Science.gov

Sample records for potential environmental effects

  1. Environmental Perchlorate Exposure: Potential Adverse Thyroid Effects

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review will present a general overview of the sources, human studies, and proposed regulatory action regarding environmental perchlorate exposure. Recent findings Some recent studies have reported significant associations between urinary perchlorate concentrations, thyroid dysfunction, and decreased infant IQ in groups who would be particularly susceptible to perchlorate effects. An update regarding the recent proposed regulatory actions and potential costs surrounding amelioration of perchlorate contamination is provided. Summary The potential adverse thyroidal effects of environmental perchlorate exposure remain controversial, and further research is needed to further define its relationship to human health among pregnant and lactating women and their infants. PMID:25106002

  2. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  3. Potential effects of environmental regulatory procedures on geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Beeland, G.V.; Boies, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    The potential effects of several types of applicable environmental regulatory procedures on geothermal development were assessed, and particular problem areas were identified. The possible impact of procedures adopted pursuant to the following Federal statutes were analyzed: Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Safe Drinking Water Act; and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. State regulations applicable, or potentially applicable, to geothermal facilities were also reviewed to determine: permit information requirements; pre-permit air or water quality monitoring requirements; effect of mandated time frames for permit approval; and potential for exemption of small facilities. The regulations of the following states were covered in the review: Alaska; Arizona; California; Colorado; Hawaii; Idaho; Montana; Nevada; New Mexico; Oregon; Utah; Washington; and Wyoming. (MHR)

  4. Potential effects of environmental chemical contamination in congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gorini, Francesca; Chiappa, Enrico; Gargani, Luna; Picano, Eugenio

    2014-04-01

    There is compelling evidence that prenatal exposures to environmental xenobiotics adversely affect human development and childhood. Among all birth defects, congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent of all congenital malformations and remains the leading cause of death. It has been estimated that in most cases the causes of heart defects remain unknown, while a growing number of studies have indicated the potential role of environmental agents as risk factors in CHD occurrence. In particular, maternal exposure to chemicals during the first trimester of pregnancy represents the most critical window of exposure for CHD. Specific classes of xenobiotics (e.g. organochlorine pesticides, organic solvents, air pollutants) have been identified as potential risk factors for CHD. Nonetheless, the knowledge gained is currently still incomplete as a consequence of the frequent heterogeneity of the methods applied and the difficulty in estimating the net effect of environmental pollution on the pregnant mother. The presence of multiple sources of pollution, both indoor and outdoor, together with individual lifestyle factors, may represent a further confounding element for association with the disease. A future new approach for research should probably focus on individual measurements of professional, domestic, and urban exposure to physical and chemical pollutants in order to accurately retrace the environmental exposure of parents of affected offspring during the pre-conceptional and pregnancy periods.

  5. Environmental stressors during space flight: potential effects on body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jauchem, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    1. Organisms may be affected by many environmental factors during space flight, e.g., acceleration, weightlessness, decreased pressure, changes in oxygen tension, radiofrequency radiation and vibration. 2. Previous studies of change in body temperature--one response to these environmental factors--are reviewed. 3. Conditions leading to heat stress and hypothermia are discussed.

  6. Evaluating the potential effectiveness of proposed environmental justice initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, N.L.; Namovicz, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    Congress directed the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to create the Technical Assistance Grant (TAG) program to address the concerns of these citizens and, thereby improve community relations at Superfund sites. TAGs provide funding to allow affected residents to hire independent scientific and technical consultants to help them understand the issues at the site and better participate in remedy selection. This study will not directly assess the experience of Environmental Justice sites within the Superfund program. Rather, this study examines existing data on TAGs and the applicability of an expanded TAG program in addressing expressed Environmental Justice concerns. Specifically, the study compares the characteristics of sites with TAGs to a matched control group of sites/communities without TAGs. The study establishes a rigorous statistical baseline upon which it can evaluate the marginal contribution of outreach initiatives to the needs and concerns of minority and low income communities. The results of these analyses will serve as a foundation for evaluating proposed changes in the scope and emphasis of Superfund`s community relations and Environmental Justice outreach programs.

  7. Environmental assessment of the potential effects of aquifer thermal energy storage systems on microorganisms in groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, R.J.; Stewart, D.L.

    1988-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential environmental effects (both adverse and beneficials) of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) technology pertaining to microbial communities indigenous to subsurface environments (i.e., aquifers) and the propagation, movement, and potential release of pathogenic microorganisms (specifically, Legionella) within ATES systems. Seasonal storage of thermal energy in aquifers shows great promise to reduce peak demand; reduce electric utility load problems; contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems; and reduce pollution from extraction, refining, and combustion of fossil fuels. However, concerns that the widespread implementation of this technology may have adverse effects on biological systems indigeneous to aquifers, as well as help to propagate and release pathogenic organisms that enter thee environments need to be resolved. 101 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Fate, effects and potential environmental risks of ethylene glycol: a review.

    PubMed

    Staples, C A; Williams, J B; Craig, G R; Roberts, K M

    2001-04-01

    The fate, effects, and potential environmental risks of ethylene glycol (EG) in the environment were examined. EG undergoes rapid biodegradation in aerobic and anaerobic environments (approximately 100% removal of EG within 24 h to 28 days). In air, EG reacts with photo-chemically produced hydroxyl radicals with a resulting atmospheric half-life of 2 days. Acute toxicity values (LC(50)s and EC(50)s) were generally >10,000 mg/l for fish and aquatic invertebrates. The data collectively show that EG is not persistent in air, surface water, soil, or groundwater, is practically non-toxic to aquatic organisms, and does not bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. Potential long-term, quasi-steady state regional concentrations of EG estimated with a multi-media model for air, water, soil, and sediment were all less than predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs).

  9. Potential environmental effects of pack stock on meadow ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Moore, Peggy E.; Berlow, Eric L.; Robert Blank,; Roche, Jim; Chase, Jennifer T.; Sylvia Haultain,

    2014-01-01

    Pack and saddle stock, including, but not limited to domesticated horses, mules, and burros, are used to support commercial, private and administrative activities in the Sierra Nevada. The use of pack stock has become a contentious and litigious issue for land management agencies in the region inter alia due to concerns over effects on the environment. The potential environmental effects of pack stock on Sierra Nevada meadow ecosystems are reviewed and it is concluded that the use of pack stock has the potential to influence the following: (1) water nutrient dynamics, sedimentation, temperature, and microbial pathogen content; (2) soil chemistry, nutrient cycling, soil compaction and hydrology; (3) plant individuals, populations and community dynamics, non-native invasive species, and encroachment of woody species; and (4) wildlife individuals, populations and communities. It is considered from currently available information that management objectives of pack stock should include the following: minimise bare ground, maximise plant cover, maintain species composition of native plants, minimise trampling, especially on wet soils and stream banks, and minimise direct urination and defecation by pack stock into water. However, incomplete documentation of patterns of pack stock use and limited past research limits current understanding of the effects of pack stock, especially their effects on water, soils and wildlife. To improve management of pack stock in this region, research is needed on linking measurable monitoring variables (e.g. plant cover) with environmental relevancy (e.g. soil erosion processes, wildlife habitat use), and identifying specific environmental thresholds of degradation along gradients of pack stock use in Sierra Nevada meadows.

  10. MicroRNAs as Potential Signatures of Environmental Exposure or Effect: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vrijens, Karen; Bollati, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The exposome encompasses all life-course environmental exposures from the prenatal period onward that influence health. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are interesting entities within this concept as markers and causation of disease. MicroRNAs are short oligonucleotide sequences that can interact with several mRNA targets. Objectives: We reviewed the current state of the field on the potential of using miRNAs as biomarkers for environmental exposure. We investigated miRNA signatures in response to all types of environmental exposure to which a human can be exposed, including cigarette smoke, air pollution, nanoparticles, and diverse chemicals; and we examined the health conditions for which the identified miRNAs have been reported (i.e., cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes). Methods: We searched the PubMed and ScienceDirect databases to identify relevant studies. Results: For all exposures incorporated in this review, 27 miRNAs were differentially expressed in at least two independent studies. miRNAs that had expression alterations associated with smoking observed in multiple studies are miR-21, miR-34b, miR-125b, miR-146a, miR-223, and miR-340; and those miRNAs that were observed in multiple air pollution studies are miR-9, miR-10b, miR-21, miR-128, miR-143, miR-155, miR-222, miR-223, and miR-338. We found little overlap among in vitro, in vivo, and human studies between miRNAs and exposure. Here, we report on disease associations for those miRNAs identified in multiple studies on exposure. Conclusions: miRNA changes may be sensitive indicators of the effects of acute and chronic environmental exposure. Therefore, miRNAs are valuable novel biomarkers for exposure. Further studies should elucidate the role of the mediation effect of miRNA between exposures and effect through all stages of life to provide a more accurate assessment of the consequences of miRNA changes. Citation: Vrijens K, Bollati V, Nawrot TS. 2015. MicroRNAs as potential signatures of

  11. Potential health and environmental effects of trace elements and radionuclides from increased coal utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Van Hook, R I

    1979-01-01

    This report addresses the effects of coal-derived trace and radioactive elements. A summary of our current understanding of health and environmental effects of trace and radioactive elements released during coal mining, cleaning, combustion, and ash disposal is presented. Physical and biological transport phenomena which are important in determining organism exposure are also discussed. Biological concentration and transformation as well as synergistic and antagonistic actions among trace contaminants are discussed in terms of their importance in mobility, persistence, availability, and ultimate toxicity. The consequences of implementing the President's National Energy Plan are considered in terms of the impact of the NEP in 1985 and 2000 on the potential effects of trace and radioactive elements from the coal fuel cycle. Areas of needed research are identified in specific recommendations. PMID:540619

  12. Speciation Methods Used to Assess Potential Health Effects of Toxic Metals in Environmental Materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Assessing potential exposures to toxic metals or metalloids such as arsenic and chromium in environmental materials is important in protecting public health. The chemical form of an element in, or released from, a material is also important, since some forms, such as Cr(VI), are more toxic than others, for example, Cr(III). We have used a variety of procedures to assess potential exposures to hexavalent chromium in ash and burned soils from October 2007 southern California wildfires. Synthetic lung-fluid and de-ionized water extractions simulate release in the lungs and potential environmental releases due to rainfall. Extracts were analyzed for specific chromium and arsenic species using HPLC-ICP-MS methodology. Results indicate that the highly oxidizing environment in wildfires promotes some chromium conversion to Cr(VI), and that the caustic alkalinity of ash enhances Cr(VI) release and stability in lung fluids and rainfall.

  13. Fate and potential environmental effects of methylenediphenyl diisocyanate and toluene diisocyanate released into the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Tury, Bernard; Pemberton, Denis; Bailey, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Information from a variety of sources has been collected and summarized to facilitate an overview of the atmospheric fate and potential environmental effects of emissions of methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) or toluene diisocyanate (TDI) to the atmosphere. Atmospheric emissions of both MDI and TDI are low, both in terms of concentration and mass, because of their low volatility and the need for careful control over all aspects of their lifecycle from manufacture through disposal. Typical emission losses for TDI are 25 g/t of TDI used in slabstock foam production. MDI emission losses are lower, often less than 1 g/t of MDI used. Dispersion modeling predicts that concentrations at the fenceline or beyond are very low for typical releases. Laboratory studies show that TDI (and by analogy MDI) does not react with water in the gas phase at a significant rate. The primary degradation reaction of these aromatic diisocyanates in the atmosphere is expected to be oxidation by OH radicals with an estimated half-life of one day. Laboratory studies also show that this reaction is not expected to result in increased ground-level ozone accumulation.

  14. Fate and potential environmental effects of methylenediphenyl diisocyanate and toluene diisocyanate released into the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Tury, Bernard; Pemberton, Denis; Bailey, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Information from a variety of sources has been collected and summarized to facilitate an overview of the atmospheric fate and potential environmental effects of emissions of methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) or toluene diisocyanate (TDI) to the atmosphere. Atmospheric emissions of both MDI and TDI are low, both in terms of concentration and mass, because of their low volatility and the need for careful control over all aspects of their lifecycle from manufacture through disposal. Typical emission losses for TDI are 25 g/t of TDI used in slabstock foam production. MDI emission losses are lower, often less than 1 g/t of MDI used. Dispersion modeling predicts that concentrations at the fenceline or beyond are very low for typical releases. Laboratory studies show that TDI (and by analogy MDI) does not react with water in the gas phase at a significant rate. The primary degradation reaction of these aromatic diisocyanates in the atmosphere is expected to be oxidation by OH radicals with an estimated half-life of one day. Laboratory studies also show that this reaction is not expected to result in increased ground-level ozone accumulation. PMID:12568254

  15. Potential effects of global environmental changes on cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis transmission.

    PubMed

    Lal, Aparna; Baker, Michael G; Hales, Simon; French, Nigel P

    2013-02-01

    Global climate change will affect the viability and spread of zoonotic parasites, while agricultural land use changes will influence infection sources and reservoirs. The health impact of these environmental changes will depend on the social, economic and physical resilience of the population. This review describes the influence of climatic variability, land-use changes, and social factors on cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in humans. Global to public health to individual-level interventions to reduce future disease burden are highlighted. Because future environmental change is expected to have the greatest health impacts in countries with limited resources, increasing research and adaptation capabilities in these regions is emphasized. Understanding how environmental and social processes interact to influence disease transmission is essential for the development of effective strategies for disease prevention.

  16. Under-examined aspects of the potential environmental effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M.C.; Penner, J.E.

    1987-07-01

    In addition to destroying the area near the explosions, a nuclear war would lead to injection of a wide range of substances into the environment, both as a result of the delivery systems and explosions themselves and as a consequence of the blast, fires, and resulting destruction and disruption. While addressing the many remaining uncertainties concerning the effects of smoke injections on climate is the major topic of present research, there are a number of other potential impacts that could have major consequences, but which are currently poorly understood and have not yet been carefully examined. These under-examined effects include perturbations to atmospheric chemistry, the effects of injections of dust and water (which could create ice particles), the consequences of emissions from the smoldering phase of the fires, resuspension of materials due to perturbed surface conditions, and a range of other potential consequences.

  17. Potential of Environmental Enrichment to Prevent Transgenerational Effects of Paternal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Gapp, Katharina; Bohacek, Johannes; Grossmann, Jonas; Brunner, Andrea M; Manuella, Francesca; Nanni, Paolo; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2016-10-01

    Adverse experiences in early life are risk factors for the development of behavioral and physiological symptoms that can lead to psychiatric and cognitive disorders later in life. Some of these symptoms can be transmitted to the offspring, in some cases by non-genomic mechanisms involving germ cells. Using a mouse model of unpredictable maternal separation and maternal stress, we show that postnatal trauma alters coping behaviors in adverse conditions in exposed males when adult and in their adult male progeny. The behavioral changes are accompanied by increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and decreased DNA methylation of the GR promoter in the hippocampus. DNA methylation is also decreased in sperm cells of exposed males when adult. Transgenerational transmission of behavioral symptoms is prevented by paternal environmental enrichment, an effect associated with the reversal of alterations in GR gene expression and DNA methylation in the hippocampus of the male offspring. These findings highlight the influence of both negative and positive environmental factors on behavior across generations and the plasticity of the epigenome across life.

  18. Impact of Environmental Chemicals on the Transcriptome of Primary Human Hepatocytes: Potential for Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Robert D; Dhammi, Anirudh; Wallace, Andrew; Hodgson, Ernest; Roe, R Michael

    2016-08-01

    New paradigms for human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals emphasize the use of molecular methods and human-derived cell lines. In this study, we examined the effects of the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) and the phenylpyrazole insecticide fipronil (fluocyanobenpyrazole) on transcript levels in primary human hepatocytes. These chemicals were tested individually and as a mixture. RNA-Seq showed that 100 μM DEET significantly increased transcript levels (α = 0.05) for 108 genes and lowered transcript levels for 64 genes and fipronil at 10 μM increased the levels of 2246 transcripts and decreased the levels for 1428 transcripts. Fipronil was 21-times more effective than DEET in eliciting changes, even though the treatment concentration was 10-fold lower for fipronil versus DEET. The mixture of DEET and fipronil produced a more than additive effect (levels increased for 3017 transcripts and decreased for 2087 transcripts). The transcripts affected for all chemical treatments were classified by GO analysis and mapped to chromosomes. The overall treatment responses, specific pathways, and individual transcripts affected were discussed at different levels of fold-change. Changes found in transcript levels in response to treatments will require further research to understand their importance in overall cellular, organ, and organismic function. PMID:27091632

  19. Report to Congress on the Potential Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn

    2009-12-01

    This report focuses on potential impacts of marine and hydrokinetic technologies to aquatic environments (i.e. rivers, estuaries, and oceans), fish and fish habitats, ecological relationships, and other marine and freshwater aquatic resources. The report does not address impacts to terrestrial ecosystems and organisms that are common to other electricity-generating technologies (e.g., construction and maintenance of transmission lines) or possible effects on the human environment, including: human use conflicts, aesthetics, viewsheds, noise in the terrestrial environment, light, recreation, transportation, navigation, cultural resources, socioeconomic impacts.

  20. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Will, M.E.; Evans, C.

    1993-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as ``contaminants of potential concern.`` This process is termed ``contaminant screening.`` It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 34 chemicals potentially associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern. The purpose of this report is to present plant toxicity data and discuss their utility as benchmarks for determining the hazard to terrestrial plants caused by contaminants in soil. Benchmarks are provided for soils and solutions.

  1. [Brominated flame retardants: environmental contamination, exposure sources and potential negative health effects].

    PubMed

    Fiore, Maria; Floridia, Adriana; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Ledda, Caterina; Mauceri, Cristina; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes recent evidence regarding brominated flame retardants. These represent the most common type of flame retardants used and recent studies have highlighted their presence in various concentrations in different environmental matrices, including areas distant from production areas, and in human biological samples. Many doubts persist regarding exposure sources, toxicity, metabolism and transformation processes once these products are released into the environment.

  2. [Brominated flame retardants: environmental contamination, exposure sources and potential negative health effects].

    PubMed

    Fiore, Maria; Floridia, Adriana; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Ledda, Caterina; Mauceri, Cristina; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes recent evidence regarding brominated flame retardants. These represent the most common type of flame retardants used and recent studies have highlighted their presence in various concentrations in different environmental matrices, including areas distant from production areas, and in human biological samples. Many doubts persist regarding exposure sources, toxicity, metabolism and transformation processes once these products are released into the environment. PMID:26722829

  3. A review of potential methods of determining critical effect size for designing environmental monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Munkittrick, Kelly R; Arens, Collin J; Lowell, Richard B; Kaminski, Greg P

    2009-07-01

    The effective design of field studies requires that sample size requirements be estimated for important endpoints before conducting assessments. This a priori calculation of sample size requires initial estimates for the variability of the endpoints of interest, decisions regarding significance levels and the power desired, and identification of an effect size to be detected. Although many programs have called for use of critical effect sizes (CES) in the design of monitoring programs, few attempts have been made to define them. This paper reviews approaches that have been or could be used to set specific CES. The ideal method for setting CES would be to define the level of protection that prevents ecologically relevant impacts and to set a warning level of change that would be more sensitive than that CES level to provide a margin of safety; however, few examples of this approach being applied exist. Program-specific CES could be developed through the use of numbers based on regulatory or detection limits, a number defined through stakeholder negotiation, estimates of the ranges of reference data, or calculation from the distribution of data using frequency plots or multivariate techniques. The CES that have been defined often are consistent with a CES of approximately 25%, or two standard deviations, for many biological or ecological monitoring endpoints, and this value appears to be reasonable for use in a wide variety of monitoring programs and with a wide variety of endpoints.

  4. Evaluation of possible goitrogenic and anti-thyroidal effect of nitrate, a potential environmental pollutant.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjukta; Ghosh, Dishari; Chatterjee, Aparajita; Sinha, Sanchari; Tripathy, Smritiratan; Chandra, Amar K

    2005-01-01

    Nitrate is a wide spread contaminant of ground and surface water. The source of nitrate in the ground water may be from run off or seepage from fertilized soil, municipal or industrial waste water, land fills, septic system, urban drainage or decaying plants. Human and animal systems are affected severely on nitrate exposure. The study was to investigate the effect of dietary nitrate exposure on the thyroid status along with the state of iodine nutrition. Rats were fed diet containing 3% potassium nitrate (KNO3) for 4 weeks and then thyroid status was evaluated by thyroid gland weight, urinary iodine excretion pattern, thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity, serum levels of total thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. In nitrate treated animals, the weight of thyroid gland was increased significantly (P<0.001) while thyroid peroxidase activity (P<0.01), serum T4 (P<0.01) and serum T3 levels (P<0.001) were reduced; but serum TSH level was increased (P<0.001) along with slightly elevated iodine excretion level (P<0.001) in comparison to control animals. The overall results indicated the development of a relative state of functional hypothyroidism with enlarged thyroid after nitrate exposure. This study can explain a part for the persistence of residual goitre in the post-salt iodization phase.

  5. Land and natural resource information and some potential environmental effects of surface mining of coal in the Gillette area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, William Richard; Hadley, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Campbell County, along the east margin of the Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming, contains more coal than any other county in the United States. The principal deposit is the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed. The bed is 50-100 feet (15-30 meters) thick over large areas, lies less than 200 feet (60 meters) deep in a north-south trending strip nearly 100 miles (161 kilometers) long and 2-3 miles (3-5 kilometers) wide, and contains an estimated 15 billion tons (13.6 billion metric tons) of sub-bituminous, low-sulfur coal that is presently considered to be accessible to surface mining. Extensive mining of this deposit has the potential for causing a variety of environmental impacts and has been a matter of much public concern and debate in recent years. An integrated program of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and related studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in central Campbell County provides basic information about the land and its resources, including (1) characteristics of the landscape, (2) properties of rocks and surface materials, (3) depth and thickness of coal, (4) streamflow, (5) depth to ground water, (6) quality of ground water, (7) sediment yield, (8) concentrations of trace elements in soils, rocks, coal, vegetation, and water, and (9) current land use. The data are used to analyze and predict some of the potential environmental effects of surface mining, such as the extent of land disturbance, nature and degree of landscape modification, and disruption of surface-water and ground-water systems. Advance knowledge and understanding of these and other problems are useful in the planning and regulation of future leasing, mining, reclamation, and related activities.

  6. Potentiation and antagonism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin effects in a complex environmental mixture.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Cutler, D S; O'Keefe, P W; Lipinskas, T

    1993-04-01

    There is increasing need to understand the toxicity of complex environmental mixtures. The organic phase of a leachate (OPL) from the Love Canal chemical dump site is a complex mixture that contains over 100 organic compounds, including 0.74 ppm 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Mice congenic at the Ah locus were used to evaluate several toxic effects of the OPL, including immune function and hepatic enzyme induction. OPL toxicity was compared with that of pure TCDD in both C57BL/6J Ahb/b and congenic C57BL/6 Ahd/d (B6.D2) mice. Mice were given single oral doses of up to 2 g OPL/kg or 100 micrograms TCDD/kg, immunized, and evaluated after 7 days. The TCDD equivalent of the OPL was determined to be 3.9 and 5.0 ppm in C57BL/6J and B6.D2 mice, respectively. This is six times the TCDD content. The Ah phenotype-dependent response ratio was calculated by dividing the dose required to cause an effect in the B6.D2 strain by the dose causing the same effect in the C57BL/6J strain. Ratios based on both ED50s and the lowest observed adverse effect levels were used to determine whether each adverse effect was Ah phenotype-dependent, the extent to which TCDD contributed to the effect, whether there were interactive effects between the AhR ligands and nonligands and if they were additive, antagonistic, or synergistic, and whether the response was predictable based on the known chemical composition of the mixture. It was concluded that the non-TCDD component potentiated TCDD immune suppression, and possibly thymic atrophy, through AhR mechanisms. In contrast, this analysis indicated that the non-TCDD component of the OPL antagonized the ability of the TCDD component to induce hepatic AHH activity whereas OPL hepatomegaly was caused primarily by the non-TCDD component of the OPL. This study demonstrates that the toxicity of mixtures containing TCDD may not be accurately predicted based on the TCDD content alone and that this approach could be useful in the toxicologic

  7. SPS microwave subsystem potential impacts and benefits. [environmental and societal effects of Solar Power System construction and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the possible environmental and societal effects of the construction, installation, and operation of the space end and earth end of the microwave power transmission subsystem that delivers satellite power system (SPS) energy (at about 5 GW per beam) to the power grid on earth. The intervening propagation medium near the earth is also considered. Separate consideration is given to the spacecraft transmitting array, propagation in the ionosphere, and the ground-based rectenna. Radio frequency interference aspects are also discussed.

  8. The potential impact of environmental variation on the concentrations and ecological effects of pollutants in a marine avian top predator.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, J O; Fauchald, P; Tveraa, T; Helberg, M; Skaare, J U

    2008-02-01

    season, no significant adverse relationships between OCs and fitness components were found. This study thus suggests that there are complex interrelationships between both concentrations and ecological effects of OCs, and the environment, indicating that effects of OCs in nature may only be assessed after considering environmental variation. PMID:17884166

  9. Environmental risk assessment of replication competent viral vectors applied in clinical trials: potential effects of inserted sequences.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Eric; van der Vlugt, Cecile J B; Bleijs, Diederik A; Bergmans, Hans E

    2013-12-01

    Risk assessments of clinical applications involving genetically modified viral vectors are carried out according to general principles that are implemented in many national and regional legislations, e.g., in Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Union. Recent developments in vector design have a large impact on the concepts that underpin the risk assessments of viral vectors that are used in clinical trials. The use of (conditionally) replication competent viral vectors (RCVVs) may increase the likelihood of the exposure of the environment around the patient, compared to replication defective viral vectors. Based on this assumption we have developed a methodology for the environmental risk assessment of replication competent viral vectors, which is presented in this review. Furthermore, the increased likelihood of exposure leads to a reevaluation of what would constitute a hazardous gene product in viral vector therapies, and a keen interest in new developments in the inserts used. One of the trends is the use of inserts produced by synthetic biology. In this review the implications of these developments for the environmental risk assessment of RCVVs are highlighted, with examples from current clinical trials. The conclusion is drawn that RCVVs, notwithstanding their replication competency, can be applied in an environmentally safe way, in particular if adequate built-in safeties are incorporated, like conditional replication competency, as mitigating factors to reduce adverse environmental effects that could occur.

  10. Onboard ship evaluation of the effectiveness and the potential environmental effects of PERACLEAN Ocean for ballast water treatment in very cold conditions.

    PubMed

    de Lafontaine, Y; Despatie, S-P; Veilleux, E; Wiley, C

    2009-02-01

    This study verified the effectiveness and the potential toxic impact of PERACLEAN Ocean ballast water treatment for very cold freshwater (0.1-0.5 degrees C) in real ballast tank (750 m(3)) conditions aboard a ship and in large-volume (4.5 m(3)) polyethylene tanks. Concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gradually dropped by 41-59% over 5 days. The treatment altered the quality of the treated waters by causing a pH drop of 0.9-1.3 units and a fourfold to sevenfold increase in dissolved organic carbon and organophosphates concentrations. More than 90% of the biomass of free-floating micro-organisms and viable phytoplankton were eliminated within 48 h after treatment. The treatment resulted in 100% mortality in caged fish exposed to treated waters but was totally ineffective against adult zebra mussels and some nematods living in tank sediments. Toxic response from ecotoxicological assays indicated that treated waters after 5 days should be diluted by a factor of 1:2 to 1:200 to reduce toxicity below selected endpoints of acute lethality tests. On the basis of PAA degradation rate, fresh waters treated with 100-ppm PERACLEAN Ocean should be kept in ballast tanks for 15-20 days after treatment to reduce toxicity. It is concluded that the treatment can be an effective biocide to rapidly eliminate organisms of the water column inside the ballast tanks over a wide range of environmental conditions, but that the discharge of the toxic treated waters should be properly managed to minimize potential environmental impact.

  11. Onboard ship evaluation of the effectiveness and the potential environmental effects of PERACLEAN Ocean for ballast water treatment in very cold conditions.

    PubMed

    de Lafontaine, Y; Despatie, S-P; Veilleux, E; Wiley, C

    2009-02-01

    This study verified the effectiveness and the potential toxic impact of PERACLEAN Ocean ballast water treatment for very cold freshwater (0.1-0.5 degrees C) in real ballast tank (750 m(3)) conditions aboard a ship and in large-volume (4.5 m(3)) polyethylene tanks. Concentrations of peracetic acid (PAA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) gradually dropped by 41-59% over 5 days. The treatment altered the quality of the treated waters by causing a pH drop of 0.9-1.3 units and a fourfold to sevenfold increase in dissolved organic carbon and organophosphates concentrations. More than 90% of the biomass of free-floating micro-organisms and viable phytoplankton were eliminated within 48 h after treatment. The treatment resulted in 100% mortality in caged fish exposed to treated waters but was totally ineffective against adult zebra mussels and some nematods living in tank sediments. Toxic response from ecotoxicological assays indicated that treated waters after 5 days should be diluted by a factor of 1:2 to 1:200 to reduce toxicity below selected endpoints of acute lethality tests. On the basis of PAA degradation rate, fresh waters treated with 100-ppm PERACLEAN Ocean should be kept in ballast tanks for 15-20 days after treatment to reduce toxicity. It is concluded that the treatment can be an effective biocide to rapidly eliminate organisms of the water column inside the ballast tanks over a wide range of environmental conditions, but that the discharge of the toxic treated waters should be properly managed to minimize potential environmental impact. PMID:18461552

  12. Long-term effects of early-life environmental manipulations in rodents and primates: Potential animal models in depression research.

    PubMed

    Pryce, Christopher R; Rüedi-Bettschen, Daniela; Dettling, Andrea C; Weston, Anna; Russig, Holger; Ferger, Boris; Feldon, Joram

    2005-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common human illnesses and is of immense clinical and economic significance. Knowledge of the neuro-psychology, -biology and -pharmacology of depression is limited, as is the efficacy of antidepressant treatment. In terms of depression aetiology, whilst the evidence for causal mechanisms is sparse, some genomic and environmental factors associated with increased vulnerability have been identified. With regards to the latter, the environments in which human infants and children develop are fundamental to how they develop, and parental loss, emotional and physical neglect, and abuse have been shown to be associated with: traits of depression, traits of predisposition to depression triggered by subsequent life events, and associated physiological abnormalities, across the life span. Studies of postnatal environmental manipulations in rodents and primates can potentially yield evidence that abnormal early-life experience leading to dysfunction of the neurobiology, physiology and behaviour of emotion is a general mammalian characteristic, and therefore, that this approach can be used to develop animal models for depression research, with aetiological, face, construct and predictive validity. The establishment of models with such validity, if at all achievable, will require a sophisticated combination of (1) appropriate postnatal manipulations that induce acute stress responses in the infant brain which in turn lead to long-term neurobiological consequences, and (2) appropriate behavioural and physiological assays to identify and quantify any depression-like phenotypes resulting from these long-term neurobiological phenotypes. Here, we review some of the evidence-positive and negative-that neglect-like environments in rat pups and monkey infants lead to long-term, depression-like behavioural traits of reduced motivation for reward and impaired coping with adversity, and to altered activity in relevant physiological homeostatic systems. PMID

  13. Toxicological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on sediment-associated biota: 1994 Revision. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.N. |; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-06-01

    Because a hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a Screening Assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, more analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. This report briefly describes three categories of approaches to the development of sediment quality benchmarks. These approaches are based on analytical chemistry, toxicity test and field survey data. A fourth integrative approach incorporates all three types of data. The equilibrium partitioning approach is recommended for screening nonpolar organic contaminants of concern in sediments. For inorganics, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has developed benchmarks that may be used for screening. There are supplemental benchmarks from the province of Ontario, the state of Wisconsin, and US Environmental Protection Agency Region V. Pore water analysis is recommended for polar organic compounds; comparisons are then made against water quality benchmarks. This report is an update of a prior report. It contains revised ER-L and ER-M values, the five EPA proposed sediment quality criteria, and benchmarks calculated for several nonionic organic chemicals using equilibrium partitioning.

  14. Toxic effects of potential environmental neurotoxins related to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium on cultured rat dopaminergic neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, P.P.; Dandapani, B.K.; Sanchez-Ramos, J.; Efange, S.; Pressman, B.C.; Hefti, F.

    1989-02-01

    Dopaminergic rat mesencephalic neurons in culture were exposed to a group of potential environmental neurotoxins. These cultures, which contained 0.5 to 1% dopaminergic neurons, were a suitable tool for determining nonselective and selective dopaminergic cytotoxicity. Selective toxicity was quantitated as the concentration which destroyed half of the population of dopaminergic neurons as visualized by tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry. Nonselective toxicity was defined as the concentration of test drug which destroyed half of the entire population of cultured cells as visualized by phase contrast microscopy. The compounds tested were selected to fulfill two molecular criteria underlying the toxic activity of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), the active metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toward dopaminergic cells: 1) to be a substrate for the selective uptake system of the dopaminergic neurons and 2) to possess a delocalized positive charge related to their ability to inhibit mitochondrial electron transport. Of a total number of 29 compounds tested, MPP+ and its close derivatives, 2'-methyl-MPP+ and p-amino-MPP+, exhibited highly selective dopaminergic toxicity, hence the requirements for a selective dopaminergic neurotoxin are rather strict.

  15. Investigating potential for effects of environmental endocrine disrupters on wild populations of amphibians in UK and Japan: status of historical databases and review of methods.

    PubMed

    Pickford, Daniel B; Larroze, Severine; Takase, Minoru; Mitsui, Naoko; Tooi, Osamu; Santo, Noriaki

    2007-01-01

    Concern over global declines among amphibians has resulted in increased interest in the effects of environmental contaminants on amphibian populations, and more recently, this has stimulated research on the potential adverse effects of environmental endocrine disrupters in amphibians. Laboratory studies of the effects of single chemicals on endocrine-relevant endpoints in amphibian, mainly anuran, models are valuable in characterizing sensitivity at the individual level and may yield useful bioassays for screening chemicals for endocrine toxicity (for example, thyroid disrupting activity). Nevertheless, in the UK and Japan as in many other countries, it has yet to be demonstrated unequivocally that the exposure of native amphibians to endocrine disrupting environmental contaminants results in adverse effects at the population level. Assessing the potential of such effects is likely to require an ecoepidemiological approach to investigate associations between predicted or actual exposure of amphibians to (endocrine disrupting) environmental contaminants and biologically meaningful responses at the population level. In turn, this demands recent but relatively long-term population trend data. We review two potential sources of such data for widespread UK anurans that could be used in such investigations: records for common frogs and common toads in several databases maintained by the Biological Records Centre (UK Government Centre for Ecology and Hydrology), and adult toad count data from 'Toads on Roads' schemes registered with the UK wildlife charity 'Froglife'. There were little abundance data in the BRC databases that could be used for this purpose, while count data from the Toads on Roads schemes is potentially confounded by the effects of local topology on the detection probabilities and operation of nonchemical anthropogenic stressors. For Japan, local and regional surveys of amphibians and national ecological censuses gathering amphibian data were reviewed to

  16. Benthic N2 fixation in coral reefs and the potential effects of human-induced environmental change.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Ulisse; Bednarz, Vanessa N; Foster, Rachel A; Wild, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Tropical coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse ecosystems, despite being surrounded by ocean waters where nutrients are in short supply. Benthic dinitrogen (N2) fixation is a significant internal source of "new" nitrogen (N) in reef ecosystems, but related information appears to be sparse. Here, we review the current state (and gaps) of knowledge on N2 fixation associated with coral reef organisms and their ecosystems. By summarizing the existing literature, we show that benthic N2 fixation is an omnipresent process in tropical reef environments. Highest N2 fixation rates are detected in reef-associated cyanobacterial mats and sea grass meadows, clearly showing the significance of these functional groups, if present, to the input of new N in reef ecosystems. Nonetheless, key benthic organisms such as hard corals also importantly contribute to benthic N2 fixation in the reef. Given the usually high coral coverage of healthy reef systems, these results indicate that benthic symbiotic associations may be more important than previously thought. In fact, mutualisms between carbon (C) and N2 fixers have likely evolved that may enable reef communities to mitigate N limitation. We then explore the potential effects of the increasing human interferences on the process of benthic reef N2 fixation via changes in diazotrophic populations, enzymatic activities, or availability of benthic substrates favorable to these microorganisms. Current knowledge indicates positive effects of ocean acidification, warming, and deoxygenation and negative effects of increased ultraviolet radiation on the amount of N fixed in coral reefs. Eutrophication may either boost or suppress N2 fixation, depending on the nutrient becoming limiting. As N2 fixation appears to play a fundamental role in nutrient-limited reef ecosystems, these assumptions need to be expanded and confirmed by future research efforts addressing the knowledge gaps identified in this review.

  17. Benthic N2 fixation in coral reefs and the potential effects of human-induced environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Cardini, Ulisse; Bednarz, Vanessa N; Foster, Rachel A; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tropical coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse ecosystems, despite being surrounded by ocean waters where nutrients are in short supply. Benthic dinitrogen (N2) fixation is a significant internal source of “new” nitrogen (N) in reef ecosystems, but related information appears to be sparse. Here, we review the current state (and gaps) of knowledge on N2 fixation associated with coral reef organisms and their ecosystems. By summarizing the existing literature, we show that benthic N2 fixation is an omnipresent process in tropical reef environments. Highest N2 fixation rates are detected in reef-associated cyanobacterial mats and sea grass meadows, clearly showing the significance of these functional groups, if present, to the input of new N in reef ecosystems. Nonetheless, key benthic organisms such as hard corals also importantly contribute to benthic N2 fixation in the reef. Given the usually high coral coverage of healthy reef systems, these results indicate that benthic symbiotic associations may be more important than previously thought. In fact, mutualisms between carbon (C) and N2 fixers have likely evolved that may enable reef communities to mitigate N limitation. We then explore the potential effects of the increasing human interferences on the process of benthic reef N2 fixation via changes in diazotrophic populations, enzymatic activities, or availability of benthic substrates favorable to these microorganisms. Current knowledge indicates positive effects of ocean acidification, warming, and deoxygenation and negative effects of increased ultraviolet radiation on the amount of N fixed in coral reefs. Eutrophication may either boost or suppress N2 fixation, depending on the nutrient becoming limiting. As N2 fixation appears to play a fundamental role in nutrient-limited reef ecosystems, these assumptions need to be expanded and confirmed by future research efforts addressing the knowledge gaps identified in this review. PMID:24967086

  18. Potentiating effect of graphene nanomaterials on aromatic environmental pollutant-induced cytochrome P450 1A expression in the topminnow fish hepatoma cell line PLHC-1.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Tobias; Boisseaux, Paul; Navas, José M

    2015-09-01

    Graphene and its derivatives are an emerging class of carbon nanomaterial with great potential for a broad range of industrial and consumer applications. However, their increasing production and use is expected to result in release of nano-sized graphene platelets into the environment, where they may interact with chemical pollutants modifying their fate and toxic potential. The objective of this study was to assess whether graphene nanoplatelets can act as vector for aromatic environmental pollutants increasing their cellular uptake and associated hazardous effects in vitro. For this purpose, cell cultures of the topminnow fish (Poeciliopsis lucida) hepatoma cell line PLHC-1 were simultaneously (and successively) exposed to graphene nanoplatelets (graphene oxide (GO) or carboxyl graphene (CXYG)) and an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist (β-naphthoflavone (β-NF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF) or 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB169)). Following exposure cytochrome P450 1A (Cyp1A) induction was assessed by measuring cyp1A mRNA expression levels using reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Cyp1A-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. It was observed that pre- and co-exposure of cells to GO and CXYG nanoplatelets had a potentiating effect on β-NF, BkF, and PCB169-dependent Cyp1A induction suggesting that graphene nanoplatelets increase the effective concentration of AhR agonists by facilitating their passive diffusion into the cells by damaging the cells' plasma membrane and/or by transporting them over the plasma membrane via a Trojan horse-like mechanism. The results demonstrate the existence of combination effects between nanomaterials and environmental pollutants and stress the importance of considering these effects when evaluating their respective hazard.

  19. Potential environmental impacts of future halocarbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, K.J.; Ellis, J.H.

    1996-08-01

    An integrated analysis of future halocarbon emissions and their environmental impacts shows that strict global compliance is required if the Montreal Protocol is to accomplish the goal of eliminating the lower stratospheric ozone hole. This analysis is integrated in the sense that demographic, economic, and regulatory processes controlling future production were linked explicitly to the technological factors translating production into emissions and the environmental processes transforming emissions into environmental impacts. Given current models of halocarbon transformation and atmospheric response, this research suggests that if a small percentage of nations continues to expand production at modest rates, the ozone hole will not be eliminated. In addition, high growth rate assumptions for halocarbon production by noncompliance nations will result in significantly increased ozone depletion. This research also shows that the continued use of small amounts of ozone-depleting substances for essential uses and the failure to adequately replace all ozone-depleting substances can eliminate the possibility of returning the atmosphere to pre-ozone hole conditions. The global climate change potential of halocarbons is fairly small if growth rates for chlorofluorocarbon substitutes remain low. If growth rates return to precontrol levels, these substitutes could contribute significantly to global climate change. 41 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. E.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of an NRA funded program entitled Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase that received funding through a NASA NRA (NRA8-31) and was monitored by personnel in the NASA Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Program. The NASA Project number was 02029. The Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase (SCMOK) was created as a part of the earlier NRA8-20. One of the previous tasks and part of the previously developed Knowledgebase was to accumulate data from facilities using QCMs to measure the outgassing data for satellite materials. The main object of this current program was to increase the number of material outgassing datasets from 250 up to approximately 500. As a part of this effort, a round-robin series of materials outgassing measurements program was also executed that allowed comparison of the results for the same materials tested in 10 different test facilities. Other programs tasks included obtaining datasets or information packages for 1) optical effects of contaminants on optical surfaces, thermal radiators, and sensor systems and 2) space environmental effects data and incorporating these data into the already existing NASA/SEE Knowledgebase.

  1. Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.; Mahood, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Many chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. Many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Chrysophyte cysts have the potential to be a useful tool for modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits. -from Authors

  2. Environmental Effects of BPA

    PubMed Central

    Canesi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research on bisphenol A (BPA) as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection. PMID:26674307

  3. Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic information systems in assessing environmental health and equity.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana

    2002-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used increasingly to map instances of environmental injustice, the disproportionate exposure of certain populations to environmental hazards. Some of the technical and analytic difficulties of mapping environmental injustice are outlined in this article, along with suggestions for using GIS to better assess and predict environmental health and equity. I examine 13 GIS-based environmental equity studies conducted within the past decade and use a study of noxious land use locations in the Bronx, New York, to illustrate and evaluate the differences in two common methods of determining exposure extent and the characteristics of proximate populations. Unresolved issues in mapping environmental equity and health include lack of comprehensive hazards databases; the inadequacy of current exposure indices; the need to develop realistic methodologies for determining the geographic extent of exposure and the characteristics of the affected populations; and the paucity and insufficiency of health assessment data. GIS have great potential to help us understand the spatial relationship between pollution and health. Refinements in exposure indices; the use of dispersion modeling and advanced proximity analysis; the application of neighborhood-scale analysis; and the consideration of other factors such as zoning and planning policies will enable more conclusive findings. The environmental equity studies reviewed in this article found a disproportionate environmental burden based on race and/or income. It is critical now to demonstrate correspondence between environmental burdens and adverse health impacts--to show the disproportionate effects of pollution rather than just the disproportionate distribution of pollution sources. PMID:11929725

  4. Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage in swallows from the Rio Grande and Somerville, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sitzlar, M.A.; Mora, M.A.; Fleming, J.G.W.; Bazer, F.W.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and cave swallows (P. fulva) were sampled during the breeding season at several locations in the Rio Grande, Texas, to evaluate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity in brain and gonads and DNA damage in blood cells. The tritiated water-release aromatase assay was used to measure aromatase activity and flow cytometry was used to measure DNA damage in nucleated blood cells. There were no significant differences in brain and gonadal aromatase activities or in estimates of DNA damage (HPCV values) among cave swallow colonies from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) and Somerville. However, both brain and gonadal aromatase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in male cliff swallows from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Also, DNA damage estimates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cliff swallows (males and females combined) from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Contaminants of current high use in the LRGV, such as atrazine, and some of the highly persistent organochlorines, such as toxaphene and DDE, could be potentially associated with modulation of aromatase activity in avian tissues. Previous studies have indicated possible DNA damage in cliff swallows. We did not observe any differences in aromatase activity or DNA damage in cave swallows that could be associated with contaminant exposure. Also, the differences in aromatase activity and DNA damage between male cliff swallows from Laredo and Somerville could not be explained by contaminants measured at each site in previous studies. Our study provides baseline information on brain and gonadal aromatase activity in swallows that could be useful in future studies. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. A geochemical investigation into the effect of coal rank on the potential environmental effects of CO2 sequestration in deep coal beds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Coal samples of different rank were extracted in the laboratory with supercritical CO2 to evaluate the potential for mobilizing hydrocarbons during CO2 sequestration or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from deep coal beds. The concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons mobilized from the subbituminous C, high-volatile C bituminous, and anthracite coal samples were 41.2, 43.1, and 3.11 ?g g-1 dry coal, respectively. Substantial, but lower, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were mobilized from these samples: 2.19, 10.1, and 1.44 ?g g-1 dry coal, respectively. The hydrocarbon distributions within the aliphatic and aromatic fractions obtained from each coal sample also varied with coal rank and reflected changes to the coal matrix associated with increasing degree of coalification. Bitumen present within the coal matrix may affect hydrocarbon partitioning between coal and supercritical CO2. The coal samples continued to yield hydrocarbons during consecutive extractions with supercritical CO2. The amount of hydrocarbons mobilized declined with each successive extraction, and the relative proportion of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons increased during successive extractions. These results demonstrate that the potential for mobilizing hydrocarbons from coal beds, and the effect of coal rank on this process, are important to consider when evaluating coal beds for CO2 storage.

  6. Potential environmental benefits of prospective genetic changes in broiler traits.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-02-01

    A system approach-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework, combined with a simple mechanistic model of bird energy balance was used to predict the potential effects of 15 y prospective broiler breeding on the environmental impacts of the standard UK broiler production system. The year 2014 Ross 308 genotype was used as a baseline, and a future scenario was specified from rates of genetic improvement predicted by the industry. The scenario included changes in the traits of growth rate (reducing the time to reach a target weight 2.05 kg from 34 d to 27 d), body lipid content, carcass yield, mortality and the number of chicks produced by a breeder hen. Diet composition was adjusted in order to accommodate the future nutrient requirements of the birds following the genetic change. The results showed that predicted changes in biological performance due to selective breeding could lead to reduced environmental impacts of the broiler production chain, most notably in the Eutrophication Potential (by 12%), Acidification Potential (by 10%) and Abiotic Resource Use (by 9%) and Global Warming Potential (by 9%). These reductions were mainly caused by the reduced maintenance energy requirement and thus lower feed intake, resulting from the shorter production cycle, together with the increased carcass yield. However, some environmental benefits were limited by the required changes in feed composition (e.g., increased inclusion of soy meal and vegetable oil) as a result of the changes in bird nutrient requirements. This study is the first one aiming to link the mechanistic animal modeling approach to predicted genetic changes in order to produce quantitative estimates of the future environmental impacts of broiler production. Although a more detailed understanding on the mechanisms of the potential changes in bird performance and their consequences on feeding and husbandry would be still be needed, the modeling framework produced in this study provides a starting point for

  7. Potential environmental benefits of prospective genetic changes in broiler traits.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-02-01

    A system approach-based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) framework, combined with a simple mechanistic model of bird energy balance was used to predict the potential effects of 15 y prospective broiler breeding on the environmental impacts of the standard UK broiler production system. The year 2014 Ross 308 genotype was used as a baseline, and a future scenario was specified from rates of genetic improvement predicted by the industry. The scenario included changes in the traits of growth rate (reducing the time to reach a target weight 2.05 kg from 34 d to 27 d), body lipid content, carcass yield, mortality and the number of chicks produced by a breeder hen. Diet composition was adjusted in order to accommodate the future nutrient requirements of the birds following the genetic change. The results showed that predicted changes in biological performance due to selective breeding could lead to reduced environmental impacts of the broiler production chain, most notably in the Eutrophication Potential (by 12%), Acidification Potential (by 10%) and Abiotic Resource Use (by 9%) and Global Warming Potential (by 9%). These reductions were mainly caused by the reduced maintenance energy requirement and thus lower feed intake, resulting from the shorter production cycle, together with the increased carcass yield. However, some environmental benefits were limited by the required changes in feed composition (e.g., increased inclusion of soy meal and vegetable oil) as a result of the changes in bird nutrient requirements. This study is the first one aiming to link the mechanistic animal modeling approach to predicted genetic changes in order to produce quantitative estimates of the future environmental impacts of broiler production. Although a more detailed understanding on the mechanisms of the potential changes in bird performance and their consequences on feeding and husbandry would be still be needed, the modeling framework produced in this study provides a starting point for

  8. Assessing potential future environmental legal events

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Petrich, C.

    1997-10-28

    This report addresses the topic of environmental citizenship in the United States. The term refers to responsibilities each of us have with respect to helping our communities and nation make sound environmental decisions. This research centers on the citizens and what we ought to be doing, as opposed to what the government ought to be doing for us, to improve environmental citizenship. This report examines four central questions: What are the requirements (i.e., responsibilities) of citizenship vis-a-vis environmental decision- making processes; what constraints limit people`s ability to meet these requirements; what does our form of governance do to help or hinder in meeting these requirements; and what recommendations can be put forth to improve public participation in environmental decision making?

  9. The environmental effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1988-09-01

    Substantial environmental disruption will significantly add to the disastrous consequences caused by the direct thermal, blast, and radiological effects brought on by a major nuclear war. Local fallout could cover several percent of the Northern Hemisphere with potentially lethal doses. Smoke from post-nuclear fires could darken the skies and induce temperature decreases of tens of degrees in continental interiors. Stratospheric ozone could be significantly reduced due to nitric oxide injections and smoke-induced circulation changes. The environmental effects spread the consequences of a nuclear war to the world population, adding to the potentially large disruptive effects a further reason to avoid such a catastrophe. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Effective Campus Environmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Ann; Creighton, Sarah Hammond

    2003-01-01

    Examines environmental assessments as a decision-making tool, distinguishing broad-based, targeted, and goal-oriented efforts as the three types most commonly practiced on campuses. Discusses benefits and problems associated with these approaches and concludes that the goal-oriented approach is most likely to be successful. Describes Tufts…

  11. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-04-10

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources.

  12. Identifying potential areas for biofuel production and evaluating the environmental effects: a case study of the James River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Li, Zhengpeng

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are now an important resource in the United States because of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Both increased corn growth for ethanol production and perennial dedicated energy crop growth for cellulosic feedstocks are potential sources to meet the rising demand for biofuels. However, these measures may cause adverse environmental consequences that are not yet fully understood. This study 1) evaluates the long-term impacts of increased frequency of corn in the crop rotation system on water quantity and quality as well as soil fertility in the James River Basin and 2) identifies potential grasslands for cultivating bioenergy crops (e.g. switchgrass), estimating the water quality impacts. We selected the soil and water assessment tool, a physically based multidisciplinary model, as the modeling approach to simulate a series of biofuel production scenarios involving crop rotation and land cover changes. The model simulations with different crop rotation scenarios indicate that decreases in water yield and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration along with an increase in NO3-N load to stream water could justify serious concerns regarding increased corn rotations in this basin. Simulations with land cover change scenarios helped us spatially classify the grasslands in terms of biomass productivity and nitrogen loads, and we further derived the relationship of biomass production targets and the resulting nitrogen loads against switchgrass planting acreages. The suggested economically efficient (planting acreage) and environmentally friendly (water quality) planting locations and acreages can be a valuable guide for cultivating switchgrass in this basin. This information, along with the projected environmental costs (i.e. reduced water yield and increased nitrogen load), can contribute to decision support tools for land managers to seek the sustainability of biofuel development in this region.

  13. Comparison of herbicide regimes and the associated potential environmental effects of glyphosate-resistant crops versus what they replace in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kleter, Gijs A; Harris, Caroline; Stephenson, Gerry; Unsworth, John

    2008-04-01

    While cultivation of transgenic crops takes place in seven of the EU member states, this constitutes a relatively limited part of the total acreage planted to these crops worldwide. The only glyphosate-resistant (GR) crop grown commercially until recently has been soybean in Romania. In addition, large-scale experimental European data exist for GR sugar and fodder beets, and, to a lesser extent, GR oilseed rape. These GR crops are likely to have an impact both on the use of herbicides and on the environmental impact of the latter. From the data on these GR crops, it appears that quantities of herbicides applied to GR beets are decreased while those on GR soybean are slightly increased compared with their conventional counterparts. Depending on the parameters used for prediction or measurement of environmental impacts of GR crops, generally similar or less negative impacts were observed compared with conventional crops. Favourable environmental effects of the glyphosate-containing herbicide regimes on GR crops appear feasible, provided appropriate measures for maintaining biodiversity and prevention of volunteers and gene flow are applied.

  14. Environmental effects of dredging. Role of contaminant uptake in the potential use of phragmites australis (cav.) trin. On confined disposal facilities. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Folsom, B.L.; VanDerWerff, M.

    1988-12-01

    PURPOSE: Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin., common reed, is a plant species that is common to fresh- and brackish-water marshes of the world. P. australis has been recommended as one plant species that could survive and grow after being completely buried during dredged material disposal (Lee et al. 1976). P. australis can also serve as a physical barrier, because of its strong stems, to dredged material flow during hydraulic disposal. Decreasing dredged material flow helps to increase consolidation of hydraulically dredged material (Lee et al. 1976). P. australis is a plant species recommended for habitat development on dredged material disposal sites (Hunt et al. 1978). Plant establishment on marsh creation projects using uncontaminated dredged material poses little threat of increasing environmental cycling of contaminants. However, plant establishment or natural invasion of plants on contaminated dredged material has the potential for increased environmental cycling (mobility) of contaminants. Therefore, a literature review was conducted to determine contaminant uptake by P. australis since many dredged material disposal sites support lush stands of P. australis and contaminant uptake by this species was unknown.

  15. Environmental Effects in Advanced Intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1998-11-24

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of environmental embrittlement in iron and nickel aluminizes. The embrittlement involves the interaction of these intermetallics with moisture in air and generation of atomic hydrogen, resulting in hydrogen-induced embrittlement at ambient temperatures. Environmental embrittlement promotes brittle grain-boundary fracture in Ni{sub 3}Al alloys but brittle cleavage fracture in Fe{sub 3}Al-FeAl alloys. The embrittlement strongly depends on strain rate, with tensile-ductility increase with increasing strain rate. It has been demonstrated that environmental embrittlement can be alleviated by alloying additions, surface modifications, and control of grain size and shape. Boron tends to segregate strongly to grain boundaries and is most effective in suppressing environmental embrittlement in Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. The mechanistic understanding of alloy effects and environmental embrittlement has led to the development of nickel and iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for structural use at elevated temperatures in hostile environments.

  16. Space environmental effects on materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwinghmaer, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of long life platforms and structures for space is discussed in terms of the space environmental effects on the materials used. Vacuum, ultraviolet radiation, and charged particle radiation are among the factors considered. Research oriented toward the acquisition of long term environmental effects data needed to support the design and development of large low Earth orbit and geosynchronous Earth orbit space platforms and systems is described.

  17. Workshop summary: Space environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, A.; Anspaugh, B. E.

    1991-01-01

    The workshop on Space Environmental Effects is summarized. The underlying concern of the group was related to the question of how well laboratory tests correlate with actual experience in space. The discussion ranged over topics pertaining to tests involving radiation, atomic oxygen, high voltage plasmas, contamination in low earth orbit, and new environmental effects that may have to be considered on arrays used for planetary surface power systems.

  18. Molecular Modeling of Environmentally Important Processes: Reduction Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne; Bumpus, John A.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Cramer, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing use of computational quantum chemistry in the modeling of environmentally important processes is described. The employment of computational quantum mechanics for the prediction of oxidation-reduction potential for solutes in an aqueous medium is discussed.

  19. Ecological effects of environmental change.

    PubMed

    Luque, Gloria M; Hochberg, Michael E; Holyoak, Marcel; Hossaert, Martine; Gaill, Françoise; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-05-01

    This Special Issue of Ecology Letters presents contributions from an international meeting organised by Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and Ecology Letters on the broad theme of ecological effects of global environmental change. The objectives of these articles are to synthesise, hypothesise and illustrate the ecological effects of environmental change drivers and their interactions, including habitat loss and fragmentation, pollution, invasive species and climate change. A range of disciplines is represented, including stoichiometry, cell biology, genetics, evolution and biodiversity conservation. The authors emphasise the need to account for several key ecological factors and different spatial and temporal scales in global change research. They also stress the importance of ecosystem complexity through approaches such as functional group and network analyses, and of mechanisms and predictive models with respect to environmental responses to global change across an ecological continuum: population, communities and ecosystems. Lastly, these articles provide important insights and recommendations for environmental conservation and management, as well as highlighting future research priorities.

  20. Distribution of multidirectional environmental effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bitner-Gregersen, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    An extension of the joint environmental model developed for Haltenbanken (off central Norway) is presented. The existing model is limited to the following environmental parameters: 1-hour mean wind speed, current speed, significant wave height (sea and swell), spectral peak period (sea and swell), the main wave direction (wind and current are assumed to be collinear with the main wave direction) and sea water level. The model has been based on experience gained from measurements and hindcast data from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The extension of the joint environmental model includes the possibility of environmental effects approaching from different directions. It is based on hindcast data and developed for severe weather conditions. A procedure for inclusion a lower limit in the wave period distribution, as an alternative to application of a double peak spectrum, is also proposed. The model is meant to provide an input to reliability analysis of offshore structures.

  1. Environmental toxicity and radioactivity assessment of a titanium-processing residue with potential for environmental use.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Laura A; Binet, Monique T; Yuan, Zheng; Gissi, Francesca; Koppel, Darren J; Adams, Merrin S

    2013-07-01

    Thorough examination of the physicochemical characteristics of a Ti-processing residue was undertaken, including mineralogical, geochemical, and radiochemical characterization, and an investigation of the environmental toxicity of soft-water leachate generated from the residue. Concentrations of most metals measured in the leachate were low; thus, the residue is unlikely to leach high levels of potentially toxic elements on exposure to low-ionic strength natural waters. Relative to stringent ecosystem health-based guidelines, only chromium concentrations in the leachate exceeded guideline concentrations for 95% species protection; however, sulfate was present at concentrations known to cause toxicity. It is likely that the high concentration of calcium and extreme water hardness of the leachate reduced the bioavailability of some elements. Geochemical modeling of the leachate indicated that calcium and sulfate concentrations were largely controlled by gypsum mineral dissolution. The leachate was not toxic to the microalga Chlorella sp., the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, or the estuarine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The Ti-processing residue exhibited an absorbed dose rate of 186 nGy/h, equivalent to an annual dose of 1.63 mGy and an annual effective dose of 0.326 mGy. In summary, the results indicate that the Ti-processing residue examined is suitable for productive use as an environmental amendment following 10 to 100 times dilution to ameliorate potential toxic effects due to chromium or sulfate.

  2. Effective potential and quadratic divergences

    SciTech Connect

    Einhorn, M.B. ); Jones, D.R.T. )

    1992-12-01

    We use the effective potential to give a simple derivation of Veltman's formula for the quadratic divergence in the Higgs self-energy. We also comment on the effect of going beyond the one-loop approximation.

  3. Coupling a high resolution soil erosion model with an agro-ecosystem model of SOC dynamics. An approach to assess the potential environmental effect of the new Common Agricultural Policy on soil degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, Pasqualle; Paustian, Keith; Panagos, Panos; Jones, Arwyn; Schütt, Brigitta; Lugato, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    At the European Union level, the main mechanisms to promote a more sustainable and environmentally friendly agriculture was introduced by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform in 2003, through the Cross-compliance. According to this new regulation, the farmer support payments were regulated with respect to environmental, animal welfare and food safety standards. This brought to the Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC), firstly established by Council Regulation No. 1782/2003 and subsequently Council Regulation (EC) No 73/2009. The prevention of soil erosion and maintenance of soil organic matter were two of GAEC requirements, which each Member State was obliged to address through national standards such as: i) minimal soil cover maintenance (GAEC 4); ii) minimum land management reflecting site specific conditions to limit soil loss (GAEC 5) and iii) maintenance of soil organic matter level through appropriate practices including ban on burning arable stubbles (GAEC 6). Although Member States are required to verify whether the farmers are compliant with the regulations (Cross-compliance), the environmental effect of Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC) applications on erosion and carbon budgets are still little known and studied. To investigate the potential impacts of the GAEC, we coupled a high resolution erosion model based on Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with the CENTURY biogeochemical model (Land Use Policy, 50, 408-421; 2016). The Italian arable land was selected as a study area, since it is well-known to be highly sensitive to soil erosion. Multi scenario modelling approach was undertaken, i.e., i) a baseline scenario without scenario excluding GAEC (pre 2003 period); ii) a present scenario including the current GAEC standards (post 2003 period), and iii) a technical potential scenario assuming that the GAEC standards were applied to the entire Italian arable land. The results show a 10.8% decrease, from

  4. NEURODEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurodevelopmental Effects of Environmental Exposures
    Sherry G. Selevan, Pauline Mendola, Deborah C. Rice (US EPA, Washington,
    DC)

    The nervous system starts development early in gestation and continues to develop through adolescence. Thus, critical windows of vuln...

  5. Place Effects on Environmental Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Lawrence C.; Colocousis, Chris R.; Duncan, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    How people respond to questions involving the environment depends partly on individual characteristics. Characteristics such as age, gender, education, and ideology constitute the well-studied "social bases of environmental concern," which have been explained in terms of cohort effects or of cognitive and cultural factors related to social…

  6. Toxicological benchmark for screening of potential contaminants of concern for effects on aquatic biota on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Futrell, M.A.; Kerchner, G.A.

    1992-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment of hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration. This report presents potential screening benchmarks for protection of aquatic life from contaminants in water. Because there is no guidance for screening benchmarks, a set of alternative benchmarks is presented here. The alternative benchmarks are based on different conceptual approaches to estimating concentrations causing significant effects. To the extent that toxicity data are available, this report presents the alternative benchmarks for chemicals that have been detected on the Oak Ridge Reservation. It also presents the data used to calculate the benchmarks, and the sources of the data. It compares the benchmarks and discusses their relative conservatism and utility.

  7. Potential environmental implications of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles for environmental remediation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min-Hee; Lim, Myunghee; Hwang, Yu Sik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles are widely used in the field of various environmental contaminant remediation. Although the potential benefits of nZVI are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential risks after environmental exposure. In this respect, we review recent studies on the environmental applications and implications of nZVI, highlighting research gaps and suggesting future research directions. Methods Environmental application of nZVI is briefly summarized, focusing on its unique properties. Ecotoxicity of nZVI is reviewed according to type of organism, including bacteria, terrestrial organisms, and aquatic organisms. The environmental fate and transport of nZVI are also summarized with regards to exposure scenarios. Finally, the current limitations of risk determination are thoroughly provided. Results The ecotoxicity of nZVI depends on the composition, concentration, size and surface properties of the nanoparticles and the experimental method used, including the species investigated. In addition, the environmental fate and transport of nZVI appear to be complex and depend on the exposure duration and the exposure conditions. To date, field-scale data are limited and only short-term studies using simple exposure methods have been conducted. Conclusions In this regard, the primary focus of future study should be on 1) the development of an appropriate and valid testing method of the environmental fate and ecotoxicity of reactive nanoparticles used in environmental applications and 2) assessing their potential environmental risks using in situ field scale applications. PMID:25518840

  8. Effects of added chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract in horses: II. Nutrient excretion and potential environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M E; Edwards, M S; Sweeney, C R; Jerina, M L

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that an equine diet formulated with chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials (DFM) and Yucca schidigera extract would decrease excretion of nutrients that have potential for environmental impact. Horses were acclimated to 100% pelleted diets formulated with (ADD) and without (CTRL) the aforementioned additives. Chelated sources of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co were included in the ADD diet at a 100% replacement rate of sulfate forms used in the CTRL diet. Additionally, the ADD diet included organic selenium yeast, DFM, and Yucca schidigera extract. Ten horses were fed the 2 experimental diets during two 42-d periods in a crossover design. Total fecal and urine collection occurred during the last 14 d of each period. Results indicate no significant differences between Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co concentrations excreted via urine (P > 0.05) due to dietary treatment. There was no difference between fecal Cu and Mn concentrations (P > 0.05) based on diet consumed. Mean fecal Zn and Co concentrations excreted by horses consuming ADD were greater than CTRL (P < 0.003). Differences due to diet were found for selenium fecal (P < 0.0001) and urine (P < 0.0001) excretions, with decreased concentrations found for horses consuming organic selenium yeast (ADD). In contrast, fecal K (%) was greater (P = 0.0421) for horses consuming ADD, whereas concentrations of fecal solids, total N, ammonia N, P, total ammonia, and fecal output did not differ between dietary treatments (P > 0.05). In feces stockpiled to simulate a crude composting method, no differences (P > 0.05) due to diet were detected for particle size, temperature, moisture, OM, total N, P, phosphate, K, moisture, potash, or ammonia N (P > 0.05). Although no difference (P = 0.2737) in feces stockpile temperature due to diet was found, temperature differences over time were documented (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the addition of certain chelated

  9. Environmental surface cleanliness and the potential for contamination during handwashing.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Christopher J; Malik, Rifhat; Cooper, Rose A; Looker, Nick; Michaels, Barry

    2003-04-01

    Effective handwashing (including drying) is important in infection control. The ability of the various stages of handwashing to decrease skin-surface microbial counts has been documented. However, an important element, environmental surface cleanliness, and the potential for contamination of hands during the process has not been well studied or quantified. An examination of the adenosine triphosphate (a measure of residual organic soil), bacterial, and staphylococcal load on ward handwash station surfaces, which could be touched during handwashing, is reported. Hand contact surfaces tested consisted of approximately 620 each of: faucet handles, soap dispenser activator mechanisms, and folded paper-towel dispenser exits. Failure rates in excess of benchmark clean values were higher with adenosine triphosphate assays than microbial counts. This could indicate the presence of a higher level of general organic debris (eg, skin cells) as opposed to microbial contamination or could reflect greater assay sensitivity. Faucet handles were more likely to be contaminated and be in excess of benchmark values than paper-towel dispenser exits. However, the latter are likely to be the final surface touched during the handwashing process and overall nearly 20% were above microbiologic benchmark values. Many of the organisms isolated were staphylococci and the results are discussed within the context of microbial cross-contamination and potential pathogen spread. PMID:12665742

  10. Potential environmental consequences of administration of anthelmintics to sheep.

    PubMed

    Beynon, S A

    2012-09-30

    Anthelmintics, veterinary medicines for the control of endoparasites, enter into the environment largely through faeces of the treated animals. Sheep dung is a patchily distributed, ephemeral resource, with a functionally important decomposer community. The nature of this community and the pharmacokinetics of anthelmintics in sheep mean that the ecotoxic impacts of these drugs in sheep dung may differ markedly from those in cattle dung, where most research has been focussed. The period of maximum residue excretion is generally more transient in sheep than cattle dung, but low-level excretion may continue for longer, giving the potential for extended sub-lethal effects. Here, the environmental impacts of sheep anthelmintics, as well as alternative endoparasite control methods are reviewed. Impacts are discussed in terms of the potential for residues to enter into the environment, the toxicity and the impact on ecosystem functioning at an appropriate scale. Future research priorities are also discussed; these include the need for studies of the functional contributions of dung-colonising species, as well as the development of higher-tier ecotoxicological methods bridging the gap between laboratory and field experiments. Large-scale and long-term studies, including the development of appropriate models, are necessary to allow the consequences of anthelmintic administration to be assessed, particularly within the remit of sustainable animal production.

  11. Health and environmental effects profile for acrolein

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for acrolein was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Acrolein was determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), defined as the amount of a chemical to which humans can be exposed on a daily basis over an extended period of time (usually a lifetime) without suffering a deleterious effect, for acrolein is 1.09 mg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for acrolein is 10.

  12. Environmental characterization of two potential locations at Hanford for a new production reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.C.; Becker, C.D.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Imhoff, K.L.; McCallum, R.F.; Myers, D.A.; Page, T.L.; Price, K.R.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Rice D.G.; Schreiber D.L.; Skumatz L.A.; Sommer D.J.; Tawil J.J.; Wallace R.W.; Watson D.G.

    1984-09-01

    This report describes various environmental aspects of two areas on the Hanford Site that are potential locations for a New Production Reactor (NPR). The area known as the Skagit Hanford Site is considered the primary or reference site. The second area, termed the Firehouse Site, is considered the alternate site. The report encompasses an environmental characterization of these two potential NPR locations. Eight subject areas are covered: geography and demography; ecology; meteorology; hydrology; geology; cultural resources assessment; economic and social effects of station construction and operation; and environmental monitoring. 80 refs., 68 figs., 109 tabs.

  13. Noble metals: a toxicological appraisal of potential new environmental contaminants.

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, P E; Moran, J P; Bridbord, K; Hueter, F G

    1975-01-01

    The public health benefits expected by reducing known hazardous emissions from mobile sources should not be compromised by increasing levels of other potentially hazardous unregulated emissions. Catalytic converters are going to be used to meet the statutory requirements on carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions from light duty motor vehicles. Platinum and palladium metals are the catalytic materials to be used in these emission control devices. Preliminary experimental evidence and analysis of the impact of these control devices on the future use and demand for platinum indicates that this metal may appear at detectable levels in the environment by the end of this decade. At the present time, platinum and palladium are not present in the public environment and represent potentially new environmental contaminants as a consequence of use of this new abatement control technology. There is relatively little information available to adequately assess the potential health hazards that may be associated with exposure to these metals and their compounds. Analysis of the environmental problems and concerns associated with possible new environmental contaminants are discussed. Limited estimates are made on community exposure by use of a meteorological dispersion model. Biodegradation potential and attention is also given to the limited toxicological information available. PMID:50939

  14. Effective knowledge-based potentials.

    PubMed

    Ferrada, Evandro; Melo, Francisco

    2009-07-01

    Empirical or knowledge-based potentials have many applications in structural biology such as the prediction of protein structure, protein-protein, and protein-ligand interactions and in the evaluation of stability for mutant proteins, the assessment of errors in experimentally solved structures, and the design of new proteins. Here, we describe a simple procedure to derive and use pairwise distance-dependent potentials that rely on the definition of effective atomic interactions, which attempt to capture interactions that are more likely to be physically relevant. Based on a difficult benchmark test composed of proteins with different secondary structure composition and representing many different folds, we show that the use of effective atomic interactions significantly improves the performance of potentials at discriminating between native and near-native conformations. We also found that, in agreement with previous reports, the potentials derived from the observed effective atomic interactions in native protein structures contain a larger amount of mutual information. A detailed analysis of the effective energy functions shows that atom connectivity effects, which mostly arise when deriving the potential by the incorporation of those indirect atomic interactions occurring beyond the first atomic shell, are clearly filtered out. The shape of the energy functions for direct atomic interactions representing hydrogen bonding and disulfide and salt bridges formation is almost unaffected when effective interactions are taken into account. On the contrary, the shape of the energy functions for indirect atom interactions (i.e., those describing the interaction between two atoms bound to a direct interacting pair) is clearly different when effective interactions are considered. Effective energy functions for indirect interacting atom pairs are not influenced by the shape or the energy minimum observed for the corresponding direct interacting atom pair. Our results

  15. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

  16. Effects of environmental change on wildlife health

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Duffus, Amanda L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental change has negatively affected most biological systems on our planet and is becoming of increasing concern for the well-being and survival of many species. At an organism level, effects encompass not only endocrine disruptions, sex-ratio changes and decreased reproductive parameters, but also include teratogenic and genotoxic effects, immunosuppression and other immune-system impairments that can lead directly to disease or increase the risk of acquiring disease. Living organisms will strive to maintain health by recognizing and resolving abnormal situations, such as the presence of invading microorganisms or harmful peptides, abnormal cell replication and deleterious mutations. However, fast-paced environmental changes may pose additional pressure on immunocompetence and health maintenance, which may seriously impact population viability and persistence. Here, we outline the importance of a functional immune system for survival and examine the effects that exposure to a rapidly changing environment might exert on immunocompetence. We then address the various levels at which anthropogenic environmental change might affect wildlife health and identify potential deficits in reproductive parameters that might arise owing to new immune challenges in the context of a rapidly changing environment. Throughout the paper, a series of examples and case studies are used to illustrate the impact of environmental change on wildlife health. PMID:19833653

  17. SPS environmental effects on the upper atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    The ionospheric effects and associated environmental impacts which may be produced during the construction and operation of a solar power satellite system are reviewed. Propellant emissions from heavy lift-launch vehicles are predicted to cause widespread ionospheric depletions in electron and ion densities. Collisional damping of the microwave power beam in the lower ionosphere can significantly enhance the local free electron temperatures. Thermal self-focusing of the power beam in the ionosphere may excite variations in the beam power-flux density and create large-scale field-aligned electron density irregularities. These large-scale irregularities may also trigger the formation of small-scale plasma striations. Ionospheric modifications can lead to the development of potentially serious telecommunications and climate impacts. A comprehensive research program is being conducted to understand the physical interactions driving these ionospheric effects and to determine the scope and magnitude of the associated environmental impacts.

  18. Gaussian effective potential: Quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. M.

    1984-10-01

    We advertise the virtues of the Gaussian effective potential (GEP) as a guide to the behavior of quantum field theories. Much superior to the usual one-loop effective potential, the GEP is a natural extension of intuitive notions familiar from quantum mechanics. A variety of quantum-mechanical examples are studied here, with an eye to field-theoretic analogies. Quantum restoration of symmetry, dynamical mass generation, and "quantum-mechanical resuscitation" are among the phenomena discussed. We suggest how the GEP could become the basis of a systematic approximation procedure. A companion paper will deal with scalar field theory.

  19. Metabolic Effects of Sucralose on Environmental Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose was developed as a low cost artificial sweetener that is nonmetabolizable in humans. Sucralose can withstand changes in pH and temperature and is not degraded by the wastewater treatment process. Since the molecule can withstand heat, acidification, and microbial degradation, it is accumulating in the environment and has been found in wastewater, estuaries, rivers, and the Gulf Stream. Environmental isolates were cultured in the presence of sucralose looking for potential sucralose metabolism or growth acceleration responses. Sucralose was found to be nonnutritive and demonstrated bacteriostatic effects on all six isolates. This growth inhibition was directly proportional to the concentration of sucralose exposure, and the amount of the growth inhibition appeared to be species-specific. The bacteriostatic effect may be due to a decrease in sucrose uptake by bacteria exposed to sucralose. We have determined that sucralose inhibits invertase and sucrose permease. These enzymes cannot catalyze hydrolysis or be effective in transmembrane transport of the sugar substitute. Current environmental concentrations should not have much of an effect on environmental bacteria since the bacteriostatic effect seems to be consecration based; however, as sucralose accumulates in the environment, we must consider it a contaminant, especially for microenvironments. PMID:24368913

  20. 15 CFR 971.406 - Environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental effects. 971.406 Section....406 Environmental effects. Before issuing or transferring a commercial recovery permit, the... to result in a significant adverse environmental effect, taking into account the analyses...

  1. New technologies - How to assess environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, P. J.; Lavin, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for assessing the environmental effects of a room-and-pillar mining system (RP) and a new hydraulic borehole mining system (HBM). Before environmental assessment can begin, each technology is defined in terms of its engineering characteristics at both the conceptual and preliminary design stages. The mining sites are also described in order to identify the significant advantages and constraints for each system. This can be a basic physical and biological survey of the region at the conceptual stage, but a more specific representation of site characteristics is required at the preliminary stage. Assessment of potential environmental effects of each system at the conceptual design is critical to its hardware development and application. A checklist can be used to compare and identify the negative impacts of each method, outlining the resource affected, the type of impact involved, and the exact activity causing that impact. At the preliminary design stage, these impacts should be evaluated as a result of either utilization or alteration. Underground coal mining systems have three major utilization impacts - the total area disturbed, the total water resources withdrawn from other uses, and the overall energy efficiency of the process - and one major alteration impact - the degradation of water quality by sedimentation and acid contamination. A comparison of the RP and HBM systems shows the HBM to be an environmentally less desirable system for the Central Appalachia region.

  2. Pharmaceutically active compounds in atlantic canadian sewage treatment plant effluents and receiving waters, and potential for environmental effects as measured by acute and chronic aquatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Brun, Guy L; Bernier, Marc; Losier, René; Doe, Ken; Jackman, Paula; Lee, Hing-Biu

    2006-08-01

    Ten acidic and two neutral pharmaceuticals were detected in the effluents of eight sewage treatment plants (STPs) from across Atlantic Canada. Concentrations varied between nondetectable and 35 microg/L. The analgesic, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen and naproxen were predominant. Carbamazepine, a neutral compound used as an antiepileptic drug, was observed consistently at a median concentration of 79 ng/L. Acetaminophen was found in the effluents of the three largest mechanical STPs at a median concentration of 1.9 microg/L, but not in the lagoon treatment systems. The substantially longer hydraulic retention times may have contributed to more effective removal of acetaminophen in the lagoon treatment systems. Drugs generally were not detected at significant concentrations in the larger bodies of receiving water (Saint John River, Hillsborough River, and Bedford Bay, Canada). However, drug residues in the small receiving streams were 15 to 30% of the effluent median concentrations. Six compounds (caffeine, naproxen, salicylic acid, carbamazepine, metoprolol, and sotolol) were found to persist in a small stream for a distance of at least 17 km, suggesting that small stream exposure to pharmaceutically active residues may be relatively greater than that in large bodies of water. Bioassays assessing acute and chronic effects on four organisms were conducted on four high-use drugs: Acetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxen, and salicylic acid (metabolite of acetyl salicylic acid). Results indicated no negative effects except for the chronic algal (Selanastrum capricornutum) growth test on ibuprofen (no-observed-effect concentration, 10 microg/L; lowest-observed-effect concentration, 32 microg/L). Effects of these four compounds on invertebrates and plants in the receiving environments are unlikely based on the concentrations measured.

  3. An overview of algae biofuel production and potential environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Menetrez, Marc Y

    2012-07-01

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas) and produce products with a wide variety of compositions and uses. These products include lipids, which can be processed into biodiesel; carbohydrates, which can be processed into ethanol; and proteins, which can be used for human and animal consumption. Algae are commonly genetically engineered to allow for advantageous process modification or optimization. However, issues remain regarding human exposure to algae-derived toxins, allergens, and carcinogens from both existing and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), as well as the overall environmental impact of GMOs. A literature review was performed to highlight issues related to the growth and use of algal products for generating biofuels. Human exposure and environmental impact issues are identified and discussed, as well as current research and development activities of academic, commercial, and governmental groups. It is hoped that the ideas contained in this paper will increase environmental awareness of issues surrounding the production of algae and will help the algae industry develop to its full potential. PMID:22681590

  4. Potential for use of environmental factors in urban planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira da Silva, Ricardo; van der Ploeg, Martine; van Delden, Hedwig; Fleskens, Luuk

    2016-04-01

    Projections for population growth estimate, on top of the current 7.4 billion world population, an increase of 2 billion people for the next 40 years. It is also projected that 66 per cent of the world population in 2050 will live in urban areas. To accommodate the urban population growth cities are changing continuously land cover to urban areas. Such changes are a threat for natural resources and food production systems stability and capability to provide food and other functions. However, little has been done concerning a rational soil management for food production in urban and peri-urban areas. This study focuses on the assessment of soil lost due to urban expansion and discusses the potential loss regarding the quality of the soil for food production and environmental functions. It is relevant to increase the knowledge on the role of soils in peri-urban areas and in the interaction of physical, environmental and social factors. The methodology consists of assessing the soil quality in and around urban and peri-urban areas. It focuses particularly on the physical properties and the environmental factors, for two periods of time and account the potential losses due to urban expansion. This project is on-going, therefore current advances will be presented and will look for a discussion on the contribution of soil quality for decision-making and land management in urban and peri-urban areas.

  5. Acrolein environmental levels and potential for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O; Roney, N; Taylor, J; Ashizawa, A; Lumpkin, M H; Plewak, D J

    2008-09-01

    This article provides environmental information on acrolein including environmental fate, potential for human exposure, analytical methods, and a listing of regulations and advisories. Acrolein may be released to the environment in emissions and effluents from its manufacturing and use facilities, in emissions from combustion processes (including cigarette smoking and combustion of petrochemical fuels), from direct application to water and waste water as a slimicide and aquatic herbicide, as a photooxidation product of various hydrocarbon pollutants found in air (including propylene and 1,3-butadiene), and from land disposal of some organic waste materials. Acrolein is a reactive compound and is unstable in the environment. The general population may be exposed to acrolein through inhalation of contaminated air and through ingestion of certain foods. Important sources of acrolein exposure are via inhalation of tobacco smoke and environmental tobacco smoke and via the overheating of fats contained in all living matter. There is potential for exposure to acrolein in many occupational settings as the result of its varied uses and its formation during the combustion and pyrolysis of materials such as wood, petrochemical fuels, and plastics. PMID:19039083

  6. An overview of algae biofuel production and potential environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Menetrez, Marc Y

    2012-07-01

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas) and produce products with a wide variety of compositions and uses. These products include lipids, which can be processed into biodiesel; carbohydrates, which can be processed into ethanol; and proteins, which can be used for human and animal consumption. Algae are commonly genetically engineered to allow for advantageous process modification or optimization. However, issues remain regarding human exposure to algae-derived toxins, allergens, and carcinogens from both existing and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), as well as the overall environmental impact of GMOs. A literature review was performed to highlight issues related to the growth and use of algal products for generating biofuels. Human exposure and environmental impact issues are identified and discussed, as well as current research and development activities of academic, commercial, and governmental groups. It is hoped that the ideas contained in this paper will increase environmental awareness of issues surrounding the production of algae and will help the algae industry develop to its full potential.

  7. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants: production and their potential in environmental biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Pornsunthorntawee, Orathai; Wongpanit, Panya; Rujiravanit, Ratana

    2010-01-01

    Certain species of Pseudomonas are able to produce and excrete a heterogeneous mixture of biosurfactants with a glycolipid structure. These are known as rhamnolipids. In the biosynthetic process, rhamnolipid production is governed by both the genetic regulatory system and central metabolic pathways involving fatty acid synthesis, activated sugars and enzymes. These surface-active compounds can be produced from various types of low-cost substrates, such as carbohydrates, vegetable oils and even industrial wastes, leading to a good potential for commercial exploitation. By controlling environmental factors and growth conditions, high rhamnolipid production yields can be achieved. Rhamnolipids provide good physicochemical properties in terms of surface activities, stabilities and emulsification activities. Moreover, these surface-active compounds exhibit antimicrobial activities against both phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria. Due to an increase in concerns about environmental protection and the distinguishing properties of the rhamnolipids, it seems that rhamnolipids meet the criteria for several industrial and environmental applications, such as environmental remediation and biological control. Rhamnolipids have already been commercially produced, making them more economically competitive with synthetic surfactants. In the near future, rhamnolipids may be commercially successful biosurfactants.

  8. Environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity: potential public health concerns

    PubMed Central

    Marczylo, Emma L.; Jacobs, Miriam N.; Gant, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Throughout our lives, epigenetic processes shape our development and enable us to adapt to a constantly changing environment. Identifying and understanding environmentally induced epigenetic change(s) that may lead to adverse outcomes is vital for protecting public health. This review, therefore, examines the present understanding of epigenetic mechanisms involved in the mammalian life cycle, evaluates the current evidence for environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in human cohorts and rodent models and highlights the research considerations and implications of this emerging knowledge for public health and regulatory toxicology. Many hundreds of studies have investigated such toxicity, yet relatively few have demonstrated a mechanistic association among specific environmental exposures, epigenetic changes and adverse health outcomes in human epidemiological cohorts and/or rodent models. While this small body of evidence is largely composed of exploratory in vivo high-dose range studies, it does set a precedent for the existence of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity. Consequently, there is worldwide recognition of this phenomenon, and discussion on how to both guide further scientific research towards a greater mechanistic understanding of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in humans, and translate relevant research outcomes into appropriate regulatory policies for effective public health protection. PMID:27278298

  9. Space environmental effects on polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Orwoll, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Polymer-matrix composites have considerable potential for use in the construction of orbiting structures such as the space station and space antennas because of their light weight, high strength, and low thermal expansion. However, they can suffer surface erosion by interaction with atomic oxygen in low-Earth orbit and degradation and/or embrittlement by electrons and ultraviolet radiation especially in geosynchronous orbit. Thus, a study of the effect of these environmental hazards on polymeric materials is an important step in the assessment of such materials for future use in space.

  10. Space environmental effects on coated optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, T. M.; Bennett, J. M.; Gyetvay, S. R.

    1991-01-01

    Several multilayer coated mirror designs developed for potential space applications were tested on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) along with single layer witness coatings deposited on fused silica and a coated CaF2 window. Performance requirements included high mirror reflectivity, low absorption, low scatter, environmental durability, and radiation hardness. The designs were selected in screening tests using combined electron, proton, and simulated solar UV radiation. The purpose of the space test was to validate the above test results and determine the effects of atomic oxygen and contamination on mirror performance.

  11. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on sediment-associated biota. Environmental Restoration Program ESD Publication 4107

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.N.; Suter, G.W. II

    1993-08-01

    Because a hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals, it is important to screen contaminants of concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a Screening Assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen potential contaminants of concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, more analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. This report briefly describes three categories of approaches to the development of sediment quality benchmarks. These approaches are based on analytical chemistry, toxicity test results, and field survey data. A fourth integrative approach incorporates all three types of data.

  12. 15 CFR 971.406 - Environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... significant adverse environmental effect issue, a permit may be granted, subject to modification or suspension... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental effects. 971.406 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS...

  13. 15 CFR 971.406 - Environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... significant adverse environmental effect issue, a permit may be granted, subject to modification or suspension... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental effects. 971.406 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS...

  14. 15 CFR 971.406 - Environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... significant adverse environmental effect issue, a permit may be granted, subject to modification or suspension... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental effects. 971.406 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS...

  15. 15 CFR 970.506 - Environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental effects. 970.506 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms... Environmental effects. Before issuing or transferring an exploration license, the Administrator must find...

  16. 15 CFR 971.406 - Environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental effects. 971.406 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Issuance/Transfer....406 Environmental effects. Before issuing or transferring a commercial recovery permit,...

  17. Assessing potential future environmental legislative, regulatory, and judicial events

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Schweitzer, M.; Godfrey, G.; Wagner, C.; MacGregor, D.G.

    1998-03-01

    This report describes a methodology to proactively and methodically assess future potential environmental legislative, regulatory, and judicial events. This is an important endeavor because new, revised, and reauthorized legislation, proposed and final regulations, and outcomes of judicial proceedings have the potential to impose new actions, directions, and costs of many organizations in the United States (related to capital investments, operating approaches, and research and development) and to affect the quality of life. The electric power industry is particularly impacted by environmental regulatory events (the term `regulatory` is used to cover all the types of legal events listed above), as the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity affects air and water quality, require disposal of solid, hazardous, and radioactive wastes, and at times, impacts wetlands and endangered species. Numerous potential regulatory events, such as the reauthorization of the Clean Water Act and new regulations associated with global climate change, can greatly affect the power industry. Organizations poised to respond proactively to such events will improve their competitive positions, reduce their costs in the long-term, and improve their public images.

  18. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie E.; Bojda, Nicholas; Ke, Jing; McNeil, Michael A.

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  19. 15 CFR 970.506 - Environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms... Environmental effects. Before issuing or transferring an exploration license, the Administrator must find...

  20. 15 CFR 970.506 - Environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms... Environmental effects. Before issuing or transferring an exploration license, the Administrator must find...

  1. 15 CFR 970.506 - Environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Issuance/Transfer/Terms... Environmental effects. Before issuing or transferring an exploration license, the Administrator must find...

  2. Using peat for energy: Potential environmental restraints. Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, R. M.; Voorhees, L. D.; Mulholland, P. J.

    Serious consideration is being given to using peat as an energy resource in Minnesota, North Carolina, Florida, and some New England States. Potential environmental constraints for using peat as an energy resource are associated with disruption of important regional wetland ecosystems. Mining peatlands may significantly modify ground and surface water hydrology, degrade water quality in downstream receiving systems, contribute to the deterioration of local air quality, disrupt or eliminate plant and animal populations having specialized requirements and limited distributions, and destroy unique wetland ecosystems representing important scientific and educational resources. Careful selection of peatlands to be developed and application of appropriate mitigation and monitoring programs will be necessary to offset these impacts.

  3. Effect of environmental pollutants on human semen

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, S.

    1988-01-01

    With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of health effects of polluted environment must be made for maintaining and enhancing the quality of human life on this earth. Significant number of malformed children are born each year. Sixty-five to 70% of all birth defects have an unknown etiology. More than one-third of early human conception and up to 15% of recognized pregnancies are terminated by spontaneous abortion. The extent of the effect of environmental pollution on human reproductive performance is for the most part unknown. Of the approximately five million chemicals in existence, humans could be expose to a sufficient quantity of an estimated 53,000 for toxicity to be of potential problem. Methods that do not require autopsy or surgery such as semen analysis would be attractive for assessing the effect of environmental toxicology on quality of human life. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the effects of heavily polluted environment of industrial area of Ludhiana and relatively clean, pollution free environment of Chandigarh on the human semen quality. It was believed that the function of the male reproductive system may often be the most sensitive to toxic effects.

  4. Environmental effects of space systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rote, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effects of large space systems, primarily the Satellite Power System (SPS), on the upper atmosphere, are reviewed. From 56 to 500 km, the major contaminant sources are SPS microwave transmissions and rocket effluents. Although no significant effects have yet been found for microwave transmissions, deposition of rocket effluents causes compositional changes, most of which appear to be associated with the release of large amounts of water. The formation of ionospheric holes is an example of a modification resulting from the injection of propellant exhaust in the F-region. From 500 to 36,000 km, rocket effluents and ion engine contaminants (primarily Ar/sup +/) could alter magnetospheric and plasmaspheric structure and dynamics. One of the major impacts of these alterations could be perturbation of Van Allen radiation belt stability, leading to changed radiation hazards to materials and personnel.

  5. Potential environmental impacts of offshore UK geological CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    Geological carbon dioxide storage in the United Kingdom (UK) will almost certainly be entirely offshore, with storage for over 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation in offshore depleted hydrocarbon fields and sandstone formations. Storage capacity can be limited by the increase in formation water pressure upon CO2 injection, therefore removal and disposal of formation waters ('produced waters') can control formation water pressures, and increase CO2 storage capacity. Formation waters could also be produced during CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR). The precedent from current UK North Sea hydrocarbon extraction is to 'overboard' produced waters into the ocean, under current regulations. However, laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution, including heavy metals. Eight of these elements are specifically identified in the UK as potentially hazardous to the marine environment (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn). A comparison was made between the concentrations of these eight trace elements in the results of laboratory batch leaching experiments of reservoir rock in CO2-rich saline solutions and overboarded waters from current offshore UK hydrocarbon production. This showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2

  6. 15 CFR 970.506 - Environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental effects. 970.506 Section... Environmental effects. Before issuing or transferring an exploration license, the Administrator must find that... adverse effect on the quality of the environment, taking into account the analyses and information in...

  7. 15 CFR 970.701 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES... effects of deep seabed mining which cumulatively during commercial recovery have the potential for significant effect. These three effects also occur during mining system tests that may be conducted under...

  8. 15 CFR 970.701 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES... effects of deep seabed mining which cumulatively during commercial recovery have the potential for significant effect. These three effects also occur during mining system tests that may be conducted under...

  9. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) as a potential environmental bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Mendes, M G; Santos Junior, C D; Dias, A C C; Bonetti, A M

    2015-10-21

    Biomonitoring of air quality using living organisms is a very interesting approach to environmental impact assessment. Organisms with a vast distribution, such as plants, are widely used for these purposes. The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an oleaginous plant that can potentially be used as a bioindicator plant owing to its rapid growth and large leaves, which have a wide surface area of contact with the air and the pollutants therein. This study investigated the the bioindicator potential of the castor bean by performing several tests. We observed statistically significant differences in the concentrations of chlorophyll a and b in the leaves of plants in polluted areas compared to that in the control group plants, which were located in a pollution-free area. Leaves of plants in the former group had higher peroxidase activity and showed a greater buffering ability than those of plants in the control group. The pKa values obtained via buffering capacity tests, revealed the presence of aminoazobenzene (an industrial dye) in leaves of R. communis. Genotoxicity was evaluated through the comet assay technique and revealed that other than some differences in DNA fragmentation, there is no statistically significant difference in this parameter between places analyzed. Our data indicate that R. communis can be a highly useful biological indicator. Further, we hypothesized that the castor bean can be a potential candidate for phytoremediation owing its physiological buffering capacity when exposed to substantial pollution.

  10. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 οC and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  11. Environmental effects on lunar astronomical observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon offers a stable platform with excellent seeing conditions for astronomical observations. Some troublesome aspects of the lunar environment will need to be overcome to realize the full potential of the Moon as an observatory site. Mitigation of negative effects of vacuum, thermal radiation, dust, and micrometeorite impact is feasible with careful engineering and operational planning. Shields against impact, dust, and solar radiation need to be developed. Means of restoring degraded surfaces are probably essential for optical and thermal control surfaces deployed in long-lifetime lunar facilities. Precursor missions should be planned to validate and enhance the understanding of the lunar environment (e.g., dust behavior without and with human presence) and to determine environmental effects on surfaces and components. Precursor missions should generate data useful in establishing keepout zones around observatory facilities where rocket launches and landings, mining, and vehicular traffic could be detrimental to observatory operation.

  12. Potential Application of Environmental Noise Recordings in Geoarchaeological Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luzio, E.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental noise recordings are commonly applied in seismic microzonation studies. By calculating the H/V spectral ratio, the fundamental frequency of soft terrains overlying a rigid bedrock can be determined (Nakamura (1989). In such a simple two-layer system, equation f = n Vs/4H (1) links the resonance frequency "f" to the thickness "H" and shear waves velocity "Vs "of the resonating layer. In recent years, this methodology has been applied generally to obtain information on the seismostratigraphy of an investigated site in different environmental context. In this work, its potential application in the characterization of archaeological features hosted in shallow geological levels is discussed. Field cases are identified in the Appia Antica archaeological site which is placed in central Italy. Here, acknowledged targets correspond to: i) empty tanks carved by the Romans into Cretaceous limestone in the IV-III cen. BC and ii): the basaltic stone paving of the ancient road track which is locally buried beneath colluvial deposits. Narrowly-spaced recordings of environmental noise were carried using a portable digital seismograph equipped with three electrodynamic orthogonal sensors (velocimeters) responding in the band 0.1 ÷1024 Hz and adopting a sampling frequency of 256 Hz.. Results are discussed in terms of absolute H/V values and related distribution maps in the very high-frequency interval of 10-40Hz. In the tanks hosting area, interpolation of H/V maximum values around 13Hz matches caves location and alignment, which is also evidenced by clear inversions (H/V<1) at lower frequencies (10-1Hz). Correlation between H/V peaks and the top surface of the buried stone paving along the prosecution of the road track is even more straightforward. Finally, the depth variations of the tank roofs and the basaltic paving were reconstructed combining in equation (1) results of noise recordings with borehole data and geophysical surveys (SASW analysis).

  13. Potential environmental benefits from increased use of bioenergy in China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shuyang; Freedman, Bill; Gao, Jixi

    2007-09-01

    Because of its large population and rapidly growing economy, China is confronting a serious energy shortage and daunting environmental problems. An increased use of fuels derived from biomass could relieve some demand for nonrenewable sources of energy while providing environmental benefits in terms of cleaner air and reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. In 2003, China generated about 25.9 x 10(8) metric tons of industrial waste (liquid + solid), 14.7 x 10(8) metric tons/year (t/y) of manure (livestock + human), 7.1 x 10(8) t/y of crop residues and food-processing byproducts, 2 x 10(8) t/y of fuelwood and wood manufacturing residues, and 1.5 x 10(8) t/y of municipal waste. Biofuels derived from these materials could potentially displace the use of about 4.12 x 10(8) t/y of coal and 3.75 x 10(6) t/y of petroleum. An increased bioenergy use of this magnitude would help to reduce the emissions of key air pollutants: SO(2 )by 11.6 x 10(6) t/y, NO(X) by 1.48 x 10(6) t/y, CO2 by 1.07 x 10(9) t/y, and CH4 by 50 x 10(6) t/y. The reduced SO(2) emissions would be equivalent to 54% of the national emissions in 2003, whereas those for CO2 are 30%. It is important to recognize, however, that large increases in the use of biomass fuels also could result in socioeconomic and environmental problems such as less production of food and damage caused to natural habitats. PMID:17638052

  14. Potential Environmental Benefits from Increased Use of Bioenergy in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shuyang; Freedman, Bill; Gao, Jixi

    2007-09-01

    Because of its large population and rapidly growing economy, China is confronting a serious energy shortage and daunting environmental problems. An increased use of fuels derived from biomass could relieve some demand for nonrenewable sources of energy while providing environmental benefits in terms of cleaner air and reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. In 2003, China generated about 25.9 × 108 metric tons of industrial waste (liquid + solid), 14.7 × 108 metric tons/year (t/y) of manure (livestock + human), 7.1 × 108 t/y of crop residues and food-processing byproducts, 2 × 108 t/y of fuelwood and wood manufacturing residues, and 1.5 × 108 t/y of municipal waste. Biofuels derived from these materials could potentially displace the use of about 4.12 × 108 t/y of coal and 3.75 × 106 t/y of petroleum. An increased bioenergy use of this magnitude would help to reduce the emissions of key air pollutants: SO2 by 11.6 × 106 t/y, NOX by 1.48 × 106 t/y, CO2 by 1.07 × 109 t/y, and CH4 by 50 × 106 t/y. The reduced SO2 emissions would be equivalent to 54% of the national emissions in 2003, whereas those for CO2 are 30%. It is important to recognize, however, that large increases in the use of biomass fuels also could result in socioeconomic and environmental problems such as less production of food and damage caused to natural habitats.

  15. Permafrost as palaeo-environmental archive - potentials and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirrmeister, L.; Wetterich, S.; Meyer, H.; Grosse, G.; Schwamborn, G.; Siegert, C.

    2009-04-01

    temperatures, mean winter temperatures, mean Juli temperatures, precipitation, humidity, soil climate and chemistry, hydrology and hydrochemistry of waters). The general potential of permafrost archives includes spatial (circumarctic, high arctic to boreal zones) and temporal (Mid Pleistocene to modern) environmental gradients. Lateral cross sections contain information about permafrost degradation during interglacial periods, the aggradation of ice-rich sequences during stadial and interstadial periods, and extreme changes in periglacial hydrology during the late Quaternary. The spatial reconstruction of ancient landscapes is possible by detailed study of kilometer-long coastal exposures. Temporally relative high resolution (about 50 years) isotope data from ice wedges reflect the Late Pleistocene to Holocene climate transition. Using transfer functions for pollen, plant macro remains or chironomids, the numerical estimation of palaeo-climate data (temperature and precipitation) is possible. The limitations of permafrost archives are the frequent lack of continuous sequences due to thermokarst or thermo-erosion events. Local stratigraphies are sometimes difficult to correlate on a regional scale because of permafrost degradation and neotectonic influence on the accumulative/erosive environment in some regions. Until now there are still uncertainties for comparing different geochronological methods, some of them related to unknown influences of permafrost processes on chemical and physical parameters important to the age determination technique. Due to strong cryoturbation patterns and sometimes challenging sampling situations on near-vertical frozen exposures the geochronological resolution in permafrost sequences is usually lower than in lacustrine sequences or glacial ice cores. Eventually, as for any other archive, we need to consider the effect of local versus regional signals derived from the palaeo-ecological interpretation of fossil records.

  16. Nanoparticles: Their potential toxicity, waste and environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, Grazyna Golimowski, Jerzy; Urban, Pawel L.

    2009-09-15

    This literature review discusses specific issues related to handling of waste containing nanomaterials. The aims are (1) to highlight problems related to uncontrolled release of nanoparticles to the environment through waste disposal, and (2) to introduce the topics of nanowaste and nanotoxicology to the waste management community. Many nanoparticles used by industry contain heavy metals, thus toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals contained in nanoparticles may become important environmental issues. Although bioavailability of heavy metals contained in nanoparticles can be lower than those present in soluble form, the toxicity resulting from their intrinsic nature (e.g. their size, shape or density) may be significant. An approach to the treatment of nanowaste requires understanding of all its properties - not only chemical, but also physical and biological. Progress in nanowaste management also requires studies of the environmental impact of the new materials. The authors believe Amara's law is applicable to the impact of nanotechnologies, and society might overestimate the short-term effects of these technologies, while underestimating the long-term effects. It is necessary to have basic information from companies about the level and nature of nanomaterials produced or emitted and about the expectation of the life cycle time of nanoproducts as a basis to estimate the level of nanowaste in the future. Without knowing how companies plan to use and store recycled and nonrecycled nanomaterials, development of regulations is difficult. Tagging of nanoproducts is proposed as a means to facilitate separation and recovery of nanomaterials.

  17. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaohui; Liu, Yi; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed.

  18. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaohui; Liu, Yi; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed. PMID:25247484

  19. Childhood Obesity Prevention in Childcare Settings: the Potential of Policy and Environmental Change Interventions.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Laura; Breck, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Current obesity rates in young children are a serious public health concern; developing and implementing obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings is a promising avenue to address this issue. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on environmental and policy change interventions for this setting. Improving access to and quality of outdoor play spaces and implementing the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) are two promising environmental change strategies in this setting. Laws at the local, state, and federal level have also been implemented; New York City and Delaware are two jurisdictions that have passed policies and provided preliminary evidence of the potential of policy interventions to change child outcomes. A combination of programmatic, environmental, and policy change strategies will likely be most effective in maximizing the potential of childcare settings to promote healthy weight in children. PMID:26627214

  20. Health and environmental effects profile for pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    This report was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human-health, aquatic-life and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Pentachlorophenol has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), defined as the amount of a chemical to which humans can be exposed on a daily basis over an extended period of time (usually a lifetime) without suffering a deleterious effect, for pentachlorophenol is 0.03 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for pentachlorophenol is 100.

  1. Extracellular polymeric substances of bacteria and their potential environmental applications.

    PubMed

    More, T T; Yadav, J S S; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2014-11-01

    Biopolymers are considered a potential alternative to conventional chemical polymers because of their ease of biodegradability, high efficiency, non-toxicity and non-secondary pollution. Recently, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, biopolymers produced by the microorganisms) have been recognised by many researchers as a potential flocculent for their applications in various water, wastewater and sludge treatment processes. In this context, literature information on EPS is widely dispersed and is very scarce. Thus, this review marginalizes various studies conducted so far about EPS nature-production-recovery, properties, environmental applications and moreover, critically examines future research needs and advanced application prospective of the EPS. One of the most important aspect of chemical composition and structural details of different moieties of EPS in terms of carbohydrates, proteins, extracellular DNA, lipid and surfactants and humic substances are described. These chemical characteristics of EPS in relation to formation and properties of microbial aggregates as well as degradation of EPS in the matrix (biomass, flocs etc) are analyzed. The important engineering properties (based on structural characteristics) such as adsorption, biodegradability, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of EPS matrix are also discussed in details. Different aspects of EPS production process such as bacterial strain maintenance; inoculum and factors affecting EPS production were presented. The important factors affecting EPS production include growth phase, carbon and nitrogen sources and their ratio, role of other nutrients (phosphorus, micronutrients/trace elements, and vitamins), impact of pH, temperature, metals, aerobic versus anaerobic conditions and pure and mixed culture. The production of EPS in high concentration with high productivity is essential due to economic reasons. Therefore, the knowledge about all the aspects of EPS production (listed above) is highly

  2. Extracellular polymeric substances of bacteria and their potential environmental applications.

    PubMed

    More, T T; Yadav, J S S; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2014-11-01

    Biopolymers are considered a potential alternative to conventional chemical polymers because of their ease of biodegradability, high efficiency, non-toxicity and non-secondary pollution. Recently, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, biopolymers produced by the microorganisms) have been recognised by many researchers as a potential flocculent for their applications in various water, wastewater and sludge treatment processes. In this context, literature information on EPS is widely dispersed and is very scarce. Thus, this review marginalizes various studies conducted so far about EPS nature-production-recovery, properties, environmental applications and moreover, critically examines future research needs and advanced application prospective of the EPS. One of the most important aspect of chemical composition and structural details of different moieties of EPS in terms of carbohydrates, proteins, extracellular DNA, lipid and surfactants and humic substances are described. These chemical characteristics of EPS in relation to formation and properties of microbial aggregates as well as degradation of EPS in the matrix (biomass, flocs etc) are analyzed. The important engineering properties (based on structural characteristics) such as adsorption, biodegradability, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of EPS matrix are also discussed in details. Different aspects of EPS production process such as bacterial strain maintenance; inoculum and factors affecting EPS production were presented. The important factors affecting EPS production include growth phase, carbon and nitrogen sources and their ratio, role of other nutrients (phosphorus, micronutrients/trace elements, and vitamins), impact of pH, temperature, metals, aerobic versus anaerobic conditions and pure and mixed culture. The production of EPS in high concentration with high productivity is essential due to economic reasons. Therefore, the knowledge about all the aspects of EPS production (listed above) is highly

  3. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  4. Calculations supporting evaluation of potential environmental standards for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Duguid, J.O.; Andrews, R.W.; Brandstetter, E.; Dale, T.F.; Reeves, M.

    1994-04-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992, Section 801 (US Congress, 1992) provides for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to contract the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to conduct a study and provide findings and recommendations on reasonable standards for the disposal of high-level wastes at the Yucca Mountain site. The NAS study is to provide findings and recommendations which include, among other things, whether a health-based standard based on dose to individual members of the public from releases to the accessible environment will provide a reasonable standard for the protection of the health and safety of the public. The EPA, based upon and consistent with the findings and recommendations of the NAS, is required to promulgate standards for protection of the public from releases from radioactive materials stored or disposed of in a repository at the Yucca Mountain site. This document presents a number of different ``simple`` analyses of undisturbed repository performance that are intended to provide input to those responsible for setting appropriate environmental standards for a potential repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Each of the processes included in the analyses has been simplified to capture the primary significance of that process in containing or isolating the waste from the biosphere. In these simplified analyses, the complex waste package interactions were approximated by a simple waste package ``failure`` distribution which is defined by the initiation and rate of waste package ``failures``. Similarly, releases from the waste package and the engineered barrier system are controlled by the very near field environment and the presence and rate of advective and diffusive release processes. Release was approximated by either a simple alteration-controlled release for the high solubility radionuclides and either a diffusive or advective-controlled release for the solubility-limited radionuclides.

  5. Potential roles of noncoding RNAs in environmental epigenetic transgenerational inheritance.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei

    2014-12-01

    "Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance" (ETI) has been defined as germline (sperm or egg) transmission of epigenetic information between generations in the absence of direct exposures or genetic manipulations. Among reported cases of ETI in mammals, the majority are induced by environmental factors, including environmental toxicants [e.g. agricultural fungicide vinclozolin, plastic additive bisphenol A, pesticide methoxychlor, dioxin, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and hydrocarbons] and poor nutritional conditions. Although the ETI phenomenon is well established, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Putative epimutations, including changes in DNA methylation and histone modification patterns, have been reported, but it remains unclear how these epimutations are formed in the first place, and how they are memorized in the germline and then get transmitted to subsequent generations. Based on recent advances in our understanding of regulatory noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), I propose that ncRNAs are involved in ETI, during both the initial epimutation formation and the subsequent germline transmission of epimutations. ncRNAs can function at epigenetic levels by affecting DNA methylation and histone modifications, thereby changing gene transcriptional activities, which can lead to an altered mRNA transcriptome associated with a disease phenotype. Alternatively, novel or altered ncRNA expression can cause dysregulated post-transcriptional regulation, thus directly affecting the mRNA transcriptome and inducing a disease phenotype. Sperm-borne ncRNAs are potential mediators for epigenetic memory across generations, but they alone may not be sufficient for stable transmission of epimutations across generations. Overall, research on ncRNAs in the context of ETI is urgently needed to shed light on the underlying mechanism of ETI.

  6. Biosolids impact soil phosphorus accountability, fractionation, and potential environmental risk.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, J A; Barbarick, K A; Norvell, K L

    2007-01-01

    Biosolids land application rates are typically based on crop N requirements but can lead to soil P accumulation. The Littleton/Englewood, Colorado, wastewater treatment facility has supported biosolids beneficial-use on a dryland wheat-fallow agroecosystem site since 1982, with observable soil P concentration increases as biyearly repeated biosolids applications increased from 0, 6.7, 13, 27, to 40 Mg ha(-1). The final study year was 2003, after which P accountability, fractionation, and potential environmental risk were assessed. Between 93 and 128% of biosolids-P added was accounted for when considering conventional tillage soil displacement, grain removal, and soil adsorption. The Fe-P fraction dominated all soil surface P fractions, likely due to an increase in amorphous Fe-oxide because Fe2(SO4)3 was added at the wastewater treatment facility inflow for digester H2S reduction. The Ca-P phase dominated all soil subsurface P fractions due to calcareous soil conditions. A combination of conventional tillage, drought from 1999 to 2003, and repeated and increasing biosolids application rates may have forced soil surface microorganism dormancy, reduction, or mortality; thus, biomass P reduction was evident. Subsurface biomass P was greater than surface biomass, possibly due to protection against environmental and anthropogenic variables or to increased dissolved organic carbon inputs. Even given years of biosolids application, the soil surface had the ability to sorb additional P as determined by shaking the soil in an excessive P solution. Biosolids-application regulations based on the Colorado Phosphorus Index would not impede current site practices. Proper monitoring, management, and addition of other best management practices are needed for continued assurance that P movement off-site does not become a major issue. PMID:17412911

  7. Environmental Space Situational Awareness and Joint Space Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, K.; France, M.

    It is well known that successful military operations rely on our ability to effectively integrate weather information into the planning and execution of land, air and sea operations. What is not so well known are the implications of environmental effects on space capabilities and the subsequent impact on the delivery of joint space effects to the warfighter. This paper provides an overview of the how space systems and missions are impacted by the environment and how AFSPC plans to effectively integrate environmental effects information into space operations in the context of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and delivery of space effects to the warfighter. The desired end state of environmental SSA is the effective application of environmental SSA information-that is, to mitigate negative impacts on and improve performance of our space systems, and exploit potential space environment impacts on enemy systems. SSA is foundational to the success of the space superiority mission and effectively characterizing environmental effects is a critical part of that foundation. Space superiority operations ensure the continued delivery of space force enhancement to the military campaign, while denying those same advantages to the enemy. When SSA is successfully and sufficiently achieved, example results are a maintenance of space superiority, reduced "Fog of War" for commanders, lowered risk of space fratricide, rapid assessment of attacks on all blue, gray, or red space systems, and a shortened kill chain and targeting cycle. From a Defensive Counterspace (DCS) perspective, confirming or eliminating the environment as a factor enables us to respond in a much more effective way to protect our systems. From an offensive perspective, superior knowledge provides potential to exploit environmental effects on enemy space capabilities. To achieve a credible environmental SSA capability requires a system of systems (SoS) approach that includes three system components. Like a three

  8. Neurobehavioral effects of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Benignus, V.A.

    1987-05-01

    In order to try to predict effects of environmental tobacco smoke, neurobehavioral effects of mainstream smoke were reviewed and, in conjunction with what is known about body uptake of components of environmental tobacco smoke, conjectures were made about the probable effect of environmental tobacco smoke. Effects of mainstream smoke differ in smokers and nonsmokers. Mainstream smoke has a beneficial effect on vigilance in habitual smokers. The effect in nonsmokers is less clear and may be disruptive. In both smokers and nonsmokers mainstream smoke produces increased tremor and reduced fine motor skills. The neurobehaviorally active substances in mainstream smoke appear to be nicotine and carbon monoxide. It appears that COHb is the more important consequence of environmental tobacco smoke for neurobehavioral effects, since nicotine levels in nonsmokers only reach a small fraction of those in smokers.

  9. Fate and toxic effects of environmental stressors: environmental control.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jie; Yu, Han-Qing; Henry, Theodore B; Sayler, Gary S

    2015-12-01

    The potential for toxicants to harm organisms in the environment is influenced by the physicochemistry of the substances and their environmental behaviors and transformation within ecosystems. This special issue is composed of 20 papers that report on studies which have investigated the fate and toxicity of various toxicants including engineered nanoparticles, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, antibiotics, pathogens, heavy metals, and agricultural nutrients. The environmental transformations of these substances and how these processes affect their toxicity are emphasized. This paper highlights the important findings and perspectives of the selected papers in this special edition, with an aim of providing insights into full-scale evaluation on the toxicity of various contaminants that exist in ecosystems. General suggestions are provided for the future directions of toxicological research. PMID:26497020

  10. Potential hydrologic effects of lignite mining in West Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, P.L.; Olem, H.

    1982-12-01

    Paper primarily describes possible adverse hydrologic effects of lignite mining in West Tennessee. Potential effects to the land include erosion, subsidence, flooding, and faulty drainage. Possible consequences to surface streams and groundwater include diminishment of quantity, quality, and a change in flow. If enforced, the existing state law provides sufficient remedy for the avoidance of environmental hazards.

  11. Anti-craving effects of environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Kenneth J; Sanabria, Federico; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Neisewander, Janet L

    2009-10-01

    We hypothesized that environmental enrichment in rats may reduce cocaine-seeking behaviour elicited by cocaine-priming injections and by cocaine-associated cues. Rats trained to self-administer cocaine while housed in isolated conditions were then assigned to live in isolation or an enriched environment for 21 d of forced abstinence. Subsequently, extinction and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour (operant responses without cocaine available) were assessed. Expt 1 showed that enrichment resulted in less cocaine-seeking behaviour during extinction and cue-elicited reinstatement compared to continued isolation housing, but had no effect on cocaine-primed reinstatement. A subsequent experiment, which included a pair-housed group to control for potential isolation stress, again demonstrated that enrichment attenuated cocaine seeking during extinction, but not cocaine-primed reinstatement, relative to both isolation and pair-housed conditions. The findings suggest that enrichment reduces the impact of cocaine-associated environmental stimuli, and hence it may be a useful intervention for attenuating cue-elicited craving in humans.

  12. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for maleic anhydride was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human-health, aquatic-life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Maleic anhydride has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), for maleic anhydride is 0.10 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value for maleic anhydride is 100.

  13. Assessment of possible environmental effects of space shuttle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicerone, R. J.; Stedman, D. H.; Stolarski, R. S.; Dingle, A. N.; Cellarius, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The potential of shuttle operations to contribute to atmospheric pollution is investigated. Presented in this interim report are results of the study to date on rocket exhaust inventory, exhaust interactions, dispersion of the ground cloud, detection and measurement of hydrochloric acid and aluminum oxide, environmental effects of hydrochloric acid and aluminum oxide, stratospheric effects of shuttle effluents, and mesospheric and ionospheric effects of orbiter reentry. The results indicate space shuttle operation will not result in adverse environmental effects if appropriate launch constraints are met.

  14. Health Impact Assessment practice and potential for integration within Environmental Impact and Strategic Environmental Assessments in Italy.

    PubMed

    Linzalone, Nunzia; Assennato, Giorgio; Ballarini, Adele; Cadum, Ennio; Cirillo, Mario; Cori, Liliana; De Maio, Francesca; Musmeci, Loredana; Natali, Marinella; Rieti, Sabrina; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-12-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental impact is the driving idea behind protecting a population's health via Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs). However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA andSEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health,significant technical and methodological gaps are present when assessing health systematically, and their basic principles regarding assessment are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection ofthe environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest.

  15. Environmental effects on the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Paulson, G W

    1977-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is designed to respond to the environment and is peculiarly vulnerable to many of the influences found in the environment. Utilizing an anatomical classification (cortex, cerebellum, peripheral nerves) major toxins and stresses are reviewed with selections from recent references. Selective vulnerability of certain areas to particular toxins is apparent at all levels of the CNS, although the amount of damage produced by any noxious agent depends on the age and genetic substrate of the subject. It is apparent that the effects of certain well known and long respected environmental toxins such as lead, mercury, etc., deserve continued surveillance. In addition, the overwhelming impact on the CNS of social damages such as trauma, alcohol, and tobacco cannot be ignored by environmentalists. The effect of the hospital and therapeutic environment has become apparent in view of increased awareness of iatrogenic disorders. The need for particular laboratory tests, for example, examination of CSF and nerve conduction toxicity studies, is suggested. Epidemics such as the recent solvent neuropathies suggest a need for continued animal studies that are chronic, as well as acute evaluations when predicting the potential toxic effects of industrial compounds. PMID:202447

  16. Triclosan: current status, occurrence, environmental risks and bioaccumulation potential.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Kaur, Surinder; Pulicharla, Rama; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Cledón, Maximiliano; Verma, Mausam; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2015-05-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a multi-purpose antimicrobial agent used as a common ingredient in everyday household personal care and consumer products. The expanded use of TCS provides a number of pathways for the compound to enter the environment and it has been detected in sewage treatment plant effluents; surface; ground and drinking water. The physico-chemical properties indicate the bioaccumulation and persistence potential of TCS in the environment. Hence, there is an increasing concern about the presence of TCS in the environment and its potential negative effects on human and animal health. Nevertheless, scarce monitoring data could be one reason for not prioritizing TCS as emerging contaminant. Conventional water and wastewater treatment processes are unable to completely remove the TCS and even form toxic intermediates. Considering the worldwide application of personal care products containing TCS and inefficient removal and its toxic effects on aquatic organisms, the compound should be considered on the priority list of emerging contaminants and its utilization in all products should be regulated. PMID:26006133

  17. Triclosan: Current Status, Occurrence, Environmental Risks and Bioaccumulation Potential

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Kaur, Surinder; Pulicharla, Rama; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Cledón, Maximiliano; Verma, Mausam; Surampalli, Rao Y.

    2015-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a multi-purpose antimicrobial agent used as a common ingredient in everyday household personal care and consumer products. The expanded use of TCS provides a number of pathways for the compound to enter the environment and it has been detected in sewage treatment plant effluents; surface; ground and drinking water. The physico-chemical properties indicate the bioaccumulation and persistence potential of TCS in the environment. Hence, there is an increasing concern about the presence of TCS in the environment and its potential negative effects on human and animal health. Nevertheless, scarce monitoring data could be one reason for not prioritizing TCS as emerging contaminant. Conventional water and wastewater treatment processes are unable to completely remove the TCS and even form toxic intermediates. Considering the worldwide application of personal care products containing TCS and inefficient removal and its toxic effects on aquatic organisms, the compound should be considered on the priority list of emerging contaminants and its utilization in all products should be regulated. PMID:26006133

  18. Triclosan: current status, occurrence, environmental risks and bioaccumulation potential.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Kaur, Surinder; Pulicharla, Rama; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Cledón, Maximiliano; Verma, Mausam; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2015-05-22

    Triclosan (TCS) is a multi-purpose antimicrobial agent used as a common ingredient in everyday household personal care and consumer products. The expanded use of TCS provides a number of pathways for the compound to enter the environment and it has been detected in sewage treatment plant effluents; surface; ground and drinking water. The physico-chemical properties indicate the bioaccumulation and persistence potential of TCS in the environment. Hence, there is an increasing concern about the presence of TCS in the environment and its potential negative effects on human and animal health. Nevertheless, scarce monitoring data could be one reason for not prioritizing TCS as emerging contaminant. Conventional water and wastewater treatment processes are unable to completely remove the TCS and even form toxic intermediates. Considering the worldwide application of personal care products containing TCS and inefficient removal and its toxic effects on aquatic organisms, the compound should be considered on the priority list of emerging contaminants and its utilization in all products should be regulated.

  19. Effects of environmental stressors on vigilance performance

    SciTech Connect

    Duchon, J.C.; Hudock, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report on research for reducing accidents and improving the person-machine interface found in surface and underground mining operations. Miners are exposed to a variety of environmental stressors, e.g., extreme heat, noise, vibration, and adverse illumination, throughout the workday. Exposure to these environmental stressors has been noted to affect performance of vigilance tasks. Since impaired performance of vigilance tasks can lead to industrial accidents, further investigation of the effects of environmental stressors on human performance is warranted. A description of the environmental conditions present in the mining workplace is presented. A review of experiments dealing with the effects of environmental stressors on vigilance task performance is given. The applicability of past research to actual mining operations is considered.

  20. Effects Of Environmental Electrical Charges On Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Paul A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Handbook presents information on three kinds of disruptive effects of environmental electrical charges upon operations of electronic circuits and other sensitive equipment in spacecraft. Addresses surface and internal charging and discharging, single-event upsets, and related design issues.

  1. Manure-borne estrogens as potential environmental contaminants: a review.

    PubMed

    Hanselman, Travis A; Graetz, Donald A; Wilkie, Ann C

    2003-12-15

    Livestock wastes are potential sources of endocrine disrupting compounds to the environment. Steroidal estrogen hormones such as estradiol, estrone, and estriol are a particular concern because there is evidence that low nanogram per liter concentrations of estrogens in water can adversely affect the reproductive biology of fish and other aquatic vertebrate species. We performed a literature review to assess the current state of science regarding estrogen physicochemical properties, livestock excretion, and the fate of manure-borne estrogens in the environment. Unconjugated steroidal estrogens have low solubility in water (0.8-13.3 mg L(-1)) and are moderately hydrophobic (log Kow 2.6-4.0). Cattle excrete mostly 17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, estrone, and respective sulfated and glucuronidated counterparts, whereas swine and poultry excrete mostly 17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and respective sulfated and glucuronidated counterparts. The environmental fate of estrogens is not clearly known. Laboratory-based studies have found that the biological activity of these compounds is greatly reduced or eliminated within several hours to days due to degradation and sorption. On the other hand, field studies have demonstrated that estrogens are sufficiently mobile and persistent to impact surface and groundwater quality. Future research should use standardized methods for the analysis of manure, soil, and water. More information is needed about the types and amounts of estrogens that exist in livestock wastes and the fate of manure-borne estrogens applied to agricultural lands. Field and laboratory studies should work toward revealing the mechanisms of estrogen degradation, sorption, and transport so that the risk of estrogen contamination of waterways can be minimized.

  2. Simulated space environmental effects on some experimental high performance polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    1993-01-01

    High performance polymers for potential space applications were evaluated under simulated space environmental conditions. Experimental resins from blends of acetylene terminated materials, poly(arylene ether)s and low color polyimides were exposed to high energy electron and ultraviolet radiation in an attempt to simulate space environmental effects. Thin films, neat resin moldings, and carbon fiber reinforced composites were exposed, and the effect on certain polymer properties were determined. Recent research involving the effects of various radiation exposures on the physical, optical, and mechanical properties of several experimental polymer systems is reviewed.

  3. Environmental effects on spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haffner, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The effects on the natural space environments on materials are presented, which may be used for SDI applications. The current state-of-the-art knowledge of those effects was studied, and a literature search, a questionnaire mailing, and some visits to NASA and Air Force research facilities were performed. Phase 2 will be a study of what materials may be used for SDI applications and to what natural space environments they may be vulnerable. Deficiencies in knowledge of the effects of the natural space environments on these materials are to be identified and recommendations are to be made to eliminate these knowledge deficiencies.

  4. Creating effective messages about environmental health.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Michele; Tres, Alejandra; Aronin, Ruben

    2005-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention supported research coordinated by the Association of Environmental Health Academic Programs (AEHAP) for the purpose of developing effective messages about environmental health. The purpose of these messages would be to increase the visibility of the environmental health profession and improve the public's awareness and understanding of the role played by the profession in protecting the public's health. To accomplish this task, AEHAP first collaborated with a marketing team to develop initial test messages. The core message revolved around five major themes: effects of pollution, susceptible populations, economics and prevention, homeland security, and specific environmental health issues. The draft messages were tested in three focus group settings: 1) policy makers, 2) environmental health professionals, and 3) the general public. This paper reports a finding that there is a perceptual gap among environmental health professionals, policy makers, and the public. This gap is part of why there is a compelling need for the environmental health community to develop and disseminate more effective messages about the profession.

  5. Cable cleaning solvents; Environmental issues and effective replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, D.P.; Hunder, D.N. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents the sequence of events used in selecting potential candidates as effective replacements for currently used chlorinated solvents. It also discusses the health and environmental issues that surround the use of chlorinated solvents and the test criteria used to determine the final selection of one such replacement.

  6. Teaching Environmental Consumer Education Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cude, Brenda J.

    1993-01-01

    Effective strategies include (1) helping consumers see how lifestyles and consumer behavior are related; (2) limiting amount of new terminology used; (3) dispelling myths and misperceptions; (4) doing product life-cycle analysis; and (5) emphasizing long-term goals for behavior change. (JOW)

  7. Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

    This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

  8. Potential Ergogenic Effects of Saffron.

    PubMed

    Meamarbashi, Abbas; Rajabi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Crocus sativus, commonly known as saffron, is a rich source of carotenoids with many health benefits. The muscular strength, pulmonary function, and reaction time are vital to the athlete's performance, and this study aimed to investigate an ergogenic effect of saffron. Twenty-eight nonactive and healthy male university students were randomly assigned into the saffron (n = 14) and control (n = 15) groups. The experimental group received dried saffron stigma (300 mg/day for 10 days) and the control group received a placebo. After one session, familiarization with the tests, anthropometric parameters, visual and audio reaction times, and the maximum isometric and isotonic forces on a leg press machine were measured accordingly, 1 day before and after the supplementation period. This study shows that 10 days of supplementation with saffron significantly increased (10.1%) the isometric force (p < .0001; effect size (EF) = 0.432) and increased 6.1% the isotonic force (p < .0001; effect size = 0.662), as well as effecting faster visual (p < .05; EF = 0.217) and audio (p < .05; EF = 0.214) reaction times. The ergogenic effect of saffron (increase in the forces) may contribute to increase in the muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and positive effect on the motor cortex, both of which may explain faster audio and visual reaction times. Saffron supplementation was also possibly responsible for improvement of muscle blood perfusion and facilitation in the oxygen transport. PMID:26811090

  9. Optimizing environmental measures for landscape multifunctionality: effectiveness, efficiency and recommendations for agri-environmental programs.

    PubMed

    Galler, Carolin; von Haaren, Christina; Albert, Christian

    2015-03-15

    Agri-environmental measures differ in their capacity to simultaneously enhance the provision of multiple ecosystem services. Multifunctional approaches are hampered by funding schemes that are usually administered by individual administrative sectors that each predominantly focus on one single environmental objective. Developing integrative management strategies that exploit synergies from implementing multifunctional measures is challenged by the need to quantify expected management effects on different ecosystem services. The objective of this paper is to compare uncoordinated versus coordinated management strategies in their contribution to multiple environmental objectives. We developed and applied a method for quantifying effectiveness, as well as spatial and cost efficiency with respect to four key landscape functions: erosion prevention, water quality conservation, climate change mitigation and safeguarding biodiversity. The case study area was the county of Verden, Germany. The following findings can be drawn: Measures for safeguarding biodiversity and climate change mitigation have generally high multifunctional effects, which makes them suitable for integrative management strategies. To make use of the added value of potential multifunctional measures, a spatially targeted allocation of agri-environmental measures is necessary. Compared to uncoordinated strategies, coordinated integrative management strategies either allow the optimization of the ratio of costs to environmental effects or an increase in the effects that can be achieved within an area unit. This is however, usually not simultaneous. Future research should seek to refine the assessment and valuation indicators. PMID:25577703

  10. Community Environmental Education as a Model for Effective Environmental Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Morag

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of community environmental education outlined in environmental education literature are supported by the findings and implications of a research study undertaken in New Zealand. Evidence from a two-case case study suggests that environmental programmes guided by the key principles and practices of community environmental education,…

  11. Environmental effects on iron aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Bennett, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    Air oxidation tests of iron-aluminum alloys containing 16 and 28 at. % Al, were conducted at 1300C to determine the effect of alloy composition and section thickness on time to breakdown of oxidation resistance. Oxidation rates of 16% Al were significantly higher than for 28% Al (Fe{sub 3}Al). The times over which the oxide scales remained protective correlated with extent of aluminum depletion of the alloy matrix and were therefore a direct function of the initial aluminum content of the alloy, the section thickness, and oxidation rate. The oxidation rate of the Fe{sub 3}Al alloys was significantly reduced by addition of 0.1% Zr, which improved the adherence of the scale during thermal cycling to room temperature. However, the oxidation rates of the Fe{sub 3}Al alloys were higher at 1300C than those reported for oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) Fe-18%Cr-10%Al alloys containing Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Times to the onset of breakaway oxidation were similar for zirconium-containing Fe{sub 3}Al and the ODS alloys, the lower oxidation rate of the latter offsetting the higher initial aluminum of the former. Studies of the effects of chlorine (HCl) on the oxidation/sulfidation resistance of Fe{sub 3}Al- based alloys were conducted using test facilities at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the United Kingdom. Alloys were exposed to a test gas composed of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}S Plus 1000--5000 ppm HCl at 450 and 550C for 1000 h. Weight gains were relatively low and were generally less than companion specimens of Fe-Cr-Al alloys.

  12. Potential for the environmental impact of transgenic crops.

    PubMed

    Dale, Philip J; Clarke, Belinda; Fontes, Eliana M G

    2002-06-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in how changes in agricultural practice associated with the introduction of particular genetically modified (GM) crops might indirectly impact the environment. There is also interest in any effects that might be associated with recombinant and novel combinations of DNA passing into the environment, and the possibility that they may be taken up by microorganisms or other live biological material. From the current state of knowledge, the impact of free DNA of transgenic origin is likely to be negligible compared with the large amount of total free DNA. We can find no compelling scientific arguments to demonstrate that GM crops are innately different from non-GM crops. The kinds of potential impacts of GM crops fall into classes familiar from the cultivation of non-GM crops (e.g., invasiveness, weediness, toxicity, or biodiversity). It is likely, however, that the novelty of some of the products of GM crop improvement will present new challenges and perhaps opportunities to manage particular crops in creative ways. PMID:12042859

  13. Potential for the environmental impact of transgenic crops.

    PubMed

    Dale, Philip J; Clarke, Belinda; Fontes, Eliana M G

    2002-06-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in how changes in agricultural practice associated with the introduction of particular genetically modified (GM) crops might indirectly impact the environment. There is also interest in any effects that might be associated with recombinant and novel combinations of DNA passing into the environment, and the possibility that they may be taken up by microorganisms or other live biological material. From the current state of knowledge, the impact of free DNA of transgenic origin is likely to be negligible compared with the large amount of total free DNA. We can find no compelling scientific arguments to demonstrate that GM crops are innately different from non-GM crops. The kinds of potential impacts of GM crops fall into classes familiar from the cultivation of non-GM crops (e.g., invasiveness, weediness, toxicity, or biodiversity). It is likely, however, that the novelty of some of the products of GM crop improvement will present new challenges and perhaps opportunities to manage particular crops in creative ways.

  14. The effect of environmental heterogeneity on species richness depends on community position along the environmental gradient.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Liu, Xueqi; Zhou, Mohua; Ai, Dexiecuo; Wang, Gang; Wang, Youshi; Chu, Chengjin; Lundholm, Jeremy T

    2015-01-01

    Environmental heterogeneity is among the most important factors governing community structure. Besides the widespread evidence supporting positive relationships between richness and environmental heterogeneity, negative and unimodal relationships have also been reported. However, few studies have attempted to test the role of the heterogeneity on species richness after removing the confounding effect of resource availability or environmental severity. Here we constructed an individual-based spatially explicit model incorporating a long-recognized tradeoff between competitive ability and stress-tolerance ability of species. We explored the impact of the level of resource availability (i.e. the position of the community along a gradient of environmental severity) on the heterogeneity-diversity relationship (HDR). The results indicate that the shape of HDR depends on the community position along the environmental gradient: at either end of the gradient of environmental severity, a positive HDR occurred, whereas at the intermediate levels of the gradient, a unimodal HDR emerged. Our exploration demonstrates that resource availability/environmental severity should be considered as a potential factor influencing the shape of the HDR. Our theoretical predictions represent hypotheses in need of further empirical study. PMID:26508413

  15. Education in Environmental Remote Sensing: Potentials and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Ralph W.; Lillesand, Thomas M.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses remote sensing principles and applications and the status and needs of remote sensing education in the United States. A summary of the fundamental policy issues that will determine remote sensing's future role in environmental and resource managements is included. (Author/BC)

  16. Biased Data and Potential Solutions for Health and Environmental Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility and credibility of environmental assessments depend on the use of unbiased data. However, it is increasingly clear that, despite peer review, much of the scientific literature is biased. Sources of bias may include publication practices, research design and implemen...

  17. Space environmental effects on polymer composites: Research needs and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Bor Z.; Bianchi, J.; Liu, Y. M.; Chang, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term performance of polymer-based composites in the space environment is discussed. Both thermoset and thermoplastic matrix composites are included in this discussion. Previous efforts on the space environmental effects on composites are briefly reviewed. Focus of this review is placed on the effects of hygrothermal stresses, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV), and space debris/micrometeoroid impacts along with the potential synergism. Potential approaches to estimating the residual strength of polymer composites after exposure to atomic oxygen erosion or space debris/micrometeoroid impact are evaluated. New ground-based data are then utilized to illustrate the effects of atomic oxygen and thermal cycling on the failure behavior of polymer composites. Finally, research needs, challenges, and opportunities in the field of space environmental effects on composite materials are highlighted.

  18. Potentials and Limitations of Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumberger, J.; Remmler, P.; Hutschenreuther, T.; Toepfer, H.; Dietrich, P.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding and dealing with environmental challenges worldwide requires suitable interdisciplinary methods and a level of expertise to be able to implement these solutions, so that the lifestyles of future generations can be secured in the years to come. To characterize environmental systems it is necessary to identify and describe processes with suitable methods. Environmental systems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, so individual measurements for their complete representation are often not sufficient. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems offer significant benefits as a better consideration of the local test conditions becomes possible. This can be essential for the monitoring of heterogeneous environmental systems. Significant advantages in the application of wireless sensor networks are their self-organizing behaviour, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, a point measurement with a sensor is significantly improved by measuring at several points. It is also possible to perform analog and digital signal processing and computation on the basis of the measured data close to the sensor. Hence, a significant reduction of the data to be transmitted can be achieved which leads to a better energy management of sensor nodes. Furthermore, their localization via satellite, the miniaturization of the nodes and long-term energy self-sufficiency are current topics under investigation. In this presentation, the possibilities and limitations of the applicability of wireless sensor networks for long-term environmental monitoring are presented. To underline the importance of this future technology, example concepts are given in the field of near-surface geothermics, groundwater observation, measurement of spatial radiation intensity and air humidity on soils, measurement of matter fluxes, greenhouse gas measurement, and landslide monitoring.

  19. Through Their Lens: The Potential of Photovoice for Documentation of Environmental Perspectives among Kenyan Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Dogbey, James; Che, S. Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey; Womac, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the potential of photovoice for understanding environmental perspectives of teachers in the Narok District of Kenya. The objective of this paper is to share this photo-methodology with environmental educators so they may use it as an innovative methodological tool to understand the construction of environmental perspectives.…

  20. Potential environmental impact of a hydrogen economy on the stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Tracey K; Shia, Run-Lie; Allen, Mark; Eiler, John M; Yung, Y L

    2003-06-13

    The widespread use of hydrogen fuel cells could have hitherto unknown environmental impacts due to unintended emissions of molecular hydrogen, including an increase in the abundance of water vapor in the stratosphere (plausibly by as much as approximately 1 part per million by volume). This would cause stratospheric cooling, enhancement of the heterogeneous chemistry that destroys ozone, an increase in noctilucent clouds, and changes in tropospheric chemistry and atmosphere-biosphere interactions. PMID:12805546

  1. Potential environmental impact of a hydrogen economy on the stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Tracey K; Shia, Run-Lie; Allen, Mark; Eiler, John M; Yung, Y L

    2003-06-13

    The widespread use of hydrogen fuel cells could have hitherto unknown environmental impacts due to unintended emissions of molecular hydrogen, including an increase in the abundance of water vapor in the stratosphere (plausibly by as much as approximately 1 part per million by volume). This would cause stratospheric cooling, enhancement of the heterogeneous chemistry that destroys ozone, an increase in noctilucent clouds, and changes in tropospheric chemistry and atmosphere-biosphere interactions.

  2. Evaluation of Environmental Effects of Wave Energy Convertor Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Stakeholders and regulators in the U.S. are generally uncertain as to the potential environmental impacts posed by deployments of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices, and in particular wave energy conversion (WEC) devices, in coastal waters. The first pilot-scale WEC deployments in the U.S. have had to absorb unsustainable costs and delays associated with permitting to get devices in the water. As such, there is an urgent industry need to streamline the technical activities and processes used to assess potential environmental impacts. To enable regulators and stakeholders to become more comfortable and confident with developing effective MHK environmental assessments, a better understanding of the potential environmental effects induced by arrays of WEC devices is needed. A key challenge in developing this understanding is that the assessment of the WEC effects must come prior to deployment. A typical approach in similar environmental assessments is to use numerical models to simulate the WEC devices and array layouts so that the appropriate environmental stressors and receptors can be identified and assessed. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the U.S. Department of Energy are fulfilling the industry-wide need to develop "WEC-friendly" open-source numerical modeling tools capable of assessing potential changes to the physical environment caused by the operation of WEC arrays. Studies using these tools will advance the nation's general knowledge of the interrelationships among the number, size, efficiency, and configuration of MHK arrays and the subsequent effects these relationships may have on the deployment environment. By better understanding these relationships, industry, stakeholders, and regulators will be able to work together to optimize WEC deployments such that environmental impacts are minimized while power output is maximized. The present work outlines the initial effort in coupling the SNL WEC-friendly tools with the environmental assessment

  3. Environmental toxicant effects on neuroendocrine function.

    PubMed

    Gore, A C

    2001-03-01

    Exposure to environmental toxicants can have profound effects on normal growth and development. However, the mechanisms by which these toxicants exert these effects are not well understood. Many environmental toxicants alter reproductive function and have effects on the central nervous system and behavior, yet the link between these reproductive and neurologic phenomena has not been systematically investigated. The neuroendocrine (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal) axis, which integrates inputs to and outputs from the nervous and reproductive systems, is functionally and anatomically situated to mediate effects of environmental toxicants, particularly those that are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), on developmental processes. This article reviews the current literature on EDC effects on the neuroendocrine system, particularly at the level of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, the key cells involved in the regulation of reproductive function. The focus of this article is on two polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclor 1221, Aroclor 1254) and two organochlorine pesticides (methoxychlor and chlorpyrifos). Some experimental data are presented for each of the four urban environmental toxicants on GnRH cells in vitro and in vivo. The results of in vitro experiments indicate that all four of the toxicants profoundly affect hypothalamic GnRH gene expression, cell survival, and neurite outgrowth, demonstrating direct effects of EDCs on a GnRH cell line. In in vivo experiments, three of the toxicants (Aroclor 1221, methoxychlor, and chlorpyrifos) caused significant alterations in GnRH mRNA levels in female rats. Both the in vitro and in vivo findings support the novel concept of chlorpyrifos as an EDC. The results, taken together with the literature, support the hypothesis that the neuroendocrine axis, and specifically GnRH neurons, are sensitive to urban environmental toxicants, and that reproductive and neurologic effects of EDCs may be

  4. Six distributional effects of environmental policy.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Don

    2011-06-01

    While prior literature has identified various effects of environmental policy, this note uses the example of a proposed carbon permit system to illustrate and discuss six different types of distributional effects: (1) higher prices of carbon-intensive products, (2) changes in relative returns to factors like labor, capital, and resources, (3) allocation of scarcity rents from a restricted number of permits, (4) distribution of the benefits from improvements in environmental quality, (5) temporary effects during the transition, and (6) capitalization of all those effects into prices of land, corporate stock, or house values. The note also discusses whether all six effects could be regressive, that is, whether carbon policy could place disproportionate burden on the poor. PMID:21545628

  5. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  6. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  7. Potential pathogenicity of Aeromonas hydrophila complex strains isolated from clinical, food, and environmental sources.

    PubMed

    Albarral, Vicenta; Sanglas, Ariadna; Palau, Montserrat; Miñana-Galbis, David; Fusté, M Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments, including chlorinated and polluted waters, although they can also be isolated from a wide variety of environmental and clinical sources. They cause infections in vertebrates and invertebrates and are considered to be an emerging pathogen in humans, producing intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. Most of the clinical isolates correspond to A. hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. veronii bv. Sobria, which are described as the causative agents of wound infections, septicaemia, and meningitis in immunocompromised people, and diarrhoea and dysenteric infections in the elderly and children. The pathogenic factors associated with Aeromonas are multifactorial and involve structural components, siderophores, quorum-sensing mechanisms, secretion systems, extracellular enzymes, and exotoxins. In this study, we analysed a representative number of clinical and environmental strains belonging to the A. hydrophila species complex to evaluate their potential pathogenicity. We thereby detected their enzymatic activities and antibiotic susceptibility pattern and the presence of virulence genes (aer, alt, ast, and ascV). The notably high prevalence of these virulence factors, even in environmental strains, indicated a potential pathogenic capacity. Additionally, we determined the adhesion capacity and cytopathic effects of this group of strains in Caco-2 cells. Most of the strains exhibited adherence and caused complete lysis.

  8. Environmental monitoring: the key to effective sanitation.

    PubMed

    Parker, Alan; Wilfred, Antonia G; Hidell, Timothy B

    2003-05-01

    Judicious and effective use of chemical decontaminants has a critical function in meeting the bioexclusion and biocontainment objectives established in every well-managed animal research facility. The authors provide an overview of the components to consider when developing and implementing an environmental monitoring program. PMID:19757613

  9. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for methyl bromide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for methyl bromide was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Methyl bromide has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), for methyl bromide is 0.0014 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value for methyl bromide is 100.

  10. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Münzel, Thomas; Gori, Tommaso; Babisch, Wolfgang; Basner, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The role of noise as an environmental pollutant and its impact on health are being increasingly recognized. Beyond its effects on the auditory system, noise causes annoyance and disturbs sleep, and it impairs cognitive performance. Furthermore, evidence from epidemiologic studies demonstrates that environmental noise is associated with an increased incidence of arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Both observational and experimental studies indicate that in particular night-time noise can cause disruptions of sleep structure, vegetative arousals (e.g. increases of blood pressure and heart rate) and increases in stress hormone levels and oxidative stress, which in turn may result in endothelial dysfunction and arterial hypertension. This review focuses on the cardiovascular consequences of environmental noise exposure and stresses the importance of noise mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24616334

  11. Organizing for Effective Global Environmental Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, K. S.; Ryan, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental governance organizations strive to address problems that benefit society across local, national, and regional scales. While some of these problems may be best understood from a physical science perspective, some solutions may be best implemented using a social science approach. In the world of international organizations, many groups address various pieces of the environmental governance puzzle. None, however, addressed it from the aspect of voluntary governance until 2003, when the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) was established. In any organization, a number of factors including, but not limited to, organizational dynamics and governance, resources and leadership play a vital role in ensuring solutions are found and implemented successfully, and GEO is no exception. One characteristic, however, of GEO that both complements and complicates effective environmental governance is its voluntary nature. This paper will discuss the characteristics of GEO, lessons learned from its various organizational structures over time, and ways in which social science disciplines can help advance the goals of GEO.

  12. Mercury from mineral deposits and potential environmental impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Mercury deposits are globally distributed in 26 mercury mineral belts. Three types of mercury deposits occur in these belts: silica-carbonate, hot-spring, and Almaden. Mercury is also produced as a by-product from several types of gold-silver and massive sulfide deposits, which account for 5% of the world's production. Other types of mineral deposits can be enriched in mercury and mercury phases present are dependent on deposit type. During processing of mercury ores, secondary mercury phases form and accumulate in mine wastes. These phases are more soluble than cinnabar, the primary ore mineral, and cause mercury deposits to impact the environment more so than other types of ore deposits enriched in mercury. Release and transport of mercury from mine wastes occur primarily as mercury-enriched particles and colloids. Production from mercury deposits has decreased because of environmental concerns, but by-product production from other mercury-enriched mineral deposits remains important.

  13. Environmental effects on fish immune mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bly, J E; Quiniou, S M; Clem, L W

    1997-01-01

    Environmental stress factors which influence fish immune (and likely many other physiological) functions can be divided into two broad, but not mutually exclusive, categories, namely those which occur naturally and those which are artificial. Natural environmental stress factors include season, temperature, salinity and photoperiod as well as social stress factors such as crowding and hierarchy. In general, artificial environmental stress factors are man made, and mainly involve pollutants such as acid rain, heavy metals and organic compounds. The available data indicate that regardless of which immune parameters are assessed, both natural and artificial environmental stress factors appear to suppress immune functions. Of the numerous environmental stress factors considered, pollutants, handling/confinement and low temperature are probably the best studied forms in fish. All three forms of stress factors have been shown to suppress components of both the innate (non-specific) and adaptive arms of the immune system. Since immune responses which protect against invading pathogens frequently involve interactions between both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system, it seems reasonable to conclude that either acute or chronic exposure to stress factors may predispose fish to infectious diseases. Signalling mechanisms responsible for the effects of these various stress factors on immunity in fish are poorly understood, although elevated serum ACTH and cortisol levels appear to be involved in some cases. A better understanding of the mechanism(s) resulting in immunosuppression should facilitate future in vivo manipulations to reduce susceptibility to disease in aquaculture situations.

  14. Experimental investigation to evaluate the potential environmental hazards of photovoltaic panels.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, Marco; Salluzzo, Antonio; Rimauro, Juri; Schiavo, Simona; Manzo, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Recently the potential environmental hazard of photovoltaic modules together with their management as waste has attracted the attention of scientists. Particular concern is aroused by the several metals contained in photovoltaic panels whose potential release in the environment were scarcely investigated. Here, for the first time, the potential environmental hazard of panels produced in the last 30 years was investigated through the assessment of up to 18 releasable metals. Besides, the corresponding ecotoxicological effects were also evaluated. Experimental data were compared with the current European and Italian law limits for drinking water, discharge on soil and landfill inert disposal in order to understand the actual pollution load. Results showed that less than 3% of the samples respected all law limits and around 21% was not ecotoxic. By considering the technological evolutions in manufacturing, we have shown that during the years crystalline silicon panels have lower tendency to release hazardous metals with respect to thin film panels. In addition, a prediction of the amounts of lead, chromium, cadmium and nickel releasable from next photovoltaic waste was performed. The prevision up to 2050 showed high amounts of lead (30t) and cadmium (2.9t) releasable from crystalline and thin film panels respectively. PMID:26829098

  15. Potential Bud Bank Responses to Apical Meristem Damage and Environmental Variables: Matching or Complementing Axillary Meristems?

    PubMed Central

    Klimešová, Jitka; Malíková, Lenka; Rosenthal, Jonathan; Šmilauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Soil nutrients, dormant axillary meristem availability, and competition can influence plant tolerance to damage. However, the role of potential bud banks (adventitious meristems initiated only after injury) is not known. Examining Central European field populations of 22 species of short-lived monocarpic herbs exposed to various sources of damage, we hypothesized that: (1) with increasing injury severity, the number of axillary branches would decrease, due to axillary meristem limitation, whereas the number of adventitious shoots (typically induced by severe injury) would increase; (2) favorable environmental conditions would allow intact plants to branch more, resulting in stronger axillary meristem limitation than in unfavorable conditions; and (3) consequently, adventitious sprouting would be better enabled in favorable than unfavorable conditions. We found strong support for the first hypothesis, only limited support for the second, and none for the third. Our results imply that whereas soil nutrients and competition marginally influence plant tolerance to damage, potential bud banks enable plants to overcome meristem limitation from severe damage, and therefore better tolerate it. All the significant effects were found in intraspecific comparisons, whereas interspecific differences were not found. Monocarpic plants with potential bud banks therefore represent a distinct strategy occupying a narrow environmental niche. The disturbance regime typical for this niche remains to be examined, as do the costs associated with the banks of adventitious and axillary reserve meristems. PMID:24516587

  16. Potential bud bank responses to apical meristem damage and environmental variables: matching or complementing axillary meristems?

    PubMed

    Klimešová, Jitka; Malíková, Lenka; Rosenthal, Jonathan; Šmilauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Soil nutrients, dormant axillary meristem availability, and competition can influence plant tolerance to damage. However, the role of potential bud banks (adventitious meristems initiated only after injury) is not known. Examining Central European field populations of 22 species of short-lived monocarpic herbs exposed to various sources of damage, we hypothesized that: (1) with increasing injury severity, the number of axillary branches would decrease, due to axillary meristem limitation, whereas the number of adventitious shoots (typically induced by severe injury) would increase; (2) favorable environmental conditions would allow intact plants to branch more, resulting in stronger axillary meristem limitation than in unfavorable conditions; and (3) consequently, adventitious sprouting would be better enabled in favorable than unfavorable conditions. We found strong support for the first hypothesis, only limited support for the second, and none for the third. Our results imply that whereas soil nutrients and competition marginally influence plant tolerance to damage, potential bud banks enable plants to overcome meristem limitation from severe damage, and therefore better tolerate it. All the significant effects were found in intraspecific comparisons, whereas interspecific differences were not found. Monocarpic plants with potential bud banks therefore represent a distinct strategy occupying a narrow environmental niche. The disturbance regime typical for this niche remains to be examined, as do the costs associated with the banks of adventitious and axillary reserve meristems. PMID:24516587

  17. Experimental investigation to evaluate the potential environmental hazards of photovoltaic panels.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, Marco; Salluzzo, Antonio; Rimauro, Juri; Schiavo, Simona; Manzo, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Recently the potential environmental hazard of photovoltaic modules together with their management as waste has attracted the attention of scientists. Particular concern is aroused by the several metals contained in photovoltaic panels whose potential release in the environment were scarcely investigated. Here, for the first time, the potential environmental hazard of panels produced in the last 30 years was investigated through the assessment of up to 18 releasable metals. Besides, the corresponding ecotoxicological effects were also evaluated. Experimental data were compared with the current European and Italian law limits for drinking water, discharge on soil and landfill inert disposal in order to understand the actual pollution load. Results showed that less than 3% of the samples respected all law limits and around 21% was not ecotoxic. By considering the technological evolutions in manufacturing, we have shown that during the years crystalline silicon panels have lower tendency to release hazardous metals with respect to thin film panels. In addition, a prediction of the amounts of lead, chromium, cadmium and nickel releasable from next photovoltaic waste was performed. The prevision up to 2050 showed high amounts of lead (30t) and cadmium (2.9t) releasable from crystalline and thin film panels respectively.

  18. Identification of Potential Estrogenic Environmental Pollutants by Terahertz Transmission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quema, Alex; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Masahiro; Goto, Masahiro; Ono, Shingo; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Shioda, Ryu; Yamada, Norihide

    2003-08-01

    Using magnetically enhanced terahertz radiation from InAs, various naphthols, which exhibits estrogenic like activity and are potentially mimic natural hormones, are studied. The experimental results show that the naphthols, depicted by the position of the hydroxyl (-OH) component at different carbon atom sites of the naphthalene compound, are distinguishable based on the absorption of THz radiation. It is found that the THz radiation absorption is strongly related to the crystal symmetry and dipole moment of these isomers.

  19. Potential for ag residue collection, economics and environmental benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettenhaus, J. R.

    2003-12-01

    Removing excess corn stover and cereal straws after erosion requirements have been satisfied offers much potential as a renewable feedstock for initial biorefineries, producing fuels, chemicals and materials while reducing crop inputs, increasing farm income and offsetting greenhouse gas emissions. Two biorefinery site studies are presented for the production of fuel ethanol: SW Nebraska and Western Oklahoma. Results include excess available, delivered cost, net income to the farmer, improved SOM from move to no-till and GHG reduction from fossil fuel offset

  20. Potential environmental functions of widespread, abundant, uncultured marine archaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, K. G.; Schreiber, L.; Petersen, D. G.; Schramm, A.; Jorgensen, B.

    2012-12-01

    The vast majority of marine subsurface microorganisms are uncultivated, and therefore have unknown metabolisms. Much of the prokaryotes present in the marine subsurface are archaea, and, in turn, much of the archaea fall into the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group. These organisms are widely distributed globally and are phylogenetically diverse, comprising 17 distinct subgroups, defined by 16S rRNA genes (Kubo et al. 2012). The subgroups do not seem to have any well-defined environmental distribution (i.e., they are all present in different types of marine and terrestrial environments). However, the abundance of sequences from a certain environment type differs among subgroups, and may provide clues to their role in these environments. We sequenced the genome of a single cell of MCG extracted directly from marine sediments. Although coverage was low (~30%), the data quality was high. Conserved genes show that MCG is deeply branching within the newly named "Thaumarchaeota", and contains a complete pathway for the degradation or extracellular proteins. A further search through metagenomic data shows that this process may be widespread in marine sediments. We hypothesize that MCG archaea may be important in anaerobic protein decomposition in marine sediments. Reference Kubo et al., 2012. Archaea of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG) are abundant, diverse, and widespread in marine sediments. ISME Journal, in press, doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.37.

  1. Miniaturized redox potential probe for in situ environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jang, Am; Lee, Jin-Hwan; Bhadri, Prashant R; Kumar, Suresh A; Timmons, William; Beyette, Fred R; Papautsky, Ian; Bishop, Paul L

    2005-08-15

    The need for accurate, robust in situ microscale monitoring of oxidation-reduction potentials (ORP) is required for continuous soil pore water quality monitoring. We are developing a suite of self-contained microelectrodes that can be used in the environment, such as at Superfund sites, to monitor ORP in contaminated soils and sediments. This paper presents details on our development of microelectrode sensor arrays for ORP measurements. The electrochemical performance of these ORP electrodes was fully characterized by measuring redox potentials in standard solutions. It found that the newly developed integrated ORP microelectrodes produced a very stable voltage response (the corresponding rate of the integrated microelectrode potential change was in the range of 0.6-1.1 mV/min), even when the measurement was carried out outside of a Faraday cage where signals from most conventional microelectrodes are usually inhibited by external electrical nose. These new microelectrodes were easier to fabricate and were more robust than conventional microelectrodes. The tip size of the integrated ORP microelectrode was approximately 200 nm square, with a taper angle of approximately 20 degrees and a length of 57 microm. The integrated ORP microelectrode exhibited better signal stability and substantially shorter response times (from less than a few milliseconds to 30 s, depending on the standard solution used) than the commercial millielectrode (a few minutes). Compared with the slope of the commercial millelectrode, the slope of the integrated microelectrode (61.5 mV/pH) was closerto the ideal slope against quinhydrone calibration solutions. Therefore, it is to be expected that the newly developed ORP microelectrode may have wider applications in contaminated soils, biofilms, and sediments. PMID:16173580

  2. Potential Health Effects from Groundwater Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyer, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the growing awareness of potential toxicological effects of synthetic organic chemicals contaminating groundwater. Problems concerning pesticides, chlorination, epidemiologic studies, cancer, nephrotoxicity, and considerations of risk are addressed. Additional research in this area is advocated. (DH)

  3. Permafrost as palaeo-environmental archive - potentials and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirrmeister, L.; Wetterich, S.; Meyer, H.; Grosse, G.; Schwamborn, G.; Siegert, C.

    2009-04-01

    Since 1994, the Periglacial Research Group of the Alfred Wegener Institute is studying permafrost sequences of the Beringian landmass. The study sites in Siberia cover lake banks on Taymyr Peninsula, coastal sites at the Laptev and the East Siberian Seas, locations in the Lena Delta, at the lower Kolyma river, the middle Lena and the lower Aldan rivers, and the catchment area of the El'gygytgyn crater lake in Chukotka. In Alaska, permafrost tunnels near Fairbanks and Barrow, and coastal sites on the Seward Peninsula coast were studied. In addition, Canadian sites on Herschel Island in the Beaufort Sea and at the adjacent coast of the Yukon plain were studied. Subsurface exposures like tunnels and cellars provided the opportunity for three-dimensional studies of sedimentary and ground ice features, relatively ‘clean' field conditions for in-situ experiments, monitoring procedures, and detailed and repeatable sampling. Permafrost cores were drilled in order to study inaccessible sequences below the terrain surface and shelf sea floor. Cores were transported and stored frozen for further high-resolution analysis. Reference core sections were preserved for subsequent later studies. Terrestrial sediment cores are highly localized records, sometimes problematic in extrapolating horizons in inhomogeneous sediments like ground ice-deformed permafrost deposits, and drill campaigns are usually cost intensive and logistical challenging. Coastal permafrost cliffs often naturally expose large cross sections trough modern and ancient landscapes. Contrary to cores, they provide an opportunity to study the wider context of depositional environments and ground ice features. Due to the relative easy access to coasts and the recurring natural exposure of cliffs by thermo-abrasive wave action they are very convenient study objects for regional comparisons and correlation of past environmental conditions. Finally, palaeogeographical reconstructions are also guided by remote sensing

  4. Effects of similarity on environmental context cueing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven M; Handy, Justin D; Angello, Genna; Manzano, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the prediction that context cues which are similar to study contexts can facilitate episodic recall, even if those cues are never seen before the recall test. Environmental context cueing effects have typically produced such small effect sizes that influences of moderating factors, such as the similarity between encoding and retrieval contexts, would be difficult to observe experimentally. Videos of environmental contexts, however, can be used to produce powerful context-dependent memory effects, particularly when only one memory target is associated with each video context, intentional item-context encoding is encouraged, and free recall tests are used. Experiment 1 showed that a not previously viewed video of the study context provided an effective recall cue, although it was not as effective as the originally viewed video context. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that videos of environments that were conceptually similar to encoding contexts (e.g., both were videos of ball field games) also cued recall, but not as well if the encoding contexts were given specific labels (e.g., "home run") incompatible with test contexts (e.g., a soccer scene). A fourth experiment that used incidental item-context encoding showed that video context reinstatement has a robust effect on paired associate memory, indicating that the video context reinstatement effect does not depend on interactive item-context encoding or free recall testing.

  5. Effects of similarity on environmental context cueing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven M; Handy, Justin D; Angello, Genna; Manzano, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the prediction that context cues which are similar to study contexts can facilitate episodic recall, even if those cues are never seen before the recall test. Environmental context cueing effects have typically produced such small effect sizes that influences of moderating factors, such as the similarity between encoding and retrieval contexts, would be difficult to observe experimentally. Videos of environmental contexts, however, can be used to produce powerful context-dependent memory effects, particularly when only one memory target is associated with each video context, intentional item-context encoding is encouraged, and free recall tests are used. Experiment 1 showed that a not previously viewed video of the study context provided an effective recall cue, although it was not as effective as the originally viewed video context. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that videos of environments that were conceptually similar to encoding contexts (e.g., both were videos of ball field games) also cued recall, but not as well if the encoding contexts were given specific labels (e.g., "home run") incompatible with test contexts (e.g., a soccer scene). A fourth experiment that used incidental item-context encoding showed that video context reinstatement has a robust effect on paired associate memory, indicating that the video context reinstatement effect does not depend on interactive item-context encoding or free recall testing. PMID:23721293

  6. Characteristics of mannosylerythritol lipids and their environmental potential.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingda; Liu, Zhifeng; Zeng, Guangming; Zhong, Hua; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Yongbing; Li, Min; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-04-30

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are promising biosurfactants containing two glycosyl derivatives and various fatty acids, which are mainly secreted by Pseudozyma as well as Ustilago. In this review, the latest research is demonstrated on production conditions, structural diversity, self-assembling properties and versatile biochemical functions of MELs. The genetic study and synthetic pathways, which mainly influence the type and yield of MELs production. Due to the excellent surface activity, biocompatibility and restorative function, MELs can be used in enviornmental industry, which has not been widely noted. In this paper, the current status of research on enviornmental potential of MELs has been discussed including petroleum degradation, bioconversion of chemical wastes and enhanced bioremediation of amphiphilic wastes. PMID:25723622

  7. Cardiovascular effects of potential occupational hazards.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber, S Z

    1983-12-01

    Cardiovascular effects of potential occupational hazards have received relatively little attention. The major inhalant occupational exposures of concern are carbon disulfide, nitrates, halogenated hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide. Occupational exposure to certain trace metals may also be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. Of concern is potential toxicity from cobalt, antimony, lead, cadmium and arsenic. Potential physical hazards exist in association with noise, heat and radiofrequency radiation. In most instances, the data are suggestive rather than conclusive. Further epidemiologic studies with careful control for potentially complicating factors, such as baseline differences in blood pressure, cigarette smoking habits and age, are needed. In some areas where epidemiologic studies have provided clues, the mechanisms of action of potential occupational hazards require further basic scientific investigation.

  8. Water Mites (Acari: Hydrachnida) of Ozark Streams - Abundance, Species Richness, and Potential as Environmental Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwell, A. J.; Brown, A. V.

    2005-05-01

    Because water mites are tightly linked to other stream metazoans through parasitism and predation, they are potentially effective indicators of environmental quality. Meiofauna (80 μm to 1 mm) were sampled from headwater riffles of 11 Ozark streams to determine relative abundance and densities of major meiofauna taxa. Water mites comprised 15.3% of the organisms collected exceeded only by chironomids (50.2%) and oligochaetes (17.8%), and mean water mite density among the 11 streams was 265 organisms per liter. The two streams that differed the most in environmental quality were sampled using techniques suitable for identification of species. An estimated 32 species from 20 genera and 13 families were found in the least disturbed stream; an estimated 19 species from 13 genera and 8 families were found in the most disturbed stream. This preliminary finding supports the notion that water mite species richness declines in response to environmental disturbance. Many species could only be identified as morphospecies of particular genera, but the ongoing taxonomic revision of Hydrachnida is expected to provide needed information. A collaborative effort between those interested in taxonomy/systematics of water mites and ecologists interested in the significance of water mites in aquatic communities could prove mutually beneficial.

  9. 77 FR 66185 - Environmental Assessment for Potential Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Environmental Assessment for Potential Commercial Wind Lease Issuance... be subject to subsequent environmental review, on those leases) in an identified Wind Energy Area... around the Call Area (77 FR 5830). The Call Area is located offshore Massachusetts. Issues and...

  10. Grey relational analysis on the relation between marine environmental factors and oxidation-reduction potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xueqing; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Dun; Li, Yantao

    2009-09-01

    The effects of marine environmental factors-temperature (T), dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity (S) and pH-on the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of natural seawater were studied in laboratory. The results show an indistinct relationship between these four factors and the ORP, but they did impact the ORP. Common mathematical methods were not applicable for describing the relationship. Therefore, a grey relational analysis (GRA) method was developed. The degrees of correlation were calculated according to GRA and the values of T, pH, DO and S were 0.744, 0.710, 0.692 and 0.690, respectively. From these values, the relations of these factors to the ORP could be described and evaluated, and those of T and pH were relatively major. In general, ORP is influenced by the synergic effect of T, DO, pH and S, with no single factor having an outstanding role.

  11. Genomic sweep and potential genetic rescue during limiting environmental conditions in an isolated wolf population.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jennifer R; Vucetich, Leah M; Hedrick, Philip W; Peterson, Rolf O; Vucetich, John A

    2011-11-22

    Genetic rescue, in which the introduction of one or more unrelated individuals into an inbred population results in the reduction of detrimental genetic effects and an increase in one or more vital rates, is a potentially important management tool for mitigating adverse effects of inbreeding. We used molecular techniques to document the consequences of a male wolf (Canis lupus) that immigrated, on its own, across Lake Superior ice to the small, inbred wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. The immigrant's fitness so exceeded that of native wolves that within 2.5 generations, he was related to every individual in the population and his ancestry constituted 56 per cent of the population, resulting in a selective sweep of the total genome. In other words, all the male ancestry (50% of the total ancestry) descended from this immigrant, plus 6 per cent owing to the success of some of his inbred offspring. The immigration event occurred in an environment where space was limiting (i.e. packs occupied all available territories) and during a time when environmental conditions had deteriorated (i.e. wolves' prey declined). These conditions probably explain why the immigration event did not obviously improve the population's demography (e.g. increased population numbers or growth rate). Our results show that the beneficial effects of gene flow may be substantial and quickly manifest, short-lived under some circumstances, and how the demographic benefits of genetic rescue might be masked by environmental conditions. PMID:21450731

  12. Environmental noise-exposed workers: event-related potentials, neuropsychological and mood assessment.

    PubMed

    Chiovenda, Paola; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Zappasodi, Filippo; Ercolani, Matilde; Milazzo, Daniele; Tomei, Gianfranco; Capozzella, Assuntina; Tomei, Francesco; Rossini, Paolo M; Tecchio, Franca

    2007-09-01

    Prolonged environmental noise exposure can induce pathogenic effects on various physical and psychosocial responses. The first aim of this study was to investigate whether long-term occupational noise exposure could affect neurophysiological, neuropsychological and emotional statuses, with particular respect to attention and working memory. The second aim was to evaluate the effects on the tactile P300 of a specific stressor (background traffic noise) vs a non-specific stress inductor (Stroop test). The comparison between a group of noise-exposed workers (traffic police officers), and a control group (office employees) did not show marked differences in cognitive and emotional profiles. The amplitude of the baseline cognitive potential (P300), recorded during a tactile (electric) discrimination task, resulted higher in noise-exposed workers than in controls, and this enhancement was associated with a lower level of trait anxiety and better mood profiles. Moreover, we found a wider P300 amplitude reduction in traffic police officers than in controls, under noisy conditions due to traffic. The effect of the Stroop test as a stress inductor was negligible and similar in the two groups. The wider amplitude of the non-auditory P300 in traffic police officers in the baseline condition could be a sign of cross-modal cerebral plasticity enhancing attentive processes in the 'stress-free' sensory channel. In addition, noise-exposed workers presented a higher cerebral sensitivity to stress selectively when they were exposed to the habitual environmental stressor.

  13. Hypersonic transports - Economics and environmental effects.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Waters, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of hypersonic transports is presented to show projected operating costs (direct and indirect) and return on investment. Important assumptions are varied to determine the probable range of values for operating costs and return on investment. The environmental effects of hypersonic transports are discussed and compared to current supersonic transports. Estimates of sideline and flyover noise are made for a typical hypersonic transport, and the sonic boom problem is analyzed and discussed. Since the exhaust products from liquid hydrogen-fueled engines differ from those of kerosene-fueled aircraft, a qualitative assessment of air pollution effects is made.

  14. Hypersonic transports - Economics and environmental effects.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Waters, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    An economic analysis of hypersonic transports is presented to show projected operating costs (direct and indirect) and return on investment. Important assumptions are varied to determine the probable range of values for operating costs and return on investment. The environmental effects of hypersonic transports are discussed and compared to current supersonic transports. Estimates of sideline and flyover noise are made for a typical hypersonic transport, and the sonic boom problem is analyzed and discussed. Since the exhaust products from liquid hydrogen-fueled engines differ from those of kerosene-fueled aircraft, a qualitative assessment of air pollution effects is made.

  15. Hypersonic transports: Economics and environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Waters, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis of hypersonic transports is presented to show projected operating costs (direct and indirect) and return on investment. Important assumptions are varied to determine the probable range of values for operating costs and return on investment. The environmental effects of hypersonic transports are discussed and compared to current supersonic transports. Estimates of sideline and fly-over noise are made for a typical hypersonic transport, and the sonic boom problem is analyzed and discussed. Since the exhaust products from liquid hydrogen-fueled engines differ from those of kerosene-fueled aircraft, a qualitative assessment of air pollution effects is made.

  16. Potential Toxic Effects of Nano-Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingsheng; Chen, Hongzheng; Shi, Minmin; Wu, Gang; Fujita, Daisuke; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2013-09-01

    The increasing use of nanomaterials in industrial and consumer products has aroused global concern regarding their potential impact on environment and human health. A number of studies on the effects of nanomaterials in in vitro and in vivo systems have been shown that some nanomaterials are potentially toxic. We address the understanding of the link of physicochemical characteristics of some nano-oxides including SiO2, TiO2, and ZnO to the observed toxic effects. Understanding the contribution of physicochemical characteristics of nanomaterials to toxic effects would allow safety to be built into the design of nanomaterials and their applications, to allow their safe integration into products.

  17. UAF radiorespirometric protocol for assessing hydrocarbon mineralization potential in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Brown, E J; Resnick, S M; Rebstock, C; Luong, H V; Lindstrom, J

    1991-01-01

    Following the EXXON Valdez oil spill, a radiorespirometric protocol was developed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) to assess the potential for microorganisms in coastal waters and sediments to degrade hydrocarbons. The use of bioremediation to assist in oil spill cleanup operations required microbial bioassays to establish that addition of nitrogen and phosphorus would enhance biodegradation. A technique assessing 1-14C-n-hexadecane mineralization in seawater or nutrient rich sediment suspensions was used for both of these measurements. Hydrocarbon-degradation potentials were determined by measuring mineralization associated with sediment microorganisms in sediment suspended in sterilized seawater and/or marine Bushnell-Haas broth. Production of 14CO2 and CO2 was easily detectable during the first 48 hours with added hexadecane levels ranging from 10 to 500 mg/l of suspension and dependent on the biomass of hydrocarbon degraders, the hydrocarbon-oxidation potential of the biomass and nutrient availability. In addition to assessment of the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of environmental samples, the radiorespirometric procedure, and concomitant measurement of microbial biomass, has utility as an indicator of hydrocarbon contamination of soils, aqueous sediments and water, and can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation treatments. PMID:1368153

  18. 30 CFR 580.29 - Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity? 580.29 Section 580.29 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... environmental effects of my activity? We will evaluate the potential of proposed prospecting or...

  19. 30 CFR 580.29 - Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity? 580.29 Section 580.29 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... environmental effects of my activity? We will evaluate the potential of proposed prospecting or...

  20. 30 CFR 580.29 - Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Will BOEM monitor the environmental effects of my activity? 580.29 Section 580.29 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... environmental effects of my activity? We will evaluate the potential of proposed prospecting or...

  1. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Objectives We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. Methods We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. Discussion In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. Conclusions We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs. Citation Kassotis CD, Tillitt DE, Lin CH, McElroy JA, Nagel SC. 2016. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures. Environ Health Perspect 124:256–264; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409535 PMID:26311476

  2. Environmental endocrine disruption: an effects assessment and analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, T M; Clegg, E D; Cooper, R L; Wood, W P; Anderson, D G; Baetcke, K P; Hoffmann, J L; Morrow, M S; Rodier, D J; Schaeffer, J E; Touart, L W; Zeeman, M G; Patel, Y M

    1998-01-01

    This report is an overview of the current state of the science relative to environmental endocrine disruption in humans, laboratory testing, and wildlife species. Background information is presented on the field of endocrinology, the nature of hormones, and potential sites for endocrine disruption, with specific examples of chemicals affecting these sites. An attempt is made to present objectively the issue of endocrine disruption, consider working hypotheses, offer opposing viewpoints, analyze the available information, and provide a reasonable assessment of the problem. Emphasis is placed on disruption of central nervous system--pituitary integration of hormonal and sexual behavioral activity, female and male reproductive system development and function, and thyroid function. In addition, the potential role of environmental endocrine disruption in the induction of breast, testicular, and prostate cancers, as well as endometriosis, is evaluated. The interrelationship of the endocrine and immune system is documented. With respect to endocrine-related ecological effects, specific case examples from the peer-reviewed literature of marine invertebrates and representatives of the five classes of vertebrates are presented and discussed. The report identifies some data gaps in our understanding of the environmental endocrine disruption issue and recommends a few research needs. Finally, the report states the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Policy Council's interim position on endocrine disruption and lists some of the ongoing activities to deal with this matter. PMID:9539004

  3. Potential effects of gallium on cladding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Besmann, T.M.; DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Gat, U.; Greene, S.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Worley, B.A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper identifies and examines issues concerning the incorporation of gallium in weapons derived plutonium in light water reactor (LWR) MOX fuels. Particular attention is given to the more likely effects of the gallium on the behavior of the cladding material. The chemistry of weapons grade (WG) MOX, including possible consequences of gallium within plutonium agglomerates, was assessed. Based on the calculated oxidation potentials of MOX fuel, the effect that gallium may have on reactions involving fission products and possible impact on cladding performance were postulated. Gallium transport mechanisms are discussed. With an understanding of oxidation potentials and assumptions of mechanisms for gallium transport, possible effects of gallium on corrosion of cladding were evaluated. Potential and unresolved issues and suggested research and development (R and D) required to provide missing information are presented.

  4. Investigating the Environmental Effects of Ocean Energy Generation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copping, A. E.; Anderson, R.; Schultz, I.; Woodruff, D.; Carlson, T.; Ward, J.; van Cleve, F.; Eere Mhk Environmental Effects

    2010-12-01

    The production of electricity from the moving waters of the ocean has the potential to be a viable addition to the portfolio of renewable energy sources worldwide. The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) industry seeks to deploy and operate devices that harvest energy from the tides, waves, ocean currents and run of the river. Challenges facing the emerging industry include technology development, rigors of offshore deployments, and financing; however, the barrier most commonly cited by industry, regulators, and stakeholders is the uncertainty surrounding potential environmental effects of devices placed in the water and the permitting processes associated with those impacts. There is a need to evaluate the extensive list of potential interactions that may cause harm to marine organisms and ecosystems, to set priorities for regulatory triggers, and to direct future research. Project developers need information to understand how to minimize environmental effects; regulators need to know what monitoring targets are needed near ocean energy farms; and stakeholders need to know what mitigation strategies are effective in addressing unavoidable impacts. Scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are developing an Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES) to assess environmental effects associated with MHK technologies and projects through a systematic analytical process, with specific input from key stakeholder groups. The ERES development process provides the scientific structure to support risk characterization, comparison of tradeoffs, and risk-informed decision-making by project and technology developers, regulatory agencies, and other interested stakeholders. The PNNL team will determine the range and severity of environmental effects of MHK development, leading to the development of mitigation strategies where residual risk remains. Input to ERES draws from a wide range of marine and freshwater studies to understand which marine receptors may suffer

  5. Energy from biomass: the environmental effects

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1980-11-01

    Biomass as an energy source has environmental and economic appeal for its advocates, who overlook the devastation in other parts of the world from large-scale biomass energy uses. Now producing 2% of the energy consumed in the US, biomass could contribute most of the 20% goal set for solar and renewable sources with support from the government. Biomass is used for direct burning or to make biogas and alcohol fuels, although a major controversy is developing over the wisdom of converting croplands to fuel-producing land. A comparison of the probable economic and environmental effects of ethanol and methanol production shows the latter to be less damaging. The loss of forest lands from increased harvesting will introduce problems of soil depletion, while pressures to log more timber will deplete high-quality stands and change the character of those forests that are poorly managed. Poaching and other illegal practices will also have adverse effects. The use of biomass will require large-scale land conversion and fuel substitution that could reduce the atmospheric buildup of carbon dioxide. Policies should require periodic reviews of biomass management until there is a better understanding of all these effects. 30 references. (DCK)

  6. Environmental effects on composites for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    A number of ongoing, long-term environmental effects programs for composite materials are evaluated. The flight service experience was evaluated for 142 composite aircraft components after more than 5 years and 1 million successful component flight hours. Ground-based outdoor exposures of composite material coupons after 3 years of exposure at 5 sites have reached equilibrium levels of moisture pickup which are predictable. Solar ultraviolet-induced material loss is discussed for these same exposures. No significant degradation was observed in residual strength for either stressed or unstressed specimens, or for exposures to aviation fuels and fluids.

  7. Space environmental effects on polymers and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Bor Z.

    1992-01-01

    The response of polymers and polymer-based composites to the space environment is being investigated. A wide range of materials are covered in this study, including elastometer seals for Space Station Freedom, polymer films for thermal control, and composites for space structural elements. Space environmental agents of concern include atomic oxygen, thermal cycling, space debris impacts, UV, charged particles and other forms of high-energy radiation. This ambitious project is potentially a multi-year research effort and the success of such a project could be expected to have a profound impact on the design of future space-based structures. The research goal of this first Summer is to identify the priority areas of research and to carry out the initial phase task so that a collaborative research can proceed smoothly and fruitfully in the near future.

  8. Estimating juniper cover from NAIP imagery and evaluating relationships between potential cover and environmental variables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juniper management is constrained by limited tools to estimate juniper cover and potential cover at stand closure across landscapes. We evaluated if remotely sensed imagery (NAIP) could be used to estimate juniper cover and if environmental characteristic could be used to determine potential junipe...

  9. Using Hydrologic Modeling to Screen Potential Environmental Management Methods for Malaria Vector Control in Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, R. L.; Bomblies, A.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    This study describes the use of HYDREMATS, a physically-based distributed hydrology model, to investigate environmental management methods for malaria vector control in the Sahelian village of Banizoumbou, Niger. The model operates at fine spatial and temporal scales to enable explicit simulation of individual pool dynamics and isolation of mosquito breeding habitats. The results showed that leveling of topographic depressions where temporary breeding habitats form during the rainy season could reduce the persistence time of a pool to less than the time needed for establishment of mosquito breeding, approximately 7 days. Increasing the surface soil permeability by ploughing could also reduce the persistence time of a pool but this technique was not as effective as leveling. Therefore it is considered that leveling should be the preferred of the two options where possible. This investigation demonstrates that management methods that modify the hydrologic environment have significant potential to contribute to malaria vector control and human health improvement in Sahelian Africa.

  10. Potential cumulative impacts of environmental regulatory initiatives on US crude oil exploration and production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the cumulative effect that future environmental regulations could have on the recovery of crude oil in the United States. It supplements previous efforts by the Department of Energy (DOE), the National Petroleum Council, the Interstate Oil Compact Commission, and others to assess the influence of oil prices, taxes, technology availability and other factors on the recovery potential of domestic oil resources. Such efforts have been useful to State and Federal agencies in regulatory and policy formulation, and research program planning. Three regulatory scenarios were developed to represent a range of incremental costs that may be incurred by the domestic oil and gas industry as a result of future regulatory initiatives under statutes such as the Resource conservation and Recovery Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Clean Air Act. 9 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 14. Research needed to determine the present carbon balance of northern ecosystems and the potential effect of carbon-dioxide-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.C.

    1982-10-01

    Given the potential significance of northern ecosystems to the global carbon budget it is critical to estimate the current carbon balance of these ecosystems as precisely as possible, to improve estimates of the future carbon balance if world climates change, and to assess the range of certainty associated with these estimates. As a first step toward quantifying some of the potential changes, a workshop with tundra and taiga ecologists and soil scientists was held in San Diego in March 1980. The first part of this report summarizes the conclusions of this workshop with regard to the estimate of the current areal extent and carbon content of the circumpolar arctic and the taiga, current rates of carbon accumulation in the peat in the arctic and the taiga, and predicted future carbon accumulation rates based on the present understanding of controlling processes and on the understanding of past climates and vegetation. This report presents a finer resolution of areal extents, standing crops, and production rates than was possible previously because of recent syntheses of data from the International Biological Program and current studies in the northern ecosystems, some of which have not yet been published. This recent information changes most of the earlier estimates of carbon content and affects predictions of the effect of climate change. The second part of this report outlines research needed to fill major gaps in the understanding of the role of northern ecosystems in global climate change.

  12. Potentials for food waste minimization and effects on potential biogas production through anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Schott, Anna Bernstad Saraiva; Vukicevic, Sanita; Bohn, Irene; Andersson, Tova

    2013-08-01

    Several treatment alternatives for food waste can result in both energy and nutrient recovery, and thereby potential environmental benefits. However, according to the European Union waste management hierarchy, waste prevention should be the prioritized strategy to decrease the environmental burdens from all solid waste management. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the potential for food waste minimization among Swedish households through an investigation of the amount of avoidable food waste currently disposed of. A further aim was to investigate the effect on the national biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion of food waste, considering minimization potentials. A method for waste composition analyses of household food waste, where a differentiation between avoidable and unavoidable food waste is made, was used in a total of 24 waste composition analyses of household waste from Swedish residential areas. The total household food waste generation reached 3.4 kg (household and week)(-1), on average, of which 34% is avoidable. The theoretical methane (CH4) potential in unavoidable food waste reached 442 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1) or 128 Nm(3) tonne(-1) wet waste, while the measured (mesophilic CH4 batch tests) CH4 production reached 399 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1), which is lower than several previous assessments of CH4 production from household food waste. According to this study the combination of a decrease in food waste generation-in case of successful minimization-and decreased CH4 production from unavoidable food waste will thus result in lower total potential energy recovery from household food waste through anaerobic digestion CH4 potential than previously stated.

  13. Environmental remediation: Addressing public concerns through effective community relations

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.; Heywood, J.; Wood, M.B.; Arellano, M.; Pfister, S.

    1998-12-31

    The public`s perception of risk drives their response to any potential environmental remediation project. Even if the actual environmental and health risks may be relatively low, public perception of high risk may doom the project to an uphill struggle characterized by heated public meetings, negative media coverage, reluctant regulators, project delays and increased costs. The ultimate Catch 22 in such a case is that the contamination remains in-place until the public drama is concluded. This paper explores the development and implementation of a Community Relations Plan for the clean up of a Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site owned and operated by corporate predecessors of Arizona Public Service Company (APS) near the turn of the century. The unique challenges associated with this project were that the former MGP was located in downtown Phoenix at the site of a future federal courthouse. Although the MGP site had been under investigation for some time, the clean-up schedule was driven by a tight courthouse construction schedule. Compounding these challenges were the logistics associated with conducting a large-scale cleanup in a congested, highly visible downtown location. An effective Community Relations Plan can mean the difference between the success and failure of an environmental remediation project. Elements of an effective plan are: identifying key stakeholders and involving them in the project from the beginning; providing timely information and being open and honest about the potential environmental and health risks; involving your company`s community relations and media staff; and educating affected company employees. The Community Relations Plan developed for this project was designed to alleviate public concern about potential risks (perceived or real) associated with the project by keeping key stakeholders informed of all activities well in advance.

  14. Investigating the Potential Use of Environmental DNA (eDNA) for Genetic Monitoring of Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Sveegaard, Signe; Wahlberg, Magnus; Kielgast, Jos; Kyhn, Line A.; Salling, Andreas B.; Galatius, Anders; Orlando, Ludovic; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The exploitation of non-invasive samples has been widely used in genetic monitoring of terrestrial species. In aquatic ecosystems, non-invasive samples such as feces, shed hair or skin, are less accessible. However, the use of environmental DNA (eDNA) has recently been shown to be an effective tool for genetic monitoring of species presence in freshwater ecosystems. Detecting species in the marine environment using eDNA potentially offers a greater challenge due to the greater dilution, amount of mixing and salinity compared with most freshwater ecosystems. To determine the potential use of eDNA for genetic monitoring we used specific primers that amplify short mitochondrial DNA sequences to detect the presence of a marine mammal, the harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, in a controlled environment and in natural marine locations. The reliability of the genetic detections was investigated by comparing with detections of harbor porpoise echolocation clicks by static acoustic monitoring devices. While we were able to consistently genetically detect the target species under controlled conditions, the results from natural locations were less consistent and detection by eDNA was less successful than acoustic detections. However, at one site we detected long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas, a species rarely sighted in the Baltic. Therefore, with optimization aimed towards processing larger volumes of seawater this method has the potential to compliment current visual and acoustic methods of species detection of marine mammals. PMID:22952587

  15. Effective potential in density matrix functional theory.

    PubMed

    Nagy, A; Amovilli, C

    2004-10-01

    In the previous paper it was shown that in the ground state the diagonal of the spin independent second-order density matrix n can be determined by solving a single auxiliary equation of a two-particle problem. Thus the problem of an arbitrary system with even electrons can be reduced to a two-particle problem. The effective potential of the two-particle equation contains a term v(p) of completely kinetic origin. Virial theorem and hierarchy of equations are derived for v(p) and simple approximations are proposed. A relationship between the effective potential u(p) of the shape function equation and the potential v(p) is established.

  16. Effective potential in density matrix functional theory.

    PubMed

    Nagy, A; Amovilli, C

    2004-10-01

    In the previous paper it was shown that in the ground state the diagonal of the spin independent second-order density matrix n can be determined by solving a single auxiliary equation of a two-particle problem. Thus the problem of an arbitrary system with even electrons can be reduced to a two-particle problem. The effective potential of the two-particle equation contains a term v(p) of completely kinetic origin. Virial theorem and hierarchy of equations are derived for v(p) and simple approximations are proposed. A relationship between the effective potential u(p) of the shape function equation and the potential v(p) is established. PMID:15473719

  17. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  18. Environmental effects and large space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    When planning large scale operations in space, environmental impact must be considered in addition to radiation, spacecraft charging, contamination, high power and size. Pollution of the atmosphere and space is caused by rocket effluents and by photoelectrons generated by sunlight falling on satellite surfaces even light pollution may result (the SPS may reflect so much light as to be a nuisance to astronomers). Large (100 Km 2) structures also will absorb the high energy particles that impinge on them. Altogether, these effects may drastically alter the Earth's magnetosphere. It is not clear if these alterations will in any way affect the Earth's surface climate. Large structures will also generate large plasma wakes and waves which may cause interference with communications to the vehicle. A high energy, microwave beam from the SPS will cause ionospheric turbulence, affecting UHF and VHF communications. Although none of these effects may ultimately prove critical, they must be considered in the design of large structures.

  19. Space Environmental Effects on Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabbann, Leslie M.

    2009-01-01

    The Materials and Processes (M&P) Branch of the Structural Engineering Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) seeks to uphold the production of dependable space hardware through materials research, which fits into NASA's purpose of advancing human exploration, use, and development of space. The Space Environmental Effects projects fully support these Agency goals. Two tasks were assigned to support M&P. Both assignments were to further the research of material behavior outside of Earth's atmosphere in order to determine which materials are most durable and safe to use in space for mitigating risks. One project, the Materials on International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) task, was to compile data from International Space Station (ISS) experiments to pinpoint beneficial space hardware. The other project was researching the effects on composite materials of exposure to high doses of radiation for a Lunar habitat project.

  20. Electrode contamination effects of retarding potential analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. K.; Oyama, K.-I.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2014-01-01

    The electrode contamination in electrostatic analyzers such as Langmuir probes and retarding potential analyzers (RPA) is a serious problem for space measurements. The contamination layer acts as extra capacitance and resistance and leads to distortion in the measured I-V curve, which leads to erroneous measurement results. There are two main effects of the contamination layer: one is the impedance effect and the other is the charge attachment and accumulation due to the capacitance. The impedance effect can be reduced or eliminated by choosing the proper sweeping frequency. However, for RPA the charge accumulation effect becomes serious because the capacitance of the contamination layer is much larger than that of the Langmuir probe of similar dimension. The charge accumulation on the retarding potential grid causes the effective potential, that ions experience, to be changed from the applied voltage. Then, the number of ions that can pass through the retarding potential grid to reach the collector and, thus, the measured ion current are changed. This effect causes the measured ion drift velocity and ion temperature to be changed from the actual values. The error caused by the RPA electrode contamination is expected to be significant for sounding rocket measurements with low rocket velocity (1-2 km/s) and low ion temperature of 200-300 K in the height range of 100-300 km. In this paper we discuss the effects associated with the RPA contaminated electrodes based on theoretical analysis and experiments performed in a space plasma operation chamber. Finally, the development of a contamination-free RPA for sounding rocket missions is presented.

  1. Effects of environmental noise on sleep.

    PubMed

    Hume, Kenneth I; Brink, Mark; Basner, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings from the past 3 year's research on the effects of environmental noise on sleep and identifies key future research goals. The past 3 years have seen continued interest in both short term effects of noise on sleep (arousals, awakenings), as well as epidemiological studies focusing on long term health impacts of nocturnal noise exposure. This research corroborated findings that noise events induce arousals at relatively low exposure levels, and independent of the noise source (air, road, and rail traffic, neighbors, church bells) and the environment (home, laboratory, hospital). New epidemiological studies support already existing evidence that night-time noise is likely associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke in the elderly. These studies collectively also suggest that nocturnal noise exposure may be more relevant for the genesis of cardiovascular disease than daytime noise exposure. Relative to noise policy, new effect-oriented noise protection concepts, and rating methods based on limiting awakening reactions were introduced. The publications of WHO's ''Night Noise Guidelines for Europe'' and ''Burden of Disease from Environmental Noise'' both stress the importance of nocturnal noise exposure for health and well-being. However, studies demonstrating a causal pathway that directly link noise (at ecological levels) and disturbed sleep with cardiovascular disease and/or other long term health outcomes are still missing. These studies, as well as the quantification of the impact of emerging noise sources (e.g., high speed rail, wind turbines) have been identified as the most relevant issues that should be addressed in the field on the effects of noise on sleep in the near future. PMID:23257581

  2. Potential effects on health of global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, A. . Whittington Hospital); Parry, M. . Environmental Change Unit)

    1993-12-01

    Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability of adequate preventive and curative facilities for diseases that may be effected by climate change. Nevertheless, it is of importance to consider the potential health impacts of global climate change for a number of reasons. It is also important to monitor diseases which could be effected by climate change in order to detect changes in incidence as early as possible and study possible interactions with other factors. It seems likely that the possible impacts on health of climate change will be a major determinant of the degree to which policies aimed at reducing global warming are followed, as perceptions of the effect of climate change to human health and well-being are particularly likely to influence public opinion. The potential health impacts of climate change can be divided into direct (primary) and indirect (secondary and tertiary) effects. Primary effects are those related to the effect of temperature on human well-being and disease. Secondary effects include the impacts on health of changes in food production, availability of water and of sea level rise. A tertiary level of impacts can also be hypothesized.

  3. How to assess species richness along single environmental gradients? Implications of potential versus realized species distributions.

    PubMed

    van Goethem, Thomas M W J; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Wamelink, G W Wieger; Schipper, Aafke M

    2015-05-01

    Quantifying relationships between species richness and single environmental factors is challenging as species richness typically depends on multiple environmental factors. Recently, various methods have been proposed to tackle this challenge. Using a dataset comprising field observations of grassland vegetation and measured pH values, we compared three methods for deriving species richness response curves. One of the methods estimates species richness close to the maximum species richness observed at the sites, whereas the other two provide estimates of the potential species richness along the environmental gradient. Our response curves suggest that potential species richness of grasslands is slightly more sensitive to acidification than realized plant species richness. However, differences in corresponding environmental quality standards (EQS) for acidification were small compared to intrinsic spatial differences in natural soil pH, indicating that natural background values are more important to consider in the derivation of EQS for pH than methodological differences between the three approaches. PMID:25705854

  4. How to assess species richness along single environmental gradients? Implications of potential versus realized species distributions.

    PubMed

    van Goethem, Thomas M W J; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Wamelink, G W Wieger; Schipper, Aafke M

    2015-05-01

    Quantifying relationships between species richness and single environmental factors is challenging as species richness typically depends on multiple environmental factors. Recently, various methods have been proposed to tackle this challenge. Using a dataset comprising field observations of grassland vegetation and measured pH values, we compared three methods for deriving species richness response curves. One of the methods estimates species richness close to the maximum species richness observed at the sites, whereas the other two provide estimates of the potential species richness along the environmental gradient. Our response curves suggest that potential species richness of grasslands is slightly more sensitive to acidification than realized plant species richness. However, differences in corresponding environmental quality standards (EQS) for acidification were small compared to intrinsic spatial differences in natural soil pH, indicating that natural background values are more important to consider in the derivation of EQS for pH than methodological differences between the three approaches.

  5. A perspective on the potential development of environmentally acceptable light-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed Central

    Hammerle, R; Schuetzle, D; Adams, W

    1994-01-01

    Between 1979 and 1985, an international technical focus was placed upon potential human health effects associated with exposure to diesel emissions. A substantial data base was developed on the composition of diesel emissions; the fate of these emissions in the atmosphere; and the effects of whole particles and their chemical constituents on microorganisms, cells, and animals. Since that time, a number of significant developments have been made in diesel engine technology that require a new look at the future acceptability of introducing significant numbers of light-duty diesel automobiles into the European and American markets. Significant engineering improvements have been made in engine design, catalysts, and traps. As a result, particle emissions and particle associated organic emissions have been reduced by about 10 and 30 times, respectively, during the past 10 years. Research studies to help assess the environmental acceptability of these fuel-efficient engines include the development of an emissions data base for current and advanced diesel engines, the effect of diesel emissions on urban ozone formation and atmospheric particle concentrations, the effect of fuel composition, e.g., lower sulfur and additives on emissions, animal inhalation toxicology studies, and fundamental molecular biology studies. PMID:7529704

  6. Solar Array Sails: Possible Space Plasma Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Willie R.

    2005-01-01

    An examination of the interactions between proposed "solar sail" propulsion systems with photovoltaic energy generation capabilities and the space plasma environments. Major areas of interactions ere: Acting from high voltage arrays, ram and wake effects, V and B current loops and EMI. Preliminary analysis indicates that arcing will be a major risk factor for voltages greater than 300V. Electron temperature enhancement in the wake will be produce noise that can be transmitted via the wake echo process. In addition, V and B induced potential will generate sheath voltages with potential tether like breakage effects in the thin film sails. Advocacy of further attention to these processes is emphasized so that plasma environmental mitigation will be instituted in photovoltaic sail design.

  7. On Effective Potential in Tortoise Coordinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganjali, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we study the field dynamics in Tortoise coordinate where the equation of motion of a scalar can be written as Schrodinger-like form. We obtain a general form for effective potential by finding the Schrodinger equation for scalar and spinor fields and study its global behavior in some black hole backgrounds in three dimension such as BTZ black holes, new type black holes and black holes with no horizon. Especially, we study the asymptotic behavior of potential at infinity, horizons and origin and find that its asymptotic in BTZ and new type solution is completely different from that of vanishing horizon solution. In fact, potential for vanishing horizon goes to a fixed quantity at infinity, while in BTZ and new type black hole we have an infinite barrier.

  8. Effects of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors on Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Darcan, Şükran

    2011-01-01

    The onset and course of puberty are under the control of the neuroendocrine system. Factors affecting the timing and regulation of the functions of this system may alter the onset and course of puberty. Several environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) with significant influences on the normal course of puberty have been identified. Numerous animal and human studies concerning EDs have been conducted showing that these substances may extensively affect human health; nevertheless, there are still several issues that remain to be clarified. In this paper, the available evidence from animal and human studies on the effects of environmental EDs with the potential to cause precocious or delayed puberty was reviewed. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21448326

  9. Potential health effects of space radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.

    1993-01-01

    Crewmembers on missions to the Moon or Mars will be exposed to radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, and possibly solar particle events. The potential health hazards due to these space radiations must be considered carefully to ensure the success of space exploration. Because there is no human radioepidemiological data for acute and late effects of high-LET (Linear-Energy-Transfer) radiation, the biological risks of energetic charged particles have to be estimated from experimental results on animals and cultured cells. Experimental data obtained to date indicate that charged particle radiation can be much more effective than photons in causing chromosome aberrations, cell killing, mutation, and tumor induction. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) varies with biological endpoints and depends on the LET of heavy ions. Most lesions induced by low-LET radiation can be repaired in mammalian cells. Energetic heavy ions, however, can produce large complex DNA damages, which may lead to large deletions and are irreparable. For high-LET radiation, therefore, there are less or no dose rate effects. Physical shielding may not be effective in minimizing the biological effects on energetic heavy ions, since fragments of the primary particles can be effective in causing biological effects. At present the uncertainty of biological effects of heavy particles is still very large. With further understanding of the biological effects of space radiation, the career doses can be kept at acceptable levels so that the space radiation environment need not be a barrier to the exploitation of the promise of space.

  10. Potential human health effects of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Adverse human health effects, namely acute and chronic respiratory effects, can occur from the pre-deposition phase of the acid rain phenomenon due to inhalation of acidic particles and gases. State-of-the-art methodology to evaluate these effects is just now being applied to this question. The major post-deposition effect of the acid rain phenomenon is to acidify water, increasing solubility and subsequent human exposure to mercury, lead, cadmium, and aluminum. Acidification increases bioconversion of mercury to methylmercury, a highly toxic compound, which accumulates in fish, increasing the risk to toxicity in people who eat fish. Increase in water and soil content of lead and cadmium increases human exposure to these metals which become additive to other sources presently under regulatory control. The potential adverse health effects of increased human exposure to aluminum is not known at the present time. Deficiencies in the identification of the contribution of pre-deposition of air pollutants and post-deposition mobilization of toxic metals to the recognized potential health effects of the involved toxic substances is due to the fact that scientists have not addressed these specific questions. 113 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  11. A Guide to Environmental Internships: How Environmental Organizations Can Utilize Internships Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Jane C.

    Guidelines for environmental organizations who wish to establish student internships or use interns more effectively are presented, based on 1983-1984 interviews and surveys of environmental group representatives. While the focus is on internships for undergraduate and graduate students, environmental interns may be recent college graduates, high…

  12. The Effect of Summer Environmental Education Program (SEEP) on Elementary School Students' Environmental Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Summer Environmental Education Program (SEEP) on elementary school students' environmental knowledge, affect, skills and behavior which are the main components of environmental literacy. The sample consisted of 45 students (25 males, 20 females) studying in 4th through 8th grades and living in…

  13. Environmental effects of oilfield chemicals on composite

    SciTech Connect

    Sorem, R.M.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a feasibility study of the effects of oilfield chemicals on composite materials. In this initial study only hydrochloric acid is considered. Initial attempts were made to test stressed specimens, but results were very poor. Subsequent testing was performed to determine how the composite material constituents reacted to the hydrochloric acid. The initial testing was performed on tubular specimens with axial and essentially hoop wound fibers of different materials with different resins. The specimens were loaded in bending to induce representative strains in the tubing. All specimens failed. The second tests consisted of only an environmental soak to determine the amount of mass uptake as well as the reduction in strength. The strength reduction results will be presented at a later time. Testing was performed on S-2 glass, carbon and Kevlar 49 as well as three different resins.

  14. Interpolation effects in tabulated interatomic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, M.; Whalen, S. M.; Elliott, R. S.; Tadmor, E. B.

    2015-10-01

    Empirical interatomic potentials are widely used in atomistic simulations due to their ability to compute the total energy and interatomic forces quickly relative to more accurate quantum calculations. The functional forms in these potentials are sometimes stored in a tabulated format, as a collection of data points (argument-value pairs), and a suitable interpolation (often spline-based) is used to obtain the function value at an arbitrary point. We explore the effect of these interpolations on the potential predictions by calculating the quasi-harmonic thermal expansion and finite-temperature elastic constant of a one-dimensional chain compared with molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that some predictions are affected by the choice of interpolation regardless of the number of tabulated data points. Our results clearly indicate that the interpolation must be considered part of the potential definition, especially for lattice dynamics properties that depend on higher-order derivatives of the potential. This is facilitated by the Knowledgebase of Interatomic Models (KIM) project, in which both the tabulated data (‘parameterized model’) and the code that interpolates them to compute energy and forces (‘model driver’) are stored and given unique citeable identifiers. We have developed cubic and quintic spline model drivers for pair functional type models (EAM, FS, EMT) and uploaded them to the OpenKIM repository (https://openkim.org).

  15. Immunotoxicological effects of environmental contaminants on marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Renault, T

    2015-09-01

    Coastal areas are complex environments frequently contaminated by numerous pollutants that represent a potential threat to marine organisms, especially bivalves. These pollutants may have major ecological consequences. Although effects of different environmental contaminants on the immune system in marine bivalves have been already reported, a few of reviews summarizes these effects. The main purpose of this chapter relies on summarizing recent body of data on immunotoxicity in bivalves subjected to contaminants. Immune effects of heavy metals, pesticides, HAP, PCB and pharmaceuticals are presented and discussed and a particular section is devoted to nanoparticle effects. A large body of literature is now available on this topic. Finally, the urgent need of a better understanding of complex interactions between contaminants, marine bivalves and infectious diseases is noticed.

  16. Community and environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, Steven R

    2002-10-01

    High-density concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become an increasing source of concern with respect to their impact on health, the environment, and quality of life in the communities in which they are located. A growing body of literature has identified a number of potential adverse effects, including the development of antimicrobial resistance patterns, groundwater contamination, and occupational respiratory disease. The odor associated with CAFOs has had a detrimental effect on the quality of life of rural residents, and there may also be associated adverse health effects. Physicians in rural areas may be asked to assess patients with concerns related to neighboring CAFOs and may be drawn into a political battle regarding the authorization of the development of additional CAFOs. This article reviews current research on the community, environmental, and occupational health effects associated with high-density animal production facilities. It also discusses recommendations for evaluating patients affected by CAFO odors and steps to decrease occupational and community exposure.

  17. The Stark effect in linear potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinett, R. W.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the Stark effect (the second-order shifts in the energy spectrum due to an external constant force) for two one-dimensional model quantum mechanical systems described by linear potentials, the so-called quantum bouncer (defined by V(z) = Fz for z > 0 and V(z) = ∞ for z < 0) and the symmetric linear potential (given by V(z) = F|z|). We show how straightforward use of the most obvious properties of the Airy function solutions and simple Taylor expansions gives closed form results for the Stark shifts in both systems. These exact results are then compared to other approximation techniques, such as perturbation theory and WKB methods. These expressions add to the small number of closed-form descriptions available for the Stark effect in model quantum mechanical systems.

  18. Metformin Exposure at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations Causes Potential Endocrine Disruption in Adult Male Fish

    PubMed Central

    Niemuth, Nicholas J; Jordan, Renee; Crago, Jordan; Blanksma, Chad; Johnson, Rodney; Klaper, Rebecca D

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are emerging contaminants that have been found ubiquitously in wastewater and surface waters around the world. A major source of these compounds is incomplete metabolism in humans and subsequent excretion in human waste, resulting in discharge into surface waters by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. One pharmaceutical found in particularly high abundance in recent WWTP effluent and surface water studies is metformin, one of the world's most widely prescribed antidiabetic drugs. Interactions between insulin signaling and steroidogenesis suggest potential endocrine-disrupting effects of metformin found in the aquatic environment. Adult fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were chronically exposed to metformin for 4 wk, at 40 µg/L, a level similar to the average found in WWTP effluent in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. Genetic endpoints related to metabolism and endocrine function as well as reproduction-related endpoints were examined. Metformin treatment induced significant up-regulation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) encoding the egg-protein vitellogenin in male fish, an indication of endocrine disruption. The present study, the first to study the effects of environmentally relevant metformin exposure in fathead minnows, demonstrates the need for further study of the endocrine-disrupting effects of metformin in aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1–6. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:25358780

  19. The Stark Effect in Linear Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinett, R. W.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the Stark effect (the second-order shifts in the energy spectrum due to an external constant force) for two one-dimensional model quantum mechanical systems described by linear potentials, the so-called quantum bouncer (defined by V(z) = Fz for z greater than 0 and V(z) = [infinity] for z less than 0) and the symmetric linear potential…

  20. Taming infrared divergences in the effective potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias-Miró, J.; Espinosa, J. R.; Konstandin, T.

    2014-08-01

    The Higgs effective potential in the Standard Model (SM), calculated perturbatively, generically suffers from infrared (IR) divergences when the (field-dependent) tree-level mass of the Goldstone bosons goes to zero. Such divergences can affect both the potential and its first derivative and become worse with increasing loop order. In this paper we show that these IR divergences are spurious, we perform a simple resummation of all IR-problematic terms known (up to three loops) and explain how to extend the resummation to cure all such divergences to any order. The method is of general applicability and would work in scenarios other than the SM. Our discussion has some bearing on a scenario recently proposed as a mechanism for gauge mediation of scale breaking in the ultraviolet, in which it is claimed that the low-energy Higgs potential is non-standard. We argue that all non-decoupling effects from the heavy sector can be absorbed in the renormalization of low-energy parameters leading to a SM-like effective theory.

  1. A perspective on the potential risks of emerging contaminants to human and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lílian Cristina; de Souza, Alecsandra Oliveira; Franco Bernardes, Mariana Furio; Pazin, Murilo; Tasso, Maria Júlia; Pereira, Paulo Henrique; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2015-09-01

    Technological, agricultural, and medical advances have improved the lifestyle of humankind. However, these advances have caused new problems that affect the environment and future generations. Emerging contaminants display properties such as low degradation potential and environmental persistence. In addition, most contaminants are lipophilic, which culminates in high bioaccumulation. The disposal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products into the environment underlies microbial and bacterial resistance. Plasticizers change several characteristics of industrialized materials, such as flexibility, but they are potentially carcinogenic and disrupt the endocrine system. Pesticides prevent the propagation of numerous kinds of pests; nevertheless, they exert neurotoxic and mutagenic effects, and they impact the environment negatively. Addition of flame retardants to a number of materials prevents flame propagation; however, after their release into the environment, these chemicals may bioaccumulate in organisms and disrupt the endocrine system, too. Surfactants can change the surface and interfacial properties of liquids, but their presence in the environment can interfere with countless enzymes and can even impair the endocrine system of various organisms and induce the feminization of species. Hence, gaining knowledge about emerging contaminants is increasingly important to minimize future damage and enable proper monitoring of each class of compounds in the environment which will help to improve legislation on this matter.

  2. Genetic activity profiles--application in assessing potential carcinogenicity of complex environmental mixtures.

    PubMed

    Waters, M D; Claxton, L D; Stack, H F; Graedel, T E

    1990-01-01

    Some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of a complex environmental mixture may be gained from an assessment of the genetic activity of its component chemicals. The expanded genetic activity profile (GAP) data-base provides a computer-generated graphic representation of genetic bioassay data as a function of dose of the substance tested. In addition, the atmospheric chemical compound (ACC) data-base contains information on chemical structures, properties, detection methods and sources of chemicals found in ambient air. Using the combined data-bases, information on the quantity of an individual chemical present within a mixture or fraction of a mixture may be related to the quantity (lowest effective dose; LED) of the chemical required to demonstrate a positive response in one or more genetic bioassays. Alternatively, quantitative information on the carcinogenic potency of each individual compound (TD50 value) may be related to the quantity present in the mixture or mixture fraction and used to calculate the percent human exposure dose/rodent potency dose (HERP) for the chemical. Using an additivity assumption, a conservative estimate of potential carcinogenic hazard for the mixture may be calculated based on the HERP indices for its chemical components. This conceptual approach is limited by the relatively small number of chemicals identified in complex mixtures for which genetic toxicology and animal cancer data exist.

  3. A perspective on the potential risks of emerging contaminants to human and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lílian Cristina; de Souza, Alecsandra Oliveira; Franco Bernardes, Mariana Furio; Pazin, Murilo; Tasso, Maria Júlia; Pereira, Paulo Henrique; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira

    2015-09-01

    Technological, agricultural, and medical advances have improved the lifestyle of humankind. However, these advances have caused new problems that affect the environment and future generations. Emerging contaminants display properties such as low degradation potential and environmental persistence. In addition, most contaminants are lipophilic, which culminates in high bioaccumulation. The disposal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products into the environment underlies microbial and bacterial resistance. Plasticizers change several characteristics of industrialized materials, such as flexibility, but they are potentially carcinogenic and disrupt the endocrine system. Pesticides prevent the propagation of numerous kinds of pests; nevertheless, they exert neurotoxic and mutagenic effects, and they impact the environment negatively. Addition of flame retardants to a number of materials prevents flame propagation; however, after their release into the environment, these chemicals may bioaccumulate in organisms and disrupt the endocrine system, too. Surfactants can change the surface and interfacial properties of liquids, but their presence in the environment can interfere with countless enzymes and can even impair the endocrine system of various organisms and induce the feminization of species. Hence, gaining knowledge about emerging contaminants is increasingly important to minimize future damage and enable proper monitoring of each class of compounds in the environment which will help to improve legislation on this matter. PMID:26201652

  4. Lead Hepatotoxicity and Potential Health Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Occupational and environmental exposures to lead (Pb), one of the toxic metal pollutants, is of global concern. Health risks are increasingly associated with environmental exposures to Pb emissions from, for example, the widespread use of leaded gasoline in developing countries. ...

  5. Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at importnat bird areas in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A; Ackerson, Betty K

    2008-07-01

    Environmental contaminants can have profound effects on birds, acting from the molecular through population levels of biological organization. An analysis of potential contaminant threats was undertaken at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) within the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating contamination (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory sites, and estimates of pesticide use) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative threat at each site was ranked. Some species of birds residing at Jefferson National Forrest (NF), Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Great Dismal Swamp NWR, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park (NP), Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe NWR, George Washington NF, Green Mountain NF, Long Island Piping Plover Beaches, and Merrymeeting Bay may be threatened by environmental contaminants. These sites exhibited moderate to high percentages of impaired waters and had fish consumption advisories related to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls, and were located in counties with substantial pesticide use. Endangered, threatened, and Watch List bird species are present at these sites. The Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates database was searched within buffered IBA boundaries, and for a moderate number of sites there was concordance between the perceived risk and contaminant exposure. Several of the IBAs with apparently substantial contaminant threats had no avian ecotoxicological data (e.g., George Washington NF, Shenandoah NP). Based upon this screening level risk assessment, contaminant biomonitoring of birds is warranted at such sites, and data generated from these efforts could foster natural resource management activities.

  6. [Leaf water potential of spring wheat and field pea under different tillage patterns and its relationships with environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Ren-Zhi; Cai, Li-Qun

    2008-07-01

    Based on a long-term experiment, the leaf water potential of spring wheat and field pea, its relationships with environmental factors, and the diurnal variations of leaf relative water content and water saturation deficient under different tillage patterns were studied. The results showed that during whole growth period, field pea had an obviously higher leaf water potential than spring wheat, but the two crops had similar diurnal variation trend of their leaf water potential, i.e., the highest in early morning, followed by a descent, and a gradual ascent after the descent. For spring wheat, the maximum leaf water potential appeared at its jointing and heading stages, followed by at booting and flowering stages, and the minimum appeared at filling stage. For field pea, the maximum leaf water potential achieved at squaring stage, followed by at branching and flowering stages, and the minimum was at podding stage. The leaf relative water content of spring wheat was the highest at heading stage, followed by at jointing and flowering stages, and achieved the minimum at filling stage; while the water saturation deficient was just in adverse. With the growth of field pea, its leaf relative water content decreased, but leaf water saturation deficient increased. The leaf water potential of both spring wheat and field pea had significant correlations with environmental factors, including soil water content, air temperature, solar radiation, relative air humidity, and air water potential. Path analysis showed that the meteorological factor which had the strongest effect on the diurnal variation of spring wheat' s and field pea' s leaf water potential was air water potential and air temperature, respectively. Compared with conventional tillage, the protective tillage patterns no-till, no-till plus straw mulching, and conventional tillage plus straw returning increased the leaf water potential and relative water content of test crops, and the effect of no-till plus straw

  7. The stingless bee species, Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, as a potential indicator of environmental pesticide contamination.

    PubMed

    de Souza Rosa, Annelise; I'Anson Price, Robbie; Ferreira Caliman, Maria Juliana; Pereira Queiroz, Elisa; Blochtein, Betina; Sílvia Soares Pires, Carmen; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-08-01

    Neonicotinoids have the potential to enter the diet of pollinators that collect resources from contaminated plants. The species Scaptotrigona aff. depilis (Moure, 1942) can be a useful indicator of the prevalence of these chemicals in the environment. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the authors devised a protocol for neonicotinoid residue extraction and detected the presence of neonicotinoids in the bee bodies. Thus, the authors consider this species to be a potential indicator of environmental contamination.

  8. Human Decisions: Nitrogen Footprints and Environmental Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, A. M.; Bleeker, A.; Galloway, J. N.; Erisman, J.

    2012-12-01

    would reduce the food N footprint by ~60%. Such a reduction would result in significant lessening of the impacts of societal use of food resources on both ecosystem and human health. The personal food nitrogen footprints will then be linked to environmental effects based on the N species of the nitrogen footprint. Environmental effects considered will include global warming, air quality, drinking water quality, eutrophication, and stratospheric ozone depletion. Each of the scenarios will be scaled up to represent the full population of the United States, and the total national nitrogen reductions and the impact on environmental effects will be reported. The results of this analysis will help us begin to solve the human dimension of the nitrogen challenge by showing how different personal choices impact nitrogen losses and the environment. This information can then educate and empower consumers to make informed decisions about their food choices.

  9. Space environmental effects on polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Orwoll, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Two of the major environmental hazards in the Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) are energetic charged particles and ultraviolet radiation. The charged particles, electrons and protons, range in energy from 0.1 to 4 MeV and each have a flux of 10 to the 8th sq cm/sec. Over a 30 year lifetime, materials in the GEO will have an absorbed dose from this radiation of 10 to the 10th rads. The ultraviolet radiation comes uninhibited from the sun with an irradiance of 1.4 kw/sq m. Radiation is known to initiate chain sission and crosslinking in polymeric materials, both of which affect their structural properties. The 30-year dose level from the combined radiation in the GEO exceeds the threshold for measurable damage in most polymer systems studied. Of further concern is possible synergistic effects from the simultaneous irradiation with charged particles and ultraviolet radiation. Most studies on radiation effects on polymeric materials use either electrons or ultraviolet radiation alone, or in a sequential combination.

  10. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

    PubMed Central

    Bayan, Leyla; Koulivand, Peir Hossain; Gorji, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases. PMID:25050296

  11. MYSID CRUSTACEANS AS POTENTIAL TEST ORGANISMS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verslycke, Tim A., Nancy Fockedey, Charles L. McKenney, Jr., Stephen D. Roast, Malcolm B. Jones, Jan Mees and Colin R. Janssen. 2004. Mysid Crustaceans as Potential Test Organisms for the Evaluation of Environmental Endocrine Disruption: A Review. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23(5):12...

  12. Assessment of potential environmental impacts of geopressured methane development. Final report for 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Golabi, K.

    1980-03-01

    This study presents a critical examination of available information on the characteristics of geopressured methane resources. It identifies and assesses potential environmental impacts and regulatory constraints that may influence the development and commercial use of the resource, and defines issues unique to geopressured methane development. Finally, the study provides a list of recommendations for planning future research efforts.

  13. 76 FR 21938 - Potential Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Runway 13 Extension and Associated Actions for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Potential Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Runway 13 Extension and... extension and associated actions for Devils Lake Regional Airport in Devils Lake, North Dakota. SUMMARY: The FAA has issued the final EA and FONSI/ROD for the proposed Runway 13 extension and associated...

  14. HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE PRESENCE AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF WATERBORNE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipe...

  15. Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental contaminants can have profound effects on birds, acting from the molecular through population levels of biological organization. An analysis of potential contaminant threats was undertaken at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) within the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating contamination (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory sites, and estimates of pesticide use) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative threat at each site was ranked. The most threatened sites include Jefferson National Forest (NF), Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Great Dismal Swamp NWR, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park (NP), Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe NWR, George Washington NF, Green Mountain NF, Long Island Piping Plover Beaches, and Merrymeeting Bay. These sites exhibited moderate to high percentages of impaired waters and had fish consumption advisories related to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls, and were located in counties with substantial pesticide use. Endangered, threatened and Watch List bird species are present at these sites. The Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database was searched within buffered IBA boundaries, and for a moderate number of sites there was concordance between the perceived risk and contaminant exposure. Several of the IBAs with apparently substantial contaminant threats had no avian ecotoxicological data (e.g., George Washington NF, Shenandoah NP). Based upon this screening level risk assessment, contaminant biomonitoring is warranted at such sites, and data generated from these efforts should foster natural resource management activities.

  16. A study of the landslide potential along the mountain road using environmental indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of slope land in recent years is rapid as a result of the dense population and limit of land resources in Taiwan. Therefore, mountain road plays an essential role for the necessity of human life. However, landslide disaster resulting in road failure occurred frequently in Taiwan on the slope land due to earthquake and typhoon. Previous studies found that the extreme rainfall coupled with the property of fragile geology could cause landslide. Nevertheless, the landslide occurrence might be affected by the drainage of the road side ditches. Taiwan Highway No.21 in Chi-Shan watershed and the forest roads located in Xiao-Lin Village, which failure during the hit of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, were selected for exploring the potential of vulnerable to landslides. Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and Road Curvature (RC) were extracted along the road to indicate the potential sites which are vulnerable to slope failure. The surface runoff diverted by the road side ditches could spoil the sites with high RC due to the straight movement characteristics of the diverted runoff and cause the downslope collapse. The sites with higher mean value and lower standard deviation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the SPOT imagery taken in dry and/or rainy seasons could be implied as the vegetation stands showing highly buffer effects in environmental stress due to having deeper soil layer, and are hardly interfered by the drought. The stands located in such sites once collapsed are often resulting in huge volumes of debris. Drainage Density (DD) index could be applied as the degrees of geologic fragile in the slope land. A road across the sites with higher mean value and lower standard deviation of NDVI and/or higher DD should be paid more attention because of having highly vulnerable to deep seated landslide. This study is focusing on extracting and analyzing the environmental indices such as TWI, RC, NDVI and DD for exploring the slope stability

  17. Environmental effects of offshore oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Middletich, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    The papers deal with two major categories of oil field impacts: hydrocarbon and sulfur discharges from producing platforms; and the effects of the structures themselves in the marine environment. The studies can also be broken down into those that deal with the fate of the polluting discharges (dispersion, degradation, consumption); and those that deal with the affected organisms themselves. Some studies used control sites to compare effects near the platforms. Others analyzed composition, density, and quality of organisms throughout the field, offering comparisons between control sites and oil field sites. The presence of pollutants in particulates was studied and measured. Effectiveness of degradation of petro pollutants by bacteria is also examined. Biocides used in the working stream to control sulfur oxidizing bacteria were treated briefly. Effects of the structures and potential pollution was also described for the fouling community, i.e., barnacles, etc. Effects of the presence of the structures on migratory and resident birds are examined for hundreds of species constantly using the area as a fly-way or habitat.

  18. Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, Joseph N.

    1990-07-01

    Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

  19. Geochemical and ecotoxicological assessment of iron- and steel-making slags for potential use in environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Laura A; Binet, Monique T; Yuan, Zheng; Gissi, Francesca; Koppel, Darren J; Adams, Merrin S

    2013-11-01

    Prior to the productive use of iron- and steel-making slags as environmental amendments, a risk assessment supported by material characterization concomitant with leaching and ecotoxicological testing is necessary. Five iron- and steel-making slags were characterized geochemically, and the leachability of their elemental constituents was assessed. The toxicity of slag leachate to microalgae (Chlorella sp.), cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia dubia), and bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) was related to elemental composition. Slag leachates with the highest concentrations of dissolved elements were the most toxic (10% effective concentration [EC10] ∼1%), whereas those with the lowest concentrations of elements were the least toxic (EC10 63-85%). It was not possible to determine which elements caused the observed toxicity; however, comparisons with contaminant guidelines and published toxicity data identified several elements of potential environmental concern. Low to moderate activities were measured for radionuclides in the U and Th decay chains in slags. Based on these data, some of the slags examined herein are potentially suitable for use as environmental amendments following ≥10 times dilution to ameliorate potential toxic effects because of leachate pH.

  20. The effect of environmental chemicals on the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Stephanie C.; Vaccari, Monica; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Brown, Dustin G.; Chapellier, Marion; Christopher, Joseph; Curran, Colleen S.; Forte, Stefano; Hamid, Roslida A.; Heneberg, Petr; Koch, Daniel C.; Krishnakumar, P.K.; Laconi, Ezio; Maguer-Satta, Veronique; Marongiu, Fabio; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Roman, Jesse; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Ryeom, Sandra; Salem, Hosni K.; Scovassi, A.Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Soucek, Laura; Vermeulen, Louis; Whitfield, Jonathan R.; Woodrick, Jordan; Colacci, Anna Maria; Bisson, William H.; Felsher, Dean W.

    2015-01-01

    Potentially carcinogenic compounds may cause cancer through direct DNA damage or through indirect cellular or physiological effects. To study possible carcinogens, the fields of endocrinology, genetics, epigenetics, medicine, environmental health, toxicology, pharmacology and oncology must be considered. Disruptive chemicals may also contribute to multiple stages of tumor development through effects on the tumor microenvironment. In turn, the tumor microenvironment consists of a complex interaction among blood vessels that feed the tumor, the extracellular matrix that provides structural and biochemical support, signaling molecules that send messages and soluble factors such as cytokines. The tumor microenvironment also consists of many host cellular effectors including multipotent stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cell precursors, antigen-presenting cells, lymphocytes and innate immune cells. Carcinogens can influence the tumor microenvironment through effects on epithelial cells, the most common origin of cancer, as well as on stromal cells, extracellular matrix components and immune cells. Here, we review how environmental exposures can perturb the tumor microenvironment. We suggest a role for disrupting chemicals such as nickel chloride, Bisphenol A, butyltins, methylmercury and paraquat as well as more traditional carcinogens, such as radiation, and pharmaceuticals, such as diabetes medications, in the disruption of the tumor microenvironment. Further studies interrogating the role of chemicals and their mixtures in dose-dependent effects on the tumor microenvironment could have important general mechanistic implications for the etiology and prevention of tumorigenesis. PMID:26106136

  1. The effect of environmental chemicals on the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Casey, Stephanie C; Vaccari, Monica; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Brown, Dustin G; Chapellier, Marion; Christopher, Joseph; Curran, Colleen S; Forte, Stefano; Hamid, Roslida A; Heneberg, Petr; Koch, Daniel C; Krishnakumar, P K; Laconi, Ezio; Maguer-Satta, Veronique; Marongiu, Fabio; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Roman, Jesse; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Ryeom, Sandra; Salem, Hosni K; Scovassi, A Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Soucek, Laura; Vermeulen, Louis; Whitfield, Jonathan R; Woodrick, Jordan; Colacci, Annamaria; Bisson, William H; Felsher, Dean W

    2015-06-01

    Potentially carcinogenic compounds may cause cancer through direct DNA damage or through indirect cellular or physiological effects. To study possible carcinogens, the fields of endocrinology, genetics, epigenetics, medicine, environmental health, toxicology, pharmacology and oncology must be considered. Disruptive chemicals may also contribute to multiple stages of tumor development through effects on the tumor microenvironment. In turn, the tumor microenvironment consists of a complex interaction among blood vessels that feed the tumor, the extracellular matrix that provides structural and biochemical support, signaling molecules that send messages and soluble factors such as cytokines. The tumor microenvironment also consists of many host cellular effectors including multipotent stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cell precursors, antigen-presenting cells, lymphocytes and innate immune cells. Carcinogens can influence the tumor microenvironment through effects on epithelial cells, the most common origin of cancer, as well as on stromal cells, extracellular matrix components and immune cells. Here, we review how environmental exposures can perturb the tumor microenvironment. We suggest a role for disrupting chemicals such as nickel chloride, Bisphenol A, butyltins, methylmercury and paraquat as well as more traditional carcinogens, such as radiation, and pharmaceuticals, such as diabetes medications, in the disruption of the tumor microenvironment. Further studies interrogating the role of chemicals and their mixtures in dose-dependent effects on the tumor microenvironment could have important general mechanistic implications for the etiology and prevention of tumorigenesis. PMID:26106136

  2. The effect of environmental chemicals on the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Casey, Stephanie C; Vaccari, Monica; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Brown, Dustin G; Chapellier, Marion; Christopher, Joseph; Curran, Colleen S; Forte, Stefano; Hamid, Roslida A; Heneberg, Petr; Koch, Daniel C; Krishnakumar, P K; Laconi, Ezio; Maguer-Satta, Veronique; Marongiu, Fabio; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Roman, Jesse; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Ryeom, Sandra; Salem, Hosni K; Scovassi, A Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Soucek, Laura; Vermeulen, Louis; Whitfield, Jonathan R; Woodrick, Jordan; Colacci, Annamaria; Bisson, William H; Felsher, Dean W

    2015-06-01

    Potentially carcinogenic compounds may cause cancer through direct DNA damage or through indirect cellular or physiological effects. To study possible carcinogens, the fields of endocrinology, genetics, epigenetics, medicine, environmental health, toxicology, pharmacology and oncology must be considered. Disruptive chemicals may also contribute to multiple stages of tumor development through effects on the tumor microenvironment. In turn, the tumor microenvironment consists of a complex interaction among blood vessels that feed the tumor, the extracellular matrix that provides structural and biochemical support, signaling molecules that send messages and soluble factors such as cytokines. The tumor microenvironment also consists of many host cellular effectors including multipotent stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cell precursors, antigen-presenting cells, lymphocytes and innate immune cells. Carcinogens can influence the tumor microenvironment through effects on epithelial cells, the most common origin of cancer, as well as on stromal cells, extracellular matrix components and immune cells. Here, we review how environmental exposures can perturb the tumor microenvironment. We suggest a role for disrupting chemicals such as nickel chloride, Bisphenol A, butyltins, methylmercury and paraquat as well as more traditional carcinogens, such as radiation, and pharmaceuticals, such as diabetes medications, in the disruption of the tumor microenvironment. Further studies interrogating the role of chemicals and their mixtures in dose-dependent effects on the tumor microenvironment could have important general mechanistic implications for the etiology and prevention of tumorigenesis.

  3. SCOPE 28: Environmental consequences of nuclear war. Volume II. Ecological and agricultural effects

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the environmental and biological impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include ecological principles relevant to nuclear war, the vulnerability of ecological systems to the climatic effects of nuclear war, additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems, the potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity, food availability after nuclear war, experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the integration of effects on human populations.

  4. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS... significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106.... Determinations will be based upon the best information available, including relevant environmental...

  5. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106.... Determinations will be based upon the best information available, including relevant environmental impact... listed in the license regulations (15 CFR 970.701), require no further environmental assessment....

  6. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106.... Determinations will be based upon the best information available, including relevant environmental impact... listed in the license regulations (15 CFR 970.701), require no further environmental assessment....

  7. Quantification for total demethylation potential of environmental samples utilizing the EGFP reporter gene.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yan; Wang, Xiao-li; Lv, Zhan-lu; Tysklind, Mats; Guo, Chen; Liang, Bao; Wu, Jia-bing; Yang, Yong-jian; Yang, Yi-shu; Wang, Fei-fei; Duan, Xiao-li; Ma, Jin; Wei, Yong-jie; Wang, Chun-hui; Yang, Li-xin; Zhang, Jin-liang; Shi, Xiao-ming; Wang, Xian-liang

    2016-04-01

    The demethylation potential of pollutants is arguably an innate component of their toxicity in environmental samples. A method was developed for determining the total demethylation potential of food samples (TDQ). The demethylation epigenetic toxicity was determined using the Hep G2 cell line transfected with pEGFP-C3 plasmids containing a methylated promoter of the EGFP reporter gene. The total demethylation potential of the sample extracts (the 5-AZA-CdR demethylation toxic equivalency) can be quantified within one week by using a standard curve of the 5-AZA-CdR demethylation agent. To explore the applicability of TDQ for environmental samples, 17 groundwater samples were collected from heavy polluted Kuihe river and the total demethylation potentials of the sample extracts were measured successfully. Meaningful demethylation toxic equivalencies ranging from 0.00050 to 0.01747μM were found in all groundwater sample extracts. Among 19 kinds of inorganic substance, As and Cd played important roles for individual contribution to the total demethylation epigenetic toxicity. The TDQ assay is reliable and fast for quantifying the DNA demethylation potential of environmental sample extracts, which may improve epigenetic toxicity evaluations for human risk assessment, and the consistent consuming of groundwater alongside the Kuihe river pose unexpected epigenetic health risk to the local residents. PMID:26774982

  8. A brief overview of the potential environmental hazards of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Bubalo, Marina Cvjetko; Radošević, Kristina; Redovniković, Ivana Radojčić; Halambek, Jasna; Srček, Višnja Gaurina

    2014-01-01

    Over past decades ionic liquids, a promising alternative to traditional organic solvents, have been dramatically expanding in popularity as a new generation of chemicals with potential uses in various areas in industry. In the literature these compounds have often been referred to as environmentally friendly; however, in recent years the perception of their greenness dramatically changed as the scientific community began to proactively assess the risk of their application based on the entire life-cycle. This review gives a brief overview of the current knowledge regarding the potential risks linked to the application of ionic liquids - from preparation to their disposal, with special emphasis on their potential environmental impacts and future directions in designing inherently safer ionic liquids.

  9. A brief overview of the potential environmental hazards of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Bubalo, Marina Cvjetko; Radošević, Kristina; Redovniković, Ivana Radojčić; Halambek, Jasna; Srček, Višnja Gaurina

    2014-01-01

    Over past decades ionic liquids, a promising alternative to traditional organic solvents, have been dramatically expanding in popularity as a new generation of chemicals with potential uses in various areas in industry. In the literature these compounds have often been referred to as environmentally friendly; however, in recent years the perception of their greenness dramatically changed as the scientific community began to proactively assess the risk of their application based on the entire life-cycle. This review gives a brief overview of the current knowledge regarding the potential risks linked to the application of ionic liquids - from preparation to their disposal, with special emphasis on their potential environmental impacts and future directions in designing inherently safer ionic liquids. PMID:24210364

  10. Prioritizing chemicals for environmental management in China based on screening of potential risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiangyi; Mao, Yan; Sun, Jinye; Shen, Yingwa

    2014-03-01

    The rapid development of China's chemical industry has created increasing pressure to improve the environmental management of chemicals. To bridge the large gap between the use and safe management of chemicals, we performed a comprehensive review of the international methods used to prioritize chemicals for environmental management. By comparing domestic and foreign methods, we confirmed the presence of this gap and identified potential solutions. Based on our literature review, we developed an appropriate screening method that accounts for the unique characteristics of chemical use within China. The proposed method is based on an evaluation using nine indices of the potential hazard posed by a chemical: three environmental hazard indices (persistence, bioaccumulation, and eco-toxicity), four health hazard indices (acute toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity), and two environmental exposure hazard indices (chemical amount and utilization pattern). The results of our screening agree with results of previous efforts from around the world, confirming the validity of the new system. The classification method will help decisionmakers to prioritize and identify the chemicals with the highest environmental risk, thereby providing a basis for improving chemical management in China.

  11. Environmental Variation and Cohort Effects in an Antarctic Predator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrott, Robert A.; Rotella, Jay J.; Siniff, Donald B.; Parkinson, Claire L.; Stauffer, Glenn E.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the potential influence of environmental variation experienced by animals during early stages of development on their subsequent demographic performance can contribute to our understanding of population processes and aid in predicting impacts of global climate change on ecosystem functioning. Using data from 4,178 tagged female Weddell seal pups born into 20 different cohorts, and 30 years of observations of the tagged seals, we evaluated the hypothesis that environmental conditions experienced by young seals, either indirectly through maternal effects and/or directly during the initial period of juvenile nutritional independence, have long-term effects on individual demographic performance. We documented an approximately 3-fold difference in the proportion of each cohort that returned to the pupping colonies and produced a pup within the first 10 years after birth. We found only weak evidence for a correlation between annual environmental conditions during the juvenile-independence period and cohort recruitment probability. Instead, the data strongly supported an association between cohort recruitment probability and the regional extent of sea ice experienced by the mother during the winter the pup was in utero. We suggest that inter-annual variation in winter sea-ice extent influences the foraging success of pregnant seals by moderating the regional abundance of competing predators that cannot occupy areas of consolidated sea ice, and by directly influencing the abundance of mid-trophic prey species that are sea-ice obligates. We hypothesize that this environmentally-induced variation in maternal nutrition dictates the extent of maternal energetic investment in offspring, resulting in cohort variation in mean size of pups at weaning which, in turn, contributes to an individual?s phenotype and its ultimate fitness. These linkages between sea ice and trophic dynamics, combined with demonstrated and predicted changes in the duration and extent of sea

  12. Surfactant effects on environmental behavior of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The potential effects of adjuvants, including surfactants used in pesticide formulation, have been extensively studied for many small organic chemicals, but similar investigation on pesticides is limited in most cases. Solubilizing effects leading to the apparently increased water solubility of a pesticide are commonly known through the preparation of formulations, but fundamental profiles, especially for a specific monodisperse surfactant, are not fully studied. Reduced volatilization of a pesticide from the formulation can be explained by analogy of a very simple organic chemical, but the actual mechanism for the pesticide is still obscure. In contrast, from the point of view of avoiding groundwater contamination with a pesticide, adsorption/desorption profiles in the presence of surfactants and adjuvants have been examined extensively as well as pesticide mobility in the soil column. The basic mechanism in micelle-catalyzed hydrolysis is well known, and theoretical approaches including the PPIE model have succeeded in explaining the observed effects of surfactants, but its application to pesticides is also limited. Photolysis, especially in an aqueous phase, is in the same situation. The dilution effect in the real environment would show these effects on hydrolysis and photolysis to be much less than expected from the laboratory basic studies, but more information is necessary to examine the practical extent of the effects in an early stage of applying a pesticide formulation to crops and soil. Many adjuvants, including surfactants, are biodegradable in the soil environment, and thus their effects on the biodegradation of a pesticide in soil and sediment may be limited, as demonstrated by field trials. Not only from the theoretical but also the practical aspect, the foliar uptake of pesticide in the presence of adjuvants has been investigated extensively and some prediction on the ease of foliar uptake can be realized in relation to the formulation technology

  13. Substance flow analysis and assessment of environmental exposure potential for triclosan in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chu-Long; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2014-11-15

    Triclosan (TCS) is a widely-used antimicrobial agent in many consumer products around the world, and China is a major producer and consumer of TCS. In this study substance flow analysis (SFA) was used to construct a static model of anthropogenic TCS metabolism in China in 2008. The systematic SFA results were used to determine possible exposure pathways and trends in environmental exposure potential through different pathways. TCS discharged in wastewater mainly flowed into surface water sediment, ocean, and soil, where it accumulates in aquatic and agricultural products that may pose a higher risk to human health than brief exposure during consumption. Only 22% of TCS discharged was removed in the built environment with the remainder discharged into the natural environment, indicating that anthropogenic TCS metabolism in China is unsustainable. Per capita TCS consumption increased 209% from 2003 to 2012, resulting in increased discharge and accumulation in the environment. If current trends continue, it will increase to 713 mg capita(-1) yr(-1) in 2015 and 957 mg capita(-1) yr(-1) in 2020. Accordingly, annual environmental exposure potential will increase from 388 mg capita(-1) in 2008 to 557 mg capita(-1) in 2015 and 747 mg capita(-1) in 2020, indicating an increasing trend of exposure to environmental TCS. Results of Pearson correlation analysis suggested that feasible countermeasures to reduce environmental exposure potential for triclosan would include encouraging the development of small cities, raising awareness of health risks, nurturing environmentally-friendly consumer values, and improving the environmental performance of TCS-containing products.

  14. Environmental potential of carbon dioxide utilization in the polyurethane supply chain.

    PubMed

    von der Assen, Niklas; Sternberg, André; Kätelhön, Arne; Bardow, André

    2015-01-01

    Potential environmental benefits have been identified for the utilization of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a feedstock for polyurethanes (PUR). CO2 can be utilized in the PUR supply chain in a wide variety of ways ranging from direct CO2 utilization for polyols as a PUR precursor, to indirect CO2 utilization for basic chemicals in the PUR supply chain. In this paper, we present a systematic exploration and environmental evaluation of all direct and indirect CO2 utilization options for flexible and rigid PUR foams. The analysis is based on an LCA-based PUR supply chain optimization model using linear programming to identify PUR production with minimal environmental impacts. The direct utilization of CO2 for polyols allows for large specific impact reductions of up to 4 kg CO2-eq. and 2 kg oil-eq. per kg CO2 utilized, but the amounts of CO2 that can be utilized are limited to 0.30 kg CO2 per kg PUR. The amount of CO2 utilized can be increased to up to 1.7 kg CO2 per kg PUR by indirect CO2 utilization in the PUR supply chain. Indirect CO2 utilization requires hydrogen (H2). The environmental impacts of H2 production strongly affect the impact of indirect CO2 utilization in PUR. To achieve optimal environmental performance under the current fossil-based H2 generation, PUR production can only utilize much less CO2 than theoretically possible. Thus, utilizing as much CO2 in the PUR supply chain as possible is not always environmentally optimal. Clean H2 production is required to exploit the full CO2 utilization potential for environmental impact reduction in PUR production.

  15. Pile Driving at the New Bridge at Tappan Zee: Potential Environmental Impacts.

    PubMed

    Popper, Arthur N; Moese, Mark; Rollino, John; Krebs, Justin; Racca, Roberto; Martin, Bruce; Zeddies, David; MacGillivray, Alexander; Jacobs, Fred

    2016-01-01

    A new bridge will be constructed to replace the aging Tappan Zee Bridge over the Hudson River in New York. Construction will potentially result in hydroacoustic impacts to the local fish fauna. As a consequence, a substantial environmental impact analysis had to be conducted to obtain construction permits. This paper describes the process of environmental analysis and some of the results of the studies that led up to the final permitting. The process included modeling of pile-driving acoustics, analysis of river ambient noise, analysis of test piling, and observations on fish behavior during these tests.

  16. Environmental Adult Educator Training: Suggestions for Effective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Caitlin Secrest

    2006-01-01

    Environmental adult education (EAE) is a viable solution to the world's mounting environmental problems. EAE is a new and emerging field that is faced with constant changes and challenges. While this change presents practitioners with options for dynamic research possibilities, EAE is such that theory and practice in the field face a potential for…

  17. Occurrence and Potential Biological Effects of Amphetamine on Stream Communities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sylvia S; Paspalof, Alexis M; Snow, Daniel D; Richmond, Erinn K; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Kelly, John J

    2016-09-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals, including illicit drugs in aquatic systems, is a topic of environmental significance because of their global occurrence and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health, but few studies have examined the ecological effects of illicit drugs. We conducted a survey of several drug residues, including the potentially illicit drug amphetamine, at 6 stream sites along an urban to rural gradient in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. We detected numerous drugs, including amphetamine (3 to 630 ng L(-1)), in all stream sites. We examined the fate and ecological effects of amphetamine on biofilm, seston, and aquatic insect communities in artificial streams exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration (1 μg L(-1)) of amphetamine. The amphetamine parent compound decreased in the artificial streams from less than 1 μg L(-1) on day 1 to 0.11 μg L(-1) on day 22. In artificial streams treated with amphetamine, there was up to 45% lower biofilm chlorophyll a per ash-free dry mass, 85% lower biofilm gross primary production, 24% greater seston ash-free dry mass, and 30% lower seston community respiration compared to control streams. Exposing streams to amphetamine also changed the composition of bacterial and diatom communities in biofilms at day 21 and increased cumulative dipteran emergence by 65% and 89% during the first and third weeks of the experiment, respectively. This study demonstrates that amphetamine and other biologically active drugs are present in urban streams and have the potential to affect both structure and function of stream communities. PMID:27513635

  18. Environmental effects on an optical-UV-IR synthesis array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon offers a stable platform with excellent seeing conditions for the Lunar Optical-UV-IR Synthesis Array (LOUISA). Some troublesome aspects of the lunar environment will need to be overcome to realize the full potential of the Moon as an observatory site. Mitigation of negative effects of vacuum, thermal radiation, dust, and micrometeorite impact is feasible with careful engineering and operational planning. Shields against impact, dust, and solar radiation need to be developed. Means of restoring degraded surfaces are probably essential for optical and thermal control surfaces deployed in long-lifetime lunar facilities. Precursor missions should be planned to validate and enhance the understanding of the lunar environment (e.g., dust behavior without and with human presence and to determine environmental effects on surfaces and components. Precursor missions should generate data useful in establishing keepout zones around observatory facilities while rocket launches and landings, mining, and vehicular traffic could be detrimental to observatory operation.

  19. Simulated space environmental effects on some experimental high performance polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Organic polymeric materials are currently being considered for long term use (more than 10 years) in structural (adhesives and composite matrices) and functional (films and coatings) applications on spacecraft. Although organic polymers have been utilized successfully in short term missions, the long term durability of these materials in space is of concern. As part of a NASA effort on high performance polymers for potential space applications, various experimental polymeric materials recently synthesized at NASA Langley Research Center were evaluated under simulated space environmental conditions. Experimental resins from blends of acetylene terminated materials, poly(arylene ether)s and low color polyimides were exposed to high energy electron and ultraviolet radiation in an attempt to simulate space environmental effects. Thin films, neat resin moldings and carbon fiber reinforced composites were exposed and the effect on certain polymer properties were determined. This paper reviews recent research involving the effects of various radiation exposures on the physical, optical and mechanical properties of several experimental polymer systems.

  20. Glyphosate: environmental contamination, toxicity and potential risks to human health via food contamination.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Ogbourne, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate has been the most widely used herbicide during the past three decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies glyphosate as 'practically non-toxic and not an irritant' under the acute toxicity classification system. This classification is based primarily on toxicity data and due to its unique mode of action via a biochemical pathway that only exists in a small number of organisms that utilise the shikimic acid pathway to produce amino acids, most of which are green plants. This classification is supported by the majority of scientific literature on the toxic effects of glyphosate. However, in 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) reported that glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are of potential toxicological concern, mainly as a result of accumulation of residues in the food chain. The FAO further states that the dietary risk of glyphosate and AMPA is unlikely if the maximum daily intake of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) is not exceeded. Research has now established that glyphosate can persist in the environment, and therefore, assessments of the health risks associated with glyphosate are more complicated than suggested by acute toxicity data that relate primarily to accidental high-rate exposure. We have used recent literature to assess the possible risks associated with the presence of glyphosate residues in food and the environment. PMID:27541149

  1. Glyphosate: environmental contamination, toxicity and potential risks to human health via food contamination.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Ogbourne, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate has been the most widely used herbicide during the past three decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies glyphosate as 'practically non-toxic and not an irritant' under the acute toxicity classification system. This classification is based primarily on toxicity data and due to its unique mode of action via a biochemical pathway that only exists in a small number of organisms that utilise the shikimic acid pathway to produce amino acids, most of which are green plants. This classification is supported by the majority of scientific literature on the toxic effects of glyphosate. However, in 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) reported that glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are of potential toxicological concern, mainly as a result of accumulation of residues in the food chain. The FAO further states that the dietary risk of glyphosate and AMPA is unlikely if the maximum daily intake of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) is not exceeded. Research has now established that glyphosate can persist in the environment, and therefore, assessments of the health risks associated with glyphosate are more complicated than suggested by acute toxicity data that relate primarily to accidental high-rate exposure. We have used recent literature to assess the possible risks associated with the presence of glyphosate residues in food and the environment.

  2. Potential health effects associated with dermal exposure to occupational chemicals.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual's health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical-skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

  3. Potential Health Effects Associated with Dermal Exposure to Occupational Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual’s health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical–skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

  4. Cellulolytic potential under environmental changes in microbial communities from grassland litter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Berlemont, Renaud; Allison, Steven D.; Weihe, Claudia; Lu, Ying; Brodie, Eoin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2014-11-25

    In many ecosystems, global changes are likely to profoundly affect microorganisms. In Southern California, changes in precipitation and nitrogen deposition may influence the composition and functional potential of microbial communities and their resulting ability to degrade plant material. To test whether such environmental changes impact the distribution of functional groups involved in leaf litter degradation, we determined how the genomic diversity of microbial communities in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem changed under reduced precipitation or increased N deposition. We monitored communities seasonally over a period of 2 years to place environmental change responses into the context of natural variation. Fungal andmore » bacterial communities displayed strong seasonal patterns, Fungi being mostly detected during the dry season whereas Bacteria were common during wet periods. Most putative cellulose degraders were associated with 33 bacterial genera and predicted to constitute 18% of the microbial community. Precipitation reduction reduced bacterial abundance and cellulolytic potential whereas nitrogen addition did not affect the cellulolytic potential of the microbial community. Finally, we detected a strong correlation between the frequencies of genera of putative cellulose degraders and cellulase genes. Thus, microbial taxonomic composition was predictive of cellulolytic potential. This work provides a framework for how environmental changes affect microorganisms responsible for plant litter deconstruction.« less

  5. Cellulolytic potential under environmental changes in microbial communities from grassland litter

    SciTech Connect

    Berlemont, Renaud; Allison, Steven D.; Weihe, Claudia; Lu, Ying; Brodie, Eoin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2014-11-25

    In many ecosystems, global changes are likely to profoundly affect microorganisms. In Southern California, changes in precipitation and nitrogen deposition may influence the composition and functional potential of microbial communities and their resulting ability to degrade plant material. To test whether such environmental changes impact the distribution of functional groups involved in leaf litter degradation, we determined how the genomic diversity of microbial communities in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem changed under reduced precipitation or increased N deposition. We monitored communities seasonally over a period of 2 years to place environmental change responses into the context of natural variation. Fungal and bacterial communities displayed strong seasonal patterns, Fungi being mostly detected during the dry season whereas Bacteria were common during wet periods. Most putative cellulose degraders were associated with 33 bacterial genera and predicted to constitute 18% of the microbial community. Precipitation reduction reduced bacterial abundance and cellulolytic potential whereas nitrogen addition did not affect the cellulolytic potential of the microbial community. Finally, we detected a strong correlation between the frequencies of genera of putative cellulose degraders and cellulase genes. Thus, microbial taxonomic composition was predictive of cellulolytic potential. This work provides a framework for how environmental changes affect microorganisms responsible for plant litter deconstruction.

  6. Cellulolytic potential under environmental changes in microbial communities from grassland litter

    PubMed Central

    Berlemont, Renaud; Allison, Steven D.; Weihe, Claudia; Lu, Ying; Brodie, Eoin L.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Martiny, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    In many ecosystems, global changes are likely to profoundly affect microorganisms. In Southern California, changes in precipitation and nitrogen deposition may influence the composition and functional potential of microbial communities and their resulting ability to degrade plant material. To test whether such environmental changes impact the distribution of functional groups involved in leaf litter degradation, we determined how the genomic diversity of microbial communities in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem changed under reduced precipitation or increased N deposition. We monitored communities seasonally over a period of 2 years to place environmental change responses into the context of natural variation. Fungal and bacterial communities displayed strong seasonal patterns, Fungi being mostly detected during the dry season whereas Bacteria were common during wet periods. Most putative cellulose degraders were associated with 33 bacterial genera and predicted to constitute 18% of the microbial community. Precipitation reduction reduced bacterial abundance and cellulolytic potential whereas nitrogen addition did not affect the cellulolytic potential of the microbial community. Finally, we detected a strong correlation between the frequencies of genera of putative cellulose degraders and cellulase genes. Thus, microbial taxonomic composition was predictive of cellulolytic potential. This work provides a framework for how environmental changes affect microorganisms responsible for plant litter deconstruction. PMID:25505459

  7. Temporal dissolution of potentially toxic elements from silver smelting slag by synthetic environmental solutions.

    PubMed

    Ash, Christopher; Borůvka, Luboš; Tejnecký, Václav; Šebek, Ondřej; Nikodem, Antonín; Drábek, Ondřej

    2013-11-15

    Waste slag which is created during precious metal smelting contains high levels of potentially toxic elements (PTE) which can be mobilised from unconfined deposits into the local environment. This paper examines the extractability of selected PTE (Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn) from slag samples by synthetic solutions designed to replicate those in the environment. Extracting agents were used to replicate potential leaching scenarios which are analogous to natural chemical weathering. Slag was submersed in a rainwater simulation solution (RSS), weak citric acid solution (representing rhizosphere secretions) and control solutions (deionised water) for a one month period with solution analyses made at intervals of 1, 24, 168 and 720 h. In 1 mM citric acid, dissolution of Cd and Zn showed little change with time, although for Zn the initial dissolution was considerable. Lead in citric acid was characterized by overall poor extractability. Mn solubility increased until an equilibrium state occurred within 24 h. The solubility of studied metals in citric acid can be characterized by a short time to equilibrium. RSS proved to be an effective solvent that, unlike citric acid solution, extracted increasing concentrations of Cd, Mn and Zn with time. Solubility of Pb in RSS was again very low. When taken as a proportion of a single 2 M HNO3 extraction which was applied to slag samples, Cd was the element most readily leached into RSS and control samples. In both studied solvents, slag heterogeneity is prominent in the case of Cd and Zn solubility. Contact time with solvent appears to be an important variable for the release of PTE from slag into solution. The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the environmental chemical dissolution of PTE from slag, which causes their enrichment in surrounding soils and surface waters. PMID:23920416

  8. Bivalves as indicators of environmental variation and potential anthropogenic impacts in the southern Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael L; Johnson, Beverly J; Henkes, Gregory A; McMahon, Kelton W; Voronkov, Andrey; Ambrose, William G; Denisenko, Stanislav G

    2009-01-01

    Identifying patterns and drivers of natural variability in populations is necessary to gauge potential effects of climatic change and the expected increases in commercial activities in the Arctic on communities and ecosystems. We analyzed growth rates and shell geochemistry of the circumpolar Greenland smooth cockle, Serripes groenlandicus, from the southern Barents Sea over almost 70 years between 1882 and 1968. The datasets were calibrated via annually-deposited growth lines, and growth, stable isotope (delta(18)O, delta(13)C), and trace elemental (Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn) patterns were linked to environmental variations on weekly to decadal scales. Standardized growth indices revealed an oscillatory growth pattern with a multi-year periodicity, which was inversely related to the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO), and positively related to local river discharge. Up to 60% of the annual variability in Ba/Ca could be explained by variations in river discharge at the site closest to the rivers, but the relationship disappeared at a more distant location. Patterns of delta(18)O, delta(13)C, and Sr/Ca together provide evidence that bivalve growth ceases at elevated temperatures during the fall and recommences at the coldest temperatures in the early spring, with the implication that food, rather than temperature, is the primary driver of bivalve growth. The multi-proxy approach of combining the annually integrated information from the growth results and higher resolution geochemical results yielded a robust interpretation of biophysical coupling in the region over temporal and spatial scales. We thus demonstrate that sclerochronological proxies can be useful retrospective analytical tools for establishing a baseline of ecosystem variability in assessing potential combined impacts of climatic change and increasing commercial activities on Arctic communities. PMID:19394657

  9. Bivalves as indicators of environmental variation and potential anthropogenic impacts in the southern Barents Sea

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Michael L.; Johnson, Beverly J.; Henkes, Gregory A.; McMahon, Kelton W.; Voronkov, Andrey; Ambrose, William G.; Denisenko, Stanislav G.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying patterns and drivers of natural variability in populations is necessary to gauge potential effects of climatic change and the expected increases in commercial activities in the Arctic on communities and ecosystems. We analyzed growth rates and shell geochemistry of the circumpolar Greenland smooth cockle, Serripes groenlandicus, from the southern Barents Sea over almost 70 years between 1882 and 1968. The datasets were calibrated via annually-deposited growth lines, and growth, stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C), and trace elemental (Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn) patterns were linked to environmental variations on weekly to decadal scales. Standardized growth indices revealed an oscillatory growth pattern with a multi-year periodicity, which was inversely related to the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO), and positively related to local river discharge. Up to 60% of the annual variability in the Ba/Ca could be explained by variations in river discharge at the site closest to the rivers, but the relationship disappeared at a more distant location. Patterns of δ18O, δ13C, and Sr/Ca together provide evidence that bivalve growth ceases at elevated temperatures during the fall and recommences at the coldest temperatures in the early spring, with the implication that food, rather than temperature, is the primary driver of bivalve growth. The multi-proxy approach of combining the annually integrated information from the growth results and higher resolution geochemical results yielded a robust interpretation of biophysical coupling in the region over temporal and spatial scales. We thus demonstrate that sclerochronological proxies can be useful retrospective analytical tools for establishing a baseline of ecosystem variability in assessing potential combined impacts of climatic change and increasing commercial activities on Arctic communities. PMID:19394657

  10. Temporal dissolution of potentially toxic elements from silver smelting slag by synthetic environmental solutions.

    PubMed

    Ash, Christopher; Borůvka, Luboš; Tejnecký, Václav; Šebek, Ondřej; Nikodem, Antonín; Drábek, Ondřej

    2013-11-15

    Waste slag which is created during precious metal smelting contains high levels of potentially toxic elements (PTE) which can be mobilised from unconfined deposits into the local environment. This paper examines the extractability of selected PTE (Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn) from slag samples by synthetic solutions designed to replicate those in the environment. Extracting agents were used to replicate potential leaching scenarios which are analogous to natural chemical weathering. Slag was submersed in a rainwater simulation solution (RSS), weak citric acid solution (representing rhizosphere secretions) and control solutions (deionised water) for a one month period with solution analyses made at intervals of 1, 24, 168 and 720 h. In 1 mM citric acid, dissolution of Cd and Zn showed little change with time, although for Zn the initial dissolution was considerable. Lead in citric acid was characterized by overall poor extractability. Mn solubility increased until an equilibrium state occurred within 24 h. The solubility of studied metals in citric acid can be characterized by a short time to equilibrium. RSS proved to be an effective solvent that, unlike citric acid solution, extracted increasing concentrations of Cd, Mn and Zn with time. Solubility of Pb in RSS was again very low. When taken as a proportion of a single 2 M HNO3 extraction which was applied to slag samples, Cd was the element most readily leached into RSS and control samples. In both studied solvents, slag heterogeneity is prominent in the case of Cd and Zn solubility. Contact time with solvent appears to be an important variable for the release of PTE from slag into solution. The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the environmental chemical dissolution of PTE from slag, which causes their enrichment in surrounding soils and surface waters.

  11. Life Paths into Effective Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawla, Louise

    1999-01-01

    Explores interviews with environmentalists in Kentucky (n=30) and Norway (n=26) who represented a broad range of issues from wilderness protection to urban planning to determine the sources of their environmental commitment. (Author/CCM)

  12. Deoxynivalenol: toxicology and potential effects on humans.

    PubMed

    Pestka, James J; Smolinski, Alexa T

    2005-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal-based foods worldwide. At the molecular level, DON disrupts normal cell function by inhibiting protein synthesis via binding to the ribosome and by activating critical cellular kinases involved in signal transduction related to proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Relative to toxicity, there are marked species differences, with the pig being most sensitive to DON, followed by rodent > dog > cat > poultry > ruminants. The physiologic parameter that is most sensitive to low-level DON exposure is the emetic response, with as little as 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg body weight (bw) inducing vomiting in swine and dogs. Chinese epidemiological studies suggest that DON may also produce emetic effects in humans. With respect to chronic effects, growth (anorexia and decreased nutritional efficiency), immune function, (enhancement and suppression), and reproduction (reduced litter size) are also adversely affected by DON in animals, whereas incidence of neoplasia is not affected. When hazard evaluations were conducted using existing chronic toxicity data and standard safety factors employed for anthropogenic additives/contaminants in foods, tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) ranging from 1 to 5 microg/kg bw have been generated. Given that critical data gaps still exist regarding the potential health effects of DON, additional research is needed to improve capacity for assessing adverse health effects of this mycotoxin. Critical areas for future DON research include molecular mechanisms underlying toxicity, sensitivity of human cells/tissues relative to other species, emetic effects in primates, epidemiological association with gastroenteritis and chronic disease in humans, and surveillance in cereal crops worldwide.

  13. Environmental Application, Fate, Effects, and Concerns of Ionic Liquids: A Review.

    PubMed

    Amde, Meseret; Liu, Jing-Fu; Pang, Long

    2015-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) comprise mostly of organic salts with negligible vapor pressure and low flammability that are proposed as replacements for volatile solvents. ILs have been promoted as "green" solvents and widely investigated for their various applications. Although the utility of these chemicals is unquestionable, their toxic effects have attracted great attention. In order to manage their potential hazards and design environmentally benign ILs, understanding their environmental behavior, fate and effects is important. In this review, environmentally relevant issues of ILs, including their environmental application, environmental behavior and toxicity are addressed. In addition, also presented are the influence of ILs on the environmental fate and toxicity of other coexisting contaminants, important routes for designing nontoxic ILs and the techniques that might be adopted for the removal of ILs. PMID:26445034

  14. Environmental Application, Fate, Effects, and Concerns of Ionic Liquids: A Review.

    PubMed

    Amde, Meseret; Liu, Jing-Fu; Pang, Long

    2015-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) comprise mostly of organic salts with negligible vapor pressure and low flammability that are proposed as replacements for volatile solvents. ILs have been promoted as "green" solvents and widely investigated for their various applications. Although the utility of these chemicals is unquestionable, their toxic effects have attracted great attention. In order to manage their potential hazards and design environmentally benign ILs, understanding their environmental behavior, fate and effects is important. In this review, environmentally relevant issues of ILs, including their environmental application, environmental behavior and toxicity are addressed. In addition, also presented are the influence of ILs on the environmental fate and toxicity of other coexisting contaminants, important routes for designing nontoxic ILs and the techniques that might be adopted for the removal of ILs.

  15. Potential effects of raising Medicare's eligibility age.

    PubMed

    Waidmann, T A

    1998-01-01

    Recent fiscal pressures on Medicare and an already enacted increase in Social Security's normal retirement age have generated discussion of raising Medicare's age of entitlement. This DataWatch examines potential impacts of raising Medicare's eligibility age to sixty-seven on public-sector health spending and individual insurance coverage. The proposed increase would affect a substantial fraction of beneficiaries without having a commensurate effect on expenditures, even in the long run. It is estimated that if the eligibility age were sixty-seven, upwards of 500,000 persons ages sixty-five and sixty-six would be left without any insurance, and even more would not be able to afford coverage with benefits similar to those of Medicare. PMID:9558794

  16. Photovoltaic energy technologies: Health and environmental effects document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Hamilton, L. D.; Morris, S. C.; Rowe, M. D.

    1980-09-01

    The potential health and environmental consequences of producing electricity by photovoltaic energy systems was analyzed. Potential health and environmental risks are identified in representative fuel and material supply cycles including extraction, processing, refining, fabrication, installation, operation, and isposal for four photovoltaic energy systems (silicon N/P single crystal, silicon metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) cell, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide backwall cell, and gallium arsenide heterojunction cell) delivering equal amounts of useful energy. Each step of the fuel and material supply cycles, materials demands, byproducts, public health, occupational health, and environmental hazards is identified.

  17. The potential of current- and wind-driven transport for environmental management of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Soomere, Tarmo; Döös, Kristofer; Lehmann, Andreas; Meier, H E Markus; Murawski, Jens; Myrberg, Kai; Stanev, Emil

    2014-02-01

    The ever increasing impact of the marine industry and transport on vulnerable sea areas puts the marine environment under exceptional pressure and calls for inspired methods for mitigating the impact of the related risks. We describe a method for preventive reduction of remote environmental risks caused by the shipping and maritime industry that are transported by surface currents and wind impact to the coasts. This method is based on characterizing systematically the damaging potential of the offshore areas in terms of potential transport to vulnerable regions of an oil spill or other pollution that has occurred in a particular area. The resulting maps of probabilities of pollution to be transported to the nearshore and the time it takes for the pollution to reach the nearshore are used to design environmentally optimized fairways for the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Proper, and south-western Baltic Sea. PMID:24414808

  18. Identification of Chromobacterium violaceum genes with potential biotechnological application in environmental detoxification.

    PubMed

    Carepo, Marta S P; Azevedo, Juliana S Nina de; Porto, Jorge I R; Bentes-Sousa, Alexandra R; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Silva, Artur L C da; Schneider, Maria P C

    2004-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative bacterium found in a wide variety of tropical and subtropical ecosystems. The complete genome sequence of C. violaceum ATCC 12472 is now available, and it has considerable biotechnological potential for various applications, such as environmental detoxification, as well as medical and agricultural use. We examined the biotechnological potential of C. violaceum for environmental detoxification. Three operons, comprising the ars operon, involved in arsenic resistance, the cyn operon, involved in cyanate detoxification, and the hcn operon, encoding a cyanase, responsible for biogenic production of cyanide, as well as an open reading frame, encoding an acid dehalogenase, were analyzed in detail. Probable catalytic mechanisms for the enzymes were determined, based on amino acid sequence comparisons and on published structural information for these types of proteins.

  19. Effects of a 1-Day Environmental Education Intervention on Environmental Attitudes and Connectedness with Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Besides cognitive learning effects, short-term environmental education (EE) is often regarded as ineffective in intervening with participants' environmental attitudes and behaviour. However, in Germany, school classes often participate in such 1-day EE programmes because they better match the school curriculum in contrast to longer…

  20. The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

  1. Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental contaminants, acting at molecular through population levels of biological organization, can have profound effects upon birds. A screening level risk assessment was conducted that examined potential contaminant threats at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating pollutant hazards (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory data, estimated pesticide use and hazard) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative contaminant threat for each site was ranked. The 10 sites identified as having the greatest contaminant threats included Jefferson National Forest, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park, Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, George Washington National Forest, Green Mountain National Forest, and Long Island Piping Plover Beaches. These sites accounted for over 50% of the entire study area, and in general had moderate to high percentages of impaired waters, fish consumption advisories related to mercury and PCBs, and were located in counties with substantial application rates of pesticides known to be toxic to birds. Avian species at these IBAs include Federally endangered Roseate terns (Sterna dougallii), threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus), neotropical migrants, Bicknell?s thrush (Catharus bicknelli), Swainson?s warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii) and wintering brant geese (Branta bernicla). Extant data for free-ranging birds from the Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database were examined within the buffered boundaries of each IBA, and for a moderate number of sites there was qualitative concordance between the perceived risk and actual contaminant exposure data. However, several of the IBAs with substantial contaminant

  2. Environmental engineering of navigation infrastructure: a survey of existing practices, challenges, and potential opportunities.

    PubMed

    Fredette, Thomas J; Foran, Christy M; Brasfield, Sandra M; Suedel, Burton C

    2012-01-01

    Navigation infrastructure such as channels, jetties, river training structures, and lock-and-dam facilities are primary components of a safe and efficient water transportation system. Planning for such infrastructure has until recently involved efforts to minimize impacts on the environment through a standardized environmental assessment process. More recently, consistent with environmental sustainability concepts, planners have begun to consider how such projects can also be constructed with environmental enhancements. This study examined the existing institutional conditions within the US Army Corps of Engineers and cooperating federal agencies relative to incorporating environmental enhancements into navigation infrastructure projects. The study sought to (1) investigate institutional attitudes towards the environmental enhancement of navigation infrastructure (EENI) concept, (2) identify potential impediments to implementation and solutions to such impediments, (3) identify existing navigation projects designed with the express intent of enhancing environmental benefit in addition to the primary project purpose, (4) identify innovative ideas for increasing environmental benefits for navigation projects, (5) identify needs for additional technical information or research, and (6) identify laws, regulations, and policies that both support and hinder such design features. The principal investigation tool was an Internet-based survey with 53 questions. The survey captured a wide range of perspectives on the EENI concept including ideas, concerns, research needs, and relevant laws and policies. Study recommendations included further promotion of the concept of EENI to planners and designers, documentation of existing projects, initiation of pilot studies on some of the innovative ideas provided through the survey, and development of national goals and interagency agreements to facilitate implementation.

  3. Effectiveness of environmental policies at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect

    B.D. Zubitskii; S.N. D'yakov; V.Ya. Krasnukhin; S.V. Kozyreva

    2009-05-15

    OAO Koks has introduced a comprehensive program for more stable plant operation and reduced environmental impact in the period 2004 2010. Methods of group relining of the coking-furnace chambers and hot repair of coke furnaces with complete relining of the heating walls have been adopted. Water-protection measures include the construction of an additional water-circulation cycle for the chemical shops, completion of the first stage of wastewater treatment, and reconstruction of the biochemical processing system for phenolic and oily water. A mobile environmental station has been acquired for air-quality monitoring.

  4. The effect of freezing on reactions with environmental impact.

    PubMed

    O'Concubhair, Ruairí; Sodeau, John R

    2013-11-19

    The knowledge that the freezing process can accelerate certain chemical reactions has been available since the 1960s, particularly in relation to the food industry. However, investigations into such effects on environmentally relevant reactions have only been carried out since the late 1980s. Some 20 years later, the field has matured and scientists have conducted research into various important processes such as the oxidation of nitrite ions to nitrates, sulfites to sulfates, and elemental mercury to inorganic mercury. Field observations mainly carried out in the polar regions have driven this work. For example, researchers have found that both ozone and mercury are removed from the troposphere completely (and almost instantaneously) at the time of Arctic polar sunrise. The monitoring activities suggested that both the phenomena were caused by involvement of bromine (and possibly iodine) chemistry. Scientists investigating the production of interhalide products (bromine and iodine producing interhalides) in frozen aqueous solutions have found that these reactions result in both rate accelerations and unexpected products. Furthermore, these scientists did this research with environmentally relevant concentrations of reagents, thereby suggesting that these reactions could occur in the polar regions. The conversion of elemental mercury to more oxidized forms has also shown that the acceleration of reactions can occur when environmentally relevant concentrations of Hg(0) and oxidants are frozen together in aqueous solutions. These observations, coupled with previous investigations into the effect of freezing on environmental reactions, lead us to conclude that this type of chemistry could potentially play a significant role in the chemical processing of a wide variety of inorganic components in polar regions. More recently, researchers have recognized the implications of these complementary field and laboratory findings toward human health and climate change. In this

  5. The effect of freezing on reactions with environmental impact.

    PubMed

    O'Concubhair, Ruairí; Sodeau, John R

    2013-11-19

    The knowledge that the freezing process can accelerate certain chemical reactions has been available since the 1960s, particularly in relation to the food industry. However, investigations into such effects on environmentally relevant reactions have only been carried out since the late 1980s. Some 20 years later, the field has matured and scientists have conducted research into various important processes such as the oxidation of nitrite ions to nitrates, sulfites to sulfates, and elemental mercury to inorganic mercury. Field observations mainly carried out in the polar regions have driven this work. For example, researchers have found that both ozone and mercury are removed from the troposphere completely (and almost instantaneously) at the time of Arctic polar sunrise. The monitoring activities suggested that both the phenomena were caused by involvement of bromine (and possibly iodine) chemistry. Scientists investigating the production of interhalide products (bromine and iodine producing interhalides) in frozen aqueous solutions have found that these reactions result in both rate accelerations and unexpected products. Furthermore, these scientists did this research with environmentally relevant concentrations of reagents, thereby suggesting that these reactions could occur in the polar regions. The conversion of elemental mercury to more oxidized forms has also shown that the acceleration of reactions can occur when environmentally relevant concentrations of Hg(0) and oxidants are frozen together in aqueous solutions. These observations, coupled with previous investigations into the effect of freezing on environmental reactions, lead us to conclude that this type of chemistry could potentially play a significant role in the chemical processing of a wide variety of inorganic components in polar regions. More recently, researchers have recognized the implications of these complementary field and laboratory findings toward human health and climate change. In this

  6. Brain-stem evoked potentials and noise effects in seagulls.

    PubMed

    Counter, S A

    1985-01-01

    Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) recorded from the seagull were large-amplitude, short-latency, vertex-positive deflections which originate in the eighth nerve and several brain-stem nuclei. BAEP waveforms were similar in latency and configurations to that reported for certain other lower vertebrates and some mammals. BAEP recorded at several pure tone frequencies throughout the seagull's auditory spectrum showed an area of heightened auditory sensitivity between 1 and 3 kHz. This range was also found to be the primary bandwidth of the vocalization output of young seagulls. Masking by white noise and pure tones had remarkable effects on several parameters of the BAEP. In general, the tone- and click-induced BAEP were either reduced or obliterated by both pure tone and white noise maskers of specific signal to noise ratios and high intensity levels. The masking effects observed in this study may be related to the manner in which seagulls respond to intense environmental noise. One possible conclusion is that intense environmental noise, such as aircraft engine noise, may severely alter the seagull's localization apparatus and induce sonogenic stress, both of which could cause collisions with low-flying aircraft.

  7. Effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The literature relating to the effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles is reviewed and certain generalizations based on studies of other kinds of vertebrates are presented. Reports of reptilian mortality from pesticide applications are numerous enough to establish the sensitivity of reptiles to these materials. Reports of residue analyses demonstrate the ability of reptiles to accumulate various contaminants. but the significance of the residues to reptilian populations is unknown. A few authors have reported the distribution of residues in reptilian tissues; others have investigated uptake or loss rates. Physiological studies have shown that organochlorines may inhibit enzymes involved in active transport and have correlated the activity of potential detoxifying enzymes with residue levels. There is some suggestion that pesticide residues may interfere with reproduction in oviparous snakes. Needs for future research are discussed.

  8. Variations in Environmental Signals in Tree-Ring Indices in Trees with Different Growth Potential

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Polona; Gričar, Jožica; Skudnik, Mitja; Levanič, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We analysed two groups of Quercus robur trees, growing at nearby plots with different micro-location condition (W-wet and D-dry) in the floodplain Krakovo forest, Slovenia. In the study we compared the growth response of two different tree groups to environmental variables, the potential signal stored in earlywood (EW) structure and the potential difference of the information stored in carbon isotope discrimination of EW and latewood (LW). For that purpose EW and LW widths and carbon isotope discrimination for the period 1970–2008 AD were measured. EW and LW widths were measured on stained microscopic slides and chronologies were standardised using the ARSTAN program. α-cellulose was extracted from pooled EW and LW samples and homogenized samples were further analysed using an elemental analyser and IRMS. We discovered that W oaks grew significantly better over the whole analysed period. The difference between D and W oaks was significant in all analysed variables with the exception of stable carbon isotope discrimination in latewood. In W oaks, latewood widths correlated with summer (June to August) climatic variables, while carbon isotope discrimination was more connected to River Krka flow during the summer. EW discrimination correlated with summer and autumn River Krka flow of the previous year, while latewood discrimination correlated with flow during the current year. In the case of D oaks, the environmental signal appears to be vague, probably due to less favourable growth conditions resulting in markedly reduced increments. Our study revealed important differences in responses to environmental factors between the two oak groups of different physiological conditions that are preconditioned by environmental stress. Environmental information stored in tree-ring features may vary, even within the same forest stand, and largely depends on the micro-environment. Our analysis confirmed our assumptions that separate EW and LW analysis of widths and carbon

  9. Variations in Environmental Signals in Tree-Ring Indices in Trees with Different Growth Potential.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Polona; Gričar, Jožica; Skudnik, Mitja; Levanič, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We analysed two groups of Quercus robur trees, growing at nearby plots with different micro-location condition (W-wet and D-dry) in the floodplain Krakovo forest, Slovenia. In the study we compared the growth response of two different tree groups to environmental variables, the potential signal stored in earlywood (EW) structure and the potential difference of the information stored in carbon isotope discrimination of EW and latewood (LW). For that purpose EW and LW widths and carbon isotope discrimination for the period 1970-2008 AD were measured. EW and LW widths were measured on stained microscopic slides and chronologies were standardised using the ARSTAN program. α-cellulose was extracted from pooled EW and LW samples and homogenized samples were further analysed using an elemental analyser and IRMS. We discovered that W oaks grew significantly better over the whole analysed period. The difference between D and W oaks was significant in all analysed variables with the exception of stable carbon isotope discrimination in latewood. In W oaks, latewood widths correlated with summer (June to August) climatic variables, while carbon isotope discrimination was more connected to River Krka flow during the summer. EW discrimination correlated with summer and autumn River Krka flow of the previous year, while latewood discrimination correlated with flow during the current year. In the case of D oaks, the environmental signal appears to be vague, probably due to less favourable growth conditions resulting in markedly reduced increments. Our study revealed important differences in responses to environmental factors between the two oak groups of different physiological conditions that are preconditioned by environmental stress. Environmental information stored in tree-ring features may vary, even within the same forest stand, and largely depends on the micro-environment. Our analysis confirmed our assumptions that separate EW and LW analysis of widths and carbon isotope

  10. Assessing the potential environmental impact of Athabasca oil sands development in lakes across Northwest Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, J. M.; Cumming, B. F.; Das, B.; Sanei, H.

    2011-12-01

    The continued development of Canada's Athabasca oil sands poses a significant environmental challenge. Low buffered boreal lakes located downwind of the prevailing eastward wind direction may be threatened by acidification and elevated inputs of airborne contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An accurate assessment of the impact that increased levels of bitumen production may have on lakes in the region requires an understanding of the historic variability within these systems prior to at least the past several decades. Here we report concentrations of PAHs, δ13C and δ15N of organic matter (OM), Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses, and distributions of n-alkanes in dated sediment cores from ten lakes located across NW Saskatchewan. Concentrations of PAHs were relatively low (< 100 ng/g for Σ 16 EPA Priority PAHs at each lake) and in general showed no substantial increases over the past 30 years. Retene, which is often associated with the combustion of coniferous wood, was generally the most abundant PAH amongst those reported, demonstrating the importance of forest fires as a principal PAH source. Plots of Hydrogen Index (HI) versus Oxygen Index (OI) fell within a relatively narrow range typical for sediments containing a high content of algal-derived OM. Relatively lower C/N ratios and higher abundances of C17 n-alkane in more recent sediments pointed to an increasingly larger component of algal-derived OM. In all ten lakes δ13C showed gradual upcore depletions that fell within the expected range for fossil fuel combustion (i.e., Suess effect), although this alone may not explain the up to ~3% depletion observed in several of the lakes. In conjunction with the other upcore trends these data may suggest a possible increase in primary productivity over the past several decades in many of the lakes studied. δ15N signatures were more variable, showing upcore increases in some lakes and upcore depletions in others. The increasingly lighter values

  11. The Potential Cardiotoxic Effects of Exercise.

    PubMed

    La Gerche, André

    2016-04-01

    The emerging controversy related to the potential cardiotoxic effects of high doses of intense exercise need to be considered among the much stronger evidence that supports the pleomorphic benefits of exercise as a whole. However, there is fairly compelling evidence to support the association between long-term sport practice and an increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation and the fact that this relates to a chronic altered atrial substrate. This article was designed to challenge the reader with speculative science that suggests that exercise might promote permanent structural changes in the myocardium which can, in some individuals, predispose to arrhythmias. In terms of long-term health outcomes, it would seem that these small risks are outweighed by the many other benefits of exercise, including a likely decrease in atherosclerotic vascular events, although some recent results have brought into question whether the protective benefits of exercise on vascular events also extends to high-intensity exercise training. Above all else, in this article we sought to highlight current controversies to stimulate research on the many unanswered questions. In particular, there is a lack of adequately powered prospective studies from which we can measure health outcomes and their relationship to exercise-induced cardiac remodelling. PMID:26922291

  12. Potential Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen-based Transportation and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grieb, Thomas M; Mills, W B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Summers, Karen V; Crossan, A Brook

    2010-12-31

    Hydrogen (H2) offers advantages as an energy carrier: minimal discharge of pollutants, production from multiple sources, increased thermodynamic efficiencies compared to fossil fuels, and reduced dependence on foreign oil. However, potential impacts from the H2 generation processes, transport and distribution of H2, and releases of H2 into the atmosphere have been proposed. The goal of this project was to analyze the effects of emissions of hydrogen, the six criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases on climate, human health, materials and structures. This project was part of a larger effort by DOE to assess the life-cycle costs and benefits and environmental impacts to inform decisions regarding future hydrogen research. Technical Approach: A modeling approach was developed and used to evaluate the potential environmental effects associated with the conversion of the on-road vehicle fleet from fossil-fuel vehicles to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. GATOR-GCMOM was the primary tool used to predict atmospheric concentrations of gases and aerosols for selected scenarios. This model accounts for all feedbacks among major atmospheric processes based on first principles. The future scenarios and the emission rates selected for this analysis of hydrogen environmental effects are based on the scenarios developed by IPCC. The scenarios selected for the model simulations are a 2000 and 2050 A1B base cases, and a 2050 A1B case with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The hydrogen fuel cell scenario assumed conversion of 90% of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) in developed countries and 45% of FFOVs vehicles in other countries to HFCVs, with the H2 produced by steam-reforming of natural gas (SHFCVs). Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of converting the world's FFOVs to HFCVs, where the H2 is produced by wind-powered electrolysis (WHFCVs). In all scenarios a 3% leakage of H2 consumed was assumed. Two new models were developed that provide the ability to evaluate a

  13. [Environmental toxic and its effect on neurodevelopment].

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Hugo A; Fernández, María C

    2013-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders are the result of a disturbance of brain function. They are frequent, with varied symptomatology, manifest themselves at different times of life and tend to be persistent with impact at the individual, family and social level. The association of these disorders with genetic entities is low. Although the research supports a mode of genetic inheritance, epigenetic factors and environmental factors can play an important role. In recent years there was a striking increase of these disorders especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and pervasive development disorder. Environmental factors such as the intoxication of the fetus by especially heavy metals lead and mercury are to blame in some children, of these disorders. Other substances of wide use, little degradation and maintenance in the food chain as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and now the recycling of electronic waste put especially infants and children at risk, and even more so in the developing countries. PMID:24072057

  14. Suitable environmental ranges for potential coral reef habitats in the tropical ocean.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yi; Hohn, Sönke; Merico, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are found within a limited range of environmental conditions or tolerance limits. Estimating these limits is a critical prerequisite for understanding the impacts of climate change on the biogeography of coral reefs. Here we used the diagnostic model ReefHab to determine the current environmental tolerance limits for coral reefs and the global distribution of potential coral reef habitats as a function of six factors: temperature, salinity, nitrate, phosphate, aragonite saturation state, and light. To determine these tolerance limits, we extracted maximum and minimum values of all environmental variables in corresponding locations where coral reefs are present. We found that the global, annually averaged tolerance limits for coral reefs are 21.7-29.6 °C for temperature, 28.7-40.4 psu for salinity, 4.51 μmol L-1 for nitrate, 0.63 μmol L-1 for phosphate, and 2.82 for aragonite saturation state. The averaged minimum light intensity in coral reefs is 450 μmol photons m-2 s-1. The global area of potential reef habitats calculated by the model is 330.5 × 103 km2. Compared with previous studies, the tolerance limits for temperature, salinity, and nutrients have not changed much, whereas the minimum value of aragonite saturation in coral reef waters has decreased from 3.28 to 2.82. The potential reef habitat area calculated with ReefHab is about 121×103 km2 larger than the area estimated from the charted reefs, suggesting that the growth potential of coral reefs is higher than currently observed.

  15. Suitable Environmental Ranges for Potential Coral Reef Habitats in the Tropical Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yi; Hohn, Sönke; Merico, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs are found within a limited range of environmental conditions or tolerance limits. Estimating these limits is a critical prerequisite for understanding the impacts of climate change on the biogeography of coral reefs. Here we used the diagnostic model ReefHab to determine the current environmental tolerance limits for coral reefs and the global distribution of potential coral reef habitats as a function of six factors: temperature, salinity, nitrate, phosphate, aragonite saturation state, and light. To determine these tolerance limits, we extracted maximum and minimum values of all environmental variables in corresponding locations where coral reefs are present. We found that the global, annually averaged tolerance limits for coral reefs are 21.7—29.6 °C for temperature, 28.7—40.4 psu for salinity, 4.51 μmol L-1 for nitrate, 0.63 μmol L-1 for phosphate, and 2.82 for aragonite saturation state. The averaged minimum light intensity in coral reefs is 450 μmol photons m-2 s-1. The global area of potential reef habitats calculated by the model is 330.5 × 103 km2. Compared with previous studies, the tolerance limits for temperature, salinity, and nutrients have not changed much, whereas the minimum value of aragonite saturation in coral reef waters has decreased from 3.28 to 2.82. The potential reef habitat area calculated with ReefHab is about 121×103 km2 larger than the area estimated from the charted reefs, suggesting that the growth potential of coral reefs is higher than currently observed. PMID:26030287

  16. Aluminum is a potential environmental factor for Crohn's disease induction: extended hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Aaron

    2007-06-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a common environmental compound with immune-adjuvant activity and granulomatous inflammation inducer. Al exposure in food, additives, air, pharmaceuticals, and water pollution is ubiquitous in Western culture. Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals and is influenced by yet unidentified environmental factors. It is hypothesized, in the present review, that Al is a potential factor for induction or maintaining the inflammation in CD. Epidemiologically, CD incidence is higher in urban areas, where microparticle pollution is prevalent. Al immune activities share many characteristics with the immune pathology of CD: increased antigen presentation and APCs activation, many luminal bacterial or dietary compounds can be adsorbed to the metal and induce Th1 profile activity, promotion of humoral and cellular immune responses, proinflammatory, apoptotic, oxidative activity, and stress-related molecule expression enhancement, affecting intestinal bacterial composition and virulence, granuloma formation, colitis induction in an animal model of CD, and terminal ileum uptake. The Al-bacterial interaction, the microparticles homing the intestine together with the extensive immune activity, put Al as a potential environmental candidate for CD induction and maintenance. PMID:17804561

  17. Forecasting potential global environmental costs of livestock production 2000-2050.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Nathan; Tyedmers, Peter

    2010-10-26

    Food systems--in particular, livestock production--are key drivers of environmental change. Here, we compare the contributions of the global livestock sector in 2000 with estimated contributions of this sector in 2050 to three important environmental concerns: climate change, reactive nitrogen mobilization, and appropriation of plant biomass at planetary scales. Because environmental sustainability ultimately requires that human activities as a whole respect critical thresholds in each of these domains, we quantify the extent to which current and future livestock production contributes to published estimates of sustainability thresholds at projected production levels and under several alternative endpoint scenarios intended to illustrate the potential range of impacts associated with dietary choice. We suggest that, by 2050, the livestock sector alone may either occupy the majority of, or significantly overshoot, recently published estimates of humanity's "safe operating space" in each of these domains. In light of the magnitude of estimated impacts relative to these proposed (albeit uncertain) sustainability boundary conditions, we suggest that reining in growth of this sector should be prioritized in environmental governance.

  18. Leveraging a large scale mammalian pharmacological dataset to prioritize potential environmental hazard of pharmaceuticals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential for pharmaceuticals in the environment to cause adverse ecological effects is of increasing concern. Given the thousands of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) which can enter the aquatic environment through various means, a current challenge in aquatic toxicol...

  19. Prioritization of pharmaceuticals for potential environmental hazard through leveraging a large scale mammalian pharmacological dataset

    EPA Science Inventory

    To proceed in the investigation of potential effects of thousands of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) which may enter the aquatic environment, a cohesive research strategy, specifically a prioritization is paramount. API are biologically active, with specific physiologica...

  20. Community and environmental health effects of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, Steven R

    2002-10-01

    High-density concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become an increasing source of concern with respect to their impact on health, the environment, and quality of life in the communities in which they are located. A growing body of literature has identified a number of potential adverse effects, including the development of antimicrobial resistance patterns, groundwater contamination, and occupational respiratory disease. The odor associated with CAFOs has had a detrimental effect on the quality of life of rural residents, and there may also be associated adverse health effects. Physicians in rural areas may be asked to assess patients with concerns related to neighboring CAFOs and may be drawn into a political battle regarding the authorization of the development of additional CAFOs. This article reviews current research on the community, environmental, and occupational health effects associated with high-density animal production facilities. It also discusses recommendations for evaluating patients affected by CAFO odors and steps to decrease occupational and community exposure. PMID:12416314

  1. The environmental and economic sustainability of potential bioethanol from willow in the UK.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, A L; Dupree, P; Scott, S A; Dennis, J S

    2010-12-01

    Life cycle assessment has been used to investigate the environmental and economic sustainability of a potential operation in the UK in which bioethanol is produced from the hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation of coppice willow. If the willow were grown on idle arable land in the UK, or, indeed, in Eastern Europe and imported as wood chips into the UK, it was found that savings of greenhouse gas emissions of 70-90%, when compared to fossil-derived gasoline on an energy basis, would be possible. The process would be energetically self-sufficient, as the co-products, e.g. lignin and unfermented sugars, could be used to produce the process heat and electricity, with surplus electricity being exported to the National Grid. Despite the environmental benefits, the economic viability is doubtful at present. However, the cost of production could be reduced significantly if the willow were altered by breeding to improve its suitability for hydrolysis and fermentation. PMID:20727740

  2. Wind energy potential in the United States considering environmental and land-use exclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, D. L.; Wendell, L. L.; Gower, G. L.

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Strategy, estimates of the land area with various levels of wind energy resource have been developed for each state in the contiguous United States. The estimates are based on published wind resource data and account for the exclusion of some land owing to environmental or land-use considerations. These exclusions assume that 100 percent of the environmentally protected land and various percentages of land designated as urban, agricultural or range would be unavailable for wind energy development. Despite these exclusions, the amount of wind resource thus estimated is surprisingly large. For example, estimates of available wind resource and resultant wind electric potential from advanced turbine technology show that a group of 12 states in the midsection of the country could produce more than three times the nation's 1987 electric energy consumption.

  3. Evaluating the mobility potential of antibiotic resistance genes in environmental resistomes without metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Pärnänen, Katariina; Karkman, Antti; Tamminen, Manu; Lyra, Christina; Hultman, Jenni; Paulin, Lars; Virta, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes are ubiquitous in the environment. However, only a fraction of them are mobile and able to spread to pathogenic bacteria. Until now, studying the mobility of antibiotic resistance genes in environmental resistomes has been challenging due to inadequate sensitivity and difficulties in contig assembly of metagenome based methods. We developed a new cost and labor efficient method based on Inverse PCR and long read sequencing for studying mobility potential of environmental resistance genes. We applied Inverse PCR on sediment samples and identified 79 different MGE clusters associated with the studied resistance genes, including novel mobile genetic elements, co-selected resistance genes and a new putative antibiotic resistance gene. The results show that the method can be used in antibiotic resistance early warning systems. In comparison to metagenomics, Inverse PCR was markedly more sensitive and provided more data on resistance gene mobility and co-selected resistances. PMID:27767072

  4. Potential Health Impact of Environmentally Released Micro- and Nanoplastics in the Human Food Production Chain: Experiences from Nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Bouwmeester, Hans; Hollman, Peter C H; Peters, Ruud J B

    2015-08-01

    High concentrations of plastic debris have been observed in the oceans. Much of the recent concern has focused on microplastics in the marine environment. Recent studies of the size distribution of the plastic debris suggested that continued fragmenting of microplastics into nanosized particles may occur. In this review we assess the current literature on the occurrence of environmentally released micro- and nanoplastics in the human food production chain and their potential health impact. The currently used analytical techniques introduce a great bias in the knowledge, since they are only able to detect plastic particles well above the nanorange. We discuss the potential use of the very sensitive analytical techniques that have been developed for the detection and quantification of engineered nanoparticles. We recognize three possible toxic effects of plastic particles: first due to the plastic particles themselves, second to the release of persistent organic pollutant adsorbed to the plastics, and third to the leaching of additives of the plastics. The limited data on microplastics in foods do not predict adverse effect of these pollutants or additives. Potential toxic effects of microplastic particles will be confined to the gut. The potential human toxicity of nanoplastics is poorly studied. Based on our experiences in nanotoxicology we prioritized future research questions.

  5. Environmental Effects on Public Health: An Economic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Remoundou, Kyriaki; Koundouri, Phoebe

    2009-01-01

    In this article we critically review the economic literature on the effects of environmental changes on public health, in both the developed and the developing world. We first focus on the economic methodologies that are available for the evaluation of the effects (social costs and benefits) of environmental changes (degradation/preservation) on public health. Then, we explain how the monetary valuations of these effects can feed back in the construction of economic policy for creating agent-specific incentives for more efficient public health management, which is also equitable and environmentally sustainable. Our exposition is accompanied by a synthesis of the available quantitative empirical results. PMID:19742153

  6. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS ON FETAL TESTES TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Environmental Chemicals on Fetal Testes Testosterone Production

    Lambright, CS , Wilson, VS , Furr, J, Wolf, CJ, Noriega, N, Gray, LE, Jr.
    US EPA, ORD/NHEERL/RTD, RTP, NC

    Exposure of pregnant rodents to certain environmental chemicals during criti...

  7. Degradation of Methyl Iodide in Soil: Effects of Environmental Factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl iodide (MeI) is a promising alternative to the phased-out fumigant methyl bromide, and its environmental fate following soil fumigation is of great concern. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various environmental factors on the degradation rate of MeI in soil. The chem...

  8. DEGRADATION OF METHYL IODIDE IN SOIL: EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl iodide (MeI) is a promising alternative to the phased-out fumigant methyl bromide; however, there are concerns about its environmental fate following soil fumigation. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various environmental factors on the degradation rate of ...

  9. Identifying potential environmental impacts of waste handling strategies in textile industry.

    PubMed

    Yacout, Dalia M M; Hassouna, M S

    2016-08-01

    Waste management is a successful instrument to minimize generated waste and improve environmental conditions. In spite of the large share of developing countries in the textile industry, limited information is available concerning the waste management strategies implemented for textiles on those countries and their environmental impacts. In the current study, two waste management approaches for hazardous solid waste treatment of acrylic fibers (landfill and incineration) were investigated. The main research questions were: What are the different impacts of each waste management strategy? Which waste management strategy is more ecofriendly? Life cycle assessment was employed in order to model the environmental impacts of each waste streaming approach separately then compare them together. Results revealed that incineration was the more ecofriendly approach. Highest impacts of both approaches were on ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials due to release of metals from pigment wastes. Landfill had an impact of 46.8 % on human health as compared to 28 % by incineration. Incineration impact on ecosystem quality was higher than landfill impact (68.4 and 51.3 %, respectively). As for resources category, incineration had a higher impact than landfill (3.5 and 2.0 %, respectively). Those impacts could be mitigated if state-of-the-art landfill or incinerator were used and could be reduced by applying waste to energy approaches for both management systems In conclusion, shifting waste treatment from landfill to incineration would decrease the overall environmental impacts and allow energy recovery. The potential of waste to energy approach by incineration with heat recovery could be considered in further studies. Future research is needed in order to assess the implementation of waste management systems and the preferable waste management strategies in the textile industry on developing countries. PMID:27372905

  10. Identifying potential environmental impacts of waste handling strategies in textile industry.

    PubMed

    Yacout, Dalia M M; Hassouna, M S

    2016-08-01

    Waste management is a successful instrument to minimize generated waste and improve environmental conditions. In spite of the large share of developing countries in the textile industry, limited information is available concerning the waste management strategies implemented for textiles on those countries and their environmental impacts. In the current study, two waste management approaches for hazardous solid waste treatment of acrylic fibers (landfill and incineration) were investigated. The main research questions were: What are the different impacts of each waste management strategy? Which waste management strategy is more ecofriendly? Life cycle assessment was employed in order to model the environmental impacts of each waste streaming approach separately then compare them together. Results revealed that incineration was the more ecofriendly approach. Highest impacts of both approaches were on ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials due to release of metals from pigment wastes. Landfill had an impact of 46.8 % on human health as compared to 28 % by incineration. Incineration impact on ecosystem quality was higher than landfill impact (68.4 and 51.3 %, respectively). As for resources category, incineration had a higher impact than landfill (3.5 and 2.0 %, respectively). Those impacts could be mitigated if state-of-the-art landfill or incinerator were used and could be reduced by applying waste to energy approaches for both management systems In conclusion, shifting waste treatment from landfill to incineration would decrease the overall environmental impacts and allow energy recovery. The potential of waste to energy approach by incineration with heat recovery could be considered in further studies. Future research is needed in order to assess the implementation of waste management systems and the preferable waste management strategies in the textile industry on developing countries.

  11. Molecular epidemiology in environmental health: the potential of tumor suppressor gene p53 as a biomarker.

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, J C; Weasel, L H

    1997-01-01

    One of the challenges in environmental health is to attribute a certain health effect to a specific environmental exposure and to establish a cause-effect relationship. Molecular epidemiology offers a new approach to addressing these challenges. Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene p53 can shed light on past environmental exposure, and carcinogenic agents and doses can be distinguished on the basis of mutational spectra and frequency. Mutations in p53 have successfully been used to establish links between dietary aflatoxin exposure and liver cancer, exposure to ultraviolet light and skin cancer, smoking and cancers of the lung and bladder, and vinyl chloride exposure and liver cancer. In lung cancer, carcinogens from tobacco smoke have been shown to form adducts with DNA. The location of these adducts correlates with those positions in the p53 gene that are mutated in lung cancer, confirming a direct etiologic link between exposure and disease. Recent investigations have also explored the use of p53 as a susceptibility marker for cancer. Furthermore, studies in genetic toxicology have taken advantage of animals transgenic for p53 to screen for carcinogens in vivo. In this review, we summarize recent developments in p53 biomarker research and illustrate applications to environmental health. PMID:9114284

  12. Environmental Dynamics and the Habitability Potential at Gale Crater, Mars (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Atreya, S. K.; Blake, D.; Coll, P. J.; de la Torre Juarez, M.; Edgett, K. S.; Fairen, A.; Fisk, M. R.; Franz, H.; Glavin, D. P.; Gómez, F. G.; Haberle, R. M.; Hamilton, V. E.; Leshin, L. A.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Martinez-Frias, J.; McAdam, A.; McKay, C. P.; Ming, D. W.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Pavlov, A.; Steele, A.; Stern, J. C.; Zorzano, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The assessment of environmental habitability potential involves measurement of the chemical and physical attributes of the system as well as their dynamic interplay. The environmental dynamics describe the availability of both energy sources and raw materials for meeting the requirements of organisms and for altering the environment. Energetic exchange can also determine the preservation potential for organic materials in the rock record. During its first year at Gale Crater, the Mars Science Laboratory payload has directly measured the chemistry and physical attributes, e.g., temperature, humidity, radiation, pressure, etc. of the martian atmosphere. Curiosity has also acquired chemical and mineralogical data, both from a wind drift deposit of fines and from two examples of a sedimentary rock formation in a region of Gale Crater called Yellowknife Bay, some 445 meters to the east of Bradbury Landing, where Curiosity initially touched down. These data enabled inferences to be made regarding depositional environment and past habitability potential at Gale Crater. The rock chemistry data reveal signs of aqueous interaction i.e., H2O, OH and H2 and sufficient elemental basis (C, H, O, S and possibly N) for plausible nutrient supply, should Mars have ever had autotrophic prokaryotes to exploit it, and a range of redox conditions tolerable to Earth microbes is indicated by the presence of clay minerals. Curiosity's observations of the chemical, physical and geologic features of Yellowknife Bay point to a formerly habitable environment.

  13. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens; Laerhoven, Frank van; Driessen, Peter; Arts, Jos

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less consensual

  14. Engine environmental effects on composite behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1980-01-01

    A series of programs were conducted to investigate and develop the application of composite materials to turbojet engines. A significant part of that effort was directed to establishing the impact resistance and defect growth chracteristics of composite materials over the wide range of environmental conditions found in commercial turbojet engine operations. Both analytical and empirical efforts were involved. The experimental programs and the analytical methodology development as well as an evaluation program for the use of composite materials as fan exit guide vanes are summarized.

  15. Environmental effects on composites for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of the operational environment on the behavior of composite materials and aircraft components fabricated with these composite materials was considered. Structural weight savings, manufacturing cost savings, and long-term environmental durability are among the factors examined. The flight service experience to date of composite components is evaluated. In addition, the influence of a number of worldwide, ground based outdoor exposures on the physical and mechanical properties of six composite materials is discussed. In particular, the current extent of the ultraviolet surface degradation and the moisture gained by diffusion is shown.

  16. Environmental effects of information and communications technologies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eric

    2011-11-16

    The digital revolution affects the environment on several levels. Most directly, information and communications technology (ICT) has environmental impacts through the manufacturing, operation and disposal of devices and network equipment, but it also provides ways to mitigate energy use, for example through smart buildings and teleworking. At a broader system level, ICTs influence economic growth and bring about technological and societal change. Managing the direct impacts of ICTs is more complex than just producing efficient devices, owing to the energetically expensive manufacturing process, and the increasing proliferation of devices needs to be taken into account.

  17. Potential environmental impacts of light-emitting diodes (LEDs): metallic resources, toxicity, and hazardous waste classification.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are advertised as environmentally friendly because they are energy efficient and mercury-free. This study aimed to determine if LEDs engender other forms of environmental and human health impacts, and to characterize variation across different LEDs based on color and intensity. The objectives are as follows: (i) to use standardized leachability tests to examine whether LEDs are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing United States federal and California state regulations; and (ii) to use material life cycle impact and hazard assessment methods to evaluate resource depletion and toxicity potentials of LEDs based on their metallic constituents. According to federal standards, LEDs are not hazardous except for low-intensity red LEDs, which leached Pb at levels exceeding regulatory limits (186 mg/L; regulatory limit: 5). However, according to California regulations, excessive levels of copper (up to 3892 mg/kg; limit: 2500), Pb (up to 8103 mg/kg; limit: 1000), nickel (up to 4797 mg/kg; limit: 2000), or silver (up to 721 mg/kg; limit: 500) render all except low-intensity yellow LEDs hazardous. The environmental burden associated with resource depletion potentials derives primarily from gold and silver, whereas the burden from toxicity potentials is associated primarily with arsenic, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and silver. Establishing benchmark levels of these substances can help manufacturers implement design for environment through informed materials substitution, can motivate recyclers and waste management teams to recognize resource value and occupational hazards, and can inform policymakers who establish waste management policies for LEDs. PMID:21138290

  18. Benzotriazoles: History, Environmental Distribution, and Potential Ecological Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benzotriazoles are a class of organic compound that have been used as metal anticorrosive and ultraviolet stabilizer additives in a wide range of commercial and industrial applications. These chemicals have been in commercial production and use since the late 1950s with many com...

  19. Residential energy use in Mexico: Structure, evolution, environmental impacts, and savings potential

    SciTech Connect

    Masera, O.; Friedmann, R.; deBuen, O.

    1993-05-01

    This article examines the characteristics of residential energy use in Mexico, its environmental impacts, and the savings potential of the major end-uses. The main options and barriers to increase the efficiency of energy use are discussed. The energy analysis is based on a disaggregation of residential energy use by end-uses. The dynamics of the evolution of the residential energy sector during the past 20 years are also addressed when the information is available. Major areas for research and for innovative decision-making are identified and prioritized.

  20. Natural vs. Anthropogenic Contribution to Atmospheric Dust at Rural Site: Potential of Environmental Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovsky, E.; Kapicka, A.; Grison, H.; Kotlik, B.; Zboril, R.; Korbelova, Z.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic properties of environmental samples are very sensitive in detecting strongly magnetic compounds such as magnetite and maghemite and can help in assessing concentration and grain-size distribution of these minerals. This information can be helpful in estimating, e.g., the source of pollutants, monitoring pollution load, or investigating seasonal and climatic effects. We studied magnetic properties of particulate matter ( PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and TSP - total suspended particles), collected over 32-48 hours in a small settlement in south Bohemia during heating and non-heating season. The site is rather remote, with negligible traffic and industrial contributions to air pollution. Thus, the suggested seasonal effect should be dominantly due to local (domestic) heating, burning wood or coal. Our results show typical differences in PMx concentration, which is much higher in the winter (heating) sample, accompanied by SEM analyses and magnetic data oriented on concentration and grain-size distribution of magnetite/maghemite particles. While PM concentrations are significantly higher in winter, differeces between concentration of Fe-oxides in summer and winter are not that significant. In both summer and winter, more FeO was in coarser PM10 than in the finer fractions. This is in good agreement with SEM observations. Grain-size sensitive parameters are different for summer and winter PMx samples, suggesting different source of PMx. It seems that domestic heating does not produce significant amount of FeO oxides in this site, its contribution during heating season compensates for the decay from natural sources (and/or agriculture) during summer. Our results prove the high sensitivity of magnetic methods in terms of concentration of ferrimagnetic Fe-oxides. However, their potential to discriminate unambiguously their origin is still questioned. This study is supported by the Czech Science Foundation through grant #P210/10/0554.; Fig. 1. Relative enhancement (determined

  1. A multi-scale spatial approach to address environmental effects of small hydropower development.

    PubMed

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine C

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  2. Hydrologic modeling to screen potential environmental management methods for malaria vector control in Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Rebecca L.; Bomblies, Arne; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes the first use of Hydrology-Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a physically based distributed hydrology model, to investigate environmental management methods for malaria vector control in the Sahelian village of Banizoumbou, Niger. The investigation showed that leveling of topographic depressions where temporary breeding habitats form during the rainy season, by altering pool basin microtopography, could reduce the pool persistence time to less than the time needed for establishment of mosquito breeding, approximately 7 days. Undertaking soil surface plowing can also reduce pool persistence time by increasing the infiltration rate through an existing pool basin. Reduction of the pool persistence time to less than the rainfall interstorm period increases the frequency of pool drying events, removing habitat for subadult mosquitoes. Both management approaches could potentially be considered within a given context. This investigation demonstrates that management methods that modify the hydrologic environment have significant potential to contribute to malaria vector control in water-limited, Sahelian Africa.

  3. Environmental fate and effects of nicotine released during cigarette production.

    PubMed

    Seckar, Joel A; Stavanja, Mari S; Harp, Paul R; Yi, Yongsheng; Garner, Charles D; Doi, Jon

    2008-07-01

    A variety of test methods were used to study the gradation, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of nicotine. Studies included determination of the octanol-water partition coefficient, conversion to CO2 in soil and activated sludge, and evaluation of the effects on microbiological and algal inhibition as well as plant germination and root elongation. The partitioning of nicotine between octanol and water indicated that nicotine will not bioaccumulate regardless of the pH of the medium. The aqueous and soil-based biodegradation studies indicated that nicotine is readily biodegradable in both types of media. The microbiological inhibition and aquatic and terrestrial toxicity tests indicated that nicotine has low toxicity. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Toxicity Profiler model, based on the structure of nicotine and the predictive rates of hydroxyl radical and ozone reactions, estimated an atmospheric half-life of less than 5.0 h. Using this value in the Canadian Environmental Modeling Center level III model, the half-life of nicotine was estimated as 3.0 d in water and 0.5 d in soil. This model also estimated nicotine discharge into the environment; nicotine would be expected to be found predominantly in water (93%), followed by soil (4%), air (3%), and sediment (0.4%). Using the estimated nicotine concentrations in water, soil, and sediment and the proper median effective concentrations derived from the algal growth, biomass inhibition, and buttercrunch lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination and root elongation studies, hazard quotients of between 10(-7) and 10(-8) were calculated, providing further support for the conclusion that the potential for nicotine toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial species in the environment is extremely low.

  4. Environmental fate and effects of nicotine released during cigarette production.

    PubMed

    Seckar, Joel A; Stavanja, Mari S; Harp, Paul R; Yi, Yongsheng; Garner, Charles D; Doi, Jon

    2008-07-01

    A variety of test methods were used to study the gradation, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of nicotine. Studies included determination of the octanol-water partition coefficient, conversion to CO2 in soil and activated sludge, and evaluation of the effects on microbiological and algal inhibition as well as plant germination and root elongation. The partitioning of nicotine between octanol and water indicated that nicotine will not bioaccumulate regardless of the pH of the medium. The aqueous and soil-based biodegradation studies indicated that nicotine is readily biodegradable in both types of media. The microbiological inhibition and aquatic and terrestrial toxicity tests indicated that nicotine has low toxicity. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Toxicity Profiler model, based on the structure of nicotine and the predictive rates of hydroxyl radical and ozone reactions, estimated an atmospheric half-life of less than 5.0 h. Using this value in the Canadian Environmental Modeling Center level III model, the half-life of nicotine was estimated as 3.0 d in water and 0.5 d in soil. This model also estimated nicotine discharge into the environment; nicotine would be expected to be found predominantly in water (93%), followed by soil (4%), air (3%), and sediment (0.4%). Using the estimated nicotine concentrations in water, soil, and sediment and the proper median effective concentrations derived from the algal growth, biomass inhibition, and buttercrunch lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination and root elongation studies, hazard quotients of between 10(-7) and 10(-8) were calculated, providing further support for the conclusion that the potential for nicotine toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial species in the environment is extremely low. PMID:18399728

  5. Potential environmental and human health impacts of rechargeable lithium batteries in electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2013-05-21

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163,544 mg/kg; σ = 62,897; limit 8000), copper (average 98,694 mg/kg; σ = 28,734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11,438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  6. Potential environmental and human health impacts of rechargeable lithium batteries in electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2013-05-21

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163,544 mg/kg; σ = 62,897; limit 8000), copper (average 98,694 mg/kg; σ = 28,734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11,438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  7. Evaluating Environmental Knowledge Dimension Convergence to Assess Educational Programme Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liefländer, Anne K.; Bogner, Franz X.; Kibbe, Alexandra; Kaiser, Florian G.

    2015-03-01

    One aim of environmental education is fostering sustainable environmental action. Some environmental behaviour models suggest that this can be accomplished in part by improving people's knowledge. Recent studies have identified a distinct, psychometrically supported environmental knowledge structure consisting of system, action-related and effectiveness knowledge. Besides system knowledge, which is most often the focus of such studies, incorporating the other knowledge dimensions into these dimensions was suggested to enhance effectiveness. Our study is among the first to implement these dimensions together in an educational campaign and to use these dimensions to evaluate the effectiveness of a programme on water issues. We designed a four-day environmental education programme on water issues for students at an educational field centre. We applied a newly developed multiple-choice instrument using a pre-, post-, retention test design. The knowledge scales were calibrated with the Rasch model. In addition to the commonly assessed individual change in knowledge level, we also measured the change in knowledge convergence, the extent to which the knowledge dimensions merge as a person's environmental knowledge increases, as an innovative indicator of educational success. Following programme participation, students significantly improved in terms of amount learned in each knowledge dimension and in terms of integration of the knowledge dimensions. The effectiveness knowledge shows the least gain, persistence and convergence, which we explain by considering the dependence of the knowledge dimensions on each other. Finally, we discuss emerging challenges for educational researchers and practical implications for environmental educators.

  8. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  9. A review of carbon nanotube toxicity and assessment of potential occupational and environmental health risks.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T; McCluskey, Richard; Arepalli, Sivaram; Hunter, Robert L

    2006-03-01

    was shown to produce minimal lung responses. The differences in opinions of the investigators about the potential hazards of exposures to CNTs are discussed here. Presented here are also the possible mechanisms of CNT pathogenesis in the lung and the impact of residual metals and other impurities on the toxicological manifestations. The toxicological hazard assessment of potential human exposures to airborne CNTs and occupational exposure limits for these novel compounds are discussed in detail. Environmental fine PM is known to form mainly from combustion of fuels, and has been reported to be a major contributor to the induction of cardiopulmonary diseases by pollutants. Given that manufactured SWCNTs and MWCNTs were found to elicit pathological changes in the lungs, and SWCNTs (administered to the lungs of mice) were further shown to produce respiratory function impairments, retard bacterial clearance after bacterial inoculation, damage the mitochondrial DNA in aorta, increase the percent of aortic plaque, and induce atherosclerotic lesions in the brachiocephalic artery of the heart, it is speculated that exposure to combustion-generated MWCNTs in fine PM may play a significant role in air pollution-related cardiopulmonary diseases. Therefore, CNTs from manufactured and combustion sources in the environment could have adverse effects on human health.

  10. A review of carbon nanotube toxicity and assessment of potential occupational and environmental health risks.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T; McCluskey, Richard; Arepalli, Sivaram; Hunter, Robert L

    2006-03-01

    was shown to produce minimal lung responses. The differences in opinions of the investigators about the potential hazards of exposures to CNTs are discussed here. Presented here are also the possible mechanisms of CNT pathogenesis in the lung and the impact of residual metals and other impurities on the toxicological manifestations. The toxicological hazard assessment of potential human exposures to airborne CNTs and occupational exposure limits for these novel compounds are discussed in detail. Environmental fine PM is known to form mainly from combustion of fuels, and has been reported to be a major contributor to the induction of cardiopulmonary diseases by pollutants. Given that manufactured SWCNTs and MWCNTs were found to elicit pathological changes in the lungs, and SWCNTs (administered to the lungs of mice) were further shown to produce respiratory function impairments, retard bacterial clearance after bacterial inoculation, damage the mitochondrial DNA in aorta, increase the percent of aortic plaque, and induce atherosclerotic lesions in the brachiocephalic artery of the heart, it is speculated that exposure to combustion-generated MWCNTs in fine PM may play a significant role in air pollution-related cardiopulmonary diseases. Therefore, CNTs from manufactured and combustion sources in the environment could have adverse effects on human health. PMID:16686422

  11. Effects of electron emission on sheath potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, Ansel; Khrabrov, Alexander; Kaganovich, Igor; Schamis, Hanna

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the potential profile of a sheath under the influence of surface electron emission. The plasma and sheath profiles are simulated using the Large Scale Plasma (LSP) particle-in-cell code. Using one dimensional models we corroborate the analytical relationship between sheath potential and plasma electron and emitted electron temperatures derived earlier. This work was made possible by funding from the Department of Energy for the Summer Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  12. Environmental assessment of anaerobically digested sludge reuse in agriculture: potential impacts of emerging micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Hospido, Almudena; Carballa, Marta; Moreira, Maite; Omil, Francisco; Lema, Juan M; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2010-05-01

    Agricultural application of sewage sludge has been emotionally discussed in the last decades, because the latter contains organic micropollutants with unknown fate and risk potential. In this work, the reuse of anaerobically digested sludge in agriculture is evaluated from an environmental point of view by using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. More specifically, the potential impacts of emerging micropollutants, such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, present in the sludge have been quantified. Four scenarios were considered according to the temperature of the anaerobic digestion (mesophilic or thermophilic) and the sludge retention time (20 or 10d), and they have been compared with the non-treated sludge. From an environmental point of view, the disposal of undigested sludge is not the most suitable alternative, except for global warming due to the dominance (65-85%) of the indirect emissions associated to the electricity use. Nutrient-related direct emissions dominate the eutrophication category impact in all the scenarios (>71.4%), although a beneficial impact related to the avoidance of industrial fertilisers production is also quantified (up to 6.7%). In terms of human and terrestrial toxicity, the direct emissions of heavy metals to soil dominate these two impact categories (>70%), and the contribution of other micropollutants is minimal. Moreover, only six (Galaxolide, Tonalide, Diazepam, Ibuprofen, Sulfamethoxazole and 17alpha-ethinyloestradiol) out of the 13 substances considered are really significant since they account for more than 95% of the overall micropollutants impact.

  13. Modeling In-stream Tidal Energy Extraction and Its Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea; Geerlofs, Simon H.

    2014-09-30

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in harnessing in-stream tidal energy in response to concerns of increasing energy demand and to mitigate climate change impacts. While many studies have been conducted to assess and map tidal energy resources, efforts for quantifying the associated potential environmental impacts have been limited. This paper presents the development of a tidal turbine module within a three-dimensional unstructured-grid coastal ocean model and its application for assessing the potential environmental impacts associated with tidal energy extraction. The model is used to investigate in-stream tidal energy extraction and associated impacts on estuarine hydrodynamic and biological processes in a tidally dominant estuary. A series of numerical experiments with varying numbers and configurations of turbines installed in an idealized estuary were carried out to assess the changes in the hydrodynamics and biological processes due to tidal energy extraction. Model results indicated that a large number of turbines are required to extract the maximum tidal energy and cause significant reduction of the volume flux. Preliminary model results also indicate that extraction of tidal energy increases vertical mixing and decreases flushing rate in a stratified estuary. The tidal turbine model was applied to simulate tidal energy extraction in Puget Sound, a large fjord-like estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast.

  14. Early evaluation of potential environmental impacts of carbon nanotube synthesis by chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Plata, Desirée L; Hart, A John; Reddy, Christopher M; Gschwend, Philip M

    2009-11-01

    The carbon nanotube (CNT) industry is expanding rapidly, yet little is known about the potential environmental impacts of CNT manufacture. Here, we evaluate the effluent composition of a representative multiwalled CNT synthesis by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in order to provide data needed to design strategies for mitigating any unacceptable emissions. During thermal pretreatment of the reactant gases (ethene and H(2)), we found over 45 side-products were formed, including methane, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This finding suggests several environmental concerns with the existing process, including potential discharges of the potent greenhouse gas, methane (up to 1.7%), and toxic compounds such as benzene and 1,3-butadiene (up to 36000 ppmv). Extrapolating these laboratory-scale data to future industrial CNT production, we estimate that (1) contributions of atmospheric methane will be negligible compared to other existing sources and (2) VOC and PAH emissions may become important on local scales but will be small when compared to national industrial sources. As a first step toward reducing such unwanted emissions, we used continuous in situ measures of CNT length during growth and sought to identify which thermally generated compounds correlated with CNT growth rate. The results suggested that, in future CNT production approaches, key reaction intermediates could be delivered to the catalyst without thermal treatment. This would eliminate the most energetically expensive component of CVD synthesis (heating reactant gases), while reducing the formation of unintended byproducts.

  15. Activation of vegetated parabolic dunes into mobile barchans under potential environmental change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Na; Baas, Andreas C. W.

    2016-04-01

    Parabolic dunes are a quintessential example of the co-evolution of soil, landform, and vegetation, and they are found around the world, on coasts, river valleys, lake shores, and margins of deserts and steppes. These areas are often sensitive to changes in natural and anthropogenic forcings and socio-economic activities. Some studies have indicated parabolic dunes can lose vegetation and transform into barchan and transverse dunes by environmental change such as decreased precipitation or lowered water table, as well as anthropogenic stress such as increased burning and grazing. These transformations and shifts between states of eco-geomorphic systems may have significant implications on land management and social-economic development. This study utilises the Extended-DECAL - parameterised by field measurements of dune topography and vegetation characteristics combined with remote sensing - to explore how increases in drought stress, wind strength, and grazing stress may lead to the activation of stabilised parabolic dunes into highly mobile barchans. The modelling results show that the mobility of an initial parabolic dune at the outset of perturbations determines to a large extent the capacity of a system to absorb the environmental change, and a slight increase in vegetation cover of an initial parabolic dune can increase the activation threshold significantly. Plants with a higher deposition tolerance increase the activation threshold for the climatic impact and sand transport rate, whereas the erosion tolerance of plants influences the patterns of resulting barchans. The change in the characteristics of eco-geomorphic interaction zones may indirectly reflect the dune stability and predict an ongoing transformation, whilst the activation angle may be potentially used as a proxy of environmental stresses. In contrast to the natural environmental changes which tend to affect relatively weak and young plants, grazing stress can exert a broader impact on all

  16. Environmental Exposure Effects on Composite Materials for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The test program concentrates on three major areas: flight exposure; ground based exposure; and accelerated environmental effects and data correlation. Among the parameters investigated were: geographic location, flight profiles, solar heating effects, ultraviolet degradation, retrieval times, and test temperatures. Data from the tests can be used to effectively plan the cost of production and viable alternatives in materials selection.

  17. The potential influence of environmental pollution on amphibian development and decline

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Globally, amphibians are reportedly declining. Environmental pollution has been hypothesized to be associated with declines. Because of their aquatic development and permeable eggs, skin and gills, amphibians, like fishes, may be particularly susceptible to poor water quality or waterborne pollutants. This dissertation addresses effects of global pollutants such as pesticides, acid rain and associated metal toxicity, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the development, behavior, and physiology of amphibian early life stages. This report contains only chapter six and conclusions. Chapter 6 reports on a field experiment in which green frogs from two clutches were exposed from egg to 107 days of age to water and sediments in enclosures along a PCB and metal contamination gradient in the Fox River and wetlands near Green Bay, Wisconsin. Green frogs showed lower hatching success and survival at sites with higher contaminant levels compared to cleaner wetland sites along Green Bay. Hatching success in the green frog was most significantly negatively correlated with sediment PCB levels. It can be concluded that environmental pollution and toxicants in aquatic environments can cause problems for amphibian early development. Sometimes the effects are subtle, and sometimes they are dramatic. In general, amphibian early life stages seem particularly sensitive to environmentally-realistic levels of low pH and metals, but appear more tolerant of TCDD and PCBs.

  18. Environmental effects on polymeric matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, J. M.; Husman, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Current epoxy resins utilized in high performance structural composites absorb moisture from high humidity environments. Such moisture absorption causes plasticization of the resin to occur with concurrent swelling and lowering of the glass transition temperature. Similar effects are observed in composites. Data are presented showing the effects of absorbed moisture on Hercules AS/3501-5 graphite/epoxy composites. Prediction of moisture content and distribution in composites, along with reduction in mechanical properties, are discussed.

  19. The Short Term Effectiveness of an Outdoor Environmental Education on Environmental Awareness and Sensitivity of In-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okur-Berberoglu, Emel; Ozdilek, Hasan Göksel; Yalcin-Ozdilek, Sükran

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education is mostly mentioned in terms of environmental education. The aim of this research is to determine the short term effectiveness of an outdoor environmental education program on biodiversity awareness, environmental awareness and sensitivity to natural environment. The data is collected from an outdoor environmental education…

  20. [Potentially beneficial effects of climate changes].

    PubMed

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens Erik Beck

    2009-10-26

    Climate changes have many unbeneficial effects on human health, but may also have beneficial effects. An increased mean temperature reduces the incidence of death due to hypothermia and cardiovascular disease and may increase exercise frequency. As the ozone layer decreases, the synthesis of vitamin D in the organism will also increase. An increased level of plasma vitamin D has beneficial effects on bone- and muscle health, seems to reduce cancer incidence and mortality and reduces the prevalence of autoimmune- and cardiovascular disease.

  1. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an economic and environmental study of short haul airline systems using short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft are presented. The STOL system characteristics were optimized for maximum patronage at a specified return on investment, while maintaining noise impact compatibility with the terminal area. Supporting studies of aircraft air pollution and hub airport congestion relief were also performed. The STOL concept specified for this study was an Augmentor Wing turbofan aircraft having a field length capability of 2,000 ft. and an effective perceived noise level of 95 EPNdB at 500 ft. sideline distance. An economic and environmental assessment of the defined STOL system and a summary of the methodology, STOL system characteristics and arena characteristics are provided.

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of vegetative environmental buffers in mitigating air pollutant emissions from poultry houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 560 million broilers are produced on the Delmarva Peninsula each year. However, emissions from poultry houses have come under intense scrutiny due to the potential human and environmental effects of the released particulate matter (PM), ammonia, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ammonia an...

  3. 76 FR 70429 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Notice of Potential Floodplain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... sector partners, the program advances clean coal technologies to commercialization. Congress established... established by Congress: commercialization of clean coal technologies that advance efficiency, environmental... lands. NRG is currently evaluating potential pipeline routes; and plans to use existing...

  4. A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brumbaugh, W. G.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Rastall, A.C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C. E.; Furlong, E.T.

    2004-01-01

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for final polishing of secondary-treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphate pesticides, and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

  5. Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Development. Fiscal Year 2012 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Hanna, Luke A.; Butner, R. Scott; Carlson, Thomas J.; Halvorsen, Michele B.; Duberstein, Corey A.; Matzner, Shari; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Blake, Kara M.; Stavole, Jessica

    2012-09-30

    Potential environmental effects of offshore wind (OSW) energy projects are not well understood, and regulatory agencies are required to make decisions in spite of substantial uncertainty about environmental impacts and their long-term consequences. An understanding of risks associated with interactions between OSW installations and aquatic receptors, including animals, habitats, and ecosystems, can help define key uncertainties and focus regulatory actions and scientific studies on interactions of most concern. To examine the environmental risks associated with OSW developments in the U.S. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) focused on the following four priority research areas in FY 2012: • Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES) - Followed project developments on the two OSW projects that PNNL screened in FY 2011 for environmental consequence: Fishermen’s Energy off the coast of Atlantic City, NJ and LEEDCo. near Cleveland, OH in Lake Erie. • Tethys - Developed a smart knowledge base which houses environmental research, data and information pertaining to OSW energy: • Technical Assessment - Produced a new software to create an automated process of identifying and differentiating between flying organism such as birds and bats by using thermal imagery; and • North Atlantic Right Whales - Developed an environmental risk management system to mitigate the impacts on North Atlantic Right Whales (NARW) during installation and piledriving stages of OSW developments. By identifying and addressing the highest priority environmental risks for OSW devices and associated installations the ERES process assists project proponents, regulators, and stakeholders to engage in the most efficient and effective siting and permitting pathways.

  6. 40 CFR 158.34 - Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects. 158.34 Section 158.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES General Provisions § 158.34 Flagging...

  7. 40 CFR 158.34 - Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects. 158.34 Section 158.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES General Provisions § 158.34 Flagging...

  8. 40 CFR 158.34 - Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects. 158.34 Section 158.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES General Provisions § 158.34 Flagging...

  9. The Contribution of Fetal Drug Exposure to Temperament: Potential Teratogenic Effects on Neuropsychiatric Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Sandra J.; St. Jonn-Seed, Mary; Harris-Muchell, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Background: Preliminary evidence indicates that fetal drug exposure may be associated with alterations in temperament. However, studies often do not dissociate the potential effects of drug exposure from other perinatal or environmental factors that could influence temperament phenotypes. Methods: High risk children (n = 120) were followed from…

  10. Potential retention effect at fish farms boosts zooplankton abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Jover, D.; Toledo-Guedes, K.; Valero-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquaculture activities influence wild macrofauna in natural environments due to the introduction of artificial structures, such as floating cages, that provide structural complexity in the pelagic system. This alters the abundance and distribution of the affected species and also their feeding behaviour and diet. Despite this, the effects of coastal aquaculture on zooplankton assemblages and the potential changes in their abundance and distribution remain largely unstudied. Traditional plankton sampling hauls between the farm mooring systems entail some practical difficulties. As an alternative, light traps were deployed at 2 farms in the SW Mediterranean during a whole warm season. Total zooplankton capture by traps at farms was higher than at control locations on every sampling night. It ranged from 3 to 10 times higher for the taxonomic groups: bivalvia, cladocera, cumacea, fish early-life-stages, gastropoda, polychaeta and tanaidacea; 10-20 times higher for amphipoda, chaetognatha, isopoda, mysidacea and ostracoda, and 22 times higher for copepoda and the crustacean juvenile stages zoea and megalopa. Permutational analysis showed significant differences for the most abundant zooplankton groups (copepoda, crustacean larvae, chaetognatha, cladocera, mysidacea and polychaeta). This marked incremental increase in zooplankton taxa at farms was consistent, irrespective of the changing environmental variables registered every night. Reasons for the greater abundance of zooplankton at farms are discussed, although results suggest a retention effect caused by cage structures rather than active attraction through physical or chemical cues.

  11. Full potential unsteady computations including aeroelastic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, Vijaya; Ide, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    A unified formulation is presented based on the full potential framework coupled with an appropriate structural model to compute steady and unsteady flows over rigid and flexible configurations across the Mach number range. The unsteady form of the full potential equation in conservation form is solved using an implicit scheme maintaining time accuracy through internal Newton iterations. A flux biasing procedure based on the unsteady sonic reference conditions is implemented to compute hyperbolic regions with moving sonic and shock surfaces. The wake behind a trailing edge is modeled using a mathematical cut across which the pressure is satisfied to be continuous by solving an appropriate vorticity convection equation. An aeroelastic model based on the generalized modal deflection approach interacts with the nonlinear aerodynamics and includes both static as well as dynamic structural analyses capability. Results are presented for rigid and flexible configurations at different Mach numbers ranging from subsonic to supersonic conditions. The dynamic response of a flexible wing below and above its flutter point is demonstrated.

  12. The exposome concept: a challenge and a potential driver for environmental health research.

    PubMed

    Siroux, Valérie; Agier, Lydiane; Slama, Rémy

    2016-06-01

    The exposome concept was defined in 2005 as encompassing all environmental exposures from conception onwards, as a new strategy to evidence environmental disease risk factors. Although very appealing, the exposome concept is challenging in many respects. In terms of assessment, several hundreds of time-varying exposures need to be considered, but increasing the number of exposures assessed should not be done at the cost of increased exposure misclassification. Accurately assessing the exposome currently requires numerous measurements, which rely on different technologies; resulting in an expensive set of protocols. In the future, high-throughput 'omics technologies may be a promising technique to integrate a wide range of exposures from a small numbers of biological matrices. Assessing the association between many exposures and health raises statistical challenges. Due to the correlation structure of the exposome, existing statistical methods cannot fully and efficiently untangle the exposures truly affecting the health outcome from correlated exposures. Other statistical challenges relate to accounting for exposure misclassification or identifying synergistic effects between exposures. On-going exposome projects are trying to overcome technical and statistical challenges. From a public health perspective, a better understanding of the environmental risk factors should open the way to improved prevention strategies. PMID:27246588

  13. A literature review of connectedness to nature and its potential for environmental management.

    PubMed

    Restall, Brian; Conrad, Elisabeth

    2015-08-15

    Understanding how people's relationships with nature form, how they influence personal values and attitudes, and what behavioural implications they may have could provide more insight into how connectedness to nature (CNT) can effectively contribute to environmental management goals. This paper undertakes a review of literature published over the past decade (2002-2011) on SCOPUS; and describes the current state of knowledge regarding CNT, assesses any efforts towards the spatial mapping of CNT for environmental management, and identifies measures of CNT defined in the broader literature. This review suggests that there is quite some overlap in the literature on CNT concepts, and that more effort needs to be made towards multi-disciplinary research which explores how CNT can be useful to environmental planning and conservation research on the field. It also further corroborates the need and relevance of applying more social and affective strategies to promote conservation behaviour. The main progress in CNT theory seems to have been made in the development of measurement tools, and it is clear that there is a strong convergent validity amongst the different measures due to their similarity, and functional associations. Further efforts towards the exploration of multi-dimensional measures is recommended since they consistently stand out as showing better results. The geographic visualisation of CNT constructs is another area of research that deserves attention since it can provide a unique point of view towards guiding participatory protected area planning and management.

  14. Space Environmental Effects on Coated Tether Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gittemeier, Keith A.; Hawk, Clark W.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Watts, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville s Propulsion Research Center has teamed with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to research the effects of atomic oxygen (AO) bombardment on coated tether materials. Tethers Unlimited Inc. has provided several candidate tether materials with various coatings for AO exposure in MSFC s Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility. Additional samples were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation at MSFC. AO erodes most organic materials, and ultraviolet radiation embrittles polymers. This test series was performed to determine the effect of AO and UV on the mechanical integrity of tether materials that were treated with AO-protective coatings, such as polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) or metallization. Both TUI's Multi-Application Survivable Tether (MAST) Experiment and Marshall Space Flight Center s Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) programs will benefit from this research by helping to determine tether materials and coatings that give the longest life with the lowest mass penalty.

  15. Potential environmental impact of tidal energy extraction in the Pentland Firth at large spatial scales: results of a biogeochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Molen, Johan; Ruardij, Piet; Greenwood, Naomi

    2016-05-01

    A model study was carried out of the potential large-scale (> 100 km) effects of marine renewable tidal energy generation in the Pentland Firth, using the 3-D hydrodynamics-biogeochemistry model GETM-ERSEM-BFM. A realistic 800 MW scenario and a high-impact scenario with massive expansion of tidal energy extraction to 8 GW scenario were considered. The realistic 800 MW scenario suggested minor effects on the tides, and undetectable effects on the biogeochemistry. The massive-expansion 8 GW scenario suggested effects would be observed over hundreds of kilometres away with changes of up to 10 % in tidal and ecosystem variables, in particular in a broad area in the vicinity of the Wash. There, waters became less turbid, and primary production increased with associated increases in faunal ecosystem variables. Moreover, a one-off increase in carbon storage in the sea bed was detected. Although these first results suggest positive environmental effects, further investigation is recommended of (i) the residual circulation in the vicinity of the Pentland Firth and effects on larval dispersal using a higher-resolution model and (ii) ecosystem effects with (future) state-of-the-art models if energy extraction substantially beyond 1 GW is planned.

  16. Assessing the potential hazard of chemical substances for the terrestrial environment. Development of hazard classification criteria and quantitative environmental indicators.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, J V; Fresno, A; Aycard, S; Ramos, C; Vega, M M; Carbonell, G

    2000-03-20

    Hazard assessment constitutes an essential tool in order to evaluate the potential effects of chemical substances on organisms and ecosystems. It includes as a first step, hazard identification, which must detect the potential dangers of the substance (i.e. the kind of effects that the substance may produce), and a second step to quantify each danger and to set the expected dose/response relationships. Hazard assessment plays a key role in the regulation of chemical substances, including pollution control and sustainable development. However, the aquatic environment has largely received more attention than terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents the extrapolation of several basic concepts from the aquatic to the terrestrial compartment, and suggests possibilities for their regulatory use. Two specific proposals are discussed. The first focuses on the scientific basis of the hazard identification-classification criteria included in the EU regulations and their extrapolation to the terrestrial environment. The second focuses on the OECD programme for environmental indicators and the development of a soil pollution pressure indicator to quantify the potential hazards for the soil compartment and its associated terrestrial ecosystem related to the toxic chemicals applied deliberately (i.e. pesticides) or not (i.e. heavy metals in sludge-based fertilisers; industrial spills) to the soil. PMID:10803544

  17. Respiratory effects of environmental pollution: epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Baldacci, S; Viegi, G

    2002-01-01

    A recent document of the American Thoracic Society and two previous reports of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease have summarized the negative health effects due to air pollution in a list ranging from the increase of mortality to the perception of bad odors. A significant attempt to estimate, on an annual basis, the negative effects of air pollution from particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) has been carried out on data from Austria, France, and Switzerland: e.g. in France, air pollution from PM10 is responsible annually for 31,700 deaths, 36,700 new cases of chronic bronchitis and 577,000 attacks of asthma in adults, 450,000 cases of acute bronchitis and 243,000 attacks of asthma in children. Recently, a study on the long-term effects of air pollution on about 500,000 residents in metropolitan US areas evidenced that each 10 micrograms/m3 elevation in fine particulate air pollution is associated with approximately a 4%, 6% and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality, respectively. Some Italian experiences have also confirmed respiratory health damages from air pollution, namely the prospective epidemiologic studies on general population samples of the Po Delta and Pisa areas; the cross-sectional study on schoolchildren of the 'Italian study on respiratory disorders in childhood and environment' (SIDRIA); and a meta-analysis of the Italian studies on short-term effects of air pollution. In conclusion, epidemiologic studies suggest that air pollution plays an important role in the exacerbation and in the pathogenesis of chronic respiratory diseases. Thus, respiratory physicians, as well as public health professionals, should advocate for a cleaner environment.

  18. [Health effects of environmental noise exposure].

    PubMed

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In the EU 27 countries about 100 million persons are exposed to road traffic noise above 55 dB (LDEN) according to the European Environment Agency. Exposure to railway noise affects 16 million individuals, aircraft noise 4 million and industry noise 1 million persons. Although the proportion of people reporting to be annoyed by noise exposure is substantial, health effects of noise is rarely an issue in general practitioners' consultations. According to stress models chronic noise exposure results in an increased allostatic load by direct physiological responses as well as psychological stress responses including sleep disturbances. In relation to acute and chronic noise exposure an increase of blood pressure was observed in epidemiological studies. An association between ischemic heart diseases and noise exposure was observed in various studies. However, the data is less consistent for other cardiovascular diseases and for cognitive effects in children. The association between metabolic syndrome and noise has rarely been investigated so far. Recently an association between road traffic noise and diabetes was observed in a Danish cohort study. Given the plausibility for a noise effect, general practitioners should consider noise exposure in patients with increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:24297857

  19. Screening Analysis for the Environmental Risk Evaluation System Fiscal Year 2011 Report Environmental Effects of Offshore Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2011-11-01

    Potential environmental effects of offshore wind (OSW) energy development are not well understood, and yet regulatory agencies are required to make decisions in spite of substantial uncertainty about environmental impacts and their long-term consequences. An understanding of risks associated with interactions between OSW installations and avian and aquatic receptors, including animals, habitats, and ecosystems, can help define key uncertainties and focus regulatory actions and scientific studies on interactions of most concern. During FY 2011, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists adapted and applied the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), first developed to examine the effects of marine and hydrokinetic energy devices on aquatic environments, to offshore wind development. PNNL scientists conducted a risk screening analysis on two initial OSW cases: a wind project in Lake Erie and a wind project off the Atlantic coast of the United States near Atlantic City, New Jersey. The screening analysis revealed that top-tier stressors in the two OSW cases were the dynamic effects of the device (e.g., strike), accidents/disasters, and effects of the static physical presence of the device, such as alterations in bottom habitats. Receptor interactions with these stressors at the highest tiers of risk were dominated by threatened and endangered animals. Risk to the physical environment from changes in flow regime also ranked high. Peer review of this process and results will be conducted during FY 2012. The ERES screening analysis provides an assessment of the vulnerability of environmental receptors to stressors associated with OSW installations; a probability analysis is needed to determine specific risk levels to receptors. As more data become available that document effects of offshore wind farms on specific receptors in U.S. coastal and Great Lakes waters, probability analyses will be performed.

  20. Barriers and potential solutions for Critical Zone data integration between environmental genomics and the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, E. L.; Meyer, F.; Packman, A. I.; Mayorga, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's permeable near-surface layer from bedrock to canopy is referred to as the Critical Zone (CZ). Integration of bio- and geoscience data is critical for understanding physical, biological and chemical interactions in the CZ. Genomic and meta-genomic scientists study organisms both in laboratory settings and in the environment, in order to understand the interactions of organisms with the environment. Geoscientists are using environmental data to describe and model dynamics of physical and chemical properties. Yet, there is no agreed upon method for integrating genomic and environmental data to address interactions of living and non-living components of the CZ. There are standards for data interchange being developed in the geosciences and genomics sciences, via standards organization such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), as well as by research communities in biogeochemistry, hydrology, climatology, and other fields. These are in parallel to, but typically not in coordination with the standards the Genomics Standards Consortium (GSC) is developing for genomics. In addition, efforts are being made to allow for intercompatability of these CZ data with data generated by NEON, Inc. The interoperability of these types of data is limited with current software and cyberinfrastructure. A group of CZ geoscientists, environmental genomic scientists and cyberinfrastructure scientists are coming together to develop a set of common data collection and integration methods and sets of common standards. The data generated by this effort across multiple CZ sites (including the US CZ Observatories, or CZOs) around the world, along with NEON facility data, will be used to test EarthCube (an NSF initiative to develop cyberinfrastructure for the geosciences) cyberinfrastructure, with the goal of bridging this gap in standards and interoperability. Potential solutions to these issues of interoperability will be presented, and a way forward will be described.

  1. Organic photovoltaics: potential fate and effects in the environment.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Yannick-Serge; Schäffer, Andreas; Hugi, Christoph; Fent, Karl; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Lenz, Markus

    2012-11-15

    In times of dwindling fossil fuels it is particularly crucial to develop novel "green" technologies in order to cover the increasing worldwide demand for energy. Organic photovoltaic solar cells (OPVs) are promising as a renewable energy source due to low energy requirement for production, low resource extraction, and no emission of greenhouse gasses during use. In contrast to silicium-based solar cells, OPVs offer the advantages of light-weight, semi-transparency and mechanical flexibility. As to a possible forthcoming large-scale production, the environmental impact of such OPVs should be assessed and compared to currently best available technologies. For the first time, this review compiles the existing knowledge and identifies gaps regarding the environmental impact of such OPVs in a systematic manner. In this regard, we discuss the components of a typical OPV layer by layer. We discuss the probability of enhanced release of OPV-borne components into the environment during use-phase (e.g. UV- and biodegradation) and end-of-life phase (e.g. incineration and waste disposal). For this purpose, we compiled available data on bioavailability, bioaccumulation, biodegradation, and ecotoxicity. Whereas considerable research has already been carried out concerning the ecotoxicity of certain OPV components (e.g. nanoparticles and fullerenes), others have not been investigated at all so far. In conclusion, there is a general lack of information about fate, behavior as well as potential ecotoxicity of most of the main OPV components and their degradation/transformation products. So far, there is no evidence for a worrying threat coming from OPVs, but since at present, no policy and procedures regarding recycling of OPVs are in action, in particular improper disposal upon end-of-life might result in an adverse effect of OPVs in the environment when applied in large-scale.

  2. Chapter 6: Ecotoxicology, Environmental Risk Assessment & Potential Impact on Human Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter examines potential risks posed by pharmaceuticals present in the aquatic environment to humans and aquatic life. We begin by describing the mechanisms by which pharmaceuticals enter the vertebrate body, produce effects and leave the body. Then we describe theoretical...

  3. Detection of genetic effects of environmental agents.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, E A

    1981-01-01

    The fundamental problems in population monitoring for genetic effects are twofold: the binomialized nature of the data and the lower power due to small risk of finding positive results. The binomial character is artificial, even forced, and can with advantage be replaced by more refined analysis, and by a focus on all mutations, not merely harmful ones. Moreover, a binomial treatment ignores accessory information (birth order, clustering, etc.). But this objective requires that an explicit model be used instead of nonparametric methods; a cancer may represent multiple independent hits that should be separately scored; sequencing of a codon or its product may show multiple distinct changes. PMID:7333250

  4. Simulated environmental criticalities affect transglutaminase of Malus and Corylus pollens having different allergenic potential.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Rosa Anna; Di Sandro, Alessia; Paris, Roberta; Pagliarani, Giulia; Tartarini, Stefano; Ricci, Giampaolo; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Verderio, Elisabetta; Del Duca, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Increases in temperature and air pollution influence pollen allergenicity, which is responsible for the dramatic raise in respiratory allergies. To clarify possible underlying mechanisms, an anemophilous pollen (hazel, Corylus avellana), known to be allergenic, and an entomophilous one (apple, Malus domestica), the allergenicity of which was not known, were analysed. The presence also in apple pollen of known fruit allergens and their immunorecognition by serum of an allergic patient were preliminary ascertained, resulting also apple pollen potentially allergenic. Pollens were subjected to simulated stressful conditions, provided by changes in temperature, humidity, and copper and acid rain pollution. In the two pollens exposed to environmental criticalities, viability and germination were negatively affected and different transglutaminase (TGase) gel bands were differently immunodetected with the polyclonal antibody AtPng1p. The enzyme activity increased under stressful treatments and, along with its products, was found to be released outside the pollen with externalisation of TGase being predominant in C. avellana, whose grain presents a different cell wall composition with respect to that of M. domestica. A recombinant plant TGase (AtPng1p) stimulated the secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) activity, that in vivo is present in human mucosa and is involved in inflammation. Similarly, stressed pollen, hazel pollen being the most efficient, stimulated to very different extent sPLA(2) activity and putrescine conjugation to sPLA(2). We propose that externalised pollen TGase could be one of the mediators of pollen allergenicity, especially under environmental stress induced by climate changes.

  5. Phagocytosis in earthworms: An environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess immunotoxic potential of contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J.; Venables, B.J.; Callahan, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Phagocytosis, a host-defense mechanism phylogenetically conserved throughout the animal kingdom, by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) coelomocytes has potential as a surrogate for vertebrates to be used as an environmentally acceptable endpoint to assess sublethal immunotoxic risks of contaminated soils to environmental (eg. higher wildlife) and public health. Coelomocytes can be exposed in vivo to complex contaminated parent soils by placing earthworms in situ at hazardous waste sites (HWS) or into soil samples and their dilutions with artificial soil (AS) in the laboratory, or in vitro to soil extracts and their fractionations. Here the authors report on phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils from a wood treatment HWS, PCP-spiked AS and PCP treated filter paper (FP). HWS soil was diluted to 25% with AS to a sublethal concentration (ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) and earthworms exposed for 14d at 10 C under light conditions. AS was spiked at ca. 125 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP and earthworms were similarly exposed. Controls for both consisted of earthworms exposed to 100% AS. Earthworms were exposed to FP treated with a sublethal PCP concentration (15 {micro}g cm{sup {minus}2}) at 10 C under dark conditions for 96H. Controls were similarly exposed without PCP. Phagocytosis by coelomocytes in earthworms exposed to HWS soil, spiked AS and treated FP was suppressed 37, 41 and 29%, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of PCP body burdens and exposure protocols.

  6. Studies on ordered mesoporous materials for potential environmental and clean energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Xiu-Wu; Su, Wei; Zhou, Yaping; Zhou, Li

    2007-04-01

    Two series of ordered mesoporous materials, SBA-15 silica and CMK-3 carbon were synthesized. The ordered nanostructure of these materials was confirmed by TEM and XRD analysis. Structural parameters including the specific surface area, pore volume and pore size distribution were determined on the basis of nitrogen adsorption data at 77 K. Potential applications of these materials were explored in relation to the CO 2 sequestering, methane storage and fuel desulfurization. Initial studies of both materials showed their usefulness for environmental and clean energy applications. SBA-15 modified with triethanolamine showed a very good adsorption selectivity for CO 2 while its adsorption reversibility was retained. Also, this material after CuCl deposition was useful for removal of fuel thiophenes. However, CMK-3 was shown to be promising material for storage of natural gas. As high as 41 wt.% of methane was stored in this material in the presence of appropriate amount of water.

  7. Achieving the Security, Environmental, and Economic Potential of Bioenergy. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, John A

    2006-06-07

    A group of business, government, environmental and academic leaders convened in a dialogue by the Aspen Institute proposed a series of actions to promote the widespread commercialization of both corn and cellulosic ethanol to improve energy security, the environment, and the economy. Co-chaired by Booz Allen Hamilton Vice President and former CIA Director R. James Woolsey and former Congressman Tom Ewing (R. IL), they developed a series of recommendations involving improved crop yields, processing of biomass into ethanol, manufacture of more cars that can burn either ethanol or gasoline, and the provision of ethanol pumps at more filling stations. Their report, "A High Growth Strategy for Ethanol, includes a discussion of the potential of ethanol, the group's recommendations, and a series of discussion papers commissioned for the dialogue.

  8. The Lake Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana: A brief environmental assessment and discussion of ecotourism potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boamah, Daniel; Koeberl, Christian

    Lake Bosumtwi is a natural inland freshwater lake that originated from a meteorite impact. The lake is becoming a popular tourist attraction in Ghana and has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism site in the future. However, there have been some unregulated human activities and unplanned infrastructure development, and there are increased levels of pollutants in the lake water. In order to make ecotourism at Lake Bosumtwi successful in the long term, the Lake Bosumtwi Development Committee has been formed to ensure that local people are empowered to mobilize their own capacities. It has been realized that an important criterion required to develop ecotourism in a socially responsible, economically efficient, and environmentally viable way is to foster a constructive dialogue between the local people and tourists about the needs of the indigenous people.

  9. Influence of environmental variables on bioaccumulation of mercury. Environmental effects of dredging. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkks, J.; Lutz, C.; McFarland, V.

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this note examines the effects of environmental factors on the bioavailability of mercury from sediment and describes results of a laboratory experiment to assess the influence of temperature, salinity, and suspended sediment on bioaccumulation of mercury in estuarine clams and killifish.

  10. An Environmentally Friendly, Cost-Effective Determination of Lead in Environmental Samples Using Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Underwood, Melinda N.; Cloud, Joshua L.; Harshman, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with heavy metals such as lead presents many health risks. Simple, effective, and field-portable methods for the measurement of toxic metals in environmental samples are vital tools for evaluating the risks that these contaminants pose. This article describes the use of new developments in anodic stripping…

  11. Disentangling legacy effects from environmental filters of postfire assembly of boreal tree assemblages.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carissa D; Liu, Juxin; Yan, Guohua; Johnstone, Jill F

    2015-11-01

    Disturbance plays a key role in driving ecological responses by creating opportunities for new ecological communities to assemble and by directly influencing the outcomes of assembly. Legacy effects (such as seed banks) and environmental filters can both influence community assembly, but their effects are impossible to separate with observational data. Here, we used seeding experiments in sites covering a broad range of postdisturbance conditions to tease apart the effects of seed availability, environmental factors, and disturbance characteristics on early community assembly after fire. We added seed of four common boreal trees to experimental plots in 55 replicate sites in recently burned areas of black spruce forest in northwestern North America. Seed addition treatments increased the probability of occurrence for all species, indicating a widespread potential for seed limitation to affect patterns of recruitment after fire. Small-seeded. species (aspen and birch) were most sensitive to environmental factors such as soil moisture and organic layer depth, suggesting a role for niche-based environmental filtering in community assembly. Fire characteristics related to severity and frequency were also important drivers of seedling regeneration, indicating the potential for disturbance to mediate environmental filters and legacy effects on seed availability. Because effects of seed availability are typically impossible to disentangle from environmental constraints on recruitment in observational studies, legacy effects contingent on vegetation history may be misinterpreted as being driven by strong environmental filters. Results from the seeding experiments suggest that vegetation legacies affecting seed availability play a pivotal role in shaping patterns of community assembly after fire in these low-diversity boreal forests. PMID:27070021

  12. Disentangling legacy effects from environmental filters of postfire assembly of boreal tree assemblages.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carissa D; Liu, Juxin; Yan, Guohua; Johnstone, Jill F

    2015-11-01

    Disturbance plays a key role in driving ecological responses by creating opportunities for new ecological communities to assemble and by directly influencing the outcomes of assembly. Legacy effects (such as seed banks) and environmental filters can both influence community assembly, but their effects are impossible to separate with observational data. Here, we used seeding experiments in sites covering a broad range of postdisturbance conditions to tease apart the effects of seed availability, environmental factors, and disturbance characteristics on early community assembly after fire. We added seed of four common boreal trees to experimental plots in 55 replicate sites in recently burned areas of black spruce forest in northwestern North America. Seed addition treatments increased the probability of occurrence for all species, indicating a widespread potential for seed limitation to affect patterns of recruitment after fire. Small-seeded. species (aspen and birch) were most sensitive to environmental factors such as soil moisture and organic layer depth, suggesting a role for niche-based environmental filtering in community assembly. Fire characteristics related to severity and frequency were also important drivers of seedling regeneration, indicating the potential for disturbance to mediate environmental filters and legacy effects on seed availability. Because effects of seed availability are typically impossible to disentangle from environmental constraints on recruitment in observational studies, legacy effects contingent on vegetation history may be misinterpreted as being driven by strong environmental filters. Results from the seeding experiments suggest that vegetation legacies affecting seed availability play a pivotal role in shaping patterns of community assembly after fire in these low-diversity boreal forests.

  13. MEDICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF UV RADIATION.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND, B.M.

    2001-07-26

    Organisms living on the earth are exposed to solar radiation, including its ultraviolet (UV) components (for general reviews, the reader is referred to Smith [1] and Young et al. [2]). UV wavelength regions present in sunlight are frequently designated as UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). In today's solar spectrum, UVA is the principal UV component, with UVB present at much lower levels. Ozone depletion will increase the levels of UVB reaching the biosphere, but the levels of UVA will not be changed significantly [3]. Because of the high efficiency of UVB in producing damage in biological organisms in the laboratory experiments, it has sometimes been assumed that UVA has little or no adverse biological effects. However, accumulating data [4, 5], including action spectra (efficiency of biological damage as a function of wavelength of radiation; see Section 5) for DNA damage in alfalfa seedlings [6], in human skin [7], and for a variety of plant damages (Caldwell, this volume) indicate that UVA can induce damage in DNA in higher organisms. Thus, understanding the differential effects of UVA and UVB wavebands is essential for estimating the biological consequences of stratospheric ozone depletion.

  14. Environmental mercury and its toxic effects.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kevin M; Walker, Ernest M; Wu, Miaozong; Gillette, Chris; Blough, Eric R

    2014-03-01

    Mercury exists naturally and as a man-made contaminant. The release of processed mercury can lead to a progressive increase in the amount of atmospheric mercury, which enters the atmospheric-soil-water distribution cycles where it can remain in circulation for years. Mercury poisoning is the result of exposure to mercury or mercury compounds resulting in various toxic effects depend on its chemical form and route of exposure. The major route of human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) is largely through eating contaminated fish, seafood, and wildlife which have been exposed to mercury through ingestion of contaminated lower organisms. MeHg toxicity is associated with nervous system damage in adults and impaired neurological development in infants and children. Ingested mercury may undergo bioaccumulation leading to progressive increases in body burdens. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of individual organ systems associated with mercury poisoning. Mercury has profound cellular, cardiovascular, hematological, pulmonary, renal, immunological, neurological, endocrine, reproductive, and embryonic toxicological effects. PMID:24744824

  15. Environmental Mercury and Its Toxic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Kevin M.; Walker, Ernest M.; Wu, Miaozong; Gillette, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Mercury exists naturally and as a man-made contaminant. The release of processed mercury can lead to a progressive increase in the amount of atmospheric mercury, which enters the atmospheric-soil-water distribution cycles where it can remain in circulation for years. Mercury poisoning is the result of exposure to mercury or mercury compounds resulting in various toxic effects depend on its chemical form and route of exposure. The major route of human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) is largely through eating contaminated fish, seafood, and wildlife which have been exposed to mercury through ingestion of contaminated lower organisms. MeHg toxicity is associated with nervous system damage in adults and impaired neurological development in infants and children. Ingested mercury may undergo bioaccumulation leading to progressive increases in body burdens. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of individual organ systems associated with mercury poisoning. Mercury has profound cellular, cardiovascular, hematological, pulmonary, renal, immunological, neurological, endocrine, reproductive, and embryonic toxicological effects. PMID:24744824

  16. Environmental effects of harvesting forests for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hook, R. I.; Johnson, D. W.; West, D. C.; Mann, L. K.

    1980-01-01

    Present interest in decreasing US dependence on foreign oil by increasing the use of wood for energy may bring about a change in our forest utilization policies. In the past, forests have been removed in areas believed to be suited for agriculture, or sawtimber and pulp have been the only woody material removed in any quantity from land not generally considered tillable. The new demands on wood for energy are effecting a trend toward (1) removing all woody biomass from harvested areas, (2) increasing the frequency of harvesting second growth forests, and (3) increasing production with biomass plantations. Considering the marginal quality of much of the remaining forested land, the impacts of these modes of production could be significant. For example, it is anticipated that increased losses of nutrients and carbon will occur by direct forest removal and through erosion losses accelerated by forest clearing. There are, however, control measures that can be utilized in minimizing both direct and indirect effects of forest harvesting while maximizing woody biomass production.

  17. Environmental mercury and its toxic effects.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kevin M; Walker, Ernest M; Wu, Miaozong; Gillette, Chris; Blough, Eric R

    2014-03-01

    Mercury exists naturally and as a man-made contaminant. The release of processed mercury can lead to a progressive increase in the amount of atmospheric mercury, which enters the atmospheric-soil-water distribution cycles where it can remain in circulation for years. Mercury poisoning is the result of exposure to mercury or mercury compounds resulting in various toxic effects depend on its chemical form and route of exposure. The major route of human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) is largely through eating contaminated fish, seafood, and wildlife which have been exposed to mercury through ingestion of contaminated lower organisms. MeHg toxicity is associated with nervous system damage in adults and impaired neurological development in infants and children. Ingested mercury may undergo bioaccumulation leading to progressive increases in body burdens. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of individual organ systems associated with mercury poisoning. Mercury has profound cellular, cardiovascular, hematological, pulmonary, renal, immunological, neurological, endocrine, reproductive, and embryonic toxicological effects.

  18. Transmission Lines: An Overview of Electrical Properties and Environmental Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Biological Studies Task Team.

    1982-03-01

    A brief overview is provided of environmental and biological effects of high-voltage power transmission lines. Paragraph length descriptions of electric fields, induced voltage and currents, biological effects, magnetic fields, corona, radio and television interference, and ozone are given. 13 figs.

  19. Genetic and Environmental Effects on Vocal Symptoms and Their Intercorrelations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nybacka, Ida; Simberg, Susanna; Santtila, Pekka; Sala, Eeva; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, Simberg et al. (2009) found genetic effects on a composite variable consisting of 6 vocal symptom items measuring dysphonia. The purpose of the present study was to determine genetic and environmental effects on the individual vocal symptoms in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. Method: The sample comprised 1,728 twins…

  20. Numerical Modeling of Hydrokinetic Turbines and their Environmental Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaherchi, T.; Seydel, J.; Aliseda, A.

    2010-12-01

    The search for predictable renewable energy has led research into marine hydrokinetic energy. Electricity can be generated from tidally-induced currents through turbines located in regions of high current speed and relatively low secondary flow intensity. Although significant technological challenges exist, the main obstacle in the development and commercial deployment of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines is the uncertainty in the environmental effect of devices. The velocity deficit in the turbulent wake of the turbine might enhance the sedimentation process of suspended particles in the water column and lead to deposition into artificial patterns that alter the benthic ecosystem. Pressure fluctuations across turbine blades and in blade tip vortices can damage internal organs of marine species as they swim through the device. These are just a few examples of the important potential environmental effects of MHK turbines that need to be addressed and investigated a priori before pilot and large scale deployment. We have developed a hierarchy of numerical models to simulate the turbulent wake behind a well characterized two bladed turbine. The results from these models (Sliding Mesh, Rotating Reference Frame, Virtual Blade Model and Actuator Disk Model) have been validated and are been used to investigate the efficiency and physical changes introduced in the environment by single or multiple MHK turbines. We will present results from sedimenting particles and model juvenile fish, with relative densities of 1.2 and 0.95, respectively. The settling velocity and terminal location on the bottom of the tidal channel is computed and compared to the simulated flow in a channel without turbines. We have observed an enhanced sedimentation, and we will quantify the degree of enhancement and the parameter range within which it is significant. For the slightly buoyant particles representing fish, the pressure history is studied statistically with particular attention to the

  1. Space environmental effects on polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.; Orwoll, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Polymeric materials that may be exposed on spacecraft to the hostile environment beyond Earth's atmosphere were subjected to atomic oxygen, electron bombardment, and ultraviolet radiation in terrestrial experiments. Evidence is presented for the utility of an inexpensive asher for determining the relative susceptibility of organic polymers to atomic oxygen. Kapton, Ultem, P1700 polysulfone, and m-CBB/BIS-A (a specially formulated polymer prepared at NASA Langley) all eroded at high rates, just as was observed in shuttle experiments. Films of Ultem, P1700 polysulfone, and m-CBB/BIS-A were irradiated with 85 keV electrons. The UV/VIS absorbance of Ultem was found to decay with time after irradiation, indicating free radical decay. The tensile properties of Ultem began to change only after it had been exposed to 100 Mrads. The effects of dose rate, temperature, and simultaneous vs. sequential electron and UV irradiation were also studied.

  2. Environmental effects on a single electron box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, G. Y.; O'Connell, R. F.

    1995-02-01

    Lafarge et al. (Zeitschrift für Physik B 85 (1991) 327) have measured the average junction charge in a single electron box. Their results are in agreement with theoretical predictions at temperatures T above 100 mK but not at lower T values. We explain the lower T experimental results by incorporating quantum charge fluctuations due to the environment by use of a quantum Langevin equation model. It is shown that, at T = 0, the sawtooth shape of the junction charge, as predicted by existing theories, is rounded off by the quantum fluctuation effects. At finite temperature, the theory is compared with the experiments of Lafarge et al., nd a good fit is obtained at all the relevant temperatures.

  3. Potential use of calcareous mudstones in low hydraulic conductivity earthen barriers for environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Musso, T B; Francisca, F M; Musso, T B; Musso, T B

    2013-01-01

    Earthen layers play a significant role in isolating contaminants in the subsurface, controlling the migration of contaminant plumes, and as landfill liners and covers. The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of three calcareous mudstones from the Jagüel and Roca formations in North Patagonia, Argentina, are evaluated to determine their potential for the construction of liners. These mudstones were deposited in a marine environment in the Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene. The tested specimens mainly comprise silt and clay-sized particles, and their mineralogy is dominated by a smectite/illite mixed layer (70-90% Sm) and calcite in smaller proportion. Powdered mudstone samples have little viscosity and swelling potential when suspended in water. The hydraulic conductivity of compacted mudstones and sand-mudstone mixtures is very low (around 1-3 x 10(-10) m/s) and in good agreement with the expected hydraulic behaviour of compacted earthen layers. This behaviour can be attributed to the large amount of fine particles, high specific surface and the close packing of particles as confirmed by scanning electron microscope analysis. The tested materials also show a high cation exchange capacity (50-70 cmol/kg), indicating a high contaminant retardation capability. The calcareous mudstones show satisfactory mineralogical and chemical properties as well as an adequate hydraulic behaviour, demonstrating the potential use of these materials for the construction of compacted liners for the containment of leachate or as covers in landfills. These findings confirm the potential usage of marine calcareous mudstones as a low-cost geomaterial in environmental engineering projects. PMID:24527607

  4. Potential use of calcareous mudstones in low hydraulic conductivity earthen barriers for environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Musso, T B; Francisca, F M; Musso, T B; Musso, T B

    2013-01-01

    Earthen layers play a significant role in isolating contaminants in the subsurface, controlling the migration of contaminant plumes, and as landfill liners and covers. The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of three calcareous mudstones from the Jagüel and Roca formations in North Patagonia, Argentina, are evaluated to determine their potential for the construction of liners. These mudstones were deposited in a marine environment in the Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene. The tested specimens mainly comprise silt and clay-sized particles, and their mineralogy is dominated by a smectite/illite mixed layer (70-90% Sm) and calcite in smaller proportion. Powdered mudstone samples have little viscosity and swelling potential when suspended in water. The hydraulic conductivity of compacted mudstones and sand-mudstone mixtures is very low (around 1-3 x 10(-10) m/s) and in good agreement with the expected hydraulic behaviour of compacted earthen layers. This behaviour can be attributed to the large amount of fine particles, high specific surface and the close packing of particles as confirmed by scanning electron microscope analysis. The tested materials also show a high cation exchange capacity (50-70 cmol/kg), indicating a high contaminant retardation capability. The calcareous mudstones show satisfactory mineralogical and chemical properties as well as an adequate hydraulic behaviour, demonstrating the potential use of these materials for the construction of compacted liners for the containment of leachate or as covers in landfills. These findings confirm the potential usage of marine calcareous mudstones as a low-cost geomaterial in environmental engineering projects.

  5. Potential effect of ultrasound on carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Bera, Smritilekha; Mondal, Dhananjoy; Martin, Jacob T; Singh, Man

    2015-06-17

    The use of ultrasound has emerged as one of the most useful alternative energy sources for the synthesis of carbohydrate-derived biologically and pharmaceutically potential compounds. Spectacular advances have been made in the field of sonication-assisted organic reactions, which are known for producing superior yields, enhanced reactivity of the reactant, improved stereoselectivity, and shortened reaction times. Orthogonal protection-deprotection reactions and/or modification and manipulation of functional groups in carbohydrates are common synthetic steps in carbohydrate chemistry. These reaction steps can be driven by the ultrasonic energy generated by acoustic cavitation via the formation and subsequent collapse of ultrasound-induced bubbles. The ultrasound-assisted synthesis of differently functionalised monosaccharides is useful in a wide variety of applications of carbohydrate chemistry such as the glycosylation of oligosaccharides, one pot domino reactions, thioglycoside syntheses, azidoglycoside syntheses, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, and syntheses of natural products. This review article covers ultrasound-mediated reactions on carbohydrates that have been described in the literature since 2000.

  6. Health and Environmental Effects Document on Geothermal Energy -- 1982 update

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, David W.; Daniels, Jeffrey I.; Anspaugh, Lynn R.; O'Banion, Kerry D.

    1983-11-30

    We assess several of the important health and environmental risks associated with a reference geothermal industry that produces 21,000 MWe for 30 y (equivalent to 20 x 10{sup 18} J). The analyses of health effects focus on the risks associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, particulate sulfate, benzene, mercury, and radon in air and arsenic in food. Results indicate that emissions of hydrogen sulfide are likely to cause odor-related problems in 29 of 51 geothermal resources areas, assuming that no pollution controls are employed. Our best estimates and ranges of uncertainty for the health risks of chronic population exposures to atmospheric pollutants are as follows (risks expressed per 10{sup 18} J of electricity): particulate sulfate, 44 premature deaths (uncertainty range of 0 to 360); benzene, 0.15 leukemias (range of 0 to 0.51); elemental mercury, 14 muscle tremors (range of 0 to 39); and radon, 0.68 lung cancers (range of 0 to 1.8). The ultimate risk of fatal skin cancers as the result of the transfer of waste arsenic to the general population over geologic time ({approx} 100,000 y) was calculated as 41 per 10{sup 18} J. We based our estimates of occupational health effects on rates of accidental deaths together with data on occupational diseases and injuries in surrogate industries. According to our best estimates, there would be 8 accidental deaths per 10{sup 18} J of electricity, 300 cases of occupational diseases per 10{sup 18} J, and 3400 occupational injuries per 10{sup 18}J. The analysis of the effects of noncondensing gases on vegetation showed that ambient concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are more likely to enhance rather than inhibit the growth of plants. We also studied the possible consequences of accidental releases of geothermal fluids and concluded that probably less than 5 ha of land would be affected by such releases during the production of 20 x 10{sup 18} J of electricity. Boron emitted from cooling towers in the

  7. Effective outcomes management in occupational and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, M

    1998-10-01

    In the final analysis, outcomes management is about changing behavior, specifically in the occupational and environmental health practitioner's communication process and practice patterns and in the workers' prevention and compliance behavior. Outcomes management is also about quantifying results, establishing occupational and environmental health performance benchmarks, developing a best practices model and asking even more questions. As health care embraces the use of outcomes in evaluating its effectiveness, similar developments can be anticipated in occupational and environmental health. While occupational and environmental health outcomes management is still in its infancy, nurses in the workplace are well positioned to "shape it" into a useful tool that meets the needs of all the various practice settings. As nurses in the workplace begin to evaluate, report, and benchmark results, measurement tools will be refined, data bases will grow and new, useful benchmarks will be established. Because occupational and environmental health programs usually operate as part of a larger business unit, nurses in the workplace are continually faced with the challenge of ensuring that corporate programs including workers' compensation, health and disability benefit programs, vaccination programs, injury prevention, and health promotion or wellness programs are delivered in an efficient and cost-effective manner and that the expected outcomes are achieved. Effective outcomes management programs are the vehicles to effective goal achievement.

  8. Environmental hazard analysis and effective remediation of highway seepage.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Renmao; Yang, Y S; Qiu, X; Ma, F S

    2007-04-01

    Risk assessment and minimisation of environmental hazards are critical issues to consider in the geotechnical engineering projects. A case of highway pavement seepage induced by groundwater, at a locality along the section of Hua-Qing Highway of Guangdong Province, China, is presented for environmental hazard analysis and effective remediation. The environmental hazard analyses were based on in situ hydrogeologic investigation, rock-soil testing and integrated environmental understanding. The analyses indicate that the highway seepage was caused by elevation of groundwater hydraulic pressure in low permeable strata near the highway pavement, which was controlled by landform, hydrology, weather and road structure. The risk source of groundwater 'flooding' was the groundwater and surface water in the ring-like valley around Fenshui Village. A blind-ditch system for effective remediation of the pavement seepage hazard was proposed and successfully implemented by declining groundwater table near the highway based on the comprehensive assessment of various conditions. This geotechnical accident shows that the role of groundwater is an essential factor to consider in the geotechnical and environmental engineering studies and multidisciplinary effort for risk assessment of environmental hazards is important under current global climate change condition.

  9. Ocean environmental effects on walrus communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denes, Samuel L.

    This work aimed to develop source characteristics and transmission effects for the acoustic breeding displays of male Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Pacific walrus breeding activities occur in late winter in the Bering Sea, an area renowned for extreme weather conditions and high biological productivity. During the breeding season, males perform acoustic displays while swimming in the vicinity of females hauled out on ice. Underwater vocalizations heard by individuals hauled out on ice may be important in the mate selection process. The extreme environment in which walrus breeding activities occur precludes direct observation of these animals during this important period and has resulted in a lack of data. A combination of remote-sensing data, captive animal research, controlled environment experiment, and computational modeling was used to increase our understanding of the acoustic displays of Pacific walrus. Analysis of recordings of captive and wild male Pacific walrus vocalizations during breeding season provided quantification of source characteristics. Working with a captive animal provided the ability to make direct observations of a male producing breeding vocalizations and the direct calculation of source level. The mean peak to peak source level of the impulsive knocks produced by the captive male was 183 dB (re: 1 microPa) with the middle 95% of the knocks between 168 dB and 195 dB. The broadband knock signals contained significant acoustic energy up to 13 kHz. To estimate source level from wild vocalizations, the location of the source walrus first needed to be determined. Using a method of relative multipath arrival time, more than 37,000 knocks were localized from six years of data from autonomous recorders deployed in the Bering Sea. The mean peak-peak source level from the wild recordings was 177 dB (re: 1 microPa) with 95% of the knocks between 163 dB and 189 dB. For both wild and captive vocalizations, a significant relationship

  10. CHEMICAL HAZARD EVALUATION FOR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: A METHOD FOR RANKING AND SCORING CHEMICALS BY POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Between 60,000 and 100,000 of the over than 8,000,000 chemicals listed by the Chemical Abstracts Services Registry are commercially produced and are potential environmental pollutants. Risk-based evaluation for these chemicals is often required to evaluate the potential impacts...

  11. Beliefs and environmental behavior: the moderating effect of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Luzón, Maria Carmen; Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Salinas, Jose Maria

    2014-12-01

    Recent decades have seen a proliferation of studies aiming to explain how pro-environmental behavior is shaped by attitudes, values and beliefs. In this study, we have included an aspect in our analysis that has been rarely touched upon until now, that is, the intelligent use of emotions as a possible component of pro-environmental behavior. We applied the Trait Meta Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) and the New Environmental Paradigm scale to a sample of 184 male and female undergraduate students. We also carried out correlation and hierarchical regression analyses of blocks. The results show the interaction effects of the system of environmental beliefs and the dimensions of emotional intelligence on glass recycling attitudes, intentions and behavior. The results are discussed from the perspective of research on how the management of emotions guides thought and behavior.

  12. Impairment of the reproductive potential of male fathead minnows by environmentally relevant exposures to 4-nonylphenolf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenfuss, H.L.; Bartell, S.E.; Bistodeau, T.B.; Cediel, R.A.; Grove, K.J.; Zintek, L.; Lee, K.E.; Barber, L.B.

    2008-01-01

    The synthetic organic compound 4-nonylphenol (NP) has been detected in many human-impacted surface waters in North America. In this study, we examined the ability of NP to alter reproductive competence in male fathead minnows after a 28 day flow-through exposure in a range of environmentally relevant concentrations bracketing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency toxicity-based NP chronic exposure criterion of 6.1 ??g NP/L. Exposure to NP at and above the EPA chronic exposure criterion resulted in an induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) within 14 days. However, 7 days after the cessation of exposure, VTG concentrations had dropped more than 50% and few males expressed VTG above the detection threshold. All of the morphological endpoints, including gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, secondary sexual characters, and histopathology, were unaltered by all NP treatments. However, when NP-exposed male fish were allowed to compete with control males for access to nest sites and females, most treatments altered the reproductive competence of exposed males. At lower NP concentrations, exposed males out-competed control males, possibly by being primed through the estrogenic NP exposure in a fashion similar to priming by pheromones released from female fathead minnows. At higher NP exposure concentrations, this priming effect was negated by the adverse effects of the exposure and control males out-competed treated males. Results of this study indicate the complexity of endocrine disrupting effects and the need for multiple analysis levels to assess the effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparing scales of environmental effects from gasoline and ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L; Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca A; McBride, Allen C; Johnson, Timothy L; Hilliard, Michael R; Bielicki, Jeffrey M

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the spatial extent and temporal duration of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol-supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  14. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Esther S.; Kline, Keith L.; Dale, Virginia H.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; McBride, Allen C.; Johnson, Timothy L.; Hilliard, Michael R.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2013-02-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the spatial extent and temporal duration of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol-supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  15. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L; Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; McBride, Allen; Johnson, Timothy L; Hilliard, Michael R; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  16. Development of environmental charging effect monitors for operational satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.; Sturman, J. C.; Berkopec, F. D.

    1976-01-01

    An instrumentation package to monitor the effects of the environmental charging of spacecraft surfaces on the systems of operational spacecraft was developed. This package performs two functions: first, the local charged particle flux and the particle characteristic energy is monitored; and second, transients in the spacecraft electrical harness is counted as a function of amplitude, with time. It is used to determine the duration and effect of any environmental charging of the spacecraft surfaces. Thus, it will be possible to determine the relationship between the occurrence of any anomalies and the charging phenomenon. Design details and design goals of this package are presented.

  17. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 4. Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret D.; Cole, Donald; Abelsohn, Alan; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    PESTICIDE EXPOSURE CAN CAUSE MANY DIFFERENT HEALTH EFFECTS, from acute problems such as dermatitis and asthma exacerbation to chronic problems such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer. The resulting clinical presentations are undifferentiated, and specific knowledge of the links to environmental exposures is often required for effective diagnosis. In this article we illustrate the use of the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Drugs and Diet), a history-taking tool that assists physicians in quickly identifying possible environmental exposures. We also provide clinical information on the epidemiology, clinical presentations, treatment and prevention of pesticide exposures. PMID:12054413

  18. Effect of EMP fields on cell membrane potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Gailey, P.C.; Easterly, C.E.

    1993-06-01

    A simple model is presented for cell membrane potentials induced during exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Using calculated values of internal electric field strength induced during EMP exposure, the model predicts that cell membrane potentials of about 100 mV may be induced for time frames on the order of 10 ns. Possible biological effects of these potentials including electroporation area discussed.

  19. Three-dimensional modeling of HCFC-123 in the atmosphere: assessing its potential environmental impacts and rationale for continued use.

    PubMed

    Wuebbles, Donald J; Patten, Kenneth O

    2009-05-01

    HCFC-123 (C2HCl2F3) is used in large refrigeration systems and as a fire suppression agent blend. Like other hydrochlorofluorocarbons, production and consumption of HCFC-123 is limited under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The purpose of this study is to update the understanding of the current and projected impacts of HCFC-123 on stratospheric ozone and on climate and to discuss the potential environmental effects from continued use of this chemical for specific applications. For the first time, the Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) of a HCFC is determined using a three-dimensional model (MOZART-3) of atmospheric physics and chemistry. All previous studies have relied on results from two-dimensional models. The derived HCFC-123 ODP of 0.0098 is smaller than previous values. Analysis of the projected uses and emissions of HCFC-123, assuming reasonable levels of projected growth and use in centrifugal chiller and fire suppressant applications, suggests an extremely small impact on the environment due to its short atmospheric lifetime, low ODP, low Global Warming Potential (GWP), and the small production and emission of its limited applications. The current contribution of HCFC-123 to stratospheric reactive chlorine is too small to be measurable.

  20. Three-dimensional modeling of HCFC-123 in the atmosphere: assessing its potential environmental impacts and rationale for continued use.

    PubMed

    Wuebbles, Donald J; Patten, Kenneth O

    2009-05-01

    HCFC-123 (C2HCl2F3) is used in large refrigeration systems and as a fire suppression agent blend. Like other hydrochlorofluorocarbons, production and consumption of HCFC-123 is limited under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The purpose of this study is to update the understanding of the current and projected impacts of HCFC-123 on stratospheric ozone and on climate and to discuss the potential environmental effects from continued use of this chemical for specific applications. For the first time, the Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) of a HCFC is determined using a three-dimensional model (MOZART-3) of atmospheric physics and chemistry. All previous studies have relied on results from two-dimensional models. The derived HCFC-123 ODP of 0.0098 is smaller than previous values. Analysis of the projected uses and emissions of HCFC-123, assuming reasonable levels of projected growth and use in centrifugal chiller and fire suppressant applications, suggests an extremely small impact on the environment due to its short atmospheric lifetime, low ODP, low Global Warming Potential (GWP), and the small production and emission of its limited applications. The current contribution of HCFC-123 to stratospheric reactive chlorine is too small to be measurable. PMID:19534136

  1. Gauging the Potential of Socially Critical Environmental Education (EE): Examining Local Environmental Problems through Children's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsoubaris, Dimitris; Georgopoulos, Aleksandros

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative research work is to detect the needs, aspirations and feelings of pupils experiencing local environmental problems and elaborate them through the prism of a socially critical educational approach. Semi-structured focus group interviews are used as a research method applied to four primary schools located near…

  2. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The issue of the effects of the space environment on spacecraft needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 KeV - 2.5 MeV can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 KeV to 2.5 MeV. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly less than 400 nm wavelength, is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study in order to perform a variety of experiments on materials proposed for the Space Station. That system has continued to function as planned and has been used in carrying out portions of the proposed study.

  3. The impact of extreme environmental factors on the mineralization potential of the soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinyakova, Natalia; Semenov, Vyacheslav

    2016-04-01

    Warming, drying, wetting are the prevalent disturbing natural impacts that affect the upper layers of uncultivated and arable soils. The effect of drying-wetting cycles act as a physiological stress for the soil microbial community and cause changes in its structure, the partial death or lysis of the microbial biomass. The mobilization of the SOM and the stabilization of the potentially mineralizable components lead to change of mineralization potential in the soil. To test the effects of different moisture regime on plant growth and soil biological properties, plot experiment with the gray forest soil including trials with plants (corn) and bare fallow was performed. Different regimes of soil moisture (conditionally optimal, relatively deficient soil moisture and repeated cycles of drying-wetting) were created. Control of soil moisture was taken every two or three days. Gas sampling was carried out using closed chambers. Soil samples were collected at the end of the pot experiment. The potentially mineralizable content of soil organic carbon (SOC) was measured by biokinetic method based on (1) aerobic incubation of soil samples under constant temperature and moisture conditions during 158 days, (2) quantitation of C-CO2, and (3) fitting of C-CO2 cumulative curve by a model of first-order kinetic. Total soil organic carbon was measured by Tyrin's wet chemical oxidation method. Permanent deficient moisture in the soil favored the preservation of potentially mineralizable SOC. Two repeated cycles of drying-wetting did not reduce the potentially mineralizable carbon content in comparison with control under optimal soil moisture during 90 days of experiment. The emission loss of C-CO2 from the soil with plants was 1.4-1.7 times higher than the decrease of potentially mineralizable SOC due to the contribution of root respiration. On the contrary, the decrease of potentially mineralized SOC in the soil without plants was 1.1-1.2 times larger than C-CO2 emissions from the

  4. Shifting Environmental Ranges and Biome Potential According to the Whittaker Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, R.; Garonna, I.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Robert H. Whittaker classified biome types mainly as a function of Mean Annual Temperature (MAT) and Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP), resulting in the well-known Whittaker plot1. This relationship is still being used to map biomes globally2. The same inputs (MAT and MAP), augmented with a radiation proxy, are used in the resource-balance perspective for modeling large-scale vegetation productivity as a function of abiotic factors3. These two approaches, used in a temporally dynamic manner, provided us indicators of shifts in growth-limiting factors4 and associated environmental ranges of vegetation, which, in turn, are key indicators for the study of global change and biodiversity5. We present a study in which we used the Whittaker relationship and CRU TS 3.22 climatic data to map regions that showed variable biome potential. These regions are likely to indicate ecotones - i.e. interactions zones between biomes - that have been subject to abiotic change and where a change in the vegetation system can be anticipated. At the same time, we used remotely sensed data (GIMMS v3g 1982-2012) to study gradients in vegetation dynamics in these zones. Preliminary results show strongest environmental shifts in northern ecotones, e.g. on the tundra - boreal boundary, and associated changes in climatic growth-limiting factors4. [1] Whittaker RH (1975) Communities and Ecosystems, Macmillan, 385p.[2] Ricklefs RE (2008) The Economy of Nature, W. H. Freeman, 620p.[3] Field CB, Randerson JT, Malmström CM (1995) Global net primary production: Combining ecology and remote sensing. Remote Sensing of Environment, 51, 74-88.[4] Schenkel D, Garonna I, De Jong R, Schaepman ME (this conference) Linking Land Surface Phenology and Growth Limiting Factor Shifts over the Past 30 Years.[5] University of Zurich Research Priority Program on Global Change and Biodiversity, http://www.gcb.uzh.ch

  5. Characterization of a fluidized-bed combustion ash to determine potential for environmental impact. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, D.J.; Henderson, A.K.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Mann, M.D.; Eylands, K.E.

    1997-10-01

    A 440-megawatt, circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC), lignite-fired power plant is planned for construction in Choctaw County north of Ackerman, Mississippi. This power plant will utilize Mississippi lignite from the first lignite mine in that state. Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., is working with the power plant developer in the current planning and permitting efforts for this proposed construction project. In order to accommodate Mississippi state regulatory agencies and meet appropriate permit requirements, Malcolm Pirnie needed to provide an indication of the characteristics of the by-products anticipated to be produced at the proposed plant. Since the Mississippi lignite is from a newly tapped mine and the CFBC technology is relatively new, Malcolm Pirnie contacted with the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop and perform a test plan for the production and characterization of ash similar to ash that will be eventually produced at the proposed power plant. The work performed at the EERC included two primary phases: production of by-products in a bench-scale CFBC unit using lignite provided by Malcolm Pirnie with test conditions delineated by Malcolm Pirnie to represent expected operating conditions for the full-scale plant; and an extensive characterization of the by-products produced, focusing on Mississippi regulatory requirements for leachability, with the understanding that return of the by-product to the mine site was an anticipated by-product management plan. The overall focus of this project was the environmental assessment of the by-product expected to be produced at the proposed power plant. Emphasis was placed on the leachability of potentially problematic trace elements in the by-products. The leaching research documented in this report was performed to determine trends of leachability of trace elements under leaching conditions appropriate for evaluating land disposal in monofills, such as returning the by-products to the mine

  6. Potential of low-temperature anaerobic digestion to address current environmental concerns on swine production.

    PubMed

    Massé, D I; Masse, L; Xia, Y; Gilbert, Y

    2010-04-01

    Environmental issues associated with swine production are becoming a major concern among the general public and are thus an important challenge for the swine industry. There is now a renewed interest in environmental biotechnologies that can minimize the impact of swine production and add value to livestock by-products. An anaerobic biotechnology called psychrophilic anaerobic digestion (PAD) in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) has been developed at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. This very stable biotechnology recovers usable energy, stabilizes and deodorizes manure, and increases the availability of plant nutrients. Experimental results indicated that PAD of swine manure slurry at 15 to 25 degrees C in intermittently fed SBR reduces the pollution potential of manure by removing up to 90% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand. The process performs well under intermittent feeding, once to 3 times a week, and without external mixing. Bioreactor feeding activities can thus be easily integrated into the routine manure removal procedures in the barn, with minimal interference with other farm operations and use of existing manure-handling equipment. Process stability was not affected by the presence of antibiotics in manure. The PAD process was efficient in eliminating populations of zoonotic pathogens and parasites present in raw livestock manure slurries. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in SBR could also be used for swine mortality disposal. The addition of swine carcasses, at loading rates representing up to 8 times the normal mortality rates on commercial farms, did not affect the stability of SBR. No operational problems were related to the formation of foam and scum. The biotechnology was successfully operated at semi-industrial and full commercial scales. Biogas production rate exceeded 0.20 L of methane per gram of total chemical oxygen demand fed to the SBR. The biogas was of excellent quality, with a methane concentration ranging from 70 to 80%. The

  7. A Rat α-Fetoprotein Binding Activity Prediction Model to Facilitate Assessment of the Endocrine Disruption Potential of Environmental Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hong, Huixiao; Shen, Jie; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ye, Hao; Ge, Weigong; Gong, Ping; Xiao, Wenming; Tong, Weida

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest) and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold² software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69%) and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%). Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence) in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed. PMID:27023588

  8. Evaluation of the Potential Environmental Impacts from Large-Scale Use and Production of Hydrogen in Energy and Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Dubey, M.K., Edmonds, J.; Layzell, D.; Olsen, S.; Rahn, T.; Rocket, A.; Wang, D.; Jia, W.

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to systematically identify and examine possible near and long-term ecological and environmental effects from the production of hydrogen from various energy sources based on the DOE hydrogen production strategy and the use of that hydrogen in transportation applications. This project uses state-of-the-art numerical modeling tools of the environment and energy system emissions in combination with relevant new and prior measurements and other analyses to assess the understanding of the potential ecological and environmental impacts from hydrogen market penetration. H2 technology options and market penetration scenarios will be evaluated using energy-technology-economics models as well as atmospheric trace gas projections based on the IPCC SRES scenarios including the decline in halocarbons due to the Montreal Protocol. Specifically we investigate the impact of hydrogen releases on the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, the long-term stability of the ozone layer due to changes in hydrogen emissions, the impact of hydrogen emissions and resulting concentrations on climate, the impact on microbial ecosystems involved in hydrogen uptake, and criteria pollutants emitted from distributed and centralized hydrogen production pathways and their impacts on human health, air quality, ecosystems, and structures under different penetration scenarios

  9. A Rat α-Fetoprotein Binding Activity Prediction Model to Facilitate Assessment of the Endocrine Disruption Potential of Environmental Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Huixiao; Shen, Jie; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ye, Hao; Ge, Weigong; Gong, Ping; Xiao, Wenming; Tong, Weida

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest) and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold2 software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69%) and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%). Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence) in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed. PMID:27023588

  10. Environmental risk assessment of combined effects in aquatic ecotoxicology: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jonny; Petersen, Karina; Song, You; Ruus, Anders; Grung, Merete; Bakke, Torgeir; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2014-05-01

    Environmental regulatory edicts within the EU, such as the regulatory framework for chemicals REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), the Water Framework Directive (WFD), and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) focus mainly on toxicity assessment of individual chemicals although the effect of contaminant mixtures is a matter of increasing concern. This discussion paper provides an overview of the field of combined effects in aquatic ecotoxicology and addresses some of the major challenges related to assessment of combined effects in connection with environmental risk assessment (ERA) and regulation. Potentials and obstacles related to different experimental, modelling and predictive ERA approaches are described. On-going ERA guideline and manual developments in Europe aiming to incorporate combined effects of contaminants, the use of different experimental approaches for providing combined effect data, the involvement of biomarkers to characterize Mode of Action and toxicity pathways and efforts to identify relevant risk scenarios related to combined effects are discussed.

  11. Potentially harmful microalgal distribution in an area of the NW Adriatic coastline: Sampling procedure and correlations with environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, Antonella; Ingarao, Cristina; Ercolessi, Manuela; Rocchi, Marco; Penna, Nunzio

    2006-10-01

    In this study, the trend of potentially Harmful Algal (HA) taxa (genera and species), was analysed along a coastal area of the NW Adriatic Sea on a monthly scale. The study included the use of a phytoplankton net for sample collection. The investigation was carried out in four sampling stations characterised by different ecological features. The composition of potentially HA phytoplankton taxa and their succession were related to the environmental factors. The potentially HA group abundance accounted for 8% of all the phytoplankton taxa considered. Multivariate analyses of environmental factors suggested that potentially HA taxa are sensitive to phosphate content: potential DSP-YTX (Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning-Yessotoxin) producers were positively correlated with P content ( p = 0.023), while potential ASP (Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning) producers were negatively correlated with P content ( p = 0.006). Phosphorus could be considered to be the limiting factor for phytoplankton taxa density in the NW Adriatic Sea. There was a highly positive correlation between the occurrences of potentially HA taxa and low values of salinity ( p = 0.001 for potential producers of ASP, p = 0.029 for potential DSP-YTX producers). The counting of potential HA dinoflagellates in net samples represented a more accurate estimation of potential HA abundances in the water column making it possible to concentrate a greater number of potential HA dinoflagellate cells by net sampling along the entire water column rather than by sampling only at the surface as in routine monitoring procedures.

  12. Taming the Goldstone contributions to the effective potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Stephen P.

    2014-07-01

    The standard perturbative effective potential suffers from two related problems of principle involving the field-dependent Goldstone boson squared mass, G. First, in general G can be negative, and it actually is negative in the Standard Model; this leads to imaginary contributions to the effective potential that are not associated with a physical instability, and therefore spurious. Second, in the limit that G approaches zero, the effective potential minimization condition is logarithmically divergent already at two-loop order, and has increasingly severe power-law singularities at higher loop orders. I resolve both issues by resumming the Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential. For the resulting resummed effective potential, the minimum value and the minimization condition that gives the vacuum expectation value are obtained in forms that do not involve G at all.

  13. Taming the Goldstone contributions to the effective potential

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Stephen P.

    2014-07-28

    The standard perturbative effective potential suffers from two related problems of principle involving the field-dependent Goldstone boson squared mass, G. First, in general G can be negative, and it actually is negative in the Standard Model; this leads to imaginary contributions to the effective potential that are not associated with a physical instability, and therefore spurious. Second, in the limit that G approaches zero, the effective potential minimization condition is logarithmically divergent already at two-loop order, and has increasingly severe power-law singularities at higher loop orders. I resolve both issues by resumming the Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential. For the resulting resummed effective potential, the minimum value and the minimization condition that gives the vacuum expectation value are obtained in forms that do not involve G at all.

  14. Acoustic Communication in Fishes and Potential Effects of Noise.

    PubMed

    Mann, David A

    2016-01-01

    Many soniferous fishes such as cods and groupers are commercially important. Sounds are produced during courtship and spawning, and there is the potential for aquatic noise to interfere with critical behaviors and affect populations. There are few data on the response of wild populations of sound-producing fishes to acoustic noise. New motion and sound exposure fish tags could be used to assess the behavioral responses of large numbers of fish to noise exposure. Many factors, such as fishing mortality and environmental variability in prey supply, could also affect populations and potentially interact with the behavioral responses to noise.

  15. Acoustic Communication in Fishes and Potential Effects of Noise.

    PubMed

    Mann, David A

    2016-01-01

    Many soniferous fishes such as cods and groupers are commercially important. Sounds are produced during courtship and spawning, and there is the potential for aquatic noise to interfere with critical behaviors and affect populations. There are few data on the response of wild populations of sound-producing fishes to acoustic noise. New motion and sound exposure fish tags could be used to assess the behavioral responses of large numbers of fish to noise exposure. Many factors, such as fishing mortality and environmental variability in prey supply, could also affect populations and potentially interact with the behavioral responses to noise. PMID:26611018

  16. Sediment amino acids as indicators of anthropogenic activities and potential environmental risk in Erhai Lake, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhaokui; Wang, Shengrui; Zhang, Mianmian

    2016-05-01

    Total hydrolysable amino acids (THAAs) constitute the most important fraction of labile nitrogen. Anthropogenic activities directly influence various biogeochemical cycles and then accelerate lake ecosystem deterioration. This is the first study that has established the relationship between sediment THAAs and anthropogenic activities using dated sediment cores, and evaluated the possibility of THAAs release at the sediment interface based on changes in environmental conditions in Erhai Lake. The results showed that historical distribution and fractions of THAAs could be divided into three stages: a stable period before the 1970s, a clear increasing period from the 1970s to 1990s, and a gradually steady period that started after the 1990s. The chemical fraction, aromatic and sulfur amino acids (AAs) accounted for only ≤3% of THAAs. Basic AAs accounted for 5-17% of THAAs, and remained at a relatively stable level. However, acidic and neutral AAs, which accounted for 19-44% and 35-69% of THAAs, respectively, were the predominant factors causing THAAs to increase due to rapid agricultural intensification and intensification of contemporary sedimentation of phytoplankton or macrophytes since the 1970s. These trends were closely related to both anthropogenic activities and natural processes, which implied that sediment THAAs could act as an effective indicator that reflects anthropogenic activities and aquatic environmental characteristics. The current contributions of sediment THAAs on TN and TOC were <5% and 1.5%, respectively. However, the dramatic increase in THAAs in the sediment cores indicated that there was a huge potential source of labile nitrogen for the overlying water under certain environmental conditions. Correlation analysis suggested that the release of THAAs was negatively correlated with pH, whereas positively correlated with bacterial number and degree of OM mineralization, which particularly depend on the stability of HFOM. Therefore, the risk of

  17. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology.

  18. Media Cartoons: Effects on Issue Resolution in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Michael A.; Yangco, Rosanelia; Espinosa, Allen A.

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on media cartoons as a teaching strategy in Environmental Education. Specifically, it sought to determine the effects of media cartoons on the issue resolution skills of first year high school students. The study was conducted in La Salle Green Hills that had eleven sections in the first year high school level for the School Year…

  19. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #7: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF OZONE DEPLETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This edition focuses on a recent UNEP report entitled, "Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1998 Assessment." Dr. Richard Zepp (ORD/NERL) is one of the Lead Authors of this report. The 1998 assessment focuses on new information produced since 1994. It also includes earlie...

  20. Environmental Signatures for Habitability: What to Measure and How to Rank the Habitability Potential of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Mahaffy, Paul M.; Steele, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The environmental signatures for habitability are not necessarily biosignatures, even though on Earth, they are definitive proof of habitability. It is the constant overprint of the chemical signatures of life that makes it difficult to recognize the chemical and physical properties of a potentially habitable environment as distinct from an inhabited one. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will soon embark on a mission to Mars to assess its past or present habitability, so it is useful to examine how we measure habitability on Earth and prepare for how that approach may differ for Mars. This exercise includes: (a) articulation of fundamental assumptions about habitability, (b) an inventory of factors that affect habitability, (c) development of metrics, measurement approach and implementation, and (d) a new classification scheme for planetary habitability that goes beyond the binary "yes" or "no." There may be dozens of factors that affect habitability and they can be weighted as a function of specific environment. However a robotic, in situ investigation even on Earth has constraints that prevent the measurement of every environmental factor, so metrics must be reduced to the most relevant subset, given available time, cost, technical feasibility and scientific importance. Many of the factors could be measured with a combination of orbital data and the MSL payload. We propose that, at a minimum, a designation of high habitability potential requires the following conditions be met: (a) thermally stable with respect to extremes and frequency of fluctuation, (b) has more than one energy source, (c) sufficient chemical diversity to make compounds with covalent and hydrogen bonding, (d) can moderate ionizing radiation enough to allow a stable or evolving pool of organic molecules, (e) must have water or other high quality polar solvent, (f) must be able to renew chemical resources (e.g., plate tectonics, volcanism or something else we haven't envisioned). A measurement

  1. Mir Environmental Effects Payload and Returned Mir Solar Panel Cleanliness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Humes, Donald H.; Kinard, William H.

    2000-01-01

    The MIR Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP) was attached to the Docking Module of the MIR space station for 18 months during calendar years 1996 and 1997 (March 1996, STS 76 to October 1997, STS 86). A solar panel array with more than 10 years space exposure was removed from the MIR core module in November 1997, and returned to Earth in January, 1998, STS 89. MEEP and the returned solar array are part of the International Space Station (ISS) Risk Mitigation Program. This space flight hardware has been inspected and studied by teams of space environmental effects (SEE) investigators for micrometeoroid and space debris effects, space exposure effects on materials, and electrical performance. This paper reports changes in cleanliness of parts of MEEP and the solar array due to the space exposures. Special attention is given to the extensive water soluble residues deposited on some of the flight hardware surfaces. Directionality of deposition and chemistry of these residues are discussed.

  2. Potential animal and environmental sources of Q fever infection for humans in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Tozer, S J; Lambert, S B; Strong, C L; Field, H E; Sloots, T P; Nissen, M D

    2014-03-01

    Q fever is a vaccine-preventable disease; despite this, high annual notification numbers are still recorded in Australia. We have previously shown seroprevalence in Queensland metropolitan regions is approaching that of rural areas. This study investigated the presence of nucleic acid from Coxiella burnetii, the agent responsible for Q fever, in a number of animal and environmental samples collected throughout Queensland, to identify potential sources of human infection. Samples were collected from 129 geographical locations and included urine, faeces and whole blood from 22 different animal species; 45 ticks were removed from two species, canines and possums; 151 soil samples; 72 atmospheric dust samples collected from two locations and 50 dust swabs collected from domestic vacuum cleaners. PCR testing was performed targeting the IS1111 and COM1 genes for the specific detection of C. burnetii DNA. There were 85 detections from 1318 animal samples, giving a detection rate for each sample type ranging from 2.1 to 6.8%. Equine samples produced a detection rate of 11.9%, whilst feline and canine samples showed detection rates of 7.8% and 5.2%, respectively. Native animals had varying detection rates: pooled urines from flying foxes had 7.8%, whilst koalas had 5.1%, and 6.7% of ticks screened were positive. The soil and dust samples showed the presence of C. burnetii DNA ranging from 2.0 to 6.9%, respectively. These data show that specimens from a variety of animal species and the general environment provide a number of potential sources for C. burnetii infections of humans living in Queensland. These previously unrecognized sources may account for the high seroprevalence rates seen in putative low-risk communities, including Q fever patients with no direct animal contact and those subjects living in a low-risk urban environment. PMID:23663407

  3. Use of amniotic fluid for determining pregnancies at risk of preterm birth and for studying diseases of potential environmental etiology.

    PubMed

    Geer, Laura A; Pycke, Benny F G; Sherer, David M; Abulafia, Ovadia; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic fluid (AF) is a biological medium uniquely suited for the study of early exposure of the human fetus to environmental contaminants acquired by the mother before and during pregnancy. Traditional diagnostic applications of AF have focused almost exclusively on the diagnosis of genetic aberrations such as Trisomy-21 and on heritable diseases in high-risk pregnancies. Since more than 50 anthropogenic compounds have been detected in AF, there is considerable potential in utilizing fetal protein biomarkers as indicators of health effects related to prenatal toxic exposure. Here, we focus on preterm birth (PTB) to illustrate opportunities and limitations of using AF as a diagnostic matrix. Representing a pervasive public health challenge worldwide, PTB cannot be managed simply by improving hygiene and broadening access to healthcare. This is illustrated by 15-year increases of PTB in the U.S. from 1989 to 2004. AF is uniquely suited as a matrix for early detection of the association between fetal exposures and PTB due to its fetal origin and the fact that it is sampled from women who are at higher risk of PTB. This critical review shows the occurrence in AF of a number of xenobiotics, including endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which are known or may reasonably be expected to shorten fetal gestation. It is not yet known whether EDCs, including bisphenol A, phytoestrogens, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can affect the expression of proteins considered viable or potential biomarkers for the onset of PTB. As such, the diagnostic value of AF is broad and has not yet been fully explored for prenatal diagnosis of pregnancies at risk from toxic, environmental exposures and for the elucidation of mechanisms underlying important public health challenges including PTB. PMID:25460669

  4. Use of Amniotic Fluid for Determining Pregnancies at Risk of Preterm Birth and for Studying Diseases of Potential Environmental Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Geer, Laura A.; Pycke, Benny F. G.; Sherer, David M.; Abulafia, Ovadia; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic fluid (AF) is a biological medium uniquely suited for the study of early exposure of the human fetus to environmental contaminants acquired by the mother before and during pregnancy. Traditional diagnostic applications of AF have focused almost exclusively on the diagnosis of genetic aberrations such as Trisomy-21 and on heritable diseases in high-risk pregnancies. Since more than 50 anthropogenic compounds have been detected in AF, there is considerable potential in utilizing fetal protein biomarkers as indicators of prenatal exposure-related health effects. Here, we focus on preterm birth (PTB) to illustrate opportunities and limitations of using AF as a diagnostic matrix. Representing a pervasive public health challenge worldwide, PTB cannot be managed simply by improving hygiene and broadening access to healthcare. This is illustrated by 15-year increases of PTB in the U.S. from 1989-2004. AF is uniquely suited as a matrix for early detection of the association between fetal exposures and PTB due to its fetal origin and the fact that it is sampled from women who are at higher risk of PTB. This critical review shows the occurrence in AF of a number of xenobiotics, including endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which are known or may reasonably be expected to shorten fetal gestation. It is not yet known whether EDCs, including bisphenol A, phytoestrogens, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can affect the expression of proteins considered viable or potential biomarkers for the onset of PTB. As such, the diagnostic value of AF is broad and has not yet been fully explored for prenatal diagnosis of pregnancies at risk from toxic, environmental exposures and for the elucidation of mechanisms underlying important public health challenges including PTB. PMID:25460669

  5. Nitrogen Utilization and Environmental Losses from Organic Farming and Biochar's Potential to Improve N Efficiency.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, E. I.; SIX, J. W. U. A.

    2014-12-01

    The response of plant performance and nitrogen (N) dynamics to biochar amendments were studied across various levels of N input for two growing seasons in mesocosms representing an organic lettuce production systems. A silt loam soil was amended with pine chip (PC) and walnut shell (WS) biochar (10 t ha-1) in combination with five organic N fertilization rates 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of 225 kg N ha-1. N output through harvest, leachate, and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were determined to assess N utilization and environmental losses of biochar-amended soils. Analysis of plant performance indicate that PC and WS biochar did not provide any increases in plant biomass in soils that received less than business-as-usual fertilization rates. At 100% N fertilization rate, biochar amendments (both PC and WS) improved lettuce biomass production, which resulted in significant increases in NUE with no effects on N2O emissions. Furthermore, N losses via leaching were decreased by PC biochar at 100% N fertilization rates. Thus, due to increases in plant biomass and decreases in N losses via leachate, PC biochar significantly decreased the ratio of N lost over N exported in biomass. Findings from this study suggest that biochar can provide some beneficial effects to organic farming systems, however, not in all circumstances, given the effects seem to vary with biochar type and fertilization level.

  6. Ecological Recovery Potential of Freshwater Organisms: Consequences for Environmental Risk Assessment of Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gergs, Andre; Classen, Silke; Strauss, Tido; Ottermanns, Richard; Brock, Theo C M; Ratte, Hans Toni; Hommen, Udo; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contaminants released into the in the environment may have adverse effects on (non-target) species, populations and communities. The return of a stressed system to its pre-disturbance or other reference state, i.e. the ecological recovery, may depend on various factors related to the affected taxon, the ecosystem of concern and the type of stressor with consequences for the assessment and management of risks associated with chemical contaminants. Whereas the effects caused by short-term exposure might be acceptable to some extent, the conditions under which ecological recovery can serve as a decision criterion in the environmental risk assessment of chemical stressors remains to be evaluated. For a generic consideration of recovery in the risk assessment of chemicals, we reviewed case studies of natural and artificial aquatic systems and evaluate five aspects that might cause variability in population recovery time: (1) taxonomic differences and life-history variability, (2) factors related to ecosystem type and community processes, (3) type of disturbance, (4) comparison of field and semi-field studies, and (5) effect magnitude, i.e., the decline in population size following disturbance. We discuss our findings with regard to both retrospective assessments and prospective risk assessment. PMID:26423077

  7. Ecological Recovery Potential of Freshwater Organisms: Consequences for Environmental Risk Assessment of Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gergs, Andre; Classen, Silke; Strauss, Tido; Ottermanns, Richard; Brock, Theo C M; Ratte, Hans Toni; Hommen, Udo; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contaminants released into the in the environment may have adverse effects on (non-target) species, populations and communities. The return of a stressed system to its pre-disturbance or other reference state, i.e. the ecological recovery, may depend on various factors related to the affected taxon, the ecosystem of concern and the type of stressor with consequences for the assessment and management of risks associated with chemical contaminants. Whereas the effects caused by short-term exposure might be acceptable to some extent, the conditions under which ecological recovery can serve as a decision criterion in the environmental risk assessment of chemical stressors remains to be evaluated. For a generic consideration of recovery in the risk assessment of chemicals, we reviewed case studies of natural and artificial aquatic systems and evaluate five aspects that might cause variability in population recovery time: (1) taxonomic differences and life-history variability, (2) factors related to ecosystem type and community processes, (3) type of disturbance, (4) comparison of field and semi-field studies, and (5) effect magnitude, i.e., the decline in population size following disturbance. We discuss our findings with regard to both retrospective assessments and prospective risk assessment.

  8. A potential record of Late Holocene natural environmental changes in a cultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Søe, Niels Emil; Vad Odgaard, Bent; Olsen, Jesper; Munch Kristiansen, Søren

    2014-05-01

    The Late Holocene period is in most of Europe characterised by fast developing culture and agricultural techniques with associated changes in land-use, land-cover and landscape processes. Therefore, European Late Holocene natural environmental changes are often difficult to document. A core from Lake Ilsø, Denmark, was obtained to investigate environmental changes in the lake and its catchment during the Late Holocene. This record suggests an environment little disturbed by humans during the Iron Age. Lake Ilsø, situated in the central Jutland, is a small (0.005km2) and wind-protected lake in an east-west directed tunnel valley. The lake has an outlet, now channelised, and its topographical catchment area is 0.2km2. The morphology and size of Lake Ilsø gives it the potential of recording local-scale hydrological, environmental and climatic changes. Five radiocarbon dates on terrestrial material constitute an age-depth model of the 7m core, which was obtained in the central part of Lake Ilsø at maximum water depth (2.5m). The core covers the time interval from 2750 cal yr BP until the present. The core was analysed on an Itrax XRF-core scanner and sampled in 5cm increments for analysis of pollen and isotopes. The XRF-counts of titanium are expected to reflect the amount of detrital material entering the lake and thereby a proxy of the erosion from the catchment. This interpretation is supported by a high correlation between titanium and potassium. The titanium counts indicate a significant and rapid increase in erosion at 1000 cal yr BP, which continues to be high towards the present. Prior to 1000 cal yr BP organic rich sediment was deposited in the lake with short intervals of minor detrital input. The sedimentation rate was approximately 2.3mm/yr, which increased slightly to approximately 2.9mm/yr after 1000 cal yr BP. The marked change in the lake sediment is interpreted to be caused by human induced changes in the catchment during the early medieval period

  9. Advanced composites: Environmental effects on selected resin matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    The effects that expected space flight environment has upon the mechanical properties of epoxy and polyimide matrix composites were analyzed. Environmental phenomena covered water immersion, high temperature aging, humidity, lightning strike, galvanic action, electromagnetic interference, thermal shock, rain and sand erosion, and thermal/vacuum outgassing. The technology state-of-the-art for graphite and boron reinforced epoxy and polyimide matrix materials is summarized to determine the relative merit of using composites in the space shuttle program. Resin matrix composites generally are affected to some degree by natural environmental phenomena with polyimide resin matrix materials less affected than epoxies.

  10. Periodically varying externally imposed environmental effects on population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, M.; Kenkre, V. M.; Kuperman, M. N.

    2004-09-01

    Effects of externally imposed periodic changes in the environment on population dynamics are studied with the help of a simple model. The environmental changes are represented by the temporal and spatial dependence of the competition terms in a standard equation of evolution. Possible applications of the analysis are on the one hand to bacteria in Petri dishes and on the other to rodents in the context of the spread of the Hantavirus epidemic. The analysis shows that spatiotemporal structures emerge, with interesting features which depend on the interplay of separately controllable aspects of the externally imposed environmental changes.

  11. Can Pollution Problems Be Effectively Solved by Environmental Science and Technology? An Analysis of Critical Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H. )

    2000-12-01

    It is currently believed that science and technology can provide effective solutions to most, if not all, environmental problems facing western industrial societies. The validity of this optimistic assumption is highly questionable for at least three reasons: First, current mechanistic, reductionist science is inherently incapable of providing the complete and accurate information which is required to successfully address environmental problems. Second, both the conservation of mass principle and the second law of thermodynamics dictate that most remediation technologies - while successful in solving specific pollution problems - cause unavoidable negative environmental impacts elsewhere or in the future. Third, it is intrinsically impossible to design industrial processes that have no negative environmental impacts. This follows not only from the entropy law but also from the fact that any generation of energy is impossible without negative environmental consequences. It can therefore be concluded that science and technology have only very limited potential in solving current and future environmental problems. Consequently, it will be necessary to address the root cause of environmental deterioration, namely the prevailing materialistic values that are the main driving force for both overpopulation and overconsumption. The long-term protection of the environment is therefore not primarily a technical problem but rather a social and moral problem that can only be solved by drastically reducing the strong influence of materialistic values.

  12. Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective.

  13. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter

  14. Codes of environmental management practice: Assessing their potential as a tool for change

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, J.; Ehrenfeld, J.

    1997-12-31

    Codes of environmental management practice emerged as a tool of environmental policy in the late 1980s. Industry and other groups have developed codes for two purposes: to change the environmental behavior of participating firms and to increase public confidence in industry`s commitment to environmental protection. This review examines five codes of environmental management practice: Responsible Care, the International Chamber of Commerce`s Business Charter for Sustainable Development, ISO 14000, the CERES Principles, and The Natural Step. The first three codes have been drafted and promoted primarily by industry; the others have been developed by non-industry groups. These codes have spurred participating firms to introduce new practices, including the institution of environmental management systems, public environmental reporting, and community advisory panels. The extent to which codes are introducing a process of cultural change is considered in terms of four dimensions: new consciousness, norms, organization, and tools. 94 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Characterization and Potential Environmental Risks of Leachate from Shredded Rubber Mulches

    PubMed Central

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Hayashi, Ai; Denison, Michael S.; Young, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to determine whether shredded rubber mulches (RM) posed water quality risks when used in stormwater best management practices (BMPs) such as bioretention basins, batch leaching tests were conducted to identify and quantify constituents in leachates from RM such as metal ions, nutrients, total organic carbon (TOC), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity (determined by the chemically activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) bioassay) at varied temperature and initial pH values. The results indicate that aqueous extracts of RM contain high concentrations of zinc (Zn) compared with wood mulches (WM), and its concentration increased at lower pH and higher temperature. Although methanol extracts of RM displayed high AhR activity, none of the aqueous extracts of RM had significant activity. Hence, while unknown constituents that have significant AhR activity are present in RM, they appear to be not measurably extracted by water under environmental conditions relevant for stormwater (5 < pH < 9, 10 < T < 40°C). Our results suggests that organic constituents in water extracts of RM which have AhR activity may not be of significant concern while leaching of Zn from RM appears to be a potentially larger water quality issue for RM. PMID:19450864

  16. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, up-to-date, comprehensive, spatial, national-scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use. Although median annual volumes of 15,275 m3 and 19,425 m3 of water per well was used to hydraulically fracture individual horizontal oil and gas wells, respectively, in 2014, about 42% of wells were actually either vertical or directional, which required less than 2600 m3 water per well. The highest average hydraulic fracturing water usage (10,000−36,620 m3 per well) in watersheds across the United States generally correlated with shale-gas areas (versus coalbed methane, tight oil, or tight gas) where the greatest proportion of hydraulically fractured wells were horizontally drilled, reflecting that the natural reservoir properties influence water use. This analysis also demonstrates that many oil and gas resources within a given basin are developed using a mix of horizontal, vertical, and some directional wells, explaining why large volume hydraulic fracturing water usage is not widespread. This spatial variability in hydraulic fracturing water use relates to the potential for environmental impacts such as water availability, water quality, wastewater disposal, and possible wastewater injection-induced earthquakes.

  17. Terrestrial Dispersal and Potential Environmental Transmission of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)

    PubMed Central

    Kolby, Jonathan E.; Ramirez, Sara D.; Berger, Lee; Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L.; Jocque, Merlijn; Skerratt, Lee F.

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal and exposure to amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) is not confined to the aquatic habitat, but little is known about pathways that facilitate exposure to wild terrestrial amphibians that do not typically enter bodies of water. We explored the possible spread of Bd from an aquatic reservoir to terrestrial substrates by the emergence of recently metamorphosed infected amphibians and potential deposition of Bd-positive residue on riparian vegetation in Cusuco National Park, Honduras (CNP). Amphibians and their respective leaf perches were both sampled for Bd presence and the pathogen was detected on 76.1% (35/46) of leaves where a Bd-positive frog had rested. Although the viability of Bd detected on these leaves cannot be discerned from our quantitative PCR results, the cool air temperature, closed canopy, and high humidity of this cloud forest environment in CNP is expected to encourage pathogen persistence. High prevalence of infection (88.5%) detected in the recently metamorphosed amphibians and frequent shedding of Bd-positive residue on foliage demonstrates a pathway of Bd dispersal between aquatic and terrestrial habitats. This pathway provides the opportunity for environmental transmission of Bd among and between amphibian species without direct physical contact or exposure to an aquatic habitat. PMID:25927835

  18. Pollutant emissions and environmental assessment of ethyl 3-ethoxybutyrate, a potential renewable fuel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Storey, John M. E.; Bunce, Michael P.; Clarke, Edwina M.; Edmonds, Jennifer W.; Findlay, Robert H.; Ritchie, Stephen M. C.; Eyers, Laurent; McMurry, Zackery A.; Smoot, James C.

    2016-06-14

    Renewable and bio-based transportation fuel sources can lower the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles. Here, we present an initial assessment of ethyl 3-ethoxybutyrate (EEB) as a biofuel in terms of its performance as a fuel oxygenate and its persistence in the environment. EEB can be produced from ethanol and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, a bacterial storage polymer that can be produced from non-food biomass and other organic feedstocks. The physicochemical properties of EEB and fuel-relevant properties of EEB-gasoline blends were measured, emissions of criteria pollutants from EEB as a gasoline additive in a production vehicle were evaluated, and fate and persistence ofmore » EEB in the environment were estimated. EEB solubility in water was 25.8 g/L, its Kow was 1.8, and its Henry's Law constant was 1.04 x 10-5 atm-m3/mole. The anti-knock index values for 5% and 20% v/v EEB-gasoline blends were 91.6 and 91.9, respectively. Reductions in fuel economy were consistent with the level of oxygenation, and criteria emissions were met by the vehicle operated over the urban dynamometer driving cycle (FTP 75). Predicted environmental persistence ranged from 15 d to 30 d which indicates that EEB is not likely to be a persistent organic pollutant. Combined, these results suggest a high potential for the use of EEB as a renewable fuel source.« less

  19. Terrestrial Dispersal and Potential Environmental Transmission of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis).

    PubMed

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Ramirez, Sara D; Berger, Lee; Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L; Jocque, Merlijn; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal and exposure to amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) is not confined to the aquatic habitat, but little is known about pathways that facilitate exposure to wild terrestrial amphibians that do not typically enter bodies of water. We explored the possible spread of Bd from an aquatic reservoir to terrestrial substrates by the emergence of recently metamorphosed infected amphibians and potential deposition of Bd-positive residue on riparian vegetation in Cusuco National Park, Honduras (CNP). Amphibians and their respective leaf perches were both sampled for Bd presence and the pathogen was detected on 76.1% (35/46) of leaves where a Bd-positive frog had rested. Although the viability of Bd detected on these leaves cannot be discerned from our quantitative PCR results, the cool air temperature, closed canopy, and high humidity of this cloud forest environment in CNP is expected to encourage pathogen persistence. High prevalence of infection (88.5%) detected in the recently metamorphosed amphibians and frequent shedding of Bd-positive residue on foliage demonstrates a pathway of Bd dispersal between aquatic and terrestrial habitats. This pathway provides the opportunity for environmental transmission of Bd among and between amphibian species without direct physical contact or exposure to an aquatic habitat. PMID:25927835

  20. Structural and thermal properties of inorganic-organic montmorillonite: Implications for their potential environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Suramya I; Xi, Yunfei; Frost, Ray L; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2015-12-01

    Inorganic-organic clays (IOCs), clays intercalated with both organic cations such as cationic surfactants and inorganic cations such as metal hydroxy polycations have the properties of both organic and pillared clays, and thereby the ability to remove both inorganic and organic contaminants from water simultaneously. In this study, IOCs were synthesised using three different methods with different surfactant concentrations. Octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA) and hydroxy aluminium ([Al13O4(OH)24(H2O)12](7+) or Al13) are used as the organic and inorganic modifiers (intercalation agents). According to the results, the interlayer distance, the surfactant loading amount and the Al/Si ratio of IOCs strictly depend on the intercalation method and the intercalation agent ratio. Interlayers of IOCs synthesised by intercalating ODTMA before Al13 and IOCs synthesised by simultaneous intercalation of ODTMA and Al13 were increased with increasing the ODTMA concentration used in the synthesis procedure and comparatively high loading amounts could be observed in them. In contrast, Al/Si decreased with increasing ODTMA concentration in these two types of IOCs. The results suggest that Al-pillars can be fixed within the interlayers by calcination and any increment in the amount of ODTMA used in the synthesis procedure did not affect the interlayer distance of the IOCs. Overall the study provides valuable insights into the structure and properties of the IOCs and their potential environmental applications. PMID:26254868

  1. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Until now, up‐to‐date, comprehensive, spatial, national‐scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use. Although median annual volumes of 15,275 m3 and 19,425 m3 of water per well was used to hydraulically fracture individual horizontal oil and gas wells, respectively, in 2014, about 42% of wells were actually either vertical or directional, which required less than 2600 m3 water per well. The highest average hydraulic fracturing water usage (10,000−36,620 m3 per well) in watersheds across the United States generally correlated with shale‐gas areas (versus coalbed methane, tight oil, or tight gas) where the greatest proportion of hydraulically fractured wells were horizontally drilled, reflecting that the natural reservoir properties influence water use. This analysis also demonstrates that many oil and gas resources within a given basin are developed using a mix of horizontal, vertical, and some directional wells, explaining why large volume hydraulic fracturing water usage is not widespread. This spatial variability in hydraulic fracturing water use relates to the potential for environmental impacts such as water availability, water quality, wastewater disposal, and possible wastewater injection‐induced earthquakes. PMID:26937056

  2. Environmental impact and potential utilization of historical Cu-Fe-Co slags.

    PubMed

    Veselská, Veronika; Majzlan, Juraj

    2016-04-01

    Historical slags from the past Fe and Cu-Co production were investigated in order to evaluate either their potential for utilization or their long-term environmental risk for unsupervised old smelting areas. Here, we studied ferrous slags produced during the recovery of Fe from siderite-Cu ores in Slovakia and two different types of non-ferrous slags produced during the recovery of Cu and Co from Kupferschiefer ores in Germany. The glassy character, rare occurrence of primary silicate phases, and the lack of secondary phases in Cu slags indicate their stability for a prolonged period of time. Electron microprobe analytical work showed that the metals and metalloids (Cu, Co, Fe, Zn, Pb, As) are largely encased in droplets of matte and metal alloys and remain protected by the glassy matrix with its low weathering rate. Fe and Co slags are composed of high-temperature silicates such as wollastonite, cristobalite, as well as olivine, feldspar, quartz, leucite, pyroxene, and pyroxenoids. The presence of secondary phases attests to a certain degree metal release owing to weathering. Assuming minimal contents of metals in slags after a treatment with dilute H2SO4, slags could be used as pozzolanas for addition to cement. PMID:26681328

  3. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-07-01

    Until now, up-to-date, comprehensive, spatial, national-scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use. Although median annual volumes of 15,275 m3 and 19,425 m3 of water per well was used to hydraulically fracture individual horizontal oil and gas wells, respectively, in 2014, about 42% of wells were actually either vertical or directional, which required less than 2600 m3 water per well. The highest average hydraulic fracturing water usage (10,000-36,620 m3 per well) in watersheds across the United States generally correlated with shale-gas areas (versus coalbed methane, tight oil, or tight gas) where the greatest proportion of hydraulically fractured wells were horizontally drilled, reflecting that the natural reservoir properties influence water use. This analysis also demonstrates that many oil and gas resources within a given basin are developed using a mix of horizontal, vertical, and some directional wells, explaining why large volume hydraulic fracturing water usage is not widespread. This spatial variability in hydraulic fracturing water use relates to the potential for environmental impacts such as water availability, water quality, wastewater disposal, and possible wastewater injection-induced earthquakes.

  4. Pollutant emissions and environmental assessment of ethyl 3-ethoxybutyrate, a potential renewable fuel.

    PubMed

    Storey, John M E; Bunce, Michael P; Clarke, Edwina M; Edmonds, Jennifer W; Findlay, Robert H; Ritchie, Stephen M C; Eyers, Laurent; McMurry, Zackery A; Smoot, James C

    2016-09-01

    Renewable and bio-based transportation fuel sources can lower the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles. We present an initial assessment of ethyl 3-ethoxybutyrate (EEB) as a biofuel in terms of its performance as a fuel oxygenate and its persistence in the environment. EEB can be produced from ethanol and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, a bacterial storage polymer that can be produced from non-food biomass and other organic feedstocks. Physicochemical properties of EEB and fuel-relevant properties of EEB-gasoline blends were measured, emissions of criteria pollutants from EEB as a gasoline additive in a production vehicle were evaluated, and fate and persistence of EEB in the environment were estimated. EEB solubility in water was 25.8 g/L, its Kow was 1.8, and its Henry's Law constant was 1.04 × 10(-5) atm-m(3)/mole. The anti-knock index values for 5 and 20 % v/v EEB-gasoline blends were 91.6 and 91.9, respectively. Reductions in fuel economy were consistent with the level of oxygenation, and criteria emissions were met by the vehicle operated over the urban dynamometer driving cycle (FTP 75). Predicted environmental persistence ranged from 15 to 30 days which indicates that EEB is not likely to be a persistent organic pollutant. In combination, these results suggest a high potential for the use of EEB as a renewable fuel source.

  5. Effects of Environmental Conditions on an Urban Wetland's Methane Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naor Azrieli, L.; Morin, T. H.; Bohrer, G.; Schafer, K. V.; Brooker, M.; Mitsch, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Methane emissions from wetlands are the largest natural source of uncertainty in the global methane (CH4) budget. Wetlands are highly productive ecosystems with a large carbon sequestration potential. While wetlands are a net sink for carbon dioxide, they also release methane, a potent greenhouse gas. To effectively develop wetland management techniques, it is important to properly calculate the carbon budget of wetlands by understand the driving factors of methane fluxes. We constructed an eddy flux covariance system in the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, a series of created and restored wetland in Columbus Ohio. Through the use of high frequency open path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) sensors, we have continuously monitored the methane fluxes associated with the wetland since May 2011. To account for the heterogeneous landscape surrounding the tower, a footprint analysis was used to isolate data originating from within the wetland. Continuous measurements of the meteorological and environmental conditions at the wetlands coinciding with the flux measurements allow the interactions between methane fluxes and the climate and ecological forcing to be studied. The wintertime daily cycle of methane peaks around midday indicating a typical diurnal pattern in cold months. In the summer, the peak shifts to earlier in the day and also includes a daily peak occurring at approximately 10 AM. We believe this peak is associated with the onset of photosynthesis in Typha latifolia flushing methane from the plant's air filled tissue. Correlations with methane fluxes include latent heat flux, soil temperature, and incoming radiation. The connection to radiation may be further evidence of plant activity as a driver of methane fluxes. Higher methane fluxes corresponding with higher soil temperature indicates that warmer days stimulate the methanogenic consortium. Further analysis will focus on separating the methane fluxes into emissions from different terrain types within

  6. Prediction uncertainty of environmental change effects on temperate European biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Dormann, Carsten F; Schweiger, Oliver; Arens, P; Augenstein, I; Aviron, St; Bailey, Debra; Baudry, J; Billeter, R; Bugter, R; Bukácek, R; Burel, F; Cerny, M; Cock, Raphaël De; De Blust, Geert; DeFilippi, R; Diekötter, Tim; Dirksen, J; Durka, W; Edwards, P J; Frenzel, M; Hamersky, R; Hendrickx, Frederik; Herzog, F; Klotz, St; Koolstra, B; Lausch, A; Le Coeur, D; Liira, J; Maelfait, J P; Opdam, P; Roubalova, M; Schermann-Legionnet, Agnes; Schermann, N; Schmidt, T; Smulders, M J M; Speelmans, M; Simova, P; Verboom, J; van Wingerden, Walter; Zobel, M

    2008-03-01

    Observed patterns of species richness at landscape scale (gamma diversity) cannot always be attributed to a specific set of explanatory variables, but rather different alternative explanatory statistical models of similar quality may exist. Therefore predictions of the effects of environmental change (such as in climate or land cover) on biodiversity may differ considerably, depending on the chosen set of explanatory variables. Here we use multimodel prediction to evaluate effects of climate, land-use intensity and landscape structure on species richness in each of seven groups of organisms (plants, birds, spiders, wild bees, ground beetles, true bugs and hoverflies) in temperate Europe. We contrast this approach with traditional best-model predictions, which we show, using cross-validation, to have inferior prediction accuracy. Multimodel inference changed the importance of some environmental variables in comparison with the best model, and accordingly gave deviating predictions for environmental change effects. Overall, prediction uncertainty for the multimodel approach was only slightly higher than that of the best model, and absolute changes in predicted species richness were also comparable. Richness predictions varied generally more for the impact of climate change than for land-use change at the coarse scale of our study. Overall, our study indicates that the uncertainty introduced to environmental change predictions through uncertainty in model selection both qualitatively and quantitatively affects species richness projections. PMID:18070098

  7. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-07-15

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  8. Genetic and Environmental Effects on the Abdominal Aortic Diameter Development

    PubMed Central

    Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Littvay, Levente; Garami, Zsolt; Karlinger, Kinga; Berczi, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Background Configuration of the abdominal aorta is related to healthy aging and a variety of disorders. Objectives We aimed to assess heritable and environmental effects on the abdominal aortic diameter. Methods 114 adult (69 monozygotic, 45 same-sex dizygotic) twin pairs (mean age 43.6 ± 16.3 years) underwent abdominal ultrasound with Esaote MyLab 70X ultrasound machine to visualize the abdominal aorta below the level of the origin of the renal arteries and 1-3 cm above the bifurcation. Results Age- and sex-adjusted heritability of the abdominal aortic diameter below the level of the origin of the renal arteries was 40% [95% confidence interval (CI), 14 to 67%] and 55% above the aortic bifurcation (95% CI, 45 to 70%). None of the aortic diameters showed common environmental effects, but unshared environmental effects were responsible for 60% and 45% of the traits, respectively. Conclusions Our analysis documents the moderate heritability and its segment-specific difference of the abdominal aortic diameter. The moderate part of variance was explained by unshared environmental components, emphasizing the importance of lifestyle factors in primary prevention. Further studies in this field may guide future gene-mapping efforts and investigate specific lifestyle factors to prevent abdominal aortic dilatation and its complications. PMID:26559855

  9. Effects of environmental uncertainties on sonar detection performance prediction.

    PubMed

    Sha, Liewei; Nolte, Loren W

    2005-04-01

    The development of effective passive sonar systems depends upon the ability to accurately predict the performance of sonar detection algorithms in realistic ocean environments. Such environments are typically characterized by a high degree of uncertainty, thus limiting the usefulness of performance prediction approaches that assume a deterministic environment. Here we derive closed-form receiver operating characteristic (ROC) expressions for an optimal Bayesian detector and for several typical suboptimal detectors, based on a statistical model of environmental uncertainty. Various scenarios extended from an NRL benchmark shallow-water model were used to check the analytical ROC expressions and to illustrate the effect of environmental uncertainty on detection performance. The results showed that (1) optimal detection performance in an uncertain environment in diffuse noise depends primarily on the signal-to-noise ratio at the receivers and the rank of the signal matrix, where the rank is an effective representation of the scale of environmental uncertainty; (2) the ROC expression for the optimal Bayesian detector provides a more realistic performance upper bound than that obtained from conventional sonar equations that do not incorporate environmental uncertainty; and (3) detection performance predictions can be performed much faster than with commonly used numerical methods such as Monte Carlo performance evaluations.

  10. Environmental effects of the high dam at Aswan

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.F.

    1988-09-01

    No single resource development project has aroused more controversy than the high dam that stores the flow of the Nile River above the first cataract at Aswan. It is praised as the mainstay of the Egyptian economy and vilified as an environmental catastrophe. Twenty-one years after its completion there has been sufficient time to permit a first approximation of what is known about the dam's environmental effects and how they compare to what was anticipated when engineers and politicians decided to undertake the massive project. Although the evidence from post-audit study over the past decade is far from complete, there is enough to warrant general observations on direct economic impacts and to suggest several possible lessons of importance to scientists engaged in predicting and tracing environmental linkages from major water projects.

  11. The effects of community environmental factors on obesity among Korean adults: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nan-He; Kwon, Soonman

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored multidimensional factors related to obesity by dividing them into individual and environmental factors, and performed multilevel analysis to investigate community environmental effects. METHODS: Data from the 2011 and 2012 Community Health Surveys were used for the analysis. Community-level variables, constructed from various regional statistics, were included in the model as environmental factors. Respondents with body mass index (BMI)≥25 were defined as obese, and a multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze individual and environmental factors related to obesity. Moreover, a stratified analysis was conducted to compare factors related to obesity between men and women. RESULTS: Of 337,136 samples, 82,887 (24.6%) were obese, with BMI≥25. Sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level were mostly significantly related to obesity; however, while there were more obese men subjects among those with high socioeconomic status, there were more obese women among those with low socioeconomic status. There were fewer obese respondents among those who regularly walked and more obese respondents among those who reported short sleep duration or were highly stressed. At the community level, people living in areas with high socioeconomic status, high satisfaction with safety and public transportation, and high accessibility to sports facilities in their community had lower obesity risks. CONCLUSIONS: Community-level environmental factors affected obesity, especially perceived community environment, more significant than physical environment. Thus, it is necessary to develop effective obesity prevention and management strategies by considering potential community environmental factors that affect obesity. PMID:25666167

  12. Environmental Impacts of Transportation to the Potential Repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Sweeney; R. Best; P. Bolton; P. Adams

    2002-01-03

    The Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada analyzes a Proposed Action to construct, operate, monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. As part of the Proposed Action, the EIS analyzes the potential impacts of transporting commercial and DOE spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to Yucca Mountain from 77 sites across the United States. The analysis includes information on the comparative impacts of transporting these materials by truck and rail and discusses the impacts of building a rail line or using heavy-haul trucks to move rail casks from a mainline railroad in Nevada to the site. This paper provides an overview of the analyses and the potential impacts of these transportation activities. The potential transportation impacts were looked at from two perspectives: transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste by legal-weight truck or by rail on a national scale and impacts specific to Nevada from the transportation of these materials from the State borders to the Yucca Mountain site. In order to address the range of impacts that could result from the most likely modes, legal-weight truck and rail, the EIS employed two analytical scenarios--mostly legal-weight truck and mostly rail. Estimated national transportation impacts were based on 24 years of transportation activities. Approximately 8 fatalities could occur from all causes in the nationwide general population from incident-free transportation activities of the mostly legal-weight truck scenario and about 4 from the mostly rail scenario. The analysis examined the radiological consequences under the maximum foreseeable accident scenario and also overall accident risk. The overall accident risk over the 24 year period would be about 0.0002 latent cancer fatality for

  13. Regional variability of environmental effects of energy crop rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescher, Anne-Katrin; Peter, Christiane; Specka, Xenia; Willms, Matthias; Glemnitz, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The use of energy crops for bioenergy production is increasingly promoted by different frameworks and policies (ECCP, UNFCCC). Energy cropping decreases greenhouse gas emissions by replacing the use of fossil fuel. However, despite this, growing in monocultures energy crop rotations has low environmental benefit. It is broadly accepted consensus that sustainable energy cropping is only realizable by crop rotations which include several energy crop species. Four crop rotations consisting of species mixtures of C3, C4 and leguminous plants and their crop positions were tested to identify the environmental effect of energy cropping systems. The experimental design included four replicates per crop rotation each covering four cultivation years. The study took place at five sites across Germany covering a considerable range of soil types (loamy sand to silt loam), temperatures (7.5 ° C - 10.0 ° C) and precipitation (559 mm - 807 mm) which allow a regional comparison of crop rotation performance. Four indicators were used to characterize the environmental conditions: (1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the management actions; (2) change in humus carbon (Chum); (3) groundwater recharge (RGW) and (4) nitrogen dynamics. The indicators were derived by balance, by an empirical model and by a dynamic model, respectively, all based and calibrated on measured values. The results show that the crop rotation impact on environmental indicators varied between plant species mixtures and the crop positions, between sites and climate. Crop rotations with 100 % energy crops (including C4 plants) had negative influence on Chum, GHG emissions per area and RGW in comparison to the rotation of 50 % energy crops and 50 % cash crops, which were mainly due to the remaining straw on the field. However, the biogas yield of the latter rotation was smaller, thus GHG emissions per product were higher, pointing out the importance to distinguish between GHG emissions per product and per area

  14. Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-05-01

    This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are treated first. Then, regional effects of air pollution, including acid rain, are analyzed. Finally, potential global impacts are examined. Occupational health concerns considered include exposure to noise, dust, asbestos, mercury, and combustion products, and resulting injury and disease. Local effects considered include noise; air and water emissions of coal storage piles, solid waste operations, and cooling systems. Air pollution, once an acute local problem, is now a regional concern. Acute and chronic direct health effects are considered. Special attention is given to potential effects of radionuclides in coal and of acid rain. Finally, potential global impacts associated with carbon dioxide emissions are considered. 88 references, 9 tables.

  15. Indoor air pollution and childhood asthma: effective environmental interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Etzel, R A

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollutants such as tobacco smoke and dust mites may exacerbate childhood asthma. Environmental interventions to reduce exposures to these pollutants can help prevent exacerbations of the disease. Among the most important interventions is the elimination of environmental tobacco smoke from the environments of children with asthma. However, the effectiveness of reducing asthmatic children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the severity of their symptoms has not yet been systematically evaluated. Dust mite reduction is another helpful environmental intervention. This can be achieved by enclosing the child's mattresses, blankets, and pillows in zippered polyurethane-coated casings. Primary prevention of asthma is not as well understood. It is anticipated that efforts to reduce smoking during pregnancy could reduce the incidence of asthma in children. European studies have suggested that reducing exposure to food and house dust mite antigens during lactation and for the first 12 months of life diminishes the development of allergic disorders in infants with high total IgE in the cord blood and a family history of atopy. Many children with asthma and their families are not receiving adequate counseling about environmental interventions from health care providers or other sources. PMID:8549490

  16. Ammonia emission and deposition in Scotland and its potential environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Sutton, M A; Dragosits, U; Hellsten, S; Place, C J; Dore, A J; Tang, Y S; van Dijk, N; Love, L; Fournier, N; Vieno, M; Weston, K J; Smith, R I; Coyle, M; Roy, D; Hall, J; Fowler, D

    2004-09-02

    The main source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in Scotland is livestock agriculture, which accounts for 85% of emissions. The local magnitude of emissions therefore depends on livestock density, type, and management, with major differences occurring in various parts of Scotland. Local differences in agricultural activities therefore result in a wide range of NH3 emissions, ranging from less than 0.2 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) in remote areas of the Scottish Highlands to over 100 kg N ha(-1) year-1 in areas with intensive poultry farming. Scotland can be divided loosely into upland and lowland areas, with NH3 emission being less than and more than 5 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. Many semi-natural ecosystems in Scotland are vulnerable to nitrogen deposition, including bogs, moorlands, and the woodland ground flora. Because NH3 emissions occur in the rural environment, the local deposition to sensitive ecosystems may be large, making it essential to assess the spatial distribution of NH3 emissions and deposition. A spatial model is applied here to map NH3 emissions and these estimates are applied in atmospheric dispersion and deposition models to estimate atmospheric concentrations of NH3 and NH4+, dry deposition of NH3, and wet deposition of NHx. Although there is a high level of local variability, modelled NH3 concentrations show good agreement with the National Ammonia Monitoring Network, while wet deposition is largest at high altitude sites in the south and west of Scotland. Comparison of the modelled NHx deposition fields with estimated thresholds for environmental effects ("critical loads") shows that thresholds are exceeded across most of lowland Scotland and the Southern Uplands. Only in the cleanest parts of the north and west is nitrogen deposition not a cause for concern. Given that the most intense effects occur within a few kilometres of sources, it is suggested that local spatial abatement policies would be a useful complement to traditional policies that

  17. Public policy and environmental noise: modeling exposure or understanding effects.

    PubMed Central

    Staples, S L

    1997-01-01

    This paper argues that if the federal government is to successfully protect the public from the adverse effects of environmental noise, its policies will need to be informed by a scientific understanding of the psychological and social factors that determine when noise results in annoyance and when noise may affect health as an environmental stressor. The overreliance of federal agencies on mathematical modeling of average group responses to physical noise levels is discussed as oversimplifying and limiting the understanding of noise effects in crucial ways. The development of a more sophisticated information base is related to policy needs, such as the need to make accurate predictions about the annoyance of particular communities, the need to understand relationships between public participation in noise abatement efforts and annoyance, and the need to identify populations that may be susceptible to stress-related health effects. PMID:9431308

  18. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: Drug and Environmental Effects at 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Lynn T.; Nelson, Suchitra; Short, Elizabeth; Min, Meeyoung O.; Kirchner, H. Lester; Lewis, Barbara; Russ, Sandra; Minnes, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess school age cognitive and achievement outcomes after prenatal cocaine exposure, controlling for confounding drug and environmental factors. Study design At 9 years, 371 children (192 cocaine exposure, CE; 179 non-exposure, NCE) were assessed for IQ and school achievement in a longitudinal, prospective study from birth. An extensive number of confounding variables were controlled, including quality of caregiving environment, polydrug exposure, lead, iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and foster/adoptive care. Results CE predicted poorer Perceptual Reasoning IQ with a linear relationship of the concentration of the cocaine metabolite, benzoylecgonine, to degree of impairment. Effects were mediated through birth head circumference, indicating a relationship with fetal brain growth. Negative effects of alcohol, lead, and marijuana exposure and positive effects of home environment were additive. Children with CE in foster/adoptive care had better home environments and lower lead levels. School achievement was not affected. Conclusions There were persistent teratologic effects of CE on specific cognitive functions and additive effects of alcohol, lead, marijuana, IDA, and home environment. Documenting environmental factors in behavioral teratology studies is important because in this sample, CE was associated with better home environments and lower environmental risk for a substantial number of children. PMID:18571546

  19. Modified Whole Effluent Toxicity Test to Assess and Decouple Wastewater Effects from Environmental Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Sauco, Sebastián; Gómez, Julio; Barboza, Francisco R.; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET) that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd) and salinity controls (SC: without canal water). CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period) with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses. PMID:23755304

  20. Bernoulli effect and contact potential difference in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Omel'yanchuk, A.N.; Beloborod'ko, S.I.

    1983-10-01

    An expression is derived for the Bernoulli potential that arises in superconductors with an inhomogeneous current distribution. The expression is valid for arbitrary temperatures and superfluid velocities. In the superconductor--dielectric--superconductor system we consider the Bernoulli effect, which manifests itself in a contact potential difference between the superconductors. The potential difference is determined by the currents flowing through one plate of the contact and can be measured with a voltmeter in the quasi-stationary regime.

  1. Legume-rhizobia signal exchange: promiscuity and environmental effects

    PubMed Central

    Lira, Mario A.; Nascimento, Luciana R. S.; Fracetto, Giselle G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although signal exchange between legumes and their rhizobia is among the best-known examples of this biological process, most of the more characterized data comes from just a few legume species and environmental stresses. Although a relative wealth of information is available for some model legumes and some of the major pulses such as soybean, little is known about tropical legumes. This relative disparity in current knowledge is also apparent in the research on the effects of environmental stress on signal exchange; cool-climate stresses, such as low-soil temperature, comprise a relatively large body of research, whereas high-temperature stresses and drought are not nearly as well understood. Both tropical legumes and their environmental stress-induced effects are increasingly important due to global population growth (the demand for protein), climate change (increasing temperatures and more extreme climate behavior), and urbanization (and thus heavy metals). This knowledge gap for both legumes and their environmental stresses is compounded because whereas most temperate legume-rhizobia symbioses are relatively specific and cultivated under relatively stable environments, the converse is true for tropical legumes, which tend to be promiscuous, and grow in highly variable conditions. This review will clarify some of this missing information and highlight fields in which further research would benefit our current knowledge. PMID:26441880

  2. Addressing questions about including environmental effects in the DMSO HLA

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) is developing a High Level Architecture (HLA) to support the DOD Modeling and Simulation (M and S) community. Many, if not all, of the simulations involve the environment in some fashion. In some applications, the simulation takes place in an acknowledged environment without any environmental functionality being taken into account. The Joint Training Federation Prototype (JTFp) is one of several prototype efforts that have been created to provide a test of the DMSO HLA. In addition to addressing the applicability of the HLA to a training community, the JTFp is also one of two prototype efforts that is explicitly including environmental effects in their simulation effort. These two prototyping efforts are examining the issues associated with the inclusion of the environment in an HLA federation. In deciding whether or not to include an environmental federation in the JTFp effort, a number of questions have been raised about the environment and the HLA. These questions have raised the issue of incompatibility between the environment and the HLA and also shown that there is something unique about including the environment in simulations. The purpose of this White Paper, which was developed with inputs from the National Air and Space [Warfare] Model Program among others, is to address the various questions that have been posed about including environmental effects in an HLA simulation.

  3. A study on determination of potentially hazardous plutonium isotopes in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2013-01-01

    Due to the lack of stable plutonium isotopes, and the high mobility as well as long half-life, plutonium is considered one of the most important radioelement in safety assessment of environmental radioactivity and nuclear waste management. A number of analytical methods have been developed over the past decades for determination of plutonium in environmental samples. The article discusses different analytical techniques and presents the results of plutonium isotopes determination by alpha spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry in environmental samples. The concentrations of plutonium isotopes in analyzed samples indicates its measurement is of great importance for environmental and safety assessment, especially in contaminated areas.

  4. Potential Environmental and Environmental-Health Implications of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario in California: Chapter F in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morman, Suzette A.; San Juan, Carma

    2013-01-01

    If human populations are successfully evacuated prior to the tsunami arrival, there would be no or limited numbers of drownings, other casualties, or related injuries, wounds, and infections. Immediately after the tsunami, human populations away from the inundation zone could be transiently exposed to airborne gases, smoke, and ash from tsunamigenic fires. Cleanup and disposal, particularly of hazardous materials, would pose substantial logistical challenges and economic costs. Given the high value of the coastal residential and commercial properties in the inundation zone, it can be postulated that there would be substantial insurance claims for environmental restoration, mold mitigation, disposal of debris that contains hazardous materials, and costs of litigation related to environmental liability. Post-tsunami cleanup, if done with appropriate mitigation (for example, dust control), personal protection, and disposal measures, would help reduce the potential for cleanup-worker and resident exposures to toxicants and pathogens in harbor waters, debris, soils, ponded waters, and buildings. A number of other steps can be taken by governments, businesses, and residents to help reduce the environmental impacts of tsunamis and to recover more quickly from these environmental impacts. For example, development of State and local policies that foster rapid assessment of potential contamination, as well as rapid decision making for disposal options should hazardous debris or sediment be identified, would help enhance recovery by speeding cleanup.

  5. Effect of the earth's ellipticity on the lunar tidal potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlen, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The earth's orbital acceleration about the moon is influenced by its ellipticity. In this paper it shown that the ellipticity affects tidal gravity by contributing directly to the lunar tide-generating potential (in addition to effecting the elastic-gravitational response of the solid earth and oceans to this potential).

  6. Cross-species sensitivity to a novel androgen receptor agonist of potential environmental concern, spironolactone.

    PubMed

    LaLone, Carlie A; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Cavallin, Jenna E; Kahl, Michael D; Durhan, Elizabeth J; Makynen, Elizabeth A; Jensen, Kathleen M; Stevens, Kyle E; Severson, Megan N; Blanksma, Chad A; Flynn, Kevin M; Hartig, Philip C; Woodard, Jonne S; Berninger, Jason P; Norberg-King, Teresa J; Johnson, Rodney D; Ankley, Gerald T

    2013-11-01

    Spironolactone is a pharmaceutical that in humans is used to treat conditions like hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female-pattern hair loss through antagonism of the androgen receptor. Although not routinely monitored in the environment, spironolactone has been detected downstream of a pharmaceutical manufacturer, indicating a potential for exposure of aquatic species. Furthermore, spironolactone has been reported to cause masculinization of female western mosquitofish, a response indicative of androgen receptor activation. Predictive methods to identify homologous proteins to the human and western mosquitofish androgen receptor suggest that vertebrates would be more susceptible to adverse effects mediated by chemicals like spironolactone that target the androgen receptor compared with invertebrate species that lack a relevant homolog. In addition, an adverse outcome pathway previously developed for activation of the androgen receptor suggests that androgen mimics can lead to reproductive toxicity in fish. To assess this, 21-d reproduction studies were conducted with 2 fish species, fathead minnow and Japanese medaka, and the invertebrate Daphnia magna. Spironolactone significantly reduced the fecundity of medaka and fathead minnows at 50 μg/L, whereas daphnia reproduction was not affected by concentrations as large as 500 μg/L. Phenotypic masculinization of females of both fish species was observed at 5 μg/L as evidenced by formation of tubercles in fathead minnows and papillary processes in Japanese medaka. Effects in fish occurred at concentrations below those reported in the environment. These results demonstrate how a priori knowledge of an adverse outcome pathway and the conservation of a key molecular target across vertebrates can be utilized to identify potential chemicals of concern in terms of monitoring and highlight potentially sensitive species and endpoints for testing.

  7. Space Toxicology: Environmental Health Considerations during Spaceflight Operations and Potential Paths for Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen N.; Sundaresan, Alemalu

    2009-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a specialized discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids [1]. Astronaut explorers face unique challenges to their health while working and living with limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. At its core the practice of space toxicology to identify, assess and predict potential chemical contaminants and limit the astronaut s exposure to these environmental factors in order to protect crew health. Space toxicologists are also charged with setting safe exposure limits that will protect the astronaut against a multitude of chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space, toxicological risks are gauged and managed within the context of isolation, continual exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the necessary use of highly toxic compounds required for propulsion. As the space program move towards human presence and exploration other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of unusual and/or reactive mineral dusts must also be analyzed and controlled. Placing humans for long-term presence in space creates several problems and challenges to the long-term health of the crew, such as bone-loss and immunological challenges and has spurred research into acute, chronic and episodic exposure of the pulmonary system to mineral dusts [2]. NASA has demonstrated that lunar soil contains several types of reactive dusts, including an extremely fine respirable component. In order to protect astronaut health, NASA is now investigating the toxicity of this unique class of dusts. Understanding how these reactive components behave "biochemically" in a moisture-rich pulmonary environment will aid in determining how toxic these particles are to humans. The data obtained from toxicological examination of lunar dusts will determine the human risk criteria for lunar

  8. Geochemistry and potential environmental impact of the mine tailings at Rosh Pinah, southern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejeschlebová, L.; Sracek, O.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Kříbek, B.; Knésl, I.; Vaněk, A.; Penížek, V.; Dolníček, Z.; Mapani, B.

    2015-05-01

    Mine tailings at Rosh Pinah located in semiarid southern Namibia were investigated by the combination of mineralogical methods and leaching using water and simulated gastric solution. They are well-neutralized with leachate pH > 7 and neutralization potential ratios (NPR) up to 4. Neutralization is mainly due to abundant Mn-rich dolomite in the matrix. Concentrations of released contaminants in water leachate follow the order Zn > Pb > Cu > As. Relatively high leached concentrations of Zn and partly also of Pb are caused by their link to relatively soluble carbonates and Mn-oxyhydroxides. In contrast, As is almost immobile by binding into Fe-oxyhydroxides, which are resistant to dissolution. Barium is released by the dissolution of Ba-carbonate (norsethite) and precipitates in sulfate-rich pore water as barite. Dissolved concentrations in neutral mine drainage water collected in the southern pond are low, but when total concentrations including colloidal fraction are taken into account, more than 70% of Zn is in colloidal form. Groundwater upgradient of the mine tailings is of poor quality and there seems to be no negative impact on groundwater downgradient from mine tailings. Contaminant concentrations in simulated gastric leachates are in the order Ba > Pb > Zn > Cu > As with a maximum gastric bioaccessibility of 86.6% for Ba and a minimum of 3.3% for As. These results demonstrate that total contaminant content and toxicity in the solid phase are poor predictors of risk, and therefore mineralogical and bioavailability/bioaccessibility studies are necessary for evaluation of contaminant environmental impact.

  9. Pollutant emissions and environmental assessment of ethyl 3-ethoxybutyrate, a potential renewable fuel.

    PubMed

    Storey, John M E; Bunce, Michael P; Clarke, Edwina M; Edmonds, Jennifer W; Findlay, Robert H; Ritchie, Stephen M C; Eyers, Laurent; McMurry, Zackery A; Smoot, James C

    2016-09-01

    Renewable and bio-based transportation fuel sources can lower the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles. We present an initial assessment of ethyl 3-ethoxybutyrate (EEB) as a biofuel in terms of its performance as a fuel oxygenate and its persistence in the environment. EEB can be produced from ethanol and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, a bacterial storage polymer that can be produced from non-food biomass and other organic feedstocks. Physicochemical properties of EEB and fuel-relevant properties of EEB-gasoline blends were measured, emissions of criteria pollutants from EEB as a gasoline additive in a production vehicle were evaluated, and fate and persistence of EEB in the environment were estimated. EEB solubility in water was 25.8 g/L, its Kow was 1.8, and its Henry's Law constant was 1.04 × 10(-5) atm-m(3)/mole. The anti-knock index values for 5 and 20 % v/v EEB-gasoline blends were 91.6 and 91.9, respectively. Reductions in fuel economy were consistent with the level of oxygenation, and criteria emissions were met by the vehicle operated over the urban dynamometer driving cycle (FTP 75). Predicted environmental persistence ranged from 15 to 30 days which indicates that EEB is not likely to be a persistent organic pollutant. In combination, these results suggest a high potential for the use of EEB as a renewable fuel source. PMID:27296930

  10. Pollution effects on fisheries — potential management activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1980-03-01

    Management of ocean pollution must be based on the best available scientific information, with adequate consideration of economic, social, and political realities. Unfortunately, the best available scientific information about pollution effects on fisheries is often fragmentary, and often conjectural; therefore a primary concern of management should be a critical review and assessment of available factual information about effects of pollutants on fish and shellfish stocks. A major problem in any such review and assessment is the separation of pollutant effects from the effects of all the other environmental factors that influence survival and well-being of marine animals. Data from long-term monitoring of resource abundance, and from monitoring of all determinant environmental variables, will be required for analyses that lead to resolution of the problem. Information must also be acquired about fluxes of contaminants through resource-related ecosystems, and about contaminant effects on resource species as demonstrated in field and laboratory experiments. Other possible management activities include: (1) encouragement of continued efforts to document clearly the localized and general effects of pollution on living resources; (2) continued pressure to identify and use reliable biological indicators of environmental degradation (indicators of choice at present are: unusually high levels of genetic and other anomalies in the earliest life history stages; presence of pollution-associated disease signs, particularly fin erosion and ulcers, in fish; and biochemical/physiological changes); and (3) major efforts to reduce inputs of pollutants clearly demonstrated to be harmful to living resources, from point sources as well as ocean dumping. Such pollution management activities, based on continuous efforts in stock assessment, environmental assessment, and experimental studies, can help to insure that rational decisions will be made about uses and abuses of coastal

  11. REPRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AQUATIC EXPOSURE TO TRENBOLONE, AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive and Physiological Effects of Aquatic Exposure to Trenbolone, an Environmental Androgen (Abstract). To be presented at the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: Changing Environmental Awareness: Societal Concerns and Scientific...

  12. Poultry litter incineration as a source of energy: reviewing the potential for impacts on environmental health and justice.

    PubMed

    Stingone, Jeanette A; Wing, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Legislation in North Carolina has mandated obtaining renewable energy from the incineration of poultry waste, resulting in proposals for three poultry-litter-fueled power plants statewide. This article summarizes environmental health and environmental justice issues associated with incineration of poultry waste for the generation of electric power. Emissions from poultry waste incineration include particulate matter, dioxins, arsenic, bioaerosols and other toxins; various components are associated with cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory illness, and other diseases. Industrial farm animal production tends to be concentrated in low-income, rural communities, where residents may be more vulnerable to air pollutants due to pre-existing diseases, other exposures and stressors, and poor access to medical services. These communities lack the political clout to prevent citing of polluting facilities or to pressure industry and government to follow and enforce regulations. Policies intended to reduce reliance on fossil fuels have the potential to increase environmental injustices and threats to environmental health.

  13. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the current estimates of the integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 10(exp 10) electrons/sq cm/day. and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 109 protons/sq cm/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionately less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of this combined environment is the issue which needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed in the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 Kev-2.5 Mev can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 Kev to 2.5 Mev. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly in the ultraviolet (less than 400 nm wavelength) is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study (NAS8-38609) in order to

  14. The Potential of Free-Choice Learning for Environmental Participation in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skanavis, Constantina; Sakellari, Maria; Petreniti, Vassiliki

    2005-01-01

    Citizen participation in environmental decision-making is of extreme importance in securing a good quality of life. Local communities know best what alternate solutions should be implemented for appropriate management of their area. This paper presents findings about the environmental characteristics of various Greek citizens' groups, where…

  15. A new multimedia contaminant fate model for China: how important are environmental parameters in influencing chemical persistence and long-range transport potential?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Price, Oliver R; Tao, Shu; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andy J

    2014-08-01

    We present a new multimedia chemical fate model (SESAMe) which was developed to assess chemical fate and behaviour across China. We apply the model to quantify the influence of environmental parameters on chemical overall persistence (POV) and long-range transport potential (LRTP) in China, which has extreme diversity in environmental conditions. Sobol sensitivity analysis was used to identify the relative importance of input parameters. Physicochemical properties were identified as more influential than environmental parameters on model output. Interactive effects of environmental parameters on POV and LRTP occur mainly in combination with chemical properties. Hypothetical chemicals and emission data were used to model POV and LRTP for neutral and acidic chemicals with different KOW/DOW, vapour pressure and pKa under different precipitation, wind speed, temperature and soil organic carbon contents (fOC). Generally for POV, precipitation was more influential than the other environmental parameters, whilst temperature and wind speed did not contribute significantly to POV variation; for LRTP, wind speed was more influential than the other environmental parameters, whilst the effects of other environmental parameters relied on specific chemical properties. fOC had a slight effect on POV and LRTP, and higher fOC always increased POV and decreased LRTP. Example case studies were performed on real test chemicals using SESAMe to explore the spatial variability of model output and how environmental properties affect POV and LRTP. Dibenzofuran released to multiple media had higher POV in northwest of Xinjiang, part of Gansu, northeast of Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang and Jilin. Benzo[a]pyrene released to the air had higher LRTP in south Xinjiang and west Inner Mongolia, whilst acenaphthene had higher LRTP in Tibet and west Inner Mongolia. TCS released into water had higher LRTP in Yellow River and Yangtze River catchments. The initial case studies demonstrated that SESAMe

  16. Elimination of environmental effects from Landsat radiance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. T.; Smith, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    A critical problem involved in quantitative multi-temporal sensing of the physical processes with Landsat is the fact that variations in the spectral signatures for a given target of interest result from a combined effect of target properties and the environmental factors such as sun angles, atmospheric conditions, etc. at the time of an overpass. In an attempt to solve the problem, a transformation procedure is developed to remove the environmental effects from the MSS radiance data. Mathematical derivation of the transformation procedure is elaborated and an example of testing the procedure is illustrated using suspended sediments reflectance data obtained by Landsat MSS during four different overpasses over the lower Mississippi River valley.

  17. Environmental and viscoelastic effects on stresses in adhesive joints

    SciTech Connect

    Palazotto, A.N.; Birman, V.

    1995-04-01

    This paper considers the state of the art in several important areas of research on adhesively bonded joints. The paper reviews the studies dealing with environmental and viscoelastic effects on stresses in adhesive joints. Environmental factors that affect stresses include temperature and moisture. These factors are analyzed and practical examples that illustrate their impact on adhesives are given for the solid-rocket motor, which is a structural component paramount to the U.S. space program. The paper deals with viscoelastic effects on adhesive joints, and a number of viscoelastic models used in the analysis of viscoelastic materials, including adhesives, are reviewed. The use of the solid-rocket motor as an example characterizes the circumstances where viscoelastic properties of adhesive layers are essential. Close attention is paid to the fractional derivative model of Bagley and Torvik, which may be a good candidate for an analytical study of adhesive joints. Finally, existing studies on viscoelastic adhesive joints are considered. 54 refs.

  18. 76 FR 29728 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Notice of Potential Floodplain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... 2007 and an associated Record of Decision in July 2009 (74 FR 35174). The proposed action would have... Impact Statement for the FutureGen Project (DOE/EIS-0394 ) and associated Record of Decision (74 FR 35174... of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Notice of Potential Floodplain...

  19. Whole-Genome Sequence of Mesorhizobium hungaricum sp. nov. Strain UASWS1009, a Potential Resource for Agricultural and Environmental Uses

    PubMed Central

    Crovadore, Julien; Cochard, Bastien; Calmin, Gautier; Chablais, Romain; Schulz, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    We report here the whole-genome shotgun sequences of the strain UASWS1009 of the species Mesorhizobium hungaricum sp. nov., which are different from any other known Mesorhizobium species. This is the first genome registered for this new species, which could be considered as a potential resource for agriculture and environmental uses. PMID:27738050

  20. Nitroaromatic munition compounds: environmental effects and screening values.

    PubMed

    Talmage, S S; Opresko, D M; Maxwell, C J; Welsh, C J; Cretella, F M; Reno, P H; Daniel, F B

    1999-01-01

    Available data on the occurrence, transport, transformation, and toxicity of eight nitroaromatic munition compounds and their degradation products, TNT, TNB, DNB, DNA, 2-ADNT, RDX, HMX, and tetryl were used to identify potential fate in the environment and to calculate screening benchmarks or safe environmental levels for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Results of monitoring studies revealed that some of these compounds persist at sites where they were produced or processed. Most of the compounds are present in soil, sediment, and surface water or groundwater at military sites. Soil adsorption coefficients indicate that these chemicals are only moderately adsorbed to soil and may leach to groundwater. Most of these compounds are transformed by abiotic or biotic mechanisms in environmental media. Primary transformation mechanisms involve photolysis (TNT, RDX, HMX, tetryl), hydrolysis (tetryl), and microbial degradation (TNT, TNB, DNB, DNA, 2-ADNT, and HMX). Microbial degradation for both nitro and nitramine aromatic compounds involves rapid reduction of nitro groups to amino groups, but further metabolism is slow. With the exception of DNB, complete mineralization did not usually occur under the conditions of the studies. RDX was resistant to microbial degradation. Available ecotoxicological data on acute and chronic studies with freshwater fish and invertebrates were summarized, and water quality criteria or ecotoxicological screening benchmarks were developed. Depending on the available data, criteria/benchmarks were calculated according to USEPA Tier I or Tier II guidelines. The munitions chemicals are moderately to highly toxic to freshwater organisms, with chronic screening values < 1 mg/L. For some chemicals, these low values are caused by inherent toxicity; in other cases, they result from the conservative methods used in the absence of data. For nonionic organic munitions chemicals, sediment quality benchmarks were calculated (based on Kow values and the