic permeability reduction at the BDT. Here we present experimental results suggesting that the BDT is not the first-order control on rock permeability, and that potentially exploitable resources may occur in rocks with much lower BDT temperatures, such as the granitic rocks that comprise the bulk of the continental crust. We find that permeability behaviour for fractured granite samples at 350–500 °C under effective confining stress is characterized by a transition from a weakly stress-dependent and reversible behaviour to a strongly stress-dependent and irreversible behaviour at a specific, temperature-dependent effective confining stress level. This transition is induced by onset of plastic normal deformation of the fracture surface (elastic–plastic transition) and, importantly, causes no ‘jump’ in the permeability. Empirical equations for this permeability behaviour suggest that potentially exploitable resources exceeding 450 °C may form at depths of 2–6 km even in the nominally ductile crust.

  1. Potentially exploitable supercritical geothermal resources in the ductile crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Noriaki; Numakura, Tatsuya; Sakaguchi, Kiyotoshi; Saishu, Hanae; Okamoto, Atsushi; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis that the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) drastically reduces permeability implies that potentially exploitable geothermal resources (permeability >10-16 m2) consisting of supercritical water could occur only in rocks with unusually high transition temperatures such as basalt. However, tensile fracturing is possible even in ductile rocks, and some permeability-depth relations proposed for the continental crust show no drastic permeability reduction at the BDT. Here we present experimental results suggesting that the BDT is not the first-order control on rock permeability, and that potentially exploitable resources may occur in rocks with much lower BDT temperatures, such as the granitic rocks that comprise the bulk of the continental crust. We find that permeability behaviour for fractured granite samples at 350-500 °C under effective confining stress is characterized by a transition from a weakly stress-dependent and reversible behaviour to a strongly stress-dependent and irreversible behaviour at a specific, temperature-dependent effective confining stress level. This transition is induced by onset of plastic normal deformation of the fracture surface (elastic-plastic transition) and, importantly, causes no `jump' in the permeability. Empirical equations for this permeability behaviour suggest that potentially exploitable resources exceeding 450 °C may form at depths of 2-6 km even in the nominally ductile crust.

  2. Multi electron species and shielding potentials in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Arroj A.; Murtaza, G.; Rasheed, A.; Jamil, M.

    2012-11-15

    The phenomenon of Debye shielding is investigated in electron ion plasmas using the approach of two temperature electrons. We get different profiles of potential for different parameters and observe that the potentials fall very slowly than the standard Coulomb and Debye potentials. The importance of work is pointed out in the introduction.

  3. Estimation of potential impacts and natural resource damages of oil.

    PubMed

    McCay, Deborah French; Rowe, Jill Jennings; Whittier, Nicole; Sankaranarayanan, Sankar; Etkin, Dagmar Schmidt

    2004-02-27

    Methods were developed to estimate the potential impacts and natural resource damages resulting from oil spills using probabilistic modeling techniques. The oil fates model uses wind data, current data, and transport and weathering algorithms to calculate mass balance of fuel components in various environmental compartments (water surface, shoreline, water column, atmosphere, sediments, etc.), oil pathway over time (trajectory), surface distribution, shoreline oiling, and concentrations of the fuel components in water and sediments. Exposure of aquatic habitats and organisms to whole oil and toxic components is estimated in the biological model, followed by estimation of resulting acute mortality and ecological losses. Natural resource damages are based on estimated costs to restore equivalent resources and/or ecological services, using Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA) and Resource Equivalency Analysis (REA) methods. Oil spill modeling was performed for two spill sites in central San Francisco Bay, three spill sizes (20th, 50th, and 95th percentile volumes from tankers and larger freight vessels, based on an analysis of likely spill volumes given a spill has occurred) and four oil types (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). The scenarios were run in stochastic mode to determine the frequency distribution, mean and standard deviation of fates, impacts, and damages. This work is significant as it demonstrates a statistically quantifiable method for estimating potential impacts and financial consequences that may be used in ecological risk assessment and cost-benefit analyses. The statistically-defined spill volumes and consequences provide an objective measure of the magnitude, range and variability of impacts to wildlife, aquatic organisms and shorelines for potential spills of four oil/fuel types, each having distinct environmental fates and effects.

  4. Coalbed methane resource potential of the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.; Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R.

    1996-06-01

    As predicted, from an evolving coalbed methane producibility model, prolific coalbed methane production is precluded in the Piceance Basin by the absence of coal bed reservoir continuity and dynamic ground-water flow. The best potential for production may lie at the transition zone from hydropressure to hydrocarbon overpressure and/or in conventional traps basinward of where outcrop and subsurface coals are in good reservoir and hydraulic communication. Geologic and hydrologic synergy among tectonic and structural setting, depositional systems and coal distribution, coal rank, gas content, permeability and hydrodynamics are the controls that determine the coalbed methane resource potential of the Piceance Basin. Within the coal-bearing Upper Cretaceous Williams Fork Formation, the prime coalbed methane target, reservoir heterogeneity and thrust faults cause coal beds along the Grand Hogback and in the subsurface to be in modest to poor reservoir and hydraulic communication, restricting meteoric ground water recharge and basinward flow. Total subsurface coalbed methane resources are still estimated to be approximately 99 Tcf (3.09 Tm{sup 3}), although coalbed methane resource estimates range between 80 (2.49 Tm{sup 3}) and 136 Tcf (4.24 Tm{sup 3}), depending on the calculation method used. To explore for high gas contents or fully gas-saturated coals and consequent high productivity in the Piceance Basin, improved geologic and completion technologies including exploration and development for migrated conventionally and hydrodynamically trapped gases, in-situ generated secondary biogenic gases, and solution gases will be required.

  5. National Microalgae Biofuel Production Potential and Resource Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Huesemann, Michael H.; Lane, Leonard J.

    2011-04-14

    Microalgae continue to receive global attention as a potential sustainable "energy crop" for biofuel production. An important step to realizing the potential of algae is quantifying the demands commercial-scale algal biofuel production will place on water and land resources. We present a high-resolution national resource and oil production assessment that brings to bear fundamental research questions of where open pond microalgae production can occur, how much land and water resource is required, and how much energy is produced. Our study suggests under current technology microalgae have the potential to generate 220 billion liters/year of oil, equivalent to 48% of current U.S. petroleum imports for transportation fuels. However, this level of production would require 5.5% of the land area in the conterminous U.S., and nearly three times the volume of water currently used for irrigated agriculture, averaging 1,421 L water per L of oil. Optimizing the selection of locations for microalgae production based on water use efficiency can greatly reduce total water demand. For example, focusing on locations along the Gulf Coast, Southeastern Seaboard, and areas adjacent to the Great Lakes, shows a 75% reduction in water demand to 350 L per L of oil produced with a 67% reduction in land use. These optimized locations have the potential to generate an oil volume equivalent to 17% of imports for transportation fuels, equal to the Energy Independence and Security Act year 2022 "advanced biofuels" production target, and utilizing some 25% of the current irrigation consumptive water demand for the U. S. These results suggest that, with proper planning, adequate land and water are available to meet a significant portion of the U.S. renewable fuel goals.

  6. Assessing Ongoing Electronic Resource Purchases: Linking Tools to Synchronize Staff Workflows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jeffrey D.; Major, Colleen; O'Neal, Nada; Tofanelli, John

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing electronic resource purchases represent a substantial proportion of collections budgets. Recognizing the necessity of systematic ongoing assessment with full selector engagement, Columbia University Libraries appointed an Electronic Resources Assessment Working Group to promote the inclusion of such resources within our current culture of…

  7. Assessing Ongoing Electronic Resource Purchases: Linking Tools to Synchronize Staff Workflows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jeffrey D.; Major, Colleen; O'Neal, Nada; Tofanelli, John

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing electronic resource purchases represent a substantial proportion of collections budgets. Recognizing the necessity of systematic ongoing assessment with full selector engagement, Columbia University Libraries appointed an Electronic Resources Assessment Working Group to promote the inclusion of such resources within our current culture of…

  8. Potential Anti-HIV Agents from Marine Resources: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and is a global public health issue. Anti-HIV therapy involving chemical drugs has improved the life quality of HIV/AIDS patients. However, emergence of HIV drug resistance, side effects and the necessity for long-term anti-HIV treatment are the main reasons for failure of anti-HIV therapy. Therefore, it is essential to isolate novel anti-HIV therapeutics from natural resources. Recently, a great deal of interest has been expressed regarding marine-derived anti-HIV agents such as phlorotannins, sulfated chitooligosaccharides, sulfated polysaccharides, lectins and bioactive peptides. This contribution presents an overview of anti-HIV therapeutics derived from marine resources and their potential application in HIV therapy. PMID:21339954

  9. Potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Shen, Chen; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Kuang, Ru-Dan; Guo, Ya-Jun; Zeng, Li-Shan; Gao, Li-Li; Lin, Xi; Xie, Jie-Feng; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Sha; Wu, Shan; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Potential Electron Beam Induced Flashblindness in Pilots.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    to evoke a visual response. Rhodopsin , the rod pigment, is still an effective transducer of light down to 300 nm, as has been shown by people who...the next section.) The color of the light generated by the accelerated elec- trons is very blue , approximating that of a clear blue sky. The blue of the...107 e-/cm 2. (The Cerenkov radiation produced in the eye -by--6eV (0.996 c) electrons was compared to light from external sources in a previous study

  11. Survey of potential geopressured resource areas in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, S.K.; Robertson-Tait, A.; Kraemer, M.; Buening, N.

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents the initial results of a survey of the occurrence and characteristics of geopressured fluid resources in California using the publicly- available database involving more than 150,000 oil and gas wells drilled in the State. Of the 975 documented on-shore oil and gas pools studied, about 42% were identified as potentially geopressured. Geothermal gradients in California oil and gas fields lie within the normal range of 1 F to 2 F per 100 feet. Except for the Los Angeles Basin, there was no evidence of higher temperatures or temperature gradients in geopressured pools.

  12. Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High Penetration PV Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, C.; Burman, K.

    2010-04-01

    Overview of the solar resource assessment conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in cooperation with Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) in Hawaii to determine the technical feasibility of increasing the contribution of solar renewable energy generation on the island of Kauaii through the use of photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The analysis, which was performed using a custom version of NREL's In My Back Yard (IMBY) software tool, showed that there is potential to generate enough energy to cover the peak load as reported for Kauai in 2007.

  13. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change.

  14. National microalgae biofuel production potential and resource demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, André M.; Skaggs, Richard J.; Huesemann, Michael H.; Lane, Leonard J.

    2011-03-01

    Microalgae are receiving increased global attention as a potential sustainable "energy crop" for biofuel production. An important step to realizing the potential of algae is quantifying the demands commercial-scale algal biofuel production will place on water and land resources. We present a high-resolution spatiotemporal assessment that brings to bear fundamental questions of where production can occur, how many land and water resources are required, and how much energy is produced. Our study suggests that under current technology, microalgae have the potential to generate 220 × 109 L yr-1 of oil, equivalent to 48% of current U.S. petroleum imports for transportation. However, this level of production requires 5.5% of the land area in the conterminous United States and nearly three times the water currently used for irrigated agriculture, averaging 1421 L water per liter of oil. Optimizing the locations for microalgae production on the basis of water use efficiency can greatly reduce total water demand. For example, focusing on locations along the Gulf Coast, southeastern seaboard, and Great Lakes shows a 75% reduction in consumptive freshwater use to 350 L per liter of oil produced with a 67% reduction in land use. These optimized locations have the potential to generate an oil volume equivalent to 17% of imports for transportation fuels, equal to the Energy Independence and Security Act year 2022 "advanced biofuels" production target and utilizing some 25% of the current irrigation demand. With proper planning, adequate land and water are available to meet a significant portion of the U.S. renewable fuel goals.

  15. Mapping Resources Potential of the Lunar Surface for Human Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, James

    2005-07-01

    We propose to use the ACS/HRC to delineate UV through visible color units at three test sites on the lunar surface for the purpose of identifying localized areas enriched in potential resources, including TiO2. This pathfinding experiment will make use of HST's unique high resolution imaging capabilities in the near UV. We will observe the Apollo 15 and 17 sites to establish an empirical calibration against sampled lunar soils. We will then observe the Aristarchus Plateau in search of regions enriched in TiO2 at levels that could permit in situ resources utilization activities that support sustained human exploration. Precision mapping of TiO2 abundance and other chemical proxies by virtue of HST's high angular resolution in near UV wavelengths will extend lower resolution Visible-NIR results obtained from orbit by Clementine, and set the stage for future orbital surveys later in the decade. Understanding whether there are lunar near-side sites with adequate resource potential to target human "sorties" and related robotic precursor missions represents an important decision point in NASA's implementation of the President's Vision for Space Exploration. The proposed HST ACS/HRC test data directly support near-term engineering trades associated with the optimal location for the first human return missions to the Moon. No past, current, or planned future lunar orbiting spacecraft will have the ability to investigate the near UV aspects of the lunar spectrum at such scales { 50m}, so the results of the proposed HST observations are unique and relevant to NASA's mission.

  16. Assessing the resources and mitigation potential of European forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenauer, Hubert; Neumann, Mathias; Moreno, Adam; Running, Steve

    2017-04-01

    also use this data to examine climate limitations on potential forest structure, relevant for assessing potential timber assortments or suitability as wildlife habitat. The results suggest: (i) Boreal forests are limited by minimum temperature, the Mediterranean forests by maximum temperature and temperate forests by both temperature and precipitation. As a result of changing climate during the last 50 years, the potential average diameter at breast height, which can be achieved in Europe, has decreased by 5.0 %. A similar result is evident for the potential basal area per hectare with a decrease of 6.5 %. (ii) European forests exhibit an annual average carbon uptake of 577 gC/m2/year, which can be considered as the carbon sequestration potential and/or available resource for the increasing demand of a growing bio-economy.

  17. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  18. Electronic Resource Management 2.0: Using Web 2.0 Technologies as Cost-Effective Alternatives to an Electronic Resource Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Designed to assist with the management of e-resources, electronic resource management (ERM) systems are time- and fund-consuming to purchase and maintain. Questions of system compatibility, data population, and workflow design/redesign can be difficult to answer; sometimes those answers are not what we'd prefer to hear. The two primary functions…

  19. Electronic Resource Management 2.0: Using Web 2.0 Technologies as Cost-Effective Alternatives to an Electronic Resource Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Designed to assist with the management of e-resources, electronic resource management (ERM) systems are time- and fund-consuming to purchase and maintain. Questions of system compatibility, data population, and workflow design/redesign can be difficult to answer; sometimes those answers are not what we'd prefer to hear. The two primary functions…

  20. Coalbed methane resource potential and current prospects in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markowski, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    Coalbed methane gas content analyses from exploratory coal cores and existing data indicate that gas content generally increases with increasing depth and rank. The coal beds studied are from the Main Bituminous field of Pennsylvania (which currently contains 24 coalbed methane pools) and the Northern and Southern Anthracite coal fields. They range from the Middle Pennsylvanian Allegheny Group to the Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian Dunkard Group. Previous US Bureau of Mines studies revealed gas contents from 0.4 to 13.8 cm3/g at depths of 99 to 432 m for the bituminous coal beds of the Allegheny Group. More recent core data from the Allegheny Group yielded gas contents from 2.2 to 8.9 cm3/g at depths from 167 to 387 m. In the Anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania, the little data that are available show that gas content is anomalously high or low. Gas yields from test holes in eastern Pennsylvania are low with or without artificial stimulation mainly due to the lack of a good cleat system. Overall estimates of coalbed methane resources indicate there may be 1.7 Tm3 (61 Tcf) of gas-in-place contained in the Northern Appalachian coal basin. The amount of technically recoverable coalbed methane resources is projected by the US Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Team [US Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Team, 1996. 1995 National assessment of United States oil and gas resources-results, methodology, and supporting data, US Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-30, CD-ROM, Denver, CO, 80 pp.] and Lyons [Lyons, P.C., 1997. Central-northern Appalachian coalbed methane flow grows. Oil and Gas Journal 95 (27) 76-79] at 0.3 Tm3 (11.48 Tcf). This includes portions of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and a small part of Maryland. Consequently, a mapping investigation was conducted to evaluate the regional geology of the bituminous coal-bearing intervals in southwestern Pennsylvania and its influence on coalbed

  1. Chinese Marine Materia Medica Resources: Status and Potential

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Shao, Chang-Lun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Hong; Dai, Gui-Lin; Chen, Qian-Wen; Kong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM) is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties), compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development. PMID:26950133

  2. Chinese Marine Materia Medica Resources: Status and Potential.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Shao, Chang-Lun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Hong; Dai, Gui-Lin; Chen, Qian-Wen; Kong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-03-03

    Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM) is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties), compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development.

  3. Altered protein phosphorylation as a resource for potential AD biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Ana Gabriela; Müller, Thorsten; Oliveira, Joana Machado; Cova, Marta; da Cruz e Silva, Cristóvão B.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A. B.

    2016-01-01

    The amyloidogenic peptide, Aβ, provokes a series of events affecting distinct cellular pathways regulated by protein phosphorylation. Aβ inhibits protein phosphatases in a dose-dependent manner, thus it is expected that the phosphorylation state of specific proteins would be altered in response to Aβ. In fact several Alzheimer’s disease related proteins, such as APP and TAU, exhibit pathology associated hyperphosphorylated states. A systems biology approach was adopted and the phosphoproteome, of primary cortical neuronal cells exposed to Aβ, was evaluated. Phosphorylated proteins were recovered and those whose recovery increased or decreased, upon Aβ exposure across experimental sets, were identified. Significant differences were evident for 141 proteins and investigation of their interactors revealed key protein clusters responsive to Aβ treatment. Of these, 73 phosphorylated proteins increased and 68 decreased upon Aβ addition. These phosphorylated proteins represent an important resource of potential AD phospho biomarkers that should be further pursued. PMID:27466139

  4. Altered protein phosphorylation as a resource for potential AD biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Ana Gabriela; Müller, Thorsten; Oliveira, Joana Machado; Cova, Marta; da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão B; da Cruz E Silva, Odete A B

    2016-07-28

    The amyloidogenic peptide, Aβ, provokes a series of events affecting distinct cellular pathways regulated by protein phosphorylation. Aβ inhibits protein phosphatases in a dose-dependent manner, thus it is expected that the phosphorylation state of specific proteins would be altered in response to Aβ. In fact several Alzheimer's disease related proteins, such as APP and TAU, exhibit pathology associated hyperphosphorylated states. A systems biology approach was adopted and the phosphoproteome, of primary cortical neuronal cells exposed to Aβ, was evaluated. Phosphorylated proteins were recovered and those whose recovery increased or decreased, upon Aβ exposure across experimental sets, were identified. Significant differences were evident for 141 proteins and investigation of their interactors revealed key protein clusters responsive to Aβ treatment. Of these, 73 phosphorylated proteins increased and 68 decreased upon Aβ addition. These phosphorylated proteins represent an important resource of potential AD phospho biomarkers that should be further pursued.

  5. Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources Hearing or speech impairment - resources Heart disease - resources Hemophilia - resources Herpes - resources Incest - resources Incontinence - ...

  6. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of Mali

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Kone, Fatiaga

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in Mali (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in Mali and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, four different methodologies were used: the cylindrical calculation of the primary kimberlitic deposits, the surface area methodology, the volume and grade approach, and the content per kilometer approach. Approximately 700,000 carats are estimated to be in the alluvial deposits of the Kenieba region, with 540,000 carats calculated to lie within the concentration grade deposits. Additionally, 580,000 carats are estimated to have

  7. Potential applications of electron emission membranes in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilevych, Yevgen; Brunner, Stefan E.; Chan, Hong Wah; Charbon, Edoardo; van der Graaf, Harry; Hagen, Cornelis W.; Nützel, Gert; Pinto, Serge D.; Prodanović, Violeta; Rotman, Daan; Santagata, Fabio; Sarro, Lina; Schaart, Dennis R.; Sinsheimer, John; Smedley, John; Tao, Shuxia; Theulings, Anne M. M. G.

    2016-02-01

    With a miniaturised stack of transmission dynodes, a noise free amplifier is being developed for the detection of single free electrons, with excellent time- and 2D spatial resolution and efficiency. With this generic technology, a new family of detectors for individual elementary particles may become possible. Potential applications of such electron emission membranes in medicine are discussed.

  8. Checklist Manifesto for Electronic Resources: Getting Ready for the Fiscal Year and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li; Miller, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Organization of electronic resources workflow is critical in the increasingly complicated and complex world of library management. A simple organizational tool that can be readily applied to electronic resources management (ERM) is the use of checklists. Based on the principles discussed in The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, the…

  9. Checklist Manifesto for Electronic Resources: Getting Ready for the Fiscal Year and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li; Miller, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Organization of electronic resources workflow is critical in the increasingly complicated and complex world of library management. A simple organizational tool that can be readily applied to electronic resources management (ERM) is the use of checklists. Based on the principles discussed in The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, the…

  10. One-Stop Shopping: Presenting Disparate Electronic Resources through a Single Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briden, Judi; Reeb, Brenda; Zhang, Allison

    The Electronic Resources Team at the University of Rochester (New York) River Campus Libraries pursued the concept of one-stop shopping as a component of their new integrated library system Voyager, which debuted in January 1997. Faced with a growing variety of electronic resources with no single guide to their existence and access, the Team dealt…

  11. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  12. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  13. The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

  14. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  15. Use and Users of Electronic Library Resources: An Overview and Analysis of Recent Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2003-01-01

    This Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) report summarizes and analyzes more than 200 recent research publications that focus on the use of electronic library resources (digital libraries and digital resources) and were published between 1995 and 2003. Eight major ongoing studies (each with multiple publications) are identified as…

  16. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  17. Continental shelves as potential resource of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Pourret, Olivier; Tuduri, Johann

    2017-07-19

    The results of this study allow the reassessment of the rare earth elements (REE) external cycle. Indeed, the river input to the oceans has relatively flat REE patterns without cerium (Ce) anomalies, whereas oceanic REE patterns exhibit strong negative Ce anomalies and heavy REE enrichment. Indeed, the processes at the origin of seawater REE patterns are commonly thought to occur within the ocean masses themselves. However, the results from the present study illustrate that seawater-like REE patterns already occur in the truly dissolved pool of river input. This leads us to favor a partial or complete removal of the colloidal REE pool during estuarine mixing by coagulation, as previously shown for dissolved humic acids and iron. In this latter case, REE fractionation occurs because colloidal and truly dissolved pools have different REE patterns. Thus, the REE patterns of seawater could be the combination of both intra-oceanic and riverine processes. In this study, we show that the Atlantic continental shelves could be considered potential REE traps, suggesting further that shelf sediments could potentially become a resource for REE, similar to metalliferous deep sea sediments.

  18. Self-compassion: a potential resource for young women athletes.

    PubMed

    Mosewich, Amber D; Kowalski, Kent C; Sabiston, Catherine M; Sedgwick, Whitney A; Tracy, Jessica L

    2011-02-01

    Self-compassion has demonstrated many psychological benefits (Neff, 2009). In an effort to explore self-compassion as a potential resource for young women athletes, we explored relations among self-compassion, proneness to self-conscious emotions (i.e., shame, guilt-free shame, guilt, shame-free guilt, authentic pride, and hubristic pride), and potentially unhealthy self-evaluative thoughts and behaviors (i.e., social physique anxiety, obligatory exercise, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation). Young women athletes (N = 151; Mage = 15.1 years) participated in this study. Self-compassion was negatively related to shame proneness, guilt-free shame proneness, social physique anxiety, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation. In support of theoretical propositions, self-compassion explained variance beyond self-esteem on shame proneness, guilt-free shame proneness, shame-free guilt proneness, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation. Results suggest that, in addition to self-esteem promotion, self-compassion development may be beneficial in cultivating positive sport experiences for young women.

  19. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Van Bockstael, Mark; Diaby, Mamadou; Cissé, Kabinet; Diallo, Thierno Amadou; Sano, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that export shipments of rough diamonds were free of conflict concerns. Outcomes of the meeting were formally supported later in December of 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. The goal of this study was to estimate the alluvial diamond resource endowment and the current production capacity of the alluvial diamond mining sector of Guinea. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within Guinea's diamondiferous regions, while the diamond-production capacity of these zones was estimated by inputting the number of artisanal miners, the number of days artisans work per year, and the average grade of the deposits into a formulaic expression. Guinea's resource potential was estimated to be approximately 40 million carats, while the production capacity was estimated to lie within a range of 480,000 to 720,000 carats per year. While preliminary results have been produced by integrating historical documents, five fieldwork campaigns, and remote sensing and GIS analysis, significant data gaps remain. The artisanal mining sector is dynamic and is affected by a variety of internal and external factors. Estimates of the number of artisans and deposit variables, such as grade, vary from site to site and from zone to zone. This report has been developed on the basis of the most detailed information available at this time. However, continued fieldwork and evaluation of artisanally mined deposits would increase the accuracy of the results.

  20. Linking Spatial Distributions of Potential and Current in Viscous Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkovich, Gregory; Levitov, Leonid

    2017-08-01

    Viscous electronics is an emerging field dealing with systems in which strongly interacting electrons behave as a fluid. Electron viscous flows are governed by a nonlocal current-field relation which renders the spatial patterns of the current and electric field strikingly dissimilar. Notably, driven by the viscous friction force from adjacent layers, current can flow against the electric field, generating negative resistance, vorticity, and vortices. Moreover, different current flows can result in identical potential distributions. This sets a new situation where inferring the electron flow pattern from the measured potentials presents a nontrivial problem. Using the inherent relation between these patterns through complex analysis, here we propose a method for extracting the current flows from potential distributions measured in the presence of a magnetic field.

  1. Reducing Clinical Trial Monitoring Resource Allocation and Costs Through Remote Access to Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Uren, Shannon C.; Kirkman, Mitchell B.; Dalton, Brad S.; Zalcberg, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. Methods: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Results: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Conclusion: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials. PMID:23633977

  2. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. > The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. > We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. > Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. > Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods

  3. Path integral approach to electron scattering in classical electromagnetic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Xu; Feng, Feng; Ying-Jun, Li

    2016-05-01

    As is known to all, the electron scattering in classical electromagnetic potential is one of the most widespread applications of quantum theory. Nevertheless, many discussions about electron scattering are based upon single-particle Schrodinger equation or Dirac equation in quantum mechanics rather than the method of quantum field theory. In this paper, by using the path integral approach of quantum field theory, we perturbatively evaluate the scattering amplitude up to the second order for the electron scattering by the classical electromagnetic potential. The results we derive are convenient to apply to all sorts of potential forms. Furthermore, by means of the obtained results, we give explicit calculations for the one-dimensional electric potential. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374360, 11405266, and 11505285) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CBA01504).

  4. Floating potential of large dust grains with electron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Bacharis, M.

    2014-07-15

    Electron emission from the surface of solid particles plays an important role in many dusty plasma phenomena and applications. Examples of such cases include fusion plasmas and dusty plasma systems in our solar system. Electron emission complicates the physics of the plasma-dust interaction. One of the most important aspects of the physics of the dust plasma interaction is the calculation of the particle's floating potential. This is the potential a dust particle acquires when it is in contact with a plasma and it plays a very important role for determining its dynamical behaviour. The orbital motion limited (OML) approach is used in most cases in the literature to model the dust charging physics. However, this approach has severe limitations when the size of the particles is larger than the electron Debye length λ{sub De}. Addressing this shortcoming for cases without electron emission, a modified version of OML (MOML) was developed for modelling the charging physics of dust grains larger than the electron Debye length. In this work, we will focus on extending MOML in cases where the particles emit electrons. Furthermore, a general method for calculating the floating potential of dust particles with electron emission will be presented for a range of grain sizes.

  5. Nursing resource considerations for implementing an electronic documentation system.

    PubMed

    Saletnik, Laurie Ann; Niedlinger, Margaret K; Wilson, Marisa

    2008-03-01

    Implementation of an or management information system (ORMIS) requires a significant commitment of human resources. The experiences of the personnel at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, as they transitioned to using a single, unified, computerized ORMIS are detailed in this article. Included are discussions of the nursing resources involved in the process, the lessons learned, and the work that remains to be completed for the hospital to fully utilize the system.

  6. Medical Image Resource Center--making electronic teaching files from PACS.

    PubMed

    Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Hui, Francis

    2003-12-01

    A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and store teaching files; neither is there a standardized method for sharing such teaching images. The Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) is a new central image repository that defines standards for data exchange among different centers. We developed an ETF server that retrieves digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) images from PACS, and enables users to create teaching files that conform to the new MIRC schema. We test-populated our ETF server with illustrative images from the clinical case load of the National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore. Together, PACS and MIRC have the potential to benefit radiology teaching and research.

  7. Medical resident choices of electronic drug information resources.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gregory J; Patel, Priti; Mason, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    To determine medical residents' day-to-day use of drug information resources since their choices of these resources, when faced with common questions, are unknown. An online survey including simulated drug information questions was administered to 146 medical residents in the Department of General Internal Medicine during July 2012. Residents were given a wide range of choices in drug information resources to answer these questions and were instructed to select what they would choose in actual practice. A score was assigned to each resource corresponding to a "best," "intermediate," or "not good" choice. Seventy-three respondents completed the survey and results were analyzed for statistical significance. Fifty-seven percent of respondents reported receiving no formal training regarding drug information. Statistical analyses revealed there were no significant differences in performance based on postgraduate year (P = .43) or extent of prior training (P = .45). Individual question responses revealed a generally infrequent selection of "best" choices. Less than 10% of the respondents chose the "best" answer for drug information questions related to drug interactions, herbal supplements, adverse events, and medication identification. Further training in drug information resource selection is warranted in the medical residency program to increase the frequency of use of higher quality resources. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Remote Electronic Resources and the OPAC: Illustrated by the Unisa Library Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Merwe, Ina; Van Eeden, Welna; Hartzer, Sandra

    This paper describes the Unisa (University of South Africa) Library's experience with cataloging remote electronic resources, including electronic journals, electronic text files, online databases, digital images, Unisa campus Web sites, and mailing list discussions. The first section discusses the decision to add bibliographic references for…

  9. Electrostatic potential barrier for electron emission at graphene edges induced by the nearly free electron states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yanlin; Okada, Susumu

    2017-05-01

    Using the density functional theory, we studied the electronic structures of zigzag graphene nanoribbons with hydroxyl, H, ketone, aldehyde, or carboxyl terminations under a lateral electric field. The critical electric field for electron emission is proportional to the work function of the functionalized edges except the hydroxylated edge, which leads to the anomalous electric field outside the edge, owing to the electrons in the nearly free electron (NFE) state in the vacuum region. The strong electric field also causes a potential barrier for the electron emission from the H-terminated edge owing to the downward shift of the NFE state.

  10. Nonlinear potential model of space-charge-limited electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Litz, M.S.; Golden, J.

    1995-11-01

    A one-dimensional (1D) time-varying nonlinear theory based on the Duffing equation is applied to space-charge limited beams and specifically vircators. This theory classifies test particle trajectories in a modulated nonlinear potential. Two predictions of the theory that can be directly compared to experiment are the final state of electron trajectories and the oscillation frequency of the electrons m the potential well. Experimental measurements of electron flux recorded along the vircator chamber wall correlates well with the numerically integrated final state of electron trajectory in the 1D theory. The oscillation frequency measured in the experiment is shown to be a better match to the oscillation frequency calculated from the nonlinear potential as compared to a parabolic potential (that results from a linear restoring force). In the experiment, random initial conditions arise from beam thermalization and nonuniform electron emission at the surface of the cathode. However, these characteristics alone do not explain the experimentally observed fluctuations in rf power and frequency. The predictions of the time-varying nonlinear potential theory clearly exhibits trends that were observed in the experimental results, in the form of classes of particle trajectories, fluctuations in particle asymptotic states, and particle motion sensitive to the shape of the virtual cathode.

  11. Variation potential influence on photosynthetic cyclic electron flow in pea.

    PubMed

    Sukhov, Vladimir; Surova, Lyubov; Sherstneva, Oksana; Katicheva, Lyubov; Vodeneev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic electron flow is an important component of the total photosynthetic electron flow and participates in adaptation to the action of stressors. Local leaf stimulation induces electrical signals, including variation potential (VP), which inactivate photosynthesis; however, their influence on cyclic electron flow has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate VP's influence on cyclic electron flow in pea (Pisum sativum L.). VP was induced in pea seedling leaves by local heating and measured in an adjacent, undamaged leaf by extracellular electrodes. CO2 assimilation was measured using a portable gas exchange measuring system. Photosystem I and II parameters were investigated using a measuring system for simultaneous assessment of P700 oxidation and chlorophyll fluorescence. Heating-induced VP reduced CO2 assimilation and electron flow through photosystem II. In response, cyclic electron flow rapidly decreased and subsequently slowly increased. Slow increases in cyclic flow were caused by decreased electron flow through photosystem II, which was mainly connected with VP-induced photosynthetic dark stage inactivation. However, direct influence by VP on photosystem I also participated in activation of cyclic electron flow. Thus, VP, induced by local leaf-heating, activated cyclic electron flow in undamaged leaves. This response was similar to photosynthetic changes observed under the direct action of stressors. Possible mechanisms of VP's influence on cyclic flow were discussed.

  12. Variation potential influence on photosynthetic cyclic electron flow in pea

    PubMed Central

    Sukhov, Vladimir; Surova, Lyubov; Sherstneva, Oksana; Katicheva, Lyubov; Vodeneev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic electron flow is an important component of the total photosynthetic electron flow and participates in adaptation to the action of stressors. Local leaf stimulation induces electrical signals, including variation potential (VP), which inactivate photosynthesis; however, their influence on cyclic electron flow has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate VP's influence on cyclic electron flow in pea (Pisum sativum L.). VP was induced in pea seedling leaves by local heating and measured in an adjacent, undamaged leaf by extracellular electrodes. CO2 assimilation was measured using a portable gas exchange measuring system. Photosystem I and II parameters were investigated using a measuring system for simultaneous assessment of P700 oxidation and chlorophyll fluorescence. Heating-induced VP reduced CO2 assimilation and electron flow through photosystem II. In response, cyclic electron flow rapidly decreased and subsequently slowly increased. Slow increases in cyclic flow were caused by decreased electron flow through photosystem II, which was mainly connected with VP-induced photosynthetic dark stage inactivation. However, direct influence by VP on photosystem I also participated in activation of cyclic electron flow. Thus, VP, induced by local leaf-heating, activated cyclic electron flow in undamaged leaves. This response was similar to photosynthetic changes observed under the direct action of stressors. Possible mechanisms of VP's influence on cyclic flow were discussed. PMID:25610447

  13. 43 CFR 11.22 - Sampling of potentially injured natural resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sampling of potentially injured natural resources. 11.22 Section 11.22 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 11.22 Sampling of potentially injured natural resources...

  14. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  17. Evaluating Electronic Resources: Personal Development Planning Resources at the Open University, a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelfs, Anne; Kelly, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of Web-based tools to support Personal Development Planning (PDP) in order to illustrate issues associated with the introduction and assessment of the effectiveness of online resources. The aims of the evaluation were based on concerns about the very complex situation that offering online resources including PDP…

  18. Potential and electron density calculated for freely expanding plasma by an electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C. Y.; Tsai, Y. H.; Ma, C.; Wen, M. Y.

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the radial distributions of potential and electron density in free expansion plasma induced by an electron beam irradiating on the plate. The region of plasma production is assumed to be cylindrical, and the plasma expansion is assumed to be from a cylindrical source. Therefore, the one-dimensional model in cylindrical coordinates is employed in order to analyze the radial distributions of the potential and electron density. The Runge-Kutta method and the perturbation method are utilized in order to obtain the numerical and approximate solutions, respectively. The results reveal that the decrease in the initial ion energy makes most of the ions gather near the plasma production region and reduces the distribution of the average positive potential, electron, and ion density along the radial direction. The oscillation of steady-state plasma along the radial direction is also presented in this paper. The ions induce a larger amplitude of oscillation along the radial direction than do electrons because the electrons oscillate around slowly moving ions due to a far smaller electron mass than ion mass. The radial distributions of the positive potential and electron density predicted from this study are compared with the available experimental data.

  19. Potential scattering of electrons in a quantized radiation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergou, J.; Ehlotzky, F.

    1986-05-01

    Potential scattering of electrons in a strong laser field is reconsidered. The laser beam is described by a quantized single-mode plane-wave field with a finite number of quanta in the mode. The scattering amplitude is expanded in powers of the potential, and the first two Born terms are considered. It is shown that in the limit of an infinite number of field quanta, the Kroll-Watson approximation is recovered. Additional insight is gained into the validity of this low-frequency theorem. The approach rests on the introduction of electron-dressed quantized-field states. Relations to earlier work are indicated.

  20. Topology of molecular electron density and electrostatic potential with DAMQT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Rafael; Rico, Jaime Fernández; Ramírez, Guillermo; Ema, Ignacio; Zorrilla, David; Kumar, Anmol; Yeole, Sachin D.; Gadre, Shridhar R.

    2017-05-01

    A new version of the DAMQT package incorporating topological analysis of the molecular electron density and electrostatic potential is reported. Evaluation of electron density, electrostatic potential and their first and second derivatives within DAM partition-expansion is discussed, and the pertaining equations are reported. An efficient algorithm for the search of critical points, gradient paths, atomic basins and Hessian analysis is implemented using these equations. 3D viewer built in DAMQT incorporates new facilities for visualization of these properties, as well as for distance and angle measurements. Full control of projection mode is also added to the viewer in DAMQT. Some examples are provided showing the excellent performance for large molecular systems.

  1. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    up in this attitude as well. Electronic information includes a variety of object types such as electronic journals, e-books, databases , data sets...firewalls, require passwords to access, are hidden within Web-accessible databases , or require payment. The major lesson from efforts to develop selection...pages or those that are created out of a database , portal system, or content management system. The American Astronomical Society (AAS) has perhaps

  2. Mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the Saline Valley and Lower Saline Wilderness Study Areas, Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wrucke, C.T.; Marsh, S.P.; Raines, G.L.; Werschky, R.S.; Blakely, R.J.; Hoover, D.B.; McHugh, E.L.; Rumsey, C.M.; Gaps, R.S.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area, California Desert Conservation Area, Inyo County, California. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area and the Lower Saline Wilderness Study Area were studied in 1981-83 using geologic, geochemical, remote sensing, and geophysical surveys and the examination of mines and prospects to evaluate mineral resources and the potential for mineral resources. The Saline Valley Wilderness Study Area has a high potential for the occurrence of gold resources in two areas. One area, largely outside the study area, is in the vicinity of the Crater mine in the Last Chance Range, and it has potential for the occurrence of gold in a disseminated deposit in an epithermal environment. The other area is in Marble Canyon in the western part of the study area, and it has high potential for the occurrence of gold placer deposits. Marble Canyon also has a moderate potential for gold in placer deposits downstream from the area of high potential. Seven areas, scattered from the Inyo Mountains to the Last Chance Range, have a low potential for the occurrence of gold in disseminated deposits, and one area that lies astride the border of Death Valley National Monument has a low potential for the occurrence of gold in vein deposits. The southern end of Eureka Valley has a low potential for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits for the occurrence of lithium and uranium resources in buried sedimentary deposits beneath the valley floor. Demonstrated resources of native sulfur exist at the Crater mine but no resource potential was identified nearby in adtacent parts of the study area. 3 figs. (ACR)

  3. Building an Integrated User Interface to Electronic Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Jerry V.

    1997-01-01

    Client/server computing and the adoption of the World Wide Web make it possible for academic libraries to build automated library systems that present locally mounted and remote resources through a common interface. This article recounts issues encountered by the Iowa State University Library as it undertook this process. (Author/LRW)

  4. Interactive Printouts Integrating Multilingual Multimedia and Sign Language Electronic Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanev, Kamen; Barneva, Reneta P.; Brimkov, Valentin E.; Kaneva, Dimitrina

    2010-01-01

    In this article we outline our previous implementations of multilingual multimedia dictionaries and discuss possibilities for adding new functionalities and expanding their coverage. Independently developed sign language dictionary resources are further explored and considered for inclusion in an integrated multilingual multimedia dictionary with…

  5. Interactive Printouts Integrating Multilingual Multimedia and Sign Language Electronic Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanev, Kamen; Barneva, Reneta P.; Brimkov, Valentin E.; Kaneva, Dimitrina

    2010-01-01

    In this article we outline our previous implementations of multilingual multimedia dictionaries and discuss possibilities for adding new functionalities and expanding their coverage. Independently developed sign language dictionary resources are further explored and considered for inclusion in an integrated multilingual multimedia dictionary with…

  6. US Low-Temperature EGS Resource Potential Estimate

    DOE Data Explorer

    Katherine Young

    2016-06-30

    Shapefile of shallow, low-temperature EGS resources for the United States, and accompanying paper (submitted to GRC 2016) describing the methodology and analysis. These data are part of a very rough estimate created for use in the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technology Office's Vision Study. They are not a robust estimate of low-temperature EGS resources in the U.S, and should be used accordingly.

  7. Chemical potential and reaction electronic flux in symmetry controlled reactions.

    PubMed

    Vogt-Geisse, Stefan; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro

    2016-07-15

    In symmetry controlled reactions, orbital degeneracies among orbitals of different symmetries can occur along a reaction coordinate. In such case Koopmans' theorem and the finite difference approximation provide a chemical potential profile with nondifferentiable points. This results in an ill-defined reaction electronic flux (REF) profile, since it is defined as the derivative of the chemical potential with respect to the reaction coordinate. To overcome this deficiency, we propose a new way for the calculation of the chemical potential based on a many orbital approach, suitable for reactions in which symmetry is preserved. This new approach gives rise to a new descriptor: symmetry adapted chemical potential (SA-CP), which is the chemical potential corresponding to a given irreducible representation of a symmetry group. A corresponding symmetry adapted reaction electronic flux (SA-REF) is also obtained. Using this approach smooth chemical potential profiles and well defined REFs are achieved. An application of SA-CP and SA-REF is presented by studying the Cs enol-keto tautomerization of thioformic acid. Two SA-REFs are obtained, JA'(ξ) and JA'' (ξ). It is found that the tautomerization proceeds via an in-plane delocalized 3-center 4-electron O-H-S hypervalent bond which is predicted to exist only in the transition state (TS) region. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Relativistic frozen core potential scheme with relaxation of core electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yuya; Seino, Junji; Hayami, Masao; Nakai, Hiromi

    2016-10-01

    This letter proposes a relaxation scheme for core electrons based on the frozen core potential method at the infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess level, called FCP-CR. The core electrons are self-consistently relaxed using frozen molecular valence potentials after the valence SCF calculation is performed. The efficiency of FCP-CR is confirmed by calculations of gold clusters. Furthermore, FCP-CR reproduces the results of the all-electron method for the energies of coinage metal dimers and the core ionization energies and core level shifts of vinyl acetate and three tungsten complexes at the Hartree-Fock and/or symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction levels.

  9. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  10. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  11. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  12. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  13. Video Killed the Radio Star: Language Students' Use of Electronic Resources-Reading or Viewing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate language students' use of print and electronic resources for their research papers required in research techniques class, focusing on which reading strategies they used while reading these resources. The participants of the study were 90 sophomore students enrolled in the research techniques class offered at…

  14. An Evaluation of Electronic Product Design Education Using Hypermedia-Resourced Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2006-01-01

    The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year…

  15. Electronic Resources and the Education of History Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, William H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The transforming effects of the tremendous advances in technology that have reshaped the economy and many other elements of American society have had an equally profound impact on historical agencies. The personal computer, the Internet, and associated electronic communications developments have already transformed the museum and historical agency…

  16. Applications of the potential microprobe to electronic ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    The potential microprobe consists of a fine tipped tungsten needle mounted on a computer controlled, three axis mechanical/piezo positioner. The probe is mounted to the stage of a standard scanning electron microscope, and allows one to make electrical potential measurements on a very fine spatial scale (greater than or equal to 10 nm). The potential microprobe and its operation are discussed. Applications of the technique to polycrystalline silicon, ceramic superconductors, and ZnO varistor materials are presented. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Mineral resource potential map of the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Oliver, Howard W.; Wagini, Alexander; Campbell, Harry W.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines and prospects indicate that the Sugaloaf Roadless Area contains subeconomic graphite and magnesian marble resources. Parts of the area have a low potential for the occurrence of additional low-grade graphite resources, but there is no potential for additional magnesian marble resources within the roadless area. Sand, gravel, and construction stone other than carbonate rocks are found in the roadless area, but similar or better quality materials are abundant and more accessible outside the area. The roadless area has no identified energy mineral resources, but parts of the area have a low to moderate potential for low-grade uranium resources. There are no identified metallic mineral resources within the area, and there is no evidence of a potential for the occurrence of such resources. No previously unknown mineral occurrence was located during this study.

  18. Negative plasma potential relative to electron-emitting surfaces.

    PubMed

    Campanell, M D

    2013-09-01

    Most works on plasma-wall interaction predict that with strong electron emission, a nonmonotonic "space-charge-limited" (SCL) sheath forms where the plasma potential is positive relative to the wall. We show that a fundamentally different sheath structure is possible where the potential monotonically increases toward a positively charged wall that is shielded by a single layer of negative charge. No ion-accelerating presheath exists in the plasma and the ion wall flux is zero. An analytical solution of the "inverse sheath" regime is demonstrated for a general plasma-wall system where the plasma electrons and emitted electrons are Maxwellian with different temperatures. Implications of the inverse sheath effect are that (a) the plasma potential is negative, (b) ion sputtering vanishes, (c) no charge is lost at the wall, and (d) the electron energy flux is thermal. To test empirically what type of sheath structure forms under strong emission, a full plasma bounded by strongly emitting walls is simulated. It is found that inverse sheaths form at the walls and ions are confined in the plasma. This result differs from past particle-in-cell simulation studies of emission which contain an artificial "source sheath" that accelerates ions to the wall, leading to a SCL sheath at high emission intensity.

  19. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  20. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  1. Beyond Information Quality: Fitness for Purpose and Electronic Information Resource Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klobas, Jane E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines influences on the use of electronic information resources, including the Internet. Highlights include information quality and accessibility; the Technology Assessment Model; the Fitness for Purpose model; the Theory of Planned Behavior; and a study in Australia that compared the ability of these models to explain electronic information…

  2. Current Problems in Developing the Natural Resource Potential of the Russian Exclave in the Baltic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Gennady M.; Gritsenko, Vladimir A.; Dedkov, Viktor P.; Zotov, Sergey I.; Chernyshkov, Pavel P.

    2016-01-01

    The compact Kaliningrad region boasts relatively favourable environmental conditions and a remarkable diversity of natural resources. This article seeks to compare the natural resources of the exclave and other Russian regions. The authors examine recent statistical data to estimate the region's natural and resource potential, analyse its…

  3. Characterising resource use and potential inefficiencies during large-fire suppression in the western US

    Treesearch

    Hari Katuwal; Christopher J. Dunn; David E. Calkin

    2017-01-01

    Currently, limited research on large-fire suppression effectiveness suggests fire managers may over-allocate resources relative to values to be protected. Coupled with observations that weather may be more important than resource abundance to achieve control objectives, resource use may be driven more by risk aversion than efficiency. To explore this potential, we...

  4. Electron interactions in graphene through an effective Coulomb potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Joao N. B.; Adam, Shaffique

    A recent numerical work [H.-K. Tang et al, PRL 115, 186602 (2015)] considering graphene's π-electrons interacting through an effective Coulomb potential that is finite at short-distances, stressed the importance of the sp2 -electrons in determining the semimetal to Mott insulator phase transition in graphene. Some years ago, I. F. Herbut [PRL 97, 146401 (2006)] studied such a transition by mapping graphene's π-electrons into a Gross-Neveu model. From a different perspective, D. T. Son [PRB 75, 235423 (2007)] put the emphasis on the long-range interactions by modelling graphene as Dirac fermions interacting through a bare Coulomb potential. Here we build on these works and explore the phase diagram of Dirac fermions interacting through an effective Coulomb-like potential screened at short-distances. The interaction potential used allows for analytic results that controllably switch between the two perspectives above. This work was supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF-NRFF2012-01 and CA2DM medium-sized centre program) and by the Singapore Ministry of Education and Yale-NUS College (R-607-265-01312).

  5. Pumping Electron-Positron Pairs from a Well Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-Bin

    2016-04-01

    In the presence of very deep well potential, electrons will spontaneously occupy the empty embedded bound states and electron-positron pairs are created by means of a non-perturbative tunneling process. In this work, by slowly oscillating the width or depth, the population transfer channels are opened and closed periodically. We find and clearly show that by the non-synchronous ejections of particles, the saturation of pair number in a static super-critical well can be broken, and electrons and positrons can be pumped inexhaustibly from vacuum with a constant production rate. In the adiabatic limit, final pair number after a single cycle has quantized values as a function of the upper boundary of the oscillating, and the critical upper boundaries indicate the diving points of the bound states.

  6. Pumping Electron-Positron Pairs from a Well Potential

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-bin

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of very deep well potential, electrons will spontaneously occupy the empty embedded bound states and electron-positron pairs are created by means of a non-perturbative tunneling process. In this work, by slowly oscillating the width or depth, the population transfer channels are opened and closed periodically. We find and clearly show that by the non-synchronous ejections of particles, the saturation of pair number in a static super-critical well can be broken, and electrons and positrons can be pumped inexhaustibly from vacuum with a constant production rate. In the adiabatic limit, final pair number after a single cycle has quantized values as a function of the upper boundary of the oscillating, and the critical upper boundaries indicate the diving points of the bound states. PMID:27125998

  7. Kansas coal distribution, resources, and potential for coalbed methane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, L.L.

    2000-01-01

    Kansas has large amounts of bituminous coal both at the surface and in the subsurface of eastern Kansas. Preliminary studies indicate at least 53 billion tons (48 billion MT) of deep coal [>100 ft (>30 m)] determined from 32 different coal beds. Strippable coal resources at a depth < 100 ft (<30 m) total 2.8 billion tons (2.6 billion MT), and this total is determined from 17 coals. Coal beds present in the Cherokee Group (Middle Pennsylvanian) represent most of these coal resource totals. Deep coal beds with the largest resource totals include the Bevier, Mineral, "Aw" (unnamed coal bed), Riverton, and Weir-Pittsburg coals, all within the Cherokee Group. Based on chemical analyses, coals in the southeastern part of the state are generally high volatile A bituminous, whereas coals in the east-central and northeastern part of the state are high-volatile B bituminous coals. The primary concern of coal beds in Kansas for deep mining or development of coalbed methane is the thin nature [<2 ft (0.6 m)] of most coal beds. Present production of coalbed methane is centered mainly in the southern Wilson/northern Montgomery County area of southeastern Kansas where methane is produced from the Mulky, Weir-Pittsburg, and Riverton coals.

  8. Utilization potential evaluation of plant resources in the dry-hot valley of Jinsha River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Rong; Xu, Naizhong; Liu, Shengxiang; Ren, Tingyan

    2017-08-01

    Plant resources in the dry-hot valley of Jinsha River are endemic to a class of district. The article adopts the analytic hierarchy process method to evaluate the exploitation and utilization potential of plant resources of thirty typical plant resources on the basis of their characteristics in the dry-hot valley of Jinsha River, which provide scientific evidence for quantitative evaluation of regional plant resources, and we also suggest pathways offering protection and development.

  9. Electronic structure of molecules using relativistic effective core potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Starting with one-component Cowan-Griffin relativistic Hartree-Fock orbitals, which successfully incorporate the mass-velocity and Darwin terms present in more complicated wavefunctions such as Dirac-Hartree-Fock, one can derive relativistic effective core potentials (RECP's) to carry out molecular calculations. These potentials implicitly include the dominant relativistic terms for molecules while allowing one to use the traditional quantum chemical techniques for studying the electronic structure of molecules. The effects of spin-orbit coupling can then be included using orbitals from such calculations using an effective 1-electron, 1-center spin-orbit operator. Applications to molecular systems involving heavy atoms, show good agreement with available spectroscopic data on molecular geometries and excitation energies.

  10. Maintaining the uranium resources data system and assessing the 1989 US uranium potential resources

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, R.B. ); Finch, W.I.; Grundy, W.D.; Pierson, C.T. )

    1990-12-31

    Under the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the EIA, US Department of Energy, and the US Geological Survey (USGS), US Department of the Interior, the USGS develops estimates of uranium endowment for selected geological environments in the United States. New estimates of endowment are used to update the Uranium Resources Assessment Data (URAD) System which, beginning in 1990, is maintained for EIA by the USGS. For 1989, estimates of US undiscovered resources were generated using revised economic index values (current to December 1989) in the URAD system's cost model. The increase in the estimates for the Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) and Speculative Resources (SR) classes resulted primarily from increases in the estimates of uranium endowment for the solution-collapse, breccia-pipe uranium deposit environment in the Colorado Plateau resource region. The mean values for $30-, $50-, and $100-per-pound U{sub 3}O{sub 8} forward-cost categories of EAR increased by about 8, 48, and 32 percent, respectively, as compared to 1988. Estimates of the 1989 undiscovered resources in the SR class also increased in all three forward-cost categories by 10, 5, and 9 percent, respectively. The original cost equations in the URAD System were designed to cover drilling costs related to extensive flat-lying tabular ore bodies. The equations do not adequately treat drilling costs for the smaller areas of vertical breccia pipe uranium deposits in the Colorado Plateau resource region. The development of appropriate cost equations for describing the economics of mining this type of deposit represents a major new task. 12 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. A flexible high potential printed battery for powering printed electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaikwad, Abhinav M.; Steingart, Daniel A.; Nga Ng, Tse; Schwartz, David E.; Whiting, Gregory L.

    2013-06-01

    Mechanically flexible arrays of alkaline electrochemical cells fabricated using stencil printing onto fibrous substrates are shown to provide the necessary performance characteristics for driving ink-jet printed circuits. Due to the dimensions and material set currently required for reliable low-temperature print processing of electronic devices, a battery potential greater than that sourced by single cells is typically needed. The developed battery is a series interconnected array of 10 low resistance Zn-MnO2 alkaline cells, giving an open circuit potential of 14 V. This flexible battery is used to power an ink-jet printed 5-stage complementary ring oscillator based on organic semiconductors.

  12. Electron Impact Ionization of He atom using screening potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Hari P.

    2012-06-01

    We will report the results of our investigation on electron impact ionization of helium atom using our extended MCHF method [1] for electron impact ionization of atoms. The initial state wave function will be calculated with both HF and MCHF approximations and the electron correlation between the two final state continuum electrons will be obtained using the screening potential [2-4]. Calculations will be made for triple differential cross sections for 4 eV excess energy sharing equally by the two final state continuum electrons. The results will be presented for all scattering angles and all kinematics. Comparison will be made with available experimental and theoretical data. [4pt] [1] Hari P. Saha, Phys. Rev. A82, 042703 (2010); J.Phys. B44, 065202 (2011).[0pt] [2] M.R.H. Rudge and M.J. Seaton, Proc. Roy. Soc. A293. 262 (1965).[0pt] [3] M.R.H. Rudge, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40, 564 (1968).[0pt] [4] C.Pan and A.F Starace, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 185 (1991); Phys. Rev. A45, 4588 (1992).

  13. Bioactive sterols from marine resources and their potential benefits for human health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Van Ta, Quang

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive agents from marine resources have shown their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, increase knowledge on novel functional ingredients with biological activities from marine animal and microbe has gained much attention. Sterols are recognized as potential in development functional food ingredients and pharmaceutical agents. Marine resources, with a great diversity, can be a very interesting natural resource of sterols. This chapter focuses on biological activities of marine animal and microbe sterols with potential health beneficial applications in functional foods and pharmaceuticals.

  14. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    PubMed

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  15. Development of an Improved Methodology to Assess Potential Unconventional Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, Jesus; McVay, Duane A. Lee, W. John

    2010-12-15

    Considering the important role played today by unconventional gas resources in North America and their enormous potential for the future around the world, it is vital to both policy makers and industry that the volumes of these resources and the impact of technology on these resources be assessed. To provide for optimal decision making regarding energy policy, research funding, and resource development, it is necessary to reliably quantify the uncertainty in these resource assessments. Since the 1970s, studies to assess potential unconventional gas resources have been conducted by various private and governmental agencies, the most rigorous of which was by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS employed a cell-based, probabilistic methodology which used analytical equations to calculate distributions of the resources assessed. USGS assessments have generally produced distributions for potential unconventional gas resources that, in our judgment, are unrealistically narrow for what are essentially undiscovered, untested resources. In this article, we present an improved methodology to assess potential unconventional gas resources. Our methodology is a stochastic approach that includes Monte Carlo simulation and correlation between input variables. Application of the improved methodology to the Uinta-Piceance province of Utah and Colorado with USGS data validates the means and standard deviations of resource distributions produced by the USGS methodology, but reveals that these distributions are not right skewed, as expected for a natural resource. Our investigation indicates that the unrealistic shape and width of the gas resource distributions are caused by the use of narrow triangular input parameter distributions. The stochastic methodology proposed here is more versatile and robust than the USGS analytic methodology. Adoption of the methodology, along with a careful examination and revision of input distributions, should allow a more realistic

  16. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    PubMed

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  17. Electron injection dynamics in high-potential porphyrin photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Milot, Rebecca L; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A

    2015-05-19

    There is a growing need to utilize carbon neutral energy sources, and it is well known that solar energy can easily satisfy all of humanity's requirements. In order to make solar energy a viable alternative to fossil fuels, the problem of intermittency must be solved. Batteries and supercapacitors are an area of active research, but they currently have relatively low energy-to-mass storage capacity. An alternative and very promising possibility is to store energy in chemical bonds, or make a solar fuel. The process of making solar fuel is not new, since photosynthesis has been occurring on earth for about 3 billion years. In order to produce any fuel, protons and electrons must be harvested from a species in its oxidized form. Photosynthesis uses the only viable source of electrons and protons on the scale needed for global energy demands: water. Because artificial photosynthesis is a lofty goal, water oxidation, which is a crucial step in the process, has been the initial focus. This Account provides an overview of how terahertz spectroscopy is used to study electron injection, highlights trends from previously published reports, and concludes with a future outlook. It begins by exploring similarities and differences between dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) for producing electricity and a putative device for splitting water and producing a solar fuel. It then identifies two important problems encountered when adapting DSSC technology to water oxidation-improper energy matching between sensitizer energy levels with the potential for water oxidation and the instability of common anchoring groups in water-and discusses steps to address them. Emphasis is placed on electron injection from sensitizers to metal oxides because this process is the initial step in charge transport. Both the rate and efficiency of electron injection are analyzed on a sub-picosecond time scale using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS). Bio-inspired pentafluorophenyl porphyrins are

  18. Molecular markers: a potential resource for ginger genetic diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Nor Asiah; Rafii, M Y; Mahmud, T M M; Hanafi, M M; Miah, Gous

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is an economically important and valuable plant around the world. Ginger is used as a food, spice, condiment, medicine and ornament. There is available information on biochemical aspects of ginger, but few studies have been reported on its molecular aspects. The main objective of this review is to accumulate the available molecular marker information and its application in diverse ginger studies. This review article was prepared by combing material from published articles and our own research. Molecular markers allow the identification and characterization of plant genotypes through direct access to hereditary material. In crop species, molecular markers are applied in different aspects and are useful in breeding programs. In ginger, molecular markers are commonly used to identify genetic variation and classify the relatedness among varieties, accessions, and species. Consequently, it provides important input in determining resourceful management strategies for ginger improvement programs. Alternatively, a molecular marker could function as a harmonizing tool for documenting species. This review highlights the application of molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, AFLP, SSR, ISSR and others such as RFLP, SCAR, NBS and SNP) in genetic diversity studies of ginger species. Some insights on the advantages of the markers are discussed. The detection of genetic variation among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for ginger improvement programs. This update of recent literature will help researchers and students select the appropriate molecular markers for ginger-related research.

  19. Dynamical nonlocal coherent-potential approximation for itinerant electron magnetism.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, D A; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-11-26

    A dynamical generalisation of the nonlocal coherent-potential approximation is derived based upon the functional integral approach to the interacting electron problem. The free energy is proven to be variational with respect to the self-energy provided a self-consistency condition on a cluster of sites is satisfied. In the present work, calculations are performed within the static approximation and the effect of the nonlocal physics on the formation of the local moment state in a simple model is investigated. The results reveal the importance of the dynamical correlations.

  20. Potential applications of an electron cyclotron resonance multicusp plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.; Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Haselton, H.H.; Roberto, J.B.; Stirling, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasmatron has been developed by feeding a multicusp bucket arc chamber with a compact ECR plasma source. This novel source produced large (about 25-cm-diam), uniform (to within {plus minus}10%), dense (>10{sup 11}-cm{sup -3}) plasmas of argon, helium, hydrogen, and oxygen. It has been operated to produce an oxygen plasma for etching 12.7-cm (5-in.) positive photoresist-coated silicon wafers with uniformity within {plus minus}8%. Results and potential applications of this new ECR plasma source for plasma processing of thin films are discussed. 21 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Disseminating Context-Specific Access to Online Knowledge Resources within Electronic Health Record Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fiol, Guilherme Del; Curtis, Clayton; Cimino, James J.; Iskander, Andrew; Kalluri, Aditya S.D.; Jing, Xia; Hulse, Nathan C.; Long, Jie; Overby, Casey L.; Schardt, Connie; Douglas, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Clinicians’ patient care information needs are frequent and largely unmet. Online knowledge resources are available that can help clinicians meet these information needs. Yet, significant barriers limit the use of these resources within the clinical workflow. Infobuttons are clinical decision support tools that use the clinical context (e.g., institution, user, patient) within electronic health record (EHR) systems to anticipate clinicians’ questions and provide automated links to relevant information in knowledge resources. This paper describes OpenInfobutton (www.openinfobutton.org): a standards-based, open source Web service that was designed to disseminate infobutton capabilities in multiple EHR systems and healthcare organizations. OpenInfobutton has been successfully integrated with 38 knowledge resources at 5 large healthcare organizations in the United States. We describe the OpenInfobutton architecture, knowledge resource integration, and experiences at five large healthcare organizations. PMID:23920641

  2. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  3. Geologic, aeromagnetic and mineral resource potential maps of the Whisker Lake Wilderness, Florence County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, Klaus J.

    1983-01-01

    The mineral resource potential of the Whisker Lake Wilderness in the Nicolet National Forest, Florence County, northeastern Wisconsin, was evaluated in 1982. The bedrock consists of recrystallized and deformed volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Early Proterozoic age. Sand and gravel are the only identified resources in the Whisker Lake Wilderness. However, the area is somewhat isolated from current markets and both commodities are abundant regionally. The wilderness also has low potential for peat in swampy lowlands. The southwestern part of the wilderness has a low to moderate mineral resource potential for stratabound massive-sulfide (copper-zinc-lead) deposits.

  4. The impact of electronic healthcare associated infection surveillance software on infection prevention resources: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Russo, Philip L; Shaban, Ramon Z; MacBeth, Deborough; Carter, Abigail; Mitchell, Brett G

    2017-09-08

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is fundamental for infection prevention. The methods and practices for surveillance have evolved as technology becomes more advanced. The availability of electronic surveillance software (ESS) has increased, and yet adoption of ESS is slow. It is argued that ESS deliver savings through automation, particularly in terms of human resourcing and infection prevention (IP) staff time. This paper describes the findings of a systematic review on the impact of ESS on IP resources. A systematic search was conducted of electronic databases Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature published between 1st January 2006 and 31(st) December 2016 with analysis using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 2832 articles were reviewed of which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. IP resources were identified as time undertaken on surveillance. A reduction in IP staff time to undertake surveillance was demonstrated in 13 studies. The reduction proportion ranged from 12.5% - 98.4% (mean 73.9%). The remaining three did not allow for any estimation of the effect in terms of IP staff time. None of the studies demonstrated an increase in IP staff time. The results of this review demonstrate that adopting ESS yield considerable dividends in IP staff time relating to data collection and case ascertainment whilst maintaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity. This has the potential to enable reinvestment into other components of IP to maximise efficient use of scare IP resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Preliminary Assessment of Geothermal Resource Potential at the UTTR

    SciTech Connect

    Richard P. Smith, PhD., PG; Robert P. Breckenridge, PhD.; Thomas R. Wood, PhD.

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the current state of geologic knowledge concerning potential high-temperature geothermal development on the lands controlled by Hill Air Force Base (HAFB) at the Utah Testing and Training Range (UTTR) and the lands encompassed by the Dugway Proving Grounds (Dugway). This report is based on currently available published and publically available information. Most of the information presented here is purely geologic in nature. Therefore, the logistical issues (such as military exclusion areas, proximity to electrical infrastructure, and access) are additional considerations that are being addressed in a separate report that will be issued to HAFB by the SES corporation.

  6. Seaweeds from the Portuguese coast: A potential food resource?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, C.; Machado, S.; Vieira, E. F.; Morais, S.; Teles, M. T.; Correia, M.; Carvalho, A.; Domingues, V. F.; Ramalhosa, M. J.; Delerue-Matos, C.; Antunes, F.

    2017-09-01

    The Portuguese coast presents a large amount of potentially edible seaweeds that are underexploited. The identification of different macroalgae species and their availability in the northern and central coast of the continental territory was assessed. The nutritional value of seaweeds is discussed based on a literature review (when available) focused on data for species collected in Portugal with the aim to define the most important nutritional parameters that should be characterized in the samples. Possible health concerns related with the presence of contaminants are also considered.

  7. Potential therapeutic misadministration due to inappropriate electron beam field shaping.

    PubMed

    Olch, A J; Fallen, R; Conrad, J; Lavey, R S

    2000-01-01

    Lead or cerrobend blocking strips are used to shape electron treatment fields when an appropriate custom insert is not available. For the Varian 2100C accelerator, the structural supports of the electron applicators impede the free placement of these field-shaping strips on the open custom insert frame while placement at the top of the applicator is unimpeded. We have investigated the dosimetric ramifications of placing field shaping strips at the top level of the 15x15 applicator for 6, 9, and 16 MeV electrons. Our results demonstrate as much as a 30% dose decrease and 2 cm penumbral increase when this is done compared to field shaping at the insert level. The magnitude of this dosimetric error qualifies as a therapeutic misadministration in many states depending on how many treatments are delivered in this manner. Based on this finding, we recommend that routine use of lead strip blocking be discouraged in favor of custom inserts due to the potential for inappropriate placement on some linear accelerators.

  8. Potential Exploration, Development, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    OF THE AIR FORCE BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIC AIR COMMAND POTENTIAL EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PRODUCTION OF OIL AND GAS RESOURCES...operations and national defense activities. Because the development of oil and gas on Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) could adversely affect the base’s...Mineral Resource Management Plan (MRMP) for the exploration, development, and production of oil and gas resources on VAFB. The proposed action is to

  9. Potential for deep natural gas resources in eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Fox, J.E.; Clayton, J.L.; Dyman, T.S.; Higley, D.K.; Keighin, C.W.; Law, B.E.; Pollastro, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    The main purpose of the research is to evaluate the geological possibility that significant economically recoverable resources of natural gas exist in sedimentary basins of the United States at depths greater than 150,000 ft. While relatively unexplored, these gas resources may be large. The main objectives of the research are to determine the geologic factors that control deep gas accumulations in addition to the distribution and resource potential of these accumulations.

  10. Potential for deep natural gas resources in eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Fox, J.E.; Clayton, J.L.; Dyman, T.S.; Higley, D.K.; Keighin, C.W.; Law, B.E.; Pollastro, R.M.

    1992-06-01

    The main purpose of the research is to evaluate the geological possibility that significant economically recoverable resources of natural gas exist in sedimentary basins of the United States at depths greater than 150,000 ft. While relatively unexplored, these gas resources may be large. The main objectives of the research are to determine the geologic factors that control deep gas accumulations in addition to the distribution and resource potential of these accumulations.

  11. Secondary Zinc Waste Sludge: Resource Material with Potential Application.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Akram; Shrivastava, Rajnish

    2014-01-01

    The waste sludge generated during secondary zinc extraction process of an industry was studied for the recovery of electrolytic grade zinc and copper. The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the secondary zinc waste were studied in detail. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test was carried out for the sample and concentrations of heavy metals present in the waste were estimated. The engineering properties of the samples prepared through high temperature fired route provided important information on the characteristics and composition of the waste. Different binders like fly ash and yellow clay were used in different formulations using Indian Standard sand to prepare the samples and to study the Solidification-Stabilisation (S/S) mechanism of the encapsulated waste mass. The leachability studies and engineering properties of the samples were evaluated to study the abatement of hazardous potential of waste and to explore better utilisation options for the secondary zinc waste sludge.

  12. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    PubMed

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  13. Final Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationship, if any, between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. More specifically, the study has been designed to assess the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources and to identif...

  14. PERSPECTIVES ON LARGE-SCALE NATURAL RESOURCES SURVEYS WHEN CAUSE-EFFECT IS A POTENTIAL ISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective is to present a perspective on large-scale natural resource monitoring when cause-effect is a potential issue. We believe that the approach of designing a survey to meet traditional commodity production and resource state descriptive objectives is too restrictive an...

  15. Mineral resource potential of the Granite Chief Wilderness Study Area, Placer County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harwood, David S.; Federspiel, Francis E.; Cather, Eric E.; Scott, Douglas F.

    1982-01-01

    Substantial deposits of sand, gravel, and glacial till suitable for construction materials occur within the area, but their inaccessibility and remoteness from major markets preclude their being classified as a resource. No potential for oil, gas, coal, or geothermal resources was identified.

  16. PERSPECTIVES ON LARGE-SCALE NATURAL RESOURCES SURVEYS WHEN CAUSE-EFFECT IS A POTENTIAL ISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective is to present a perspective on large-scale natural resource monitoring when cause-effect is a potential issue. We believe that the approach of designing a survey to meet traditional commodity production and resource state descriptive objectives is too restrictive an...

  17. Final Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationship, if any, between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. More specifically, the study has been designed to assess the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources and to identif...

  18. Managing Electronic Resources: A Survey of Current Practices in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Beth Hansen

    This document reports results of an online survey that examined practices and procedures in the management of electronic resources in 65 academic library reference departments. Responses are related to: (1) student population; (2) library use by community people; (3) number of public access workstations, workstations with World Wide Web access,…

  19. Use of Electronic Information Resources among Research Scholars in the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amjad, Anam; Ahmed, Shamshad; Bin Naeem, Salman

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of electronic resources among academic scholars of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Punjab, Pakistan. A quantitative survey was found most convenient and useful for this study. The total population of the study was 169 research students in IUB. The response rate was 79% and 133 utilizable responses were coded…

  20. Implementation of an Electronic Resource Assessment System in an Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a library with useful information about selection criteria for an electronic resource assessment system and practical assistance on how to implement efficiently such a system. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on literature review, desk research, and implementation experience.…

  1. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  2. A Survey of the Use of Electronic Resources at Seven Universities in Wuhan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liyi; Ye, Pinghao; Liu, Qihua

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on users' information behaviour in China, a topic which has not been researched extensively. The aim is to help producers and providers collect and develop more electronic resources. Design/methodology/approach: The study investigates users' information behaviour at seven "211 Project"…

  3. Resource and Referral Service: A Report on Electronic Networks for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ruth; Smink, Jay

    This report describes the activities of the Resource and Referral Service (RRS), which was established in 1977 as a member of a nationwide dissemination network called the Research and Development Exchange (RDx), in using electronic networks as part of its dissemination effort. Discussed first are the history and objectives of RRS. The next…

  4. A Survey of the Use of Electronic Resources at Seven Universities in Wuhan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liyi; Ye, Pinghao; Liu, Qihua

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on users' information behaviour in China, a topic which has not been researched extensively. The aim is to help producers and providers collect and develop more electronic resources. Design/methodology/approach: The study investigates users' information behaviour at seven "211 Project"…

  5. Electronics/Electromechanical Technology. Instructional Resource Guide for Competency Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinsky, Charlotte A.

    This instructional resource guide is intended to aid teachers and curriculum specialists in developing instructional materials for the first two years of preparation of electronics technicians. It is part of the secondary/postsecondary master technician program. Section I on occupational information presents general information and the…

  6. Selection and Presentation of Commercially Available Electronic Resources: Issues and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Timothy D.

    This report focuses on practices related to the selection and presentation of commercially available electronic resources. As part of the Digital Library Federation's Collection Practices Initiative, the report also shares the goal of identifying and propagating practices that support the growth of sustainable and scalable collections. It looks in…

  7. EDI (electronic data interchange) for human resources saves money and time.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, J J; Kibat, G

    1994-01-01

    Healthcare financial managers seeking immediate cost savings through the use of electronic data interchange (EDI) may find that the automation of repetitive transactions can reduce staffing levels in hospital human resource departments and lower the cost of employee benefits. New procedures and EDI also can tighten controls on hospital employee health benefit eligibility and reduce the per employee cost of benefits.

  8. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  9. Electronic Resources and Academic Libraries, 1980-2000: A Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ruth H.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, academic collection development specialists have dealt with changes, brought about by decreasing purchasing power and the growing importance of electronic resources. Throughout, collection managers have rethought their efforts and revised criteria for selection of materials in new formats while maintaining traditional…

  10. Internet Resources on Women: Using Electronic Media in Curriculum Transformation. Women in the Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korenman, Joan

    This manual has been written primarily for internet novices and for people already familiar with online communications who want to learn more about the growing array of electronic resources pertaining to Women's Studies and to transforming the curriculum so that it better reflects women's experience, accomplishments, and perspectives. Chapter 1…

  11. Oklahoma Library Technology Network (OLTN) Electronic Resources for Elementary Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Carol, Comp.

    This document describes Oklahoma Library Technology Network electronic resources for elementary age children. The first section provides a history of Oklahoma statewide shared databases. Oklahoma statewide information database contacts are listed in the second section. The third section presents information on InfoTrac Kid's Edition Online…

  12. Using Electronic Information Resources Centers by Faculty Members at University Education: Competencies, Needs and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abouelenein, Yousri

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the factual situation of electronic information resources centers to faculty members at university education. Competencies that faculty members should possess regarding this issue were determined. Also their needs for (scientific research skills and teaching) were assessed. In addition, problems that hinder their…

  13. Canadian poison control centres: preliminary assessment of their potential as a resource for public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Durigon, M; Elliott, C; Purssell, R; Kosatsky, T

    2013-11-01

    In the United States (US) and Europe, surveillance based on calls to poison control centres has identified new hazards and evolving exposure trends. In Canada, the value of poison control centre calls as a tool for health hazard surveillance is largely unrecognized. This preliminary survey was undertaken to describe current operational characteristics and surveillance capacities at Canadian poison control centres and to determine potential for developing a Canadian poison control centre collaborative network. A structured quantitative-qualitative survey was administered to medical directors and clinical supervisors at the five Canadian poison control centres between March and May, 2012. All five Canadian poison control centres operate 24/7 with each serving more than one province/territory. Annual call volumes range from 10,000 to 58,000. Data analysis is limited to detection of previously unrecognized hazards and short-term event-based adverse health monitoring. Currently no centre maintains systematic ongoing collection, integration and analysis of data. Constraints on personnel, resources and funding were identified as barriers to increasing capacity to provide and analyse call data. The potential exists to use Canadian poison control data as a novel source of public health surveillance. That they serve as sentinels for new or unexpected exposure events, have real-time electronic call-record capacity and demonstrate an interest in developing and sharing their call-record information supports their integration into existing public health networks.

  14. Mineral resource potential map of the Rock Pile Mountain Wilderness Study area, Madison County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Erickson, Ralph L.; Ellis, Clarence

    1982-01-01

    Neither the Precambrlan volcanic rocks nor the Cambrlan sedimentary rocks contain any detectable evidence of economic mineralization. The area has no potential for coal resources, an unfavorable potential for oil and gas, and no known potential for geothermal energy. The volcanic rocks might be suitable for use as crushed stone, but similar rocks occur abundantly in more favorable locations elsewhere.

  15. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes.

    PubMed

    Allegrini, Elisa; Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Holtze, Maria Sommer; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-09-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators is bottom ashes (BAs), which also have important resource potential. Based on a full-scale Danish recovery facility, detailed material and substance flow analyses (MFA and SFA) were carried out, in order to characterise the resource recovery potential of Danish BA: (i) based on historical and experimental data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap metal and (iv) resource potential variability and recovery efficiencies were quantified based on a range of ashes from different incinerators. Recovery efficiencies for Fe and NFe reached 85% and 61%, respectively, with the resource potential of metals in BA before recovery being 7.2%ww for Fe and 2.2%ww for NFe. Considerable non-recovered resource potential was found in fine fraction (below 2mm), where approximately 12% of the total NFe potential in the BA were left. REEs were detected in the ashes, but the levels were two or three orders of magnitude lower than typical ore concentrations. The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results, it is recommended to focus on limiting REE-containing products in waste for incineration and improving pre-incineration sorting initiatives for these elements.

  16. EPA Releases Draft Assessment on the Potential Impacts to Drinking Water Resources from Hydraulic Fracturing Activities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON-The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is releasing a draft assessment today on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing activities on drinking water resources in the United States. The assessment, done at the request of Congress, shows

  17. Potential for Producing Hydrogen from Key Renewable Resources in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Mann, M.

    2006-02-01

    This study estimates the potential for hydrogen production from key renewable resources (onshore wind, solar photovoltaic, and biomass) by county in the United States. It includes maps that allow the reader to easily visualize the results.

  18. Geology and Resource Potential of the Manteo prospect

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, M.; Adinolfi, F.; Edson, G.; Kienzle, J. )

    1991-08-01

    The Manteo exploration unit, located approximately 32 mi northeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, is a potential East Coast elephant-size field. The unit consists of 21 leases that cost industry $296 million in bonuses since 1981. Mobil has estimated that the unit may contain as much as 5 tcf of natural gas, which would be the largest domestic find since Prudhoe Bay. The Manteo prospect, on the seaward margin of the Carolina Platform, lies between two major basins: the Baltimore Canyon Trough to the north and the Carolina Trough to the south. The prospect is within the western Atlantic carbonate trend, a Jurassic-Early Cretaceous reef and platform limestone complex that stretches from the Gulf of Mexico to Newfoundland. Seismic interpretation is complicated by distortions caused by abrupt changes of water depth map near the top of the Jurassic shows a large eat-northeast-trending structure about 30 mi long and 5 mi wide with structural closure of over 1,000 ft. Source rock analyses suggest that Upper Jurassic carbonate reservoirs would more likely contain gas than oil. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) estimates reservoir parameters from wells drilled on trend (Baltimore Canyon Trough) and recovery parameters from worldwide analogs. The 21-block unit was approved by the MMS in May of 1990. Since 1988, the MMS has worked with North Carolina, Federal and local agencies, and Mobil in preparation for wildcat exploration approval. The MMS has prepared an extensive environmental report for this exploration proposal.

  19. Use of poisons information resources and satisfaction with electronic products by Victorian emergency department staff.

    PubMed

    Luke, Stephen; Fountain, John S; Reith, David M; Braitberg, George; Cruickshank, Jaycen

    2014-10-01

    ED staff use a range of poisons information resources of varying type and quality. The present study aims to identify those resources utilised in the state of Victoria, Australia, and assess opinion of the most used electronic products. A previously validated self-administered survey was conducted in 15 EDs, with 10 questionnaires sent to each. The survey was then repeated following the provision of a 4-month period of access to Toxinz™, an Internet poisons information product novel to the region. The study was conducted from December 2010 to August 2011. There were 117 (78%) and 48 (32%) responses received from the first and second surveys, respectively, a 55% overall response rate. No statistically significant differences in professional group, numbers of poisoned patients seen or resource type accessed were identified between studies. The electronic resource most used in the first survey was Poisindex® (48.68%) and Toxinz™ (64.1%) in the second. There were statistically significant (P < 0.01) improvements in satisfaction in 26 of 42 questions between surveys, and no decrements. Although the majority of responders possessed mobile devices, less than half used them for poisons information but would do so if a reputable product was available. The order of poisons information sources most utilised was: consultation with a colleague, in-house protocols and electronic resources. There was a significant difference in satisfaction with electronic poisons information resources and a movement away from existing sources when choice was provided. Interest in increased use of mobile solutions was identified. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  20. Power resource management and low-power remote wireless RF electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Walter, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    Battery power resource management becomes a critical issue in the case of self-powered remote wireless RF electronics, where the basic parameter is time of system operation before battery recharging or battery replacement. In such cases, very often related to physical protection against antitampering (AT), proper theoretical modeling of a battery driven power supply in the context of a given digital electronic system is of utmost importance. Such modeling should include various types of batteries (primary and secondary), various self-discharge processes in different temperatures, and even energy harvesting, the latter to supply power for long-term content, low-power electronic subsystems. In this paper we analyze simple modeling of resource power management, including variations of all of these parameters and energy harvesting.

  1. On the similarity between molecular electron densities, electrostatic potentials and bare nuclear potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadre, Shridhar R.; Bendale, Rajeev D.

    1986-10-01

    The similarities among the molecular contours of three scalar fields, viz. electron density (ED), electrostatic potential (ESP) and bare nuclear potential (BNP) have been investigated. The topological resemblance between ESP and ED contour diagrams (as prompted by the Thomas-Fermi model) is more pronounced than that for BNP and ED contour diagrams (as predicted by the local density functional model of Parr, Gadre and Bartolotti) with three-membered ring systems as test cases. An analysis of critical points of these distributions has also been included. Thus it may be conjectured that ED maps may prove useful in predicting reactive sites in molecules.

  2. Rocky Mountain Natural Gas Resources - a potential gas committee perspective, 1984-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, J.B. )

    1994-04-01

    Estimates by the Potential Gas Committee for the Rocky Mountain region have been compared for the time period 1984 to 1992. The Rocky Mountain area contains an abundant potential resource of technically recoverable natural gas in clastic, carbonate, and coalbed reservoirs. The assessed resource for the region is second only to the more mature producing regions of the Gulf Coast and Mid-Continent portions of the Lower 48 States. Although the magnitude and distribution among resource categories has shifted from 1984 to 1993, the overall trends have been to shallower, more assured resources, which comprise approximately 16% of the total U.S. estimates and 20% of the Lower 48 States. Changes in total resource estimates during the time period are discussed, together with changes within individual provinces. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Evaluation of the production potential of the Crystal Hot Springs geothermal resource, north central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, C.K.; Owen, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Results of an artesian flow test of a 1000 foot deep well (USP/TH-1) are reported. The testing program was designed to provide necessary data for estimating the long-term production potential of the geothermal resource. Based on results of a 72 hour flow test, it was concluded that the state-owned portion of the Crystal Hot Springs resource is potentially capable of supplying sufficient energy to provide space and hot water heating for the minimum security portion of the Utah State Prison. However, development of the resource will have to be carefully managed to prevent premature depletion of the reservoir.

  4. Gas Resource Potential of Volcanic Reservoir in Yingtai Fault Depression of Southern Songliao Basin,China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, M.

    2016-12-01

    There are 2 kinds of volcanic reservoir of gas resource in the Yingtai fault depression, southern Songliao basin,China: volcanic lava reservoir in the Yingcheng-1formation and sedimentary pryoclastics rock of the Yingcheng-2 formation. Based on analysis of the 2 kinds of gas pool features and controlling factors, distribution of each kind has been studied. The resources of these gas reservoirs have been estimated by Delphi method and volumetric method, respectively. The results of resources assessment show the total volcanic gas resources of the Yingtai depression is rich, and the resource proving rate is low, with the remaining gas resource in volcanic reservoir accounting for more than 70%. Thus there will be great exploration potential in the volcanic reservoir in the future gas exploration of this area.

  5. Integrating Genomic Resources with Electronic Health Records using the HL7 Infobutton Standard

    PubMed Central

    Overby, Casey Lynnette; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Maglott, Donna R.; Nelson, Tristan H.; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Martin, Christa L.; Goehringer, Scott R.; Freimuth, Robert R.; Williams, Marc S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) Electronic Health Record (EHR) Workgroup aims to integrate ClinGen resources with EHRs. A promising option to enable this integration is through the Health Level Seven (HL7) Infobutton Standard. EHR systems that are certified according to the US Meaningful Use program provide HL7-compliant infobutton capabilities, which can be leveraged to support clinical decision-making in genomics. Objectives To integrate genomic knowledge resources using the HL7 infobutton standard. Two tactics to achieve this objective were: (1) creating an HL7-compliant search interface for ClinGen, and (2) proposing guidance for genomic resources on achieving HL7 Infobutton standard accessibility and compliance. Methods We built a search interface utilizing OpenInfobutton, an open source reference implementation of the HL7 Infobutton standard. ClinGen resources were assessed for readiness towards HL7 compliance. Finally, based upon our experiences we provide recommendations for publishers seeking to achieve HL7 compliance. Results Eight genomic resources and two sub-resources were integrated with the ClinGen search engine via OpenInfobutton and the HL7 infobutton standard. Resources we assessed have varying levels of readiness towards HL7-compliance. Furthermore, we found that adoption of standard terminologies used by EHR systems is the main gap to achieve compliance. Conclusion Genomic resources can be integrated with EHR systems via the HL7 Infobutton standard using OpenInfobutton. Full compliance of genomic resources with the Infobutton standard would further enhance interoperability with EHR systems. PMID:27579472

  6. Electronic structure calculations toward new potentially AChE inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, A. A. N.; Martins, J. B. L.; Gargano, R.; dos Santos, M. L.; Romeiro, L. A. S.

    2007-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was the use of natural non-isoprenoid phenolic lipid of cashew nut shell liquid from Anacardium occidentale as lead material for generating new potentially candidates of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, we studied the electronic structure of 15 molecules derivatives from the cardanol using the following groups: methyl, acetyl, N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N, N-dimethylamine, N, N-diethylamine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, and N-benzylamine. The calculations were performed at RHF level using 6-31G, 6-31G(d), 6-31+G(d) and 6-311G(d,p) basis functions. Among the proposed compounds we found that the structures with substitution by acetyl, N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N, N-dimethylamine, and pyrrolidine groups were better correlated to rivastigmine indicating possible activity.

  7. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources.

  8. Potential Energy Diagrams: A Conceptual Tool in the Study of Electron Transfer Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Nita A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how the potential energy diagram may be used to theoretically describe the processes involved in a system undergoing electron transfer. Examines factors important in electron transfer reactions and discusses several classes of electron transfer reactions. (CS)

  9. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  10. Bit by Bit: A Series of Trends, Tools, and Initiatives Are Aimed at Improving Electronic Resource Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Electronic resources are more prominent than ever in library collections, yet they resist easy management. A range of tools and cooperative efforts are emerging to improve the management and evaluation of electronic resources. Initiatives are underway to standardize and automate the harvesting of usage statistics and e-journal title and holdings…

  11. Mineral resources potential map of the South Sierra Wilderness and the South Sierra Roadless Area, Inyo and Tulare counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    There are five areas with mineral resource potential and one area with geothermal energy potential in the South Sierra Wilderness and the South Sierra Roadless Area. The area south of Summit Meadows and the area south of Hogback Creek have moderate resource potential for tungsten and molybdenum in small skarn deposits. The area between Summit meadow and Hogback Creek and the area from south of Jackass Meadows to northwest of Granite Knob have low mineral resource potential for tungsten and molybdenum. The area south of and including Walker Creek has low mineral resource potential for lead and zinc. The area including and surrounding Monache Mountain has high geothermal energy resource potential.

  12. Theory of Auger-electron and appearance-potential spectroscopy for interacting valence-band electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolting, W.; Geipel, G.; Ertl, K.

    1991-12-01

    A theory of Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and appearance-potential spectroscopy (APS) is presented for interacting electrons in a nondegenerate energy band, described within the framework of the Hubbard model. Both types of spectroscopy are based on the same two-particle spectral density. A diagrammatic vertex-correction method (Matsubara formalism) is used to express this function in terms of the one-particle spectral density. The latter is approximately determined for arbitrary temperature T, arbitrary coupling strength U/W (U, the intra-atomic Coulomb matrix element; W, the width of the ``free'' Bloch band), and arbitrary band occupations n (0<=n<=2 average number of band electrons per site) by a self-consistent moment method. In weakly coupled systems the electron correlations give rise to certain deformations of the quasiparticle density of states (QDOS) in relation to the Bloch density of states (BDOS), where, however, spontaneous magnetic order is excluded, irrespective of the band filling n. The AE (AP) spectra consist of only one structure a few eV wide (``bandlike'') which is strongly n dependent, but only slightly T dependent, being rather well approximated by a simple self-convolution of the occupied (unoccupied) QDOS. For strongly correlated electrons the Bloch band splits into two quasiparticle subbands. This leads for n<1 to one line in the AE spectrum and three lines in the AP spectrum, and vice versa for n>1. For sufficiently strong correlations U/W additional satellites appear that refer to situations where the two excited quasiparticles (quasiholes) propagate as tightly bound pairs through the lattice without being scattered by other charge carriers. As soon as the satellite splits off from the bandlike part of the spectrum, it takes almost the full spectral weight, conveying the impression of an ``atomiclike'' AE (AP) line shape. The satellite has almost exactly the structure of the free BDOS. If the particle density n as well as the hole

  13. Mineral resource potential map of the Fossil Ridge Wilderness Study Area, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Ed; Stoneman, R.J.; Clark, J.R.; Kluender, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Areas that immediately adjoin the Fossil Ridge Wilderness Study Area have a high potential for molybdenum in large deposits, lead in medium-size deposits, and zinc -in small- to medium-size deposits. Depending on the extraction of base metals, parts of the adjoining areas could have a low resource potential for bismuth and cadmium as byproducts in medium-size deposits.

  14. A National Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing Activities on Drinking Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, C.; Burden, S.; Fleming, M. M.; Knightes, C. D.; Koplos, J.; LeDuc, S. D.; Ring, S.; Stanek, J.; Tuccillo, M. E.; Weaver, J.; Frithsen, J.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently released a draft assessment of the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. As part of the draft assessment, we reviewed, analyzed, and synthesized information from over 950 sources and concluded that there are above and below ground mechanisms by which hydraulic fracturing activities have the potential to impact drinking water resources. These mechanisms include: Water withdrawals in times of, or in areas with, low water availability; Spills of hydraulic fracturing fluids and produced water; Fracturing directly into underground drinking water resources; Below ground migration of liquids and gases; and Inadequate treatment and discharge of wastewater. Of the potential mechanisms identified in this report, we found specific instances where one or more mechanisms led to impacts on drinking water resources, including contamination of drinking water wells. The number of identified cases, however, was small compared to the number of hydraulically fractured wells. This finding could reflect a rarity of effects on drinking water resources, but may also be due to other limiting factors. These factors include: insufficient pre- and post-fracturing data on the quality of drinking water resources; the paucity of long-term systematic studies; the presence of other sources of contamination precluding a definitive link between hydraulic fracturing activities and an impact; and the inaccessibility of some information on hydraulic fracturing activities and potential impacts. Disclaimer: The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or polices of the EPA.

  15. Mineral resource potential map of the Gee Creek Wilderness, Polk and Monroe counties, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, Jack B.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.; Behum, Paul T.

    1983-01-01

    The major rock types in the wilderness area consist of sandstone, shale, and conglomerate of the Chilhowee Group of Cambrian and Cambrian(?) age. Faulting appears to have controlled the location of minor subeconomic iron deposits, but no potential mineral resources were detected by the present survey. Shales, useful for brick or lightweight aggregate, and sandstone, useful for crushed stone or sand, have little economic interest because these rock types are common throughout the region and are found closer to potential markets. The possibility of natural gas occurring in untested rocks structurally beneath the Chilhowee strata cannot be discounted. No potential was found for any other mineral resource.

  16. A survey of electronic drug information resources and identification of problems associated with the differing vocabularies used to key them.

    PubMed Central

    Gnassi, J. A.; Barnett, G. O.

    1993-01-01

    Drug information resources are increasingly becoming electronically available. They differ in scope, granularity, and purpose. These considerations have shaped the selection of dissimilar drug name keys, complicating access. An abbreviated and simplified historical context of the development of official controlled vocabularies and their relationships is followed by a review of the kinds of information available in several electronic drug information resources. The key vocabularies used are discussed with examples. Problems using the differing terms of the resource vocabularies are identified. PMID:8130551

  17. Dietitians' perceptions of communicating with preadolescent, overweight children in the consultation setting: the potential for e-resources.

    PubMed

    Raaff, C; Glazebrook, C; Wharrad, H

    2015-06-01

    There are calls to enhance existing child weight management interventions and to develop new treatment approaches. The potential for interactive electronic resources (e-resources) to support child-dietitian communication has yet to be explored. Towards developing such a tool, the present study aimed to understand dietetic attitudes and approaches to communicating with preadolescent overweight children in individual consultations to support behaviour change. A purposive sample of 18 dietitians, providing weight management advice to overweight 7-11-year-old children, took part in the study. Individual semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted. Data were transcribed and then analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Content analysis was used to interpret dietetic attitude towards e-resources. Six overarching themes were identified describing dietitians' views: the complexity of treating childhood obesity, the strategic balance of dietetic communication focus between child and parent, the child's capacity to communicate affecting their contribution, dietetic approaches to verbal child communication and the features of resources that can support them, as well as dietetic expectations for resources. Independent inter-rater agreement for the themes was 76.9% and 73.1%, respectively. The majority of dietitians (n = 13) supported the concept of introducing an interactive multimedia e-resource into child weight management consultations. Most dietitians sought to engage the preadolescent child in the consultation, using dietetic visual aids to complement verbal strategies and to serve as scaffolding for the conversation. There is scope for interactive e-resources to enhance communication, provided that they are flexibly tailored to meet the needs of the dietitian and the overweight child. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Engineer’s Guide to the Use of Human Resources in Electronic System Design: an Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    AD-A093 539 ANACAPA SCIENCES INC SANTA BARBARA CA F6 /5 ENGINEER’S GUIDE TO THE USE OF HUMAN RESOURCES 7N ELECTRONC ST ETC(U) 0 NOV 80 R A DICK, E A...Anacapa Sciences , Inc. in support of Navy Decision aooroinating -paper 1 -PN, subprojectZll77-PN.05, Reducing Manpower Costs Through Better System...operators and maintainers for sophisticated shipboard electronic systems. Manpower problems in operating and maintaining these systems are widely

  19. Electron-electron cusp condition and asymptotic behavior for the Pauli potential in pair density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Nagy, A; Amovilli, C

    2008-03-21

    In the ground state, the pair density n can be determined by solving a single auxiliary equation of a two-particle problem. Electron-electron cusp condition and asymptotic behavior for the Pauli potential of the effective potential of the two-particle equation are presented.

  20. Dynamics of interacting electrons under effect of a Morse potential.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, J L L; Sales, M O; Neto, A Ranciaro; de Moura, F A B F

    2017-05-01

    We consider interacting electrons moving in a nonlinear Morse lattice. We set the initial conditions as follows: electrons were initially localized at the center of the chain and a solitonic deformation was produced by an impulse excitation on the center of the chain. By solving quantum and classical equations for this system numerically, we found that a fraction of electronic wave function was trapped by the solitonic excitation, and trapping specificities depend on the degree of interaction among electrons. Also, there is evidence that the effective electron velocity depends on Coulomb interaction and electron-phonon coupling in a nontrivial way. This association is explained in detail along this work. In addition, we briefly discuss the dependence of our results with the type of initial condition we choose for the electrons and lattice.

  1. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  2. Electronic Properties of Low-Dimensional Materials Under Periodic Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamei, Mehdi

    In the quest for the further miniaturization of electronic devices, numerous fabrication techniques have been developed. The semiconductor industry has been able to manifest miniaturization in highly complex and ultra low-power integrated circuits and devices, transforming almost every aspect of our lives. However, we may have come very close to the end of this trend. While advanced machines and techniques may be able to overcome technological barriers, theoretical and fundamental barriers are inherent to the top-down miniaturization approach and cannot be circumvented. As a result, the need for novel and natural alternatives to replace old materials is valued now more than ever. Fortunately, there exists a large group of materials that essentially has low-dimensional (quasi-one- or quasi-two-dimensional) structures. Graphene, a two-dimensional form of carbon, which has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, is a perfect example of a prime material from this group. Niobium tri-selenide (NbSe3), from a family of trichalcogenides, has a highly anisotropic structure and electrical conductivity. At sufficiently low temperatures, NbSe3 also exhibits two independent "sliding charge density waves"-- an exciting phenomenon, which could be altered by changing the overall size of the material. In NbSe3 (and Blue Bronze K0.3MoO3 which has a similar structure and electrical behavior), the effect of a periodic potential could be seen in creating a charge density wave (CDW) that is incommensurate to the underlying lattice. The required periodic potential is provided by the crystal ions when ordered in a particular way. The consequence is a peculiar non-linear conductivity behavior, as well as a unique narrow-band noise spectrum. Theoretical and experimental studies have concluded that the dynamic properties of resulting CDW are directly related to the crystal impurity density, and other pinning potentials. Therefore, reducing the overall size of the crystal could

  3. Mineral resource potential of the Piedra Wilderness Study Area, Archuleta and Hinsdale counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Alfred L.; Condon, Steven M.; Franczyk, Karen J.; Brown, S.Don

    1983-01-01

    The mineral resource potential of the Piedra Wilderness Study Area is low. No occurrences of metallic minerals, of valuable industrial rocks and minerals, or of useful concentrations of organic fuels are known in the study area. However, a noneconomic occurrence of gypsum in the Jurassic Wanakah Formation lies a few hundred feet west of the WSA boundary, is believed to extend into the WSA, and has a low resource potential. Particular attention was paid to the possible occurrence of organic fuels in the Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation, of uranium and vanadium in the Jurassic Entrada Sandstone and Morrison Formation, and of coal in the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone. Thin coaly beds in the Dakota have a low resource potential. Extensive sampling of stream sediments, limited sampling of rock outcrops and springs, and a number of scintillometer traverses failed to pinpoint significant anomalies that might be clues to mineral deposits.

  4. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Allegrini, Elisa; Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Holtze, Maria Sommer; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Ferrous and non-ferrous metals were quantified in MSWI bottom ashes. • Metal recovery system efficiencies for bottom ashes were estimated. • Total content of critical elements was determined in bottom ash samples. • Post-incineration recovery is not viable for most critical elements. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators is bottom ashes (BAs), which also have important resource potential. Based on a full-scale Danish recovery facility, detailed material and substance flow analyses (MFA and SFA) were carried out, in order to characterise the resource recovery potential of Danish BA: (i) based on historical and experimental data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap metal and (iv) resource potential variability and recovery efficiencies were quantified based on a range of ashes from different incinerators. Recovery efficiencies for Fe and NFe reached 85% and 61%, respectively, with the resource potential of metals in BA before recovery being 7.2%ww for Fe and 2.2%ww for NFe. Considerable non-recovered resource potential was found in fine fraction (below 2 mm), where approximately 12% of the total NFe potential in the BA were left. REEs were detected in the ashes, but the levels were two or three orders of magnitude lower than typical ore concentrations. The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results

  5. Opening a Can of wERMS: Texas A&M University's Experiences in Implementing Two Electronic Resource Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnett, Eric; Price, Apryl; Smith, Jane; Barrett, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, Texas A&M University (TAMU) has searched for a way to administer its electronic subscriptions as well as the electronic subscriptions shared among the TAMU System. In this article, we address our attempts to implement an effective electronic resource management system (ERMS), both for subscriptions on the main campus…

  6. Electronic cigarettes: a safer alternative or potential poison?

    PubMed

    Smith, Janet E

    2014-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes have been marketed as a safer alternative to cigarettes, and their use is expanding exponentially. However, there is a severe lack of scientific data about the ingredients in the liquid used in the device and the health consequences of using electronic cigarettes. As technology has outpaced regulations, the production and sale of electronic cigarettes are, as yet, unregulated and do not fall under the purview of the Food and Drug Administration. This article will review the mechanism of action and what is currently known about the safety of electronic cigarettes. The risk of poisoning for children will also be identified, as well as the implications for home healthcare clinicians.

  7. Relationship between Electron Affinity and Half-Wave Reduction Potential: A Theoretical Study on Cyclic Electron-Acceptor Compounds.

    PubMed

    Calbo, Joaquín; Viruela, Rafael; Ortí, Enrique; Aragó, Juan

    2016-12-05

    A high-level ab initio protocol to compute accurate electron affinities and half-wave reduction potentials is presented and applied for a series of electron-acceptor compounds with potential interest in organic electronics and redox flow batteries. The comprehensive comparison between the theoretical and experimental electron affinities not only proves the reliability of the theoretical G3(MP2) approach employed but also calls into question certain experimental measurements, which need to be revised. By using the thermodynamic cycle for the one-electron attachment reaction A+e(-) →A(-) , theoretical estimates for the first half-wave reduction potential have been computed along the series of electron-acceptor systems investigated, with maximum deviations from experiment of only 0.2 V. The precise inspection of the terms contributing to the half-wave reduction potential shows that the difference in the free energy of solvation between the neutral and the anionic species (ΔΔGsolv ) plays a crucial role in accurately estimating the electron-acceptor properties in solution, and thus it cannot be considered constant even in a family of related compounds. This term, which can be used to explain the occasional lack of correlation between electron affinities and reduction potentials, is rationalized by the (de)localization of the additional electron involved in the reduction process along the π-conjugated chemical structure.

  8. Hamiltonian of a many-electron system with single-electron and electron-pair states in a two-dimensional periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Guo-Qiang; Peeters, François M.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the metastable electron-pair energy band in a two-dimensional (2D) periodic potential obtained previously by Hai and Castelano [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 26, 115502 (2014)], we present in this work a Hamiltonian of many electrons consisting of single electrons and electron pairs in the 2D system. The electron-pair states are metastable of energies higher than those of the single-electron states at low electron density. We assume two different scenarios for the single-electron band. When it is considered as the lowest conduction band of a crystal, we compare the obtained Hamiltonian with the phenomenological model Hamiltonian of a boson-fermion mixture proposed by Friedberg and Lee [Phys. Rev. B 40, 6745 (1989)]. Single-electron-electron-pair and electron-pair-electron-pair interaction terms appear in our Hamiltonian and the interaction potentials can be determined from the electron-electron Coulomb interactions. When we consider the single-electron band as the highest valence band of a crystal, we show that holes in this valence band are important for stabilization of the electron-pair states in the system.

  9. Electron Flow in Multiheme Bacterial Cytochromes is a Balancing Act Between Heme Electronic Interaction and Redox Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M.; Blumberger, Jochen

    2014-01-14

    The naturally widespread process of electron transfer from metal reducing bacteria to extracellular solid metal oxides entails unique biomolecular machinery optimized for long-range electron transport. To perform this function efficiently microorganisms have adapted multi-heme c-type cytochromes to arrange heme cofactors into wires that cooperatively span the cellular envelope, transmitting electrons along distances greater than 100 Angstroms. Implications and opportunities for bionanotechnological device design are self-evident. However, at the molecular level how these proteins shuttle electrons along their heme wires, navigating intraprotein intersections and interprotein interfaces effciently, remains a mystery so far inaccessible to experiment. To shed light on this critical topic, we carried out extensive computer simulations to calculate Marcus theory quantities for electron transfer along the ten heme cofactors in the recently crystallized outer membrane cytochrome MtrF. The combination of electronic coupling matrix elements with free energy calculations of heme redox potentials and reorganization energies for heme-to-heme electron transfer allows the step-wise and overall electron transfer rate to be estimated and understood in terms of structural and dynamical characteristics of the protein. By solving a master equation for electron hopping, we estimate an intrinsic, maximum possible electron flux through solvated MtrF of 104-105 s-1, consistent with recently measured rates for the related MtrCAB protein complex. Intriguingly, this flux must navigate thermodynamically uphill steps past low potential hemes. Our calculations show that the rapid electron transport through MtrF is the result of a clear correlation between heme redox potential and the strength of electronic coupling along the wire: Thermodynamically uphill steps occur only between electronically well connected stacked heme pairs. This suggests that the protein evolved to harbor low potential

  10. Assessment of water resources potential of Ceará state (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Angelo; Pereira, Diamantino; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    A methodological approach and results on water resources assessment in large areas are described with the case study of Ceará State (148,016 km2, northeast Brazil), where the scarceness of water resources is one of the main challenges in territorial planning and development. This work deals with the quantification and the mapping of water resources potential, being part of methodological approaches applied to the quantification of hydric diversity and geodiversity. Water resources potential is here considered as the sum of the hydric elements rainfall, groundwater specific discharge, water reservoirs, and river hierarchy. The assessment was based in a territorial organization by drainage sub-basins and in vector maps generated and treated with GIS software. Rainfall, groundwater specific discharge and hydrographical data were obtained in official institutions and allowed the construction of the annual mean rainfall map for a forty year period (1974-2014), the annual mean groundwater specific discharge map for a thirty-four year period, and the river and drainage basin hierarchy maps. These delivered rainfall, groundwater specific discharge, water reservoirs and river hierarchy partial indices expressed on quantitative maps with normalized values distributed by level 3 drainage basins. The sum of the partial indices originated the quantitative map of water resources potential index and by the Gaussian interpolation of this quantitative data a map of hydric diversity in Ceará state was created. Therefore, the water resources potential index is higher in 4 regions of the state (Noroeste Cearense, Zona Metropolitana de Fortaleza e da Zona Norte, Vale do Jaguaribe and Zonas Centro-sul e Sul Cearense). The index is low or very low in the whole region of Sertões Cearenses, confirming the important role of climatic features in hydrological diversity. Water resources management must consider technical tools for water resources assessment, in the line of other methods for

  11. Asymptotic Near Nucleus Structure of the Electron-Interaction Potential in Local Effective Potential Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahni, Viraht; Qian, Zhixin

    2007-03-01

    In previous work, it has been shown that for spherically symmetric or sphericalized systems, the asymptotic near nucleus structure of the electron-interaction potential is vee(r) = vee(0) + βr + γr^2. In this paper we prove via time-independent Quantal Density Functional Theory[1](Q-DFT): (i) correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle and Coulomb repulsion do not contribute to the linear structure;(ii) these Pauli and Coulomb correlations contribute quadratically; (iii) the linear structure is solely due to Correlation-Kinetic effects, the coefficient β being determined analytically. By application of adiabatic coupling constant perturbation theory via QDFT we further prove: (iv) the Kohn-Sham (KS-DFT) `exchange' potential vx(r) approaches the nucleus linearly, this structure being due solely to lowest- order Correlation-Kinetic effects: (v) the KS-DFT `correlation' potential vc(r) also approaches the nucleus linearly, being solely due to higher-order Correlation-Kinetic contributions. The above conclusions are equally valid for system of arbitrary symmetry, provided spherical averages of the properties are employed. 1 Quantal Density Functional Theory, V. Sahni (Springer-Verlag 2004)

  12. Establishing and testing the "reuse potential" indicator for managing wastes as resources.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo Young; Chertow, Marian R

    2014-05-01

    This study advances contemporary ideas promoting the importance of managing wastes as resources such as closed-loop or circular material economies, and sustainable materials management by reinforcing the notion of a resource-based paradigm rather than a waste-based one. It features the creation of a quantitative tool, the "reuse potential indicator" to specify how "resource-like" versus how "waste-like" specific materials are on a continuum. Even with increasing attention to waste reuse and resource conservation, constant changes in product composition and complexity have left material managers without adequate guidance to make decisions about what is technically feasible to recover from the discard stream even before markets can be considered. The reuse potential indicator is developed to aid management decision-making about waste based not on perception but more objectively on the technical ability of the materials to be reused in commerce. This new indicator is based on the extent of technological innovation and commercial application of actual reuse approaches identified and cataloged. Coal combustion by-products (CCBs) provide the test case for calculating the reuse potential indicator. While CCBs are often perceived as wastes and then isolated in landfills or surface impoundments, there is also a century-long history in the industry of developing technologies to reuse CCBs. The recent statistics show that most CCBs generated in Europe and Japan are reused (90-95%), but only 40-45% of CCBs are used in the United States. According to the reuse potential calculation, however, CCBs in the United States have high technical reusability. Of the four CCBs examined under three different regulatory schemes, reuse potential for boiler slag and flue-gas desulfurization gypsum maintains a value greater than 0.8 on a 0-1 scale, indicating they are at least 80% resource-like. Under current regulation in the United States, both fly ash and bottom ash are 80-90% resource

  13. Potential environmental and human health impacts of rechargeable lithium batteries in electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2013-05-21

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163,544 mg/kg; σ = 62,897; limit 8000), copper (average 98,694 mg/kg; σ = 28,734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11,438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  14. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  15. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    PubMed

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  16. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria: potential and prospects.

    PubMed

    Sokan-Adeaga, Adewale Allen; Ana, Godson R E E

    2015-01-01

    The quest for biofuels in Nigeria, no doubt, represents a legitimate ambition. This is so because the focus on biofuel production has assumed a global dimension, and the benefits that may accrue from such effort may turn out to be enormous if the preconditions are adequately satisfied. As a member of the global community, it has become exigent for Nigeria to explore other potential means of bettering her already impoverished economy. Biomass is the major energy source in Nigeria, contributing about 78% of Nigeria's primary energy supply. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the potential of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria is given. The study adopted a desk review of existing literatures on major energy crops produced in Nigeria. A brief description of the current biofuel developmental activities in the country is also given. A variety of biomass resources exist in the country in large quantities with opportunities for expansion. Biomass resources considered include agricultural crops, agricultural crop residues, forestry resources, municipal solid waste, and animal waste. However, the prospects of achieving this giant stride appear not to be feasible in Nigeria. Although the focus on biofuel production may be a worthwhile endeavor in view of Nigeria's development woes, the paper argues that because Nigeria is yet to adequately satisfy the preconditions for such program, the effort may be designed to fail after all. To avoid this, the government must address key areas of concern such as food insecurity, environmental crisis, and blatant corruption in all quarters. It is concluded that given the large availability of biomass resources in Nigeria, there is immense potential for biofuel production from these biomass resources. With the very high potential for biofuel production, the governments as well as private investors are therefore encouraged to take practical steps toward investing in agriculture for the production of energy crops and the

  17. Potential for Fabric Damage by Welding Electron Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragomeni, James M.; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Welding electron beam effects on Nextel AF-62 ceramic fabric enable a preliminary, tentative interpretation of electron beam fabric damage. Static surface charging does not protect fabric from beam penetration, but penetration occurs only after a delay time. The delay time is thought to be that required for the buildup of outgassing products at the fabric surface to a point where arcing occurs. Extra long delays are noted when the gun is close enough to the surface to be shut off by outgassing emissions. Penetration at long distances is limited by beam attenuation from electronic collisions with the chamber atmosphere.

  18. Evaluating the Language Resources of Chatbots for Their Potential in English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the linguistic worth of current "chatbot" programs--software programs which attempt to hold a conversation, or interact, in English--as a precursor to their potential as an ESL (English as a second language) learning resource. After some initial background to the development of chatbots, and a discussion of the Loebner…

  19. Mineral resource potential map of the Pyramid Roadless Area, El Dorado County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Augustus K.; Chaffee, Maurice A.; Scott, Douglas F.

    1983-01-01

    Studies show., there is low potential for small deposits of gold, silver, and base metals in the Pyramid Roadless Area. There are two uranium claims (Cliff Ridge mining claims) located within the roadless area, but samples from this site showed no uranium. There are no indications of geothermal resources, coal, oil, or gas.

  20. Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources (Monterey, CA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A summary of EPA's research relating to potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources will be presented. Background about the study plan development will be presented along with an analysis of the water cycle as it relates to hydraulic fracturing processe...

  1. Evaluating the Language Resources of Chatbots for Their Potential in English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the linguistic worth of current "chatbot" programs--software programs which attempt to hold a conversation, or interact, in English--as a precursor to their potential as an ESL (English as a second language) learning resource. After some initial background to the development of chatbots, and a discussion of the Loebner…

  2. Rural School as a Resource for the Intellectual and Labour Potential Formation of the Rural Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasibullov, Ramis R.; Korshunova, Olga V.; Arshabekov, Nurgali R.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem is reasoned by the need to create conceptual grounds of life organization variants in the rural school as a resource of intellectual and labor potential formation of rural society taking into account the socio-economic realities of Russia's development in the beginning of the twenty-first century, as well as…

  3. 43 CFR 11.25 - Preassessment screen-preliminary identification of resources potentially at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pathways. (1) The authorized official shall make a preliminary identification of potential exposure pathways to facilitate identification of resources at risk. (2) Factors to be considered in this... toxicological properties of the oil or hazardous substance. (3) Pathways to be considered shall include,...

  4. 43 CFR 11.25 - Preassessment screen-preliminary identification of resources potentially at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pathways. (1) The authorized official shall make a preliminary identification of potential exposure pathways to facilitate identification of resources at risk. (2) Factors to be considered in this... toxicological properties of the oil or hazardous substance. (3) Pathways to be considered shall include,...

  5. 43 CFR 11.25 - Preassessment screen-preliminary identification of resources potentially at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pathways. (1) The authorized official shall make a preliminary identification of potential exposure pathways to facilitate identification of resources at risk. (2) Factors to be considered in this... toxicological properties of the oil or hazardous substance. (3) Pathways to be considered shall include,...

  6. 43 CFR 11.25 - Preassessment screen-preliminary identification of resources potentially at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pathways. (1) The authorized official shall make a preliminary identification of potential exposure pathways to facilitate identification of resources at risk. (2) Factors to be considered in this... toxicological properties of the oil or hazardous substance. (3) Pathways to be considered shall include,...

  7. 43 CFR 11.25 - Preassessment screen-preliminary identification of resources potentially at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pathways. (1) The authorized official shall make a preliminary identification of potential exposure pathways to facilitate identification of resources at risk. (2) Factors to be considered in this... toxicological properties of the oil or hazardous substance. (3) Pathways to be considered shall include,...

  8. Assessment of potential oil and gas resources in source rocks of the Alaska North Slope, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Rouse, William A.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated potential, technically recoverable oil and gas resources for source rocks of the Alaska North Slope. Estimates (95-percent to 5-percent probability) range from zero to 2 billion barrels of oil and from zero to nearly 80 trillion cubic feet of gas.

  9. Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources (Monterey, CA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A summary of EPA's research relating to potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources will be presented. Background about the study plan development will be presented along with an analysis of the water cycle as it relates to hydraulic fracturing processe...

  10. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  11. Mineral resource potential map of the Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Leszcykowski, Andrew M.; Esparza, Leon E.; Rumsey, Clayton M.

    1982-01-01

    The Muddy Mountains Wilderness Study Area (WSA 050-0229), Clark County, Nevada, has a high potential for mineral deposits of calcium borates and lithium. The known and potential mineral deposits are concentrated in the east-central and south-central parts of the study area (see map). Zeolites (in particular clinoptilolite) are present in some tuff beds throughout much of the study area, and this resource potential is probably moderate to high. Stream-sediment sampling suggests that the Muddy Mountains area has little potential for mineral deposits of metals (other than lithium). Clay minerals are mined at one locality in the (!rea (see map). Building stone and silica sand have moderate to low potential in some places. Oil and gas potential within the study area is low, but complete evaluation of its potential is not possible without drilling.

  12. Electron density dependence of impedance probe plasma potential measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D. N.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2015-08-15

    In earlier works, we used spheres of various sizes as impedance probes in demonstrating a method of determining plasma potential, φ{sub p}, when the probe radius is much larger than the Debye length, λ{sub D}. The basis of the method in those works [Walker et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 032108 (2006); ibid. 15, 123506 (2008); ibid. 17, 113503 (2010)] relies on applying a small amplitude signal of fixed frequency to a probe in a plasma and, through network analyzer-based measurements, determining the complex reflection coefficient, Γ, for varying probe bias, V{sub b}. The frequency range of the applied signal is restricted to avoid sheath resonant effects and ion contributions such that ω{sub pi} ≪ ω ≪ ω{sub pe}, where ω{sub pi} is the ion plasma frequency and ω{sub pe} is the electron plasma frequency. For a given frequency and applied bias, both Re(Z{sub ac}) and Im(Z{sub ac}) are available from Γ. When Re(Z{sub ac}) is plotted versus V{sub b}, a minimum predicted by theory occurs at φ{sub p} [Walker et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 113503 (2010)]. In addition, Im(Z{sub ac}) appears at, or very near, a maximum at φ{sub p}. As n{sub e} decreases and the sheath expands, the minimum becomes harder to discern. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that when using network analyzer-based measurements, Γ itself and Im(Z{sub ac}) and their derivatives are useful as accompanying indicators to Re(Z{sub ac}) in these difficult cases. We note the difficulties encountered by the most commonly used plasma diagnostic, the Langmuir probe. Spherical probe data is mainly used in this work, although we present limited data for a cylinder and a disk. To demonstrate the effect of lowered density as a function of probe geometry, we compare the cylinder and disk using only the indicator Re(Z{sub ac})

  13. Self-consistent many-electron theory of electron work functions and surface potential characteristics for selected metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    Electron work functions, surface potentials, and electron number density distributions and electric fields in the surface region of 26 metals were calculated from first principles within the free electron model. Calculation proceeded from an expression of the total energy as a functional of the electron number density, including exchange and correlation energies, as well as a first inhomogeneity term. The self-consistent solution was obtained via a variational procedure. Surface barriers were due principally to many-body effects; dipole barriers were small only for some alkali metals, becoming quite large for the transition metals. Surface energies were inadequately described by this model, which neglects atomistic effects. Reasonable results were obtained for electron work functions and surface potential characteristics, maximum electron densities varying by a factor of over 60.

  14. Maximum Growth Potential and Periods of Resource Limitation in Apple Tree.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Francesco; DeJong, Theodore; Franceschi, Pietro; Tagliavini, Massimo; Gianelle, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal maximum potential growth rates are important for assessing periods of resource limitations in fruit tree species. In this study we assessed the periods of resource limitation for vegetative (current year stems, and woody biomass) and reproductive (fruit) organs of a major agricultural crop: the apple tree. This was done by comparing relative growth rates (RGRs) of individual organs in trees with reduced competition for resources to trees grown under standard field conditions. Special attention was dedicated to disentangling patterns and values of maximum potential growth for each organ type. The period of resource limitation for vegetative growth was much longer than in another fruit tree species (peach): from late May until harvest. Two periods of resource limitation were highlighted for fruit: from the beginning of the season until mid-June, and about 1 month prior to harvest. By investigating the variability in individual organs growth we identified substantial differences in RGRs among different shoot categories (proleptic and epicormic) and within each group of monitored organs. Qualitatively different and more accurate values of growth rates for vegetative organs, compared to the use of the simple compartmental means, were estimated. Detailed, source-sink based tree growth models, commonly in need of fine parameter tuning, are expected to benefit from the results produced by these analyses.

  15. Maximum Growth Potential and Periods of Resource Limitation in Apple Tree

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Francesco; DeJong, Theodore; Franceschi, Pietro; Tagliavini, Massimo; Gianelle, Damiano

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of seasonal maximum potential growth rates are important for assessing periods of resource limitations in fruit tree species. In this study we assessed the periods of resource limitation for vegetative (current year stems, and woody biomass) and reproductive (fruit) organs of a major agricultural crop: the apple tree. This was done by comparing relative growth rates (RGRs) of individual organs in trees with reduced competition for resources to trees grown under standard field conditions. Special attention was dedicated to disentangling patterns and values of maximum potential growth for each organ type. The period of resource limitation for vegetative growth was much longer than in another fruit tree species (peach): from late May until harvest. Two periods of resource limitation were highlighted for fruit: from the beginning of the season until mid-June, and about 1 month prior to harvest. By investigating the variability in individual organs growth we identified substantial differences in RGRs among different shoot categories (proleptic and epicormic) and within each group of monitored organs. Qualitatively different and more accurate values of growth rates for vegetative organs, compared to the use of the simple compartmental means, were estimated. Detailed, source-sink based tree growth models, commonly in need of fine parameter tuning, are expected to benefit from the results produced by these analyses. PMID:26973676

  16. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors

    PubMed Central

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. Results: On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Conclusion: Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to

  17. Potential oil and gas resources of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska: 1002 area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, K.J.

    2000-01-01

    A geologist with extensive experience in the study of northern Alaska's petroleum resources provides an overview of the first comprehensive reassessment of the petroleum potential of section 1002 of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge since the original study of 1987. The paper surveys the region's geology, and provides a description of the methods employed and assessment results. The current resource is compared with that estimated in the original study, and is considerably larger, given the availability of new geologic and geophysical data, improved seismic processing and interpretation capabilities, and changes in the economics of North Slope oil development.

  18. Mineral resources potential map of the Lost Cove and Harper Creek Roadless Areas, Avery and Caldwell counties, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crandall, T.M.; Ross, R.B.; Whitlow, J.W.; Griffitts, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Mineral resources having low to moderate potential are gold and minerals of thorium, beryllium, niobium, and copper. Stone has a low economic potential; lead, molybdenum, and titanium have low resource potential. These conclusions are based on results of prospect examination, radiometric survey, geochemical survey of stream sediments, saprolite, and bedrock.

  19. Advances in molecular electronics: Synthesis and testing of potential molecular electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, David Wilson, Jr.

    New potential molecular electronics devices have been synthesized based on our knowledge of previous systems that have come out of our group. Previous studies and current studies have shown that simple molecular systems demonstrate negative differential resistance (NDR) and memory characteristics. The new systems rely primarily on the redox properties of the compounds to improve upon the solid state properties already observed. Most of these new organic compounds use thiol-based "alligator clips" for attachment to metal surfaces. Some of the compounds, however, contain different "alligator clips," primarily isonitriles, for attachment to metal substrates. It is our hope that these new "alligator clips" will offer lower conductivity barriers (higher current density). Electrochemical tests have been performed in order to evaluate those redox properties and in the hope of using those electrochemical results as a predictive tool to evaluate the usefulness of those compounds. Also, organic structures with polymerizable functionalities have been synthesized in order to cross-link the molecules once they are a part of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). This has been shown to enable the electrochemical growth of polypyrrole from a SAM in a controllable manner.

  20. Ground- and excited-state scattering potentials for the stopping of protons in an electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matias, F.; Fadanelli, R. C.; Grande, P. L.; Koval, N. E.; Díez Muiño, R.; Borisov, A. G.; Arista, N. R.; Schiwietz, G.

    2017-09-01

    The self-consistent electron-ion potential V(r) is calculated for H+ ions in an electron gas system as a function of the projectile energy to model the electronic stopping power for conduction-band electrons. The results show different self-consistent potentials at low projectile-energies, related to different degrees of excitation of the electron cloud surrounding the intruder ion. This behavior can explain the abrupt change of velocity dependent screening-length of the potential found by the use of the extended Friedel sum rule and the possible breakdown of the standard free electron gas model for the electronic stopping at low projectile energies. A dynamical interpolation of V(r) is proposed and used to calculate the stopping power for H+ interacting with the valence electrons of Al. The results are in good agreement with the TDDFT benchmark calculations as well as with experimental data.

  1. TESL-EJ: Conception and Potential of an Electronic Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussex, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the conception and inception of TESL-EJ, a new refereed journal in the English-as-a-Second-Language area with a particularly wide mandate. Special attention is paid to the properties of electronic journals, how these bear on ESL, and how TESL-EJ could interact with its discipline to construct new ways of developing academic discourse.…

  2. Electron Donor Potential of Eastern North Dakota Shale Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas Klapperich, R. J.; Korom, S. F.

    2007-12-01

    We have a network of 16 in situ mesocosms (ISMs) used to study aquifer denitrification at 9 sites in North Dakota and Minnesota. The site in the Elk Valley aquifer in northeastern North Dakota has the highest denitrification rates and the greatest concentration of electron donors (organic carbon ~0.4%, pyrite as S ~0.4%, and ferrous iron ~0.3%) in the sediments. In contrast, denitrification rates at our other ISM sites are lower (or even below detection), as are the electron donor concentrations in the sediments. Knowing that the sediments at all of our ISM sites were placed as outwash during the last Wisconsinan glaciation (~12ka), we wonder what caused the variation in electron donor supplies in our aquifers. It has been suggested that variations is the electron donor concentrations in the various Late Cretaceous shale strata exposed during glaciation may help explain the variation in electron donor concentrations in overlying aquifers formed nearby. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amount of electron donors available in these bedrock units. Bedrock samples (n = 39) from 20 sites in eastern North Dakota were obtained by drilling during the summer of 2006 in conjunction with the North Dakota State Water Commission. Samples were frozen before analysis for bulk mineralogical content by X-ray diffraction, organic carbon, pyrite as inorganic S, and ferrous iron contents. It was hypothesized that the Pierre Shale would have the highest donor concentration, but it appears that other formations, such as the Carlile and Greenhorn contain higher concentrations of electron donors. Organic carbon concentrations in the Pierre (< 0.01% to 1.0%) are relatively low while concentrations in the Carlile (3.5% - 6.5%) and Greenhorn (~8.5%) are significantly higher. Pyrite as inorganic S concentrations in the Pierre (< 0.01% to 0.2%), Carlile (0.3% - 0.5%), and Greenhorn (~0.5%) are similarly distributed. In the future, it may be possible to create a qualitative index

  3. Discerning trends in multiplex immunoassay technology with potential for resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Julian; Michel, Gerd

    2012-04-01

    In the search for more powerful tools for diagnoses of endemic diseases in resource-limited settings, we have been analyzing technologies with potential applicability. Increasingly, the process focuses on readily accessible bodily fluids combined with increasingly powerful multiplex capabilities to unambiguously diagnose a condition without resorting to reliance on a sophisticated reference laboratory. Although these technological advances may well have important implications for the sensitive and specific detection of disease, to date their clinical utility has not been demonstrated, especially in resource-limited settings. Furthermore, many emerging technological developments are in fields of physics or engineering, which are not readily available to or intelligible to clinicians or clinical laboratory scientists. This review provides a look at technology trends that could have applicability to high-sensitivity multiplexed immunoassays in resource-limited settings. Various technologies are explained and assessed according to potential for reaching relevant limits of cost, sensitivity, and multiplex capability. Frequently, such work is reported in technical journals not normally read by clinical scientists, and the authors make enthusiastic claims for the potential of their technology while ignoring potential pitfalls. Thus it is important to draw attention to technical hurdles that authors may not be publicizing. Immunochromatographic assays, optical methods including those involving waveguides, electrochemical methods, magnetorestrictive methods, and field-effect transistor methods based on nanotubes, nanowires, and nanoribbons reveal possibilities as next-generation technologies.

  4. The potential impacts of biomass feedstock production on water resource availability.

    PubMed

    Stone, K C; Hunt, P G; Cantrell, K B; Ro, K S

    2010-03-01

    Biofuels are a major topic of global interest and technology development. Whereas bioenergy crop production is highly dependent on water, bioenergy development requires effective allocation and management of water. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the bioenergy production relative to the impacts on water resource related factors: (1) climate and weather impact on water supplies for biomass production; (2) water use for major bioenergy crop production; and (3) potential alternatives to improve water supplies for bioenergy. Shifts to alternative bioenergy crops with greater water demand may produce unintended consequences for both water resources and energy feedstocks. Sugarcane and corn require 458 and 2036 m(3) water/m(3) ethanol produced, respectively. The water requirements for corn grain production to meet the US-DOE Billion-Ton Vision may increase approximately 6-fold from 8.6 to 50.1 km(3). Furthermore, climate change is impacting water resources throughout the world. In the western US, runoff from snowmelt is occurring earlier altering the timing of water availability. Weather extremes, both drought and flooding, have occurred more frequently over the last 30 years than the previous 100 years. All of these weather events impact bioenergy crop production. These events may be partially mitigated by alternative water management systems that offer potential for more effective water use and conservation. A few potential alternatives include controlled drainage and new next-generation livestock waste treatment systems. Controlled drainage can increase water available to plants and simultaneously improve water quality. New livestock waste treatments systems offer the potential to utilize treated wastewater to produce bioenergy crops. New technologies for cellulosic biomass conversion via thermochemical conversion offer the potential for using more diverse feedstocks with dramatically reduced water requirements. The development of bioenergy

  5. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  6. Adequacy of Online Patient Information Resources on Gout and Potentially Curative Urate-Lowering Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Liñan, L M; Edwards, L; Abhishek, A; Doherty, Michael

    2017-05-01

    To assess the content and readability of online patient information resources against the current understanding of gout. An online survey was undertaken using Google UK, USA, Australia, and Canada. Information was assessed for content and accuracy on 19 key points regarding core content for gout patient information resources. Readability was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease score. Fifteen randomly selected websites were reviewed by a blinded second observer. A total of 85 websites were selected. More than 50% of the websites provided no information or had inaccuracies regarding the pathogenesis of gout. Most websites contained information on dietary and lifestyle modifications for treating gout and did not emphasize urate-lowering therapy (ULT) and its potential for cure. Over 75% of the websites had no/inaccurate information on the role of ULT or prophylaxis for preventing gout attacks on starting ULT. The majority of websites were difficult to read, with information in 68% of the websites rated at least fairly difficult. Only a few web-based patient information resources provide accurate and easy-to-read information on gout. This study will help physicians direct patients to currently reliable resources, but there is a need to improve many web-based patient information resources, which at present act as barriers to care. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Making the Right Connections: Perceptions of Human Resource/Personnel Directors Concerning Electronic Job-Search Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Joan C.; North, Alexa B.; Arjomand, H. Lari

    1997-01-01

    Examines methods used to search for entry-level managerial positions and assesses how human resource and personnel directors in Georgia perceive these methods. Findings indicate that few of the directors use electronic technology to fill such positions, but they view positively those applicants who use electronic job searching methods. (RJM)

  8. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  9. Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Marshall, John R.; White, Melisa R.

    1992-01-01

    Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end, methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology are investigated. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromotography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials.

  10. Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Marshall, John R.; White, Melisa R.

    1992-01-01

    Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end, methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology are investigated. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromotography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials.

  11. Analyses of exobiological and potential resource materials in the Martian soil.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, R L; Marshall, J R; White, M R

    1992-01-01

    Potential Martian soil components relevant to exobiology include water, organic matter, evaporites, clays, and oxides. These materials are also resources for human expeditions to Mars. When found in particular combinations, some of these materials constitute diagnostic paleobiomarker suites, allowing insight to be gained into the probability of life originating on Mars. Critically important to exobiology is the method of data analysis and data interpretation. To that end we are investigating methods of analysis of potential biomarker and paleobiomarker compounds and resource materials in soils and rocks pertinent to Martian geology. Differential thermal analysis coupled with gas chromatography is shown to be a highly useful analytical technique for detecting this wide and complex variety of materials.

  12. Knowledge and use of electronic information resources by medical sciences faculty at The University of the West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Shamin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to determine faculty's knowledge of electronic resources, access to a computer, use of electronic resources (both number and frequency) available at the Medical Sciences Library (MSL), and the areas of training needed and to identify areas for further research. Methods: A survey was administered to faculty in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, and veterinary sciences at The University of the West Indies. The questions covered computer literacy, computer access and location, knowledge and use of electronic resources, and training needs. Results: The response rate was 70%, of whom 97% were computer users. Seventy-three percent used computers daily, and 82% felt that their computer literacy level was average or beyond. Overall, it was found that faculty had high awareness of the electronic resources made available by the MSL but low use of MSL-specific resources supporting the suggested problem of underutilization. Many respondents felt that e-resources were important, and, though many felt that they were competent users, 83% were self-taught and many still expressed a need for training. Over 60% felt that a workshop with a hands-on component was the preferred format for training. It was recommended that there be greater promotion of the library's e-resources. PMID:15685270

  13. Revisiting the definition of the electronic chemical potential, chemical hardness, and softness at finite temperatures.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L; Ayers, Paul W; Vela, Alberto

    2015-10-21

    We extend the definition of the electronic chemical potential (μe) and chemical hardness (ηe) to finite temperatures by considering a reactive chemical species as a true open system to the exchange of electrons, working exclusively within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. As in the zero temperature derivation of these descriptors, the response of a chemical reagent to electron-transfer is determined by the response of the (average) electronic energy of the system, and not by intrinsic thermodynamic properties like the chemical potential of the electron-reservoir which is, in general, different from the electronic chemical potential, μe. Although the dependence of the electronic energy on electron number qualitatively resembles the piecewise-continuous straight-line profile for low electronic temperatures (up to ca. 5000 K), the introduction of the temperature as a free variable smoothens this profile, so that derivatives (of all orders) of the average electronic energy with respect to the average electron number exist and can be evaluated analytically. Assuming a three-state ensemble, well-known results for the electronic chemical potential at negative (-I), positive (-A), and zero values of the fractional charge (-(I + A)/2) are recovered. Similarly, in the zero temperature limit, the chemical hardness is formally expressed as a Dirac delta function in the particle number and satisfies the well-known reciprocity relation with the global softness.

  14. Revisiting the definition of the electronic chemical potential, chemical hardness, and softness at finite temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Pérez, Marco E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx; Gázquez, José L. E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx; Ayers, Paul W.; Vela, Alberto

    2015-10-21

    We extend the definition of the electronic chemical potential (μ{sub e}) and chemical hardness (η{sub e}) to finite temperatures by considering a reactive chemical species as a true open system to the exchange of electrons, working exclusively within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. As in the zero temperature derivation of these descriptors, the response of a chemical reagent to electron-transfer is determined by the response of the (average) electronic energy of the system, and not by intrinsic thermodynamic properties like the chemical potential of the electron-reservoir which is, in general, different from the electronic chemical potential, μ{sub e}. Although the dependence of the electronic energy on electron number qualitatively resembles the piecewise-continuous straight-line profile for low electronic temperatures (up to ca. 5000 K), the introduction of the temperature as a free variable smoothens this profile, so that derivatives (of all orders) of the average electronic energy with respect to the average electron number exist and can be evaluated analytically. Assuming a three-state ensemble, well-known results for the electronic chemical potential at negative (−I), positive (−A), and zero values of the fractional charge (−(I + A)/2) are recovered. Similarly, in the zero temperature limit, the chemical hardness is formally expressed as a Dirac delta function in the particle number and satisfies the well-known reciprocity relation with the global softness.

  15. Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential with multi electron species in magnetoplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Arroj A.; Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.; Murtaza, G.

    2013-02-01

    The phenomenon of shielding of test charge in the presence of an external magnetic field (Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential) is investigated in electron ion plasmas using the approach of two temperature electrons. The modified dispersion relations of ion acoustic waves under different conditions are derived. We get different profiles of potential for different parameters and observe that the potentials fall very slowly than the standard Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential given in the reference.

  16. Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential with multi electron species in magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Arroj A.; Murtaza, G.; Jamil, M.; Rasheed, A.

    2013-02-15

    The phenomenon of shielding of test charge in the presence of an external magnetic field (Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential) is investigated in electron ion plasmas using the approach of two temperature electrons. The modified dispersion relations of ion acoustic waves under different conditions are derived. We get different profiles of potential for different parameters and observe that the potentials fall very slowly than the standard Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah potential given in the reference.

  17. Potential hydrothermal resource temperatures in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanashayam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Cody J. Cannon; Trevor A. Atkinson; Travis L. McLing; Thomas R. Wood; Patrick F. Dobson; Mark E. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    The Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in southern Idaho is a region of high heat flow. Sustained volcanic activities in the wake of the passage of the Yellowstone Hotspot have turned this region into an area with great potential for geothermal resources as evidenced by numerous hot springs scattered along the margins of the plain and several hot-water producing wells and hot springs within the plain. Despite these thermal expressions, it is hypothesized that the pervasive presence of an overlying groundwater aquifer in the region effectively masks thermal signatures of deep-seated geothermal resources. The dilution of deeper thermal water and re-equilibration at lower temperature are significant challenges for the evaluation of potential resource areas in the ESRP. Over the past several years, we collected approximately 100 water samples from springs/wells for chemical analysis as well as assembled existing water chemistry data from literature. We applied several geothermometric and geochemical modeling tools to these chemical compositions of ESRP water samples. Geothermometric calculations based on principles of multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry with inverse geochemical modeling capability (e.g., Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) have been useful for the evaluation of reservoir temperatures. RTEst geothermometric calculations of ESRP thermal water samples indicated numerous potential geothermal areas with elevated reservoir temperatures. Specifically, areas around southern/southwestern side of the Bennett Hills and within the Camas Prairies in the western-northwestern regions of the ESRP and its margins suggest temperatures in the range of 140-200°C. In the northeastern portions of the ESRP, Lidy Hot Springs, Ashton, Newdale, and areas east of Idaho Falls have expected reservoir temperature =140 °C. In the southern ERSP, areas near Buhl and Twin Falls are found to have elevated temperatures as high as 160 °C. These areas are likely to host

  18. Potential for a Low-Temperature Geothermal Resource Near Mackay, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbett, Bruce S.; Capuano, Regina M.

    1984-10-01

    Four water samples were collected from springs in the Mackay, Idaho area to investigate the potential for a direct-heat geothermal resource. The maximum measured temperature was 22 C for a spring south of Mackay. Calculation of the mineral equilibrium relationships in the calcium-bicarbonate water samples indicates that these samples equilibrated with the carbonate reservoir rocks. The temperatures of equilibration suggest that the subsurface temperatures of these water samples are probably no higher than measured surface temperatures.

  19. Electron supercollimation in graphene and Dirac fermion materials using one-dimensional disorder potentials.

    PubMed

    Choi, SangKook; Park, Cheol-Hwan; Louie, Steven G

    2014-07-11

    Electron supercollimation, in which a wave packet is guided to move undistorted along a selected direction, is a highly desirable property that has yet to be realized experimentally. Disorder in general is expected to inhibit supercollimation. Here we report a counterintuitive phenomenon of electron supercollimation by disorder in graphene and related Dirac fermion materials. We show that one can use one-dimensional disorder potentials to control electron wave packet transport. This is distinct from known systems where an electron wave packet would be further spread by disorder and hindered in the potential fluctuating direction. The predicted phenomenon has significant implications in the understanding and applications of electron transport in Dirac fermion materials.

  20. Imaging the potential distribution of individual charged impurities on graphene by low-energy electron holography.

    PubMed

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Wicki, Flavio; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2017-07-29

    While imaging individual atoms can routinely be achieved in high resolution transmission electron microscopy, visualizing the potential distribution of individually charged adsorbates leading to a phase shift of the probing electron wave is still a challenging task. Low-energy electrons (30 - 250 eV) are sensitive to localized potential gradients. We employed low-energy electron holography to acquire in-line holograms of individual charged impurities on free-standing graphene. By applying an iterative phase retrieval reconstruction routine we recover the potential distribution of the localized charged impurities present on free-standing graphene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electronic cigarettes and indoor air quality: a simple approach to modeling potential bystander exposures to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Colard, Stéphane; O'Connell, Grant; Verron, Thomas; Cahours, Xavier; Pritchard, John D

    2014-12-24

    There has been rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes ("vaping") in Europe, North America and elsewhere. With such increased prevalence, there is currently a debate on whether the aerosol exhaled following the use of e-cigarettes has implications for the quality of air breathed by bystanders. Conducting chemical analysis of the indoor environment can be costly and resource intensive, limiting the number of studies which can be conducted. However, this can be modelled reasonably accurately based on empirical emissions data and using some basic assumptions. Here, we present a simplified model, based on physical principles, which considers aerosol propagation, dilution and extraction to determine the potential contribution of a single puff from an e-cigarette to indoor air. From this, it was then possible to simulate the cumulative effect of vaping over time. The model was applied to a virtual, but plausible, scenario considering an e-cigarette user and a non-user working in the same office space. The model was also used to reproduce published experimental studies and showed good agreement with the published values of indoor air nicotine concentration. With some additional refinements, such an approach may be a cost-effective and rapid way of assessing the potential exposure of bystanders to exhaled e-cigarette aerosol constituents.

  2. Electronic Cigarettes and Indoor Air Quality: A Simple Approach to Modeling Potential Bystander Exposures to Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Colard, Stéphane; O’Connell, Grant; Verron, Thomas; Cahours, Xavier; Pritchard, John D.

    2014-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes (“vaping”) in Europe, North America and elsewhere. With such increased prevalence, there is currently a debate on whether the aerosol exhaled following the use of e-cigarettes has implications for the quality of air breathed by bystanders. Conducting chemical analysis of the indoor environment can be costly and resource intensive, limiting the number of studies which can be conducted. However, this can be modelled reasonably accurately based on empirical emissions data and using some basic assumptions. Here, we present a simplified model, based on physical principles, which considers aerosol propagation, dilution and extraction to determine the potential contribution of a single puff from an e-cigarette to indoor air. From this, it was then possible to simulate the cumulative effect of vaping over time. The model was applied to a virtual, but plausible, scenario considering an e-cigarette user and a non-user working in the same office space. The model was also used to reproduce published experimental studies and showed good agreement with the published values of indoor air nicotine concentration. With some additional refinements, such an approach may be a cost-effective and rapid way of assessing the potential exposure of bystanders to exhaled e-cigarette aerosol constituents. PMID:25547398

  3. The electronic cigarette: potential health benefit or mere business?

    PubMed

    De Marco, Cinzia; Invernizzi, Giovanni; Bosi, Sandra; Pozzi, Paolo; Di Paco, Adriano; Mazza, Roberto; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Munarini, Elena; Boffi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have attracted considerable attention as a possible alternative to tobacco cigarettes, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality as well as their commercial success without a clear regulatory framework are arousing concern. We have therefore tried to summarize the health-related implications of the use of e-cigarettes in order to help physicians and health professionals provide accurate information on this device. Given the lack of unequivocal scientific data on their toxicity and safety, we conclude that at the moment there is no reason to approve e-cigarettes as a safe alternative to tobacco smoke.

  4. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2004-10-28

    The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification.

  5. Electron flow in multiheme bacterial cytochromes is a balancing act between heme electronic interaction and redox potentials

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M.; Blumberger, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The naturally widespread process of electron transfer from metal reducing bacteria to extracellular solid metal oxides entails unique biomolecular machinery optimized for long-range electron transport. To perform this function efficiently, microorganisms have adapted multiheme c-type cytochromes to arrange heme cofactors into wires that cooperatively span the cellular envelope, transmitting electrons along distances greater than 100 Å. Implications and opportunities for bionanotechnological device design are self-evident. However, at the molecular level, how these proteins shuttle electrons along their heme wires, navigating intraprotein intersections and interprotein interfaces efficiently, remains a mystery thus far inaccessible to experiment. To shed light on this critical topic, we carried out extensive quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations to calculate stepwise heme-to-heme electron transfer rates in the recently crystallized outer membrane deca-heme cytochrome MtrF. By solving a master equation for electron hopping, we estimate an intrinsic, maximum possible electron flux through solvated MtrF of 104–105 s−1, consistent with recently measured rates for the related multiheme protein complex MtrCAB. Intriguingly, our calculations show that the rapid electron transport through MtrF is the result of a clear correlation between heme redox potential and the strength of electronic coupling along the wire: thermodynamically uphill steps occur only between electronically well-connected stacked heme pairs. This observation suggests that the protein evolved to harbor low-potential hemes without slowing down electron flow. These findings are particularly profound in light of the apparently well-conserved staggered cross-heme wire structural motif in functionally related outer membrane proteins. PMID:24385579

  6. Electron flow in multiheme bacterial cytochromes is a balancing act between heme electronic interaction and redox potentials.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M; Blumberger, Jochen

    2014-01-14

    The naturally widespread process of electron transfer from metal reducing bacteria to extracellular solid metal oxides entails unique biomolecular machinery optimized for long-range electron transport. To perform this function efficiently, microorganisms have adapted multiheme c-type cytochromes to arrange heme cofactors into wires that cooperatively span the cellular envelope, transmitting electrons along distances greater than 100 Å. Implications and opportunities for bionanotechnological device design are self-evident. However, at the molecular level, how these proteins shuttle electrons along their heme wires, navigating intraprotein intersections and interprotein interfaces efficiently, remains a mystery thus far inaccessible to experiment. To shed light on this critical topic, we carried out extensive quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations to calculate stepwise heme-to-heme electron transfer rates in the recently crystallized outer membrane deca-heme cytochrome MtrF. By solving a master equation for electron hopping, we estimate an intrinsic, maximum possible electron flux through solvated MtrF of 10(4)-10(5) s(-1), consistent with recently measured rates for the related multiheme protein complex MtrCAB. Intriguingly, our calculations show that the rapid electron transport through MtrF is the result of a clear correlation between heme redox potential and the strength of electronic coupling along the wire: thermodynamically uphill steps occur only between electronically well-connected stacked heme pairs. This observation suggests that the protein evolved to harbor low-potential hemes without slowing down electron flow. These findings are particularly profound in light of the apparently well-conserved staggered cross-heme wire structural motif in functionally related outer membrane proteins.

  7. Dynamical exchange-correlation potentials for the electron liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Zhixin; Vignale, Giovanni

    2002-03-01

    The imaginary parts of the exchange-correlation kernels f_xc^L,T(q=0, ω) in the linear density-density and transverse current-current response functions of a homogeneous electron liquid are calculated exactly at low frequency, to leading order in the Coulomb interaction. Combining these new results with the previously known high-frequency behaviors of Im f_xc^L,T(q=0, ω) and with the compressibility and the third frequency moment sum rules, we construct simple interpolation for Im f_xc^L,T(q=0, ω) in 3- and 2- dimensions. A novel feature of our interpolation formulas is that they explicitly take into account the two-plasmon component of the excitation spectrum: our longitudinal spectrum Im f_xc^L(q=0, ω) is thus intermediate between the Gross-Kohn interpolation, which ignores the two-plasmon contribution, and a recent approximate calculation by Nifosi, Conti, and Tosi, which probably overestimates it. Numerical results for both the real and imaginary parts of the exchange-correlation kernels at typical electron densities are presented, and compared with those obtained from previous approximations.

  8. Effective mass in bilayer graphene at low carrier densities: The role of potential disorder and electron-electron interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Tan, L. Z.; Zou, K.; Stabile, A. A.; Seiwell, D. J.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Louie, Steven G.; Zhu, J.

    2016-10-01

    In a two-dimensional electron gas, the electron-electron interaction generally becomes stronger at lower carrier densities and renormalizes the Fermi-liquid parameters, such as the effective mass of carriers. We combine experiment and theory to study the effective masses of electrons and holes me* and mh* in bilayer graphene in the low carrier density regime on the order of 1 ×1011c m-2 . Measurements use temperature-dependent low-field Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations observed in high-mobility hexagonal boron nitride supported samples. We find that while me* follows a tight-binding description in the whole density range, mh* starts to drop rapidly below the tight-binding description at a carrier density of n =6 ×1011c m-2 and exhibits a strong suppression of 30% when n reaches 2 ×1011c m-2 . Contributions from the electron-electron interaction alone, evaluated using several different approximations, cannot explain the experimental trend. Instead, the effect of the potential fluctuation and the resulting electron-hole puddles play a crucial role. Calculations including both the electron-electron interaction and disorder effects explain the experimental data qualitatively and quantitatively. This Rapid Communication reveals an unusual disorder effect unique to two-dimensional semimetallic systems.

  9. A Bayesian approach for solar resource potential assessment using satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linguet, L.; Atif, J.

    2014-03-01

    The need for a more sustainable and more protective development opens new possibilities for renewable energy. Among the different renewable energy sources, the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by solar photovoltaic (PV) technology seems to be the most promising and represents a technically viable solution to energy demands. But implantation and deployment of PV energy need solar resource data for utility planning, accommodating grid capacity, and formulating future adaptive policies. Currently, the best approach to determine the solar resource at a given site is based on the use of satellite images. However, the computation of solar resource (non-linear process) from satellite images is unfortunately not straightforward. From a signal processing point of view, it falls within non-stationary, non-linear/non-Gaussian dynamical inverse problems. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian approach combining satellite images and in situ data. We propose original observation and transition functions taking advantages of the characteristics of both the involved type of data. A simulation study of solar irradiance is carried along with this method and a French Guiana solar resource potential map for year 2010 is given.

  10. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lions, J.; Gale, I.; May, F.; Nygaard, E.; Ruetters, H.; Beaubien, S.; Sohrabi, M.; Hatzignatiou, D. G.; CO2GeoNet Members involved in the present study Team

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be used for drinking, industry and agriculture. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) recently commissioned the CO2GeoNet Association to undertake a review of published and unpublished literature on this topic with the aim of summarizing 'state of the art' knowledge and identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities in this field. Work carried out by various CO2GeoNet members was also used in this study. This study identifies possible areas of conflict by combining available datasets to map the global and regional superposition of deep saline formations (DSF) suitable for CO2 storage and overlying fresh groundwater resources. A scenario classification is developed for the various geological settings where conflict could occur. The study proposes two approaches to address the potential impact mechanisms of CO2 storage projects on the hydrodynamics and chemistry of shallow groundwater. The first classifies and synthesizes changes of water quality observed in natural/industrial analogues and in laboratory experiments. The second reviews hydrodynamic and geochemical models, including coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport. Various models are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, with conclusions on possible impacts on groundwater resources. Possible mitigation options to stop or control CO2 leakage are assessed. The effect of CO2 pressure in the host DSF and the potential effects on shallow aquifers are also examined. The study provides a review of

  11. [HYGIENIC REGULATION OF THE USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MODERN SCHOOL].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, M I; Aleksandrova, I E; Sazanyuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Lashneva, L P; Shumkova, T V; Berezina, N O

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of academic studies with the use a notebook computer and interactive whiteboard on the functional state of an organism of schoolchildren. Using a complex of hygienic and physiological methods of the study we established that regulation of the computer activity of students must take into account not only duration but its intensity either. Design features of a notebook computer were shown both to impede keeping the optimal working posture in primary school children and increase the risk offormation of disorders of vision and musculoskeletal system. There were established the activating influence of the interactive whiteboard on performance activities and favorable dynamics of indices of the functional state of the organism of students under keeping optimal density of the academic study and the duration of its use. There are determined safety regulations of the work of schoolchildren with electronic resources in the educational process.

  12. End-boundary sheath potential, electron and ion energy distribution in the low-pressure non-ambipolar electron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lee; Chen, Zhiying; Funk, Merritt

    2013-12-01

    The end-boundary floating-surface sheath potential, electron and ion energy distribution functions (EEDf, IEDf) in the low-pressure non-ambipolar electron plasma (NEP) are investigated. The NEP is heated by an electron beam extracted from an inductively coupled electron-source plasma (ICP) through a dielectric injector by an accelerator located inside the NEP. This plasma's EEDf has a Maxwellian bulk followed by a broad energy continuum connecting to the most energetic group with energies around the beam energy. The NEP pressure is 1-3 mTorr of N2 and the ICP pressure is 5-15 mTorr of Ar. The accelerator is biased positively from 80 to 600 V and the ICP power range is 200-300 W. The NEP EEDf and IEDf are determined using a retarding field energy analyser. The EEDf and IEDf are measured at various NEP pressures, ICP pressures and powers as a function of accelerator voltage. The accelerator current and sheath potential are also measured. The IEDf reveals mono-energetic ions with adjustable energy and it is proportionally controlled by the sheath potential. The NEP end-boundary floating surface is bombarded by a mono-energetic, space-charge-neutral plasma beam. When the injected energetic electron beam is adequately damped by the NEP, the sheath potential is linearly controlled at almost a 1 : 1 ratio by the accelerator voltage. If the NEP parameters cannot damp the electron beam sufficiently, leaving an excess amount of electron-beam power deposited on the floating surface, the sheath potential will collapse and become unresponsive to the accelerator voltage.

  13. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)

  14. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

  15. Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The resources listed different types of materials related to the aerospace science under specified categories: free materials and inexpensive, selected government publication, audiovisual (government, nongovernment), aviation books, and space books. The list includes the publisher's name and the price for each publication. (SK)

  16. Evaluation of potential induced radioactivity in medical products as a function of electron energy in electron beam sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial sterilization of medical devices may be performed using electron beam irradiators at various electron energies. The potential for activating components of the devices has been discussed, with current standards stating that electron energy greater than 10 MeV requires assessment of potential induced radioactivity. This paper evaluates the potential for induced activity in medical products sterilized in electron beam as a function of the electron maximum energy. Monte Carlo simulation of a surrogate medical device was used to calculate photon and neutron fields resulting from electron irradiation, which were used to calculate concentrations for several radionuclides. The experiments confirmed that 10 MeV is a conservative assumption for limiting induced radioactivity. However, under the conditions as evaluated, which is a limited total quantity of metal in the material being irradiated and absent a limited number of elements; the amount of induced activity at 12 MeV could also be considered insignificant. The comparison of the sum-of-fractions to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission exempt concentration limits is less than unity for all energies below 12.1 MeV, which suggests that there is minimal probability of significant induced activity at energies above the 10 MeV upper energy limit.

  17. Electronic structure, molecular bonding and potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ruedenberg, K.

    1993-12-01

    By virtue of the universal validity of the generalized Born-Oppenheimer separation, potential energy surfaces (PES`) represent the central conceptual as well as quantitative entities of chemical physics and provide the basis for the understanding of most physicochemical phenomena in many diverse fields. The research in this group deals with the elucidation of general properties of PES` as well as with the quantitative determination of PES` for concrete systems, in particular pertaining to reactions involving carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen molecules.

  18. The shadow uniform resource locator: standardizing citations of electronically published materials.

    PubMed

    DiCarlo, J V; Pastor, X; Markovitz, B P

    2000-01-01

    Citation of scientific materials published on the Internet is often cumbersome because of unwieldy uniform resource locators (URLs). The authors describe a format for URLs that simplifies citation of scholarly materials. Its use depends on a simple HTML device, the "refresh page." Uniform citation would follow this format: [Author I. Title of article. http:// domain/year/month-day(e#).html]. The HTML code for such a page is: (HTML) (head) (meta HTTP-EQUIV="Refresh" CONTENT="0; URL= http://Actual-URL/ for-article/ referred-to/ incitation.html") (/head) (/HTML). The code instructs the browser to suppress the content of the refresh page and bring up the title page of the cited article instead. Citations would be succinct and predictable. An electronic journal would not need to alter its existing file hierarchy but would need to establish a distinct domain name and maintain a file of refresh pages. Utilization of the "shadow" URL would bring us one step closer to truly universal resource locators.

  19. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  20. Unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing on pharmacy workflow in the outpatient pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Nanji, Karen C; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Boehne, Jennifer J; Keohane, Carol A; Ash, Joan S; Poon, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Electronic prescribing systems have often been promoted as a tool for reducing medication errors and adverse drug events. Recent evidence has revealed that adoption of electronic prescribing systems can lead to unintended consequences such as the introduction of new errors. The purpose of this study is to identify and characterize the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing on pharmacy workflow in an outpatient pharmacy. A multidisciplinary team conducted direct observations of workflow in an independent pharmacy and semi-structured interviews with pharmacy staff members about their perceptions of the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing systems. We used qualitative methods to iteratively analyze text data using a grounded theory approach, and derive a list of major themes and subthemes related to the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing. We identified the following five themes: Communication, workflow disruption, cost, technology, and opportunity for new errors. These contained 26 unique subthemes representing different facets of our observations and the pharmacy staff's perceptions of the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing. We offer targeted solutions to improve electronic prescribing systems by addressing the unrealized potential and residual consequences that we identified. These recommendations may be applied not only to improve staff perceptions of electronic prescribing systems but also to improve the design and/or selection of these systems in order to optimize communication and workflow within pharmacies while minimizing both cost and the potential for the introduction of new errors.

  1. Unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing on pharmacy workflow in the outpatient pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Nanji, Karen C; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Boehne, Jennifer J; Keohane, Carol A; Ash, Joan S; Poon, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Electronic prescribing systems have often been promoted as a tool for reducing medication errors and adverse drug events. Recent evidence has revealed that adoption of electronic prescribing systems can lead to unintended consequences such as the introduction of new errors. The purpose of this study is to identify and characterize the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing on pharmacy workflow in an outpatient pharmacy. Methods A multidisciplinary team conducted direct observations of workflow in an independent pharmacy and semi-structured interviews with pharmacy staff members about their perceptions of the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing systems. We used qualitative methods to iteratively analyze text data using a grounded theory approach, and derive a list of major themes and subthemes related to the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing. Results We identified the following five themes: Communication, workflow disruption, cost, technology, and opportunity for new errors. These contained 26 unique subthemes representing different facets of our observations and the pharmacy staff's perceptions of the unrealized potential and residual consequences of electronic prescribing. Discussion We offer targeted solutions to improve electronic prescribing systems by addressing the unrealized potential and residual consequences that we identified. These recommendations may be applied not only to improve staff perceptions of electronic prescribing systems but also to improve the design and/or selection of these systems in order to optimize communication and workflow within pharmacies while minimizing both cost and the potential for the introduction of new errors. PMID:24154836

  2. Spatial Analysis of Geothermal Resource Potential in New York and Pennsylvania: A Stratified Kriging Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. D.; Whealton, C. A.; Stedinger, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Resource assessments for low-grade geothermal applications employ available well temperature measurements to determine if the resource potential is sufficient for supporting district heating opportunities. This study used a compilation of bottomhole temperature (BHT) data from recent unconventional shale oil and gas wells, along with legacy oil, gas, and storage wells, in Pennsylvania (PA) and New York (NY). Our study's goal was to predict the geothermal resource potential and associated uncertainty for the NY-PA region using kriging interpolation. The dataset was scanned for outliers, and some observations were removed. Because these wells were drilled for reasons other than geothermal resource assessment, their spatial density varied widely. An exploratory spatial statistical analysis revealed differences in the spatial structure of the geothermal gradient data (the kriging semi-variogram and its nugget variance, shape, sill, and the degree of anisotropy). As a result, a stratified kriging procedure was adopted to better capture the statistical structure of the data, to generate an interpolated surface, and to quantify the uncertainty of the computed surface. The area was stratified reflecting different physiographic provinces in NY and PA that have geologic properties likely related to variations in the value of the geothermal gradient. The kriging prediction and the variance-of-prediction were determined for each province by the generation of a semi-variogram using only the wells that were located within that province. A leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) was conducted as a diagnostic tool. The results of stratified kriging were compared to kriging using the whole region to determine the impact of stratification. The two approaches provided similar predictions of the geothermal gradient. However, the variance-of-prediction was different. The stratified approach is recommended because it gave a more appropriate site-specific characterization of uncertainty

  3. Tunable entanglement resource in elastic electron-exchange collisions out of chaotic spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, B.; Blum, K.; Langer, B.

    2016-09-01

    Elastic collisions between initially unpolarized electrons and hydrogenlike atoms are discussed aiming to analyze the entanglement properties of the correlated final spin system. Explicit spin-dependent interactions are neglected and electron exchange only is taken into account. We show the final spin system to be completely characterized by a single spin correlation parameter depending on scattering angle and energy. Its numerical value identifies the final spins of the collision partners to be either in the separable, entangled, or Bell correlated regions. The symmetry of the scattering process allows for the construction of explicit examples applying methods of classical communication and local operations for illustrating the concepts of nonlocality versus separability. It is shown that strong correlations can be produced violating Bell's inequalities significantly. Furthermore, the degree of entanglement can be continuously varied simply by changing either the scattering angle and/or energy. This allows for the generation of tunable spin pairs with any desired degree of entanglement. It is suggested to use such nonlocally entangled spin pairs as a resource for further experiments, for example in quantum information processes.

  4. SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Sheri L.; Feighner, Brian H.; Loschen, Wayne A.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Skora, Joseph F.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Blazes, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations. PMID:21572957

  5. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sheri L; Feighner, Brian H; Loschen, Wayne A; Wojcik, Richard A; Skora, Joseph F; Coberly, Jacqueline S; Blazes, David L

    2011-05-10

    Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  6. High hopes: can molecular electronics realise its potential?

    PubMed

    Coskun, Ali; Spruell, Jason M; Barin, Gokhan; Dichtel, William R; Flood, Amar H; Botros, Youssry Y; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2012-07-21

    Manipulating and controlling the self-organisation of small collections of molecules, as an alternative to investigating individual molecules, has motivated researchers bent on processing and storing information in molecular electronic devices (MEDs). Although numerous ingenious examples of single-molecule devices have provided fundamental insights into their molecular electronic properties, MEDs incorporating hundreds to thousands of molecules trapped between wires in two-dimensional arrays within crossbar architectures offer a glimmer of hope for molecular memory applications. In this critical review, we focus attention on the collective behaviour of switchable mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs)--specifically, bistable rotaxanes and catenanes--which exhibit reset lifetimes between their ON and OFF states ranging from seconds in solution to hours in crossbar devices. When these switchable MIMs are introduced into high viscosity polymer matrices, or self-assembled as monolayers onto metal surfaces, both in the form of nanoparticles and flat electrodes, or organised as tightly packed islands of hundreds and thousands of molecules sandwiched between two electrodes, the thermodynamics which characterise their switching remain approximately constant while the kinetics associated with their reset follow an intuitively predictable trend--that is, fast when they are free in solution and sluggish when they are constrained within closely packed monolayers. The importance of seamless interactions and constant feedback between the makers, the measurers and the modellers in establishing the structure-property relationships in these integrated functioning systems cannot be stressed enough as rationalising the many different factors that impact device performance becomes more and more demanding. The choice of electrodes, as well as the self-organised superstructures of the monolayers of switchable MIMs employed in the molecular switch tunnel junctions (MSTJs) associated

  7. Potential hydrologic effects of developing coal and other geoenergy resources in Oregon: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Sidle, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Geoenergy resources in Oregon, in addition to coal, include noncommercial deposits of oil shale, natural gas, and geothermal heat. Commercial quantities of natural gas were discovered at Mist in northwestern Oregon in 1979. Gas presently is being produced from five wells and additional exploratory drilling is underway. More than 2 million acres of Oregon land is under lease for petroleum and natural gas exploration, mostly in the Astoria embayment-Willamette syncline, central (Oregon) Paleozoic-Mesozoic basin, and eastern Tertiary nonmarine basin. The Cascade Range and eastern Oregon contain sizable resources of geothermal heat, of which a small part has been developed for space heating at Klamath Falls and Lakeview. Thirteen Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's) comprising 432,000 acres have been identified, 422,000 acres are currently leased for geothermal development. KGRA's judged to have potential for generation of electrical power are Newberry Crater, Crump Geyser, and Alvord Desert. No adverse hydrologic effects have been noted to date from coal or other geoenergy exploration or development in Oregon, and no effects are expected if federal and state regulations are adhered to. The southwestern Oregon coals would have to be mined by underground methods. Potential hydrologic impacts would be local increases in sedimentation, turbidity, and mineralization of surface and ground water. Water-quality degradation, including both thermal pollution and increased concentrations of dissolved minerals, could result from geothermal development. Other potential problems include land subsidence and consumptive use of water associated with both coal and geothermal development. 53 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Using Geothermal Play Types as an Analogue for Estimating Potential Resource Size

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, Rachel; Young, Katherine

    2015-09-02

    Blind geothermal systems are becoming increasingly common as more geothermal fields are developed. Geothermal development is known to have high risk in the early stages of a project development because reservoir characteristics are relatively unknown until wells are drilled. Play types (or occurrence models) categorize potential geothermal fields into groups based on geologic characteristics. To aid in lowering exploration risk, these groups' reservoir characteristics can be used as analogues in new site exploration. The play type schemes used in this paper were Moeck and Beardsmore play types (Moeck et al. 2014) and Brophy occurrence models (Brophy et al. 2011). Operating geothermal fields throughout the world were classified based on their associated play type, and then reservoir characteristics data were catalogued. The distributions of these characteristics were plotted in histograms to develop probability density functions for each individual characteristic. The probability density functions can be used as input analogues in Monte Carlo estimations of resource potential for similar play types in early exploration phases. A spreadsheet model was created to estimate resource potential in undeveloped fields. The user can choose to input their own values for each reservoir characteristic or choose to use the probability distribution functions provided from the selected play type. This paper also addresses the United States Geological Survey's 1978 and 2008 assessment of geothermal resources by comparing their estimated values to reported values from post-site development. Information from the collected data was used in the comparison for thirty developed sites in the United States. No significant trends or suggestions for methodologies could be made by the comparison.

  9. Potential environmental impacts of light-emitting diodes (LEDs): metallic resources, toxicity, and hazardous waste classification.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are advertised as environmentally friendly because they are energy efficient and mercury-free. This study aimed to determine if LEDs engender other forms of environmental and human health impacts, and to characterize variation across different LEDs based on color and intensity. The objectives are as follows: (i) to use standardized leachability tests to examine whether LEDs are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing United States federal and California state regulations; and (ii) to use material life cycle impact and hazard assessment methods to evaluate resource depletion and toxicity potentials of LEDs based on their metallic constituents. According to federal standards, LEDs are not hazardous except for low-intensity red LEDs, which leached Pb at levels exceeding regulatory limits (186 mg/L; regulatory limit: 5). However, according to California regulations, excessive levels of copper (up to 3892 mg/kg; limit: 2500), Pb (up to 8103 mg/kg; limit: 1000), nickel (up to 4797 mg/kg; limit: 2000), or silver (up to 721 mg/kg; limit: 500) render all except low-intensity yellow LEDs hazardous. The environmental burden associated with resource depletion potentials derives primarily from gold and silver, whereas the burden from toxicity potentials is associated primarily with arsenic, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and silver. Establishing benchmark levels of these substances can help manufacturers implement design for environment through informed materials substitution, can motivate recyclers and waste management teams to recognize resource value and occupational hazards, and can inform policymakers who establish waste management policies for LEDs.

  10. Effect of electronic versus print format and different reading resources on knowledge acquisition in the third-year medicine clerkship.

    PubMed

    DeZee, Kent J; Durning, Steven; Denton, G Dodd

    2005-01-01

    Many medical students have access to electronic and print resources. It is not known if the format or the choice of resources effects knowledge acquisition over an entire clerkship. To determine if the format (electronic or print) or choice of reading materials is associated with knowledge acquisition during the 3-year internal medicine clerkship. This was a prospective cohort study. During the last week of the clerkship, students took the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) exam and completed a survey ranking the reading materials used. One hundred and fourteen 3rd-year internal medicine clerkship students participated. The most commonly reported resources were UpToDate (99%), a review or question book (93%), and Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (82%). Multivariate analysis showed a significant beneficial effect of any use of Harrison's (linear regression, p < .04, absolute difference 3 points, SD = 1.4) on NBME score. The format of the most important resource-electronic (61%) or print (39%)-did not predict the NBME score, p > .80. The format (electronic or print) of resources did not appear to effect NBME score in the medicine clerkship. A secondary analysis showed the use of Harrison's textbook was associated with improved knowledge acquisition.

  11. An economic analysis of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources in the state of Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Juan S.

    Anaerobic digestion is a process that is a common part of organic waste management systems and is used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The process produces biogas, which contains methane, and it can be burned to generate electricity. Previous reports have indicated that based on the availability of feedstocks there is a large potential for biogas production and use for electricity generation in the state of Indiana. However, these reports varied in their consideration of important factors that affect the technical and economic feasibility of being able to develop the resources available. The goal of this thesis is to make a more targeted assessment of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills in Indiana. A capital budgeting model is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of biogas electricity projects at facilities that are identified as technically suitable. A statewide estimate of the potential generation capacity is made by estimating the number of facilities that could profitably undertake a biogas electricity project. In addition this thesis explored the impact that different incentive policies would have on the economic viability of these projects. The results indicated that the electricity generation potential is much smaller when technical and economic factors are taken into account in addition to feedstock availability. In particular it was found that projects at hog farms are unlikely to be economically feasible in the present even when financial incentives are considered. In total, 47.94 MW of potential generating capacity is estimated from biogas production at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills. Though results indicated that 37.10 MW of capacity are economically feasible under current operating conditions, sensitivity analysis reveals that these projects are very sensitive to capital cost assumptions

  12. Electronic Cigarettes: Their Constituents and Potential Links to Asthma.

    PubMed

    Clapp, Phillip W; Jaspers, Ilona

    2017-10-05

    Vaping is gaining popularity in the USA, particularly among teens and young adults. While e-cigs are commonly represented as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes, little is known regarding the health effects of their short- or long-term use, especially in individuals with pre-existing respiratory diseases such as asthma. Flavored e-cig liquids (e-liquids) and e-cig aerosols contain airway irritants and toxicants that have been implicated in the pathogenesis and worsening of lung diseases. In this review, we will summarize existing data on potential health effects of components present in e-cig aerosols, such as propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin, nicotine, and flavorings, and discuss their relevance in the context of asthma. Recent survey data indicate that adolescents with asthma had a higher prevalence of current e-cig use (12.4%) compared to their non-asthmatics peers (10.2%) and conveyed positive beliefs about tobacco products, especially e-cigs. Similarly, a study conducted among high school students from Ontario, Canada, indicated a greater likelihood of e-cig use in asthmatics as compared to their non-asthmatic peers. Availability of different flavorings is often cited as the main reason among youth/adolescents for trying e-cigs or switching from cigarettes to e-cigs. Occupational inhalation of some common food-safe flavoring agents is reported to cause occupational asthma and worsen asthmatic symptoms. Moreover, workplace inhalation exposures to the flavoring agent diacetyl have caused irreversible obstructive airway disease in healthy workers. Additionally, recent studies report that thermal decomposition of propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG), the base constituents of e-liquids, produces reactive carbonyls, including acrolein, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde, which have known respiratory toxicities. Furthermore, recent nicotine studies in rodents reveal that prenatal nicotine exposures lead to epigenetic reprogramming in the offspring

  13. Study on the potential for delay tolerant networks by health workers in low resource settings.

    PubMed

    Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Lee, Peisan; Jian, Wen-Shan; Liou, Der-Ming; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2012-09-01

    Medical Informatics Systems (MIS) have been suggested as having great potential to improve health care delivery in low resource settings. One of the major barriers for adopting MIS in this context is a lack of adequate network/communication infrastructure. Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) is an approach for establishing network connectivity in situations where it is possible to support physical transport of the digital information. To date most DTN research has been technically oriented, and very few services have been implemented to support healthcare systems using the technology. It is thus unclear about the potential that DTN may have for supporting MIS systems in low resource settings. The goals of the paper are twofold, first, to gain an initial estimate of interest in different services that can be supported by DTN. Second, to find out the necessary frequency associated with each service for supporting health work in low resource settings. Fifty questionnaires were distributed to attendants at the International Conference on Global Health that had acknowledged having health work experience in a poor connectivity context. The respondents were using a 5-point Likert scale regarding if 9 different potential DTN services "would be useful". They also were asked how often data delivery would be necessary for these services to be useful. The Chi square was calculated to measure acceptance. 37 responses were received, aggregating the response rate of 74%. The respondents represented having work experience from 8 months to 15 years from 35 resource poor countries. The Chi square test showed very high statistical significance for "strongly agree and agree" for the potential usefulness of the proposed DTN services, with a p-value less than 0.001. The frequency of data delivery that would be necessary for services to be useful varied considerably. This study provides evidence of potential for DTN to support useful services that support health work in low resource settings

  14. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-04-26

    The principal research effort for the first half of Year 3 of the project has been resource assessment. Emphasis has been on estimating the total volume of hydrocarbons generated and the potential amount of this resource that is classified as deep (>15,000 ft) gas in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Manila Subbasin and the Conecuh Subbasin. The amount of this resource that has been expelled, migrated and entrapped is also the focus of the first half of Year 3 of this study.

  15. Topological insulators/superconductors: Potential future electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hor, Y. S.

    2014-03-05

    A new material called topological insulator has been discovered and becomes one of the fastest growing field in condensed matter physics. Topological insulator is a new quantum phase of matter which has Dirac-like conductivity on its surface, but bulk insulator through its interior. It is considered a challenging problem for the surface transport measurements because of dominant internal conductance due to imperfections of the existing crystals of topological insulators. By a proper method, the internal bulk conduction can be suppressed in a topological insulator, and permit the detection of the surface currents which is necessary for future fault-tolerant quantum computing applications. Doped topological insulators have depicted a large variety of bulk physical properties ranging from magnetic to superconducting behaviors. By chemical doping, a TI can change into a bulk superconductor. Nb{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is shown to be a superconductor with T{sub c} ∼ 3.2 K, which could be a potential candidate for a topological superconductor.

  16. Future petroleum resource potential of northern Rocky Mountain-Great Plains area

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A. )

    1989-09-01

    The northern Rocky Mountain-Great Plains area includes nine main petroleum exploration provinces: (1) Wyoming-Utah-Idaho thrust belt; (2) southwestern Wyoming basins, (3) Big Horn basin, (4) Wind River basin, (5) Powder River basin, (6) western Montana province, (7) Sweetgrass arch province, (8) central Montana province, and (9) Williston basin-Sioux uplift province. More than 2,500 oil and gas fields have been discovered in these provinces, with cumulative production up to 1986 of approximately 8 billion bbl of oil and more than 15 tcf of gas. Twenty-five giants fields (> 100 million bbl of oil), many of which were discovered early in the century, account for more than half of the cumulative production. Oil and gas production is from carbonate and sandstone reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian to Tertiary. Organic-rich petroleum source rocks are present in the Ordovician, Devonian, Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, Permian, Cretaceous, and Tertiary stratigraphic sections. US Geological Survey mean estimates of undiscovered conventional recoverable petroleum resources in the region are approximately 4.4 billion bbl of oil and 29 tcf of gas. Significant resources of unconventional gas in low-permeability reservoirs and as coal-bed methane also are present in the region. The future potential is encouraging, depending on economic factors, but increasingly refined exploration and production technology will be necessary to explore for the remaining resources, a large part of which is expected to be in relatively small accumulations.

  17. Potential impacts of global warming on water resources in southern California.

    PubMed

    Beuhler, M

    2003-01-01

    Global warming will have a significant impact on water resources within the 20 to 90-year planning period of many water projects. Arid and semi-arid regions such as Southern California are especially vulnerable to anticipated negative impacts of global warming on water resources. Long-range water facility planning must consider global climate change in the recommended mix of new facilities needed to meet future water requirements. The generally accepted impacts of global warming include temperature, rising sea levels, more frequent and severe floods and droughts, and a shift from snowfall to rain. Precipitation changes are more difficult to predict. For Southern California, these impacts will be especially severe on surface water supplies. Additionally, rising sea levels will exacerbate salt-water intrusion into freshwater and impact the quality of surface water supplies. Integrated water resources planning is emerging as a tool to develop water supplies and demand management strategies that are less vulnerable to the impacts of global warming. These tools include water conservation, conjunctive use of surface and groundwater and desalination of brackish water and possibly seawater. Additionally, planning for future water needs should include explicit consideration of the potential range of global warming impacts through techniques such as scenario planning.

  18. Shorebird migration in the face of climate change: potential shifts in migration phenology and resource availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stutzman, Ryan J.; Fontaine, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Changes in temperature and seasonality resulting from climate change are heterogeneous, potentially altering important sources of natural selection acting on species phenology. Some species have apparently adapted to climate change but the ability of most species to adapt remains unknown. The life history strategies of migratory animals are dictated by seasonal factors, which makes these species particularly vulnerable to heterogeneous changes in climate and phenology. Here, we examine the phenology of migratory shorebirds, their habitats, and primary food resources, and we hypothesize how climate change may affect migrants through predicted changes in phenology. Daily abundance of shorebirds at stopover sites was correlated with local phenology and peaked immediately prior to peaks in invertebrate food resources. A close relationship between migrant and invertebrate phenology indicates that shorebirds may be vulnerable to changes in seasonality driven by climate change. It is possible that shifts in migrant and invertebrate phenology will be congruent in magnitude and direction, but because migration phenology is dependent on a suite of ecological factors, any response is likely to occur at a larger temporal scale and may lag behind the response of invertebrate food resources. The resulting lack of sufficient access to food at stopover habitats may cause migrants to extend migration and have cascading effects throughout their life cycle. If the heterogeneous nature of climate change results in uneven changes in phenology between migrants and their prey, it may threaten the long-term viability of migratory populations

  19. Redox potential of the terminal quinone electron acceptor QB in photosystem II reveals the mechanism of electron transfer regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yuki; Nagao, Ryo; Noguchi, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) extracts electrons from water at a Mn4CaO5 cluster using light energy and then transfers them to two plastoquinones, the primary quinone electron acceptor QA and the secondary quinone electron acceptor QB. This forward electron transfer is an essential process in light energy conversion. Meanwhile, backward electron transfer is also significant in photoprotection of PSII proteins. Modulation of the redox potential (Em) gap of QA and QB mainly regulates the forward and backward electron transfers in PSII. However, the full scheme of electron transfer regulation remains unresolved due to the unknown Em value of QB. Here, for the first time (to our knowledge), the Em value of QB reduction was measured directly using spectroelectrochemistry in combination with light-induced Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy. The Em(QB−/QB) was determined to be approximately +90 mV and was virtually unaffected by depletion of the Mn4CaO5 cluster. This insensitivity of Em(QB−/QB), in combination with the known large upshift of Em(QA−/QA), explains the mechanism of PSII photoprotection with an impaired Mn4CaO5 cluster, in which a large decrease in the Em gap between QA and QB promotes rapid charge recombination via QA−. PMID:26715751

  20. Redox potential of the terminal quinone electron acceptor QB in photosystem II reveals the mechanism of electron transfer regulation.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuki; Nagao, Ryo; Noguchi, Takumi

    2016-01-19

    Photosystem II (PSII) extracts electrons from water at a Mn4CaO5 cluster using light energy and then transfers them to two plastoquinones, the primary quinone electron acceptor QA and the secondary quinone electron acceptor QB. This forward electron transfer is an essential process in light energy conversion. Meanwhile, backward electron transfer is also significant in photoprotection of PSII proteins. Modulation of the redox potential (Em) gap of QA and QB mainly regulates the forward and backward electron transfers in PSII. However, the full scheme of electron transfer regulation remains unresolved due to the unknown Em value of QB. Here, for the first time (to our knowledge), the Em value of QB reduction was measured directly using spectroelectrochemistry in combination with light-induced Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy. The Em(QB (-)/QB) was determined to be approximately +90 mV and was virtually unaffected by depletion of the Mn4CaO5 cluster. This insensitivity of Em(QB (-)/QB), in combination with the known large upshift of Em(QA (-)/QA), explains the mechanism of PSII photoprotection with an impaired Mn4CaO5 cluster, in which a large decrease in the Em gap between QA and QB promotes rapid charge recombination via QA (-).

  1. Chapter 9: Oil and gas resource potential north of the Arctic Circle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, D.L.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Grantz, A.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Moore, T.E.; Pitman, J.K.; Schenk, C.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Sorensen, K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Valin, Z.C.; Wandrey, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The US Geological Survey recently assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional petroleumin the Arctic. Using a new map compilation of sedimentary elements, the area north of the Arctic Circle was subdivided into 70 assessment units, 48 of which were quantitatively assessed. The Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) was a geologically based, probabilistic study that relied mainly on burial history analysis and analogue modelling to estimate sizes and numbers of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations. The results of the CARA suggest the Arctic is gas-prone with an estimated 770-2990 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas, most of which is in Russian territory. On an energy-equivalent basis, the quantity of natural gas ismore than three times the quantity of oil and the largest undiscovered gas eld is expected to be about 10 times the size of the largest undiscovered oil eld. In addition to gas, the gas accumulationsmay contain an estimated 39 billion barrels of liquids. The South Kara Sea is themost prospective gas assessment unit, but giant gas elds containingmore than 6 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas are possible at a 50%chance in 10 assessment units. Sixty per cent of the estimated undiscovered oil resource is in just six assessment units, of which the Alaska Platform, with 31%of the resource, is the most prospective. Overall, the Arctic is estimated to contain between 44 and 157 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Billion barrel oil elds are possible at a 50%chance in seven assessment units.Undiscovered oil resources could be signicant to the Arctic nations, but are probably not sufcient to shift the world oil balance away from the Middle East. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  2. SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-10

    health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is a collection of modular...concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility...the scope of reportable conditions and are intended to help prevent and respond to global public health threats. SAGES, an electronic biosurveillance

  3. Wilderness mineral potential: Assessment of mineral-resource potential in U.S. Forest Service lands studied in 1964-1984: Volume 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, S.P.; Kropschot, S.J.; Dickinson, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    This introduction contains some basic concepts about mineral resources and mineral-resource potential to try to make the book more useful to those who are not familiar with the fields of earth science and mineral-resource assessments. The legislation dealing with the wilderness program is reviewed briefly, because this evolving legislation has imparted a continuing and changing influence on the mineral-resource surveys. The introduction concludes with a description of the publications of the Geological Survey that report in greater detail the results of the joint wilderness studies by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines.

  4. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Elizabeth T; Mardekian, Jack; Emir, Birol; Clair, Andrew; Kuhn, Max; Silverman, Stuart L

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM) is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies. Methods This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR) database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296) were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for FM (729.1) ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665) did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs). Results Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001) and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318). Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001), especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition). Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0.0001), confirming resource utilization as an important variable associated with an FM diagnosis. Conclusion Significant differences between the FM and no-FM cohorts were observed for nearly all the demographic

  5. Oil sands fine tailings - a resource material for potentially marketable products

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, A.; Sparks, B.D.; Coleman, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Oil sands fine tailings is a complex mixture of components each having specific physical or chemical characteristics. Studies on the fundamental properties of fine tailings have resulted in the development of methods to fractionate the tailings into products with market potential. These include: bitumen, for production of synthetic crude oil or as an ancillary fuel; clean kaolin for fine paper coating; a gelling agent for drilling mud formulation; emulsifying solids, for surfactant replacement; and a mineral fraction, for heavy metal recovery. In this investigation we have attempted to evaluate the economic potential of fine tailings as a resource material by determining the amount and value of these products; the prime objective was to determine the economic feasibility of a tailings treatment scheme.

  6. Petroleum resource potential of sedimentary basins on the Pacific Margin of Canada. Open File Number 3629

    SciTech Connect

    Hannigan, P.K.

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an overview of the petroleum geology of Canada`s west coast basins and to present quantitative estimates of the oil and gas resources contained in those basins. Based on geographic and tectonic considerations, the basins and sub-basins were grouped into three general assessment regions: Queen Charlotte, Georgia, and Tofino. The oil and gas potential is calculated using a subjective assessment technique termed conceptual play analysis, which assumes that the individual sizes of pools in a properly defined play form a natural geological population and that the distribution of pool sizes within that population is log-normal. The pool size distribution is then combined with an additional distribution describing the number of prospects and the marginal probabilities of risk factors to calculate an estimate of both play potential and individual undiscovered pool sizes.

  7. Potential Anti-HPV and Related Cancer Agents from Marine Resources: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Guan, Hua-Shi; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the studies on the prevention and treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) which is closely related to the cervical cancer and other genital diseases are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and other bioactive compounds have been shown to possess a variety of anti-HPV and related cancer activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the potential anti-HPV and related cancer agents from marine resources. In particular, it will provide an update on the anti-HPV actions of heparinoid polysaccharides and bioactive compounds present in marine organisms, as well as the therapeutic vaccines relating to marine organisms. In addition, the possible mechanisms of anti-HPV actions of marine bioactive compounds and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail. PMID:24705500

  8. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    PubMed

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  9. The EPA's Study on the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burden, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Natural gas plays a key role in our nation's clean energy future. The United States has vast reserves of natural gas that are commercially viable as a result of advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies, which enable greater access to gas in rock formations deep underground. These advances have spurred a significant increase in the production of both natural gas and oil across the country. However, as the use of hydraulic fracturing has increased, so have concerns about its potential human health and environmental impacts, especially for drinking water. In response to public concern, the US Congress requested that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conduct scientific research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. In 2011, the EPA began research to assess the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources, if any, and to identify the driving factors that may affect the severity and frequency of such impacts. The study is organized around the five stages of the hydraulic fracturing water cycle, from water acquisition through the mixing of chemicals and the injection of fracturing fluid to post-fracturing treatment and/or disposal of wastewater. EPA scientists are using a transdisciplinary research approach involving laboratory studies, computer modeling, toxicity assessments, and case studies to answer research questions associated with each stage of the water cycle. This talk will provide an overview of the EPA's study, including a description of the hydraulic fracturing water cycle and a summary of the ongoing research projects.

  10. Unlocking the resource potential of organic waste: a South African perspective.

    PubMed

    Greben, Harma A; Oelofse, Suzan H H

    2009-10-01

    In many countries, especially on the Asian continent, waste is considered a valuable renewable energy resource. At present 40% of waste generated in South Africa comprises organic material which, when digested supplies biogas. The biogas produced can either be used as it is, or it can be delivered as electricity using gas turbines. The electricity generated can be added to the national grid. In light of the increased demand for energy in South Africa, alternative sources of energy are required. When taking the examples of the Asian countries, where anaerobic digestion of waste is applied in rural areas to produce energy for cooking and lighting, it can be hypothesized that this technology could be transferred especially to the rural areas of South Africa. Small-scale anaerobic digestion is presently being implemented by a private company in Ivory Park, South Africa, illustrating that anaerobic digestion in South Africa may be a means of unlocking the energy potential of organic waste. This paper evaluates the requirements for an enabling governance environment to unlock the full potential of organic waste as renewable energy resource.

  11. Potential water resource impacts of hydraulic fracturing from unconventional oil production in the Bakken shale.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Namita; Chilkoor, Govinda; Wilder, Joseph; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Stone, James J

    2017-01-01

    Modern drilling techniques, notably horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have enabled unconventional oil production (UOP) from the previously inaccessible Bakken Shale Formation located throughout Montana, North Dakota (ND) and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The majority of UOP from the Bakken shale occurs in ND, strengthening its oil industry and businesses, job market, and its gross domestic product. However, similar to UOP from other low-permeability shales, UOP from the Bakken shale can result in environmental and human health effects. For example, UOP from the ND Bakken shale generates a voluminous amount of saline wastewater including produced and flowback water that are characterized by unusual levels of total dissolved solids (350 g/L) and elevated levels of toxic and radioactive substances. Currently, 95% of the saline wastewater is piped or trucked onsite prior to disposal into Class II injection wells. Oil and gas wastewater (OGW) spills that occur during transport to injection sites can potentially result in drinking water resource contamination. This study presents a critical review of potential water resource impacts due to deterministic (freshwater withdrawals and produced water management) and probabilistic events (spills due to leaking pipelines and truck accidents) related to UOP from the Bakken shale in ND.

  12. Global wild annual Lens collection: a potential resource for lentil genetic base broadening and yield enhancement.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mohar; Bisht, Ishwari Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Dutta, Manoranjan; Bansal, Kailash Chander; Karale, Moreshwar; Sarker, Ashutosh; Amri, Ahmad; Kumar, Shiv; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWRs) are invaluable gene sources for various traits of interest, yet these potential resources are themselves increasingly threatened by the impact of climate change as well as other anthropogenic and socio-economic factors. The prime goal of our research was to cover all aspects of wild Lens genetic resource management like species characterization, agro-morphological evaluation, diversity assessment, and development of representative sets for its enhanced utilization in lentil base broadening and yield improvement initiatives. We characterized and evaluated extensively, the global wild annual Lens taxa, originating from twenty seven counties under two agro-climatic conditions of India consecutively for three cropping seasons. Results on various qualitative and quantitative characters including two foliar diseases showed wide variations for almost all yield attributing traits including multiple disease resistance in the wild species, L. nigricans and L. ervoides accessions. The core set developed from the entire Lens taxa had maximum representation from Turkey and Syria, indicating rich diversity in accessions originating from these regions. Diversity analysis also indicated wide geographical variations across genepool as was reflected in the core set. Potential use of core set, as an initial starting material, for genetic base broadening of cultivated lentil was also suggested.

  13. Global Wild Annual Lens Collection: A Potential Resource for Lentil Genetic Base Broadening and Yield Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mohar; Bisht, Ishwari Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Dutta, Manoranjan; Bansal, Kailash Chander; Karale, Moreshwar; Sarker, Ashutosh; Amri, Ahmad; Kumar, Shiv; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWRs) are invaluable gene sources for various traits of interest, yet these potential resources are themselves increasingly threatened by the impact of climate change as well as other anthropogenic and socio-economic factors. The prime goal of our research was to cover all aspects of wild Lens genetic resource management like species characterization, agro-morphological evaluation, diversity assessment, and development of representative sets for its enhanced utilization in lentil base broadening and yield improvement initiatives. We characterized and evaluated extensively, the global wild annual Lens taxa, originating from twenty seven counties under two agro-climatic conditions of India consecutively for three cropping seasons. Results on various qualitative and quantitative characters including two foliar diseases showed wide variations for almost all yield attributing traits including multiple disease resistance in the wild species, L. nigricans and L. ervoides accessions. The core set developed from the entire Lens taxa had maximum representation from Turkey and Syria, indicating rich diversity in accessions originating from these regions. Diversity analysis also indicated wide geographical variations across genepool as was reflected in the core set. Potential use of core set, as an initial starting material, for genetic base broadening of cultivated lentil was also suggested. PMID:25254552

  14. Peltier Effect and Electron Temperature Distribution in Quantum Hall Systems with Potential Discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Takahiro; Akera, Hiroshi; Suzuura, Hidekatsu

    2005-06-01

    Spatial variations of the electron temperature are calculated in the linear-response regime in a quantum Hall system with a potential discontinuity in the current direction. It is shown that the sign of the induced deviation of the electron temperature from the lattice temperature exhibits quantum oscillations.

  15. Mineral resource potential map of the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness, Idaho County, Idaho, and Missoula and Ravalli counties, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toth, Margo I.; Coxe, Berton W.; Zilka, Nicholas T.; Hamilton, Michael M.

    1983-01-01

    Mineral resource studies by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S, Geological Survey indicate that five areas within the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness have mineral resource potential. Regional studies suggest that three granitic plutons within the wildemess, the Running Creek pluton on the southwestern border of the wildemess, the Painted Rocks pluton on the southern border of the wildemess, and the Whistling Pig pluton in the west-central portion of the wildemess, have low potential for molybdenite deposits, but detailed surface investigations failed to recognize a deposit. Placer deposits in the Elk Summit area on the north side of the wildemess contain subeconomic resources of niobium- (columbium-) bearing ilmenite. A vein on the northeast side of the wildemess at t~e Cliff mine at Saint Joseph Peak contains subeconomic silver-copper-lead resources. The wilderness has no known potential for oil and gas, coal, geothermal resources, or other energy-related commodities.

  16. Interpreting electron transmission spectroscopy and negative ion mass spectrometry data using a spherical potential well model

    SciTech Connect

    Asfandiarov, N. L. Nafikova, E. P.; Pshenichnyuk, S. A.

    2007-03-15

    Experimental data obtained using electron transmission spectroscopy and negative ion mass spectrometry based on resonance electron capture are interpreted within the framework of a spherical potential well model in application to a series of chloro-and bromoalkane molecules. Allowance for the scattering of a single partial p-wave of the incoming electron makes possible (i) reproduction of the ratio of a resonance peak width to the electron energy observed in the electron transmission spectra and (ii) establishment of a relation between the total cross section of electron scattering on a molecule and the dissociative electron attachment cross section. The proposed model offers a radical simplification of the approach developed previously based on the Fashbach-Fano resonance theory.

  17. Maintaining the Uranium Resource Assessment Data System and assessing the 1992 US uranium potential resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, W.I.; Grundy, W.D.; Pierson, C.T.; Kork, J.O.

    1993-12-31

    For 1992, estimates of US undiscovered uranium resources were generated using revised economic index values (current to December 1992) in the Uranium Resources Assessment Data (URAD) System`s cost model. The endowments associated with the Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) and Speculative Resources (SR) values for all regions are unchanged from the 1991 values. Although higher 1992 indexes resulted in increased costs, the mean values for the $30-, $50-, and $ 100-per pound U308 forward-cost EAR category resources for 1992 show no significant changes when compared to the values in 1991. The mean values for the $30-, $50-, and $100-per pound U{sub 3}O{sub 8} forward-cost SR forward-cost category show decreases of 4, 3, and 1 percent, in the three categories respectively. Under the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy, and the US Geological Survey (USGS), US Department of the Interior, the USGS develops estimates of uranium endowment for selected geological environments in the United States. New estimates of endowment are used to update the URAD System that is maintained for the EIA by the USGS. Endowment estimates were added for the solution-collapse breccia pipe uranium deposits in the Grand Canyon region in 1989 and for young surficial uranium deposits in the Flodelle Creek area in Washington in 1991. Estimates of uranium endowment for roll-front uranium deposits in northwestern Nebraska and adjacent states are nearly completed and will be added in 1994. Assessment of undiscovered uranium endowment in new areas by the USGS will be discontinued in FY 1995 due to phasing out of the uranium resources program in FY 1994. Improvements to the URAD System included automating the procedures necessary to generate the assessment reports. Data retrieval from the URAD System can now be performed using dBase IV version 1.5 data base management system.

  18. Electron localization function in full-potential representation for crystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Ormeci, A; Rosner, H; Wagner, F R; Kohout, M; Grin, Yu

    2006-01-26

    The electron localization function (ELF) is implemented in the first-principles, all-electron, full-potential local orbital method. This full-potential implementation increases the accuracy with which the ELF can be computed for crystalline materials. Some representative results obtained are presented and compared with the results of other methods. Although for crystal structures with directed bonding only minor differences are found, in simple elemental metals, there are differences in the valence region, which give rise to different ELF topologies.

  19. Interference in tunneling ionization involving an electron bound by two short-range potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovinski, P. A.; Drobyshev, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    The phenomenon of tunneling ionization involving electron bound by two delta-potentials under the action of a constant electric field has been studied. Distributions of the electron-current density for two different initial states are found. Dependence of the emission current on the orientation of potentials relative to the field direction and the distance between their centers is established. Conditions of manifestation of the interference effects are determined.

  20. Spacecraft charging potential during electron-beam injections into space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chin S.; Koga, James

    1989-01-01

    Injections of nonrelativistic electron beams from an infinite conductor have been simulated by using a two-dimensional electrostatic particle code to study the spacecraft charging potential. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential at the end of simulations does not vary with the beam density when the beam density exceeds four times the ambient density. The reflection coefficient, which determines a percentage of incident electrons reflected by the conductor, increases the charging potential. To charge the conductor to the beam energy, the reflection coefficient needs to be about 0.5. The results are applied to explain the spacecraft charging potential measured during the Sepac experiments on Spacelab 1.

  1. Final Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources (02-24-2012)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationship, if any, between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. More specifically, the study has been designed to assess the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources and to identif...

  2. Final Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources (02-24-2012)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationship, if any, between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. More specifically, the study has been designed to assess the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources and to identif...

  3. 80 and 100 Meter Wind Energy Resource Potential for the United States (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; Flowers, L.; Brower, M.; Hale, E.; Phelps, B.

    2010-05-01

    Accurate information about the wind potential in each state is required for federal and state policy initiatives that will expand the use of wind energy in the United States. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and AWS Truewind have collaborated to produce the first comprehensive new state-level assessment of wind resource potential since 1993. The estimates are based on high-resolution maps of predicted mean annual wind speeds for the contiguous 48 states developed by AWS Truewind. These maps, at spatial resolution of 200 meters and heights of 60 to 100 meters, were created with a mesoscale-microscale modeling technique and adjusted to reduce errors through a bias-correction procedure involving data from more than 1,000 measurement masts. NREL used the capacity factor maps to estimate the wind energy potential capacity in megawatts for each state by capacity factor ranges. The purpose of this presentation is to (1) inform state and federal policy makers, regulators, developers, and other stakeholders on the availability of the new wind potential information that may influence development, (2) inform the audience of how the new information was derived, and (3) educate the audience on how the information should be interpreted in developing state and federal policy initiatives.

  4. Mineral resource potential map of the Natural Area Roadless Area, Baker County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James B.; Patterson, Sam H.; Crandall, Thomas M.

    1983-01-01

    The Natural Area Roadless Area, which is in the Osceola National Forest in Baker County, Fla., is underlain by sedimentary rocks containing phosphate deposits that are not a potential mineral resource by todays standards. The region has a low potential for oil and gas and virtually no potential for other valuable minerals. The phosphate deposits are either slightly low in tonnage and P2O5 content, high in MgO and/or Fe2O3 + Al2O3, or the ratio of CaO to P2O5 is too high for deposits that can be mined profitably at the present time. A low potential for oil and gas is indicated by the numerous dry holes in the region and the absence of the formations that contain these hydrocarbons in southern and westernmost Florida. The only mineral material that has been produced in the study area is clayey sand, used in stabilizing Forest Service roads. This type of clayey sand has no particular value because there are virtually unlimited quantities in the surrounding region. The peaty material in the area is too high in ash content to be mined. Large quantities of limestone underlie the area but are too deeply buried to be quarried. Heavy-mineral and clay deposits, which are mined elsewhere in northern peninsular Florida, are not present in the study area.

  5. Future electron accelerators and free electron lasers: Potentials in clinical medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Börje; Stepanek, Jiri

    1997-10-01

    Studies of the biological and technical prerequisites for the clinical use of monoenergetic X-rays, and their specific absorption in heavy elements are conducted, with a view towards plans for stereotactic photon activation radiosurgery. The primary aim is the controlled eradication of target structures in the brain for the treatment of functional brain disorders or small brain tumours, with monochromatic synchrotron X-rays. The specific cell-killing action is based on DNA-breakage caused by short-range Auger and Coster-Kronig electrons produced by heavy atoms upon K-shell absorption of their characteristic X-rays. To this end, iodine or heavy metals would have to be deposited, in or close to nuclear DNA in target cells by means of suitable molecular vehicles. Practically useful concepts for clinically useful monoenergetic X-ray facilities and beam-lines are being developed. In this paper attention is focussed on the possible use of laser Compton backscattering for the production of clinically useful monochromatic X-ray beams suitable for irradiation of very small targets in the brain through the intact skull. Particularly relevant, in the present context are prospects for introducing free electron laser technology to improve the calculated parameters of X-ray beams designed for stereotactic photon activation radiosurgery with monochromatic photons in the energy interval 30-100 keV. Constructive initiatives would be welcome!

  6. Integrated Potential-field Studies in Support of Energy Resource Assessment in Frontier Areas of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. D.; Saltus, R. W.; Potter, C. J.; Stanley, R. G.; Till, A. B.

    2008-05-01

    In frontier areas of Alaska, potential-field studies play an important role in characterizing the geologic structure of sedimentary basins having potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources. Two such areas are the Yukon Flats basin in the east-central interior of Alaska, and the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in northeastern Alaska. The Yukon Flats basin is a potential source of hydrocarbon resources for local consumption and possible export. Knowledge of the subsurface configuration of the basin is restricted to a few seismic reflection profiles covering a limited area and one well. The seismic profiles were reprocessed and reinterpreted in preparation for an assessment of the oil and gas resources of the basin. The assessment effort required knowledge of the basin configuration away from the seismic profiles, as well as an understanding of the nature of the underlying basement. To extend the interpretation of the basin thickness across the entire area of the basin, an iterative Jachens-Moring gravity inversion was performed on gridded quasi-isostatic residual gravity anomaly data. The inversion was constrained to agree with the interpreted basement surface along the seismic profiles. In addition to the main sedimentary depocenter interpreted from the seismic data as having over 8 km of fill, the gravity inversion indicated a depocenter with over 7 km of fill in the Crooked Creek sub-basin. Results for the Crooked Creek sub-basin are consistent with magnetic and magnetotelluric modeling, but they await confirmation by drilling or seismic profiling. Whether hydrocarbon source rocks are present in the pre-Cenozoic basement beneath Yukon Flats is difficult to determine because extensive surficial deposits obscure the bedrock geology, and no deep boreholes penetrate basement. The color and texture patterns in a red-green-blue composite image consisting of reduced-to-the-pole aeromagnetic data (red), magnetic potential (blue), and

  7. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    PubMed Central

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01). When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  8. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  9. True Serials: A True Solution for Electronic Resource Management Needs in a Medium-Size Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milczarski, Vivian; Garofalo, Denise A.

    2011-01-01

    A desire for more functionality seemed to clash with the fiscal reality of limited funds, but after investigating alternatives, Mount Saint Mary College was able to provide its faculty and students with a more useful and function-rich electronic resource management through a move to a hosted open source service. (Contains 8 figures.)

  10. True Serials: A True Solution for Electronic Resource Management Needs in a Medium-Size Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milczarski, Vivian; Garofalo, Denise A.

    2011-01-01

    A desire for more functionality seemed to clash with the fiscal reality of limited funds, but after investigating alternatives, Mount Saint Mary College was able to provide its faculty and students with a more useful and function-rich electronic resource management through a move to a hosted open source service. (Contains 8 figures.)

  11. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  12. Exchange repulsive potential adaptable for electronic structure changes during chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Yokogawa, D.

    2015-04-28

    Hybrid methods combining quantum mechanical (QM) and classical calculations are becoming important tools in chemistry. The popular approach to calculate the interaction between QM and classical calculations employs interatomic potentials. In most cases, the interatomic potential is constructed of an electrostatic (ES) potential and a non-ES potential. Because QM treatment is employed in the calculation of the ES potential, the electronic change can be considered in this ES potential. However, QM treatment of the non-ES potential is difficult because of high computational cost. To overcome this difficulty of evaluating the non-ES potential, we proposed an exchange repulsive potential as the main part of the non-ES potential on the basis of a QM approach. This potential is independent of empirical parameters and adaptable for electronic structure. We combined this potential with the reference interaction site model self-consistent field explicitly including spatial electron density distribution and successfully applied it to the chemical reactions in aqueous phase.

  13. Assessment of potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Wandrey, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 11 million barrels of potential shale-oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan.

  14. Assessment of potential unconventional lacustrine shale-oil and shale-gas resources, Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed potential technically recoverable mean resources of 53 million barrels of shale oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Phitsanulok Basin, onshore Thailand.

  15. Stochastic heating of electrons by intense laser radiation in the presence of electrostatic potential well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei

    2014-10-01

    Previous model used for the study of synergistic effects of electrostatic potential well and laser radiation where electric field in electrostatic potential was slowing down electrons moving in the direction of the laser field propagation, is extended for the opposite case, where electric field of the well is accelerating electrons moving in the direction of the laser field propagation. It was found that in both cases the rate of stochastic heating of energetic electrons remains virtually the same. This work was supported by the USDOE Grant DE-NA0001858 at UCSD and Grant 14.Y26.31.008 of the MES of the Russian Federation at MEPhI.

  16. Atomic resolution electrostatic potential mapping of graphene sheets by off-axis electron holography

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, David; Pan, Cheng-Ta; Haigh, Sarah

    2014-06-21

    Off-axis electron holography has been performed at atomic resolution with the microscope operated at 80 kV to provide electrostatic potential maps from single, double, and triple layer graphene. These electron holograms have been reconstructed in order to obtain information about atomically resolved and mean inner potentials. We propose that off-axis electron holography can now be used to measure the electrical properties in a range of two-dimensional semiconductor materials and three dimensional devices comprising stacked layers of films to provide important information about their electrical properties.

  17. Scattering of spin-polarized electron in an Aharonov-Bohm potential

    SciTech Connect

    Khalilov, V.R.; Ho, C.-L.

    2008-05-15

    The scattering of spin-polarized electrons in an Aharonov-Bohm vector potential is considered. We solve the Pauli equation in 3 + 1 dimensions taking into account explicitly the interaction between the three-dimensional spin magnetic moment of electron and magnetic field. Expressions for the scattering amplitude and the cross section are obtained for spin-polarized electron scattered off a flux tube of small radius. It is also shown that bound electron states cannot occur in this quantum system. The scattering problem for the model of a flux tube of zero radius in the Born approximation is briefly discussed.

  18. Thorium Energy Resources and its Potential of Georgian Republic, The Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogoladze, Salome; Okrostsvaridze, Avtandil

    2017-04-01

    Energy resources, currently consumed by modern civilization, are represented by hydrocarbons - 78-80 %, however these reserves are exhausting. In light of these challenges, search of new energy resources is vital importance problem for the modern civilization. Based on the analysis of existing energy reserves and potential, as the main energy resources for the future of our civilization, the renewable and nuclear energy should be considered. However, thorium has a number of advantages compared to Uranium (Kazimi, 2003; et al.): It is concentrated in the earth crust 4-5 times more than uranium; extraction and enrichment of thorium is much cheaper than uranium's; It is less radioactive; complete destruction of its waste products is possible; thorium yields much more energy than uranium. Because of unique properties and currently existed difficult energetic situation thorium is considered as the main green energy resource in the 3rd millennium of the human civilization (Martin, 2009). Georgia republic, which is situated in the central part of Caucasus, poor of hydrocarbons, but has a thorium resource important potential. In general the Caucasus represents a collisional orogen, that formed along the Eurasian North continental margin and extends over 1200 km from Caspian to Black Sea. Three major units are distinguished in its construction: the Greater and Lesser Caucasian mobile belts and the Transcaucasus microplate. Currently it represents the Tethyan segment connecting the Mediterranean and Iran-Himalayan orogenic belts, between the Gondvana-derived Arabian plate and East European platform. Now in Georgian Republic are marked thorium four ore occurrences (Okrostsvaridze, 2014): 1- in the Sothern slope of the Greater Caucasus, in the quartz -plagioclases veins (Th concentrations vary between 51g/t - 3882 g/t); 2- in the Transcaucasus Dzirula massif hydrothermally altered rocks of the Precambrian quartz-diorite gneisses (Th concentrations vary between 117 g/t -266 g

  19. Potential Lunar In-Situ Resource Utilization Experiments and Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2010-01-01

    The extraction and use of resources on the Moon, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can potentially reduce the cost and risk of human lunar exploration while also increasing science achieved. By not having to bring all of the shielding and mission consumables from Earth and being able to make products on the Moon, missions may require less mass to accomplish the same objectives, carry more science equipment, go to more sites of exploration, and/or provide options to recover from failures not possible with delivery of spares and consumables from Earth alone. The concept of lunar ISRU has been considered and studied for decades, and scientists and engineers were theorizing and even testing concepts for how to extract oxygen from lunar soil even before the Apollo 11 mission to the Moon. There are four main areas where ISRU can significantly impact how human missions to the Moon will be performed: mission consumable production, civil engineering and construction, energy production, storage, and transfer, and manufacturing and repair. The area that has the greatest impact on mission mass, hardware design and selection, and mission architecture is mission consumable production, in particular, the ability to make propellants, life support consumables, and fuel cell reagents. Mission consumable production allows for refueling and reuse of spacecraft, increasing power production and storage, and increased capabilities and failure tolerance for crew life support. The other three areas allow for decreased mission risk due to radiation and plume damage, alternative power systems, and failure recover capabilities while also enabling infrastructure growth over Earth delivered assets. However, while lunar ISRU has significant potential for mass, cost, and risk reduction for human lunar missions, it has never been demonstrated before in space. To demonstrate that ISRU can meet mission needs and to increase confidence in incorporating ISRU capabilities into mission

  20. Ion potential in warm dense matter: wake effects due to streaming degenerate electrons.

    PubMed

    Moldabekov, Zhandos; Ludwig, Patrick; Bonitz, Michael; Ramazanov, Tlekkabul

    2015-02-01

    The effective dynamically screened potential of a classical ion in a stationary flowing quantum plasma at finite temperature is investigated. This is a key quantity for thermodynamics and transport of dense plasmas in the warm-dense-matter regime. This potential has been studied before within hydrodynamic approaches or based on the zero temperature Lindhard dielectric function. Here we extend the kinetic analysis by including the effects of finite temperature and of collisions based on the Mermin dielectric function. The resulting ion potential exhibits an oscillatory structure with attractive minima (wakes) and, thus, strongly deviates from the static Yukawa potential of equilibrium plasmas. This potential is analyzed in detail for high-density plasmas with values of the Brueckner parameter in the range 0.1≤r(s)≤1 for a broad range of plasma temperature and electron streaming velocity. It is shown that wake effects become weaker with increasing temperature of the electrons. Finally, we obtain the minimal electron streaming velocity for which attraction between ions occurs. This velocity turns out to be less than the electron Fermi velocity. Our results allow for reliable predictions of the strength of wake effects in nonequilibrium quantum plasmas with fast streaming electrons showing that these effects are crucial for transport under warm-dense-matter conditions, in particular for laser-matter interaction, electron-ion temperature equilibration, and stopping power.

  1. Avoiding perceived past resource use of potential competitors affects niche dynamics in a bird community

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social information use is usually considered to lead to ecological convergence among involved con- or heterospecific individuals. However, recent results demonstrate that observers can also actively avoid behaving as those individuals being observed, leading to ecological divergence. This phenomenon has been little explored so far, yet it can have significant impact on resource use, realized niches and species co-existence. In particular, the time-scale and the ecological context over which such shifts can occur are unknown. We examined with a long-term (four years) field experiment whether experimentally manipulated, species-specific, nest-site feature preferences (symbols on nest boxes) are transmitted across breeding seasons and affect future nest-site preferences in a guild of three cavity-nesting birds. Results Of the examined species, resident great tits (Parus major) preferred the symbol that had been associated with unoccupied nest boxes in the previous year, i.e., their preference shifted towards niche space previously unused by putative competitors and conspecifics. Conclusions Our results show that animals can remember the earlier resource use of conspecifics and other guild members and adjust own decisions accordingly one year after. Our experiment cannot reveal the ultimate mechanism(s) behind the observed behaviour but avoiding costs of intra- or interspecific competition or ectoparasite load in old nests are plausible reasons. Our findings imply that interspecific social information use can affect resource sharing and realized niches in ecological time-scale through active avoidance of observed decisions and behavior of potentially competing species. PMID:25123229

  2. Electronic Resource Sharing in Community Colleges: A Snapshot of Florida, Wisconsin, Texas, and Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Brian D.

    2000-01-01

    States that several states are establishing networks for resource sharing. Florida offers these resources through the Florida Distance Learning Library Initiative, Wisconsin has BadgerLink and WISCAT, TexShare provides library resource sharing in Texas, and Louisiana has LOUIS and LLN. These are some of the states successfully demonstrating…

  3. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D.; Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  4. Results, potential effects, and implementation issues of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, W C; Braun, P; Kelly, N L; Becker, E R

    1988-10-28

    This article presents the overall results of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) study. We present resource-based relative values for selected services in each of the 18 specialties we studied. We found that preservice and postservice work represents close to 50% of total work for invasive services and 33% of total work for evaluation/management services. We also found that the work per unit time (a measure of intensity) for invasive services is about three times that of evaluation/management. We developed a simple model and simulated an RBRVS-based fee schedule for the Medicare program under a "budget-neutral" assumption. Results for 30 commonly performed services show that office visit fees for evaluation/management services could rise by 70%, while some surgical fees could drop by 60%. We also simulated what the Medicare outlays would have been in 1986 for categories of medical services under an RBRVS-based fee schedule. We found that total Medicare payments for evaluation/management services would have increased by about 56%. Invasive, imaging, and laboratory services would have decreased by 42%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. We also discuss implementation issues related to an RBRVS-based fee schedule, such as the determination of a monetary conversion factor, practice costs, billing codes, and the need to evaluate the potential impacts of an RBRVS-based payment system on the cost and quality of health care.

  5. Dilemma of the equality: an all-pay contest with individual differences in resource holding potential

    PubMed

    Kura

    1999-06-07

    An all-pay contest in which many players compete for an indivisible resource and each player continuously maintains a different resource holding potential (RHP) is analysed. There exists the unique pure ESS function, which is common sense; that is, a higher RHP induces a higher level of investment, and, as a consequence, a player with a greater RHP always wins. As the variance in distribution of RHP converges to zero, the ESS becomes equal to the symmetric mixed Nash-equilibrium reported by Rose, which does not satisfy the condition of ESS. This suggests that some unstable symmetric Nash equilibria change to ESS functions in some games when we extend the games by assuming one more random continuous parameter of the player's condition. Moreover, the smaller the individual differences in RHP, the more intense the competition becomes, and the smaller becomes the expected payoff for almost all individuals as well as the average payoff of the population. This negative correlation between equality in RHP and the payoff in the population was first found by Kura & Kura in a war-of-attrition game and named the "dilemma of equality". Its biological implications are also discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. Utilization of industrial dairy waste as microalgae cultivation medium : a potential study for sustainable energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurmayani, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Putra, R. H.

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae is one of biodiesel resources and call as third generation biofuel. Biodiesel is one alternative energy that being developed. So study about resource of biodiesel need a development, for the example is development the basic material such as microalgae. In this paper we explain the potential use of dairy waste from industry as a cultivation medium of microalgae for biodiesel production. Dairy waste from dairy industry contains 34.98% protein, 4.42% lactose, 9.77% fiber, 11.04% fat, 2.33% calcium, 1.05% phosfor, and 0.4 % magnesium, meaning that the dairy waste from dairy industry has a relatively high nutrient content and complete from a source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as macro nutrients. The method in this paper is literature review to resulting a new conclusion about the potency of waste water from dairy industry as microalgae cultivation medium. Based on the study, the dairy waste from dairy industry has potency to be used as cultivation medium of Botryococcus braunii in the production of biodiesel, replacing the conventional cultivation medium.

  7. The untapped potential of the GENSAT mice-A valuable resource for developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Condie, Brian G

    2016-05-01

    Gene Expression Nervous System Atlas (GENSAT) transgenic mice express EGFP, tdTomato, or Cre recombinase in a wide range of cell types. The mice and the bacterial artificial chromosome transgenes are available from repositories (MMRRC or CHORI), thereby making these resources readily available to the research community. This resource of 1,386 transgenic lines was developed and validated for neuroscience research. However, GENSAT mice have many potential applications in other contexts including studies of development outside of the CNS. The cell type-specific expression of fluorescent proteins in these mice has been used to identify cells in living embryos, in living embryo explants, and in stem or progenitor cell populations in postnatal tissues. The large number of fluorescent protein driver lines generated by GENSAT greatly expands the range of cell type markers that can be used for live cell sorting. In addition, the GENSAT project has generated 278 new Cre driver lines. This review provides an overview of the GENSAT lines and information for identifying lines that may be useful for a particular application. I also provide a review of the few published cases in which GENSAT mice have been used for studies of embryonic development or analysis of stem/progenitor cells in nonneural tissues. genesis 54:245-256, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mineral resource potential map of the Savannah Roadless Area, Liberty County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Sam H.; Schmidt, Walter; Crandall, Thomas M.

    1982-01-01

    The Savannah Roadless Area is underlain by sedimentary rocks having low potential for oil and gas and minerals. The low potential for oil or gas notwithstanding, the possibilities for discovery cannot be ruled out because the area and nearby lands have not been thoroughly explored. No minerals have been mined within the Savannah Roadless Area, and the only production nearby has been the digging of clayey sand used in stabilizing U.S. Forest Service roads. Fuller's earth, quartz sand and gravel, clayey sand, and common clay presently are produced elsewhere in the region, and limestone and peat have been produced in the past. No clay suitable for structural clay products or fuller's earth is present in the roadless area; however, a bed of quartz sand and gravel of excellent quality was penetrated at a depth interval of 37-50 ft by one drill hole. Although this bed is coarser grained-and therefore is more suitable for many uses-than the sand deposits worked elsewhere in the Big Bend region, its mineral resource potential is reduced by the thickness of overburden above it and by its distance from markets in population centers. The Apalachicola National Forest has been explored for phosphate and reconnoitered for heavy minerals, but no valuable deposits of either have been found.

  9. Harnessing Potential Evaporation as a Renewable Energy Resource With Water-Saving Benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavusoglu, A. H.; Chen, X.; Gentine, P.; Sahin, O.

    2015-12-01

    Water's large latent heat of vaporization makes evaporation a critical component of the energy balance at the Earth's surface. An immense amount of energy drives the hydrological cycle and is an important component of various weather and climate patterns. However, the potential of harnessing evaporation has received little attention as a renewable energy resource compared to wind and solar energy. Here, we investigate the potential of harvesting energy from naturally evaporating water. Using weather data across the contiguous United States and a modified model of potential evaporation, we estimate the power availability, intermittency, and the changes in evaporation rates imposed by energy conversion. Our results indicate that natural evaporation can deliver power densities similar to existing renewable energy platforms and require little to no energy storage to match the varying power demands of urban areas. This model also predicts additional, and substantial, water savings by reducing evaporative losses. These findings suggest that evaporative energy harvesting can address significant challenges with water/energy interactions that could be of interest to the hydrology community.

  10. Proceedings of a workshop on Lunar Volcanic Glasses: Scientific and Resource Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, John W. (Editor); Heiken, Grant H. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This workshop on lunar mare volcanism was the first since 1975 to deal with the major scientific advances that have occurred in this general subject, and the first ever to deal specifically with volcanic glasses. Lunar volcanic glasses are increasingly being recognized as the best geochemical and petrologic probes into the lunar mantle. Lunar volcanic glasses, of which 25 compositional varieties are presently known, appear to represent primary magmas that were produced by partial melting of differentiated mantle source regions at depths of perhaps 400 to 500 km. These high-magnesian picritic magmas were erupted onto the lunar surface in fire fountains associated with the release of indigenous lunar volatiles. The cosmic significance of this volatile component, in an otherwise depleted Moon, remains a lingering puzzle. The resource potential, if any, of the surface-correlated volatile sublimates on the volcanic glass spherules had not been systematically addressed prior to this workshop.

  11. Estimation of potential biomass resource and biogas production from aquatic plants in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimons, R.E.; Laurino, C.N.; Vallejos, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The Argentine government's Agua y Energia Electrica is planning to construct a hydroelectric power-generation facility on the middle Parana River, which is already heavily infested with aquatic weeds such as water hyacinth. These species will probably proliferate in the lakes that will be formed by the power project and perhaps seriously interfere with the facility. As a solution to this problem, Argentine biochemists propose mechanical harvesting and anaerobic fermentation of the aquatic plants to produce biogas and fertilizer. According to an evaluation of this potential resource, gross methane production could reach 37-153 billion CF (1.0-4.1 billion m/sup 3/)/yr, and the digested residue could provide 60,500-244,000 tons (54,900-221,400 metric tons)/yr of nitrogen, which represents 2-8 times Argentina's current nitrogen fertilizer demand.

  12. Estimation of potential biomass resource and biogas production from aquatic plants in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, R. E.; Laurino, C. N.; Vallejos, R. H.

    1982-08-01

    The use of aquatic plants in artificial lakes as a biomass source for biogas and fertilizer production through anaerobic fermentation is evaluated, and the magnitude of this resource and the potential production of biogas and fertilizer are estimated. The specific case considered is the artificial lake that will be created by the construction of Parana Medio Hydroelectric Project on the middle Parana River in Argentina. The growth of the main aquatic plant, water hyacinth, on the middle Parana River has been measured, and its conversion to methane by anaerobic fermentation is determined. It is estimated that gross methane production may be between 1.0-4.1 x 10 to the 9th cu cm/year. The fermentation residue can be used as a soil conditioner, and it is estimated production of the residue may represent between 54,900-221,400 tons of nitrogen/year, a value which is 2-8 times the present nitrogen fertilizer demand in Argentina.

  13. The ANTOSTRAT legacy: Science collaboration and international transparency in potential marine mineral resource exploitation of Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Alan; Barker, Peter; Barrett, Peter; Behrendt, John; Brancolini, Giuliano; Childs, Jonathan R.; Escutia, Carlota; Jokat, Wilfried; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Leitchenkov, German; Stagg, Howard; Tanahashi, Manabu; Wardell, Nigel; Webb, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Antarctic Offshore Stratigraphy project (ANTOSTRAT; 1989–2002) was an extremely successful collaboration in international marine geological science that also lifted the perceived “veil of secrecy” from studies of potential exploitation of Antarctic marine mineral resources. The project laid the groundwork for circum-Antarctic seismic, drilling, and rock coring programs designed to decipher Antarctica’s tectonic, stratigraphic, and climate histories. In 2002, ANTOSTRAT evolved into the equally successful and currently active Antarctic Climate Evolution research program. The need for, and evolution of, ANTOSTRAT was based on two simple tenets within SCAR and the Antarctic Treaty: international science collaboration and open access to data. The ANTOSTRAT project may be a helpful analog for other regions of strong international science and geopolitical interests, such as the Arctic. This is the ANTOSTRAT story.

  14. Potential supply of floral resources to managed honey bees in natural mistbelt forests.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Sylvanus; Veldtman, Ruan; Seifert, Thomas

    2017-03-15

    Honey bees play a vital role in the pollination of flowers in many agricultural systems, while providing honey through well managed beekeeping activities. Managed honey bees rely on the provision of pollen and nectar for their survival and productivity. Using data from field plot inventories in natural mistbelt forests, we (1) assessed the diversity and relative importance of honey bee plants, (2) explored the temporal availability of honey bee forage (nectar and pollen resources), and (3) elucidated how plant diversity (bee plant richness and overall plant richness) influenced the amount of forage available (production). A forage value index was defined on the basis of species-specific nectar and pollen values, and expected flowering period. Up to 50% of the overall woody plant richness were found to be honey bee plant species, with varying flowering period. As expected, bee plant richness increased with overall plant richness. Interestingly, bee plants' flowering period was spread widely over a year, although the highest potential of forage supply was observed during the last quarter. We also found that only few honey bee plant species contributed 90 percent of the available forage. Surprisingly, overall plant richness did not significantly influence the bee forage value. Rather, bee plant species richness showed significant and greater effect. The results of this study suggest that mistbelt forests can contribute to increase the spatial and temporal availability of diverse floral resources for managed honey bees. Conservation efforts must be specifically oriented towards honey bee plant species in mistbelt forests to preserve and enhance their potential to help maintain honey bee colonies. The implications for forest management, beekeeping activities and pollination-based agriculture were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mapping the electrostatic potential of Au nanoparticles using hybrid electron holography.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy-Keskinbora, Cigdem; Boothroyd, Chris B; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; van Aken, Peter A; Koch, Christoph T

    2016-06-01

    Electron holography is a powerful technique for characterizing electrostatic potentials, charge distributions, electric and magnetic fields, strain distributions and semiconductor dopant distributions with sub-nm spatial resolution. Mapping internal electrostatic and magnetic fields within nanoparticles and other low-dimensional materials by TEM requires both high spatial resolution and high phase sensitivity. Carrying out such an analysis fully quantitatively is even more challenging, since artefacts such as dynamical electron scattering may strongly affect the measurement. In-line electron holography, one of the variants of electron holography, features high phase sensitivity at high spatial frequencies, but suffers from inefficient phase recovery at low spatial frequencies. Off-axis electron holography, in contrast, can recover low spatial frequency phase information much more reliably, but is less effective in retrieving phase information at high spatial frequencies when compared to in-line holography. We investigate gold nanoparticles using hybrid electron holography at both atomic-resolution and intermediate magnification. Hybrid electron holography is a novel technique that synergistically combines off-axis and in-line electron holography, allowing the measurement of the complex wave function describing the scattered electrons with excellent signal-to-noise properties at both high and low spatial frequencies. The effect of dynamical electron scattering is minimized by beam tilt averaging.

  16. Effect of Track Potentials on the Movement of Secondary Electrons due to Irradiation of Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moribayashi, Kengo

    2017-02-01

    This paper quantitatively discusses the effect of positive nuclear track potentials on the motion of secondary electrons due to heavy-ion irradiation using a simulation model. This model reproduces the tendency of measurement of the number of secondary electrons. Using this model, physical phenomena can be treated closer to reality than those using the conventional models. Here, the track potential is defined as the potential formed from the electric field near the track of a heavy ion. This effect is expected to be given as functions of not only the mean paths (τ) between incident ion impact ionization events but also the average initial secondary electron energies. The results shown in this paper indicate that the effect of the track potential is mainly determined by τ.

  17. RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF THE IN-PLACE AND POTENTIALLY RECOVERABLE DEEP NATURAL GAS RESOURCE OF THE ONSHORE INTERIOR SALT BASINS, NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-04-16

    The University of Alabama and Louisiana State University have undertaken a cooperative 3-year, advanced subsurface methodology resource assessment project, involving petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling, to facilitate exploration for a potential major source of natural gas that is deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas. The project is designed to assist in the formulation of advanced exploration strategies for funding and maximizing the recovery from deep natural gas domestic resources at reduced costs and risks and with minimum impact. The results of the project should serve to enhance exploration efforts by domestic companies in their search for new petroleum resources, especially those deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) natural gas resources, and should support the domestic industry's endeavor to provide an increase in reliable and affordable supplies of fossil fuels. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification. The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The project objectives will be achieved through a 3-year effort. First, emphasis is on petroleum system identification and characterization in the North

  18. Mineral resource potential map of the Bighorn Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-217), San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Obi, Curtis M.; Powell, Robert E.; Hinkle, Margaret E.; Griscom, Andrew; Sabine, Charles; Cwick, Gary J.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geochemical, and geophysical evidence, together with a review of historical mining and prospecting activities, suggests that most of the Bighorn Mountains Wilderness Study Area has low potential for the discovery of all types of mineral and energy resources-including precious and base metals, building stone and aggregate, fossil fuels, radioactive-mineral resources, and geothermal resources. Low-grade mineralization has been documented in one small area near Rattlesnake Canyon, and this area has low to moderate potential for future small-scale exploration and development of precious and base metals. Thorium and uranium enrichment have been documented in two small areas in the eastern part of the wilderness study area; these two areas have low to moderate potential for future small-scale exploration and development of radioactive-mineral resources.

  19. Novel open-source electronic medical records system for palliative care in low-resource settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The need for palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa is staggering: this region shoulders over 67% of the global burden of HIV/AIDS and cancer. However, provisions for these essential services remain limited and poorly integrated with national health systems in most nations. Moreover, the evidence base for palliative care in the region remains scarce. This study chronicles the development and evaluation of DataPall, an open-source electronic medical records system that can be used to track patients, manage data, and generate reports for palliative care providers in these settings. DataPall was developed using design criteria encompassing both functional and technical objectives articulated by hospital leaders and palliative care staff at a leading palliative care center in Malawi. The database can be used with computers that run Windows XP SP 2 or newer, and does not require an internet connection for use. Subsequent to its development and implementation in two hospitals, DataPall was tested among both trained and untrained hospital staff populations on the basis of its usability with comparison to existing paper records systems as well as on the speed at which users could perform basic database functions. Additionally, all participants evaluated this program on a standard system usability scale. Results In a study of health professionals in a Malawian hospital, DataPall enabled palliative care providers to find patients’ appointments, on average, in less than half the time required to locate the same record in current paper records. Moreover, participants generated customizable reports documenting patient records and comprehensive reports on providers’ activities with little training necessary. Participants affirmed this ease of use on the system usability scale. Conclusions DataPall is a simple, effective electronic medical records system that can assist in developing an evidence base of clinical data for palliative care in low resource settings. The

  20. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of the Central African Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Ngbokoto, Francois A.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflict concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in the Central African Republic (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in the Central African Republic and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, two different methodologies were used: the volume and grade approach and the content per kilometer approach. Estimates are that approximately 39,000,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remain in the eastern and western zones of the CAR combined. This amount is roughly twice the total amount of diamonds reportedly exported from the Central African Republic since 1931. Production capacity is

  1. Systematically Assessing the Situational Relevance of Electronic Knowledge Resources: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland M.; Mysore, Naveen; Knaapen, Loes; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique; Dawes, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Electronic Knowledge Resources (EKRs) are increasingly used by physicians, but their situational relevance has not been systematically examined. Objective Systematically scrutinize the situational relevance of EKR-derived information items in and outside clinical settings. Background Physicians use EKRs to accomplish four cognitive objectives (C1-4), and three organizational objectives (O1-3): (C1) Answer questions/solve problems/support decision-making in a clinical context; (C2) fulfill educational-research objectives; (C3) search for personal interest or curiosity; (C4) overcome limits of human memory; (O1) share information with patients, families, or caregivers; (O2) exchange information with other health professionals; (O3) plan-manage-monitor tasks with other health professionals. Methods Longitudinal mixed methods multiple case study: Cases were 17 residents’ critical searches for information, using a commercial EKR, during a 2-month block of family practice. Usage data were automatically recorded. Each “opened” item of information was linked to an impact assessment questionnaire, and 1,981 evaluations of items were documented. Interviews with residents were guided by log files, which tracked use and impact of EKR-derived information items. Thematic analysis identified 156 critical searches linked to 877 information items. For each case, qualitative data were assigned to one of the seven proposed objectives. Results Residents achieved their search objectives in 85.9% of cases (situational relevance). Additional sources of information were sought in 52.6% of cases. Results support the seven proposed objectives, levels of comparative relevance (less, equally, more), and levels of stimulation of learning and knowledge (individual, organizational). Conclusion Our method of systematic assessment may contribute to user-based evaluation of EKRs. PMID:17600105

  2. Real-time surrogate analysis for potential oil and gas contamination of drinking water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Hee; Carlson, Kenneth H.

    2015-09-01

    Public concerns related to the fast-growing shale oil and gas industry have increased during recent years. The major concern regarding shale gas production is the potential of fracturing fluids being injected into the well or produced fluids flowing out of the well to contaminate drinking water resources such as surface water and groundwater. Fracturing fluids contain high total dissolved solids (TDS); thus, changes in TDS concentrations in groundwater might indicate influences of fracturing fluids. An increase of methane concentrations in groundwater could also potentially be due to hydraulic fracturing activities. To understand the possible contamination of groundwater by fracturing activities, real-time groundwater monitoring is being implemented in the Denver-Julesburg basin of northeast Colorado. A strategy of monitoring of surrogate parameters was chosen instead of measuring potential contaminants directly, an approach that is not cost effective or operationally practical. Contaminant surrogates of TDS and dissolved methane were proposed in this study, and were tested for correlation and data distribution with laboratory experiments. Correlations between TDS and electrical conductivity (EC), and between methane contamination and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) were strong at low concentrations of contaminants (1 mg/L TDS and 0.3 mg/L CH4). Dissolved oxygen (DO) was only an effective surrogate at higher methane concentrations (≥2.5 mg/L). The results indicated that EC and ORP are effective surrogates for detecting concentration changes of TDS and methane, respectively, and that a strategy of monitoring for easy to measure parameters can be effective detecting real-time, anomalous behavior relative to a predetermined baseline.

  3. Potential formation in front of an electron emitting electrode immersed in a plasma that contains a monoenergetic electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gyergyek, T.; Kovacic, J.; Cercek, M.

    2010-08-15

    A one-dimensional fluid model of the sheath formation in front of a large, planar electron emitting electrode (collector) immersed in a plasma that contains a monoenergetic electron beam is presented. Expressions for the Bohm criterion, the total electric current to the collector, and for the zero electric field at the collector are derived. When there is no electron emission, the model predicts, in some cases, up to three different solutions. The low and the high solutions correspond to the fact that the presheath potential drop can be determined either by thermal or by the beam electrons. The middle solution between them has no physical meaning. When the electron emission is space charge limited, the model may have up to five solutions because the low solution can sometimes split into three parts. The current-voltage characteristic of the collector that exhibits triple floating potential is calculated and it shows qualitative similarity with experimental ones [C.-H. Nam et al., J. Appl. Phys. 63, 5674 (1988)]. When the emission is below the space charge limit, the model again exhibits up to five solutions, which are the low, middle, high, and two additional 'singularity solutions'. These two appear because of the singularity in the Bohm criterion. Regions of validity of the low and high solutions are determined from numerical solutions of the Poisson equation [T. Gyergyek et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 18, 035001 (2009)] and with the maximum positive ion flux test [J. I. Fernandez Palop et al., J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2587 (2002)]. In the case of no or small emission, both methods give the same results. If the emission is space charge limited, the numerical solution method is much more reliable.

  4. Two-Electron System in the Field of Generalized Screened Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, Arijit; Ho, Y. K.

    Ground states of a two-electron system in generalized screened potential (GSP) with screening parameter λ: $$ V(r)=\\frac{1}{r}e^{-\\lambda r}\\cos(\\epsilon \\lambda r)\\,\\, {\\rm (in\\, a.u.)}, $$ where ɛ is a constant, have been investigated. Employing highly correlated and extensive wave functions in Ritz's variational principle, we have been able to determine accurate ground state energies and wave functions of a two-electron system for different values of the screening parameter λ and the constant ɛ. Convergence of the ground state energies with the increase of the number of terms in the wave function are shown. We also report various geometrical expectation values associated with the system, ground state energies of the corresponding one-electron system and the ionization potentials of the system. Such a calculation for the ground state of a two-electron system in GSP is carried out for first time in the literature.

  5. Data from human salivary proteome – A resource of potential biomarkers for oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sivadasan, Priya; Kumar Gupta, Manoj; Sathe, Gajanan J.; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Palit, Priyanka; Gowda, Harsha; Suresh, Amritha; Abraham Kuriakose, Moni; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Salivary proteins are an important source for developing marker-based assays for oral cancers. To get an insight into the proteins present in human saliva, we applied multiple strategies involving affinity-based depletion of abundant proteins, fractionation of the resulting proteins or their tryptic peptides followed by LC–MS/MS analysis, using high resolution mass spectrometry. By integrating the protein identifications observed by us with those from similar workflows employed in earlier investigations, we compiled an updated salivary proteome. We have mapped the salivary proteome to the published data on differentially expressed proteins from oral cancer tissues and also for their secretory features using prediction tools, SignalP 4.1, TMHMM 2c and Exocarta. Proteotypic peptides for the subset of proteins implicated in oral cancer and mapped to any two of the prediction tools for secretory potential have been listed. The data here are related to the research article “Human saliva proteome – a resource of potential biomarkers for oral cancer” in the Journal of Proteomics [1]. PMID:26217819

  6. Environmental application for GIS: Assessing Iskandar Malaysia's (IM) sewage sludge for potential biomass resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, M. R.; Shaharuddin, N.; Abdullah Halim, K.

    2014-02-01

    The low carbon scenario could be achieved through the identification of major sectors contributing to the emission of high greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere. Sewage treatment plant (STP) was ranked as one of the major sectors that emits methane gas (CH4) during treatment processes, including sludge treatment. Sludge treatment is also capital extensive with high operational cost. Thus, sewage sludge has been accepted as a nuisance in STP. However, many has claimed that, sludge produced contain organic matter that has the potential for biomass resource. Thus, it would be such a Žwaste? if sludge are directly disposed of into the landfill without utilizing them at its full potential. In order to do so, it is vital to be able to determine the amount of sludge production. This research was implemented in Iskandar Malaysia regions in the state of Johor. By using GIS tool, the regions that produced the most sewage sludge can be determined, and can be group as critical area. Result shows that Nusajaya produces the most, compared to other regions, which indicated Nusajaya as a densely populated region.

  7. Potential of resource recovery in UASB/trickling filter systems treating domestic sewage in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bressani-Ribeiro, T; Brandt, E M F; Gutierrez, K G; Díaz, C A; Garcia, G B; Chernicharo, C A L

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to present perspectives for energy (thermal and electric) and nutrient (N and S) recovery in domestic sewage treatment systems comprised of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors followed by sponge-bed trickling filters (SBTF) in developing countries. The resource recovery potential was characterized, taking into account 114 countries and a corresponding population of 968.9 million inhabitants living in the tropical world, which were grouped into three desired ranges in terms of cities' size. For each of these clusters, a technological arrangement flow-sheet was proposed, depending on their technical and economic viability from our best experience. Considering the population living in cities over 100, 000 inhabitants, the potential of energy and nutrient recovery via the sewage treatment scheme would be sufficient to generate electricity for approximately 3.2 million residents, as well as thermal energy for drying purposes that could result in a 24% volume reduction of sludge to be transported and disposed of in landfills. The results show that UASB/SBTF systems can play a very important role in the sanitation and environmental sector towards more sustainable sewage treatment plants.

  8. Effective Knowledge Development in Secondary Schools Educational Level in Contemporary Information Age: Assessment of Availability of Electronic Information Resources in Nigerian School Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, Stephen Adeyemi; Ojo, Funmilayo Roseline; Ocheje, Charles Bala

    2015-01-01

    Relevant electronic information resources in contemporary information age are necessity to buttress teaching and learning for effective knowledge development in educational institutions. The purpose of the study is to know the state of availability of electronic information resources in government owned secondary school libraries in Ijumu Local…

  9. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide

    2016-04-01

    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  10. Impact of an Evidence-Based Medicine Curriculum on Resident Use of Electronic Resources: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Laura R.; Murphy, David J.; O’Rourke, Kerry; Sharma, Ranita; Shea, Judy A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is widely taught in residency, but evidence for effectiveness of EBM teaching on changing residents’ behavior is limited. Objective To investigate the impact of an EBM curriculum on residents’ use of evidence-based resources in a simulated clinical experience. Design/Participants Fifty medicine residents randomized to an EBM teaching or control group. Measurements A validated test of EBM knowledge (Fresno test) was administered before and after intervention. Post intervention, residents twice completed a Web-based, multiple-choice instrument (15 items) comprised of clinical vignettes, first without then with access to electronic resources. Use of electronic resources was tracked using ProxyPlus software. Within group pre–post differences and between group post-test differences were examined. Results There was more improvement in EBM knowledge (100-point scale) for the intervention group compared to the control group (mean score increase 22 vs. 12,  = 0.012). In the simulated clinical experience, the most commonly accessed resources were Ovid (71% of residents accessed) and InfoPOEMs (62%) for the EBM group and UptoDate (67%) and MDConsult (58%) for the control group. Residents in the EBM group were more likely to use evidence-based resources than the control group. Performance on clinical vignettes was similar between the groups both at baseline ( = 0.19) and with access to information resources ( = 0.89). Conclusions EBM teaching improved EBM knowledge and increased use of evidence-based resources by residents, but did not improve performance on Web-based clinical vignettes. Future studies will need to examine impact of EBM teaching on clinical outcomes. PMID:18769979

  11. Potential implications for expansion of freeze-tolerant eucalyptus plantations on water resources in the southern United States

    Treesearch

    James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell

    2014-01-01

    The potential expansion of freeze-tolerant (FT) Eucalyptus plantations in the United States has raised concerns about the implications for water resources. Modeling was used to examine the potential effects of expanding the distribution of FT Eucalyptus plantations in US Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zones 8b and...

  12. Regularizing the molecular potential in electronic structure calculations. II. Many-body methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, Florian A.

    2014-11-14

    In Paper I of this series [F. A. Bischoff, “Regularizing the molecular potential in electronic structure calculations. I. SCF methods,” J. Chem. Phys. 141, 184105 (2014)] a regularized molecular Hamilton operator for electronic structure calculations was derived and its properties in SCF calculations were studied. The regularization was achieved using a correlation factor that models the electron-nuclear cusp. In the present study we extend the regularization to correlated methods, in particular the exact solution of the two-electron problem, as well as second-order many body perturbation theory. The nuclear and electronic correlation factors lead to computations with a smaller memory footprint because the singularities are removed from the working equations, which allows coarser grid resolution while maintaining the precision. Numerical examples are given.

  13. Finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in thin semiconductor specimens for electron holography.

    PubMed

    Somodi, P K; Twitchett-Harrison, A C; Midgley, P A; Kardynał, B E; Barnes, C H W; Dunin-Borkowski, R E

    2013-11-01

    Two-dimensional finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in parallel-sided semiconductor specimens that contain p-n junctions are used to assess the effect of the electrical state of the surface of a thin specimen on projected potentials measured using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. For a specimen that is constrained to have an equipotential surface, the simulations show that the step in the projected potential across a p-n junction is always lower than would be predicted from the properties of the bulk device, but is relatively insensitive to the value of the surface state energy, especially for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. The depletion width measured from the projected potential, however, has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness. The results of the simulations are of broader interest for understanding the influence of surfaces and interfaces on electrostatic potentials in nanoscale semiconductor devices.

  14. 3D mapping of nanoscale electric potentials in semiconductor structures using electron-holographic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Daniel; Lubk, Axel; Prete, Paola; Lovergine, Nico; Lichte, Hannes

    2016-09-01

    Off-axis electron holography (EH) is a powerful method for mapping projected electric potentials, such as built-in potentials in semiconductor devices, in two dimensions (2D) at nanometer resolution. However, not well-defined thickness profiles, surface effects, and composition changes of the sample under investigation complicate the interpretation of the projected potentials. Here, we demonstrate how these problems can be overcome by combining EH with tomographic techniques, that is, electron holographic tomography (EHT), reconstructing electric potentials in 3D. We present EHT reconstructions of an n-type MOSFET including its dopant-related built-in potentials inside the device, as well as of a GaAs/AlGaAs core-multishell nanowire containing a 5 nm thick quantum well tube.

  15. Tuning of Hemes b Equilibrium Redox Potential Is Not Required for Cross-Membrane Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Pintscher, Sebastian; Kuleta, Patryk; Cieluch, Ewelina; Borek, Arkadiusz; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2016-03-25

    In biological energy conversion, cross-membrane electron transfer often involves an assembly of two hemesb The hemes display a large difference in redox midpoint potentials (ΔEm_b), which in several proteins is assumed to facilitate cross-membrane electron transfer and overcome a barrier of membrane potential. Here we challenge this assumption reporting on hemebligand mutants of cytochromebc1in which, for the first time in transmembrane cytochrome, one natural histidine has been replaced by lysine without loss of the native low spin type of heme iron. With these mutants we show that ΔEm_b can be markedly increased, and the redox potential of one of the hemes can stay above the level of quinone pool, or ΔEm_b can be markedly decreased to the point that two hemes are almost isopotential, yet the enzyme retains catalytically competent electron transfer between quinone binding sites and remains functionalin vivo This reveals that cytochromebc1can accommodate large changes in ΔEm_b without hampering catalysis, as long as these changes do not impose overly endergonic steps on downhill electron transfer from substrate to product. We propose that hemesbin this cytochrome and in other membranous cytochromesbact as electronic connectors for the catalytic sites with no fine tuning in ΔEm_b required for efficient cross-membrane electron transfer. We link this concept with a natural flexibility in occurrence of several thermodynamic configurations of the direction of electron flow and the direction of the gradient of potential in relation to the vector of the electric membrane potential. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Dynamical Green's function and an exact optical potential for electron-molecule scattering including nuclear dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Joachim; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    1999-10-01

    We derive a rigorous optical potential for electron-molecule scattering including the effects of nuclear dynamics by extending the common many-body Green's function approach to optical potentials beyond the fixed-nuclei limit for molecular targets. Our formalism treats the projectile electron and the nuclear motion of the target molecule on the same footing whereby the dynamical optical potential rigorously accounts for the complex many-body nature of the scattering target. One central result of the present work is that the common fixed-nuclei optical potential is a valid adiabatic approximation to the dynamical optical potential even when projectile and nuclear motion are (nonadiabatically) coupled as long as the scattering energy is well below the electronic excitation thresholds of the target. For extremely low projectile velocities, however, when the cross sections are most sensitive to the scattering potential, we expect the influences of the nuclear dynamics on the optical potential to become relevant. For these cases, a systematic way to improve the adiabatic approximation to the dynamical optical potential is presented that yields nonlocal operators with respect to the nuclear coordinates.

  17. Decoding Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer with Potential-pKa Diagrams.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Brian D; Dempsey, Jillian L

    2017-02-06

    Aqueous potential-pH diagrams, commonly called Pourbaix diagrams, were originally developed to study metal corrosion in the 1930s and 1940s. Pourbaix diagrams have since been widely adopted for use across chemistry disciplines, particularly for the study of aqueous proton-coupled electron transfer reactions. Despite this enormous versatility, a clear extension of analogous diagrams to nonaqueous solvents is lacking. The problem hinges on the difficulty of defining the nonaqueous solution pH. Here, we address this issue by reporting the development of diagrams based on nonaqueous pKa scales. We experimentally construct diagrams for two transition-metal complexes that undergo proton-coupled electron transfer reactivity by recording their reduction potentials in the presence of acids with varying pKa values. These experimental diagrams validate the potential-pKa theory and provide valuable thermochemical information for proton-coupled electron transfer reactions, including for fleetingly stable species.

  18. Exact Potential Driving the Electron Dynamics in Enhanced Ionization of H(2)(+).

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Elham; Abedi, Ali; Maitra, Neepa T

    2015-12-31

    It was recently shown that the exact factorization of the electron-nuclear wave function allows the construction of a Schrödinger equation for the electronic system, in which the potential contains exactly the effect of coupling to the nuclear degrees of freedom and any external fields. Here we study the exact potential acting on the electron in charge-resonance enhanced ionization in a model one-dimensional H(2)(+) molecule. We show there can be significant differences between the exact potential and that used in the traditional quasistatic analyses, arising from nonadiabatic coupling to the nuclear system, and that these are crucial to include for accurate simulations of time-resolved ionization dynamics and predictions of the ionization yield.

  19. The potential of active, in-situ, relativistic electron injection experiments for geospace research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolls, M. J.; Marshall, R. A.; Sanchez, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    Active, space-based particle injection experiments have enabled scientific investigations of space plasmas since at least the 1950s. However, these controlled experiments were mainly based on comparatively low energy electron beams (<40 keV) and higher energy experiments have not been undertaken, presumably due in major part to technological unfeasibility. It is now possible to generate relativistic electron beams (500 keV to ~10 MeV) with compact linear accelerators efficiently (~20% wall to beam efficiency is achievable) and with small devices (significant advances in high gradient acceleration have been achieved). We outline the scientific need and technological feasibility of controlled, relativistic, space-based electron beams. Potential scientific investigations include: (a) Atmospheric interactions, involving investigations of ionization and recombination processes, optical and x-ray emissions, modification of the atmosphere potential structure, and discharges; (b) Beam-plasma interactions, which include the interaction of injected relativistic electron beams with whistler waves and the potential generation of VLF signatures via cyclotron and Landau resonances; and (c) Magnetic mapping, including using electron beams as tracers of magnetic field geometry during variable geomagnetic conditions and the wave-particle interactions triggered by the propagation of relativistic electron beams along magnetic field lines.

  20. Use of emission electron microscope for potential mapping in semiconductor microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Nepijko, S A; Sedov, N N; Schönhense, G; Escher, M

    2002-05-01

    An emission electron microscope was used for visualization and measurement of the distribution of electric fields and potentials on the surface under study. The contrast of microfields is caused by the fact that slow-moving electrons emitted from the object surface are deflected by these fields. The measurements were performed on a p-n junction to which a voltage was applied. It is shown that the type of contrast from the p-n junction can be reversed depending on the position of the contrast aperture restricting the electron beam. The same result was obtained by means of a computer simulation.

  1. Assessment of (mu)grid distributed energy resource potential using DER-CAM and GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris; Bartholomew, Emily; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; LaCommare, Kristina S.H.

    2002-01-01

    This report outlines an approach to assess the local potential for deployment of distributed energy resources (DER), small power-generation installations located close to the point where the energy they produce will be consumed. Although local restraints, such as zoning, building codes, and on-site physical barriers are well-known frustrations to DER deployment, no analysis method has been developed to address them within a broad economic analysis framework. The approach developed here combines established economic optimization techniques embedded in the Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of local land-use constraint. An example case in the San Diego area is developed from a strictly customer perspective, based on the premise that future development of DER may take the form of microgrids ((mu)Grids) under the control of current utility customers. Beginning with assumptions about which customer combinations h ave complementary energy loads, a GIS was used to locate specific neighborhoods in the San Diego area with promising customer combinations. A detailed energy analysis was conducted for the commercial/residential area chosen covering both electrical and heat energy requirements. Under various scenarios, different combinations of natural gas reciprocating engines were chosen by DER-CAM, ranging in size from 25 kW to 500 kW, often with heat recovery or absorption cooling. These generators typically operate throughout the day and are supplemented by purchased electricity during late-night and early-morning hours, when utility time-of-use prices are lowest. Typical (mu)Grid scenarios displaced about 80 percent of their annual gas heat load through CHP. Self-generation together with absorption cooling dramatically reduce electricity purchases, which usually only occur during nighttime hours.

  2. Gas hydrates as potential resource of energy and pathfinders for conventional type hydrocarbon deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Krason, J. )

    1991-03-01

    Solid compounds of water and gaseous hydrocarbons are known as gas hydrates, clathrates, or cryohydrates. They occur naturally in offshore and terrestrial environments, in the areas where temperature is at least seasonally low (i.e. close to or below freezing), bathymetric, geostatic, ice, or permafrost pressure is sufficiently high, and the source of hydrocarbons is available. These factors (regional and local geological conditions of 21 locations grouped into 13 study regions worldwide offshore and one in permafrost environments with proven, reported, and inferred presence of gas hydrates) have been recently researched by Geoexplorers International, Inc. Conservative estimations from Geoexplorers International suggest that the world's total gas hydrates may contain 7,000 to 50,000 tcf of natural gas. Although at this time exploitation of gas trapped in the hydrate zone and below is not economically viable, because estimated reserves are enormous, they should be seriously considered as potential energy resource. Smaller, but less dispersed massive gas hydrate deposits associated with fault zones may be the first offshore gas resource to become economic. This research, particularly of the Messoyakh gas field, has proved that the presence of gas hydrates provides very useful information in exploration for conventional oil and gas deposits. Gas hydrates indicate ongoing hydrocarbon generation in the sediments. Hydrates are valuable to assess the present heat flow and thermal history of a region. Since gas hydrates exist only under a very limited range of pressure and temperature, deviation in patterns of their occurrence can be related to changes in pore water chemistry, hydrocarbon composition, or pressure and temperature gradient anomalies.

  3. Determination of the mean inner potential of cadmium telluride via electron holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, C.; Dhar, A.; Shintake, T.

    2017-04-01

    Mean inner potential is a fundamental material parameter in solid state physics and electron microscopy and has been experimentally measured in CdTe, a technologically important semiconductor. As a first step, the inelastic mean free path for electron scattering in CdTe was determined, using electron energy loss spectroscopy, to enable precise thickness mapping of thin CdTe lamellae. The obtained value was λi(CdTe, 300 kV) = 192 ± 10 nm. This value is relatively large, given the high density of the material, and is discussed in the text. Next, electron diffraction and specimen tilting were employed to identify weakly diffracting lattice orientations, to enable the straightforward measurement of the electron phase shift. Finally, electron holography was utilized to quantitatively map the phase shift experienced by electron waves passing through a CdTe crystal, with several different propagation vectors. Utilization of both thickness and phase data allowed computation of mean inner potential as V0 (CdTe) = 14.0 ± 0.9 V, within the range of previous theoretical estimates.

  4. pH, Redox Potential and Local Biofilm Potential Microenvironments Within Geobacter sulfurreducens Biofilms and Their Roles in Electron Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Babauta, Jerome T.; Nguyen, Hung Duc; Harrington, Timothy D.; Renslow, Ryan; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-01-01

    The limitation of pH inside electrode-respiring biofilms is a well-known concept. However, little is known about how pH and redox potential are affected by increasing current inside biofilms respiring on electrodes. Quantifying the variations in pH and redox potential with increasing current is needed to determine how electron transfer is tied to proton transfer within the biofilm. In this research, we quantified pH and redox potential variations in electrode-respiring Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms as a function of respiration rates, measured as current. We also characterized pH and redox potential at the counter electrode. We concluded that (1) pH continued to decrease in the biofilm through different growth phases, showing that the pH is not always a limiting factor in a biofilm and (2) decreasing pH and increasing redox potential at the biofilm electrode were associated only with the biofilm, demonstrating that G. sulfurreducens biofilms respire in a unique internal environment. Redox potential inside the biofilm was also compared to the local biofilm potential measured by a graphite microelectrode, where the tip of the micro-electrode was allowed to acclimatize inside the biofilm. PMID:22549331

  5. pH, redox potential and local biofilm potential microenvironments within Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms and their roles in electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Babauta, Jerome T; Nguyen, Hung Duc; Harrington, Timothy D; Renslow, Ryan; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-10-01

    The limitation of pH inside electrode-respiring biofilms is a well-known concept. However, little is known about how pH and redox potential are affected by increasing current inside biofilms respiring on electrodes. Quantifying the variations in pH and redox potential with increasing current is needed to determine how electron transfer is tied to proton transfer within the biofilm. In this research, we quantified pH and redox potential variations in electrode-respiring Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms as a function of respiration rates, measured as current. We also characterized pH and redox potential at the counter electrode. We concluded that (1) pH continued to decrease in the biofilm through different growth phases, showing that the pH is not always a limiting factor in a biofilm and (2) decreasing pH and increasing redox potential at the biofilm electrode were associated only with the biofilm, demonstrating that G. sulfurreducens biofilms respire in a unique internal environment. Redox potential inside the biofilm was also compared to the local biofilm potential measured by a graphite microelectrode, where the tip of the microelectrode was allowed to acclimatize inside the biofilm. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Marine Planning for Potential Wave Energy Facility Placement Amongst a Crowded Sea of Existing Resource Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, B. E.; Fuller, E.; Plummer, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Conversion to renewable energy sources is a logical response to increasing pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean wave energy is the least developed renewable energy source, despite having the highest energy per unit area. While many hurdles remain in developing wave energy, assessing potential conflicts and evaluating tradeoffs with existing uses is essential. Marine planning encompasses a broad array of activities that take place in and affect large marine ecosystems, making it an ideal tool for evaluating wave energy resource use conflicts. In this study, we focus on the potential conflicts between wave energy conversion (WEC) facilities and existing marine uses in the context of marine planning, within the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. First, we evaluated wave energy facility development using the Wave Energy Model (WEM) of the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) toolkit. Second, we ran spatial analyses on model output to identify conflicts with existing marine uses including AIS based vessel traffic, VMS and observer based measures of commercial fishing effort, and marine conservation areas. We found that regions with the highest wave energy potential were distant from major cities and that infrastructure limitations (cable landing sites) restrict integration with existing power grids. We identified multiple spatial conflicts with existing marine uses; especially shipping vessels and various commercial fishing fleets, and overlap with marine conservation areas varied by conservation designation. While wave energy generation facilities may be economically viable in the California Current, this viability must be considered within the context of the costs associated with conflicts that arise with existing marine uses. Our analyses can be used to better inform placement of WEC devices (as well as other types of renewable energy facilities) in the context of marine planning by accounting for economic tradeoffs

  7. A satellite investigation of energy flux and inferred potential drop in auroral electron energy spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Burch, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between auroral electron energy flux and the inferred accelerating potential drop for accelerated Maxwellian distributions is investigated on the basis of Atmospheric Explorer D spectral measurements. An analytical approximation for the total downward energy flux carried by an isotropic Maxwellian electron population accelerated by a field-aligned electrostatic potential drop is derived which is valid for values of the electron energy/characteristic accelerated Maxwellian distribution energy which are less than the difference between the ratio of the magnetic field strengths at the altitude of observation and the altitude of potential drop, and unity. Data from the Low Energy Electron Experiment on board AE D obtained on both the dayside and the nightside during periods of significant inverted-V type electron precipitation shows that the 455 energy spectra considered, 160 of them, obtained between 60 and 85 deg invariant latitude, could be fit to accelerated Maxwellian distributions. The 160 Maxwellian spectra are then shown to be in agreement with the predictions of the accelerated Maxwellian model. Finally, analysis of individual spectra suggests that the altitude of the inferred potential drop is at a maximum near the center of the inverted-V structures.

  8. Split-illumination electron holography for improved evaluation of electrostatic potential associated with electrophotography

    SciTech Connect

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki Aizawa, Shinji; Soon Park, Hyun; Sato, Kuniaki; Akase, Zentaro; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Yasukazu; Shindo, Daisuke; Kawase, Hiromitsu

    2014-03-31

    Precise evaluation of the electrostatic potential distributions of and around samples with multiple charges using electron holography has long been a problem due to unknown perturbation of the reference wave. Here, we report the first practical application of split-illumination electron holography (SIEH) to tackle this problem. This method enables the use of a non-perturbed reference wave distant from the sample. SIEH revealed the electrostatic potential distributions at interfaces of the charged particles used for development in electrophotography and should lead to dramatic improvements in electrophotography.

  9. The dressed states of an electron in a one-dimensional two δ -functions potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirilã, C.; Boca, M.; Dinu, V.; Florescu, V.

    2003-11-01

    We study, in the framework of the high-frequency Floquet theory, the one-dimensional system consisting of an electron interacting with a symmetric two δ-functions potential in the presence of an intense monochromatic homogeneous electric field. Most of the results concern the attractive case. They include the dependence of the bound states energies of the dressed potential and of some of its resonances positions on the electric field parameter α_0 (the classical free electron quiver motion amplitude) and on the distance between the two centers and the description of the evolution from resonances to laser induced levels via two antibound states. The repulsive case is described briefly.

  10. Miniband Transport in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas with a Strong Periodic Unidirectional Potential Modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lyo, Sungkwun K.; Pan, Wei

    2014-08-07

    In this paper, we study the Bloch oscillations of a two-dimensional electron gas with a strong periodic potential-modulation and miniband transport along the field at low temperatures, assuming a free motion in the transverse direction. The dependence of the current on the field, the electron density, and the temperature is investigated by using a relaxation-time approximation for inelastic scattering. Moreover, for a fixed total scattering rate, the field dependence of the current is sensitive to the ratio of the elastic and inelastic scattering rates in contrast with the recent result of a multiband but otherwise similar model with a weak potential modulation.

  11. Electronic coupling calculations with transition charges, dipoles, and quadrupoles derived from electrostatic potential fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Kazuhiro J.

    2014-12-07

    A transition charge, dipole, and quadrupole from electrostatic potential (TrESP-CDQ) method for electronic coupling calculations is proposed. The TrESP method is based on the classical description of electronic Coulomb interaction between transition densities for individual molecules. In the original TrESP method, only the transition charge interactions were considered as the electronic coupling. In the present study, the TrESP method is extended to include the contributions from the transition dipoles and quadrupoles as well as the transition charges. Hence, the self-consistent transition density is employed in the ESP fitting procedure. To check the accuracy of the present approach, several test calculations are performed to a helium dimer, a methane dimer, and an ethylene dimer. As a result, the TrESP-CDQ method gives a much improved description of the electronic coupling, compared with the original TrESP method. The calculated results also show that the self-consistent treatment to the transition densities contributes significantly to the accuracy of the electronic coupling calculations. Based on the successful description of the electronic coupling, the contributions to the electronic coupling are also analyzed. This analysis clearly shows a negligible contribution of the transition charge interaction to the electronic coupling. Hence, the distribution of the transition density is found to strongly influence the magnitudes of the transition charges, dipoles, and quadrupoles. The present approach is useful for analyzing and understanding the mechanism of excitation-energy transfer.

  12. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Giselle; Araujo-Castillo, Roger V; Neyra, Joan; Fernandez, Miguel; Leturia, Carlos; Mundaca, Carmen C; Blazes, David L

    2008-01-01

    Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta) was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD). Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1) issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2) issues with resources in a developing setting; (3) issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4) issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system. PMID:19025681

  13. High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential

    PubMed Central

    Lu, T. M.; Laroche, D.; Huang, S.-H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J.-Y.; Liu, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm−2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm−2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. This result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential. PMID:26865160

  14. High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Tzu -Ming; Laroche, Dominique; Huang, S. -H.; ...

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned overmore » a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm–2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm–2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. Lastly, this result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.« less

  15. High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Tzu -Ming; Laroche, Dominique; Huang, S. -H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J. -Y.; Liu, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm–2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm–2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. Lastly, this result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.

  16. High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential.

    PubMed

    Lu, T M; Laroche, D; Huang, S-H; Chuang, Y; Li, J-Y; Liu, C W

    2016-02-11

    In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 10(10) cm(-2) to 1.8 × 10(11) cm(-2), with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 10(5) cm(2)/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. This result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.

  17. Turning waste into valuable resource: potential of electric arc furnace dust as photocatalytic material.

    PubMed

    Sapiña, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores the potential of a hazardous waste of difficult management, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), as photocatalytic material. Starting from a real waste coming from a Spanish steel factory, chemical, mineralogical, and optical characterizations have been carried out. Direct trials on EAFD and mortar containing this waste have been performed to evaluate its potential as photocatalyst itself and within a cementitious material. The analysis of photocatalytic properties has been done by two different methods: degradation of NO x and degradation of rhodamine (RhB). As a result, it can be said that EAFD exhibited photocatalytic activity for both configurations with UV and visible light, having the mortar enhanced photocatalytic activity for NO x with respect to the EAFD itself. Additionally, in direct trials on the EAFD, it has been able to degrade RhB even in the dark, which has been attributed to transfer of electrons between the adsorbed RhB and the conduction band of some oxides in the dust.

  18. Assessment of the Potential for the Direct Application of Renewable Resources. Staff Issue Paper

    SciTech Connect

    1989-10-16

    This issue paper is intended to take a general look at the direct application of renewable resources. The focus of the paper is to provide background information on what is currently known about these resources. The Council is interested in comments to supplement the information discussed in this paper. Perhaps more importantly, the Council is looking for recommendations on how to treat these resources in the next power plan. The Council is faced with at least two important questions related to this issue. First, should the Council attempt to develop detailed supply curves for these resources? Second, should programs be developed to encourage the acquisition of these resources? The direct application of renewable resources is generally defined as the use of a renewable resource such as solar, hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass for the direct reduction of electrical energy use by a consumer. While there have been previous staff analysis of these resources they have not been explicitly treated in previous power plans. Given the renewed emphasis on evaluating the environmental consequences of resource development, these relatively benign resources merit further analysis. This paper will provide the basis for treatment of direct application of renewable resources in the 1990 Power Plan. Most of these resources tend to be site specific and typically require large collection areas to capture a significant amount of energy. Because of high fixed installation costs, they also tend to be most cost effective with higher usage. These characteristics generally prevent widespread regional application and limit the size of any particular resource. Early programs designed to encourage these resources focused on individual end use applications. However, given the unique characteristics of these resources, it is likely that future programs will treat these resources as one option among several conservation measures applied to a given end use or sector. Several of the direct

  19. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Mineral Resource Management Plan. Potential Exploration, Development, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources; Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    the best combination of chemical and physical characteristics for producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oil - seed crops, and is also available or...OF THE AIR FORCE BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIC AIR COMMAND POTENTIAL EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PRODUCTION OF OIL AND GAS RESOURCES...and national defense activities. Because the development of oil and gas on Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) could adversely affect the base’s missions

  20. Effect of photoelectrons on boom-satellite potential differences during electron beam ejection

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, S.T.; Cohen, H.A.; Aggson, T.L.; McNeil, W.J.

    1987-11-01

    Data taken on the SCATHA satellite at geosynchronous altitudes during periods of electron beam ejection in sunlight showed that the potential difference between an electrically isolated boom and the satellite main body was a function of beam current, energy, and boom-sun angle. The potential difference decreased as the boom area illuminated by the sun increased; the maximum and minimum potential differences were measured when minimum and maximum boom areas, respectively, were exposed to the sun. It is shown that photoelectrons, created on the boom, could be engulfed in the electrostatic field of the highly charged satellite main body. Theoretical calculations made using a simple current balance model showed that these electrons could provide a substantial discharging current to the main body and cause the observed variations in the potential difference between the main body and the booms. copyright American Geophysica Union 1987

  1. Influence of Anode Potentials on Current Generation and Extracellular Electron Transfer Paths of Geobacter Species.

    PubMed

    Kato, Souichiro

    2017-01-06

    Geobacter species are capable of utilizing solid-state compounds, including anodic electrodes, as electron acceptors of respiration via extracellular electron transfer (EET) and have attracted considerable attention for their crucial role as biocatalysts of bioelectrochemical systems (BES's). Recent studies disclosed that anode potentials affect power output and anodic microbial communities, including selection of dominant Geobacter species, in various BES's. However, the details in current-generating properties and responses to anode potentials have been investigated only for a model species, namely Geobacter sulfurreducens. In this study, the effects of anode potentials on the current generation and the EET paths were investigated by cultivating six Geobacter species with different anode potentials, followed by electrochemical analyses. The electrochemical cultivation demonstrated that the G. metallireducens clade species (G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens) constantly generate high current densities at a wide range of anode potentials (≥-0.3 or -0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl), while the subsurface clades species (G. daltonii, G. bemidjensis, G. chapellei, and G. pelophilus) generate a relatively large current only at limited potential regions (-0.1 to -0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The linear sweep voltammetry analyses indicated that the G. metallireducens clade species utilize only one EET path irrespective of the anode potentials, while the subsurface clades species utilize multiple EET paths, which can be optimized depending on the anode potentials. These results clearly demonstrate that the response features to anode potentials are divergent among species (or clades) of Geobacter.

  2. New technology and illness self-management: Potential relevance for resource-poor populations in Asia.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Henry

    2015-11-01

    Advances in technology have made it possible for many standard diagnostic and health monitoring procedures, traditionally carried out by qualified personnel within medical facilities, to be reliably undertaken by patients or carers in their own homes with a minimum of basic training. There has also been a dramatic increase in the number and diversity of both sources of information on health issues and the possibilities for sharing information and experiences over ICT-based social networks. It has been suggested that these developments have the potential to 'empower' patients, reducing their dependence on providers and possibly improving their quality of care by increasing the volume and timeliness of diagnostic data and encouraging active self-management of their condition, for example through lifestyle changes. Perhaps more significantly, it is also seen by many economies with ageing populations as a way to contain high and ever rising healthcare costs. It has also been suggested that a move to greater self-management supported by expert networks and smart phone technology could improve the treatment of many millions of patients with chronic diseases in low and middle income economies that are also confronting the potential cost implications of epidemiological and demographic transitions, combined with the higher expectations of a more educated and knowledgeable population. There is now limited evidence that some fairly basic e- and mHealth interventions, for example in the areas of MNCH, malaria and HIV/AIDS can have a positive impact, even in resource-poor contexts. The aim here is to explore the extent to which further investment in technology could play a role in the development of an effective and affordable health sector strategy for at least some developing economies. It is suggested that the effectiveness of the approach may be highly dependent on the specific health conditions addressed, the nature of existing health systems and the overall socio

  3. Electron capture by the thiyl radical and disulfide bond: ligand effects on the reduction potential.

    PubMed

    Roos, Goedele; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2013-04-15

    The effect of non-polar and polar ligands and of monovalent cations on the one-electron reduction potential of the thiyl radical and the disulfide bond was evaluated. The reduction potentials E° for the CH3S(.)-nL/CH3S(-)-nL and CH3SSCH3-L/CH3SSCH3(.-)-L redox couples were calculated at the B3LYP, M06-2X and MP2 levels of theory, with n=1, 2 and L=CH4, C2H4, H2O, CH3OH, NH3, CH3COOH, CH3CONH2, NH4(+), Na(+), K(+) and Li(+). Non-polar ligands decrease the E° value of the thiyl radical and disulfide bond, while neutral polar ligands favour electron uptake. Charged polar ligands and cations favour electron capture by the thiyl radical while disfavouring electron uptake by the disulfide bond. Thus, the same type of ligand can have a different effect on E° depending on the redox couple. Therefore, properties of an isolated ligand cannot uniquely determine E°. The ligand effects on E° are discussed in terms of the vertical electron affinity and reorganization energy, as well as molecular orbital theory. For a given redox couple, the ligand type influences the nature of the anion formed upon electron capture and the corresponding reorganization process towards the reduced geometry.

  4. Use of portable electronic devices in a hospital setting and their potential for bacterial colonization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amber; Rao, Amitha; Reyes-Sacin, Carlos; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Szpunar, Susan; Riederer, Kathleen; Kaye, Keith; Fishbain, Joel T; Levine, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Portable electronic devices are increasingly being used in the hospital setting. As with other fomites, these devices represent a potential reservoir for the transmission of pathogens. We conducted a convenience sampling of devices in 2 large medical centers to identify bacterial colonization rates and potential risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    SciTech Connect

    Lasekan, Adeseye; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Hashim, Dzulkifly

    2013-03-15

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  6. Mineral resource potential map of the James River Face Wilderness, Bedford and Rockbridge counties, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C. Erwin; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1982-01-01

    The rocks in the James River Face Wilderness are shales and quartzites that overlie a meta-igneous basement. They are folded into a large southwestward-plunging anticline that is cut off on the east and south by an extensive thrust fault that brings old basement rocks over the younger sedimentary rocks. Geochemical studies of stream sediments, soils, and rocks do not reveal any unusually high metal concentrations, but a large resource of metallurgical-grade quartzite and shale suitable for structural clay products and lightweight aggregate is in the wilderness. Antietam (Erwin) Quartzite has been quarried at three sites in the wilderness as raw material for silicon used in the manufacture of ferrosilicon. Other uses included crushed rock for concrete aggregate, road metal, and railroad ballast, and sand for cement and mortar. Potential uses include ganister for silica brick and specialty sands such as filter and furnace sand. Firing tests on samples of shale from the Harpers (Hampton) Formation show that it could be used for the manufacture of brick and as lightweight aggregate. Of marginal economic interest are heavy-mineral layers in the basal Unicoi (Weverton) Formation.

  7. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, Adeseye; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Hashim, Dzulkifly

    2013-03-01

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  8. The spatial relationship analysis of regional development potential and resource and environment carrying capacity in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Jianhua; Zeng, Gang; Shen, Qi; Hu, Qing

    2008-10-01

    The main goal in this study is to explore the spatial relationship of Chinese regional development potential (DP) and resource & environment carrying capacity (REC) in 2000 and 2006 by using meta-synthesis of spatial statistical analysis and GIS technique. The results show that: The spatial distribution trend of DP and REC are overall gradient descending from coastal to inland, then to the western provinces. They all demonstrate that spatial agglomeration with global significant, namely high-DP regions aggregated in the east, low-DP regions aggregated in the west. The high-REC of central, eastern and southern China are improved and aggregated, but the low-REC aggregated in northwest. Chinese regional DP and REC are divided into five different kinds of regions based on the results of k-means clustering analysis and spatial clustering, which demonstrate that each area's DP and REC's spatial association measure is not very obviously. Compared to the high-DP region, the low-DP region is more restricted to the REC.

  9. Mineral resource potential map of the Raywood Flat Roadless Areas, Riverside and San Bernardino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Iverson, Stephen R.

    1983-01-01

    The area having moderate potential for base-metal resources forms a small zone in the eastern part of the recommended wilderness (A5-187). Within this zone, evidence provided by stream-sediment geochemistry suggests that crystalline bedrocks in several drainages contain concentrations of metallic elements. Because the terrain is inaccessible and covered with dense brush, most of the bedrock in the specific drainages containing the geochemical anomalies could not be examined. Thus, although we infer that mineral occurrences exist in the drainage basins, we have little data on which to base an estimate of their extent and quality. Locally, the crystalline rocks probably contain hydrothermal veins or disseminated occurrences where lead, copper, molybdenum, tin, cobalt, bismuth, and arsenic have been concentrated. However, the geochemical anomalies for these metals are small, and the stream drainages also are relatively small. Therefore, the inferred occurrences of metallic minerals probably are small scale, scattered, and low grade. There is only low probability that the inferred mineral occurrences are large scale.

  10. Assessing the Leakage Potential of CO2 into Ground Water Resources at SACROC, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, P. H.; Pawar, R. J.; Han, W. S.; McPherson, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we apply CO2-PENS to characterize the long-term CO2 storage performance at SACROC, specifically with respect to potential impacts on ground water resources located above the CO2 injection depth. CO2-PENS is a hybrid process/system model composed of a library of process level modules linked together to allow simulations to span a range of spatial and temporal scales. SACROC is the oldest CO2-EOR operation in the Permian Basin and has been operational for over 35 years. We describe how CO2-PENS is used to couple CO2 migration at three different scales; from a reservoir module, through a borehole leakage module, and into an aquifer impact module. Both the reservoir module and wellbore leakage module are based on abstractions of the underlying physics of multiphase fluid flow, using reductions in complexity to allow fast Monte-Carlo simulation while capturing the behavior of these processes. Finally, we show how results from CO2-PENS can be used to delineate areas that are susceptible to ground water impacts from CO2 leakage and discuss how this information can be used in risk analysis.

  11. All-electron and pseudo-potential studies of structural and electronic properties of Si chains and nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Williamson, Andrew

    2005-03-01

    Recent experimentsootnotetextY. Wu, et.al., Nature 430, 61 (2004); and references therein invoke Si nanowires as promising materials for nanoscale electronic and optical devices. We carried out electronic structure calculations of silicon chains and nanowires, by using both the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) methodootnotetextE.Wimmer, H.Krakauer, M.Weinert, AJ Freeman, PRB 24, 864 (1981) and the pseudopotential plane wave method. We studied two sets of H-terminated one nanometer silicon wires, one oriented along (001) and the other along(111); both show direct band gaps, with the (111) oriented wires showing a smaller gap (˜2.1 eV) than (001) (˜2.5 eV). This trend differs from that reported in the literature ootnotetextF. Buda, et.al., PRL 69, 1272 (1992); A. M. Saitta, et.al., PRB 53, 1446 (1996), but it is the same in both our all-electron and well converged pseudopotential calculations. We also found that structural relaxations induce different effects on the band structure of differently oriented wires; the band gap change is nearly 0.2 eV between the ideal and relaxed models for (001) while it is negligible for (111) wires.

  12. Exact high-density limit of correlation potential for two-electron density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Stanislav; Burke, Kieron; Levy, Mel

    1999-06-01

    Present approximations to the correlation energy, Ec[n], in density functional theory yield poor results for the corresponding correlation potential, vc([n];r)=δEc[n]δ/n(r). Improvements in vc([n];r), are especially needed for high-quality Kohn-Sham calculations. For a two-electron density, the exact form of vc([n];r) in its high-density limit is derived in terms of the density of the system and the first-order wave function from the adiabatic perturbation theory. Our expression leads to a formula for the difference 2Ec[n]-∫vc([n];r)n(r)dr, valid for any two-electron density in the high-density limit, thus generalizes previous results. Numerical results (both exact and approximate) are presented for both Ec[n] and ∫vc([n];r)n(r)dr in this limit for two electrons in a harmonic oscillator external potential (Hooke's atom).

  13. Analysis of hydrogen-bond interaction potentials from the electron density: integration of noncovalent interaction regions.

    PubMed

    Contreras-García, Julia; Yang, Weitao; Johnson, Erin R

    2011-11-17

    Hydrogen bonds are of crucial relevance to many problems in chemistry, biology, and materials science. The recently developed NCI (noncovalent interactions) index enables real-space visualization of both attractive (van der Waals and hydrogen-bonding) and repulsive (steric) interactions based on properties of the electron density. It is thus an optimal index to describe the interplay of stabilizing and destabilizing contributions that determine stable minima on hydrogen-bonding potential-energy surfaces (PESs). In the framework of density-functional theory, energetics are completely determined by the electron density. Consequently, NCI will be shown to allow quantitative treatment of hydrogen-bond energetics. The evolution of NCI regions along a PES follows a well-behaved pattern which, upon integration of the electron density, is capable of mimicking conventional hydrogen-bond interatomic potentials.

  14. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J

    2017-09-05

    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  15. Multifractal scaling of electronic transmission resonances in perfect and imperfect Fibonacci δ-function potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, PrabhatK.; Biswas, Parthapratim

    We present here a detailed multifractal scaling study for the electronic transmission resonances with the system size for an infinitely large one-dimensional perfect and imperfect quasiperiodic system represented by a sequence of δ-function potentials. The electronic transmission resonances in the energy minibands manifest more and more fragmented nature of the transmittance with the change of system size. We claim that when a small perturbation is randomly present at a few number of sites or layers, the nature of electronic states will change and this can be understood by studying the electronic transmittance with the change of system size. We report the different critical states manifested in the size variation of the transmittance corresponding to the resonant energies for both perfect and imperfect cases through multifractal scaling study for few of these resonances.

  16. Reduction of potential food interference in two sympatric carnivores by sequential use of shared resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, Rafael; Virgós, Emilio

    2006-07-01

    The common genet ( Genetta genetta) and the stone marten ( Martes foina) are two species that overlap extensively in their distribution ranges in southwest Europe. Available diet data from these species allow us to predict some interference competition for food resources in sympatric populations. We checked the food interference hypothesis in a sympatric population. The diet of both predators was analyzed through scat collection. Seasonal differences in biomass consumption were compared between both species in those items considered as key resources according to biomass consumption. Strawberry tree fruits can be considered as key resource exclusively for genets whereas fungi, blackberries and rabbits are keys for stone martens only. For other key resources consumed by both species (wood mouse and figs) we suggest that a possible mechanism to reduce diet overlap could be the sequential use of these resources: no intensive exploitation by both species of the same key resource during the same season was detected. Figs and wood mouse were used alternatively. Although strawberry tree fruits and blackberry are exclusive key resources of one of the species, their consumptions showed the same pattern. Diet niche overlap in our study is low compared with other carnivore communities suggesting that exclusive use of some key resources and sequential use of shared ones is an optimal scenario to reduce overall competition for food resources.

  17. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    PubMed

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  18. Electron structure of molecules with very heavy atoms using effective core potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Pitzer, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include effective potential, Hamiltonian for valence-electron motion, molecular calculations, spin-spin coupling, L-S coupling, numerical results of molecular calculations, and results of configuration-interaction Slater-orbital calculations in L-S coupling. (GHT)

  19. COMPUTATIONAL ELECTROCHEMISTRY: AQUEOUS ONE-ELECTRON OXIDATION POTENTIALS FOR SUBSTITUTED ANILINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semiempirical molecular orbital theory and density functional theory are used to compute one-electron oxidation potentials for aniline and a set of 21 mono- and di-substituted anilines in aqueous solution. Linear relationships between theoretical predictions and experiment are co...

  20. One-electron standard reduction potentials of nitroaromatic and cyclic nitramine explosives

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extensive studies have been conducted in the past decades to predict the environmental abiotic and biotic redox fate of nitroaromatic and nitramine explosives. However, surprisingly little information is available on one-electron standard reduction potentials (Eo(R-NO2/R-NO2_)). The Eo(R-NO2/R-NO2...