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Sample records for potential estrogenic effects

  1. Examining triclosan-induced potentiation of the estrogen uterotrophic effect

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS), a widely used antibacterial, has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor. We reported previously that TCS potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth in rats orally administered 3 μg/kg EE and TCS (2 to 18 mg/kg) in the utero...

  2. Biosensor Zebrafish Provide New Insights into Potential Health Effects of Environmental Estrogens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Okhyun; Takesono, Aya; Tada, Masazumi; Kudoh, Tetsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Background: Environmental estrogens alter hormone signaling in the body that can induce reproductive abnormalities in both humans and wildlife. Available testing systems for estrogens are focused on specific systems such as reproduction. Crucially, however, the potential for significant health impacts of environmental estrogen exposures on a variety of body systems may have been overlooked. Objective: Our aim was to develop and apply a sensitive transgenic zebrafish model to assess real-time effects of environmental estrogens on signaling mechanisms in a whole body system for use in integrated health assessments. Methods: We created a novel transgenic biosensor zebrafish containing an estrogen-inducible promoter derived with multiple tandem estrogen responsive elements (EREs) and a Gal4ff-UAS system for enhanced response sensitivity. Results: Using our novel estrogen-responsive transgenic (TG) zebrafish, we identified target tissues for environmental estrogens; these tissues have very high sensitivity even at environmentally relevant concentrations. Exposure of the TG fish to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) induced specific expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a wide variety of tissues including the liver, heart, skeletal muscle, otic vesicle, forebrain, lateral line, and ganglions, most of which have not been established previously as targets for estrogens in fish. Furthermore, we found that different EDCs induced GFP expression with different tissue response patterns and time trajectories, suggesting different potential health effects. Conclusion: We have developed a powerful new model for understanding toxicological effects, mechanisms, and health impacts of environmental estrogens in vertebrates. PMID:22510978

  3. Potential Approaches to Enhance the Effects of Estrogen on Senescent Blood Vessels and Postmenopausal Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in postmenopausal than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular protective effects of estrogen. Vascular estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and a transmembrane estrogen-binding protein GPR30 have been described. Also, experimental studies have demonstrated vasodilator effects of estrogen on the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle and extracellular matrix. However, randomized clinical trials have not supported vascular benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), possibly due to the subjects' advanced age and age-related changes in estrogen synthesis and metabolic pathways, the vascular ERs number, distribution and integrity, and the post-ER vascular signaling pathways. Current MHT includes natural estrogens such as conjugated equine estrogen, as well as synthetic and semi-synthetic estrogens. New estrogenic formulations and hormone combinations have been developed. Phytoestrogens is being promoted as an alternative MHT. Specific ER modulators (SERMs), and selective agonists for ERα such as PPT, ERβ such as DPN, and GPR30 such as G1 are being evaluated. In order to enhance the vascular effectiveness of MHT, its type, dose, route of administration and timing may need to be customized depending on the subject's age and pre-existing CVD. Also, the potential interaction of estrogen with progesterone and testosterone on vascular function may need to be considered in order to maximize the vascular benefits of MHT on senescent blood vessels and postmenopausal CVD. PMID:20210774

  4. Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α on Estrogen Metabolism and Endometrial Cells: Potential Physiological and Pathological Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Salama A.; Kamel, Marwa W.; Diaz-Arrastia, Concepcion R.; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Salih, Sana; Botting, Shaleen K.; Kumar, Raj

    2009-01-01

    Context: Estrogen and its metabolites play a critical role in the pathophysiology of the endometrium. The bioavailability of estrogen and estrogen metabolites in endometrial tissues depends on the expression of enzymes involved in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism. Substantial evidence indicates that estrogen-dependent endometrial disorders are also associated with proinflammatory milieu. However, the mechanism whereby inflammation contributes to these conditions is not known. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of TNF-α on estrogen metabolism and the expression of estrogen-metabolizing genes in human endometrial glandular epithelial cells (EM1). Design: EM1 were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) with or without TNF-α. Capillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis was used for quantitative measurement of estrogens and estrogen metabolites. Western blot analysis, reporter gene assay, and real-time RT-PCR were used to assess the expression of estrogen-metabolizing genes. Results: TNF-α treatment significantly increased the level of total estrogen and estrogen metabolites and significantly increased the rate of conversion of estrone (E1) into E2. TNF-α also enhanced the oxidative metabolism of estrogen into catecholestrogens with concomitant inhibition of their conversion into methoxyestrogens. Gene expression analysis revealed that TNF-α induced the expression of genes involved in E2 biosynthesis (steroidogenic factor-1 and aromatase) and activation (17β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and cytochrome P-450, 1B1) with simultaneous repression of genes involved in estrogen inactivation (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2; catechol O-methyltransferase; and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-quinone oxidoreductase 1). Conclusion: TNF-α increases the local estrogen biosynthesis in human endometrial glandular cells and directs estrogen metabolism into more hormonally active and carcinogenic

  5. Characterizing the Estrogenic Potential of 1060 Environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In order to detect environmental chemicals that pose a risk of endocrine disruption, high-throughput screening (HTS) tests capable of testing thousands of environmental chemicals are needed. Alteration of estrogen signaling has been implicated in a variety of adverse health effects including cancer promotion, reproductive deficits, and vascular effects. Here we investigate the estrogenic potential of 1060 chemicals of environmental relevance using a real-time measure of growth kinetics by electrode impedance in the estrogen-responsive human ductal carcinoma, T47D cell line. Cells were treated in concentration response and measurements of cellular impedance were recorded every hour for six days. Progestens, androgens, and mineralocortocoids (progesterone, dihydrotestosterone, aldosterone) invoked a biphasic impedance signature that contrasted with the anticipated exponential impedance observed in response to known estrogen receptor agonists (17β-estradiol, genestein, bisphenol-A, nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol). Several compounds, including bisphenol-A, and genestein caused impedance comparable to that of 17β-estradiol, although at much higher concentrations. Additionally, trenbolone and cyproterone acetate invoked the characteristic biphasic signature observed with other endogenous steroid hormones. The continuous real-time nature of this assay allows for the rapid detection of differential growth characteristics not easily detected by traditional cell prol

  6. The Rapid Effect of Bisphenol-A on Long-Term Potentiation in Hippocampus Involves Estrogen Receptors and ERK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaowei; Wang, Yu; Xu, Fang; Wei, Xiaofei; Zhang, Junfang; Wang, Chuang; Wei, Hua; Xu, Shujun; Yan, Peiyun; Zhou, Wenhua; Mody, Istvan

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a widely used synthetic compound in plastics, disrupts endocrine function and interferes with physiological actions of endogenous gonadal hormones. Chronic effects of BPA on reproductive function, learning and memory, brain structure, and social behavior have been intensively investigated. However, less is known about the influence of BPA on long-term potentiation (LTP), one of the major cellular mechanisms that underlie learning and memory. In the present study, for the first time we investigated the effect of different doses of BPA on hippocampal LTP in rat brain slices. We found a biphasic effect of BPA on LTP in the dentate gyrus: exposure to BPA at a low dose (100 nM) enhanced LTP and exposure to BPA at a high dose (1000 nM) inhibited LTP compared with vehicle controls. The rapid facilitatory effect of low-dose BPA on hippocampal LTP required membrane-associated estrogen receptor (ER) and involved activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Coadministration of 17β-estradiol (E2, the primary estrogen hormone) and BPA (100 nM) abolished both the BPA-induced enhancement of LTP and the E2-induced enhancement of baseline fEPSP, suggesting a complex interaction between BPA- and E2-mediated signaling pathways. Our investigation implies that even nanomolar levels of endocrine disrupters (e.g., BPA) can induce significant effects on hippocampal LTP. PMID:28255459

  7. EADB: an estrogenic activity database for assessing potential endocrine activity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Xu, Lei; Fang, Hong; Richard, Ann M; Bray, Jeffrey D; Judson, Richard S; Zhou, Guangxu; Colatsky, Thomas J; Aungst, Jason L; Teng, Christina; Harris, Steve C; Ge, Weigong; Dai, Susie Y; Su, Zhenqiang; Jacobs, Abigail C; Harrouk, Wafa; Perkins, Roger; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2013-10-01

    Endocrine-active chemicals can potentially have adverse effects on both humans and wildlife. They can interfere with the body's endocrine system through direct or indirect interactions with many protein targets. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are one of the major targets, and many endocrine disruptors are estrogenic and affect the normal estrogen signaling pathways. However, ERs can also serve as therapeutic targets for various medical conditions, such as menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, and ER-positive breast cancer. Because of the decades-long interest in the safety and therapeutic utility of estrogenic chemicals, a large number of chemicals have been assayed for estrogenic activity, but these data exist in various sources and different formats that restrict the ability of regulatory and industry scientists to utilize them fully for assessing risk-benefit. To address this issue, we have developed an Estrogenic Activity Database (EADB; http://www.fda.gov/ScienceResearch/BioinformaticsTools/EstrogenicActivityDatabaseEADB/default.htm) and made it freely available to the public. EADB contains 18,114 estrogenic activity data points collected for 8212 chemicals tested in 1284 binding, reporter gene, cell proliferation, and in vivo assays in 11 different species. The chemicals cover a broad chemical structure space and the data span a wide range of activities. A set of tools allow users to access EADB and evaluate potential endocrine activity of chemicals. As a case study, a classification model was developed using EADB for predicting ER binding of chemicals.

  8. Evaluating the potential of effluent extracts from pulp and paper mills in Canada, Brazil, and New Zealand to affect fish reproduction: Estrogenic effects in fish.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Rodrigo; Milestone, Craig B; Hewitt, L Mark; Guchardi, John; Heid-Furley, Tatiana; Slade, Alison; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Holdway, Douglas

    2016-11-03

    The authors examined the potential of pulp mill effluent from pulp-producing countries (Canada, Brazil, New Zealand) to affect fish reproduction. Specifically, the estrogenic effects in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) pulse-exposed to 11 different mill effluent extracts (intraperitoneal injections of solid-phase extraction-dichloromethane nonpolar fraction). The results indicated that effluent extracts were estrogenic in juvenile trout irrespective of the gender, as reflected by increasing level of plasma vitellogenin (VTG; Brazil > New Zealand > Canada). Despite the high variability observed among mills, differences in VTG levels were related to the type of mill process (kraft > elementary chlorine-free kraft > thermomechanical pulping). Moreover, effluent treatments did not appear to significantly decrease VTG induction. A consistent estrogenic effect was observed in those mills that process a combination of feedstocks (softwood and hardwood), with the highest increase in VTG related to eucalyptus feedstock. The results demonstrate significant estrogenic effects of pulp mill effluents on chronically exposed juvenile trout, suggesting that in vivo metabolic activation of precursors is necessary to cause the observed increases in VTG levels. This molecular estrogenic response provides a useful starting point for predicting population-level impacts through the adverse outcome pathway methodology. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-9. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. EADB: An Estrogenic Activity Database for Assessing Potential Endocrine Activity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active chemicals can potentially have adverse effects on both humans and wildlife. They can interfere with the body’s endocrine system through direct or indirect interactions with many protein targets. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are one of the major targets, and many ...

  10. Effects of Estrogens and Estrogenic Disrupting Compounds on Fish Mineralized Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Patricia I. S.; Estêvão, Maria D.; Power, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens play well-recognized roles in reproduction across vertebrates, but also intervene in a wide range of other physiological processes, including mineral homeostasis. Classical actions are triggered when estrogens bind and activate intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs), regulating the transcription of responsive genes, but rapid non-genomic actions initiated by binding to plasma membrane receptors were recently described. A wide range of structurally diverse compounds from natural and anthropogenic sources have been shown to interact with and disrupt the normal functions of the estrogen system, and fish are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these compounds are frequently discharged or run-off into waterways. The effect of estrogen disruptors in fish has mainly been assessed in relation to reproductive endpoints, and relatively little attention has been given to other disruptive actions. This review will overview the actions of estrogens in fish, including ER isoforms, their expression, structure and mechanisms of action. The estrogen functions will be considered in relation to mineral homeostasis and actions on mineralized tissues. The impact of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on fish mineralized tissues will be reviewed, and the potential adverse outcomes of exposure to such compounds will be discussed. Current lacunae in knowledge are highlighted along with future research priorities. PMID:25196834

  11. Effects of estrogens and estrogenic disrupting compounds on fish mineralized tissues.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Patricia I S; Estêvão, Maria D; Power, Deborah M

    2014-08-15

    Estrogens play well-recognized roles in reproduction across vertebrates, but also intervene in a wide range of other physiological processes, including mineral homeostasis. Classical actions are triggered when estrogens bind and activate intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs), regulating the transcription of responsive genes, but rapid non-genomic actions initiated by binding to plasma membrane receptors were recently described. A wide range of structurally diverse compounds from natural and anthropogenic sources have been shown to interact with and disrupt the normal functions of the estrogen system, and fish are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these compounds are frequently discharged or run-off into waterways. The effect of estrogen disruptors in fish has mainly been assessed in relation to reproductive endpoints, and relatively little attention has been given to other disruptive actions. This review will overview the actions of estrogens in fish, including ER isoforms, their expression, structure and mechanisms of action. The estrogen functions will be considered in relation to mineral homeostasis and actions on mineralized tissues. The impact of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on fish mineralized tissues will be reviewed, and the potential adverse outcomes of exposure to such compounds will be discussed. Current lacunae in knowledge are highlighted along with future research priorities.

  12. Potential estrogenic effects of wastewaters on gene expression in Pimephales promelas and fish assemblages in streams of southeastern New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; George, Scott D.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Hemming, Joceyln D. C.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Direct linkages between endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) from municipal and industrial wastewaters and impacts on wild fish assemblages are rare. The levels of plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) and Vtg messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to wastewater effluents and dilutions of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), estrogen activity, and fish assemblages in 10 receiving streams were assessed to improve understanding of important interrelations. Results from 4-d laboratory assays indicate that EE2, plasma Vtg concentration, and Vtg gene expression in fathead minnows, and 17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq values) were highly related to each other (R2 = 0.98–1.00). Concentrations of E2Eq in most effluents did not exceed 2.0 ng/L, which was possibly a short-term exposure threshold for Vtg gene expression in male fathead minnows. Plasma Vtg in fathead minnows only increased significantly (up to 1136 μg/mL) in 2 wastewater effluents. Fish assemblages were generally unaffected at 8 of 10 study sites, yet the density and biomass of 79% to 89% of species populations were reduced (63–68% were reduced significantly) in the downstream reach of 1 receiving stream. These results, and moderate to high E2Eq concentrations (up to 16.1 ng/L) observed in effluents during a companion study, suggest that estrogenic wastewaters can potentially affect individual fish, their populations, and entire fish communities in comparable systems across New York, USA. 

  13. The Antidepressant-like Effects of Estrogen-mediated Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Liu, Changhong; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xingyi; Ren, Bingzhong; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, one of the brain-gut peptides, stimulates food-intake. Recently, ghrelin has also shown to play an important role in depression treatment. However, the mechanism of ghrelin’s antidepressant-like actions is unknown. On the other hand, sex differences in depression, and the fluctuation of estrogens secretion have been proved to play a key role in depression. It has been reported that women have higher level of ghrelin expression, and ghrelin can stimulate estrogen secretion while estrogen acts as a positive feedback mechanism to up-regulate ghrelin level. Ghrelin may be a potential regulator of reproductive function, and estrogen may have additional effect in ghrelin’s antidepressantlike actions. In this review, we summarize antidepressant-like effects of ghrelin and estrogen in basic and clinical studies, and provide new insight on ghrelin’s effect in depression. PMID:26412072

  14. Molecular biology of beta-estradiol-estrogen receptor complex binding to estrogen response element and the effect on cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Heger, Zbynek; Zitka, Ondrej; Krizkova, Sona; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2013-01-01

    Group of estrogen pollutants, where the highest estrogen activity is reported at estradiol, is characterized by the fact that even at very low concentrations have potential to cause xenoestrogenic effects. During exposure of excessive amounts of estradiols may be produced undesirable effects resulting in the feminization of males of water organisms. The presence of estradiols in drinking water implies also a risk for the human population in the form of cancers of endocrine systems, abnormalities in reproduction or dysfunctions of neuronal and immune system. Currently, the research is focused mainly to uncover the relationship between the estrogen receptors binding affinity with an estrogen response element and estradiol. In this review we summarized facts about molecular biological principles of β estradiol-estrogen receptor complex binding with estrogen response element and its successive effect on cancer genes expression.

  15. Determination of estrogenic potential in waste water without sample extraction.

    PubMed

    Avberšek, Miha; Žegura, Bojana; Filipič, Metka; Uranjek-Ževart, Nataša; Heath, Ester

    2013-09-15

    This study describes the modification of the ER-Calux assay for testing water samples without sample extraction (NE-(ER-Calux) assay). The results are compared to those obtained with ER-Calux assay and a theoretical estrogenic potential obtained by GC-MSD. For spiked tap and waste water samples there was no statistical difference between estrogenic potentials obtained by the three methods. Application of NE-(ER-Calux) to "real" influent and effluents from municipal waste water treatment plants and receiving surface waters found that the NE-(ER-Calux) assay gave higher values compared to ER-Calux assay and GC-MSD. This is explained by the presence of water soluble endocrine agonists that are usually removed during extraction. Intraday dynamics of the estrogenic potential of a WWTP influent and effluent revealed an increase in the estrogenic potential of the influent from 12.9 ng(EEQ)/L in the morning to a peak value of 40.0 ng(EEQ)/L in the afternoon. The estrogenic potential of the effluent was estrogenic potential was 92-98%. Daytime estrogenic potential values varied significantly.

  16. The Potential for Estrogens in Preventing Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Evelyn; Wang, Xiaofei; Yang, ShaoHua; Wen, Yi; Singh, Meharvan

    2009-01-01

    Estrogens are the best-studied class of drugs for potential use in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These steroids have been shown to be potent neuroprotectants both in vitro and in vivo, and to exert effects that are consistent with their potential use in prevention of AD. These include the prevention of the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into beta-amyloid (Aß), the reduction in tau hyperphosphorylation, and the elimination of catastrophic attempts at neuronal mitosis. Further, epidemiological data support the efficacy of early postmenopausal use of estrogens for the delay or prevention of AD. Collectively, this evidence supports the further development of estrogen-like compounds for prevention of AD. Several approaches to enhance brain specificity of estrogen action are now underway in an attempt to reduce the side effects of chronic estrogen therapy in AD. PMID:19890493

  17. Estrogenic effects from household stoves.

    PubMed

    Wu, W Z; Chen, J; Rehmann, K; Schramm, K W; Kettrup

    2002-09-01

    With the application of a genetically modified yeast, estrogen receptor-activating compounds were detected in the soot and emission gas of a wood-burning household stove. The EC50 value of 17beta-estradiol was divided by the EC50 value of soot, and the obtained relative estrogenic value for raw soot was 2.37E-5, indicating that soot was about 100,000 times less estrogenic than 17beta-estradiol. Chemical analysis revealed that alkyl phenol, benzonic acid, and PAHs represented the major constituents in the most potent fractions of the soot. Along with PAHs, other constituents might also contribute to the estrogenicity of soot.

  18. Phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens in surface waters--Their sources, occurrence, and potential contribution to estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Jarošová, Barbora; Javůrek, Jakub; Adamovský, Ondřej; Hilscherová, Klára

    2015-08-01

    This review discusses the potential contribution of phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens to in vitro estrogenic activities occurring in surface waters and in vivo estrogenic effects in fish. Main types, sources, and pathways of entry into aquatic environment of these detected compounds were summarized. Reviewed concentrations of phyto/mycoestrogens in surface waters were mostly undetectable or in low ng/L ranges, but exceeded tens of μg/L for the flavonoids biochanin A, daidzein and genistein at some sites. While a few phytosterols were reported to occur at relatively high concentrations in surface waters, information about their potencies in in vitro systems is very limited, and contradictory in some cases. The relative estrogenic activities of compounds (compared to standard estrogen 17β-estradiol) by various in vitro assays were included, and found to differ by orders of magnitude. These potencies were used to estimate total potential estrogenic activities based on chemical analyses of phyto/mycoestrogens. In vivo effective concentrations of waterborne phyto/mycoestrogens were available only for biochanin A, daidzein, formononetin, genistein, equol, sitosterol, and zearalenone. The lowest observable effect concentrations in vivo were reported for the mycoestrogen zearalenone. This compound and especially its metabolites also elicited the highest in vitro estrogenic potencies. Despite the limited information available, the review documents low contribution of phyto/mycoestrogens to estrogenic activity in vast majority of surface waters, but significant contribution to in vitro responses and potentially also to in vivo effects in areas with high concentrations.

  19. Vascular Effects of Estrogenic Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Reslan, Ossama M.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in men and postmenopausal women (Post-MW) than premenopausal women (Pre-MW). Despite recent advances in preventive measures, the incidence of CVD in women has shown a rise that matched the increase in the Post-MW population. The increased incidence of CVD in Post-MW has been related to the decline in estrogen levels, and hence suggested vascular benefits of endogenous estrogen. Experimental studies have identified estrogen receptor ERα, ERβ and a novel estrogen binding membrane protein GPR30 (GPER) in blood vessels of humans and experimental animals. The interaction of estrogen with vascular ERs mediates both genomic and non-genomic effects. Estrogen promotes endothelium-dependent relaxation by increasing nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and hyperpolarizing factor. Estrogen also inhibits the mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contraction including [Ca2+]i, protein kinase C and Rho-kinase. Additional effects of estrogen on the vascular cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix, lipid profile and the vascular inflammatory response have been reported. In addition to the experimental evidence in animal models and vascular cells, initial observational studies in women using menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT) have suggested that estrogen may protect against CVD. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) such as the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), which examined the effects of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) in older women with established CVD (HERS) or without overt CVD (WHI), failed to demonstrate protective vascular effects of estrogen treatment. Despite the initial set-back from the results of MHT RCTs, growing evidence now supports the ‘timing hypothesis’, which suggests that MHT could increase the risk of CVD if started late after menopause, but may produce beneficial cardiovascular effects in younger women during the perimenopausal period. The choice of

  20. Estradiol-induced modulation of estrogen receptor-beta and GABA within the adult neocortex: a potential transsynaptic mechanism for estrogen modulation of BDNF.

    PubMed

    Blurton-Jones, Mathew; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2006-12-01

    Estrogen influences brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the neocortex. However, BDNF-producing cortical neurons do not express detectable levels of nuclear estrogen receptors; instead, the most abundant cortical nuclear estrogen receptor, ER-beta, is present in GABAergic neurons, prompting us to test the hypothesis that estrogen effects on BDNF are mediated via cortical inhibitory interneurons. Adult female ovariectomized rats were provided acute estrogen replacement and the number of cortical GABA, ER-beta, and ER-beta/GABA double-labeled neurons was examined. Within 48 hours of injection of 17-beta-estradiol, the number of perirhinal neurons double-labeled for ER-beta/GABA was reduced by 28% (P<0.01 compared to vehicle-treated ovariectomized controls), and all cells expressing detectable levels of GABA were reduced by 19% (P<0.01). To investigate potential relationships between estrogen receptors, GABAergic neurons, and BDNF-expressing cells, brain sections were double- or triple-labeled for ER-beta, GABAergic, and BDNF immunomarkers. The findings indicated that ER-beta-bearing inhibitory neurons project onto other GABAergic neurons that lack nuclear estrogen receptors; these inhibitory neurons in turn innervate BDNF-expressing excitatory cells. High estrogen states reduce cortical GABA levels, presumably releasing inhibition on BDNF-expressing neurons. This identifies a putative two-step transsynaptic mechanism whereby estrogen availability modulates expression of inhibitory transmitters, resulting in increased BDNF expression.

  1. The Immune System Is a Natural Target for Estrogen Action: Opposing Effects of Estrogen in Two Prototypical Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Deena; Ansar Ahmed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Analogous to other physiological systems, the immune system also demonstrates remarkable sex differences. Although the reasons for sex differences in immune responses are not precisely understood, it potentially involves differences in sex hormones (estrogens, androgens, and differential sex hormone receptor-mediated events), X-chromosomes, microbiome, epigenetics among others. Overall, females tend to have more responsive and robust immune system compared to their male counterparts. It is therefore not surprising that females respond more aggressively to self-antigens and are more susceptible to autoimmune diseases. Female hormone (estrogen or 17β-estradiol) can potentially act on all cellular subsets of the immune system through estrogen receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. This minireview highlights differential expression of estrogen receptors on immune cells, major estrogen-mediated signaling pathways, and their effect on immune cells. Since estrogen has varied effects in female-predominant autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus, we will mechanistically postulate the potential differential role of estrogen in these chronic debilitating diseases. PMID:26779182

  2. Distinct Effects of Estrogen on Mouse Maternal Behavior: The Contribution of Estrogen Synthesis in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen surge following progesterone withdrawal at parturition plays an important role in initiating maternal behavior in various rodent species. Systemic estrogen treatment shortens the latency to onset of maternal behavior in nulliparous female rats that have not experienced parturition. In contrast, nulliparous laboratory mice show rapid onset of maternal behavior without estrogen treatment, and the role of estrogen still remains unclear. Here the effect of systemic estrogen treatment (for 2 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days) after progesterone withdrawal was examined on maternal behavior of C57BL/6 mice. This estrogen regimen led to different effects on nursing, pup retrieval, and nest building behaviors. Latency to nursing was shortened by estrogen treatment within 2 h. Moreover, pup retrieval and nest building were decreased. mRNA expression was also investigated for estrogen receptor α (ERα) and for genes involved in regulating maternal behavior, specifically, the oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin receptor in the medial amygdala (MeA) and medial preoptic area (MPOA). Estrogen treatment led to decreased ERα mRNA in both regions. Although OTR mRNA was increased in the MeA, OTR and vasopressin receptor mRNA were reduced in the MPOA, showing region-dependent transcription regulation. To determine the mechanisms for the actions of estrogen treatment, the contribution of estrogen synthesis in the brain was examined. Blockade of estrogen synthesis in the brain by systemic letrozole treatment in ovariectomized mice interfered with pup retrieval and nest building but not nursing behavior, indicating different contributions of estrogen synthesis to maternal behavior. Furthermore, letrozole treatment led to an increase in ERα mRNA in the MeA but not in the MPOA, suggesting that involvement of estrogen synthesis is brain region dependent. Altogether, these results suggest that region-dependent estrogen synthesis leads to differential transcriptional activation due

  3. Distinct Effects of Estrogen on Mouse Maternal Behavior: The Contribution of Estrogen Synthesis in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen surge following progesterone withdrawal at parturition plays an important role in initiating maternal behavior in various rodent species. Systemic estrogen treatment shortens the latency to onset of maternal behavior in nulliparous female rats that have not experienced parturition. In contrast, nulliparous laboratory mice show rapid onset of maternal behavior without estrogen treatment, and the role of estrogen still remains unclear. Here the effect of systemic estrogen treatment (for 2 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days) after progesterone withdrawal was examined on maternal behavior of C57BL/6 mice. This estrogen regimen led to different effects on nursing, pup retrieval, and nest building behaviors. Latency to nursing was shortened by estrogen treatment within 2 h. Moreover, pup retrieval and nest building were decreased. mRNA expression was also investigated for estrogen receptor α (ERα) and for genes involved in regulating maternal behavior, specifically, the oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin receptor in the medial amygdala (MeA) and medial preoptic area (MPOA). Estrogen treatment led to decreased ERα mRNA in both regions. Although OTR mRNA was increased in the MeA, OTR and vasopressin receptor mRNA were reduced in the MPOA, showing region-dependent transcription regulation. To determine the mechanisms for the actions of estrogen treatment, the contribution of estrogen synthesis in the brain was examined. Blockade of estrogen synthesis in the brain by systemic letrozole treatment in ovariectomized mice interfered with pup retrieval and nest building but not nursing behavior, indicating different contributions of estrogen synthesis to maternal behavior. Furthermore, letrozole treatment led to an increase in ERα mRNA in the MeA but not in the MPOA, suggesting that involvement of estrogen synthesis is brain region dependent. Altogether, these results suggest that region-dependent estrogen synthesis leads to differential transcriptional activation due

  4. Novel drugs that target the estrogen-related receptor alpha: their therapeutic potential in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    May, Felicity EB

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer continues to rise: 1.7 million women were diagnosed with and 521,000 women died from breast cancer in 2012. This review considers first current treatment options: surgery; radiotherapy; and systemic endocrine, anti-biological, and cytotoxic therapies. Clinical management includes prevention, early detection by screening, treatment with curative intent, management of chronic disease, and palliative control of advanced breast cancer. Next, the potential of novel drugs that target DNA repair, growth factor dependence, intracellular and intercellular signal transduction, and cell cycle are considered. Estrogen-related receptor alpha has attracted attention as a therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancers with de novo resistance to, and in breast cancers with acquired resistance to, endocrine therapies such as antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors. Estrogen-related receptor alpha is an orphan receptor and transcription factor. Its activity is regulated by coregulator proteins and posttranslational modification. It is an energy sensor that controls adaptation to energy demand and may facilitate glycolytic metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative respiration in breast cancer cells. Estrogen-related receptor alpha increases breast cancer cell migration, proliferation, and tumor development. It is expressed at high levels in estrogen receptor-negative tumors, and is proposed to activate estrogen-responsive genes in endocrine-resistant tumors. The structures and functions of the ligand-binding domains of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen-related receptor alpha, their ability to bind estrogens, phytoestrogens, and synthetic ligands, and the effects of ligand agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists on biological activity, are evaluated. Synthetic ligands of estrogen-related receptor alpha have activity in preclinical models of metabolic disorders, diabetes, osteoporosis, and oncology. The clinical settings in which these novel

  5. Effect of estrogenic binary mixtures in the yeast estrogen screen (YES).

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Buechse, Andreas; Dammann, Martina; Melching-Kollmuß, Stephanie; Woitkowiak, Claudia; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2014-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) of natural or synthetic origin can interfere with the balance of the hormonal system, either by altering hormone production, secretion, transport, or their binding and consequently lead to an adverse outcome in intact animals. An important aspect is the prediction of effects of combined exposure to two or more EDCs at the same time. The yeast estrogen assay (YES) is a broadly used method to assess estrogenic potential of chemicals. Besides exhibiting good predictivity to identify compounds which interfere with the estrogen receptor, it is easy to handle, rapid and therefore allows screening of a large number of single compounds and varying mixtures. Herein, we applied the YES assay to determine the potential combination effects of binary mixtures of two estrogenic compounds, bisphenol A and genistein, as well as one classical androgen that in vitro also exhibits estrogenic activity, trenbolone. In addition to generating data from combined exposure, we fitted these to a four-parametric logistic dose-response model. As all compounds tested share the same mode of action dose additivity was expected. To assess this, the Loewe model was utilized. Deviations between the Loewe additivity model and the observed responses were always small and global tests based on the whole dose-response data set indicated in general a good fit of the Loewe additivity model. At low concentrations concentration additivity was observed, while at high concentrations, the observed effect was lower than additivity, most likely reflecting receptor saturation. In conclusion, our results suggest that binary combinations of genistein, bisphenol A and trenbolone in the YES assay do not deviate from expected additivity.

  6. Estrogen potentiates reactive oxygen species (ROS) tolerance to initiate carcinogenesis and promote cancer malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hui; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Gang; Li, Huizhong; Zheng, JunNian

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-mediated high reactive oxygen species (ROS) tolerance plays an important role in driving carcinogenesis. ROS overproduction acts as the significant effector to increase genomic instability and transduce redox-related signal pathway. Especially, estrogen-mediated mitochondrial ROS promote the mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the damage to mitochondrial proteins. Moreover, estrogen-mediated ROS contribute to the alteration of energy metabolism and modulate several redox-sensitive proteins responsible for cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis. On the other hand, estrogen simultaneously performs the antioxidative beneficial functions, which protects cancer cells from the potential cytotoxic effects of estrogen-mediated ROS through activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) antioxidant response. Consequently, estrogen potentiates the high ROS tolerance through increase of ROS production as well as acceleration of ROS elimination, which ultimately results in estrogen-mediated carcinogenesis and malignant transformation. However, this overdependence on antioxidant response system to resist ROS-mediated cytotoxicity also represents the "Achilles' Heel" of estrogen-mediated cancer cells. In other words, the destruction of the high ROS tolerance using antioxidant inhibitors may provide a novel and efficacious measure to selectively eliminate these cancer cells without harming normal cells. Of course, it will be necessary to define the exact situation of ROS homeostasis in the different cellular microenvironment and further decipher the mechanisms of redox regulation, which is consequently used as a new avenue to optimize the clinical therapy for estrogen-mediated cancer.

  7. Parabens inhibit human skin estrogen sulfotransferase activity: possible link to paraben estrogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Prusakiewicz, Jeffery J; Harville, Heather M; Zhang, Yanhua; Ackermann, Chrisita; Voorman, Richard L

    2007-04-11

    Parabens (p-hydroxybenzoate esters) are a group of widely used preservatives in topically applied cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Parabens display weak associations with the estrogen receptors in vitro or in cell based models, but do exhibit estrogenic effects in animal models. It is our hypothesis that parabens exert their estrogenic effects, in part, by elevating levels of estrogens through inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferases (SULTs) in skin. We report here the results of a structure-activity-relationship of parabens as inhibitors of estrogen sulfation in human skin cytosolic fractions and normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Similar to reports of paraben estrogenicity and estrogen receptor affinity, the potency of SULT inhibition increased as the paraben ester chain length increased. Butylparaben was found to be the most potent of the parabens in skin cytosol, yielding an IC(50) value of 37+/-5 microM. Butylparaben blocked the skin cytosol sulfation of estradiol and estrone, but not the androgen dehydroepiandrosterone. The parabens were also tested as inhibitors of SULT activity in a cellular system, with normal human epidermal keratinocytes. The potency of butylparaben increased three-fold in these cells relative to the IC(50) value from skin cytosol. Overall, these results suggest chronic topical application of parabens may lead to prolonged estrogenic effects in skin as a result of inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase activity. Accordingly, the skin anti-aging benefits of many topical cosmetics and pharmaceuticals could be derived, in part, from the estrogenicity of parabens.

  8. Aromatase inhibiting and combined estrogenic effects of parabens and estrogenic effects of other additives in cosmetics

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwen, J.A. van Son, O. van; Piersma, A.H.; Jong, P.C. de; Berg, M. van den

    2008-08-01

    There is concern widely on the increase in human exposure to exogenous (anti)estrogenic compounds. Typical are certain ingredients in cosmetic consumer products such as musks, phthalates and parabens. Monitoring a variety of human samples revealed that these ingredients, including the ones that generally are considered to undergo rapid metabolism, are present at low levels. In this in vitro research individual compounds and combinations of parabens and endogenous estradiol (E{sub 2}) were investigated in the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. The experimental design applied a concentration addition model (CA). Data were analyzed with the estrogen equivalency (EEQ) and method of isoboles approach. In addition, the catalytic inhibitory properties of parabens on an enzyme involved in a rate limiting step in steroid genesis (aromatase) were studied in human placental microsomes. Our results point to an additive estrogenic effect in a CA model for parabens. In addition, it was found that parabens inhibit aromatase. Noticeably, the effective levels in both our in vitro systems were far higher than the levels detected in human samples. However, estrogenic compounds may contribute in a cumulative way to the circulating estrogen burden. Our calculation for the extra estrogen burden due to exposure to parabens, phthalates and polycyclic musks indicates an insignificant estrogenic load relative to the endogenous or therapeutic estrogen burden.

  9. DEVELOPMENTAL EVALUATION OF A POTENTIAL NON-STEROIDAL ESTROGEN: TRICLOSAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan is an antibacterial agent commonly used in industry and often detected in wastewater effluent. The potential of triclosan to act as an endocrine disruptor was examined because its chemical structure closely resembles known non-steroidal estrogens (e.g. DES, bis-phenol A...

  10. EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS ESTROGEN ON MATE SELECTION OF HOUSE FINCHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern about the potential for endocrine disrupting chemicals to interfere with normal breeding behaviors of wildlife has prompted this study of effects of exogenous estrogen on mate selection in songbirds. The house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) was selected as a model as it is ...

  11. EFFECTS OF EXTROGENOUS ESTROGEN ON MATE SELECTION OF HOUSE FINCHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of exogenous estrogen on mate selection of house finches. Clark, J., Fairbrother, A*. Parametrix, Inc., Corvallis, OR; Brewer, L., EBA, Inc., Sisters, OR; Bennett, R.S., USEPA, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, Duluth, MN.

    Concern about the potential for endocrine...

  12. Biochar as potential adsorptive media for estrogenic compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals are an emerging problem in water pollution due to their toxic effects on humans and wildlife. Estrogenic compounds are a subset of endocrine disrupting chemicals that are particularly dangerous since they are very potent and can affect fish at concentrations as low as ...

  13. Histopathologic Effects of Estrogens on Marine Fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histologically compared and evaluated effects of EDCs in two species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paral...

  14. MODELING THE EFFECTS OF FLEXIBILITY ON THE BINDING OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS TO THE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling the effects of flexibility on the binding of environmental estrogens to the estrogen receptor
    There are many reports of environmental endocrine disruption in the literature, yet it has been difficult to identify the specific chemicals responsible for these effects. ...

  15. Development of Phenotypic and Transcriptional Biomarkers to Evaluate Relative Activity of Potentially Estrogenic Chemicals in Ovariectomized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Winuthayanon, Wipawee; Pockette, Brianna; Kerns, Robnet T.; Foley, Julie F.; Flagler, Norris; Ney, Elizabeth; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Bushel, Pierre R.; Korach, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Concerns regarding potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have led to a need for methods to evaluate candidate estrogenic chemicals. Our previous evaluations of two such EDCs revealed a response similar to that of estradiol (E2) at 2 hr, but a less robust response at 24 hr, similar to the short-acting estrogen estriol (E3). Objectives: Microarray analysis using tools to recognize patterns of response have been utilized in the cancer field to develop biomarker panels of transcripts for diagnosis and selection of treatments most likely to be effective. Biological effects elicited by long- versus short-acting estrogens greatly affect the risks associated with exposures; therefore, we sought to develop tools to predict the ability of chemicals to maintain estrogenic responses. Methods: We used biological end points in uterine tissue and a signature pattern–recognizing tool that identified coexpressed transcripts to develop and test a panel of transcripts in order to classify potentially estrogenic compounds using an in vivo system. The end points used are relevant to uterine tissue, but the resulting classification of the compounds is important for other sensitive tissues and species. Results: We evaluated biological and transcriptional end points with proven short- and long-acting estrogens and verified the use of our approach using a phytoestrogen. With our model, we were able to classify the diarylheptanoid D3 as a short-acting estrogen. Conclusions: We have developed a panel of transcripts as biomarkers which, together with biological end points, might be used to screen and evaluate potentially estrogenic chemicals and infer mode of activity. Citation: Hewitt SC, Winuthayanon W, Pockette B, Kerns RT, Foley JF, Flagler N, Ney E, Suksamrarn A, Piyachaturawat P, Bushel PR, Korach KS. 2015. Development of phenotypic and transcriptional biomarkers to evaluate relative activity of potentially estrogenic chemicals in ovariectomized mice. Environ

  16. Bromine-80m-labeled estrogens: Auger-electron emitting, estrogen receptor-directed ligands with potential for therapy of estrogen receptor positive cancers

    SciTech Connect

    DeSombre, E.R.; Mease, R.C.; Hughes, A.; Harper, P.V.; DeJesus, O.T.; Friedman, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    A triphenylbromoethylene, 1,1-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-bromo-2-phenylethylene, Br-BHPE, and a bromosteroidal estrogen, 17..cap alpha..- bromovinylestradiol, BrVE/sub 2/, were labeled with the Auger electron emitting nuclide bromine-80m, prepared by the (p,n) reaction with /sup 80/Se. To assess their potential as estrogen receptor (ER) directed therapeutic substrates the bromine-80m labeled estrogens were injected into immature female rats and the tissue distribution studied at 0.5 and 2 hours. Both radiobromoestrogens showed substantial diethylstilbesterol (DES)-inhibitable localization in the ER rich tissues, uterus, pituitary, ovary and vagina at both time points. While the percent dose per gram tissue was higher for the Br-BHPE, the BrVE/sub 2/ showed higher tissue to blood ratios, especially at 2 hr, reflecting the lower blood concentrations of radiobromine following administration of the steroidal bromoestrogen. Comparing intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous routes of administration for the radiobromine labeled Br-BHPE, the intraperitoneal route was particularly advantageous to provide maximum, DES-inhibitable concentrations in the peritoneal, ER-rich target organs, the uterus, ovary and vagina. While uterine concentrations after BrBHPE were from 10--48% dose/g and after BrVE/sub 2/ were 15--25% dose/g, similar treatment with /sup 80m/Br as sodium bromide showed uniform low concentrations in all tissues at about the levels seen in blood. The effective specific activity of (/sup 80m/Br)BrBHPE, assayed by specific binding to ER in rat uterine cytosol, was 8700 Ci/mmole. 23 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Local Effects of Vaginally Administered Estrogen Therapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Megan; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Snyder, Thomas E.; Richter, Holly E.

    2011-01-01

    The results of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) led to a distinct decline in the routine use of estrogen as preventive therapy for vasomotor symptoms, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Without estrogen replacement, one third of women experience symptoms of atrophic vaginitis including dryness, irritation, itching and or dyspareunia. Local application of estrogen has been shown to relieve these symptoms and improve quality of life for these women. In addition, local estrogen therapy may have a favorable effect on sexuality, urinary tract infections, vaginal surgery, and incontinence. This review examines the effects of vaginally applied estrogen on the vaginal epithelium, urethra and endometrium. An accompanying review examines the systemic effects of vaginally applied estrogen. PMID:22229022

  18. Synergistic estrogenic effects of Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vejdovszky, Katharina; Hahn, Kathrin; Braun, Dominik; Warth, Benedikt; Marko, Doris

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites formed by various fungal species that are found as natural contaminants in food. This very heterogeneous group of compounds triggers multiple toxic mechanisms, including endocrine disruptive potential. Current risk assessment of mycotoxins, as for most chemical substances, is based on the effects of single compounds. However, concern on a potential enhancement of risks by interactions of single substances in naturally occurring mixtures has greatly increased recently. In this study, the combinatory effects of three mycoestrogens were investigated in detail. This includes the endocrine disruptors zearalenone (ZEN) and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) produced by Fusarium fungi and alternariol (AOH), a cytotoxic and estrogenic mycotoxin formed by Alternaria species. For evaluation of effects, estrogen-dependent activation of alkaline phosphatase (AlP) and cell proliferation were tested in the adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa. The estrogenic potential varied among the single substances. Half maximum effect concentrations (EC50) for AlP activation were evaluated for α-ZEL, ZEN and AOH as 37 pM, 562 pM and 995 nM, respectively. All three mycotoxins were found to act as partial agonists. The majority of binary combinations, even at very low concentrations in the case of α-ZEL, showed strong synergism in the AlP assay. These potentiating phenomena of mycotoxin mixtures highlight the urgent need to incorporate combinatory effects into future risk assessment, especially when endocrine disruptors are involved. To the best of our knowledge, this study presents the first investigation on synergistic effects of mycoestrogens.

  19. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones.

  20. Assessing in-vitro estrogenic effects of currently-used flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Krivoshiev, Boris V; Dardenne, Freddy; Covaci, Adrian; Blust, Ronny; Husson, Steven J

    2016-06-01

    Flame retardants are chemicals that are added to nearly all manufactured materials. Additionally, there has been a steady increase in diseases resulting from endocrine-disruption with an aligned increase in use of chemicals. Given the persistence, potential bioaccumulation, limited toxicological understanding, and vast use of flame retardants, there is a need to investigate potential endocrine-disruptive activity associated with these compounds in an effort for better risk assessment. We therefore used the MCF-7 flow-cytometric proliferation assay in an effort to establish potential estrogen-disrupting effects of twelve currently-used flame retardants. Triphenyl phosphate, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, tris(butyl) phosphate, hexabromocyclododecane, and tetrabromobisphenol A showed statistically significant estrogenic activity, with hexabromocyclododecane being the most potent of the five (EC20 of 5.5 μM). Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris(butyl) phosphate, hexabromocyclododecane, tetrabromobisphenol A, and tris(2,3,-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate harboured anti-estrogenic activity when co-treating with 17β-estradiol, with hexabromocyclododecane showing the highest potency (IC20 of 17.6 μM). Interestingly, some compounds showed both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects, indicating both receptor-dependant and -independent mechanisms attributed to some of these compounds, in line with other studies. Multiple currently-used flame retardants may therefore act as xenoestrogens and anti-estrogens, or alter estrogen homeostasis, which could affect endocrine function.

  1. Differential effects of esculetin and daphnetin on in vitro cell proliferation and in vivo estrogenicity.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Orozco, Fausto Alejandro; Rosales, Ana Alejandra Román; Vega-López, Armando; Domínguez-López, Maria Lilia; García-Mondragón, Ma Juana; Maldonado-Espinoza, Amelia; Lemini, Cristina; Mendoza-Patiño, Nicandro; Mandoki, Juan José

    2011-10-01

    Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) and daphnetin (7,8-dihydroxycoumarin) are secondary metabolites of plants used in folk medicine. These compounds have showed great antiproliferative activity in several tumor cell lines and have been proposed as potential anticancer agents. However, the estrogenic potential of these two compounds has to date not been reported. The present study compared esculetin and daphnetin on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle progression of the MCF-7 estrogen-responsive human carcinoma cell line. In vivo and in vitro estrogenic activity for both compounds was also evaluated. Esculetin inhibited cell proliferation after 72 h exposure (IC50=193 ± 6.6 μM), while daphnetin evidenced inhibiting effects starting at 24-h exposure (72 h, IC50=73 ± 4.1 μM). Both effects showed changes in cyclin D1 gene expression. In non-estrogenic conditions (E-screening assay), esculetin produced biphasic response on proliferation of the MCF-7 cells; at 10(-8)-10(-6)M, concentrations induced proliferative effects as EC50=4.07 × 10(-9)M (E(2)=2.91 × 10(-12)M); at higher concentrations (10(-5)-10(-4)M), cell proliferation was inhibited. Relative proliferative effect at E(2) was 52% (E(2)=100), relative proliferative potency was 0.072 (E(2)=100). Additionally, esculetin tested in vivo showed estrogenic effects at 50-100mg/kg doses; relative uterotrophic effect at E(2) was 37%, with relative uterotrophic potency registered at 0.003. In contrast, daphnetin did not induce estrogenic effects in vitro or with in vivo models. The low estrogenic activity of esculetin could prove useful in postmenopausal therapy but not as a safe antitumor agent in estrogen-dependent tumors. Daphnetin-based antiproliferative selectivity with MCF-7 cells showed that daphnetin is a promising antitumoral agent also acting on estrogen dependent tumors.

  2. Effect of estrogens on boar sperm capacitation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mammalian sperm must undergo a series of controlled molecular processes in the female reproductive tract called capacitation before they are capable of penetrating and fertilizing the egg. Capacitation, as a complex biological process, is influenced by many molecular factors, among which steroidal hormone estrogens play their role. Estrogens, present in a high concentration in the female reproductive tract are generally considered as primarily female hormones. However, there is increasing evidence of their important impact on male reproductive parameters. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of three natural estrogens such as estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3) as well as the synthetical one, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) on boar sperm capacitation in vitro. Methods Boar sperm were capacitated in vitro in presence of estrogens. Capacitation progress in control and experimental samples was analyzed by flow cytometry with the anti-acrosin monoclonal antibody (ACR.2) at selected times of incubation. Sperm samples were analyzed at 120 min of capacitation by CTC (chlortetracycline) assay, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry with anti-acrosin ACR.2 antibody. Furthermore, sperm samples and capacitating media were analyzed by immunocytochemistry, ELISA with the ACR.2 antibody, and the acrosin activity assay after induced acrosomal reaction (AR). Results Estrogens stimulate sperm capacitation of boar sperm collected from different individuals. The stimulatory effect depends on capacitation time and is highly influenced by differences in the response to estrogens such as E2 by individual animals. Individual estrogens have relatively same effect on capacitation progress. In the boar samples with high estrogen responsiveness, estrogens stimulate the capacitation progress in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, estrogens significantly increase the number of acrosome-reacted sperm after zona pellucida- induced acrosomal

  3. Systemic Effects of Vaginally Administered Estrogen Therapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Megan; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Richter, Holly E.; Snyder, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Hormone Therapy (HT) was considered the standard of care prior to the publication of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). After the study was published, the use of systemic HT dramatically decreased resulting in an increased incidence of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia experienced by women. Use of vaginal estrogen offers women a unique alternative for relief of these symptoms. This article reviews the systemic effects of vaginally administered estrogen. Effects on serum hormone levels, vasomotor symptoms, lipid profiles and use in women with breast cancer are reviewed. An accompanying review examines the local effects of vaginally administered estrogen. PMID:22453284

  4. Estrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soo Yeun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck . E-mail: khchung@skku.edu

    2006-08-01

    Chronic exposure to marijuana produces adverse effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems in humans; however, the experimental evidence for this presented thus far has not been without controversy. In this study, the estrogenic effect of marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) was evaluated using in vitro bioassays, viz., the cell proliferation assay, the reporter gene assay, and the ER competitive binding assay. The results of these assays were compared with those of three major cannabinoids, i.e., THC, CBD, and CBN. The estrogenic effect of MSC was further confirmed by the immature female rat uterotrophic assay. MSC stimulated the estrogenicity related to the ER-mediated pathway, while neither THC, CBD, nor CBN did. Moreover, treatment with 10 and 25 mg/kg MSC induced significant uterine response, and 10 mg/kg MSC resulted in an obvious change in the uterine epithelial cell appearance. MSC also enhanced the IGFBP-1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the constituents of MSC responsible for its estrogenicity, the MSC fractionated samples were examined using another cell proliferation assay, and the estrogenic active fraction was analyzed using GC-MS. In the organic acid fraction that showed the strongest estrogenic activity among the seven fractions of MSC, phenols were identified. Our results suggest that marijuana abuse is considered an endocrine-disrupting factor. Furthermore, these results suggest that the phenolic compounds contained in MSC play a role in its estrogenic effect.

  5. Estrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Yeun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2006-08-01

    Chronic exposure to marijuana produces adverse effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems in humans; however, the experimental evidence for this presented thus far has not been without controversy. In this study, the estrogenic effect of marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) was evaluated using in vitro bioassays, viz., the cell proliferation assay, the reporter gene assay, and the ER competitive binding assay. The results of these assays were compared with those of three major cannabinoids, i.e., THC, CBD, and CBN. The estrogenic effect of MSC was further confirmed by the immature female rat uterotrophic assay. MSC stimulated the estrogenicity related to the ER-mediated pathway, while neither THC, CBD, nor CBN did. Moreover, treatment with 10 and 25 mg/kg MSC induced significant uterine response, and 10 mg/kg MSC resulted in an obvious change in the uterine epithelial cell appearance. MSC also enhanced the IGFBP-1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the constituents of MSC responsible for its estrogenicity, the MSC fractionated samples were examined using another cell proliferation assay, and the estrogenic active fraction was analyzed using GC-MS. In the organic acid fraction that showed the strongest estrogenic activity among the seven fractions of MSC, phenols were identified. Our results suggest that marijuana abuse is considered an endocrine-disrupting factor. Furthermore, these results suggest that the phenolic compounds contained in MSC play a role in its estrogenic effect.

  6. Postmenopausal skin and estrogen.

    PubMed

    Archer, David F

    2012-10-01

    The aging global population continues to drive increasing demand for cosmaceuticals and cosmetic surgery among older men and women. Since the discovery in the 1990s that estrogen receptors are present in skin cells and decline in number from the onset of menopause in women, researchers have explored a number of ways in which estrogen can improve skin condition. Skin is estrogen responsive, and several studies now exist to support the antiaging properties of estrogen replacement therapies in postmenopausal women. Both systemic and topical estrogens appear to have positive effects on hormonal aging, increasing skin collagen content, thickness, elasticity and hydration. Estrogen therapies may also improve wound healing and reduce the incidence of wound complications. This review explores the potential for targeted estrogen replacement as a therapeutic option for long-term skin management in postmenopausal women.

  7. Estrogen Effects on Cognitive and Synaptic Health Over the Lifecourse

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Yuko; Waters, Elizabeth M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen facilitates higher cognitive functions by exerting effects on brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Estrogen induces spinogenesis and synaptogenesis in these two brain regions and also initiates a complex set of signal transduction pathways via estrogen receptors (ERs). Along with the classical genomic effects mediated by activation of ER α and ER β, there are membrane-bound ER α, ER β, and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) that can mediate rapid nongenomic effects. All key ERs present throughout the body are also present in synapses of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. This review summarizes estrogen actions in the brain from the standpoint of their effects on synapse structure and function, noting also the synergistic role of progesterone. We first begin with a review of ER subtypes in the brain and how their abundance and distributions are altered with aging and estrogen loss (e.g., ovariectomy or menopause) in the rodent, monkey, and human brain. As there is much evidence that estrogen loss induced by menopause can exacerbate the effects of aging on cognitive functions, we then review the clinical trials of hormone replacement therapies and their effectiveness on cognitive symptoms experienced by women. Finally, we summarize studies carried out in nonhuman primate models of age- and menopause-related cognitive decline that are highly relevant for developing effective interventions for menopausal women. Together, we highlight a new understanding of how estrogen affects higher cognitive functions and synaptic health that go well beyond its effects on reproduction. PMID:26109339

  8. Effect of vaginal estrogen on pessary use

    PubMed Central

    Dessie, Sybil G.; Armstrong, Katherine; Modest, Anna M.; Hacker, Michele R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis Many providers recommend concurrent estrogen therapy with pessary use to limit complications; however, limited data exist to support this practice. We hypothesized that vaginal estrogen supplementation decreases incidence of pessary-related complications and discontinuation. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of women who underwent a pessary fitting from 1 January 2007 through 1 September 2013 at one institution; participants were identified by billing code and were eligible if they were post-menopausal and had at least 3 months of pessary use and 6 months of follow-up. All tests were two sided, and P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Data from 199 women were included; 134 used vaginal estrogen and 65 did not. Women who used vaginal estrogen had a longer median follow-up time (29.5 months) compared with women who did not (15.4 months) and were more likely to have at least one pessary check (98.5 % vs 86.2 %, P < 0.001). Those in the estrogen group were less likely to discontinue using their pessary (30.6 % vs 58.5 %, P < 0.001) and less likely to develop increased vaginal discharge than women who did not [hazard ratio (HR) 0.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.17–0.58]. Vaginal estrogen was not protective against erosions (HR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.54–1.6) or vaginal bleeding (HR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.36–1.7). Conclusions Women who used vaginal estrogen exhibited a higher incidence of continued pessary use and lower incidence of increased vaginal discharge than women who did not. PMID:26992727

  9. Long-term effects of early life exposure to environmental estrogens on ovarian function: Role of epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Gonzalo; Foster, Warren; Paredes, Alfonso; Yi, Kun Don; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens play an important role in development and function of the brain and reproductive tract. Accordingly, it is thought that developmental exposure to environmental estrogens can disrupt neural and reproductive tract development potentially resulting in long-term alterations in neurobehavior and reproductive function. Many chemicals have been shown to have estrogenic activity whereas others affect estrogen production and turnover resulting in disruption of estrogen signaling pathways. However, these mechanisms and the concentrations required to induce these effects cannot account for the myriad adverse effects of environmental toxicants on estrogen sensitive target tissues. Hence, alternative mechanisms are thought to underlie the adverse effects documented in experimental animal models and thus could be important to human health. In this review, the epigenetic regulation of gene expression is explored as a potential target of environmental toxicants including estrogenic chemicals. We suggest that toxicant-induced changes in epigenetic signatures are important mechanisms underlying disruption of ovarian follicular development. In addition, we discuss how exposure to environmental estrogens during early life can alter gene expression through effects on epigenetic control potentially leading to permanent changes in ovarian physiology. PMID:25040227

  10. Estrogenic followed by anti-estrogenic effects of PCBs exposure in juvenil fish (Spaurus aurata).

    PubMed

    Calò, M; Alberghina, D; Bitto, A; Lauriano, E R; Lo Cascio, P

    2010-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is a phospho-lipo-glycoprotein produced by oviparous animals in response to estrogen receptor (ER) binding. The presence of Vtg in juvenile and male fish liver and plasma has been used as biomarker to evaluate levels of environmental contaminants as dioxin and PCBs. Interaction of dioxins and PCBs with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) may affect reproduction by recruitment of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PCB-126, a co-planar PCB prototypical AhR agonist, and of PCB-153, a non-coplanar PCB lacking dioxine-like activity, on Vtg expression in young fish (Spaurus aurata) after a 12 or 24h exposure to PCBs as well as 48h following PCBs removal. Vtg expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and by Western-blot analysis. Our results showed an increased Vtg expression following PCBs administration, with a maximum level after 12h of exposure to either PCB-126, PCB-153 or a mixture of both PCBs. Following this estrogenic activity, an anti-estrogenic activity was detected after 24h of incubation with PCB-126 (alone or mixed with PCB-153), suggested by a decrease in Vtg expression likely through AhR, as a consequence of a hypothetic defence mechanism to endogenous or exogenous ligands.

  11. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects of wood extractives present in pulp and paper mill effluents on rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Rodrigo; Guchardi, John; Krause, Rachelle; Holdway, Douglas

    2010-08-15

    Wood extractives present in pulp and paper mill effluents may cause reproductive disturbances in fish. A chronic-exposure toxicity experiment using immature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was conducted in order to assess the endocrine disrupting effects of two Chilean pulp and paper mill specific extracts (solid phase extraction, SPE) obtained from primary and secondary treated effluents. The (anti)estrogenic potencies and toxicity of the wood extractives regularly present in pulp mill effluent such as dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), beta-sitosterol (BS), and model estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) were evaluated by analysis of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels, gonadal somatic index (GSI) and liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, respectively. The protocol involved the use of multiple intra-peritoneal injections (1 injection every 7 days for a total exposure period of 28 days). Analysis of variance/covariance, demonstrated no differences associated with fish gender other than GSI. The phytosterol BS, E2 and both pulp mill effluent extracts showed significant inductions of EROD and increased VTG levels after 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of exposure. While fish injected with secondary treated effluent extract showed a delayed induction in VTG levels compared to primary effluent injected fish, no effects on VTG and EROD levels were observed in DHAA injected fish. Moreover simultaneous injection of DHAA+E2 reduced the VTG levels found in E2 injected fish, indicating a potential indirect anti-estrogenic effect of this resin acid. The results of this study indicate that Chilean pulp and paper mill effluent extracts are estrogenic in rainbow trout males and females.

  12. Effects of estrogen on growth plate senescence and epiphyseal fusion.

    PubMed

    Weise, M; De-Levi, S; Barnes, K M; Gafni, R I; Abad, V; Baron, J

    2001-06-05

    Estrogen is critical for epiphyseal fusion in both young men and women. In this study, we explored the cellular mechanisms by which estrogen causes this phenomenon. Juvenile ovariectomized female rabbits received either 70 microg/kg estradiol cypionate or vehicle i.m. once a week. Growth plates from the proximal tibia, distal tibia, and distal femur were analyzed after 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks of treatment. In vehicle-treated animals, there was a gradual senescent decline in tibial growth rate, rate of chondrocyte proliferation, growth plate height, number of proliferative chondrocytes, number of hypertrophic chondrocytes, size of terminal hypertrophic chondrocytes, and column density. Estrogen treatment accelerated the senescent decline in all of these parameters. In senescent growth plates, epiphyseal fusion was observed to be an abrupt event in which all remaining chondrocytes were rapidly replaced by bone elements. Fusion occurred when the rate of chondrocyte proliferation approached zero. Estrogen caused this proliferative exhaustion and fusion to occur earlier. Our data suggest that (i) epiphyseal fusion is triggered when the proliferative potential of growth plate chondrocytes is exhausted; and (ii) estrogen does not induce growth plate ossification directly; instead, estrogen accelerates the programmed senescence of the growth plate, thus causing earlier proliferative exhaustion and consequently earlier fusion.

  13. A potential role for estrogen in cigarette smoke-induced microRNA alterations and lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Amit; Smith, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    Alteration in the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with oncogenesis and cancer progression. In this review we aim to suggest that elevated levels of estrogens and their metabolites inside the lungs as a result of cigarette smoke exposure can cause widespread repression of miRNA and contribute to lung tumor development. Anti-estrogenic compounds, such as the components of cruciferous vegetables, can attenuate this effect and potentially reduce the risk of lung cancer (LC) among smokers. PMID:27413713

  14. Estrogens and cognition: Friends or foes?: An evaluation of the opposing effects of estrogens on learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Korol, Donna L; Pisani, Samantha L

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Estrogens are becoming well known for their robust enhancement on cognition particularly for learning and memory that relies upon functioning of the hippocampus and related neural systems. What is also emerging is that estrogen modulation of cognition is not uniform, at times enhancing yet at other times impairing learning. This review explores the bidirectional effects of estrogens on learning from a multiple memory systems view, focusing on the hippocampus and striatum, whereby modulation by estrogens sorts according to task attributes and neural systems engaged during cognition. We highlight our findings showing that the ability to solve hippocampus-sensitive tasks typically improves under relatively high estrogen status while the ability to solve striatum-sensitive tasks degrades with estrogen exposures. Though constrained by dose and timing of exposure, these opposing enhancements and impairments of cognition can be observed following treatments with different estrogenic compounds including the hormone estradiol, the isoflavone genistein found in soybeans, and agonists that are selective for specific estrogen receptors, suggesting that activation of a single receptor type is sufficient to produce the observed shifts in learning strategies. Using this multi-dimensional framework will allow us to extend our thinking of the relationship between estrogens and cognition to other brain regions and cognitive functions.

  15. Mixture Effects of Estrogenic Pesticides at the Human Estrogen Receptor α and β

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Bettina; Klawonn, Frank; Nguema Bekale, Boris; Steinberg, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Consumers of fruits and vegetables are frequently exposed to small amounts of hormonally active pesticides, some of them sharing a common mode of action such as the activation of the human estrogen receptor α (hERα) or β (hERβ). Therefore, it is of particular importance to evaluate risks emanating from chemical mixtures, in which the individual pesticides are present at human-relevant concentrations, below their corresponding maximum residue levels. Binary and ternary iso-effective mixtures of estrogenic pesticides at effect concentrations eliciting a 1 or 10% effect in the presence or absence of 17β-estradiol were tested experimentally at the hERα in the yeast-based estrogen screen (YES) assay as well as in the human U2-OS cell-based ERα chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (ERα CALUX) assay and at the hERβ in the ERβ CALUX assay. The outcome was then compared to predictions calculated by means of concentration addition. In most cases, additive effects were observed with the tested combinations in all three test systems, an observation that supports the need to expand the risk assessment of pesticides and consider cumulative risk assessment. An additional testing of mixture effects at the hERβ showed that most test substances being active at the hERα could also elicit additive effects at the hERβ, but the hERβ was less sensitive. In conclusion, effects of the same ligands at the hERα and the hERβ could influence the estrogenic outcome under physiological conditions. PMID:26812056

  16. Interactions between estrogen effects and hunger effects in ovariectomized female mice. I. Measures of arousal

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Deborah N.; Dwyer, EvaRose; Johnson, Carolyn; Wittkowski, Knut M.; Pfaff, Donald W.

    2007-01-01

    Measures of arousal were used to study effects of estradiol and food restriction, and their potential interactions, in ovariectomized female C57Bl/6 mice. It was hypothesized based on a proposed theoretical equation (Pfaff, 2006) that each treatment would increase arousal-related behaviors and that their combination would further increase arousal behavior. Following baseline testing, animals (n = 28) were divided into 3 groups that, in different experimental phases, received either estradiol (in subcutaneous capsules), restricted diet (a liquid diet providing 60% of daily caloric requirements) or a combination of those two. An automated arousal behavior monitoring system was used to measure home cage voluntary motor activity and sensory responsiveness, these being components of a new operational definition of ‘generalized arousal’. Key findings: (1) During the light, all treatments reduced voluntary activity. (2) In the dark, estrogens increased, while estrogens in combination with restricted diet decreased, horizontal activity. (3) In the dark, restricted diet alone had little effect on voluntary activity, but reduced it when combined with estrogen treatment. (4) All treatments reduced responses to the olfactory stimulus. The dependence of results on time of day was unexpected. Further, different patterns of results for the three treatments suggest that estrogens and food restriction did not have equivalent or additive effects on arousal. While contrary to the main prediction, these findings are discussed in terms of the animals’ adaptive preparations for reproduction (Schneider, 2006). PMID:17868674

  17. Distinct cognitive effects of estrogen and progesterone in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Berent-Spillson, Alison; Briceno, Emily; Pinsky, Alana; Simmen, Angela; Persad, Carol C; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Smith, Yolanda R

    2015-09-01

    The effects of postmenopausal hormone treatment on cognitive outcomes are inconsistent in the literature. Emerging evidence suggests that cognitive effects are influenced by specific hormone formulations, and that progesterone is more likely to be associated with positive outcomes than synthetic progestin. There are very few studies of unopposed progesterone in postmenopausal women, and none that use functional neuroimaging, a sensitive measure of neurobiological function. In this study of 29 recently postmenopausal women, we used functional MRI and neuropsychological measures to separately assess the effects of estrogen or progesterone treatment on visual and verbal cognitive function. Women were randomized to receive 90 days of either estradiol or progesterone counterbalanced with placebo. After each treatment arm, women were given a battery of verbal and visual cognitive function and working memory tests, and underwent functional MRI including verbal processing and visual working memory tasks. We found that both estradiol and progesterone were associated with changes in activation patterns during verbal processing. Compared to placebo, women receiving estradiol treatment had greater activation in the left prefrontal cortex, a region associated with verbal processing and encoding. Progesterone was associated with changes in regional brain activation patterns during a visual memory task, with greater activation in the left prefrontal cortex and right hippocampus compared to placebo. Both treatments were associated with a statistically non-significant increase in number of words remembered following the verbal task performed during the fMRI scanning session, while only progesterone was associated with improved neuropsychological measures of verbal working memory compared to placebo. These results point to potential cognitive benefits of both estrogen and progesterone.

  18. Effect of estrogen and testosterone replacement therapy on cognitive fatigue.

    PubMed

    Möller, Marika Christina; Rådestad, Angelique Flöter; von Schoultz, Bo; Bartfai, Aniko

    2013-02-01

    Both estrogen and testosterone insufficiency has been associated with reduced psychological well-being including fatigue. However, hormonal replacement studies on fatigue are rare. Therefore, we wanted to study the effect of testosterone and estrogen replacement therapy on cognitive fatigue and the relation between sex hormone levels and cognitive fatigue in oophorectomized women. Fifty women with surgically induced menopause (mean age: 54.0 ± 2.9 years) were randomly assigned to treatment with estradiol valerate in combination with testosterone undecanoate or placebo for 24 weeks in a double-blind cross-over study. Neuropsychological tests and questionnaires were used to assess cognitive fatigue and psychological well-being. Cognitive fatigue was significantly associated to poor self-rated health and higher body mass index but not to general psychological well-being or sex hormone levels. Treatment with testosterone + estrogen had no significant effect on cognitive fatigue but the results indicated a curvilinear relation for hormonal levels. The estrogen/testosterone ratio was more related to functions rather than high or low hormone levels per se. We found that cognitive fatigue is frequent in oophorectomized women and negatively associated to self-perceived health and positively associated to BMI. A well-balanced ratio between estrogen and testosterone levels may be important for cognitive fatigue.

  19. Examining triclosan-induced estrogenic and androgenic effects on the rat reproductive system

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Triclosan (TCS), a widely used antibacterial, has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor. We reported previously that TCS potentiated the estrogenic effect of ethinyl estradiol (EE) on uterine growth in female rats co-administered EE (3 μg/kg) and TCS (2 to 18 m...

  20. [Is the cardioprotective effect of estrogens useful in menopause?].

    PubMed

    Calvo-Vargas, César G; Padilla-Ríos, Victoria; Meza-Flores, Alicia

    2002-03-01

    Tendency of coronary mortality to occur about 10 years later in women than in men is a well known fact. This difference has been attributed to the presence of estrogens in women. Despite the performance of many experimental and observational studies on the heart-protecting effect of estrogens, there are a lot of methodological limitations which make it difficult to obtain definitive results. This revision, shows the experimental studies where it has been demonstrated that estrogens do not increase cardiovascular protection. Emphasis is focused on adverse effects, such as the development of breast and endometrial cancer. It is also emphasized that during menopause, a series of life style modifications can be implemented, such as exercising, stop smoking and loosing weight. Undoubtedly, the results will be cardiovascular health benefits, with minimum integral health risks.

  1. Assessment of shikonin for potential estrogenic activity by dual-luciferase reporter based bioluminescent measurements in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Ping-Ping

    2011-02-01

    Shikonin, an active component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc., shows multiple pharmacological properties. However, the estrogenic activity of shikonin is remaining unclear. We assessed the potential estrogenic activity of shikonin with dual-luciferase reporter assay and bioluminescent measurements, by using transient cotransfection with estrogen dependent plasmid pERE-TK-Luc and internal control plasmid pRL-TK in MCF-7 cells. Estrogenic activity of shikonin, even at high concentration did not alter significantly compared to negative control (p > 0.05) and were significantly lower than those with E2 (p < 0.01). Concluding, shikonin demonstrates no estrogenic activity in vitro.

  2. Potential Role of Local Estrogen in Enhancement of Fracture Healing: Preclinical Study in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Tahami, Mohammad; Haddad, Behrooz; Abtahian, Armin; Hashemi, Ali; Aminian, Amir; Konan, Sujith

    2016-01-01

    Background: Effects of estrogen on bone metabolism and its protective role on prevention of osteoporosis are well documented. However, the efficacy of estrogen treatment on bone healing is not well investigated. The drug can be delivered both systemically or locally to the bone with differences in concentrations and side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local and systemic administration of estrogen on the fracture healing process. Methods: Standardized tibial fractures with 4 millimeter gaps were created in twenty four adult male Dutch rabbits. Fractures were fixed using intramedullary wires and long leg casts. Rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Group A was treated with twice a week administration of long acting systemic estrogen; group B was treated with a similar regimen given locally at the fracture gap; and group C received sham normal saline injections (control). Fracture healing was assessed at six weeks post fracture by gross examination, radiographic and histomorphometric analysis. Results: Group B had significantly higher gross stability, radiographic union and gap reduction than the two other groups. Histomorphometric analysis showed higher cartilaginous proportion of periosteal callus area in the control group. Conclusions: Our results showed that estrogen may enhance fracture healing of long bone in rabbits. Furthermore, local estrogen treatment might have better effect than systemic treatment. PMID:27847844

  3. Pathway Analysis Revealed Potential Diverse Health Impacts of Flavonoids that Bind Estrogen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hao; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ge, Weigong; Perkins, Roger; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are frequently used as dietary supplements in the absence of research evidence regarding health benefits or toxicity. Furthermore, ingested doses could far exceed those received from diet in the course of normal living. Some flavonoids exhibit binding to estrogen receptors (ERs) with consequential vigilance by regulatory authorities at the U.S. EPA and FDA. Regulatory authorities must consider both beneficial claims and potential adverse effects, warranting the increases in research that has spanned almost two decades. Here, we report pathway enrichment of 14 targets from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) and the Herbal Ingredients’ Targets (HIT) database for 22 flavonoids that bind ERs. The selected flavonoids are confirmed ER binders from our earlier studies, and were here found in mainly involved in three types of biological processes, ER regulation, estrogen metabolism and synthesis, and apoptosis. Besides cancers, we conjecture that the flavonoids may affect several diseases via apoptosis pathways. Diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, viral myocarditis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease could be implicated. More generally, apoptosis processes may be importantly evolved biological functions of flavonoids that bind ERs and high dose ingestion of those flavonoids could adversely disrupt the cellular apoptosis process. PMID:27023590

  4. Overexpression of estrogen receptor beta alleviates the toxic effects of beta-amyloid protein on PC12 cells via non-hormonal ligands☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Si, Lihui; Li, Xiaoxi; Deng, Weiguo; Yang, Haimiao; Yang, Yuyan; Fu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    After binding to the estrogen receptor, estrogen can alleviate the toxic effects of beta-amyloid protein, and thereby exert a therapeutic effect on Alzheimer's disease patients. Estrogen can increase the incidence of breast carcinoma and endometrial cancer in post-menopausal women, so it is not suitable for clinical treatment of Alzheimer's disease. There is recent evidence that the estrogen receptor can exert its neuroprotective effects without estrogen dependence. Real-time quantitative PCR and flow cytometry results showed that, compared with non-transfected PC12 cells, adenovirus-mediated estrogen receptor β gene-transfected PC12 cells exhibited lower expression of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β under stimulation with beta-amyloid protein and stronger protection from apoptosis. The Akt-specific inhibitor Abi-2 decreased the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of estrogen receptor β gene-transfection. These findings suggest that overexpression of estrogen receptor β can alleviate the toxic effect of beta-amyloid protein on PC12 cells, without estrogen dependence. The Akt pathway is one of the potential means for the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of the estrogen receptor. PMID:25722700

  5. An NO Donor Approach to Neuroprotective and Procognitive Estrogen Therapy Overcomes Loss of NO Synthase Function and Potentially Thrombotic Risk

    PubMed Central

    VandeVrede, Lawren; Abdelhamid, Ramy; Qin, Zhihui; Choi, Jaewoo; Piyankarage, Sujeewa; Luo, Jia; Larson, John; Bennett, Brian M.; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are effective therapeutics that preserve favorable actions of estrogens on bone and act as antiestrogens in breast tissue, decreasing the risk of vertebral fractures and breast cancer, but their potential in neuroprotective and procognitive therapy is limited by: 1) an increased lifetime risk of thrombotic events; and 2) an attenuated response to estrogens with age, sometimes linked to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction. Herein, three 3rd generation SERMs with similar high affinity for estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ) were studied: desmethylarzoxifene (DMA), FDMA, and a novel NO-donating SERM (NO-DMA). Neuroprotection was studied in primary rat neurons exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation; reversal of cholinergic cognitive deficit was studied in mice in a behavioral model of memory; long term potentiation (LTP), underlying cognition, was measured in hippocampal slices from older 3×Tg Alzheimer's transgenic mice; vasodilation was measured in rat aortic strips; and anticoagulant activity was compared. Pharmacologic blockade of GPR30 and NOS; denudation of endothelium; measurement of NO; and genetic knockout of eNOS were used to probe mechanism. Comparison of the three chemical probes indicates key roles for GPR30 and eNOS in mediating therapeutic activity. Procognitive, vasodilator and anticoagulant activities of DMA were found to be eNOS dependent, while neuroprotection and restoration of LTP were both shown to be dependent upon GPR30, a G-protein coupled receptor mediating estrogenic function. Finally, the observation that an NO-SERM shows enhanced vasodilation and anticoagulant activity, while retaining the positive attributes of SERMs even in the presence of NOS dysfunction, indicates a potential therapeutic approach without the increased risk of thrombotic events. PMID:23976955

  6. An NO donor approach to neuroprotective and procognitive estrogen therapy overcomes loss of NO synthase function and potentially thrombotic risk.

    PubMed

    VandeVrede, Lawren; Abdelhamid, Ramy; Qin, Zhihui; Choi, Jaewoo; Piyankarage, Sujeewa; Luo, Jia; Larson, John; Bennett, Brian M; Thatcher, Gregory R J

    2013-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are effective therapeutics that preserve favorable actions of estrogens on bone and act as antiestrogens in breast tissue, decreasing the risk of vertebral fractures and breast cancer, but their potential in neuroprotective and procognitive therapy is limited by: 1) an increased lifetime risk of thrombotic events; and 2) an attenuated response to estrogens with age, sometimes linked to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction. Herein, three 3(rd) generation SERMs with similar high affinity for estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ) were studied: desmethylarzoxifene (DMA), FDMA, and a novel NO-donating SERM (NO-DMA). Neuroprotection was studied in primary rat neurons exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation; reversal of cholinergic cognitive deficit was studied in mice in a behavioral model of memory; long term potentiation (LTP), underlying cognition, was measured in hippocampal slices from older 3×Tg Alzheimer's transgenic mice; vasodilation was measured in rat aortic strips; and anticoagulant activity was compared. Pharmacologic blockade of GPR30 and NOS; denudation of endothelium; measurement of NO; and genetic knockout of eNOS were used to probe mechanism. Comparison of the three chemical probes indicates key roles for GPR30 and eNOS in mediating therapeutic activity. Procognitive, vasodilator and anticoagulant activities of DMA were found to be eNOS dependent, while neuroprotection and restoration of LTP were both shown to be dependent upon GPR30, a G-protein coupled receptor mediating estrogenic function. Finally, the observation that an NO-SERM shows enhanced vasodilation and anticoagulant activity, while retaining the positive attributes of SERMs even in the presence of NOS dysfunction, indicates a potential therapeutic approach without the increased risk of thrombotic events.

  7. Long-term effects of estrogen on avian liver: estrogen-inducible switch in expression of nuclear, hormone-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Haché, R J; Tam, S P; Cochrane, A; Nesheim, M; Deeley, R G

    1987-01-01

    The stimulation of chicks or embryos with estrogen results in transient, hepatic expression of the vitellogenin gene, as well as long-term, propagatable alterations in the rapidity with which the gene can be reactivated. We examined the possibility that nuclear, type II estrogen-binding sites are involved in this long-term change in response characteristics. We demonstrate that the primary induction kinetics of type II sites in embryos and chicks correlated with the expression of the vitellogenin gene and that once their induction was triggered by estrogen, they accumulated, were propagated, and persisted for months after withdrawal of the hormone. We also show that their accumulation in the embryo was accompanied by prolonged expression of both the vitellogenin and very low-density apolipoprotein II genes, in the absence of elevated levels of type I receptor, and that the type II sites, like the classical receptor, appear to be preferentially associated with active or potentially active chromatin. Finally, we describe a regulatory mechanism, tested by computer modelling, that simulated the behavioral characteristics of these nuclear estrogen-binding sites and which may explain their role in mediating the long-term effects of estrogen. Images PMID:3683392

  8. Effect of combining in vitro estrogenicity data with kinetic characteristics of estrogenic compounds on the in vivo predictive value.

    PubMed

    Punt, Ans; Brand, Walter; Murk, Albertinka J; van Wezel, Annemarie P; Schriks, Merijn; Heringa, Minne B

    2013-02-01

    With the ultimate aim of increasing the utility of in vitro assays for toxicological risk assessment, a method was developed to calculate in vivo estrogenic potencies from in vitro estrogenic potencies of compounds by taking into account systemic availability. In vitro estrogenic potencies of three model compounds (bisphenol A, genistein, and 4-nonylphenol) relative to ethinylestradiol (EE2), determined with the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) transcriptional activation assay using hER-HeLa-9903 cells, were taken from literature and used to calculate the EE2 equivalent (EE2EQ) effect doses in the predominantly ERα-dependent rat uterotrophic assay. Compound-specific differences in hepatic clearance relative to the reference compound EE2 were determined in vitro to examine whether in vivo estrogenic potencies reported in literature could be more accurately estimated. The EE2EQ doses allowed to predict in vivo uterotrophic responses within a factor of 6-25 and the inclusion of the hepatic clearance further improved the prediction with a factor 1.6-2.1 for especially genistein and bisphenol A. Yet, the model compounds still were less potent in vivo than predicted based on their EE2 equivalent estrogenic potency and hepatic clearance. For further improvement of the in vitro to in vivo predictive value of in vitro assays, the relevance of other kinetic characteristics should be studied, including binding to carrier proteins, oral bioavailability and the formation of estrogenic metabolites.

  9. Effect of environmental estrogens on IL-1beta promoter activity in a macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Ruh, M F; Bi, Y; Cox, L; Berk, D; Howlett, A C; Bellone, C J

    1998-10-01

    Environmental estrogens or estrogen disrupters have recently received a great deal of attention because of their potential health impact on reproductive tissues. Few, if any, studies have been made on the impact of these compounds on the immune system. We sought to determine the activities of various environmental estrogens on the modulation of the interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) gene in a model monocytic cell line, hER + IL-1beta-CAT+. This cell line stably transfected with the human estrogen receptor, and an IL-1beta promoter construct fused to the CAT reporter gene allows us to monitor the effect of estrogenic compounds on IL-1beta promoter activity. 17beta-estradiol (E2) markedly enhanced lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) induced IL-1beta promoter-driven CAT activity in a dose-dependent manner. The mycotoxins alpha-zearalenol and zearalenone both exhibited full agonist activity, but at lower potencies, with EC50 values of 1.8 and 54 nM, respectively, compared with E2 at 0.5 nM. In addition, genistein was a very low-potency agonist, having an EC50 of 1.5 microM. Similar to the E2 response, the slope factors for alpha-zearalenol, zearalenone, and genistein were close to 3.0, suggesting positive cooperativity in the estrogenic response. The activity of the mycotoxins appeared to be mediated through the estrogen receptor, since both the antiestrogens H1285 and ICI 182,780 effectively inhibited their agonist activity in a dose-dependent manner. Representative environmental estrogenic compounds both from plant and industrial sources were also tested. Unlike the mycoestrogens, none of the compounds, with the exception of genistein, synergized with LPS to enhance IL-1beta promoter activity. When tested for antiestrogenic activity, the industrial compound 4-octylphenol was able to antagonize the response to E2; however, the response was three orders of magnitude less potent than H 1285. Naringenin, a plant flavonoid, showed little or no ability to antagonize the response to E2

  10. Relative potencies and combination effects of steroidal estrogens in fish.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Karen L; Cummings, Rob I; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Scholze, Martin; Brighty, Geoff; Sumpter, John P; Tyler, Charles R

    2003-03-15

    The natural steroids estradiol-17beta (E2) and estrone (E1) and the synthetic steroid ethynylestradiol-17alpha (EE2) have frequently been measured in waters receiving domestic effluents. All of these steroids bind to the estrogen receptor(s) and have been shown to elicit a range of estrogenic responses in fish at environmentally relevant concentrations. At present, however, no relative potency estimates have been derived for either the individual steroidal estrogens or their mixtures in vivo. In this study the estrogenic activity of E2, E1, and EE2, and the combination effects of a mixture of E2 and EE2 (equi-potent fixed-ratio mixture), were assessed using vitellogenin induction in a 14-day in vivo juvenile rainbow trout screening assay. Median effective concentrations, relative to E2, for induction of vitellogenin were determined from the concentration-response curves and the relative estrogenic potencies of each of the test chemicals calculated. Median effective concentrations were between 19 and 26 ng L(-1) for E2, 60 ng L(-1) for E1, and between 0.95 and 1.8 ng L(-1) for EE2, implying that EE2 was approximately 11 to 27 times more potent than E2, while E2 was 2.3 to 3.2 times more potent than E1. The median effective concentration, relative to E2, for the binary mixture of E2 and EE2 was 15 ng L(-1) (comprising 14.4 ng L(-1) E2 and 0.6 ng L(-1) EE2). Using the model of concentration addition it was shown that this activity of the binary mixture could be predicted from the activity of the individual chemicals. The ability of each individual steroid to contribute to the overall effect of a mixture, even at individual no-effect concentrations, combined with the high estrogenic potency of the steroids, particularly the synthetic steroid EE2, emphasizes the need to consider the total estrogenic load of these chemicals in our waterways.

  11. Effect of diet on fecal and urinary estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Tucker, H A; Knowlton, K F; Meyer, M T; Khunjar, W O; Love, N G

    2010-05-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified estrogens from animal feeding operations as a major environmental concern, but few data are available to quantify the excretion of estrogenic compounds by dairy cattle. The objectives of this study were to quantify variation in estrogenic activity in feces and urine due to increased dietary inclusion of phytoestrogens. Ten Holstein heifers were assigned to 2 groups balanced for age and days pregnant; groups were randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a 2-period crossover design. Dietary treatments consisted of grass hay or red clover hay, and necessary supplements. Total collection allowed for sampling of feed refusals, feces, and urine during the last 4 d of each period. Feces and urine samples were pooled by heifer and period, and base extracts were analyzed for estrogenic activity (estrogen equivalents) using the yeast estrogen screen bioassay. Feces and urine samples collected from 5 heifers were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify excretion of 7 phytoestrogenic compounds. Excretion of 17-beta estradiol equivalents in urine was higher and tended to be higher in feces for heifers fed red clover hay (84.4 and 120.2 mg/d for feces and urine, respectively) compared with those fed grass hay (57.4 and 35.6 mg/d). Analysis by LC-MS/MS indicated greater fecal excretion of equol, genistein, daidzein, coumestrol, and formononetin by heifers fed red clover hay (1634, 29.9, 96.3, 27.8, and 163 mg/d, respectively) than heifers fed grass hay (340, 3.0, 46.2, 8.8, and 18.3 mg/d, respectively). Diet had no effect on fecal biochanin A or 2-carbethoxy-5, 7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone. Four phytoestrogens were detected in urine (2-carbethoxy-5, 7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone, daidzein, equol, and formononetin) and their excretion was not affected by diet. Identifying sources of variation in estrogenic activity of manure will aid in the

  12. Effects of genistein in combination with conjugated estrogens on endometrial hyperplasia and metabolic dysfunction in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-selective estrogen complex (TSEC), which combines a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with one or more estrogens, is a novel approach to menopausal therapy. It has been demonstrated that the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) exhibits mixed estrogen receptor agonist and antagonist activity, suggesting that GEN may have potential for use as a natural SERM. We evaluated, for the first time, the effects of GEN, conjugated estrogens (CE), and their pairing effects as a TSEC treatment on estrogen-induced endometrial hyperplasia and metabolic dysfunction in ovariectomized (OVX) mice fed a high-fat diet. CE replacement prevented fat accumulation in the adipose tissue and liver, improved glucose homeostasis, and induced endometrial hyperplasia in OVX mice. GEN at 100 mg/kg showed CE mimetic effects in preventing ovariectomy-induced metabolic dysfunctions without endometrial stimulation. Combination treatments with CE and GEN prevented metabolic dysfunctions more strongly than CE alone, but at both low and high doses, GEN did not reverse CE-induced endometrial hyperplasia. In addition, we found that in a TSEC regimen, a typical SERM raloxifene maintains the metabolic benefits of CE while simultaneously protecting the endometrium in OVX mice. These findings indicate that GEN acts as an estrogen agonist in metabolic regulation, but has no SERM function in the uteri of OVX mice.

  13. [Cardiovascular effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators. Current perspectives].

    PubMed

    Simoncini, Tommaso; Mannella, Paolo; Genazzani, Andrea R

    2003-02-01

    The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) after the menopause for the prevention of the long-term complications of estrogen deprivation has recently been questioned after the publication of large clinical trials that failed to show benefits for postmenopausal women. Although these trials risk to dump the widespread opinion of the cardioprotective effects of long-term estrogen use, they have many pitfalls that prevent a direct clinical application of these negative results. Furthermore, the large amount of epidemiological and experimental evidence indicating estrogens as protective on the vascular system cannot be ignored, and efforts should be devoted to understand the reasons for the discrepancy of results of these recent large trials. In the meanwhile, different molecules should be studied in depth as for the actions on the cardiovascular system, and their specific mechanisms of actions should be elucidated. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) are a promising family of molecules and some of these compounds have positive effects on cardiovascular risk parameters as well as on vascular cells. Large trials are ongoing to study the impact of these substances on cardiovascular risk, and the near future should provide us with answers on the possible use of SERM as possible safer alternatives to HRT for the long-term prevention of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women.

  14. Estrogen Receptor Polymorphisms and the Vascular Effects of Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rossouw, Jacques; Bray, Paul; Liu, Jingmin; Kooperberg, Charles; Hsia, Judith; Lewis, Cora; Cushman, Mary; Bonds, Denise; Hendrix, Susan; Papanicolaou, George; Howard, Tim; Herrington, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test whether estrogen receptor polymorphisms modify the effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on biomarkers and on risk of coronary heart disease events, stroke, or venous thrombo-embolism. Methods and Results The design was a nested case-control study in the Women’s Health Initiative trials of postmenopausal hormone therapy. The study included all cases in the first 4 years: coronary heart disease, 359; stroke, 248; venous thrombo-embolism, 217). Six estrogen receptor-αand one estrogen receptor-β polymorphisms were genotyped; 8 biomarkers known to be affected by hormone therapy were measured at baseline and one year after randomization. The polymorphisms were not associated with risk of vascular events, and did not modify the increased risks of coronary heart disease, stroke, or venous thrombo-embolism due to hormone therapy. However, a reduced response of plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) to hormone therapy was noted for ESR1 IVS1-354 (interaction P<0.0001, corrected for multiple comparisons P=0.014) and ESR1 IVS1-1415 (interaction P<0.0001, corrected P= 0.014). Conclusions Estrogen receptor polymorphisms reduce the effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy on PAP, a marker of coagulation and fibrinolysis. However screening for ER polymorphisms to identify women at less risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is not likely to be useful for making HT treatment decisions. PMID:21106950

  15. Potential of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators as Treatments and Preventives of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jing; Sengupta, Surojeet; Jordan, V Craig

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen plays vital roles in human health and diseases. Estrogen mediates its actions almost entirely by binding to estrogen receptors (ER), alpha and beta which further function as transcription factors. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are synthetic molecules which bind to ER and can modulate its transcriptional capabilities in different ways in diverse estrogen target tissues. Tamoxifen, the prototypical SERM, is extensively used for targeted therapy of ER positive breast cancers and is also approved as the first chemo-preventive agent for lowering breast cancer incidence in high risk women. The therapeutic and preventive efficacy of tamoxifen was initially proven by series of experiments in the laboratory which laid the foundation of its clinical use. Unfortunately, use of tamoxifen is associated with de-novo and acquired resistance and some undesirable side effects. The molecular study of the resistance provides an opportunity to precisely understand the mechanism of SERM action which may further help in designing new and improved SERMs. Recent clinical studies reveal that another SERM, raloxifene, which is primarily used to treat post-menopausal osteoporosis, is as efficient as tamoxifen in preventing breast cancers with fewer side effects. Overall, these findings open a new horizon for SERMs as a class of drug which not only can be used for therapeutic and preventive purposes of breast cancers but also for various other diseases and disorders. Major efforts are therefore directed to make new SERMs with a better therapeutic profile and fewer side effects. PMID:19519291

  16. Estrogen effects on human airway smooth muscle involve cAMP and protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Elizabeth A; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Thompson, Michael A; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S

    2012-11-15

    Clinically observed differences in airway reactivity and asthma exacerbations in women at different life stages suggest a role for sex steroids in modulating airway function although their targets and mechanisms of action are still being explored. We have previously shown that clinically relevant concentrations of exogenous estrogen acutely decrease intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in human airway smooth muscle (ASM), thereby facilitating bronchodilation. In this study, we hypothesized that estrogens modulate cyclic nucleotide regulation, resulting in decreased [Ca(2+)](i) in human ASM. In Fura-2-loaded human ASM cells, 1 nM 17β-estradiol (E(2)) potentiated the inhibitory effect of the β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) agonist isoproterenol (ISO; 100 nM) on histamine-mediated Ca(2+) entry. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) activity (KT5720; 100 nM) attenuated E(2) effects on [Ca(2+)](i). Acute treatment with E(2) increased cAMP levels in ASM cells comparable to that of ISO (100 pM). In acetylcholine-contracted airways from female guinea pigs or female humans, E(2) potentiated ISO-induced relaxation. These novel data suggest that, in human ASM, physiologically relevant concentrations of estrogens act via estrogen receptors (ERs) and the cAMP pathway to nongenomically reduce [Ca(2+)](i), thus promoting bronchodilation. Activation of ERs may be a novel adjunct therapeutic avenue in reactive airway diseases in combination with established cAMP-activating therapies such as β(2)-agonists.

  17. DEVELOPMENTAL EVALUATION OF A POTENTIAL NON-STEROIDAL ESTROGEN: TRICLOSAN. (R827098)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Triclosan is an antibacterial agent commonly used in industry and often detected in wastewater effluent. The potential of triclosan to act as an endocrine disruptor was examined because its chemical structure closely resembles known non-steroidal estrogens (e....

  18. Tissue-Specific Effects of Loss of Estrogen during Menopause and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wend, Korinna; Wend, Peter; Krum, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    The roles of estrogens have been best studied in the breast, breast cancers, and in the female reproductive tract. However, estrogens have important functions in almost every tissue in the body. Recent clinical trials such as the Women’s Health Initiative have highlighted both the importance of estrogens and how little we know about the molecular mechanism of estrogens in these other tissues. In this review, we illustrate the diverse functions of estrogens in the bone, adipose tissue, skin, hair, brain, skeletal muscle and cardiovascular system, and how the loss of estrogens during aging affects these tissues. Early transcriptional targets of estrogen are reviewed in each tissue. We also describe the tissue-specific effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) used for the treatment of breast cancers and postmenopausal symptoms. PMID:22654856

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on the DNA-protein complex between the estrogen response element and the estrogen receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štísová, Viktorie; Goffinont, Stephane; Spotheim-Maurizot, Melanie; Davídková, Marie

    2010-08-01

    Signaling by estrogens, risk factors in breast cancer, is mediated through their binding to the estrogen receptor protein (ER), followed by the formation of a complex between ER and a DNA sequence, called estrogen response element (ERE). Anti-estrogens act as competitive inhibitors by blocking the signal transduction. We have studied in vitro the radiosensitivity of the complex between ERα, a subtype of this receptor, and a DNA fragment bearing ERE, as well as the influence of an estrogen (estradiol) or an anti-estrogen (tamoxifen) on this radiosensitivity. We observe that the complex is destabilized upon irradiation with γ rays in aerated aqueous solution. The analysis of the decrease of binding abilities of the two partners shows that destabilization is mainly due to the damage to the protein. The destabilization is reduced when irradiating in presence of tamoxifen and is increased in presence of estradiol. These effects are due to opposite influences of the ligands on the loss of binding ability of ER. The mechanism that can account for our results is: binding of estradiol or tamoxifen induces distinct structural changes of the ER ligand-binding domain that can trigger (by allostery) distinct structural changes of the ER DNA-binding domains and thus, can differently affect ER-ERE interaction.

  20. Effects of estrogen receptor antagonist on biological behavior and expression of growth factors in the prolactinoma MMQ cell line.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hongtao; Li, Chuzhong; Gui, Songbai; Sun, Meizhen; Li, Dan; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2011-04-01

    The relationship between estrogen and pituitary prolactinoma is well documented. The biological effects of estrogen are mainly mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα). Several lines of evidence demonstrate that growth factors such as pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), transforming growth factor β3 (TGFβ3), and transforming growth factor β receptor type II (TGFβRII) play an important role in prolactinoma pathogenesis induced by estrogen, but the relationship between ERα and such growth factors is still unclear. The aims of this study are to investigate the functional role of ERα in proliferation, prolactin (PRL) secretion, and expression of the above-mentioned growth factors in MMQ cells in the absence of estrogen and to discuss the feasibility of using an estrogen receptor antagonist to treat prolactinoma. Fulvestrant, a "pure" antiestrogen without any estrogen-like activity, was used to block expression of ERα in the MMQ cell line. Proliferation and PRL secretion of MMQ cells were measured using CellTiter 96(®) AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (MTS) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Levels of ERα, PTTG, bFGF, TGFβ1, TGFβ3, and TGFβRII were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot. Fulvestrant significantly inhibited cell proliferation (up to 60.80%) and PRL secretion (up to 77.95%), and changed expression of TGFβ3 and TGFβRII in the absence of estrogen. In conclusion, ERα plays an important functional role in proliferation and PRL secretion of pituitary prolactinomas and also can change expression of some growth factors even under the condition of no estrogen. Fulvestrant could potentially be an effective therapy for treating such tumors.

  1. Effects of reciprocal treatment with estrogen and estrogen plus parathyroid hormone on bone structure and strength in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, V; Birchman, R; Xu, R; Otter, M; Wu, D; Lindsay, R; Dempster, D W

    1995-01-01

    Intermittent administration of PTH has been found to be an effective anabolic agent in cancellous bone. We have reported previously that combined treatment with PTH and estrogen in estrogen-deficient rats was beneficial in correcting established osteopenia. To determine if the beneficial effects of PTH therapy can be preserved by estrogen alone and whether PTH therapy can be effective in treating osteopenic subjects stabilized with estrogen, we have undertaken a "crossover" study in the rat model of estrogen-deficiency induced osteopenia. Six-month-old female rats were ovariectomized and after 5 wk treated for 8 wk with vehicle, 30 micrograms/kg per day of rPTH(1-34) plus 15 micrograms/kg per day of 17 beta-estradiol or 17 beta-estradiol alone. One group from each treatment regimen was then sacrificed and for an additional 8 weeks the remaining rats were (a) maintained on their previous treatment; (b) "crossed over" to their reciprocal treatment; or (c) administered vehicle only. At the end of this second 8-wk treatment period all rats were sacrificed. Bone mineral density of the distal femur, histomorphometric measurements of the proximal tibia and mechanical testing of the distal femur and selected vertebral bodies were performed. Our results demonstrated that (a) the gains in bone mass, trabecular connectivity and mechanical strength induced by PTH can be maintained by estrogen alone, but are reversed when both agents are withdrawn; and (b) rats with established osteopenia, maintained on estrogen treatment alone, can derive the full beneficial effects from the addition of PTH to the treatment at a later date. These data indicate that combined and/or sequential use of antiresorptive and anabolic agents may be a promising approach to the treatment of osteoporosis. Images PMID:7593620

  2. Effects of currently used pesticides in assays for estrogenicity, androgenicity, and aromatase activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Rasmussen, Thomas Hoj; Gjermandsen, Irene Marianne; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2002-02-15

    Twenty-four pesticides were tested for interactions with the estrogen receptor (ER) and the androgen receptor (AR) in transactivation assays. Estrogen-like effects on MCF-7 cell proliferation and effects on CYP19 aromatase activity in human placental microsomes were also investigated. Pesticides (endosulfan, methiocarb, methomyl, pirimicarb, propamocarb, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin, dimethoate, chlorpyriphos, dichlorvos, tolchlofos-methyl, vinclozolin, iprodion, fenarimol, prochloraz, fosetyl-aluminum, chlorothalonil, daminozid, paclobutrazol, chlormequat chlorid, and ethephon) were selected according to their frequent use in Danish greenhouses. In addition, the metabolite mercaptodimethur sulfoxide, the herbicide tribenuron-methyl, and the organochlorine dieldrin, were included. Several of the pesticides, dieldrin, endosulfan, methiocarb, and fenarimol, acted both as estrogen agonists and androgen antagonists. Prochloraz reacted as both an estrogen and an androgen antagonist. Furthermore, fenarimol and prochloraz were potent aromatase inhibitors while endosulfan was a weak inhibitor. Hence, these three pesticides possess at least three different ways to potentially disturb sex hormone actions. In addition, chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, tolclofos-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl induced weak responses in one or both estrogenicity assays. Upon cotreatment with 17beta-estradiol, the response was potentiated by endosulfan in the proliferation assay and by pirimicarb, propamocarb, and daminozid in the ER transactivation assay. Vinclozolin reacted as a potent AR antagonist and dichlorvos as a very weak one. Methomyl, pirimicarb, propamocarb, and iprodion weakly stimulated aromatase activity. Although the potencies of the pesticides to react as hormone agonists or antagonists are low compared to the natural ligands, the integrated response in the organism might be amplified by the ability of the pesticides to act via several mechanism and the frequent simultaneous exposure to

  3. VASCULAR ACTIONS OF ESTROGENS: FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Virginia M.; Duckles, Sue P.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of estrogen exposure in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease is controversial. But it is clear that estrogen has important effects on vascular physiology and pathophysiology, with potential therapeutic implications. Therefore, it is the goal of this review to summarize, using an integrated approach, current knowledge of the vascular effects of estrogen, both in humans and in experimental animals. Aspects of estrogen synthesis and receptors, as well as general mechanisms of estrogenic action are reviewed with an emphasis on issues particularly relevant to the vascular system. Recent understanding of the impact of estrogen on mitochondrial function suggests that the longer lifespan of women compared to men may depend in part on the ability of estrogen to decrease production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. Mechanisms by which estrogen increases endothelial vasodilator function, promotes angiogenesis and modulates autonomic function are summarized. Key aspects of the relevant pathophysiology of inflammation, atherosclerosis, stroke, migraine and thrombosis are reviewed concerning current knowledge of estrogenic effects. A number of emerging concepts are addressed throughout. These include the importance of estrogenic formulation and route of administration and the impact of genetic polymorphisms, either in estrogen receptors or in enzymes responsible for estrogen metabolism, on responsiveness to hormone treatment. The importance of local metabolism of estrogenic precursors and the impact of timing for initiation of treatment and its duration are also considered. While consensus opinions are emphasized, controversial views are presented in order to stimulate future research. PMID:18579753

  4. Clomiphene citrate and its effects upon ovulation and estrogen.

    PubMed

    Shirai, E; Iizuka, R; Notake, Y

    1972-05-01

    This paper reports a clinical evaluation of the mechanism of action of clomiphene citrate and describes selection of the most responsive patients. Patients were 121 women, aged 21-37 years, who desired pregnancy. Their infertility was diagnosed as being due to anovulation. Primary amenorrhea or special endocrine disorders were not present. All the women who had no vaginal bleeding for more than 2 months were diagnosed amenorrhea and treated with 65 mg of progesterone capronate intramuscularly. They were then divided into two subgroups on the basis of the presence or absence of vaginal bleeding within 2 weeks. Clinical studies included: basal body temperature charts; daily vaginal smears evaluated by the ink acidophilic stain index (ISI); cervical mucus evaluated by amount, spresence of spinnbarkeit, and ferning; 24-hour urines examined for estrogen and total gonadotropic activity; and a pregnanediol determination. Each group received daily 50 mg doses of clomiphene citrate for 5 days. Estrogen inhibiting effect of the drug was suggested by vaginal cytology and the disappearance of ferning and decrease in quantity of cervical mucus. However, the excretion of the total urinary estrogen was increased in ovulatory cases (81 of the 121 patients). In 17 patients having no bleeding within 2 weeks after progesterone injection no ovulation could be induced. In patients with withdrawal flow 54 of 70 achieved ovulation. Of 37 patients with previous anovulatory bleeding 27 achieved ovulation. There were 11 of the 121 who became pregnant. In those with early ovulation the antiestrogen effect is believed to be in the hypothalamus and pituitary bringing about the estrogen surge and stimulating LH secretion. In those with later ovulation the antiestrogenic effect increased FSH secretion followed by ovulation. The type of patient most likely to respond to clomiphene citrate is one with nearly normal pituitary-gonadal axis. Inducing withdrawal bleeding with progesterone in those

  5. Potential adverse effects of phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Whitten, P L; Lewis, C; Russell, E; Naftolin, F

    1995-03-01

    Evaluation of the potential benefits and risks offered by naturally occurring plant estrogens requires investigation of their potency and sites of action when consumed at natural dietary concentrations. Our investigations have examined the effects of a range of natural dietary concentrations of the most potent plant isoflavonoid, coumestrol, using a rat model and a variety of estrogen-dependent tissues and endpoints. Treatments of immature females demonstrated agonistic action in the reproductive tract, brain, and pituitary at natural dietary concentrations. Experiments designed to test for estrogen antagonism demonstrated that coumestrol did not conform to the picture of a classic antiestrogen. However, coumestrol did suppress estrous cycles in adult females. Developmental actions were examined by neonatal exposure of pups through milk of rat dams fed a coumestrol, control, or commercial soy-based diet during the critical period of the first 10 postnatal days or throughout the 21 days of lactation. The 10-day treatment did not significantly alter adult estrous cyclicity, but the 21-day treatment produced in a persistent estrus state in coumestrol-treated females by 132 days of age. In contrast, the 10-day coumestrol treatments produced significant deficits in the sexual behavior of male offspring. These findings illustrate the broad range of actions of these natural estrogens and the variability in potency across endpoints. This variability argues for the importance of fully characterizing each phytoestrogen in terms of its sites of action, balance of agonistic and antagonistic properties, natural potency, and short-term and long-term effects.

  6. Extending an In Vitro Panel for Estrogenicity Testing: The Added Value of Bioassays for Measuring Antiandrogenic Activities and Effects on Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Si; Rijk, Jeroen C.W.; Besselink, Harrie T.; Houtman, René; Peijnenburg,  Ad A.C.M.; Brouwer, Abraham; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Bovee,  Toine F.H.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a previously established integrated testing strategy (ITS) for in vitro estrogenicity testing was extended with additional in vitro assays in order to broaden its sensitivity to different modes of action resulting in apparent estrogenicity, i.e., other than estrogen receptor (ER) binding. To this end, an extra set of 10 estrogenic compounds with modes of action in part different from ER binding, were tested in the previously defined ITS, consisting of a yeast estrogen reporter gene assay, an U2OS ERα CALUX reporter gene assay and a cell-free coregulator binding assay. Two androgen reporter gene assays and the enhanced H295R steroidogenesis assay were added to that previous defined ITS. These assays had added value, as several estrogenic model compounds also elicited clear and potent antiandrogenic properties and in addition also showed effects on steroidogenesis that might potentiate their apparent estrogenic effects in vivo. Adding these assays, examining mechanisms of action for estrogenicity apart from ERα binding, gives a more complete and comprehensive assessment of the ability of test compounds to interfere with endocrine signaling. It was concluded that the extended ITS will go beyond in vivo estrogenicity testing by the uterotrophic assay, thereby contributing to the 3R-principles. PMID:24928889

  7. Fate and transport of selected estrogen compounds in Hawaii soils: Effect of soil type and macropores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessio, Matteo; Vasudevan, Dharni; Lichwa, Joseph; Mohanty, Sanjay K.; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2014-10-01

    The fate and transport of estrogen compounds in the environment is of increasing concern due to their potential impact on freshwater organisms, ecosystems and human health. The behavior of these compounds in batch experiments suggests low mobility, while field studies indicate the persistence of estrogen compounds in the soil with the possibility of migration to surface water as well as groundwater. To better understand the movement of these chemicals through soils, we examined their transport in three different Hawaiian soils and two aqueous matrices. The three different soils used were an Oxisol, a Mollisol and a cinder, characterized by different mineralogical properties and collected at depths of 60-90 cm and 210-240 cm. Two liquid matrices were used; deionized (DI) water containing calcium chloride (CaCl2), and recycled water collected from a wastewater treatment facility. The experiments were conducted in packed and structured columns. Non-equilibrium conditions were observed during the study, especially in the structured soil. This is believed to be primarily related to the presence of macropores in the soil. The presence of macropores resulted in reduced contact time between soil and estrogens, which facilitated their transport. We found that the organic carbon content and mineralogical composition of the soils had a profound effect on the transport of the estrogens. The mobility of estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) was greater in cinder than in the other soils. In column experiments with recycled water, earlier breakthrough peaks and longer tails of estrogens were produced compared to those observed using DI water. The use of recycled water for agricultural purposes and the siting of septic tanks and cesspools should be critically reviewed in light of these findings, especially in areas where groundwater is the primary source of potable water, such as Hawaii.

  8. Fate and transport of selected estrogen compounds in Hawaii soils: effect of soil type and macropores.

    PubMed

    D'Alessio, Matteo; Vasudevan, Dharni; Lichwa, Joseph; Mohanty, Sanjay K; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2014-10-01

    The fate and transport of estrogen compounds in the environment is of increasing concern due to their potential impact on freshwater organisms, ecosystems and human health. The behavior of these compounds in batch experiments suggests low mobility, while field studies indicate the persistence of estrogen compounds in the soil with the possibility of migration to surface water as well as groundwater. To better understand the movement of these chemicals through soils, we examined their transport in three different Hawaiian soils and two aqueous matrices. The three different soils used were an Oxisol, a Mollisol and a cinder, characterized by different mineralogical properties and collected at depths of 60-90 cm and 210-240 cm. Two liquid matrices were used; deionized (DI) water containing calcium chloride (CaCl2), and recycled water collected from a wastewater treatment facility. The experiments were conducted in packed and structured columns. Non-equilibrium conditions were observed during the study, especially in the structured soil. This is believed to be primarily related to the presence of macropores in the soil. The presence of macropores resulted in reduced contact time between soil and estrogens, which facilitated their transport. We found that the organic carbon content and mineralogical composition of the soils had a profound effect on the transport of the estrogens. The mobility of estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) was greater in cinder than in the other soils. In column experiments with recycled water, earlier breakthrough peaks and longer tails of estrogens were produced compared to those observed using DI water. The use of recycled water for agricultural purposes and the siting of septic tanks and cesspools should be critically reviewed in light of these findings, especially in areas where groundwater is the primary source of potable water, such as Hawaii.

  9. Effect of Estrogen on Mutagenesis in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    estrogen signaling through the estrogen receptor alpha (ERa) may induce a mutator phenotype by suppressing DNA repair activity in ERa positive mammary...measure DNA MMR activity in live cells. We have also developed a method to measure mutation rate as a function of estrogen/ER signaling . Our goals were to...whether 1713-estradiol signaling through ER inhibits DNA MMR activity, we developed a method that can quantitatively assess MMR efficiency in live

  10. The potential therapeutic benefits of vitamin D in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Aruna V; Swami, Srilatha; Feldman, David

    2012-09-01

    Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)), the hormonally active form of vitamin D, inhibits the growth of many malignant cells including breast cancer (BCa) cells. The mechanisms of calcitriol anticancer actions include cell cycle arrest, stimulation of apoptosis and inhibition of invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. In addition we have discovered new pathways of calcitriol action that are especially relevant in inhibiting the growth of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) BCa cells. Calcitriol suppresses COX-2 expression and increases that of 15-PGDH thereby reducing the levels of inflammatory prostaglandins (PGs). Our in vitro and in vivo studies show that calcitriol decreases the expression of aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes estrogen synthesis selectively in BCa cells and in the mammary adipose tissue surrounding BCa, by a direct repression of aromatase transcription via promoter II as well as an indirect effect due to the reduction in the levels of PGs, which are major stimulator of aromatase transcription through promoter II. Calcitriol down-regulates the expression of ERα and thereby attenuates estrogen signaling in BCa cells including the proliferative stimulus provided by estrogens. Thus the inhibition of estrogen synthesis and signaling by calcitriol and its anti-inflammatory actions will play an important role in inhibiting ER+BCa. We hypothesize that dietary vitamin D would exhibit similar anticancer activity due to the presence of the enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) in breast cells ensuring conversion of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D to calcitriol locally within the breast micro-environment where it can act in a paracrine manner to inhibit BCa growth. Cell culture and in vivo data in mice strongly suggest that calcitriol and dietary vitamin D would play a beneficial role in the prevention and/or treatment of ER+BCa in women.

  11. Evaluation of the estrogenic potential of river and treated waters in the Paris area (France) using in vivo and in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Cargouët, Maëlle; Perdiz, Daniel; Levi, Yves

    2007-05-01

    For many years, surface waters have been shown to be contaminated by endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which can cause adverse effects on human and wildlife growth, development, and reproduction. It is therefore of primary importance to determine if drinking water could be contaminated by EDCs when produced from polluted surface waters. It is also essential to determine if disinfection by-products can account for estrogenic activity in treated waters. The estrogenic potential of river and treated waters was investigated using an in vivo assay. Adult male zebrafish were placed in three drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the Paris area and exposed for 1 month to the two types of waters. After exposure, vitellogenin (VTG) was measured in the plasma of fish using a competitive ELISA. In addition, an in vitro assay (MELN cells) was used to assess the estrogenic potential of 10 major chlorination by-products. No significant induction of VTG was observed in fish exposed to river or treated waters. Among the 10 chlorination by-products tested, only 2-chlorophenol was found to be weakly estrogenic at concentrations up to 1mg/L. Therefore, the risk for the three DWTPs studied to produce drinking water with significant level of estrogenic substances appears to be low.

  12. Melasma Associated with Topical Estrogen Cream

    PubMed Central

    Schiechert, Rachel A.; Zaiac, Martin N.

    2017-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman presented with hyperpigmented patches on her upper extremities. The patient had begun using a topical estrogen cream in the affected areas prior to noticing the hyperpigmentation. A diagnosis of melasma secondary to topical estrogen cream was made. While systemic hormones are a well-documented trigger for the development of melasma, this case represents the first report of melasma associated with topical estrogens. Topical estrogens are frequently prescribed to postmenopausal women for skin rejuvenation. Melasma should be discussed as a potential side effect of systemic as well as topical estrogen preparations. PMID:28367263

  13. Estrogen Receptor (ER)-α36 Is Involved in Estrogen- and Tamoxifen-Induced Neuroprotective Effects in Ischemic Stroke Models

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chen; Ji, Xiaofei; Liang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yang; Han, Chao; Huang, Liang; Zhang, Qiqi; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Yejun; Liu, Jinqiu

    2015-01-01

    The neuroprotection by estrogen (E2) and tamoxifen is well documented in experimental stroke models; however, the exact mechanism is unclear. A membrane-based estrogen receptor, ER-α36, has been identified. Postmenopausal-levels of E2 act through ER-α36 to induce osteoclast apoptosis due to a prolonged activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling. We hypothesized that ER-α36 may play a role in the neuroprotective activities of estrogen and tamoxifen. Here, we studied ER-α36 expression in the brain, as well as its neuroprotective effects against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in PC12 cells. We found that ER-α36 was expressed in both rat and human brain. In addition, OGD-induced cell death was prevented by l nmol/L 17β-estradiol (E2β). E2β activates the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in PC12 cells under basal and OGD conditions by interacting with ER-α36 and also induces ER-α36 expression. Low-dose of tamoxifen up-regulated ER-α36 expression and enhanced neuronal survival in an ovariectomized ischemic stroke model. Furthermore, low-dose of tamoxifen enhanced neuroprotective effects by modulating activates or suppress ER-α36. Our results thus demonstrated that ER-α36 is involved in neuroprotective activities mediated by both estrogen and tamoxifen. PMID:26484775

  14. Effects of estrogens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals on cell differentiation-survival-proliferation in brain: contributions of neuronal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Habauzit, Denis; Flouriot, Gilles; Pakdel, Farzad; Saligaut, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens and estrogen receptors (ER) are key actors in the control of differentiation and survival and act on extrareproductive tissues such as brain. Thus, estrogens may display neuritogenic effects during development and neuroprotective effects in the pathophysiological context of brain ischemia and neurodegenerative pathologies like Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. Some of these effects require classical transcriptional "genomic" mechanisms through ER, whereas other effects appear to rely clearly on "membrane-initiated mechanisms" through cytoplasmic signal transduction pathways. Disturbances of these mechanisms by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) may exert adverse effects on brain. Some EDC may act via ER-independent mechanisms but might cross-react with endogenous estrogen. Other EDC may act through ER-dependent mechanisms and display agonistic/antagonistic estrogenic properties. Because of these potential effects of EDC, it is necessary to establish sensitive cell-based assays to determine EDC effects on brain. In the present review, some effects of estrogens and EDC are described with focus on ER-mediated effects in neuronal cells. Particular attention is given to PC12 cells, an interesting model to study the mechanisms underlying ER-mediated differentiating and neuroprotective effects of estrogens.

  15. Effects of hypoxia on the response of fish to estrogen exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural and synthetic estrogens are common contaminants in surface waters and have the potential to affect reproduction in fish. Estrogens are likely to co-occur with low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, which result from inputs of organic material in wastewater effluents or from an...

  16. Long-term exposure to estrogen enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy potentially through epigenetic mechanism in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the most common clinical option for treatment of breast cancer. However, the efficacy of chemotherapy depends on the age of breast cancer patients. Breast tissues are estrogen responsive and the levels of ovarian estrogen vary among the breast cancer patients primarily between pre- and post-menopausal age. Whether this age-dependent variation in estrogen levels influences the chemotherapeutic efficacy in breast cancer patients is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol (E2) on the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in breast cancer cells. Estrogen responsive MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells were long-term exposed to 100 pg/ml estrogen, and using these cells the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and cisplatin were determined. The result of cell viability and cell cycle analysis revealed increased sensitivities of doxorubicin and cisplatin in estrogen-exposed MCF-7 and T47D cells as compared to their respective control cells. Gene expression analysis of cell cycle, anti-apoptosis, DNA repair, and drug transporter genes further confirmed the increased efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in estrogen-exposed cells at molecular level. To further understand the role of epigenetic mechanism in enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy by estrogen, cells were pre-treated with epigenetic drugs, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and Trichostatin A prior to doxorubicin and cisplatin treatments. The 5-aza-2 deoxycytidine pre-treatment significantly decreased the estrogen-induced efficacy of doxorubicin and cisplatin, suggesting the role of estrogen-induced hypermethylation in enhanced sensitivity of these drugs in estrogen-exposed cells. In summary, the results of this study revealed that sensitivity to chemotherapy depends on the levels of estrogen in breast cancer cells. Findings of this study will have clinical implications in selecting the chemotherapy strategies for treatment of breast

  17. Reducing endogenous estrogen during prepuberal life does not affect boar libido or sperm fertilizing potential.

    PubMed

    Berger, Trish; Conley, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Increasing sperm production per breeding male has economic significance with increasing use of artificial insemination. Manipulations to increase sperm production in livestock will only be useful if libido and sperm fertilizing capacity are not adversely affected. Reducing endogenous estrogens in the postnatal interval increases the number of Sertoli cells and hence testicular sperm production capacity. These experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of reducing endogenous estrogens on libido and sperm fertilizing capacity. Boars were treated with an aromatase inhibitor, letrozole, to reduce testicular estrogen production between 1 and 6 weeks of age or between 11 and 16 weeks of age, and the littermates to these boars were treated with the canola oil vehicle. Letrozole treatment did not affect time to first mount at 22 weeks of age, regardless of whether the treatment occurred from 1 to 6 weeks of age (118 seconds vs. 233 seconds, SEM = 161 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively) or from 11 to 16 weeks of age (107 seconds vs. 67 seconds, SEM = 63 for letrozole-treated and vehicle-treated boars, respectively). Similarly, sperm fertilizing ability and in vivo fertility were equivalent in letrozole-treated boars and their vehicle-treated littermates. Surprisingly, the increase in Sertoli cell numbers observed in the letrozole-treated boars at 20 weeks of age (5.8 vs. 4.3 billion, SEM = 0.5; P < 0.05) was not maintained to 40 weeks of age in their letrozole-treated littermates. Reducing endogenous estrogen production neonatally or prepuberally had no detectable adverse effect on libido or sperm fertilizing capacity.

  18. Effect-based tools for monitoring estrogenic mixtures: Evaluation of five in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Petra Y; Simon, Eszter; Creusot, Nicolas; Jayasinghe, B Sumith; Kienle, Cornelia; Maletz, Sibylle; Schifferli, Andrea; Schönlau, Christine; Aït-Aïssa, Selim; Denslow, Nancy D; Hollert, Henner; Werner, Inge; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M

    2017-03-01

    In vitro estrogen receptor transactivation assays (ERTAs) are increasingly used to measure the overall estrogenic activity of environmental water samples, which may serve as an indicator of exposure of fish or other aquatic organisms to (xeno)estrogens. Another potential area of application of ERTAs is to assist the monitoring of the potent steroids 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) under the Water Framework Directive (WFD) watch-list mechanism. Chemical analysis of E2 and EE2 is currently hampered by limits of quantification being mostly above the proposed annual average Environmental Quality Standards (AA-EQS) of 0.4 and 0.035 ng/L, respectively. Sensitive ERTAs could circumvent current detection challenges by measuring total estrogenic activity expressed as E2-equivalent (EEQ) concentrations. However, the use of different ERTAs results in different EEQ concentrations for the same sample. Reasons for these differences are known, but it remains unclear how to use and interpret bioassay results in a harmonised way. The aim of this study was to compare the intra- and inter-day variability of EEQ measurements using five different ERTAs (YES, ERα-CALUX, MELN, T47D-KBluc and GeneBLAzer-ERα) with regard to their applicability as effect-based tools in environmental monitoring. Environmentally relevant artificial mixtures of (xeno)estrogens were prepared to represent samples with higher (i.e. multiple times the AA-EQS for E2) or lower pollution levels (i.e. around the AA-EQS for E2). Mixtures were tested either directly or following solid phase extraction (SPE). The SPE step was included, as environmental samples typically require enrichment before analysis. Samples were analysed repeatedly to test intra-day and inter-day variability. Estrogenicity was quantified using the 10% effect level (PC10) of the positive control (E2) and expressed as EEQ concentrations. The average coefficient of variation (CV) of EEQ concentrations for the five ERTAs and all

  19. Effects of phytoestrogens and synthetic combinatorial libraries on aromatase, estrogen biosynthesis, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brueggemeier, R W; Gu, X; Mobley, J A; Joomprabutra, S; Bhat, A S; Whetstone, J L

    2001-12-01

    Approximately 60% of breast cancer patients have hormone-dependent breast cancer containing estrogen receptors and requiring estrogen for tumor growth. The extent of estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism in the breast cancer tissue microenvironment influences breast-tumor development and growth, and endogenous and exogenous agents may alter the levels of hormonally active estrogens and their metabolites. Isoflavonoid phytoestrogens such as genistein exhibit numerous biochemical activities; however, their effects on estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism in breast cancer cells have not been fully examined. MCF-7 cells (hormone-dependent) and MBA-MB-231 cells (hormone-independent) were treated with genistein (100 nM) for five days and then incubated with radiolabeled estradiol (100 nM, 2.5 microCi) for 0 to 48 h. Media were extracted with ethyl acetate, and the organic residues analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with a radioactivity flow detector. The major metabolite formed in all cases is estrone, although differences were observed between the cell lines and the various drug treatments. The formation of estrone in untreated MCF-7 cells (approximately 9.3% of radioactivity at 24 h) is relatively limited, in contrast to untreated MDA-MB-231 cells (approximately 32.0% of radioactivity at 24 h). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 100 nM genistein increased the conversion of estradiol to estrone up to 19.5% in 24 h. The effect of genistein on estrone formation in MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in 37.7% of the radioactivity being estrone. Thus, genistein treatment of breast cancer cells resulted in increased 17-betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and elevated formation of estrone. Increased levels of oxidative 17-betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity (Type II) were confirmed by Western blots. Therefore, exposure of breast cancer cells to genistein results in elevated conversion of estradiol to estrogenically weaker or inactive metabolites. The regulation of breast

  20. Estrogen has opposing effects on vascular reactivity in obese, insulin-resistant male Zucker rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks-Asplund, Esther M.; Shoukas, Artin A.; Kim, Soon-Yul; Burke, Sean A.; Berkowitz, Dan E.

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesized that estradiol treatment would improve vascular dysfunction commonly associated with obesity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. A sham operation or 17beta-estradiol pellet implantation was performed in male lean and obese Zucker rats. Maximal vasoconstriction (VC) to phenylephrine (PE) and potassium chloride was exaggerated in control obese rats compared with lean rats, but estradiol significantly attenuated VC in the obese rats. Estradiol reduced the PE EC50 in all groups. This effect was cyclooxygenase independent, because preincubation with indomethacin reduced VC response to PE similarly in a subset of control and estrogen-treated lean rats. Endothelium-independent vasodilation (VD) to sodium nitroprusside was similar among groups, but endothelium-dependent VD to ACh was significantly impaired in obese compared with lean rats. Estradiol improved VD in lean and obese rats by decreasing EC50 but impaired function by decreasing maximal VD. The shift in EC50 corresponded to an upregulation in nitric oxide synthase III protein expression in the aorta of the estrogen-treated obese rats. In summary, estrogen treatment improves vascular function in male insulin-resistant, obese rats, partially via an upregulation of nitric oxide synthase III protein expression. These effects are counteracted by adverse factors, such as hyperlipidemia and, potentially, a release of an endothelium-derived contractile agent.

  1. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ciparis, S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Voshell, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO 4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17??-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000??g/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R 2=0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R 2=0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO 4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R 2=0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO 4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO 4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Voshell, J. Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations > 1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (> 1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R2 = 0.56–0.81) and E2Eq (R2 = 0.39–0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R2 = 0.27–0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms.

  3. Pigment epithelium-derived factor: clinical significance in estrogen-dependent tissues and its potential in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Chuaire, María Liliana; Ramírez-Clavijo, Sandra; Chuaire-Noack, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a glycoprotein that belongs to the family of non-inhibitory serpins. The broad spectrum of PEDF biological activity is evident when considering its effects in promoting cell survival and proliferation, as well as its antiangiogenic, antitumor, and anti-metastatic properties. Although the structural domains of the PEDF gene that mediate such diverse effects and their mechanisms of action have not been completely elucidated, there is a large body of evidence describing their diverse range of activities; this evidence combined with the regulation of PEDF expression by sex steroids and their receptors have led to the idea that PEDF is not only a diagnostic and prognostic marker for certain diseases such as cancer, but is also a potential therapeutic target. In this manner, this paper aims to generally review the regulation of PEDF expression and PEDF interactions, as well as the findings that relate PEDF to the role of estrogens and estrogen receptors. In addition, this manuscript will review major advances toward potential therapeutic applications of PEDF. PMID:26523216

  4. Most Plastic Products Release Estrogenic Chemicals: A Potential Health Problem That Can Be Solved

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun Z.; Yaniger, Stuart I.; Jordan, V. Craig; Klein, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chemicals having estrogenic activity (EA) reportedly cause many adverse health effects, especially at low (picomolar to nanomolar) doses in fetal and juvenile mammals. Objectives: We sought to determine whether commercially available plastic resins and products, including baby bottles and other products advertised as bisphenol A (BPA) free, release chemicals having EA. Methods: We used a roboticized MCF-7 cell proliferation assay, which is very sensitive, accurate, and repeatable, to quantify the EA of chemicals leached into saline or ethanol extracts of many types of commercially available plastic materials, some exposed to common-use stresses (microwaving, ultraviolet radiation, and/or autoclaving). Results: Almost all commercially available plastic products we sampled—independent of the type of resin, product, or retail source—leached chemicals having reliably detectable EA, including those advertised as BPA free. In some cases, BPA-free products released chemicals having more EA than did BPA-containing products. Conclusions: Many plastic products are mischaracterized as being EA free if extracted with only one solvent and not exposed to common-use stresses. However, we can identify existing compounds, or have developed, monomers, additives, or processing agents that have no detectable EA and have similar costs. Hence, our data suggest that EA-free plastic products exposed to common-use stresses and extracted by saline and ethanol solvents could be cost-effectively made on a commercial scale and thereby eliminate a potential health risk posed by most currently available plastic products that leach chemicals having EA into food products. PMID:21367689

  5. Estrogen Receptors Alpha (ERα) and Beta (ERβ): Subtype-Selective Ligands and Clinical Potential

    PubMed Central

    Paterni, Ilaria; Granchi, Carlotta; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Minutolo, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological processes in humans. Modulation of these receptors by prospective therapeutic agents is currently being considered for prevention and treatment of a wide variety of pathological conditions, such as, cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and osteoporosis. This review provides an overview and update of compounds that have been recently reported as modulators of ERs, with a particular focus on their potential clinical applications. PMID:24971815

  6. Estrogen has anti-amyloidogenic effects on Alzheimer's {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Morinaga, Akiyoshi; Hirohata, Mie; Ono, Kenjiro; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-03

    Inhibition of the assembly of amyloid {beta}-peptide (A{beta}) as well as the destabilization of preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}) in the central nervous system could be valuable therapeutics of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies have indicated that estrogen therapy reduced the risk of developing AD in women. Here, we examined the effects of estrogen (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3)) and related sexual steroids (androstenedione (AND) and testosterone (TES)) on the polymerization, extension and destabilization of fA{beta}(1-42) and fA{beta}(1-40) at pH 7.5 at 37 {sup o}C in vitro, using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies. E1, E2, and E3 dose-dependently inhibited the formation, as well as destabilization of fA{beta}s. The overall anti-amyloidogenic activity of these molecules was in the order of: E3 > E2 = E1 >>AND = TES. Estrogen could be a potential therapeutic agent to prevent or delay AD progression.

  7. Unique effects of energy versus estrogen deficiency on multiple components of bone strength in exercising women.

    PubMed

    Southmayd, E A; Mallinson, R J; Williams, N I; Mallinson, D J; De Souza, M J

    2017-04-01

    Many female athletes are energy and/or estrogen deficient, but the independent effects on bone health have not been isolated. Energy deficiency was detrimental at the tibia while estrogen deficiency was detrimental at the radius. Nutrition must be considered alongside menstrual recovery when addressing compromised bone health in female athletes.

  8. Mechanisms of estrogens' dose-dependent neuroprotective and neurodamaging effects in experimental models of cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Strom, Jakob O; Theodorsson, Annette; Theodorsson, Elvar

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the hypothesis was put forward that estrogens could protect against cerebral ischemia, numerous studies have investigated the mechanisms of their effects. Despite initial studies showing ameliorating effects, later trials in both humans and animals have yielded contrasting results regarding the fundamental issue of whether estrogens are neuroprotective or neurodamaging. Therefore, investigations of the possible mechanisms of estrogen actions in brain ischemia have been difficult to assess. A recently published systematic review from our laboratory indicates that the dichotomy in experimental rat studies may be caused by the use of insufficiently validated estrogen administration methods resulting in serum hormone concentrations far from those intended, and that physiological estrogen concentrations are neuroprotective while supraphysiological concentrations augment the damage from cerebral ischemia. This evidence offers a new perspective on the mechanisms of estrogens' actions in cerebral ischemia, and also has a direct bearing on the hormone replacement therapy debate. Estrogens affect their target organs by several different pathways and receptors, and the mechanisms proposed for their effects on stroke probably prevail in different concentration ranges. In the current article, previously suggested neuroprotective and neurodamaging mechanisms are reviewed in a hormone concentration perspective in an effort to provide a mechanistic framework for the dose-dependent paradoxical effects of estrogens in stroke. It is concluded that five protective mechanisms, namely decreased apoptosis, growth factor regulation, vascular modulation, indirect antioxidant properties and decreased inflammation, and the proposed damaging mechanism of increased inflammation, are currently supported by experiments performed in optimal biological settings.

  9. Distinct hypothalamic neurons mediate estrogenic effects on energy homeostasis and reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogens regulate body weight and reproduction primarily through actions on estrogen receptor-a(ERa). However, ERalpha-expressing cells mediating these effects are not identified. We demonstrate that brain-specific deletion of ERalapha in female mice causes abdominal obesity stemming from both hype...

  10. QSAR classification of estrogen receptor binders and pre-screening of potential pleiotropic EDCs.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Gramatica, P

    2010-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are suspected of posing serious threats to human and wildlife health through a variety of mechanisms, these being mainly receptor-mediated modes of action. It is reported that some EDCs exhibit dual activities as estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) binders. Indeed, such compounds can affect the normal endocrine system through a dual complex mechanism, so steps should be taken not only to identify them a priori from their chemical structure, but also to prioritize them for experimental tests in order to reduce and even forbid their usage. To date, very few EDCs with dual activities have been identified. The present research uses QSARs, to investigate what, so far, is the largest and most heterogeneous ER binder data set (combined METI and EDKB databases). New predictive classification models were derived using different modelling methods and a consensus approach, and these were used to virtually screen a large AR binder data set after strict validation. As a result, 46 AR antagonists were predicted from their chemical structure to also have potential ER binding activities, i.e. pleiotropic EDCs. In addition, 48 not yet recognized ER binders were in silico identified, which increases the number of potential EDCs that are substances of very high concern (SVHC) in REACH. Thus, the proposed screening models, based only on structure information, have the main aim to prioritize experimental tests for the highlighted compounds with potential estrogenic activities and also to design safer alternatives.

  11. Estrogenic effects of herbal medicines from Costa Rica used for the management of menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Brian J.; Frasor, Jonna; Bellows, Lauren E.; Locklear, Tracie D.; Perez, Alice; Gomez- Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail. B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Outcomes from the Women's Health Initiative have demonstrated adverse effects associated with hormone therapy (HT), and have prioritized the need to develop new alternative treatments for the management of menopause and osteoporosis. To this end, we have been investigating natural herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to manage menopausal symptoms. Design Seventeen plant species were collected and extracted in Costa Rica. To establish possible mechanisms of action, and determine their potential future use for menopause or osteoporosis, the estrogenic activities of the herbal extracts were investigated in an estrogen reporter gene ERβ-CALUX® assay in U2-OS cells, and in reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Six of the plant extracts bound to the estrogen receptors. Four of the six extracts stimulated reporter gene expression in the ERβ-CALUX® assay. All six extracts modulated expression of endogenous genes in MCF-7 cells, with four extracts acting as estrogen agonists and two extracts, Pimenta dioica and Smilax domingensis, acting as partial agonist/antagonists by enhancing E2-stimulated pS2 mRNA expression, but reducing E2-stimulated PR and PTGES mRNA expression. Both P. dioica and S. domingensis induced a 2ERE-luciferase reporter gene in transient transfected MCF-7 cells, which was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182780. Conclusions This work presents a plausible mechanism of action for many of the herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to treat menopausal symptoms. However, it further suggests that studies of safety and efficacy are needed before these herbs should be used as alternative therapies to HT. PMID:19424091

  12. Rapid effects of estrogens on behavior: environmental modulation and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Laredo, Sarah A.; Landeros, Rosalina Villalon; Trainor, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Estradiol can modulate neural activity and behavior via both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. Environmental cues have a major impact on the relative importance of these signaling pathways with significant consequences for behavior. First we consider how photoperiod modulates nongenomic estrogen signaling on behavior. Intriguingly, short days permit rapid effects of estrogens on aggression in both rodents and song sparrows. This highlights the importance of considering photoperiod as a variable in laboratory research. Next we review evidence for rapid effects of estradiol on ecologically-relevant behaviors including aggression, copulation, communication, and learning. We also address the impact of endocrine disruptors on estrogen signaling, such as those found in corncob bedding used in rodent research. Finally, we examine the biochemical mechanisms that may mediate rapid estrogen action on behavior in males and females. A common theme across these topics is that the effects of estrogens on social behaviors vary across different environmental conditions. PMID:24685383

  13. Rapid effects of estrogens on behavior: environmental modulation and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Laredo, Sarah A; Villalon Landeros, Rosalina; Trainor, Brian C

    2014-10-01

    Estradiol can modulate neural activity and behavior via both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. Environmental cues have a major impact on the relative importance of these signaling pathways with significant consequences for behavior. First we consider how photoperiod modulates nongenomic estrogen signaling on behavior. Intriguingly, short days permit rapid effects of estrogens on aggression in both rodents and song sparrows. This highlights the importance of considering photoperiod as a variable in laboratory research. Next we review evidence for rapid effects of estradiol on ecologically-relevant behaviors including aggression, copulation, communication, and learning. We also address the impact of endocrine disruptors on estrogen signaling, such as those found in corncob bedding used in rodent research. Finally, we examine the biochemical mechanisms that may mediate rapid estrogen action on behavior in males and females. A common theme across these topics is that the effects of estrogens on social behaviors vary across different environmental conditions.

  14. Effects of Estrogens on Adipokines and Glucose Homeostasis in Female Aromatase Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Van Sinderen, Michelle L; Steinberg, Gregory R; Jørgensen, Sebastian B; Honeyman, Jane; Chow, Jenny D; Herridge, Kerrie A; Winship, Amy L; Dimitriadis, Evdokia; Jones, Margaret E E; Simpson, Evan R; Boon, Wah Chin

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of glucose homeostasis within the body is crucial for constant and precise performance of energy balance and is sustained by a number of peripheral organs. Estrogens are known to play a role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice are estrogen-deficient and display symptoms of dysregulated glucose metabolism. We aim to investigate the effects of estrogen ablation and exogenous estrogen administration on glucose homeostasis regulation. Six month-old female wildtype, ArKO, and 17β-estradiol (E2) treated ArKO mice were subjected to whole body tolerance tests, serum examination of estrogen, glucose and insulin, ex-vivo muscle glucose uptake, and insulin signaling pathway analyses. Female ArKO mice display increased body weight, gonadal (omental) adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, and liver triglycerides, which were ameliorated upon estrogen treatment. Tolerance tests revealed that estrogen-deficient ArKO mice were pyruvate intolerant hence reflecting dysregulated hepatic gluconeogenesis. Analyses of skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissues supported a hepatic-based glucose dysregulation, with a down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation (a key insulin signaling pathway molecule) in the ArKO liver, which was improved with E2 treatment. Concurrently, estrogen treatment lowered ArKO serum leptin and adiponectin levels and increased inflammatory adipokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL6). Furthermore, estrogen deficiency resulted in the infiltration of CD45 macrophages into gonadal adipose tissues, which cannot be reversed by E2 treatment. This study describes the effects of estrogens on glucose homeostasis in female ArKO mice and highlights a primary phenotype of hepatic glucose dysregulation and a parallel estrogen modified adipokine profile.

  15. Effects of Estrogens on Adipokines and Glucose Homeostasis in Female Aromatase Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Van Sinderen, Michelle L.; Steinberg, Gregory R.; Jørgensen, Sebastian B.; Honeyman, Jane; Chow, Jenny D.; Herridge, Kerrie A.; Winship, Amy L.; Dimitriadis, Evdokia; Jones, Margaret E. E.; Simpson, Evan R.; Boon, Wah Chin

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of glucose homeostasis within the body is crucial for constant and precise performance of energy balance and is sustained by a number of peripheral organs. Estrogens are known to play a role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice are estrogen-deficient and display symptoms of dysregulated glucose metabolism. We aim to investigate the effects of estrogen ablation and exogenous estrogen administration on glucose homeostasis regulation. Six month-old female wildtype, ArKO, and 17β-estradiol (E2) treated ArKO mice were subjected to whole body tolerance tests, serum examination of estrogen, glucose and insulin, ex-vivo muscle glucose uptake, and insulin signaling pathway analyses. Female ArKO mice display increased body weight, gonadal (omental) adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, and liver triglycerides, which were ameliorated upon estrogen treatment. Tolerance tests revealed that estrogen-deficient ArKO mice were pyruvate intolerant hence reflecting dysregulated hepatic gluconeogenesis. Analyses of skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissues supported a hepatic-based glucose dysregulation, with a down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation (a key insulin signaling pathway molecule) in the ArKO liver, which was improved with E2 treatment. Concurrently, estrogen treatment lowered ArKO serum leptin and adiponectin levels and increased inflammatory adipokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL6). Furthermore, estrogen deficiency resulted in the infiltration of CD45 macrophages into gonadal adipose tissues, which cannot be reversed by E2 treatment. This study describes the effects of estrogens on glucose homeostasis in female ArKO mice and highlights a primary phenotype of hepatic glucose dysregulation and a parallel estrogen modified adipokine profile. PMID:26317527

  16. Salutary Effects of Estrogen Sulfate for Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunki; Cam-Etoz, Betul; Zhai, Guihua; Hubbard, William J.; Zinn, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Estrogen plays an important role as a neuroprotector in the central nervous system (CNS), directly interacting with neurons and regulating physiological properties of non-neuronal cells. Here we evaluated estrogen sulfate (E2-SO4) for traumatic brain injury (TBI) using a Sprague–Dawley rat model. TBI was induced via lateral fluid percussion (LFP) at 24 h after craniectomy. E2-SO4 (1 mg/kg BW in 1 mL/kg BW) or saline (served as control) was intravenously administered at 1 h after TBI (n=5/group). Intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and partial brain oxygen pressure (pbtO2) were measured for 2 h (from 23 to 25 h after E2-SO4 injection). Brain edema and diffuse axonal injury (DAI) were assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and cerebral glycolysis was measured by 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, at 1 and 7 days after E2-SO4 injection. E2-SO4 significantly decreased ICP, while increasing CPP and pbtO2 (p<0.05) as compared with vehicle-treated TBI rats. The edema size in the brains of the E2-SO4 treated group was also significantly smaller than that of vehicle-treated group at 1 day after E2-SO4 injection (p=0.04), and cerebral glycolysis of injured region was also increased significantly during the same time period (p=0.04). However, E2-SO4 treatment did not affect DAI (p>0.05). These findings demonstrated the potential benefits of E2-SO4 in TBI. PMID:25646701

  17. Modulation of estrogenic effects by environmental temperature and food availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), in combination with environmental influences, interfere with endocrine function in humans and wildlife. Estrogens are a type of EDC that may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas. The impact of estrogens on P...

  18. Intestinal bacteria activate estrogenic effect of main constituents puerarin and daidzin of Pueraria thunbergiana.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Kyung; Shin, Jieun; Bae, Eun-Ah; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2006-12-01

    To understand the relationship between the metabolites and estrogenic activity of the main isoflavones puerarin and daidzin of the rhizome of Pueraria thunbergiana (PT, family Leguminosae), PT and its isoflavones were transformed by human intestinal bacteria and their estrogenic effects were investigated. All human fecal specimens hydrolyzed puerarin and daidzin to daidzein, but their hydrolyzing activities varied depending on the individuals. All intestinal bacteria isolated from human also hydrolyzed daidzin to daidzein, but a few bacteria transformed puerarin to daidzein. When the estrogenic effect of PT, puerarin and daidzin was compared with those of their metabolites, the metabolites more potently increased proliferation of MCF-7 cells than PT, puerarin and daidzin. The metabolite daidzein also potently increased estrogen-response c-fos mRNA and PR protein expressions. These findings suggest that intestinal bacteria, which can hydrolyze puerarin and/or daidzin, may activate a potent estrogenic activity of PT.

  19. Hippocampal learning, memory, and neurogenesis: Effects of sex and estrogens across the lifespan in adults.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Yagi, Shunya; Chow, Carmen; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". There are sex differences in hippocampus-dependent cognition and neurogenesis suggesting that sex hormones are involved. Estrogens modulate certain forms of spatial and contextual memory and neurogenesis in the adult female rodent, and to a lesser extent male, hippocampus. This review focuses on the effects of sex and estrogens on hippocampal learning, memory, and neurogenesis in the young and aged adult rodent. We discuss how factors such as the type of estrogen, duration and dose of treatment, timing of treatment, and type of memory influence the effects of estrogens on cognition and neurogenesis. We also address how reproductive experience (pregnancy and mothering) and aging interact with estrogens to modulate hippocampal cognition and neurogenesis in females. Given the evidence that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in long-term spatial memory and pattern separation, we also discuss the functional implications of regulating neurogenesis in the hippocampus.

  20. Dioxin-like exposures and effects on estrogenic and androgenic exposures and micronuclei frequency in mother-newborn pairs.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Mathiesen, Line; Mose, Tina; Brouwer, Abraham; Hedegaard, Morten; Loft, Steffen; Kleinjans, Jos C S; Besselink, Harrie; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2010-05-01

    In utero exposure to environmental dioxin-like, estrogen and androgen compounds can cause adverse health effects. Little is known about potential interactions in vivo between dioxin-like compounds, estrogens and androgens during fetal development in humans. Therefore we explored the potential interactions in vivo between dioxin-like compounds, estrogens, androgens using chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX)(R) bioassays in maternal and umbilical cord blood plasma concurrently collected at the time of planned Caesarean section from 98 healthy pregnancies. The dioxin-like activity was also determined after placental transfer of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the ex vivo human placenta perfusion system. Similar dioxin-like activity in maternal and cord blood (37 versus 33pg CALUX(R)-TEQ/g plasma lipids, P>0.05) was detected and it demonstrates transplacental transfer. Increased dioxin-like activity in the perfused placenta tissue after ex vivo TCDD perfusions (from 17 to 280pg CALUX(R)-TEQ/g plasma lipids) suggest that accumulation in the placenta prevents immediate transplacental transfer of TCDD. Androgenic activity were also similar in the paired mother-newborns (0.10 versus 0.18ng CALUX(R)-AEQ/mL plasma), whereas cord blood plasma estrogenic activity was higher than maternal levels (22.6 versus 18.5ng CALUX(R)-EEQ/mL plasma). In cord blood plasma androgenic activity was strongly positively associated with maternal levels (Rs=0.8, P<0.001) whereas dioxin-like and estrogenic activities were modestly associated with maternal levels (Rsestrogenic and androgenic exposures during fetal development of humans.

  1. Effect of vaginal or systemic estrogen on dynamics of collagen assembly in the rat vaginal wall.

    PubMed

    Montoya, T Ignacio; Maldonado, P Antonio; Acevedo, Jesus F; Word, R Ann

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of systemic and local estrogen treatment on collagen assembly and biomechanical properties of the vaginal wall. Ovariectomized nulliparous rats were treated with estradiol or conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs) either systemically, vaginal CEE, or vaginal placebo cream for 4 wk. Low-dose local CEE treatment resulted in increased vaginal epithelial thickness and significant vaginal growth without uterine hyperplasia. Furthermore, vaginal wall distensibility increased without compromise of maximal force at failure. Systemic estradiol resulted in modest increases in collagen type I with no change in collagen type III mRNA. Low-dose vaginal treatment, however, resulted in dramatic increases in both collagen subtypes whereas moderate and high dose local therapies were less effective. Consistent with the mRNA results, low-dose vaginal estrogen resulted in increased total and cross-linked collagen content. The inverse relationship between vaginal dose and collagen expression may be explained in part by progressive downregulation of estrogen receptor-alpha mRNA with increasing estrogen dose. We conclude that, in this menopausal rat model, local estrogen treatment increased total and cross-linked collagen content and markedly stimulated collagen mRNA expression in an inverse dose-effect relationship. High-dose vaginal estrogen resulted in downregulation of estrogen receptor-alpha and loss of estrogen-induced increases in vaginal collagen. These results may have important clinical implications regarding the use of local vaginal estrogen therapy and its role as an adjunctive treatment in women with loss of vaginal support.

  2. Activation of Estrogen Receptor Transfected into a Receptor-Negative Brest Cancer Cell Line Decreases the Metastatic and Invasive Potential of the Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Marcel; Derocq, Danielle; Freiss, Gilles; Rochefort, Henri

    1992-12-01

    Breast cancers containing estrogen receptors are responsive to antiestrogen treatment and have a better prognosis than estrogen receptor-negative tumors. The loss of estrogen and progesterone receptors appears to be associated with a progression to less-differentiated tumors. We transfected the human estrogen receptor into the estrogen receptor-negative metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 in an attempt to restore their sensitivity to antiestrogens. Two stable sublines of MDA-MB-231 cells (HC1 and HE5) expressing functional estrogen receptors were studied for their ability to grow and invade in vitro and to metastasize in athymic nude mice. The number and size of lung metastases developed by these two sublines in ovariectomized nude mice was not markedly altered by tamoxifen but was inhibited 3-fold by estradiol. Estradiol also significantly inhibited in vitro cell proliferation of these sublines and their invasiveness in Matrigel, a reconstituted basement membrane, whereas the antiestrogens 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 164,384 reversed these effects. These results show that estradiol inhibits the metastatic ability of estrogen receptornegative breast cancer cells following transfection with the estrogen receptor, whereas estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers are stimulated by estrogen, indicating that factors other than the estrogen receptor are involved in progression toward hormone independence. Reactivation or transfer of the estrogen receptor gene can therefore be considered as therapeutic approaches to hormone-independent cancers

  3. Comparison of an array of in vitro assays for the assessment of the estrogenic potential of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens and xenoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Gutendorf, B; Westendorf, J

    2001-09-14

    Many chemicals in surface waters and sediments have recently been discovered to have estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity. Among these compounds, known as 'endocrine disrupters', are natural and synthetic hormones, phytoestrogenes and a variety of industrial chemicals, such as certain detergents and pesticides. These substances are supposed to affect the development and reproduction in wildlife and humans and may also be involved in the induction of cancer. In order to assess the estrogenic/antiestrogenic potential of pure compounds and complex environmental samples we compared an array of in vitro test systems, (i) two luciferase reporter gene assays using transgenic human MVLN cells (derived from MCF-7 cells) and HGELN cells (derived from HeLa cells); (ii) a competitive binding assay with recombinant human estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta; and (iii) a proliferation assay with MCF7-cells (E-Screen). The sensitivity of the assays for 17-beta-estradiol decreased in the order: MVLN-cells=E-Screen>HGELN-cells>binding to ER-alpha>binding to ER-beta. A good correlation was obtained between the estrogenic potencies of 11 compounds (17-beta-estradiol (E(2)), estrone (E(1)), estriol (E(3)), ethinylestradiol (EE(2)), diethylstilbestrol (DES), coumestrol, beta-sitosterol, genistein, 4-nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol, bisphenol A) in the three tissue culture assays. The relative potencies of the compounds obtained by the cell free binding assays were one to two orders of magnitude higher compared with the cell culture assays. The phytoestrogens showed a preference to bind to ER-beta, but only genistein showed a much lower activity in the E-Screen (growth induction in breast cancer cells) compared with the luciferase induction in MVLN and HGELN-cells.

  4. Normal bone growth requires optimal estrogen levels: negative effects of both high and low dose estrogen on the number of growth plate chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Takano, Hiroyuki; Aizawa, Toshimi; Irie, Taichi; Itoi, Eiji; Kokubun, Shoichi; Roach, Helmtrud I

    2008-03-01

    Endochondral bone formation at epiphyseal growth plate consists of the synchronized processes of chondrogenesis and cartilage ossification. Estrogen, the major female sex hormone, plays an important role in this process, particularly during the pubertal growth spurt. However, its effects on the growth plate are not completely understood. The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of estrogen on the kinetics of chondrocytes in the growth plates of 10- to 25-week-old female rabbits by studying the effects of ovariectomy or high-dose administration of estrogen on the balance between cell proliferation and death. Forty-eight Japanese white rabbits were divided into three groups: sham operated, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized with subsequent weekly injection of high dose estrogen from 10 weeks. The chondrocyte kinetics was investigated by histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry, using antibodies for caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, and for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Both ovariectomized and estrogen-injected rabbits showed a declination of the chondrocyte number although the latter animals indicated a more dramatic effect. Estrogen-injected rabbits showed a decrease in the cell proliferating ability together with an increase in chondrocytes undergoing apoptosis while ovariectomy mainly reduced the cell proliferating ability. Given the known importance of estrogen for bone growth, one would expect that ovariectomy and high-dose administration of estrogen would have opposite effects. However, the present study indicated that both low and high concentration had a similar effect: a decrease in the chondrocyte number compared with control, suggesting that estrogen has to be maintained within a narrow range for optimal bone growth.

  5. GPR30 Mediates the Fast Effect of Estrogen on Mouse Blastocyst and its Role in Implantation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-lin; Qu, Ting; Zhang, Shi-mao; Yuan, Dong-zhi; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Jin-hu; He, Ya-ping; Yue, Li-min

    2015-10-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that estrogen could rapidly increase intracellular Ca(2+) in dormant mouse blastocysts. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the physiological relevance of G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) in the fast effect of estrogen on mouse blastocyst and in embryo implantation. We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, embryo coculture with Ishikawa uterine epithelial cell line, and embryo transfer technology to detect the expression of GPR30 in mouse embryos and the nongenomic effects of estrogen via GPR30 on blastocyst. We found that GPR30 is expressed in the mouse blastocyst, and its location is mostly consistent with the binding site of estrogen. Both estrogen and GPR30-specific agonist G-1 rapidly increase the intracellular Ca(2+) and phospholipase C activation in blastocyst cells, while GPR30-specific antagonist G-15 blocked this effect of estrogen. The pretreatment of G-15 on blastocysts lead to a lower attachment rate and implantation rate. Our data collectively suggested that GPR30 can mediate the fast effect of estrogen on blastocysts and play an important role in embryo implantation.

  6. Effects of Postnatal Estrogen Manipulations on Juvenile Alloparental Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Adam N.; Carter, C. Sue; Cushing, Bruce S.

    2015-01-01

    Sex- and species-specific patterns of estrogen receptor (ER)-α expression are established early in development, which may contribute to sexual differentiation of behavior and determine male social organization. The current study investigated the effects of ERα and ERβ activation during the second postnatal week on subsequent alloparental behavior and ERα expression in juvenile prairie voles. Male and female pups were treated daily with 17β-estradiol (E2, ERα/ERβ agonist), PPT (selective ERα agonist), DPN (selective ERβ agonist), or the oil vehicle on postnatal days (PD) 8-14. Alloparental behavior and ERα expression were examined at PD21. PPT treatment inhibited prosocial motivation in males and increased pup-directed aggression in both sexes. E2 and DPN had no apparent effect on behavior in either sex. PPT-treated males had increased ERα expression in the medial preoptic area (MPN), medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpr). DPN treatment also increased ERα expression in males, but only in the BSTpr. Female ERα expression was unaffected by treatment. These results support the hypothesis that ERα activation in early life is associated with less prosocial patterns of central ERα expression and alloparental behavior in males. The lack of an effect of E2 on behavior suggests that ERβ may antagonize the effects of ERα on alloparental behavior. The results in DPN-treated males suggest that ERα in the MEApd, and not the BSTpr, may be a primary determinant of alloparental behavior in males. PMID:26222494

  7. Effects of postnatal estrogen manipulations on juvenile alloparental behavior.

    PubMed

    Perry, Adam N; Sue Carter, C; Cushing, Bruce S

    2015-09-01

    Sex- and species-specific patterns of estrogen receptor (ER)-α expression are established early in development, which may contribute to sexual differentiation of behavior and determine male social organization. The current study investigated the effects of ERα and ERβ activation during the second postnatal week on subsequent alloparental behavior and ERα expression in juvenile prairie voles. Male and female pups were treated daily with 17β-estradiol (E2, ERα/ERβ agonist), PPT (selective ERα agonist), DPN (selective ERβ agonist), or the oil vehicle on postnatal days (PD) 8-14. Alloparental behavior and ERα expression were examined at PD21. PPT treatment inhibited prosocial motivation in males and increased pup-directed aggression in both sexes. E2 and DPN had no apparent effect on behavior in either sex. PPT-treated males had increased ERα expression in the medial preoptic area (MPN), medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpr). DPN treatment also increased ERα expression in males, but only in the BSTpr. Female ERα expression was unaffected by treatment. These results support the hypothesis that ERα activation in early life is associated with less prosocial patterns of central ERα expression and alloparental behavior in males. The lack of an effect of E2 on behavior suggests that ERβ may antagonize the effects of ERα on alloparental behavior. The results in DPN-treated males suggest that ERα in the MEApd, and not the BSTpr, may be a primary determinant of alloparental behavior in males.

  8. Estrogen-dependent changes in serum iron levels as a translator of the adverse effects of estrogen during infection: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Mawieh; Awadallah, Samir

    2013-12-01

    Elevated levels of estrogen often associate with increased susceptibility to infection. This has been attributed to the ability of estrogen to concomitantly enhance the growth and virulence of pathogens and suppress host immunity. But the exact mechanism of how estrogen mediates such effects, especially in cases where the pathogen and/or the immune components in question do not express estrogen receptors, has yet to be elucidated. Here we propose that translating the adverse effects of estrogen during infection is dependent to a significant degree upon its ability to manipulate iron homeostasis. For elevated levels of estrogen alter the synthesis and/or activity of several factors involved in iron metabolism including hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and hepcidin among others. This leads to the inhibition of hepcidin synthesis in hepatocytes and the maintenance of ferroportin (FPN) integrity on the surface of iron-releasing duodenal enterocytes, hepatocytes, and macrophages. Intact FPN permits the continuous efflux of dietary and stored iron into the circulation, which further enhances pathogen growth and virulence on the one hand and suppresses host immunity on the other. This new conceptual framework may help explain a multitude of disparate clinical and experimental observations pertinent to the relationship between estrogen and infection.

  9. Priming effect of misoprostol on estrogen pretreated cervix in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Rusen; Kafkasli, Ayse; Burak, Feza; Germen, Aysegul Tezcan

    2005-07-01

    Misoprostol, which is a prostaglandin E1 analogue, is effectively used in cervical priming in women both for labor induction and for gynecological procedures. Although its efficacy is well documented in reproductive age women, during postmenopausal period this efficacy is limited probably due to estrogen deficit. Our objective is to evaluate if estrogen deficit in postmenopausal women is important for the effect of misoprostol on cervical ripening before diagnostic procedures. In this study, 45 patients were randomly allocated to estrogen or placebo group. The study group received local estrogen cream and other group received chlindamycine phosphate cream as placebo. The patients were given oral misoprostol 24 and 12 hours before the procedure for uterine cavity evaluation. Cervix was dilated by using Heagar dilator up to 6 mm. Data were analyzed by Student t-test, Mann-Whitney's U-test, chi-square test and paired samples t-test where appropriate. Basal cervical widths for the estrogen and placebo groups were 4.4 +/- 0.7 and 3.7 +/- 0.7 mm, respectively (p < 0.01). Mean time required for dilatation of cervix was 44.4 +/- 16.2 seconds for the estrogen group and 61.4 +/- 18.3 seconds for the placebo group (p < 0.01). As a conclusion, misoprostol treatment alone is not effective to get cervical priming in postmenopausal women, and as shown in our study, pretreatment with local estrogen overcome the failure. To get a beneficial effect of misoprostol on cervical ripening, estrogenic activity is necessary and when pretreated with local estrogen, misoprostol ameliorates cervical priming in postmenopausal women.

  10. Estrogenic activity of osthole and imperatorin in MCF-7 cells and their osteoblastic effects in Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Min; Li, Yuan; Xin, Hai-Liang; Hou, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Nai-Dai; Xu, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in phytoestrogens due to their potential medical usage in hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The present study was designed to investigate the in vitro effects of estrogen-like activities of two widespread coumarins, osthole and imperatorin, using the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay and their alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in osteoblasts Saos-2 cells. The two compounds were found to strongly stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. The estrogen receptor-regulated ERα, progesterone receptor (PR) and PS2 mRNA levels were increased by treatment with osthole and imperatorin. All these effects were significantly inhibited by the specific estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182, 780. Cell cycle analysis revealed that their proliferation stimulatory effect was associated with a marked increase in the number of MCF-7 cells in S phase, which was similar to that observed with estradiol. It was also observed that they significantly increased ALP activity, which was reversed by ICI182,780. These results suggested that osthole and imperatorin could stimulate osteoblastic activity by displaying estrogenic properties or through the ER pathway. In conclusion, osthole and imperatorin may represent new pharmacological tools for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  11. Effects of the estrogen receptor antagonist fulvestrant on F344 rat prolactinoma models.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Gao, Hua; Gui, Songbai; Bai, Giwei; Lu, Runchun; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between estrogen and prolactinoma is well documented. But the anti-tumor effects of a pure estrogen receptor antagonist fulvestrant on prolactinomas, especially in vivo, and the possible mechanisms are still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fulvestrant and the involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway on rat prolactinoma models. Forty female F344 rat prolactinoma models were established by subcutaneous administration of 10 mg 17β-estradiol for 6 weeks. Rats were intramuscularly injected with fulvestrant (0, 0.5, 3, 20, 40 mg/kg), and tumor size, weight and serum prolactin (PRL) levels were evaluated before and after fulvestrant treatment at 3, 7 and 14 days. Expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα), β-catenin and Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) in prolactinomas was measured using quantitative PCR and western blotting, and methylation of the WIF-1 promoter was investigated using pyrosequencing. Tumor size, weight and serum PRL levels were inhibited in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners after fulvestrant treatments. β-catenin expression was downregulated but WIF-1 expression was upregulated following fulvestrant treatment. The methylation of the CpG site of the WIF-1 promoter was negatively correlated to the expression of WIF-1. In addition, the anti-cell proliferation of fulvestrant on GH3 cells was partly disrupted by Wnt signaling pathway agonist SB 216763. In conclusion, fulvestrant inhibited tumor proliferation and PRL secretion of prolactinomas via ERα, and the Wnt signaling pathway was involved in this anti-tumor effect. Therefore, fulvestrant may be a potential new drug for prolactinomas.

  12. The Effect of Eurycoma Longifolia Jack on Spermatogenesis in Estrogen-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Norhazlina Abdul; Mokhtar, Norfilza M.; Halim, Wan Nurul Heriza A; Das, Srijit

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is little data concerning the ability of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL) to reverse the inhibitory effects of estrogen on testosterone production and spermatogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of EL on testicular histology and sperm count in estrogen-treated male rats. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group A (control) was given solvent in the same manner as the treated groups were given EL. Group B was treated with EL (8 mg/kg body weight) orally. Group C was treated with estradiol (E2) (intramuscular dose of 500 μg/kg body weight), and group D received a combined treatment of oral EL and intramuscular E2. After fourteen consecutive days of treatment, rats from all groups were sacrificed and subjected to spermatogenic and epididymal sperm cell counts. RESULTS: The spermatogenic cell count in the E2-treated group was significantly decreased as compared to the control (p < 0.05) and EL+E2-treated groups (p < 0.05). A similar finding was found for the epididymal sperm count; the E2-treated group had a significant decrease in the count compared to the control (p < 0.05) and EL+E2-treated groups (p < 0.05). Rats that were treated with EL alone exhibited significantly higher sperm counts and sperm motility when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: EL extract acts as a potential agent for reversing the effects of estrogen by increasing spermatogenesis and sperm counts in rats after fourteen consecutive days of treatment. PMID:20126351

  13. Relaxant Effects of the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator, Bazedoxifene, and Estrogen Receptor Agonists in Isolated Rabbit Basilar Artery.

    PubMed

    Castelló-Ruiz, María; Salom, Juan B; Fernández-Musoles, Ricardo; Burguete, María C; López-Morales, Mikahela A; Arduini, Alessandro; Jover-Mengual, Teresa; Hervás, David; Torregrosa, Germán; Alborch, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    We have previously shown that the selective estrogen receptor modulator, bazedoxifene, improves the consequences of ischemic stroke. Now we aimed to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of bazedoxifene in cerebral arteries. Male rabbit isolated basilar arteries were used for isometric tension recording and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bazedoxifene relaxed cerebral arteries, as 17-β-estradiol, 4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol [estrogen receptor (ER) α agonist], and G1 [G protein-coupled ER (GPER) agonist] did it (4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol > bazedoxifene = G1 > 17-β-estradiol). 2,3-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (ERβ agonist) had no effect. Expression profile of genes encoding for ERα (ESR1), ERβ (ESR2), and GPER was GPER > ESR1 > ESR2. As to the endothelial mechanisms, endothelium removal, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, and indomethacin, did not modify the relaxant responses to bazedoxifene. As to the K channels, both a high-K medium and the Kv blocker, 4-aminopyridine, inhibited the bazedoxifene-induced relaxations, whereas tetraethylammonium (nonselective K channel blocker), glibenclamide (selective KATP blocker) or iberiotoxin (selective KCa blocker) were without effect. Bazedoxifene also inhibited both Ca- and Bay K8644-elicited contractions. Therefore, bazedoxifene induces endothelium-independent relaxations of cerebral arteries through (1) activation of GPER and ERα receptors; (2) increase of K conductance through Kv channels; and (3) inhibition of Ca entry through L-type Ca channels. Such a profile is compatible with the beneficial effects of estrogenic compounds (eg, SERMs) on vascular function and, specifically, that concerning the brain. Therefore, bazedoxifene could be useful in the treatment of cerebral disorders in which the cerebrovascular function is compromised (eg, stroke).

  14. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Boué, Stephen M; Wiese, Thomas E; Nehls, Suzanne; Burow, Matthew E; Elliott, Steven; Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Shih, Betty Y; McLachlan, John A; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2003-04-09

    Seven legume extracts containing phytoestrogens were analyzed for estrogenic activity. Methanol extracts were prepared from soybean (Glycine max L.), green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), alfalfa sprout (Medicago sativa L.), mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.), kudzu root (Pueraria lobata L.), and red clover blossom and red clover sprout (Trifolium pratense L.). Extracts of kudzu root and red clover blossom showed significant competitive binding to estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). Estrogenic activity was determined using an estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Kudzu root, red clover blossom and sprout, mung bean sprout, and alfalfa sprout extracts displayed increased cell proliferation above levels observed with estradiol. The pure estrogen antagonist, ICI 182,780, suppressed cell proliferation induced by the extracts, suggesting an ER-related signaling pathway was involved. The ER subtype-selective activities of legume extracts were examined using transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. All seven of the extracts exhibited preferential agonist activity toward ERbeta. Using HPLC to collect fractions and MCF-7 cell proliferation, the active components in kudzu root extract were determined to be the isoflavones puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein. These results show that several legumes are a source of phytoestrogens with high levels of estrogenic activity.

  15. Neuroprotective effects of genistein in Mongolian gerbils: estrogen receptor-β involvement.

    PubMed

    Donzelli, Andrea; Braida, Daniela; Finardi, Annamaria; Capurro, Valeria; Valsecchi, Anna Elisa; Colleoni, Mariapia; Sala, Mariaelvina

    2010-01-01

    Genistein is a naturally occurring plant-derived phytoestrogen, present in the human diet, known to possess some beneficial effects. The present study investigated the effect of genistein on neuroprotection evaluated through electroencephalographic and behavioural correlates in a model of global cerebral ischemia in gerbils. Over the dose range tested, genistein (3 and 10 mg/kg), given 5 min after recirculation antagonized the ischemia-induced electroencephalographic total spectral power decrease 7 days after ischemia; fully prevented ischemia-induced hyperlocomotion evaluated 1 day after ischemia; reversed ischemia-induced memory impairment evaluated through both nest building behaviour and object recognition test; decreased malondialdehyde overproduction in the brain, evaluated 7 days after reperfusion; and fully promoted the survival of pyramidal cells in the CA(1) hippocampal subfield. The selective antagonist for estrogen receptor-β (ERβ), 4-[2-phenyl-5,7-bis(trifluoromethyl) pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]phenol (PHTPP) given 30 min before carotid occlusion, fully prevented the neuroprotective effect of genistein at the dose of 3 mg/kg. These results demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of genistein through the activation of ERβ and provide further grounds for the growing interest concerning the true potential of phytoestrogens as compounds to beneficially affect brain injury without having the disadvantages of estrogens.

  16. Testosterone attenuates and the selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, potentiates amphetamine-induced locomotion in male rats.

    PubMed

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Boerrigter, Danny; Allen, Katherine; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Karl, Tim; Djunaidi, Vanezha; Double, Kay L; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2015-04-01

    Although sex steroids are known to modulate brain dopamine, it is still unclear how testosterone modifies locomotor behaviour controlled, at least in part, by striatal dopamine in adolescent males. Our previous work suggests that increasing testosterone during adolescence may bias midbrain neurons to synthesise more dopamine. We hypothesised that baseline and amphetamine-induced locomotion would differ in adult males depending on testosterone exposure during adolescence. We hypothesised that concomitant stimulation of estrogen receptor signaling, through a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), raloxifene, can counter testosterone effects on locomotion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats at postnatal day 45 were gonadectomised (G) or sham-operated (S) prior to the typical adolescent testosterone increase. Gonadectomised rats were either given testosterone replacement (T) or blank implants (B) for six weeks and sham-operated (i.e. intact or endogenous testosterone group) were given blank implants. Subgroups of sham-operated, gonadectomised and gonadectomised/testosterone-replaced rats were treated with raloxifene (R, 5mg/kg) or vehicle (V), daily for the final four weeks. There were six groups (SBV, GBV, GTV, SBR, GBR, GTR). Saline and amphetamine-induced (1.25mg/kg) locomotion in the open field was measured at PND85. Gonadectomy increased amphetamine-induced locomotion compared to rats with endogenous or with exogenous testosterone. Raloxifene increased amphetamine-induced locomotion in rats with either endogenous or exogenous testosterone. Amphetamine-induced locomotion was negatively correlated with testosterone and this relationship was abolished by raloxifene. Lack of testosterone during adolescence potentiates and testosterone exposure during adolescence attenuates amphetamine-induced locomotion. Treatment with raloxifene appears to potentiate amphetamine-induced locomotion and to have an opposite effect to that of testosterone in male rats.

  17. Effects of estrogen and testosterone treatment on serotonin transporter binding in the brain of surgically postmenopausal women--a PET study.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Hristina; Kocoska-Maras, Ljiljana; Rådestad, Angelique Flöter; Halldin, Christer; Borg, Jacqueline; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Nordström, Anna-Lena

    2015-02-01

    Sex hormones and the serotonergic system interact in the regulation of mood, learning, memory and sexual behaviour. However, the mechanisms have not been fully explored. The serotonin transporter protein (5-HTT) regulates synaptic concentrations of serotonin and is a primary target for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The aim of this study was to explore how estrogen treatment alone or in combination with testosterone affects 5-HTT binding potentials measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in specific brain regions of postmenopausal women. Ten healthy surgically postmenopausal women (years since oophorectomy 7.5 ± 4.0, mean ± SD) underwent PET examinations at baseline, after three months of estrogen treatment (transdermal estradiol 100 μg/24 hours) and after another three months of combined estrogen and testosterone (testosterone undecanoate 40 mg daily) treatment using the radioligand [(11)C] MADAM developed for examination of the serotonin transporter. The 5-HTT binding potentials decreased significantly in several cortical regions, as well as in limbic and striatal regions after both estrogen treatment alone and combined estrogen/testosterone treatment in comparison to baseline. The observed decrease in 5-HTT could either be due to direct effects on serotonin transporter expression or be the result of indirect adaptation to estrogen and /or testosterone effects on synaptic serotonin levels. Although the mechanism still needs further exploration, the study supports the view that gonadal hormones play a role in serotonin regulated mood disorders.

  18. Effect of Topical Estrogen in the Mangement of Traumatic Facial Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Ghazizadeh Hashemi, Seyed Amirhosein; Barati, Behrooz; Mohammadi, Hosein; Saeidi, Masumeh; Bahreini, Abbas; Kiani, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acute skin wound healing is a complicated process comprising various phases. Recent animal studies have shown that steroid sex hormones such as estrogen maybe helpful in the regulation of several pathophysiologic stages that are involved in wound healing. In this study we examined the effects of topical estrogen in the treatment of traumatic facial wounds. Materials and Methods: Patients referred to Luqman Hospital, Tehran with traumatic wounds were enrolled in this case-control study into two groups of equal size. From the second week of the study, topical estrogen (0.625 mg conjugated topical estrogen ointment) was administered in the case group, while the control group received a Eucerin dressing only. The two groups were then compared in terms of wound healing rate on Day 7,14, and 30. Results: Thirty patients with mean age of 16.02+36.23 years were compared in the control and estrogen-treated groups. After treatment, no scars or keloids were observed in either group. The wound area in the estrogen group was lower than that in the control group on Day 14 and 30, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Healing rates in the control group on Day 14 (7.1+42.3 vs.50.3+4.9 mm2) and Day 30 (1.9+93.5 vs. + 97.3+0.6 mm2) (were lower than those in the estrogen group, but the differences were not significant (P>0.05). Findings show that the required time for wound healing in the estrogen-treated group was lower than that in the control group, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Based on this study, topical estrogen has no effect on the rate of wound healing or the rate of wound area. PMID:26878003

  19. Effect of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) flavonoids on aromatase (estrogen synthase) activity.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Rosário; Becker, Hans; Azevedo, Isabel; Calhau, Conceiçáo

    2006-04-19

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the prenylflavonoids xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, and 8-prenylnaringenin on the activity and expression of the enzyme aromatase (estrogen synthase). The effect of different kinds of beer containing these prenylflavonoids was also tested. Aromatase activity was determined by measuring the release of tritiated water during the conversion of [(3)H]androstenedione to estrone. Aromatase expression was determined by RT-PCR. This assay was carried out in choriocarcinoma-derived JAR cells. The tested prenylflavonoids were able to inhibit estrogen formation, and their IC(50) values were determined, although no effect on aromatase expression was found. Lager beer, alcohol-free beer, stout beer, and xanthohumol-rich stout beer (200 microL/mL) significantly decreased aromatase activity. In conclusion, prenylflavonoids are able to modulate aromatase activity, decreasing estrogen synthesis, with relevance for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-dependent disorders such as breast cancer.

  20. Estrogen regulates Snail and Slug in the down-regulation of E-cadherin and induces metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells through estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Hyung; Cheung, Lydia W T; Wong, Alice S T; Leung, Peter C K

    2008-09-01

    Tumorigenesis is a multistep process involving dysregulated cell growth and metastasis. Considerable evidence implicates a mitogenic action of estrogen in early ovarian carcinogenesis. In contrast, its influence in the metastatic cascade of ovarian tumor cells remains obscure. In the present study, we showed that 17beta-estradiol (E2) increased the metastatic potential of human epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines. E2 treatment led to clear morphological changes characteristic of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and an enhanced cell migratory propensity. These morphological and functional alterations were associated with changes in the abundance of EMT-related genes. Upon E2 stimulation, expression and promoter activity of the epithelial marker E-cadherin were strikingly suppressed, whereas EMT-associated transcription factors, Snail and Slug, were significantly up-regulated. This up-regulation was attributed to the increase in gene transcription activated by E2. Depletion of endogenous Snail or Slug using small interfering RNA (siRNA) attenuated E2-mediated decrease in E-cadherin. In addition, E2-induced cell migration was also neutralized by the siRNAs, suggesting that both transcription factors are indispensable for the prometastatic actions of E2. More importantly, by using selective estrogen receptor (ER) agonists, forced expression, and siRNA approaches, we identified that E2 triggered the metastatic behaviors exclusively through an ERalpha-dependent pathway. We also showed that ERbeta had an opposing action on ERalpha because the presence of ERbeta completely inhibited the EMT and down-regulation of E-cadherin induced by ERalpha. Collectively, this study provides a compelling argument that estrogen can potentiate tumor progression by EMT induction and highlights the crucial role of ERalpha in ovarian tumorigenesis.

  1. Commonly occurring plant flavonoids have estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Miksicek, R J

    1993-07-01

    A remarkable diversity of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds have been shown to mimic the biological effects of 17 beta-estradiol by virtue of their ability to bind to and activate the nuclear estrogen receptor. This report extends the family of nonsteroidal estrogens to include several multiply hydroxylated chalcones, flavanones, and flavones. The hormone-like activity of these natural plant products is indicated by their ability to stimulate an estrogen receptor-dependent transcriptional response and to promote growth of estrogen-dependent MCF7 cells in culture. The transcriptional response can be inhibited by the steroidal estrogen antagonist ICI-164,384 and is specific for the estrogen receptor. Evidence is presented to show that selected hydroxylated flavonoids interact directly with the estrogen receptor, based on their ability to compete for the binding of 17 beta-[3H]estradiol to the receptor in cell-free extracts. These compounds are less active, on a molar basis, than 17 beta-estradiol or the synthetic dihydroxystilbene estrogens, but they have potencies comparable to those of other known phytoestrogens. Together, these findings broaden our understanding of the structure-activity relationships for nonsteroidal estrogens and present a series of new chemical prototypes for the future development of potentially useful agonists and antagonists for this nuclear receptor. The wide distribution of weakly estrogenic flavonoid pigments in food crops and medicinal plants raises additional questions about the possible health risks and benefits of these compounds, meriting closer examination of their presence in the human diet.

  2. In vitro toxicological effects of estrogenic mycotoxins on human placental cells: Structure activity relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Prouillac, Caroline; Lecoeur, Sylvaine

    2012-03-15

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroid estrogen mycotoxin produced by numerous strains of Fusarium which commonly contaminate cereals. After oral administration, ZEN is reduced via intestinal and hepatic metabolism to α- and β-zearalenol (αZEL and βZEL). These reduced metabolites possess estrogenic properties, αZEL showing the highest affinity for ERs. ZEN and reduced metabolites cause hormonal effects in animals, such as abnormalities in the development of the reproductive tract and mammary gland in female offspring, suggesting a fetal exposure to these contaminants. In our previous work, we have suggested the potential impact of ZEN on placental cells considering this organ as a potential target of xenobiotics. In this work, we first compared the in vitro effects of αZEL and βΖΕL on cell differentiation to their parental molecule on human trophoblast (BeWo cells). Secondly, we investigated their molecular mechanisms of action by investigating the expression of main differentiation biomarkers and the implication of nuclear receptor by docking prediction. Conversely to ZEN, reduced metabolites did not induce trophoblast differentiation. They also induced significant changes in ABC transporter expression by potential interaction with nuclear receptors (LXR, PXR, PR) that could modify the transport function of placental cells. Finally, the mechanism of ZEN differentiation induction seemed not to involve nuclear receptor commonly involved in the differentiation process (PPARγ). Our results demonstrated that in spite of structure similarities between ZEN, αZEL and βZEL, toxicological effects and toxicity mechanisms were significantly different for the three molecules. -- Highlights: ► ZEN and metabolites have differential effect on trophoblast differentiation. ► ZEN and metabolites have differential effect on ABC transporter expression. ► ZEN and metabolites effects involved nuclear receptors interaction.

  3. Estrogens and aging skin

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity. Its protective function becomes compromised and aging is associated with impaired wound healing, hair loss, pigmentary changes and skin cancer.   Skin aging can be significantly delayed by the administration of estrogen. This paper reviews estrogen effects on human skin and the mechanisms by which estrogens can alleviate the changes due to aging. The relevance of estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and phytoestrogens as therapies for diminishing skin aging is highlighted. Understanding estrogen signaling in skin will provide a basis for interventions in aging pathologies. PMID:24194966

  4. Estrogenic effects of natural and synthetic compounds including tibolone assessed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the human estrogen alpha and beta receptors.

    PubMed

    Hasenbrink, Guido; Sievernich, André; Wildt, Ludwig; Ludwig, Jost; Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella

    2006-07-01

    The human estrogen receptors (hER)alpha and hERbeta, differentially expressed and localized in various tissues and cell types, mediate transcriptional activation of target genes. These encode a variety of physiological reproductive and nonreproductive functions involved in energy metabolism, salt balance, immune system, development, and differentiation. As a step toward developing a screening assay for the use in applications where significant numbers of compounds or complex matrices need to be tested for (anti) estrogenic bioactivity, hERalpha and hERbeta were expressed in a genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, devoid of three endogenous xenobiotic transporters (PDR5, SNQ2, and YOR1). By using receptor-mediated transcriptional activation of the green fluorescent protein optimized for expression in yeast (yEGFP) as reporter 17 natural, comprising estrogens and phytoestrogens or synthetic compounds among which tibolone with its metabolites, gestagens, and antiestrogens were investigated. The reporter assay deployed a simple and robust protocol for the rapid detection of estrogenic effects within a 96-well microplate format. Results were expressed as effective concentrations (EC50) and correlated to other yeast based and cell line assays. Tibolone and its metabolites exerted clear estrogenic effects, though considerably less potent than all other natural and synthetic compounds. For the blood serum of two volunteers, considerable higher total estrogenic bioactivity than single estradiol concentrations as determined by immunoassay was found. Visualization of a hERalpha/GFP fusion protein in yeast revealed a sub cellular cytosolic localization. This study demonstrates the versatility of (anti) estrogenic bioactivity determination using sensitized S. cerevisiae cells to assess estrogenic exposure and effects.

  5. Evaluation of serum estrogen-DNA adducts as potential biomarkers for breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Sandhya; Yang, Li; Sandhu, Nicole P; Ingle, James N; Beseler, Cheryl L; Suman, Vera J; Cavalieri, Ercole L; Rogan, Eleanor G

    2012-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the ratio of estrogen-DNA adducts to their respective metabolites and conjugates in serum differed between women with early-onset breast cancer and those with average or high risk of developing breast cancer. Serum samples from women at average risk (n=63) or high risk (n=80) for breast cancer (using Gail model) and women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer (n=79) were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. Adduct ratios were statistically compared among the three groups, and the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC) was used to identify a diagnostic cut-off point. The median adduct ratio in the average-risk group was significantly lower than that of both the high-risk group and the breast cancer group (p values<0.0001), and provided good discrimination between those at average versus high risk of breast cancer (AUC=0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.90). Sensitivity and specificity were maximized at an adduct ratio of 77. For women in the same age and BMI group, the odds of being at high risk for breast cancer was 8.03 (95% CI 3.46-18.7) times higher for those with a ratio of at least 77 compared to those with a ratio less than 77. The likelihood of being at high risk for breast cancer was significantly increased for those with a high adduct ratio relative to those with a low adduct ratio. These findings suggest that estrogen-DNA adducts deserve further study as potential biomarkers for risk of developing breast cancer.

  6. Estrogen and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the use of estrogen in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Dosage levels, interactions with other factors, side effects, and the mechanism of estrogen action are discussed. (Author/MT)

  7. Estrogen-Like Potentiation of Ghrelin-Stimulated GH Secretion by Fulvestrant, a Putatively Selective ER Antagonist, in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rebecca J.; Wigham, Jean R.; Erickson, Dana; Miles, John C.; Bowers, Cyril Y.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Hyposomatotropism in healthy aging women reflects in part physiological estrogen (estradiol [E2]) depletion associated with menopause. Objective and Design: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that low concentrations of endogenous E2 after menopause continue to drive GH secretion. Setting: The study was performed at the Mayo Center for Clinical and Translational Science. Participants: The participants were 24 postmenopausal women (aged 50–77 years with body mass index of 19–32 kg/m2). Interventions: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-cohort treatment study with placebo (PL) (n = 14) or the antiestrogen fulvestrant (FUL) (n = 10) for 3 weeks, followed by infusion of l-arginine with saline, GHRH, ghrelin, or both peptide secretagogues. Outcomes: GH concentrations were measured over 6 hours with 10-minute sampling and mass spectrometry measures of testosterone, E2, and estrone. Results: Concentrations of testosterone, E2, estrone, SHBG, IGF-I, LH, and FSH were not influenced by antiestrogen treatment. In contrast, GH rose from 0.096 ± 0.018 (PL) to 0.23 ± 0.063 μg/L (FUL, P = .033), and IGF-I binding protein type 3 (IGFBP-3) from 3.6 ± 0.18 to 4.0 ± 2.0 mg/L (P = .041). Conversely, prolactin fell from 7.1 ± 0.69 (PL) to 5.5 ± 0.57 μg/L (FUL) (P = .05), and IGF-I binding protein type 1 (IGFBP-1) fell from 44 ± 9.4 to 27 ± 4.3 μg/L (P = .048). Moreover, FUL vs PL potentiated mean GH responses to l-arginine/saline (P = .007), l-arginine/ghrelin (P = .008), and l-arginine/GHRH + ghrelin (P = .031), but not l-arginine/GHRH. Conclusion: The potent antiestrogen, FUL, amplifies fasting and secretagogue-driven GH secretion and IGFBP-3 concentrations in postmenopausal women without altering SHBG or sex steroid levels. FUL also suppresses prolactin and IGFBP-1, without altering IGF-I. Thus, a major antiestrogen mediates 3 actions of estrogen: agonism (GH), neutral effects (sex steroids), and estrogen

  8. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the estrogenic, androgenic, and progestagenic potential of two cyclic siloxanes.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Anne L; Regan, Jane M; Tobin, Joseph M; Marinik, Brian J; McMahon, Joan M; McNett, Debra A; Sushynski, Christopher M; Crofoot, Steven D; Jean, Paul A; Plotzke, Kathleen P

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to determine the potential estrogenic, androgenic, and progestagenic activity of two cyclic siloxanes, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). Receptor-binding experiments and a luciferase reporter gene assay were used to determine if the materials were able to bind and activate either the estrogen receptors (ERs) or progesterone receptors (PRs)-alpha or beta. The rat uterotrophic assay (RUA) for estrogenic activity and the Hershberger assay for androgenic activity were utilized as the in vivo assays. For the ER-binding studies, D4 was shown to bind to ERalpha but not to ERbeta. D5 did not bind to either of the two receptors. D4 activated the reporter gene at 10 microM, while D5 was considered negative in the estrogen reporter gene assay. Neither material was a ligand for the PRs. Both the RUA and Hershberger assays were conducted using whole-body inhalation of the two materials for 16 h/day. D4 resulted in a small but significant increase in both wet and blotted uterine weight as well as increases in both luminal and glandular epithelial cell height in both Sprague Dawley and Fischer 344 rats. D5 was negative in both rat strains, indicating that D5 does not possess estrogenic activity. Neither material possessed any significant antiestrogenic activity. Both materials were negative in the Hershberger assay indicating that neither material possesses any significant androgenic activity. Our studies have shown that D4 exhibits a low affinity for ERalpha in vitro and a weakly estrogenic response in vivo.

  9. [Estrogen exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB pathway through binding with estrogen receptor β on synovicytes of osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enwei; Zhang, Hongtao; Liu, Fengzhou; Dong, Chuan; Yao, Yun; Yun, Zhe; Jian, Weiming; Ma, Bao'an

    2016-12-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of estrogen's anti-inflammatory effects on synovial cells during the pathogenic process of osteoarthritis. Methods We isolated synovicytes from synovium tissues and identified the cells with flow cytometry. Then we detected the expression level of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) in synovicytes with immunofluorescence staining. The synovicytes were divided into control group, group pretreated with 10 ng/mL IL-1β, group pretreated with 10 ng/mL IL-1β and 10(-7) mol/L estrogen, group pretreated with 10 ng/mL IL-1β, 10(-7) mol/L estrogen and specific antagonist of ERβ, 10(-5) mol/L tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Thirty-six hours later, we observed the mRNA and protein levels of IκBα, phospho-IκBα (p-IκBα) and IL-6. Results Immunofluorescence staining showed the high expression level of ERβ in synovicytes. In IL-1β treated cells, IL-6 mRNA and protein level, IκBα mRNA and p-IκBα protein levels were elevated compared with the control group, while IκBα protein level declined. In the cells pretreated with IL-1β and estrogen, the mRNA and protein levels of IL-6, IκBα and p-IκBα were inhibited compared with IL-1β treated cells. THC blocked the effects of estrogen on the IL-1β and estrogen treated cells, and the mRNA and protein levels of IL-6, IκBα and p-IκBα had no significant difference compared with IL-1β treated cells. Conclusion The estrogen can restrain the activation of NF-κB pathway in synovicytes via ERβ, thus playing a vital role in anti-inflammation.

  10. Effect of Age, Estrogen Status, and Late-Life GPER Activation on Cardiac Structure and Function in the Fischer344×Brown Norway Female Rat.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Allan K; da Silva, Jaqueline S; Lin, Marina; Silva, Ananssa M; Sun, Xuming; Ferrario, Carlos M; Cheng, Cheping; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Wang, Hao; Groban, Leanne

    2017-02-01

    Age-associated changes in cardiac structure and function, together with estrogen loss, contribute to the progression of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in older women. To investigate the effects of aging and estrogen loss on the development of its precursor, asymptomatic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, echocardiograms were performed in 10 middle-aged (20 months) and 30 old-aged (30 months) female Fischer344×Brown-Norway rats, 4 and 8 weeks after ovariectomy (OVX) and sham procedures (gonads left intact). The cardioprotective potential of administering chronic G1, the selective agonist to the new G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), was further evaluated in old rats (Old-OVX+G1) versus age-matched, vehicle-treated OVX and gonadal intact rats. Advanced age and estrogen loss led to decreases in myocardial relaxation and elevations in filling pressure, in part, due to reductions in phosphorylated phospholamban and increases in cardiac collagen deposition. Eight weeks of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor activation in Old-OVX+G1 rats reversed the adverse effects of age and estrogen loss on myocardial relaxation through increases in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase expression and reductions in interstitial fibrosis. These findings may explain the preponderance of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in older postmenopausal women and provide a promising, late-life therapeutic target to reverse or halt the progression of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

  11. Detection and evaluation of estrogen DNA-adducts and their carcinogenic effects in cultured human cells using biotinylated estradiol.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Kaushlendra; Mani, Chinnadurai; Somasagara, Ranganatha R; Clark, David W; Ananthapur, Venkateshwari; Vinaya, Kambappa; Palle, Komaraiah

    2017-03-01

    The normal female reproductive hormone estrogen has been linked with increased risk of breast and many other forms of cancer. This is largely due to metabolic conversion of estrogens into highly reactive catechol estrogen quinones which can interact with DNA and cause a variety of DNA adducts and lesions. Detection and analysis of these adducts and their associated cellular responses involve complex chemical, enzymatic, and LC-MS based methods, which are both laborious and require specialized expertise and instrumentation. Herein, we show that using a biotin-labeled estradiol allows immunodetection of estrogen-induced DNA adducts by slot blot and single-cell molecular combing and proximity ligation assays. The biotinylated and unlabeled estradiols induced similar levels of DNA single and double strand breaks as measured by comet assays. Using biotinylated estrogen, we further show that estrogens are able to activate the Fanconi anemia-BRCA tumor suppressor pathway and cause DNA strand breaks and oxidatively modified DNA bases as well as gross chromosomal aberrations. Utilization of biotin-labeled estrogens could be a powerful tool to detect estrogen adducts and associated DNA damage, and to track estrogen adduct-induced cellular responses and carcinogenic mechanisms in cultured cells. The techniques presented here allow simple and rapid detection and quantitation of estrogen adducts by slot blot as well as direct visualization on the DNA strand and could pave the way for developing new treatments to protect the genome from the effects of reactive estrogen metabolites. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Oral administration of Brazilian propolis exerts estrogenic effect in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yoshinori; Tobe, Takao; Ueda, Koji; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Kojima, Nakao

    2015-04-01

    Propolis, a natural product derived from plants by honeybees, is a mixture of several hundred chemicals, including flavonoids, coumaric acids, and caffeic acids, some of which show estrogen-like activity. In this study, the estrogenic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Brazilian propolis was determined using several in vitro and in vivo assays. Propolis was found to bind to human estrogen receptors (ERs). Furthermore, propolis induced the expression of estrogen-responsive genes in ER-positive MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells. These in vitro assays suggest that propolis exerts estrogenic activity; therefore, in vivo experiments were conducted using ovariectomized rats. Oral administration of propolis (55 or 550 mg/kg/day for 3 days) significantly increased uterine wet weight and luminal epithelium thickness in comparison with the corresponding values in the corn oil-treated control group. Moreover, propolis induced ductal cell proliferation in the mammary glands. These effects were completely inhibited by full ER antagonist ICI 182,780, confirming that the effects of propolis are mediated by the ER. Our data show that oral intake of propolis induces estrogenic activity in ER-expressing organs in vivo and suggest that Brazilian propolis is a useful dietary source of phytoestrogens and a promising treatment for postmenopausal symptoms.

  13. Evaluation of estrogenic potential of flavonoids using a recombinant yeast strain and MCF7/BUS cell proliferation assay.

    PubMed

    Resende, Flávia A; de Oliveira, Ana Paula S; de Camargo, Mariana S; Vilegas, Wagner; Varanda, Eliana A

    2013-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are of interest because of their reported beneficial effects on many human maladies including cancer, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Furthermore, there is a search for compounds with estrogenic activity that can replace estrogen in hormone replacement therapy during menopause, without the undesirable effects of estrogen, such as the elevation of breast cancer occurrence. Thus, the principal objective of this study was to assess the estrogenic activity of flavonoids with different hydroxylation patterns: quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, fisetin, chrysin, galangin, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone via two different in vitro assays, the recombinant yeast assay (RYA) and the MCF-7 proliferation assay (E-screen), since the most potent phytoestrogens are members of the flavonoid family. In these assays, kaempferol was the only compound that showed ERα-dependent transcriptional activation activity by RYA, showing 6.74±1.7 nM EEQ, besides acting as a full agonist for the stimulation of proliferation of MCF-7/BUS cells. The other compounds did not show detectable levels of interaction with ER under the conditions used in the RYA. However, in the E-screen assay, compounds such as galangin, luteolin and fisetin also stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7/BUS cells, acting as partial agonists. In the evaluation of antiestrogenicity, the compounds quercetin, chrysin and 3-hydroxyflavone significantly inhibited the cell proliferation induced by 17-β-estradiol in the E-screen assay, indicating that these compounds may act as estrogen receptor antagonists. Overall, it became clear in the assay results that the estrogenic activity of flavonoids was affected by small structural differences such as the number of hydroxyl groups, especially those on the B ring of the flavonoid.

  14. Evaluation of Estrogenic Potential of Flavonoids Using a Recombinant Yeast Strain and MCF7/BUS Cell Proliferation Assay

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Flávia A.; de Oliveira, Ana Paula S.; de Camargo, Mariana S.; Vilegas, Wagner; Varanda, Eliana A.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are of interest because of their reported beneficial effects on many human maladies including cancer, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Furthermore, there is a search for compounds with estrogenic activity that can replace estrogen in hormone replacement therapy during menopause, without the undesirable effects of estrogen, such as the elevation of breast cancer occurrence. Thus, the principal objective of this study was to assess the estrogenic activity of flavonoids with different hydroxylation patterns: quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, fisetin, chrysin, galangin, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone via two different in vitro assays, the recombinant yeast assay (RYA) and the MCF-7 proliferation assay (E-screen), since the most potent phytoestrogens are members of the flavonoid family. In these assays, kaempferol was the only compound that showed ERα-dependent transcriptional activation activity by RYA, showing 6.74±1.7 nM EEQ, besides acting as a full agonist for the stimulation of proliferation of MCF-7/BUS cells. The other compounds did not show detectable levels of interaction with ER under the conditions used in the RYA. However, in the E-screen assay, compounds such as galangin, luteolin and fisetin also stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7/BUS cells, acting as partial agonists. In the evaluation of antiestrogenicity, the compounds quercetin, chrysin and 3-hydroxyflavone significantly inhibited the cell proliferation induced by 17-β-estradiol in the E-screen assay, indicating that these compounds may act as estrogen receptor antagonists. Overall, it became clear in the assay results that the estrogenic activity of flavonoids was affected by small structural differences such as the number of hydroxyl groups, especially those on the B ring of the flavonoid. PMID:24098354

  15. Estrogen Receptor β in Melanoma: From Molecular Insights to Potential Clinical Utility

    PubMed Central

    Marzagalli, Monica; Montagnani Marelli, Marina; Casati, Lavinia; Fontana, Fabrizio; Moretti, Roberta Manuela; Limonta, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive tumor; its incidence has been reported to increase fast in the past decades. Melanoma is a heterogeneous tumor, with most patients harboring mutations in the BRAF or NRAS oncogenes, leading to the overactivation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways. The current therapeutic approaches are based on therapies targeting mutated BRAF and the downstream pathway, and on monoclonal antibodies against the immune checkpoint blockade. However, treatment resistance and side effects are common events of these therapeutic strategies. Increasing evidence supports that melanoma is a hormone-related cancer. Melanoma incidence is higher in males than in females, and females have a significant survival advantage over men. Estrogens exert their effects through estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) that affect cancer growth in an opposite way: ERα is associated with a proliferative action and ERβ with an anticancer effect. ERβ is the predominant ER in melanoma, and its expression decreases in melanoma progression, supporting its role as a tumor suppressor. Thus, ERβ is now considered as an effective molecular target for melanoma treatment. 17β-estradiol was reported to inhibit melanoma cells proliferation; however, clinical trials did not provide the expected survival benefits. In vitro studies demonstrate that ERβ ligands inhibit the proliferation of melanoma cells harboring the NRAS (but not the BRAF) mutation, suggesting that ERβ activation might impair melanoma development through the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. These data suggest that ERβ agonists might be considered as an effective treatment strategy, in combination with MAPK inhibitors, for NRAS mutant melanomas. In an era of personalized medicine, pretreatment evaluation of the expression of ER isoforms together with the concurrent oncogenic mutations should be considered before selecting the most appropriate therapeutic intervention. Natural compounds that specifically bind to

  16. Estrogen content and relative performance of Japanese and British sewage treatment plants and their potential impact on endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Okayasu, Yuji; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    Both the UK and Japan are densely populated islands with relatively short rivers. Therefore, both countries are likely to be highly exposed to contaminants emanating from their human populations. This review considered how effective the different sewage treatment facilities of the two countries are at removing steroid estrogens from the effluent. The methods of estrogen analysis in sewage effluent, the number and importance of different sewage treatment types, and their apparent effectiveness at removing estrogens were all considered. In both countries, the activated sludge treatment was dominant in terms of people served and water discharged. The analytical techniques used by those studying estrogen concentrations in effluents in both countries were broadly similar. Activated sludge plant (ASP) effluent in the UK typically contained around 2 ng/L estradiol (E2) and 8 ng/L estrone (E1), while Japanese ASPs typically reported E2 as below detection, and 10 ng/L E1 in their effluents. When estrogenic bioassays were used in Japan, they typically record an estrogenic potency of 10 ng/L E2 equivalents. Even taking into account ethinylestradiol (EE2) (not found in Japanese effluents), the overall estrogenicity of British sewage effluents would appear to be the same as that of Japanese sewage effluents (around 10 ng/L E2 equivalents). This suggests that the ASPs serving the large urban communities in Japan and the UK would have effluent of similar estrogenic potencies. Less information is available about the more numerous biological (trickling) filter plants (BFP) in the UK and oxygen ditches (OD) in Japan which tend to serve smaller, more rural communities. The available data would suggest that the BFPs are significantly less efficient than the ODs at removing E1. This would suggest that in similar circumstances, British headwaters (where this sewage treatment plant (STP) type is often found) might be more at risk from endocrine disruption than their Japanese counterparts

  17. Occurrence of estrogenic effects in sewage and industrial wastewaters in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mei; Rao, Kaifeng; Wang, Zijian

    2007-05-01

    Estrogenic potencies of the effluents or water samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), industries and hospitals and some receiving rivers in Beijing city were estimated by using a human estrogen receptor recombinant yeast assay. Estrogenic activity of industrial wastewaters was found to range from 0.1 to 13.3 ng EEQ/L and decreased to the range of 0.03-1.6 ng EEQ/L after treatment. Estrogenic activity in WWTP influent ranged from 0.3 to 1.7 ng EEQ/L and decreased to the range of 0.05-0.5 ng EEQ/L after treatment. In the receiving river waters, the estrogenic effect range was 0.1-4.7 ng EEQ/L. These data suggest that treated industrial effluents and WWTP effluents of concern are not the only source of estrogenic pollution in surface waters in Beijing city. EEQ levels in Beijing river water are likely attributable to untreated municipal and industrial wastewaters discharged directly into the river.

  18. Gender, caponization and exogenous estrogen effects on lipids, bone and blood characteristics in Taiwan country chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih Yi; Li, Tsung Yu; Tsai, Chih Heng; Lo, Dan Yuan; Chen, Kuo Lung

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated gender, caponization and exogenous estrogen effects on lipids, bone and blood characteristics in Taiwan country chickens. Thirty male chickens were caponized at 8 weeks (capons); 15 capons were injected with estrogen (5 mg/bird estradiol 3-benzoate) every 2 weeks from 8 to 28 weeks, and 15 sham-operated male (shams) chickens and 15 females were selected for this trial. The results showed that the shams had lower relative abdominal and chest subcutaneous fat than females (P < 0.05). The estrogen-treated capons had greater relative abdominal and chest subcutaneous fat than shams and capons (P < 0.05), which might result from higher blood very low-density lipoproteins and triacylglycerol concentrations (P < 0.05). Caponization could dramatically increase relative abdominal fat (506%; P < 0.05). The shams had higher tibia weight and biomechanical properties, such as maximum bone strength and bending moment values than the capons (P < 0.05). Tibia biomechanical properties were reduced by estrogen treatment (P < 0.05). The females obtained the lowest biomechanical value in all treatments (P < 0.05). Histological examination revealed cavity formation in the cortical bone of estrogen-treated capons and female chickens, which suggested that estrogen reduced bone biomechanical properties by destroying its structural integrity.

  19. Distinct effects of 4-nonylphenol and estrogen-17β on expression of estrogen receptor α gene in smolting sockeye salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Qiong; Ban, Massatoshi; Ando, Hironori; Kitahashi, Takashi; Bhandari, Ramji K.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Urano, Akihisa

    2005-01-01

    Xenoestrogens such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) have been shown to affect the parr–smolt transformation, but their mechanisms of action are not known. We therefore examined effects of 4-NP and estradiol-17β (E2) on expression of estrogen receptor (ER) α gene in the liver, gill, pituitary and brain of sockeye salmon to elucidate molecular mechanisms of 4-NP and E2 and developmental differences in response during smolting. Fish were treated twice within a week with 4-NP (15 and 150 mg/kg BW), E2 (2 mg/kg BW) or only vehicle at three stages of smolting, pre-smolting in March, early smolting in April and late smolting in May. The absolute amounts of ERα mRNA were determined by real-time PCR. The basal amounts of ERα mRNA peaked in April in the liver, gill and pituitary. In March, E2 extensively increased the amounts in the liver, while 4-NP had no effects at this stage. In contrast, 4-NP (but not E2) decreased liver ERα mRNA in April. 4-NP also decreased the amount of ERα mRNA in the gill in April. In the pituitary, 4-NP increased ERα mRNA in March but decreased it in May. There were no significant effects in the brain. Changes in basal ERα mRNA observed in this study indicate that estrogen responsiveness of tissues may change during salmon smolting. Furthermore, 4-NP and E2 have different effects on expression of ERα gene in the liver and gill during smolting, and the response is dependent on smolt stage.

  20. Androgenic and estrogenic metabolites in serum of mice fed dehydroepiandrosterone: relationship to antihyperglycemic effects.

    PubMed

    Leiter, E H; Beamer, W G; Coleman, D L; Longcope, C

    1987-09-01

    The steroid prehormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has potent antihyperglycemic effects when fed in the diet of genetically diabetic C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze changes in sex steroid levels in serum of mice fed DHEA, and to compare the antihyperglycemic potencies of the various metabolites in order to clarify the mechanism of DHEA action. Steroid radioimmunoassays showed that dietary DHEA entered the blood in high concentrations and was actively metabolized to both androgens (testosterone, T; dihydrotestosterone, DHT) and estrogens (estrone, E1; 17 beta-estradiol, E2). This metabolism did not require intact adrenal glands or gonads. In C57BL/KsJ normal (+/+) males, conversion of DHEA to androgens was the prominent feature; in db/db males, DHEA feeding not only increased serum T and DHT, but also serum E1 and E2 levels. The db/db mice had increased amounts of adipose tissue that sequestered more intravenously injected 3H-E2; this additional body fat could account for increased aromatization of DHEA-derived estrogen precursors. Comparisons of the relative antihyperglycemic potencies of androgenic and estrogenic steroid metabolites of DHEA in db/db mice showed that the estrogens and metabolites with estrogenic properties (androstenediol) or those convertible to estrogens (DHEA sulfate) were the most potent. Although 17 beta-E2 was effective by injection or per os, DHEA was effective only when administered per os, implicating alimentary tract conversion of DHEA to more biologically active reactants. Based on the pivotal position of DHEA as a prehormone for androgens, estrogens, and etiocholanolones, an explanation of the seemingly paradoxical effects exerted by this compound in blocking autoimmune disease, hyperglycemia, obesity, and neoplasia was proposed.

  1. Effect of growth hormone and estrogen administration on hepatocyte alterations in old ovariectomized female wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carmen; Salazar, Veronica; Ariznavarreta, Carmen; Vara, Elena; Tresguerres, Jesus A F

    2005-02-01

    Aging could be due to the accumulation of oxidative damage. On the other hand, growth hormone (GH) and estrogen deficiency induce deleterious effects on different tissues, and hormonal replacement could counteract these effects. We have investigated whether GH and estrogen administration modify some parameters related to oxidative stress and inflammation in hepatocytes isolated from old ovariectomized female rats. Twenty-two month-old ovariectomized animals were divided into control rats, rats treated with GH, rats treated with estradiol, and rats treated with GH+estradiol. Two-month-old intact female rats were used as young reference group. Hepatocytes were isolated, cultured, and CO and NO release, ATP, cyclic-guanosyl monophosphate (cGMP), and lipid peroxide (LPO) content of cells, as well as phosphatidylcholine (PC)synthesis, were measured. Hepatocytes isolated from old ovariectomized rats showed a decrease in ATP content and PC synthesis compared to young rats. Age also induced an increase in LPO, NO, CO, and cGMP. Treating old rats with GH significantly increased ATP and reduced CO and cGMP levels. Estradiol administration improved all the parameters that were altered. Co-administration of GH and estrogens induced a more marked effect than estrogens alone only in cGMP content. In conclusion, administration of estrogens to old ovariectomized females seemed to prevent oxidative changes in hepatocytes, whereas the effect of GH is not so evident.

  2. Estrogen-induced effects on the neuro-mechanics of hopping in humans.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Adam L; Crossley, Kay M; Bartold, Simon; Hohmann, Erik; Clark, Ross A

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen receptors in skeletal muscle suggest a tissue-based mechanism for influencing neuromuscular control. This has important physiological implications for both eumenorrheic women with fluctuating estrogen levels and those with constant and attenuated estrogen levels, i.e., women using the monophasic oral contraceptive pill (MOCP). This study examined the effects of endogenous plasma estrogen levels on leg stiffness (K (LEG)) and foot center of pressure (COP) during hopping. Nineteen females (Age = 28.0 ± 4.2 years, Ht = 1.67 ± 0.07 m, Mass = 61.6 ± 6.8 kg) who had been using the MOCP for at least 12 months together with 19 matched, female, non-MOCP users (Age = 31.9 ± 7.3 years, Ht = 1.63 ± 0.05 m, Mass = 62.5 ± 5.9 kg) participated. Non-MOCP users were tested at the time of lowest (menstruation) and highest (≈ ovulation) estrogen whilst MOCP users were tested at Day 1 and Day 14 of their cycle. At each test session, K (LEG) (N m(-1) kg(-1)) and foot COP path length (mm) and path velocity (mm s(-1)) were determined from ground reaction force data as participants hopped at 2.2 Hz on a force plate. Statistical analysis revealed no significant (p < 0.05) differences for K (LEG). In contrast, significantly higher COP path length (30%) and COP path velocity (25%) were identified at ≈ ovulation compared to menstruation in the non-MOCP users. Whilst there was no evidence of an estrogen-induced effect on K (LEG); significantly elevated estrogen at ≈ ovulation presumably increased extensibility of connective tissue and/or diminished neuromuscular control. Consistent lower limb dynamics of MOCP users demands less reliance on acutely modified neuromuscular control strategies during dynamic tasks and may explain the lower rate of lower limb musculoskeletal injuries in this population compared to non-MOCP users.

  3. New insights into fetal mammary gland morphogenesis: differential effects of natural and environmental estrogens

    PubMed Central

    Speroni, Lucia; Voutilainen, Maria; Mikkola, Marja L.; Klager, Skylar A.; Schaeberle, Cheryl M.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M.

    2017-01-01

    An increased breast cancer risk during adulthood has been linked to estrogen exposure during fetal life. However, the impossibility of removing estrogens from the feto-maternal unit has hindered the testing of estrogen’s direct effect on mammary gland organogenesis. To overcome this limitation, we developed an ex vivo culture method of the mammary gland where the direct action of estrogens can be tested during embryonic days (E)14 to 19. Mouse mammary buds dissected at E14 and cultured for 5 days showed that estrogens directly altered fetal mammary gland development. Exposure to 0.1 pM, 10 pM, and 1 nM 17 β-estradiol (E2) resulted in monotonic inhibition of mammary buds ductal growth. In contrast, Bisphenol-A (BPA) elicited a non-monotonic response. At environmentally relevant doses (1 nM), BPA significantly increased ductal growth, as previously observed in vivo, while 1 μM BPA significantly inhibited ductal growth. Ductal branching followed the same pattern. This effect of BPA was blocked by Fulvestrant, a full estrogen antagonist, while the effect of estradiol was not. This method may be used to study the hormonal regulation of mammary gland development, and to test newly synthesized chemicals that are released into the environment without proper assessment of their hormonal action on critical targets like the mammary gland. PMID:28102330

  4. Effect of anti-PMSG on distribution of estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor in mouse ovary, oviduct and uterus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zi Li; Ni, He Min; Liu, Yun Hai; Sheng, Xi Hui; Cui, Xiang Shun; Kim, Nam Hyung; Guo, Yong

    2015-10-01

    It is well established that estrogen and progesterone are critical endogenous hormones that are essential for implantation and pregnancy in females. However, the distribution of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) in female reproductive tracts is elusive. Herein, we report that after serial treatments with pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) with or without anti-PMSG (AP), mice could regulate the distribution of ERα and PR in the murine ovary, oviduct and uterus and the level of estradiol in serum. ERα and PR regulation by PMSG and anti-PMSG was estrous cycle-dependent and critical for promoting the embryo-implantation period. Furthermore, our results suggested that AP-42 h treatment is more effective than the other treatments. In contrast, other treatment groups also affected the distribution of ERα and PR in mouse reproductive tracts. Thus, we found that anti-PMSG has the potential to restore the distribution of ERα and PR, which could effectively reduce the negative impact of residual estrogen caused by the normal superovulation effect of PMSG in mice.

  5. Coexposure to phytoestrogens and bisphenol a mimics estrogenic effects in an additive manner.

    PubMed

    Katchy, Anne; Pinto, Caroline; Jonsson, Philip; Nguyen-Vu, Trang; Pandelova, Marchela; Riu, Anne; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Samarov, Daniel; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Bondesson, Maria; Williams, Cecilia

    2014-03-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are abundant in our environment. A number of EDCs, including bisphenol A (BPA) can bind to the estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases such as breast cancer. Early exposure is of particular concern; many EDCs cross the placenta and infants have measurable levels of, eg, BPA. In addition, infants are frequently fed soy-based formula (SF) that contains phytoestrogens. Effects of combined exposure to xeno- and phytoestrogens are poorly studied. Here, we extensively compared to what extent BPA, genistein, and an extract of infant SF mimic estrogen-induced gene transcription and cell proliferation. We investigated ligand-specific effects on ER activation in HeLa-ERα and ERβ reporter cells; on proliferation, genome-wide gene regulation and non-ER-mediated effects in MCF7 breast cancer cells; and how coexposure influenced these effects. The biological relevance was explored using enrichment analyses of differentially regulated genes and clustering with clinical breast cancer profiles. We demonstrate that coexposure to BPA and genistein, or SF, results in increased functional and transcriptional estrogenic effects. Using statistical modeling, we determine that BPA and phytoestrogens act in an additive manner. The proliferative and transcriptional effects of the tested compounds mimic those of 17β-estradiol, and are abolished by cotreatment with an ER antagonist. Gene expression profiles induced by each compound clustered with poor prognosis breast cancer, indicating that exposure may adversely affect breast cancer prognosis. This study accentuates that coexposure to BPA and soy-based phytoestrogens results in additive estrogenic effects, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases, including breast cancer.

  6. Effect of Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha on Estrogen Metabolic Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Marwa; Shouman, Samia; El-Merzebany, Mahmoud; Kilic, Gokhan; Veenstra, Timothy; Saeed, Muhammad; Wagih, Mohamed; Diaz-Arrastia, Concepcion; Patel, Deepa; Salama, Salama

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been linked to breast cancer development. Estrogen metabolic pathway is also involved in breast carcinogenesis and DNA adducts formation. In this study we investigated the effect of TNF-α on the estrogen metabolic pathway in MCF-7, a breast cancer cell line. Capillary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for analysis of estrogen metabolites and estrogen-DNA adducts levels respectively. Reporter gene assay, Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to assess the expression of estrogen metabolizing genes and enzymes. TNF-α significantly increased the total EM and decreased the estrone (E1) / 17-β estradiol (E2) ratio. Moreover, it altered the expression of genes and enzymes involved in E2 activation and deactivation pathways e.g. Cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1), Cytochrome P-450 1B1 (CYP1B1), Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). In addition, there were increased levels of some catechol estrogens e.g. 4-hydroxy-estrone (4-OHE1) and 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) with decreased levels of methylated catechols e.g. 2-methoxy estradiol (2-MeOE2). DNA adducts especially 4-OHE1-[2]-1-N3 Adenine was significantly increased. TNF-α directs the estrogen metabolism into more hormonally active and carcinogenic products in MCF-7. This may implicate a new possible explanation for inflammation associated breast cancer. PMID:22866165

  7. Estrogenic modulation of delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol effects on nigrostriatal dopaminergic activity in the female rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, A; Ferández-Ruiz, J J; Martín, M; De Fonseca, F R; De Miguel, R; Ramos, J A

    1992-08-01

    In this work we studied the possible estrogenic modulation of the effects of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on nigrostriatal dopaminergic activity. Thus, we examined the effects of an acute dose of this cannabinoid: (i) during the three phases of the estrous cycle; (ii) after ovariectomy, chronic estrogen replacement, and/or tamoxifen (TMX)-induced blockade of cytosolic estrogenic receptors; and (iii) combined with a single and physiological injection of estradiol to ovariectomized rats, whose effects were measured early, with no time for genomic induction. THC increased the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the striatum of ovariectomized rats implanted with estradiol-filled Silastic capsules or ovariectomized rats. This effect: (i) depended on the presence of an intact estrogenic receptor mechanism, because it was prevented by pretreatment with TMX, and (ii) did not appear when THC was coadministered with estradiol, suggesting an inhibitory modulation of cannabinoid effect by the nongenomic mechanism of action of this steroid. The striatal content of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and its ratio with dopamine content, which can be used as an index of neuronal activity, also increased following acute THC administration. However, this effect was seen only in ovariectomized rats without estrogen replacement. The administration of THC in combination with a single estradiol injection or to estradiol-implanted ovariectomized rats was ineffective for both parameters. All these effects appeared after ovariectomy with/without estrogen replacement. However, we did not observe any statistically significant effects when THC was administered to normal cycling rats during each phase of the estrous cycle. This observation might be related to the fact that the affinity of striatal cannabinoid receptors, which are the main candidates to mediate cannabinoid effects on this area, significantly increased after ovariectomy compared with that measured in normal cycling rats. In

  8. [Effect of estrogen on nucleotide excision repair of N2a neuroblastoma cells].

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Akira; Yamamoto, Aya; Mori, Toshio; Nakamura, Yu; Morikawa, Masayuki; Yoshino, Hiroki; Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Makinodan, Manabu; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2007-04-01

    Until now reduced estrogen level has been considered to affect some psychiatric symptoms, because there are sex differences in onset of Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen is associated with cognitive functions, and it has been reported to protect oxidative damage of DNA related to base excision repair (BER). Some patients with Xeroderma Pigmentosum, who have normal BER and impaired nucleotide excision repair (NER), are known to be suffering from mental retardation. Therefore we hypothesized that impaired NER was partly associated with pathology of mental disorder and investigated the effects of estrogen on NER for ultraviolet-induced DNA damage. The N2a neuroblastoma cell line was used as a representative of neuronal cells and 17p-estradiol was selected as one of the most active estrogen derivatives. There were no significant effects of 17p-estradiol on prevention of DNA damage, promotion of DNA repair, or cell survival at the concentration of 0-0.1 microM 17p-estradiol (below cytotoxicity level). These results described that estrogen might not directly affect NER except through another DNA repair system.

  9. The effect of endogenous estrogen on Doppler-estimated right ventricular systolic pressure during exercise.

    PubMed

    Wang, Vicki N; Ahmed, Mavra; Ciofani, Amelia; Sasson, Zion; Granton, John T; Mak, Susanna

    2012-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of endogenous estrogen levels on exercise-related changes in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) of healthy, eumenorrheic, sedentary women. Volunteers were studied at two separates phases of the menstrual cycle (LO and HI estrogen phases), exercised on a semi-supine ergometer with escalating workload and monitored continuously by 12-lead ECG and automated blood pressure cuff. At each exercise stage, Doppler echocardiography measurements were obtained and analyzed to determine RVSP. Fourteen subjects (age 24 ± 5) were studied. Exercise duration was significantly higher on the HI estrogen day, but no significant differences in hemodynamic response to exercise were found between the two study days. There were also no significant differences with respect to heart rate (HR) acceleration during early exercise, as well as resting and peak RVSP, HR, blood pressure, and rate pressure product. Doppler-estimated RVSP demonstrated a linear relationship to HR at a ratio of 1 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 133.3224 Pa) for every 5 bpm (beats per minute) increase in HR. There were no differences in the slope of this relationship between HI and LO estrogen phases of the menstrual cycle. Our findings did not demonstrate any effect of endogenous estrogen levels on the modulation of the pulmonary vascular response to exercise in healthy women.

  10. EFFECT OF STATINS ON ESTROGEN AND ANDROGEN LEVELS IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN TREATED WITH ESTRADIOL

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Alison; Chaikittisilpa, Sukanya; Mirzaei, Roshanak; Wang, Jun; Mack, Wendy J.; Hodis, Howard N.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective A considerable number of postmenopausal women who receive estrogen therapy (ET) are also treated for hypercholesterolemia with cholesterol-lowering statins. Statins and steroid hormones can compete for the same steroid-metabolizing enzymes. We investigated whether long-term administration of statins had an effect on serum estrogen and androgen levels in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving oral ET. Methods A subgroup analysis from the Estrogen in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, was performed. A total of 222 women were randomized to receive either placebo or 1 mg of oral micronized E2 daily for 2 years. In both the placebo and treatment groups, participants with LDL-cholesterol levels >160 mg/dL were treated with statins. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and every 6 months during the trial. Serum levels of DHEA, androstenedione, testosterone, estrone and E2 were measured by RIA. Results Among 86 placebo- and 90 estradiol-treated subjects with baseline and on-trial hormone measurements, no significant differences were observed between the statin-free and statin-treated groups in mean changes from baseline to on-trial levels in any of the androgens or estrogens, whether or not the postmenopausal women were treated with estrogen. Conclusion The results suggest that ET and statins can be used simultaneously with no deleterious effects on circulating hormone levels. PMID:20450412

  11. Antiapoptotic effects of estrogen in normal and cancer human cervical epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qifang; Li, Xin; Wang, Liqin; Feng, Ying-Hong; Zeng, Robin; Gorodeski, George

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigated the antiapoptotic effects of estrogen in normal and cancer human cervical cells and the mechanisms involved. Baseline apoptosis in human cervical epithelial cells is mediated predominantly by P2X7-receptor-induced, Ca(2+)-dependent activation of the mitochondrial (caspase-9) pathway. Treatment with 10 nM 17beta-estradiol blocked apoptosis induced by the P2X7-receptor ligands ATP and 2',3'-0-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP in normal human cervical epithelial cells (hECEs) and attenuated the effect in hECEs immortalized with human papillomavirus-16 (ECE16-1) and the cancer cervical cells HT3 and CaSki. Diethylstilbestrol and to a lesser degree estrone could mimic the effects of 17beta-estradiol, whereas actinomycin-D and cycloheximide attenuated the response. The antiapoptotic effect of estrogen did not depend on cell cycle phase, and in both normal and cancer cervical cells, it involved attenuation of activation of caspase-9 and the terminal caspase-3. However, involvement of cascades upstream to the caspase-9 differed in normal vs. cancer cervical cells. In the normal hECEs estrogen blocked P2X7-receptor-induced calcium influx. In contrast, in the cancer CaSki cells, estrogen up-regulated expression of Bcl-2 and attenuated Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling (i.e. formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores). Estrogen had no effect on P2X7-receptor-induced apoptosis in the anaplastic SiHa and Hela cells. These results point to a novel antiapoptotic effect of estrogen in the cervix that is independent of its mitogenic function. The results also suggest that cancer cervical cells evolved antiapoptotic mechanisms that enable the cells to evade apoptosis and could therefore promote tumor progression.

  12. Extra-nuclear effects of estrogen on cortical bone in males require ERαAF-1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Gustafsson, K L; Windahl, S H; Kim, S H; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Ohlsson, C; Lagerquist, M K

    2017-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects not only by translocating to the nucleus and affecting gene transcription but also by extra-nuclear actions e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains, and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects. Five-month-old male wild-type (WT) and ERαAF-1-inactivated (ERαAF-10) mice were orchidectomized and treated with equimolar doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) or an estrogen dendrimer conjugate (EDC), which is incapable of entering the nucleus and thereby only initiates extra-nuclear ER actions or their corresponding vehicles for 3.5 weeks. As expected, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness and trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) in WT males. EDC treatment increased cortical thickness in WT males, whereas no effect was detected in trabecular bone. In ERαAF-10 males, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness, but did not affect trabecular bone. Interestingly, the effect of EDC on cortical bone was abolished in ERαAF-10 mice. In conclusion, extra-nuclear estrogen signaling affects cortical bone mass in males, and this effect is dependent on a functional ERαAF-1. Increased knowledge regarding estrogen signaling mechanisms in the regulation of the male skeleton may aid the development of new treatment options for male osteoporosis. PMID:28057769

  13. Extra-nuclear effects of estrogen on cortical bone in males require ERαAF-1.

    PubMed

    Farman, H H; Wu, J; Gustafsson, K L; Windahl, S H; Kim, S H; Katzenellenbogen, J A; Ohlsson, C; Lagerquist, M K

    2017-02-01

    Estradiol (E2) signaling via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is important for the male skeleton as demonstrated by ERα inactivation in both mice and man. ERα mediates estrogenic effects not only by translocating to the nucleus and affecting gene transcription but also by extra-nuclear actions e.g., triggering cytoplasmic signaling cascades. ERα contains various domains, and the role of activation function 1 (ERαAF-1) is known to be tissue specific. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of extra-nuclear estrogen effects for the skeleton in males and to determine the role of ERαAF-1 for mediating these effects. Five-month-old male wild-type (WT) and ERαAF-1-inactivated (ERαAF-1(0)) mice were orchidectomized and treated with equimolar doses of 17β-estradiol (E2) or an estrogen dendrimer conjugate (EDC), which is incapable of entering the nucleus and thereby only initiates extra-nuclear ER actions or their corresponding vehicles for 3.5 weeks. As expected, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness and trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) in WT males. EDC treatment increased cortical thickness in WT males, whereas no effect was detected in trabecular bone. In ERαAF-1(0) males, E2 treatment increased cortical thickness, but did not affect trabecular bone. Interestingly, the effect of EDC on cortical bone was abolished in ERαAF-1(0) mice. In conclusion, extra-nuclear estrogen signaling affects cortical bone mass in males, and this effect is dependent on a functional ERαAF-1. Increased knowledge regarding estrogen signaling mechanisms in the regulation of the male skeleton may aid the development of new treatment options for male osteoporosis.

  14. A comparative study of antiestrogen action: temporal patterns of antagonism of estrogen stimulated uterine growth and effects on estrogen receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, E R; Katzenellenbogen, B S

    1977-05-01

    Studies were undertaken to ascertain the effects of structural modification of two well-known antiestrogens (CI-628 and U-11,100A) on their estrogenic and antiestrogenic potencies and temporal patterns of effectiveness in the immature rat uterus. Changes in the chemical structures of these anti-estrogens produce compounds with markedly different affinities for the uterine estrogen receptor as measured in an in vitro cell-free cytosol system; binding affinities relative to estradiol (100%) are: CI-628, 4%; CI-680, 34%; 94X1127 (94X),222%; U-11,100A (UA), 6%; and U-23,469 (U-23), 0.1%. Although all five antiestrogens (daily injections of 50 microng over three days) appear equally effective in stimulating 72 h uterine weight when given alone, or in blocking the estradiol-stimulated weight increase when given with estradiol, marked differences in their potencies are noted when the effects of the compounds are monitored beyond 24 h following a single injection. The compounds CI-628, CI-680 and UA (50 microng sc in saline), which have a methylated hydroxyl group (at the site analogous to the steroid position 3), show a prolonged maintenance of elevated levels of nuclear receptor (beyond 48 h) and elevated uterine weight (until 72 h); this correlates with a prolonged period of depressed cytoplasmic receptor levels (beyond 48 h) and prolonged uterine insensitivity to estrogen (beyond 36 h as monitored by 3 h wet weight response). In contrast, a single injection of 50 microng of 94X (having a free hydroxyl group) or U-23 (with a side chain and central ring different from UA) maintained nuclear receptor levels elevated for only 12 h (94X) or 36 h (U-23) and uterine weights declined after 36-48 h; cytoplasmic receptor levels remained depressed for only 12 h (94X) or 24 h (U-23) and then returned to control levels or above by 36 h. These latter compounds likewise evoked the shortest period of uterine insensitivity to estrogen (ineffective as antagonists by 36 h). Comparative

  15. EADB: An Estrogenic Activity Database for Assessing ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Endocrine-active chemicals can potentially have adverse effects on both humans and wildlife. They can interfere with the body’s endocrine system through direct or indirect interactions with many protein targets. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are one of the major targets, and many endocrine disruptors are estrogenic and affect the normal estrogen signaling pathways. However, ERs can also serve as therapeutic targets for various medical conditions, such as menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, and ER-positive breast cancer. Because of the decades-long interest in the safety and therapeutic utility of estrogenic chemicals, a large number of chemicals have been assayed for estrogenic activity, but these data exist in various sources and different formats that restrict the ability of regulatory and industry scientists to utilize them fully for assessing risk-benefit. To address this issue, we have developed an Estrogenic Activity Database (EADB; http://www.fda.gov/ScienceResearch/ BioinformaticsTools/EstrogenicActivityDatabaseEADB/default. htm) and made it freely available to the public. EADB contains 18,114 estrogenic activity data points collected for 8212 chemicals tested in 1284 binding, reporter gene, cell proliferation, and in vivo assays in 11 different species. The chemicals cover a broad chemical structure space and the data span a wide range of activities. A set of tools allow users to access EADB and evaluate potential endocrine activity of

  16. Effects of low dose treatment of tributyltin on the regulation of estrogen receptor functions in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sharan, Shruti; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha

    2013-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals are the natural/synthetic compounds which mimic or inhibit the actions of endogenous hormones. Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT) are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine-disrupting chemical. The present study evaluates the estrogenic potential of this compound in vitro in ER (+) breast adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 cell line. Our data showed that tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) had agonistic activities for estrogen receptor-α (ER-α). Its estrogenic potential was checked using cell proliferation assay, aromatase assay, transactivation assay, and protein expression analysis. Low dose treatment of TBTCl had a proliferative effect on MCF-7 cells and resulted in up-regulation of aromatase enzyme activity and enhanced estradiol production in MCF-7 cells. Immunofluorescence staining showed translocation of ER-α from cytoplasm to nucleus and increased expression of ER-α, 3β-HSD and aromatase on treatment with increasing doses of TBTCl. Further, to decipher the probable signaling pathways involved in its action, the MCF-7 cells were transfected with different pathway dependent luciferase reporter plasmids (CRE, SRE, NF-κB and AP1). A significant increase in CRE and SRE and decrease in NF-κB regulated pathway were observed (p < 0.05). Our results thus showed that the activation of SRE by TBTCl may be due to ligand dependent ER-α activation of the MAPK pathway and increased phosphorylation of ERK. In summary, the present data suggests that low dose of tributyltin genomically and non-genomically augmented estrogen dependent signaling by targeting various pathways. - Highlights: • Tributyltin chloride is agonistic to ER-α in MCF-7 cell line at low doses. • Tributyltin chloride up regulated aromatase activity and estradiol production. • Tributyltin chloride also activates MAPK pathway inducing ERK activation.

  17. Effects of low dose treatment of tributyltin on the regulation of estrogen receptor functions in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Shruti; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha

    2013-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals are the natural/synthetic compounds which mimic or inhibit the actions of endogenous hormones. Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT) are typical environmental contaminants and suspected endocrine-disrupting chemical. The present study evaluates the estrogenic potential of this compound in vitro in ER (+) breast adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 cell line. Our data showed that tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) had agonistic activities for estrogen receptor-α (ER-α). Its estrogenic potential was checked using cell proliferation assay, aromatase assay, transactivation assay, and protein expression analysis. Low dose treatment of TBTCl had a proliferative effect on MCF-7 cells and resulted in up-regulation of aromatase enzyme activity and enhanced estradiol production in MCF-7 cells. Immunofluorescence staining showed translocation of ER-α from cytoplasm to nucleus and increased expression of ER-α, 3β-HSD and aromatase on treatment with increasing doses of TBTCl. Further, to decipher the probable signaling pathways involved in its action, the MCF-7 cells were transfected with different pathway dependent luciferase reporter plasmids (CRE, SRE, NF-κB and AP1). A significant increase in CRE and SRE and decrease in NF-κB regulated pathway were observed (p<0.05). Our results thus showed that the activation of SRE by TBTCl may be due to ligand dependent ER-α activation of the MAPK pathway and increased phosphorylation of ERK. In summary, the present data suggests that low dose of tributyltin genomically and non-genomically augmented estrogen dependent signaling by targeting various pathways.

  18. Investigation of the effects of estrogen on skeletal gene expression during zebrafish larval head development

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Benjamin S.; Lassiter, Christopher S.; Jónsson, Zophonías O.

    2016-01-01

    The development of craniofacial skeletal structures requires well-orchestrated tissue interactions controlled by distinct molecular signals. Disruptions in normal function of these molecular signals have been associated with a wide range of craniofacial malformations. A pathway mediated by estrogens is one of those molecular signals that plays role in formation of bone and cartilage including craniofacial skeletogenesis. Studies in zebrafish have shown that while higher concentrations of 17-β estradiol (E2) cause severe craniofacial defects, treatment with lower concentrations result in subtle changes in head morphology characterized with shorter snouts and flatter faces. The molecular basis for these morphological changes, particularly the subtle skeletal effects mediated by lower E2 concentrations, remains unexplored. In the present study we address these effects at a molecular level by quantitative expression analysis of sets of candidate genes in developing heads of zebrafish larvae treated with two different E2 concentrations. To this end, we first validated three suitable reference genes, ppia2, rpl8 and tbp, to permit sensitive quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Next, we profiled the expression of 28 skeletogenesis-associated genes that potentially respond to estrogen signals and play role in craniofacial development. We found E2 mediated differential expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, mmp2/9/13, sparc and timp2a, as well as components of skeletogenic pathways, bmp2a, erf, ptch1/2, rankl, rarab and sfrp1a. Furthermore, we identified a co-expressed network of genes, including cpn1, dnajc3, esr1, lman1, rrbp1a, ssr1 and tram1 with a stronger inductive response to a lower dose of E2 during larval head development. PMID:27069811

  19. Rapid and estrogen receptor beta mediated actions in the hippocampus mediate some functional effects of estrogen

    PubMed Central

    Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    The steroid hormone, estradiol (E2), has numerous targets in the central nervous system, including the hippocampus, which plays a key role in cognition and affective behavior. This review focuses on our evidence from studies in rodents that E2 has diverse mechanisms in the hippocampus for its functional effects E2 has rapid, membrane-mediated effects in the hippocampus to enhance cognitive performance. Administration of E2 to the hippocampus of rats for 10 minutes following training enhances performance in a hippocampus-mediated task. Increased cell firing in the hippocampus occurs within this short time frame. Furthermore, administration of free E2 or an E2 conjugate, E2:bovine serum albumin (BSA), to the hippocampus produces similar performance-enhancing effects in this task, suggesting that E2 has membrane actions in the hippocampus for these effects. Further evidence that E2 has rapid, membrane-mediated effects is that co-administration of E2 and inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), rather than intracellular E2 receptors (ERs) or protein synthesis, attenuate the enhancing effects of E2 in this task. Despite these data that demonstrate E2 can have rapid and/or membrane-mediated effects in the hippocampus, there is clear evidence to suggest that intracellular ERs, particularly the β (rather than α) isoform of ERs, may be important targets for E2’s functional effects for hippocampal processes. Administration of ligands that are specific for ERβ, but not ERα, have enhancing effects on hippocampal processes similar to that of E2 (which has similar affinity for ERα and ERβ). These effects are attenuated when ERβ expression is knocked down in transgenic models or with central administration of antisense oligonucleotides. Thus, there may be a convergence of E2’s actions through rapid, membrane-mediated effects and intracellular ERs and in the hippocampus for these functional effects. PMID:18342348

  20. Effect of estrogen on bone resorption and inflammation in the temporomandibular joint cellular elements.

    PubMed

    Galal, Nadia; El Beialy, Waleed; Deyama, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Yoshikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Kuniaki; Totsuka, Yasunori

    2008-06-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported that temporomandibular disorder is more prevalent in women, which suggests the involvement of sex hormones, such as estrogen, in the pathogenesis of this disease. PCR amplification and Western blotting were employed to target the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) in human fibroblast-like synovial and ATDC5 cells. The effect of estrogen was investigated through the expression of RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), M-CSF/CSF-1 and c-fms. We showed expression of M-CSF/ CSF-1 and c-fms, with time-dependent increase in both after the addition of estrogen. Based on previous studies reporting that M-CSF/CSF-1 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of hemopoietic progenitor cells into mature macrophages, we put forward a new hypothesis based on the increased inflammation and tendency of females to suffer more from temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in the presence of external exacerbating factors. Detection of RANKL and OPG in ATDC5 and expression of both in HFLS was confirmed with complete disappearance of the RANKL band, and marked increase in the expression of OPG after 1 h from the addition of estrogen.

  1. Estrogen effects on angiotensin receptors are modulated by pituitary in female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that changes in angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors might modulate the layered target tissue responsiveness accompanying estradiol administration. Estradiol was infused continuously in oophorectomized female rats. Aldosterone was also infused in control and experimental animals to avoid estrogen-induced changes in renin and ANG II. ANG II binding constants were determined in radioreceptor assays. Estradiol increased binding site concentration in adrenal glomerulosa by 76% and decreased binding sites of uterine myometrium and glomeruli by 45 and 24%, respectively. There was an accompanying increase in the affinity of ANG II binding to adrenal glomerulosa and uterine myometrium. Because estrogen is a potent stimulus of prolactin release from the pituitary of rodents, studies were also designed to test the hypothesis that prolactin may mediate some or all of the estrogen-induced effects observed. Hypophysectomy abolished estradiol stimulation of prolactin release and most ANG II receptor changes. Prolactin administration to pituitary intact rats was associated with a 50% increase in receptor density of adrenal glomerulosa simulating estradiol administration. However, the changes in glomeruli and uterine myometrium were opposite in that both tissues also increased receptor density, suggesting that prolactin was not the sole mediator of the estrogen-induced receptor changes. In conclusion, regulation of ANG II receptors in a number of diverse target tissues by estradiol is complex with contributions from estrogens and pituitary factors, which include but do not exclusively involve prolactin.

  2. Estrogen enhances the bone regeneration potential of periodontal ligament stem cells derived from osteoporotic rats and seeded on nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide).

    PubMed

    E, Ling-Ling; Xu, Wen-Huan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yi; Cai, Dong-Qing; Wen, Ning; Zheng, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of estrogen on the bone regeneration potential of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) derived from osteoporotic rats and seeded on a collagen-based composite scaffold [nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide) (nHAC/PLA)]. For this purpose, 48 healthy 3‑month-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 2 groups as follows: the bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) rats and sham‑operated rats. The PDLSCs were isolated at 3 months after surgery (by which time postmenopausal osteoporosis had developed). The effects of estrogen on the characteristics of these cells seeded in a culture plate and of the cells seeded on nHAC/PLA were then investigated. The PDLSC + nHAC/PLA constructs were implanted subcutaneously into the backs of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for 12 weeks in order to examine the role of estrogen in the bone formation ability of PDLSCs derived from osteoporotic rats. The results from methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay revealed that the proliferation of the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group was significantly higher than that of the cells derived from the rats in the sham-operated group at the stage of logarithmic growth. The staining intensity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the mineralization of the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group was significantly weaker than that of the cells from the rats in the sham-operated group. When the PDLSCs were seeded on nHAC/PLA, ALP activity, osteocalcin (OCN) secretion, mineral formation and the mRNA expression levels of ALP, OCN, estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ in the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group were markedly decreased. Treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) significantly weakened the proliferative ability of the cells derived from the OVX group rats, and enhanced their osteogenic differentiation ability and the mRNA expression levels of ALP, OCN, ERα and ERβ. When the constructs were implanted

  3. Estrogen enhances the bone regeneration potential of periodontal ligament stem cells derived from osteoporotic rats and seeded on nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide)

    PubMed Central

    E, LING-LING; XU, WEN-HUAN; FENG, LIN; LIU, YI; CAI, DONG-QING; WEN, NING; ZHENG, WEN-JIE

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of estrogen on the bone regeneration potential of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) derived from osteoporotic rats and seeded on a collagen-based composite scaffold [nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide) (nHAC/PLA)]. For this purpose, 48 healthy 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 2 groups as follows: the bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) rats and sham-operated rats. The PDLSCs were isolated at 3 months after surgery (by which time postmenopausal osteoporosis had developed). The effects of estrogen on the characteristics of these cells seeded in a culture plate and of the cells seeded on nHAC/PLA were then investigated. The PDLSC + nHAC/PLA constructs were implanted subcutaneously into the backs of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for 12 weeks in order to examine the role of estrogen in the bone formation ability of PDLSCs derived from osteoporotic rats. The results from methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay revealed that the proliferation of the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group was significantly higher than that of the cells derived from the rats in the sham-operated group at the stage of logarithmic growth. The staining intensity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the mineralization of the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group was significantly weaker than that of the cells from the rats in the sham-operated group. When the PDLSCs were seeded on nHAC/PLA, ALP activity, osteocalcin (OCN) secretion, mineral formation and the mRNA expression levels of ALP, OCN, estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ in the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group were markedly decreased. Treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) significantly weakened the proliferative ability of the cells derived from the OVX group rats, and enhanced their osteogenic differentiation ability and the mRNA expression levels of ALP, OCN, ERα and ERβ. When the constructs were implanted into the backs of SCID

  4. Estrogen-like osteoprotective effects of glycine in in vitro and in vivo models of menopause.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-03-01

    Recently, the placenta mesotherapy has been widely used to treat menopause. Placenta contains amino acids, peptides, minerals, and estrogen. Here, we investigated the estrogen-like osteoprotective effects of glycine (a main ingredient of placenta) in in vitro and in vivo models of menopause. We assessed the effect of glycine on MG-63 osteoblast cell line, MCF-7 estrogen-dependent cell line, and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Glycine significantly increased the MG-63 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase were increased by glycine in MG-63 cells. Glycine also increased the BrdU-incorporation and Ki-67 mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells. Glycine induced the up-regulation of estrogen receptor-β mRNA expression and estrogen-response element-luciferase activity in MG-63 and MCF-7 cells. In OVX mice, glycine was administered orally at a daily dose of 10 mg/kg per day for 8 weeks. Glycine resulted in the greatest decrease in weight gain caused by ovariectomy. Meanwhile, vaginal weight reduced by ovariectomy was increased by glycine. Glycine significantly increased the ALP activity in OVX mice. MicroCT-analysis showed that glycine significantly enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular number, and connectivity density in OVX mice. Moreover, glycine significantly increased the serum 17β-estradiol levels reduced by ovariectomy. Glycine has an estrogen-like osteoprotective effect in menopause models. Therefore, we suggest that glycine may be useful for the treatment of menopause.

  5. Effects of estrogen on the mechanical behavior of the human Achilles tendon in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Adam L; Clark, Ross A; Bartold, Simon; Murphy, Aron; Bennell, Kim L; Hohmann, Erik; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya; Payne, Craig; Crossley, Kay M

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of normal fluctuating [non-monophasic oral contraceptive pill (MOCP) users] and low, consistent (MOCP users) endogenous plasma estrogen levels on the strain behavior of the Achilles tendon in vivo. Twenty women (age 28.0 +/- 4.2 yr, height 1.67 +/- 0.07 m, mass 61.6 +/- 6.8 kg) who had been using the MOCP for at least 12 mo together with 20 matched women who were non-MOCP users (age 31.9 +/- 7.3 yr, height 1.63 +/- 0.05 m, mass 62.5 +/- 5.9 kg) participated in this study. Non-MOCP users were tested at the time of lowest (menstruation) and highest (approximately same as ovulation) estrogen, whereas MOCP users, who exhibited constant and attenuated endogenous estrogen levels, were tested at day 1 and day 14 of their cycle. At each test session, maximal isometric plantarflexion efforts were performed on a calf-raise apparatus while synchronous real-time ultrasonography of the triceps surae aponeurosis was recorded. Achilles tendon strain (%) was calculated by dividing tendon displacement during plantarflexion by resting tendon length. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant (P < 0.05) main effect of subject group with significantly lower Achilles strain (25.5%) in the MOCP users compared with the non-MOCP users. In conclusion, acute fluctuations in plasma estrogen across the menstrual cycle in non-MOCP users did not alter the strain behavior of the Achilles tendon. Conversely, long-term exposure to attenuated estrogen in MOCP users resulted in a decrease in Achilles tendon strain, which is thought to be attributed to the effects of endogenous estrogen on collagen synthesis. These findings have a number of important functional and clinical implications.

  6. Raw drone milk of honeybees elicits uterotrophic effect in rats: evidence for estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Seres, Adrienn B; Ducza, Eszter; Báthori, Mária; Hunyadi, Attila; Béni, Zoltán; Dékány, Miklós; Gáspár, Róbert

    2013-05-01

    Numerous honeybee products are used in medicine, but the literature furnishes no information concerning the effects of the drone milk (DM), although drone brood, which is similar to DM, was reported to elicit a hormone-like strengthening effect. In certain countries, DM is traditionally used to treat infertility and to promote vitality in both men and women. The aim of this study was to determine the putative estrogen hormone-like effect of raw DM in rats and to identify the effective compounds. Uterotrophic assays revealed that DM increased the relative weight of the immature rat uterus. This effect was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain-reaction and Western blot methods, in which the mRNA and protein expression of the estrogen-dependent peptide complement component C3 was determined. Column chromatography and uterotrophic assays were used to fractionate and check bioactivity, respectively. The active compound after the last fractionation was identified by the nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry techniques as E-dec-2-enedioic acid, which is very similar to the fatty acids with estrogenic activity that were previously isolated from royal jelly. These results lead us to suppose that E-dec-2-enedioic acid is responsible for the estrogen-like effect of DM. This appears to be the first report on the pharmacological effects of DM and E-dec-2-enedioic acid in mammals.

  7. Opposite effects of two estrogen receptors on tau phosphorylation through disparate effects on the miR-218/PTPA pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yan-Si; Liu, Fang-Fang; Liu, Dan; Huang, He-Zhou; Wei, Na; Tan, Lu; Chen, Jian-Guo; Man, Heng-Ye; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Lu, Youming; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Zhu, Ling-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The two estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ, mediate the diverse biological functions of estradiol. Opposite effects of ERα and ERβ have been found in estrogen-induced cancer cell proliferation and differentiation as well as in memory-related tasks. However, whether these opposite effects are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains unclear. Here, we find that ERα and ERβ play contrasting roles in regulating tau phosphorylation, which is a pathological hallmark of AD. ERα increases the expression of miR-218 to suppress the protein levels of its specific target, protein tyrosine phosphatase α (PTPα). The downregulation of PTPα results in the abnormal tyrosine hyperphosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (resulting in activation) and protein phosphatase 2A (resulting in inactivation), the major tau kinase and phosphatase. Suppressing the increased expression of miR-218 inhibits the ERα-induced tau hyperphosphorylation as well as the PTPα decline. In contrast, ERβ inhibits tau phosphorylation by limiting miR-218 levels and restoring the miR-218 levels antagonized the attenuation of tau phosphorylation by ERβ. These data reveal for the first time opposing roles for ERα and ERβ in AD pathogenesis and suggest potential therapeutic targets for AD. PMID:26111662

  8. Calcitriol restores antiestrogen responsiveness in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells: A potential new therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately 30% of breast tumors do not express the estrogen receptor (ER) α, which is necessary for endocrine therapy approaches. Studies are ongoing in order to restore ERα expression in ERα-negative breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine if calcitriol induces ERα expression in ER-negative breast cancer cells, thus restoring antiestrogen responses. Methods Cultured cells derived from ERα-negative breast tumors and an ERα-negative breast cancer cell line (SUM-229PE) were treated with calcitriol and ERα expression was assessed by real time PCR and western blots. The ERα functionality was evaluated by prolactin gene expression analysis. In addition, the effects of antiestrogens were assessed by growth assay using the XTT method. Gene expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1), and Ether-à-go-go 1 (EAG1) was also evaluated in cells treated with calcitriol alone or in combination with estradiol or ICI-182,780. Statistical analyses were determined by one-way ANOVA. Results Calcitriol was able to induce the expression of a functional ERα in ER-negative breast cancer cells. This effect was mediated through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), since it was abrogated by a VDR antagonist. Interestingly, the calcitriol-induced ERα restored the response to antiestrogens by inhibiting cell proliferation. In addition, calcitriol-treated cells in the presence of ICI-182,780 resulted in a significant reduction of two important cell proliferation regulators CCND1 and EAG1. Conclusions Calcitriol induced the expression of ERα and restored the response to antiestrogens in ERα-negative breast cancer cells. The combined treatment with calcitriol and antiestrogens could represent a new therapeutic strategy in ERα-negative breast cancer patients. PMID:24678876

  9. Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers mat as effective sorbent for the removal of estrogens: kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Fei-Fei; Cao, Yang; Wang, Min; Rong, Fei; Xu, Qian

    2014-07-01

    Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers mat was prepared via electrospinning for the removal of three estrogens, namely, diethylstilbestrol (DES), dienestrol (DS), and hexestrol (HEX) from aqueous solution. Static adsorption as well as the dynamic adsorption was evaluated by means of batch and dynamic disk flow mode, respectively. The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption of the target compounds could be well fitted by the pseudo-second-order equation, suggesting the intra-particle/membrane diffusion process as the rate-limiting step of the adsorption process. The adsorption equilibrium data were all fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm models, with a maximum adsorption capacity values in the range of 97.71 to 208.95 mg/g, which can be compared to or moderately higher than other sorbents published in the literatures. The dynamic disk mode studies indicated that the mean removal yields of three model estrogens were over 95% with a notable smaller amount of adsorbent (4 mg). Thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Desorption results showed that the adsorption capacity can remain up to 80% after seven times usage. It was suggested that Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers mat has great potential as a novel effective sorbent material for estrogens removal.

  10. Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers mat as effective sorbent for the removal of estrogens: kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers mat was prepared via electrospinning for the removal of three estrogens, namely, diethylstilbestrol (DES), dienestrol (DS), and hexestrol (HEX) from aqueous solution. Static adsorption as well as the dynamic adsorption was evaluated by means of batch and dynamic disk flow mode, respectively. The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption of the target compounds could be well fitted by the pseudo-second-order equation, suggesting the intra-particle/membrane diffusion process as the rate-limiting step of the adsorption process. The adsorption equilibrium data were all fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm models, with a maximum adsorption capacity values in the range of 97.71 to 208.95 mg/g, which can be compared to or moderately higher than other sorbents published in the literatures. The dynamic disk mode studies indicated that the mean removal yields of three model estrogens were over 95% with a notable smaller amount of adsorbent (4 mg). Thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Desorption results showed that the adsorption capacity can remain up to 80% after seven times usage. It was suggested that Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers mat has great potential as a novel effective sorbent material for estrogens removal. PMID:25114645

  11. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB): A potential therapeutic target for estrogen receptor negative breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Debajit K.; Dai, Sun-Chun; Cruz, Antonio; Weiser, Barbara; Graner, Edgard; Pardee, Arthur B.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of a kinase inhibitor Go6796 on growth of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated estrogen receptor negative (ER−) breast cancer cells in vivo and role of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) on tumorogenesis have been investigated. This was studied in an animal model by implanting ER− mouse mammary epithelial tumor cells (CSMLO) in syngeneic A-J mice. (i) Local administration of Go6976 an inhibitor of protein kinases C alpha and beta inhibited growth of tumors and caused extensive necrotic degeneration and regression of the tumors without causing any microscopically detectable damage to the vital organs liver and lung. (ii) Stable expression of dominant-negative mutants of the beta subunit (dnIkkβ) of the inhibitory kappa B (IκB) kinase (dnIkk) that selectively blocked activation of NF-κB caused loss of tumorigenic potential of CSMLO cells. Stable expression of dnIkkβ also blocked phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced activation of NF-κB and overexpression of cyclin D1, concomitantly with the loss or reduced tumorigenic potential of these cells. Thus, results from in vivo and in vitro experiments strongly suggest the involvement of NF-κB in ER− mammary epithelial cell-mediated tumorigenesis. We propose that blocking NF-κB activation not only inhibits cell proliferation, but also antagonizes the antiapoptotic role of this transcription factor in ER− breast cancer cells. Thus, NF-κB is a potential target for therapy of EGFR family receptor-overexpressing ER− breast cancers. PMID:11517301

  12. Effects of 7-O substitutions on estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of daidzein analogues in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Daidzein (1) is a natural estrogenic isoflavone. We report here that 1 can be transformed into an antiestrogenic ligand by simple alkyl substitutions of the 7-hydroxyl hydrogen. To test the effect of such structural modifications on the hormonal activities of the resulting compounds, a series of dai...

  13. Modulation of estrogenic exposure effects mediated through temperature and dietary regimens in male fat head minnows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A plethora of studies has examined the biological effects of environmental estrogens on fathead minnows. However, in many cases results from environmental studies do not match the expectations from prior laboratory exposures, which usually are designed to minimize confounding factors such as temper...

  14. Insights into Rapid Modulation of Neuroplasticity by Brain Estrogens

    PubMed Central

    Woolfrey, Kevin M.; Penzes, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Converging evidence from cellular, electrophysiological, anatomic, and behavioral studies suggests that the remodeling of synapse structure and function is a critical component of cognition. This modulation of neuroplasticity can be achieved through the actions of numerous extracellular signals. Moreover, it is thought that it is the integration of different extracellular signals regulation of neuroplasticity that greatly influences cognitive function. One group of signals that exerts powerful effects on multiple neurologic processes is estrogens. Classically, estrogens have been described to exert their effects over a period of hours to days. However, there is now increasing evidence that estrogens can rapidly influence multiple behaviors, including those that require forebrain neural circuitry. Moreover, these effects are found in both sexes. Critically, it is now emerging that the modulation of cognition by rapid estrogenic signaling is achieved by activation of specific signaling cascades and regulation of synapse structure and function, cumulating in the rewiring of neural circuits. The importance of understanding the rapid effects of estrogens on forebrain function and circuitry is further emphasized as investigations continue to consider the potential of estrogenic-based therapies for neuropathologies. This review focuses on how estrogens can rapidly influence cognition and the emerging mechanisms that underlie these effects. We discuss the potential sources and the biosynthesis of estrogens within the brain and the consequences of rapid estrogenic-signaling on the remodeling of neural circuits. Furthermore, we argue that estrogens act via distinct signaling pathways to modulate synapse structure and function in a manner that may vary with cell type, developmental stage, and sex. Finally, we present a model in which the coordination of rapid estrogenic-signaling and activity-dependent stimuli can result in long-lasting changes in neural circuits

  15. Brain stem auditory evoked potentials: effects of ovarian steroids correlated with increased incidence of Bell's palsy in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ben David, Y; Tal, J; Podoshin, L; Fradis, M; Sharf, M; Pratt, H; Faraggi, D

    1995-07-01

    To investigate the effect of ovarian steroids on the brain stem during changes of estrogen and progesterone blood levels, we recorded brain stem auditory evoked potentials with increased stimulus rates from 26 women treated for sterility by menotropins (Pergonal and Metrodin). These women were divided into three groups according to their estrogen and progesterone blood levels. The brain stem auditory evoked potential results revealed a significant delay of peak III only, with an increased stimulus rate in the group with the highest estrogen level. Estrogen may cause a brain stem synaptic impairment, presumably because of ischemic changes, and thus also may be responsible for a higher incidence of Bell's palsy during pregnancy.

  16. Effects-based chemical category approach for prioritization of low affinity estrogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hornung, M W; Tapper, M A; Denny, J S; Kolanczyk, R C; Sheedy, B R; Hartig, P C; Aladjov, H; Henry, T R; Schmieder, P K

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory agencies are charged with addressing the endocrine disrupting potential of large numbers of chemicals for which there is often little or no data on which to make decisions. Prioritizing the chemicals of greatest concern for further screening for potential hazard to humans and wildlife is an initial step in the process. This paper presents the collection of in vitro data using assays optimized to detect low affinity estrogen receptor (ER) binding chemicals and the use of that data to build effects-based chemical categories following QSAR approaches and principles pioneered by Gilman Veith and colleagues for application to environmental regulatory challenges. Effects-based chemical categories were built using these QSAR principles focused on the types of chemicals in the specific regulatory domain of concern, i.e. non-steroidal industrial chemicals, and based upon a mechanistic hypothesis of how these non-steroidal chemicals of seemingly dissimilar structure to 17ß-estradiol (E2) could interact with the ER via two distinct binding types. Chemicals were also tested to solubility thereby minimizing false negatives and providing confidence in determination of chemicals as inactive. The high-quality data collected in this manner were used to build an ER expert system for chemical prioritization described in a companion article in this journal.

  17. The direct effect of estrogen on cell viability and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jian; Liu, Min; Ding, Qianshan; Ji, Xiang; Hao, Yarong; Wu, Xiaomin; Xiong, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiology researches indicated that gastric cancer is a male-predominant disease; both expression level of estrogen and expression pattern of estrogen receptors (ERs) influence its carcinogenesis. But the direct effect of estrogen on gastric cancer cells is still unclear. This study aimed to explore the direct effect of β-estradiol (E2) on gastric cancer cells. SGC7901 and BGC823 were treated with a serial of concentrations of E2. The survival rates of both the cell lines were significantly reduced, and the reduction of viability was due to apoptosis triggered by E2 treatment. Caspase 3 was activated in response to the increasing E2 concentration in both SGC7901 and BGC823. Cleaved Caspase 3 fragments were detected, and the expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were reduced. Apoptosis was further confirmed by flow cytometry. The expression level of PEG10, an androgen receptor target gene, was reduced during E2 treatment. Both ERα and ERβ were expressed in these cell lines, and the result of bioinformatics analysis of gastric cancer from GEO datasets indicated that the expression levels of both ERα and ERβ were significantly higher in noncancerous gastric tissues than in gastric cancer tissues. Our research indicated that estrogen can reduce cell viability and promote apoptosis in gastric cancer cells directly; ERs expression level is associated with gastric cancer. Our research will help to understand the mechanism of gender disparity in gastric cancer.

  18. The estrogenic effects of benzylparaben at low doses based on uterotrophic assay in immature SD rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Zhang, Zhaobin; Sun, Libei; Zhu, Desheng; Liu, Qingchun; Jiao, Jian; Li, Jun; Qi, Mingwen

    2013-03-01

    Benzylparaben (BzP), a type of parabens being used as a preservative agent in cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical products, may be ingested by humans. In this study, we performed an immature uterotrophic assay using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by intragastric administration to determine the estrogenic effects of BzP and found significant increases in uterine weight with doses of 0.16 mg/kg body weight and higher (P<0.05). The in vivo estrogenicity of BzP was supported by in vitro results from the human estrogen receptor α (hERα)-coactivator recruiting assay and in silico molecular docking analysis performed in this study. The in vitro estrogenic activity of BzP can be observed at concentrations of 1.0×10(-8) M and higher. Molecular docking analysis showed that BzP fits well into the agonist pocket of hERα. The lowest observed effect dose (LOED) (0.16 mg/kg/day) of BzP is much lower than the documented LOEDs of other parabens. Actual risk may exist for people who consume a diet high in BzP or use BzP-laden cosmetics. In addition, we tested the sensitivity of Wistar rats to 17β-estradiol by immature uterotrophic assay, and no obvious uterotrophic response was observed in the rats given doses up to 100 μg/kg body weight.

  19. Rapid effects of dorsal hippocampal G-protein coupled estrogen receptor on learning in female mice.

    PubMed

    Lymer, Jennifer; Robinson, Alana; Winters, Boyer D; Choleris, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Through rapid mechanisms of action, estrogens affect learning and memory processes. It has been shown that 17β-estradiol and an Estrogen Receptor (ER) α agonist enhances performance in social recognition, object recognition, and object placement tasks when administered systemically or infused in the dorsal hippocampus. In contrast, systemic and dorsal hippocampal ERβ activation only promote spatial learning. In addition, 17β-estradiol, the ERα and the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) agonists increase dendritic spine density in the CA1 hippocampus. Recently, we have shown that selective systemic activation of the GPER also rapidly facilitated social recognition, object recognition, and object placement learning in female mice. Whether activation the GPER specifically in the dorsal hippocampus can also rapidly improve learning and memory prior to acquisition is unknown. Here, we investigated the rapid effects of infusion of the GPER agonist, G-1 (dose: 50nM, 100nM, 200nM), in the dorsal hippocampus on social recognition, object recognition, and object placement learning tasks in home cage. These paradigms were completed within 40min, which is within the range of rapid estrogenic effects. Dorsal hippocampal administration of G-1 improved social (doses: 50nM, 200nM G-1) and object (dose: 200nM G-1) recognition with no effect on object placement. Additionally, when spatial cues were minimized by testing in a Y-apparatus, G-1 administration promoted social (doses: 100nM, 200nM G-1) and object (doses: 50nM, 100nM, 200nM G-1) recognition. Therefore, like ERα, the GPER in the hippocampus appears to be sufficient for the rapid facilitation of social and object recognition in female mice, but not for the rapid facilitation of object placement learning. Thus, the GPER in the dorsal hippocampus is involved in estrogenic mediation of learning and memory and these effects likely occur through rapid signalling mechanisms.

  20. Neuroprotective effect of estrogen: role of nonsynaptic NR2B-containing NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shui-bing; Zhao, Ming-gao

    2013-04-01

    Excessive activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. Some studies reported that NR2A and NR2B play different roles in the central nervous system (CNS). The NR2A subunit is primarily found in the synapses and is required for glutamate-mediated neuronal survival. On the other hand, the NR2B subunit is primarily found in the extrasynaptic sites and is required for glutamate-mediated neuronal death in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Estrogen is a steroid hormone well known for its widespread effects such as neuroprotection in the brain. Classically, estrogen can bind to two kinds of nuclear receptors, namely, estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and produce physiological and neuroprotective effects. Aside from nuclear receptors, estrogen has one membrane receptor, which can either be G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), Gq-mER, or ER-X. NMDA exposure clearly promotes NR2B subunit phosphorylation at Ser-1303 and causes neuronal cell death. GPR30 mediates rapid non-genomic effects to protect neurons against injury by inhibiting p-DAPK1 dephosphorylation, which inhibits NR2B subunit phosphorylation at Ser-1303. In addition, NMDA exposure and global ischemia activate the autophagy pathway and induce cell death, which are markedly blocked by the NR2B antagonist Ro 25-6981. Thus, NR2B signaling, autophagy induction and cell death may be closely related. Ro 25-6981 inhibits the dissociation of the NR2B-Beclin-1 signaling complex and delays autophagy in vivo, thus confirming the link between NR2B signaling and autophagy. In short, ERα, ERβ, and GPR30 are involved in the neuroprotection of estrogen in the CNS. Additional research must be conducted to reveal the mechanism of estrogen action fully and to identify better targets for the development of more effective drugs. This

  1. Interleukin-6 is a potential therapeutic target in interleukin-6 dependent, estrogen receptor-α-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Casneuf, Tineke; Axel, Amy E; King, Peter; Alvarez, John D; Werbeck, Jillian L; Verhulst, Tinne; Verstraeten, Karin; Hall, Brett M; Sasser, A Kate

    2016-01-01

    engraftment with siltuximab, fulvestrant, or combination therapy. Siltuximab alone was able to blunt MCF-7 engraftment. Similarly, siltuximab alone induced regressions in 90% (9/10) of tumors, which were established in the presence which were established in the presence of hMSC expressing human IL-6 and estrogen. Conclusion Given the established role for IL-6 in ERα-positive breast cancer, these data demonstrate the potential for anti-IL-6 therapeutics in breast cancer. PMID:26893580

  2. Alcohol and Estrogen Replacement Therapy in Postmenopausal Women: Direct and Mediated Effects on Cognitive Component Processes

    PubMed Central

    Tivis, Laura J.; Ceballos, Natalie A.; Chastain, Garvin; Tivis, Rick D.

    2008-01-01

    The literature remains contentious regarding the separate and combined effects of moderate drinking and ERT (Estrogen Replacement Therapy) on cognition. In the current study, the authors sought to disentangle the predictive utility of alcohol use, ERT and their interaction on the episodic and semantic memory stores of postmenopausal women. It was predicted that relationships between moderate drinking, ERT and cognition would be attenuated by demographic and health-related factors. Postmenopausal women (N=298) completed a battery of cognitive tests designed to assess speed and accuracy of episodic and knowledge-based cognitive processing. Potentially confounding variables were categorized and tested as mediators in hierarchical regression analyses. Moderate drinking was a weak predictor of episodic availability prior to removal of potential mediators. ERT use was a significant predictor of episodic and knowledge-based availability; no mediators were identified. Alcohol moderated ERT, as a combined alcohol/ERT variable was shown to be related to cognition. Neither moderate drinking nor ERT use was associated with cognitive speed. These findings suggest that positive relationships between alcohol and cognition are likely mediated by other variables and should not be regarded as a benefit of drinking. Further, results support ERT as a predictor of knowledge-based and episodic availability, independent of mood stabilization or socioeconomic influences. Finally, alcohol and ERT appear to interact to impact both episodic and knowledge-based performance. PMID:18843196

  3. Negative effects of alcohol intake and estrogen deficiency combination on osseointegration in a rat model.

    PubMed

    de Deco, Camila Porto; da Silva Marchini, Adriana Mathias Pereira; Bárbara, Mary Anne Moreira; de Vasconcellos, Luana Marotta Reis; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes; Marchini, Leonardo

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol intake and estrogen deficiency can both affect bone physiology and have shown to have an adverse effect on dental implant therapy. However, the combination of both factors on osseointegration is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate osseointegration in rats fed with alcohol and presenting induced estrogen deficiency. Ninety-six female rats were divided according to diet and hormonal condition into 6 groups as follows: group Sh-W: sham (simulated ovariectomy) control, food and water ad libitum; group Sh-Et: sham, food and 20% ethanol solution ad libitum; group Sh-Su: sham, food and sucrose solution controlled to ensure an isocaloric diet in relation to Sh-Et; group Ov-W: ovariectomy, food and water ad libitum; group Ov-Et: ovariectomy, food and 20% ethanol solution ad libitum; and group Ov-Su: ovariectomy, food and sucrose solution controlled to ensure an isocaloric diet as Ov-Et. The groups were subdivided according to time of euthanasia: 30 and 45 days after placement of implants. Implant surgery was performed 1 month after ovariectomy or sham. After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and evaluated by histomorphometry. Groups Ov-Et and Ov-Su showed the lowest percentage of bone-to-implant contact. The combination of alcohol intake and estrogen deficiency, and the combination of estrogen deficiency and reduced ingestion of food can negatively affect osseointegration in rats.

  4. Effect of subacute exposure to lead and estrogen on immature pre-weaning rat leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Villagra, R.; Tchernitchin, N.N.; Tchernitchin, A.N.

    1997-02-01

    Lead is an environmental pollutant known to cause damage to human health, affecting specially the central nervous system, reproductive organs, the immune system and kidney. From the perspective or reproduction, lead affects both men and women. Reported effects in women include infertility, miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy hypertension and premature delivery. In experimental animals, lead affects female reproductive organs through different mechanisms. The heavy metal may interact at the enzyme level. It may interfere with the action of reproductive hormones at the target organ, modifying the activity of estrogen receptors in the pregnant uterus and inhibiting responses where estrogens play a role. Lead may induce imprinting mechanism, causing persistent changes in uterine estrogen receptors and ovary LH receptors following perinatal exposure. Finally, it may interfere at the level of hypothalamus-pituitary, decreasing pituitary response to growth hormone releasing factor, affecting levels of FSH and LH and increasing blood levels of glucocorticoids, which modify the action of estrogens in the uterus. This study examines the mechanisms of lead-induced interference with female reproductive and immune functions. 33 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Estrogen on Penetrating Brain Arterioles and Blood-brain Barrier Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Cipolla, Marilyn J.; Godfrey, Julie A.; Wiegman, Marchien J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We investigated the effect of estrogen replacement on the structure and function of penetrating brain arterioles (PA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Methods Female ovariectomized Sprague Dawley rats were replaced with estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3) (OVX+E; N=13) and compared to ovariectomized animals without replacement (OVX; N=14) and intact controls (CTL, proestrous; N=13). Passive and active diameters, percent tone and passive distensibility of pressurized PA were compared. In addition, BBB permeability to Lucifer Yellow, a marker of transcellular transport, was compared in cerebral arteries. Results Ovariectomy increased myogenic tone in PA compared to CTL that was not ameliorated by estrogen treatment. Percent tone at 75 mmHg for CTL vs. OVX and OVX+E was 44 ± 3% vs. 51 ± 1% and 54 ± 3% (p<0.01 vs. CTL for both). No differences were found in passive diameters or distensibility between the groups. BBB permeability increased 500% in OVX vs. CTL animals, however, estrogen replacement restored barrier properties: flux of Lucifer Yellow for CTL, OVX and OVX+E was (ng/mL): 3.4 ± 1.2, 20.2 ± 5.3 (p<0.01 vs. CTL) and 6.15 ± 1.2 (n.s.). Conclusions These results suggest that estrogen replacement may not be beneficial for small vessel disease in the brain, but may limit BBB disruption and edema under conditions that cause it. PMID:19905968

  6. [Effects of estrogens on the brain and implications for neuro-protection].

    PubMed

    Rudziński, Wojciech; Krejza, Jarosław

    2002-01-01

    Numerous biological effects of oestrogens within the brain support the argument that their influence is not restricted to the reproductive system. Specific estrogen receptors were found in the central nervous system as early as in the 70's, but until recently little was known about the molecular background of oestrogens activity in the brain. The last decade witnessed a great effort aimed at better understanding of the tangled molecular mechanisms underlying subtle liaisons between brain metabolism and cerebral blood flow and particularly their disturbances triggered by brain ischaemia. These investigations had an ultimate goal--an effective method of preventing an expanding biochemical "catastrophe" within and around the ischaemic brain regions (the so-called "neuroprotection"). Molecular mechanisms by which oestrogens increase both metabolism and blood flow through certain regions of the brain became only recently better understood. Now there is a consensus as to that these hormones increase secretion of neuromediators, stimulate formation of new synapses and can activate certain genes, responsible for production of anti-apoptotic proteins and growth factors. Oestrogens can also dilate cerebral vessels, here acting through increased synthesis of nitric oxide and by stimulating such compounds as prostacycline and a potent vasodilator-epoxyeikosotrienoic acid. There is a body of recent evidence which suggest that during brain ischaemia the physiological estrogen stimulation, of both, brain metabolism and cerebral blood flow, becomes biased towards increased release of vasodilating substances. As the metabolism is not spurred accordingly, the net effect of oestrogens is neuroprotection. Other protective properties of oestrogens within the brain are related to attenuation of the excitotoxic effects of glutamate and to the activation of enzymes scavenging free oxygen radicals. Moreover, oestrogens can diminish free radicals synthesis and act as free radicals

  7. The Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Estrogen Levels of Postmenopausal Women - A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Bauer, Brent A.; Loehrer, Laura L.; Cha, Stephen S.; Suman, Vera J.; Hoskin, Tanya L.; Olson, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The roll of estrogens in the pathogenesis of breast cancer is well documented and has lead to the development of Selective Estrogene Receptor Modulators and Aromatase Inhibitors for treatment and prevention of breast cancer. However these agents are associated with significant side effects and are therefore not well accepted by healthy women who are at high risk for breast cancer. There has been some evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal studies that grapes have an aromatase inhibiting effect resulting in a decrease in estrogen synthesis and increase in androstenedione and testosterone. Method We conducted a randomized, double-blind, dose finding early phase trial. Eligible partici-pants were randomly assigned to one of 4 doses of grape seed extract (200, 400, 600, or 800 mg) to be taken daily for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the change of plasma hormone levels (estrogen conjugates from baseline to 12 weeks after treatment with grape seed extract). Results Forty-six women were enrolled, 39 (84.8%) completed the study. In this pilot study grape-seed extract given in daily doses of 200, 400, 600 or 800 mg for 12 weeks to postmenopausal women did not decrease plasma estrogens (estrone, estradiol, estrone sulfate) and did not increase precursors of androgens (testosterone and androstenedione). There were large variations in pre- and posttreatment estrone, estradiol and estrone sulfate and androgen precursors. Conclusion Future research should carefully consider BMI and changes in BMI as well as higher dosing of grape seed extract in their design. PMID:24670122

  8. Rapid signaling mechanisms of estrogens in the developing cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Scott M

    2008-03-01

    The steroid hormone 17beta-estradiol regulates the normal function and development of the mammalian nervous system. Many of estradiol's effects are mediated via the nuclear hormone estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta. In addition to regulating estrogen-responsive gene expression, estradiol also acts in an immediate and cell-specific fashion to regulate various intracellular signal transduction pathways. The goal of this review is to develop a contextual framework to understand the generalized function of estrogen during development of brain regions not known to be sexually specialized. However, it is first important to build this framework on the more well-developed foundation of estrogen's gonad-driven sex-specific actions. As a result, a discussion of known and proposed mechanisms of estrogen actions in reproductive and other tissues will be presented. Building upon this information, a review of our research group's recent in vitro and in vivo studies that have focused on elucidating the mechanisms of estrogen actions in neurons of the non-sexually specialized cerebellum will be presented. While the full spectrum of estrogen action during normal cerebellar development remains unresolved, results of recent studies have revealed a pathologic role for estrogen and estrogen receptors in medulloblastoma, common pediatric brain tumors that arise from cerebellar granule cell-like precursors. The potential use of anti-estrogen signaling agents as adjuvant therapy for medulloblastoma is proposed based on those finding.

  9. Endocrine-disrupting chemical exposure and the American alligator: a review of the potential role of environmental estrogens on the immune system of a top trophic carnivore.

    PubMed

    Finger, John W; Gogal, Robert M

    2013-11-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter cellular and organ system homeostasis by interfering with the body's normal physiologic processes. Numerous studies have identified environmental estrogens as modulators of EDC-related processes in crocodilians, notably in sex determination. Other broader studies have shown that environmental estrogens dysregulate normal immune function in mammals, birds, turtles, lizards, fish, and invertebrates; however, the effects of such estrogenic exposures on alligator immune function have not been elucidated. Alligators occupy a top trophic status, which may give them untapped utility as indicators of environmental quality. Environmental estrogens are also prevalent in the waters they occupy. Understanding the effects of these EDCs on alligator immunity is critical for managing and assessing changes in their health and is thus the focus of this review.

  10. Quantifying Mediating Effects of Endogenous Estrogen and Insulin in the Relation between Obesity, Alcohol Consumption, and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A.; Gunter, Marc J.; Lange, Theis; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Lane, Dorothy; Farhat, Ghada N.; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Keiding, Niels; Lee, Jennifer S.; Prentice, Ross; Tjønneland, Anne; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Silvia; Strickler, Howard D.; Rod, Naja H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased exposure to endogenous estrogen and/or insulin may partly explain the relationship of obesity, physical inactivity, and alcohol consumption and postmenopausal breast cancer. However, these potential mediating effects have not been formally quantified in a survival analysis setting. Methods We combined data from two case–cohort studies based in the Women’s Health Initiative- Observational Study with serum estradiol levels, one of which also had insulin levels. A total of 1,601 women (601 cases) aged 50 to 79 years who were not using hormone therapy at enrollment were included. Mediating effects were estimated by applying a new method based on the additive hazard model. Results A five-unit increase in body mass index (BMI) was associated with 50.0 [95% confidence interval (CI), 23.2–76.6] extra cases per 100,000 women at-risk per year. Of these, 23.8% (95% CI, 2.9–68.4) could be attributed to estradiol and 65.8% (95% CI, 13.6–273.3) through insulin pathways. The mediating effect of estradiol was greater (48.8%; 95% CI, 18.8–161.1) for BMI when restricted to estrogen receptor positive (ER+) cases. Consuming 7+ drinks/wk compared with abstinence was associated with 164.9 (95% CI, 45.8–284.9) breast cancer cases per 100,000, but no significant contribution from estradiol was found. The effect of alcohol on breast cancer was restricted to ER+ breast cancers. Conclusions The relation of BMI with breast cancer was partly mediated through estradiol and, to a greater extent, through insulin. Impact The findings provide support for evaluation of interventions to lower insulin and estrogen levels in overweight and obese postmenopausal women to reduce breast cancer risk. PMID:22564867

  11. Effect of Prenatal Exposure to Lead on Estrogen Action in the Prepubertal Rat Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Tchernitchin, Andrei N.; Gaete, Leonardo; Bustamante, Rodrigo; Báez, Aracelly

    2011-01-01

    Lead is a widely spread environmental pollutant known to affect both male and female reproductive systems in humans and experimental animals and causes infertility and other adverse effects. The present paper investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to lead on different parameters of estrogen stimulation in the uterus of the prepubertal rat. In prenatally and perinatally exposed rats, estrogen-induced endometrial eosinophilia, endometrial stroma edema, and eosinophil migration towards the endometrium, and uterine luminal epithelial hypertrophy are enhanced while several other responses to estrogen appear unchanged. These effects may contribute to decrease in fertility following prenatal exposure to lead. The striking difference between most of these effects of prenatal exposure and the previously reported effects of chronic exposure to lead suggests that prenatal exposure to lead may neutralize the effects of chronic exposure to lead, providing partial protection of cell function against the adverse effects of chronic exposure to lead. We propose that the mechanism involved, named imprinting or cell programming, persisted through evolution as a nongenetic adaptive mechanism to provide protection against long-term environmental variations that otherwise may cause the extinction of species not displaying this kind of adaptation. PMID:22263113

  12. Construction of a Bacterial Assay for Estrogen Detection Based on an Estrogen-Sensitive Intein ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Rubing; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli strain DIER was constructed for estrogen detection by inserting an estrogen-sensitive intein (VMAER intein) into the specific site of the constitutively expressed chromosomal lacZ gene. This VMAER intein was generated by replacing the endonuclease region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae VMA intein with the estrogen binding region of the human estrogen receptor α (hERα). When there were estrogens or analogs, the splicing of the VMAER intein was induced to produce the mature LacZ protein, which was detected through a β-galactosidase colorimetric assay. Eight typical chemicals (17-β-estradiol, bisphenol A, chrysene, 6-OH-chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, pyrene, progesterone, and testosterone) were detected using this DIER strain, and the whole detection procedure was accomplished in 2 h. Their 50% effective concentrations (EC50), relative estrogenic activities, and estradiol equivalency factors were calculated and were quite consistent with those detected with the yeast estrogen screening (YES) system. Furthermore, the estrogenic activities of the synthetic musk samples extracted from the wastewater and waste sludge of a sewage treatment plant of Shanghai (China) were detected, and their results were comparable to those obtained from the YES system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In conclusion, the DIER bioassay could fill a niche for the efficient, rapid, high-throughput screening of estrogenic compounds and has potential for the remote, near-real-time monitoring of environmental estrogens. PMID:21317264

  13. Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge increases estrogen level without side effects on reproductive tissues in immature/ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Qu, Ya-kun; An, Jin-na; Zheng, Hong-xia; Zhang, Zi-jia; Lin, Na

    2017-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge (SM) is a popular herb for alleviating menopausal symptoms, although the scientific evidence of applying SM to estrogen replacement therapy is limited. In this study, we characterized the estrogenic activity of SM using in vivo models of immature and ovariectomized (OVX) mice and performed in vitro studies focusing on the estrogen receptor (ER) pathway for further molecular characterizations. SM treatments demonstrated significant estrogenic activity by promoting the development of uterus and vagina in immature mice, restoring the estrus cycle and reversing the atrophy of reproductive tissues in OVX mice, as well as increasing the expressions of ERα and ERβ at protein and mRNA level in the reproductive tissues. Meanwhile, SM significantly increased estradiol in serum, and decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the circulation of immature and OVX mice. SM could stimulate the binding effect of ERα and ERβ, and significantly induce ERα/β-estrogen response element (ERE) luciferase reporter gene expression. All these activities were inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI182, 780. This study demonstrates SM exerts estrogenic effects by stimulating biosynthesis of estrogen and increasing ERs in target tissues without side effects on reproductive tissues and through ER-ERE-dependent pathway. PMID:27997360

  14. Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge increases estrogen level without side effects on reproductive tissues in immature/ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Chen, Ting; Li, Xin; Qu, Ya-Kun; An, Jin-Na; Zheng, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Zi-Jia; Lin, Na

    2016-12-20

    Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge(SM) is a popular herb for alleviating menopausal symptoms, although the scientific evidence of applying SM to estrogen replacement therapy is limited. In this study, we characterized the estrogenic activity of SM using in vivo models of immature and ovariectomized (OVX) mice and performed in vitro studies focusing on the estrogen receptor (ER) pathway for further molecular characterizations. SM treatments demonstrated significant estrogenic activity by promoting the development of uterus and vagina in immature mice, restoring the estrus cycle and reversing the atrophy of reproductive tissues in OVX mice, as well as increasing the expressions of ERα and ERβ at protein and mRNA level in the reproductive tissues. Meanwhile, SM significantly increased estradiol in serum, and decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the circulation of immature and OVX mice. SM could stimulate the binding effect of ERα and ERβ, and significantly induce ERα/β-estrogen response element (ERE) luciferase reporter gene expression. All these activities were inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI182, 780. This study demonstrates SM exerts estrogenic effects by stimulating biosynthesis of estrogen and increasing ERs in target tissues without side effects on reproductive tissues and through ER-ERE-dependent pathway.

  15. Effect of the Interaction of Veratrum Nigrum with Panax Ginseng on Estrogenic Activity In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Ding, Jie; An, Jin-na; Qu, Ya-kun; Li, Xin; Ma, Xiao-ping; Zhang, Yi-min; Dai, Guo-jing; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng (GS) and Veratrum nigrum (VN) are representative of incompatible pairs in “eighteen antagonistic medicaments” that have been recorded in the Chinese medicinal literature for over 2,000 years. However, evidence linking interference effects with combination use is scare. Based on the estrogen-like effect of GS described in our previous studies, we undertake a characterization of the interaction on estrogenic activity of GS and VN using in vivo models of immature and ovariectomized (OVX) mice and in vitro studies with MCF-7 cells for further mechanism. VN decreased the estrogenic efficacy of GS on promoting the development of the uterus and vagina in immature mice, and reversing the atrophy of reproductive tissues in OVX mice. VN interfered with the estrogenic efficacy of GS by decreasing the increase of the serum estradiol and the up-regulation of ERα and ERβ expressions by treatment with GS. And VN antagonized the estrogenic efficacy of GS on promoting the viability of MCF-7 cells and up-regulation of protein and gene expressions of ERs. In conclusion, this study provided evidence that GS and VN decreased effects on estrogenic activity, which might be related to regulation of estrogen secretion and ERs. PMID:27229740

  16. Synthesis of 4,4'-Diaminotriphenylmethanes with Potential Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM)-like Activity.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Gema; Amesty, Ángel; Jiménez-Monzón, Roberto; Marrero-Alonso, Jorge; Díaz, Mario; Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Estévez-Braun, Ana

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a series of new 4,4'-diaminotriphenylmethanes was efficiently synthesized from aromatic aldehydes and 2,5-dimethoxybenzenamine under microwave irradiation in the presence of Sc(OTf)3 as a catalyst. Antiproliferative activity was assessed by using the MCF-7 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell line, and antagonist/agonist transcriptional activities were determined. Docking studies and competition studies of triphenylmethanes and radiolabeled estradiol determined that these compounds do not bind the ER, indicating that triphenylmethane-induced changes in proliferative and transcriptional activities differ from conventional mechanisms of action triggered by other selective ER modulators.

  17. Nanoparticle Estrogen in Rat Spinal Cord Injury Elicits Rapid Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Plasma, Cerebrospinal Fluid, and Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Abhay; Barry, John; Vertegel, Alexey; Banik, Naren

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) are in need of effective therapeutics. Estrogen (E2), as a steroid hormone, is a highly pleiotropic agent; with anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neurotrophic properties, it is ideal for use in treatment of patients with SCI. Safety concerns around the use of high doses of E2 have limited clinical application, however. To address these concerns, low doses of E2 (25 μg and 2.5 μg) were focally delivered to the injured spinal cord using nanoparticles. A per-acute model (6 h after injury) was used to assess nanoparticle release of E2 into damaged spinal cord tissue; in addition, E2 was evaluated as a rapid anti-inflammatory. To assess inflammation, 27-plex cytokine/chemokine arrays were conducted in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and spinal cord tissue. A particular focus was placed on IL-6, GRO-KC, and MCP-1 as these have been identified from CSF in human studies as potential biomarkers in SCI. S100β, an additional proposed biomarker, was also assessed in spinal cord tissue only. Tissue concentrations of E2 were double those found in the plasma, indicating focal release. E2 showed rapid anti-inflammatory effects, significantly reducing interleukin (IL)-6, GRO-KC, MCP-1, and S100β in one or all compartments. Numerous additional targets of rapid E2 modulation were identified including: leptin, MIP-1α, IL-4, IL-2, IL-10, IFNγ, tumor necrosis factor-α, etc. These data further elucidate the rapid anti-inflammatory effects E2 exerts in an acute rat SCI model, have identified additional targets of estrogen efficacy, and suggest nanoparticle delivered estrogen may provide a safe and efficacious treatment option in persons with acute SCI. PMID:25845398

  18. Daidzein–Estrogen Interaction in the Rat Uterus and Its Effect on Human Breast Cancer Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gaete, Leonardo; Bustamante, Rodrigo; Villena, Joan; Lemus, Igor; Gidekel, Manuel; Cabrera, Gustavo; Astorga, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Sex hormone replacement therapy provides several advantages in the quality of life for climacteric women. However, estrogen-induced cell proliferation in the uterus and mammary gland increases the risk of cancer development in these organs. The lower incidence of mammary cancer in Asian women as compared with Western women has been attributed to high intake of soy isoflavones, including genistein. We have previously shown that genistein induces an estradiol-like hypertrophy of uterine cells, but does not induce cell proliferation, uterine eosinophilia, or endometrial edema. It also inhibits estradiol-induced mitosis in uterine cells and hormone-induced uterine eosinophilia and endometrial edema. Nevertheless, genistein stimulates growth of human breast cancer cells in culture; therefore, it is not an ideal estrogen for use in hormone replacement therapy (HRD). The present study investigated the effect of another soy isoflavone, daidzein (subcutaneous, 0.066 mg/kg body weight), in the same animal model, and its effect on responses induced by subsequent treatment (1 h later) with estradiol-17β (E2; subcutaneous, 0.33 mg/kg body weight). In addition, we investigated the effects of daidzein (1 μg/mL) or E2 on the growth of human breast cancer cells in culture. Results indicate that daidzein stimulates growth of breast cancer cells and potentiates estrogen-induced cell proliferation in the uterus. We suggest caution for the use of daidzein or formulas containing this compound in HRD. Future research strategies should be addressed in the search for new phytoestrogens that selectively inhibit cell proliferation in the uterus and breast. PMID:23216111

  19. Effects of estrogen on functional and neurological recovery after spinal cord injury: An experimental study with rats

    PubMed Central

    Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa; Ferreira, Ricardo; dos Santos, Gustavo Bispo; da Rocha, Ivan Dias; Marcon, Raphael Martus

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the functional and histological effects of estrogen as a neuroprotective agent after a standard experimentally induced spinal cord lesion. METHODS: In this experimental study, 20 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group with rats undergoing spinal cord injury (SCI) at T10 and receiving estrogen therapy with 17-beta estradiol (4mg/kg) immediately following the injury and after the placement of skin sutures and a control group with rats only subjected to SCI. A moderate standard experimentally induced SCI was produced using a computerized device that dropped a weight on the rat's spine from a height of 12.5 mm. Functional recovery was verified with the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale on the 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days after injury and by quantifying the motor-evoked potential on the 42nd day after injury. Histopathological evaluation of the SCI area was performed after euthanasia on the 42nd day. RESULTS: The experimental group showed a significantly greater functional improvement from the 28th to the 42nd day of observation compared to the control group. The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in the motor-evoked potential compared with the control group. The results of pathological histomorphometry evaluations showed a better neurological recovery in the experimental group, with respect to the proportion and diameter of the quantified nerve fibers. CONCLUSIONS: Estrogen administration provided benefits in neurological and functional motor recovery in rats with SCI beginning at the 28th day after injury. PMID:26598084

  20. Breast density and parenchymal texture measures as potential risk factors for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2014-03-01

    Accurate assessment of a woman's risk to develop specific subtypes of breast cancer is critical for appropriate utilization of chemopreventative measures, such as with tamoxifen in preventing estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer. In this context, we investigate quantitative measures of breast density and parenchymal texture, measures of glandular tissue content and tissue structure, as risk factors for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Mediolateral oblique (MLO) view digital mammograms of the contralateral breast from 106 women with unilateral invasive breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Breast density and parenchymal texture were analyzed via fully-automated software. Logistic regression with feature selection and was performed to predict ER+ versus ER- cancer status. A combined model considering all imaging measures extracted was compared to baseline models consisting of density-alone and texture-alone features. Area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Delong's test were used to compare the models' discriminatory capacity for receptor status. The density-alone model had a discriminatory capacity of 0.62 AUC (p=0.05). The texture-alone model had a higher discriminatory capacity of 0.70 AUC (p=0.001), which was not significantly different compared to the density-alone model (p=0.37). In contrast the combined density-texture logistic regression model had a discriminatory capacity of 0.82 AUC (p<0.001), which was statistically significantly higher than both the density-alone (p<0.001) and texture-alone regression models (p=0.04). The combination of breast density and texture measures may have the potential to identify women specifically at risk for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer and could be useful in triaging women into appropriate risk-reduction strategies.

  1. In vivo estrogenic potential of 4-methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene, an active metabolite of bisphenol A, in uterus of ovariectomized rat.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Katsuhiro; Takiguchi, Masufumi; Yoshihara, Shin'ichi

    2010-08-01

    4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP), an active metabolite of bisphenol A (BPA), has more potent estrogenic activity than BPA in vitro, but its activity in vivo is not established. Here, we examined in vivo estrogenic activity of MBP by means of uterotrophic assay in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. MBP exhibited dose-dependent estrogenic activity, as evaluated in terms of effects on uterus weight, uterine luminal epithelial cell height and myometrium thickness. The highest concentration of MBP (10 mg/kg/day) completely reversed the changes caused by OVX, and its activity was equivalent to that of 5 microg/kg/day 17beta-estradiol (E2). We also investigated the effects of MBP on transcription of several estrogen-related genes. The changes of mRNA levels of estrogen receptors alpha and beta, c-fos and insulin-like growth factor 1 in MBP-treated OVX rats were qualitatively similar to those in E2-treated rats. BPA did not show any significant effect on OVX rat in these conditions. This study is the first to demonstrate that MBP, an active metabolite of BPA, has potent in vivo estrogenic activity, being about 500-fold more potent than BPA in OVX rats.

  2. Estrogen and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, A A; Lee, A R

    2012-07-01

    Estrogen is a potent steroid with pleiotropic effects, which have yet to be fully elucidated. Estrogen has both nuclear and non-nuclear effects. The rapid response to estrogen, which involves a membrane associated estrogen receptor(ER) and is protective, involves signaling through PI3K, Akt, and ERK 1/2. The nuclear response is much slower, as the ER-estrogen complex moves to the nucleus, where it functions as a transcription factor, both activating and repressing gene expression. Several different ERs regulate the specificity of response to estrogen, and appear to have specific effects in cardiac remodeling and the response to injury. However, much remains to be understood about the selectivity of these receptors and their specific effects on gene expression. Basic studies have demonstrated that estrogen treatment prevents apoptosis and necrosis of cardiac and endothelial cells. Estrogen also attenuates pathologic cardiac hypertrophy. Estrogen may have great benefit in aging as an anti-inflammatory agent. However, clinical investigations of estrogen have had mixed results, and not shown the clear-cut benefit of more basic investigations. This can be explained in part by differences in study design: in basic studies estrogen treatment was used immediately or shortly after ovariectomy, while in some key clinical trials, estrogen was given years after menopause. Further basic research into the underlying molecular mechanisms of estrogen's actions is essential to provide a better comprehension of the many properties of this powerful hormone.

  3. The effect of estrogen synthesis inhibition on hippocampal memory.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Janine; Rune, Gabriele; Schultz, Heidrun; Tobia, Michael J; Mebes, Imke; Katzler, Olaf; Sommer, Tobias

    2015-06-01

    17-Beta-estradiol (E2) facilitates long term-potentiation (LTP) and increases spine synapse density in hippocampal neurons of ovariectomized rodents. Consistent with these beneficial effects on the cellular level, E2 improves hippocampus-dependent memory. A prominent approach to study E2 effects in rodents is the inhibition of its synthesis by letrozole, which reduces LTPs and spine synapse density. In the current longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we translated this approach to humans and compared the impact of E2 synthesis inhibition on memory performance and hippocampal activity in post-menopausal women taking letrozole (n = 21) to controls (n = 24). In particular, we employed various behavioral memory paradigms that allow the disentanglement of hippocampus-dependent and -independent memory. Consistent with the literature on rodents, E2 synthesis inhibition specifically impaired hippocampus-dependent memory, however, this did not apply to the same degree to all of the employed paradigms. On the neuronal level, E2 depletion tended to decrease hippocampal activity during encoding, whereas it increased activity in the anterior cingulate and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We thus infer that the inhibition of E2 synthesis specifically impairs hippocampal functioning in humans, whereas the increased prefrontal activity presumably reflects a compensatory mechanism, which is already known from studies on cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Parabens: potential impact of low-affinity estrogen receptor binding chemicals on human health.

    PubMed

    Karpuzoglu, Ebru; Holladay, Steven D; Gogal, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Parabens, alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, are widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, personal care products and as food additives to inhibit microbial growth and extend product shelf life. Consumers of these compounds are frequently exposed via the skin, lips, eyes, oral mucosa, nails, and hair. Parabens are estrogenic molecules but exert weaker activity than natural estrogens, which would imply a low risk. Consistent with this idea, a number of recent commission reports from different countries suggested that parabens pose a negligible endocrine-disrupting risk at the recommended doses. However, individuals are not routinely exposed to a single paraben, and most of the available paraben toxicity data, reviewed in these reports, are from single-exposure studies. Further, assessing the additive and cumulative risk of multiple paraben exposure from daily use of multiple cosmetic and/or personal care products is presently not possible based on current studies. In this review, current and recent studies of paraben exposure and public health policies as well as critical gaps in the knowledge are discussed and new research directions regarding multiple exposures and novel target cohorts are recommended.

  5. Differential effects of synthetic progestagens on neuron survival and estrogen neuroprotection in cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Anusha; Pike, Christian J

    2014-03-25

    Progesterone and other progestagens are used in combination with estrogens for clinical purposes, including contraception and postmenopausal hormone therapy. Progesterone and estrogens have interactive effects in brain, however interactions between synthetic progestagens and 17β-estradiol (E2) in neurons are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of seven clinically relevant progestagens on estrogen receptor (ER) mRNA expression, E2-induced neuroprotection, and E2-induced BDNF mRNA expression. We found that medroxyprogesterone acetate decreased both ERα and ERβ expression and blocked E2-mediated neuroprotection and BDNF expression. Conversely, levonorgestrel and nesterone increased ERα and or ERβ expression, were neuroprotective, and failed to attenuate E2-mediated increases in neuron survival and BDNF expression. Other progestagens tested, including norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, norethynodrel, and norgestimate, had variable effects on the measured endpoints. Our results demonstrate a range of qualitatively different actions of progestagens in cultured neurons, suggesting significant variability in the neural effects of clinically utilized progestagens.

  6. Histopathological and estrogen effect of pentachlorophenol on the rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaozheng; Xiong, Li; Liu, Yan; Deng, Chuan; Mao, Siyu

    2014-06-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a typical organic pollutant and environmental endocrine disruptor, has been extensively used as a pesticide and biocide worldwide. In this study, the effects of PCP on the histological and hepatic system of the rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) were evaluated. Vitellogenin (VTG) was used as a biomarker to evaluate the estrogen effect of PCP. The results revealed that VTG was highly expressed and PCP exposure had histopathological effects on the rare minnow. Plasma and hepatic VTG concentrations increased when female rare minnows were exposed to ≥80 μg/L PCP and male rare minnows were exposed to 40 μg/L PCP (p < 0.05), which suggested that the VTG expression was evoked by PCP exposure. The results indicated that both plasma and liver tissue were suitable for VTG quantification. A significant decrease in the mRNA level of hepatic estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in male or juvenile was observed after exposure to ≥80 or ≥8 μg/L PCP, respectively; in contrast, increased mRNA levels of ERβ1, ERβ2, VTGI, and VTGII in male or juvenile were detected after exposure to ≥80 or ≥8 μg/L PCP, respectively. These results suggested that PCP has an estrogen effect and exists within different endocrine-disrupting pathways from other environmental contaminants. As such, VTG mRNA expression in the rare minnow may require transcription of the ERβ1 and ERβ2 genes.

  7. A 3-D QSAR-BASED IDENTIFICATION ALGORITHM FOR POTENTIAL ESTROGEN RECEPTOR LIGANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reports concerning the lethal effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on amphibians suggest that this stressor has the potential to impact some amphibian populations. In this study embryos and larvae of three anuran species, Rana pipiens, R. clamitans, and R. septe...

  8. Estrogen Effects after a Crush Muscle Injury and Acute Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2015-0007 Estrogen Effects after a Crush Muscle Injury and Acute Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia Dr. Barbara St...after a Crush Muscle Injury and Acute Exposure to Hypobaric Hypoxia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA7014-10-2-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...pressure equivalent to an altitude of 8,000 feet , which is considered high altitude, and lacks abundant supplemental oxygen systems, en route care

  9. Physical interaction of estrogen receptor with MnSOD: implication in mitochondrial O2(.-) upregulation and mTORC2 potentiation in estrogen-responsive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lone, M-U-D; Baghel, K S; Kanchan, R K; Shrivastava, R; Malik, S A; Tewari, B N; Tripathi, C; Negi, M P S; Garg, V K; Sharma, M; Bhatt, M L B; Bhadauria, S

    2017-03-30

    Augmented reactive oxygen species levels consequential to functional alteration of key mitochondrial attributes contribute to carcinogenesis, either directly via oxidative DNA damage infliction or indirectly via activation of oncogenic signaling cascades. We previously reported activation of a key oncogenic signaling cascade via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling complex-2 (mTORC2) owing to estrogen receptor (ER-α)-dependent augmentation of O2(.-) within the mitochondria of 17-β-estradiol (E2)-stimulated breast cancer cells. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is the principal mitochondrial attribute governing mitochondrial O2(.-) homeostasis, raising the possibility that its functional alteration could be instrumental in augmenting mitochondrial O2(.-) levels in breast cancer cells. Here we show ER-dependent transient inhibition of MnSOD catalytic function in breast cancer cells. Catalytic function of MnSOD is tightly regulated at the post-translational level. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, nitration and acetylation represent key regulatory means governing the catalytic function of MnSOD. Acetylation at lysine-68 (K68) inhibits MnSOD catalytic activity and thus represents an important post-translational regulatory mechanism in human cells. Using reciprocal immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay, we demonstrate the occurrence of direct physical interaction between ER-α and MnSOD in human breast cancer cells, which in turn was associated with potentiated acetylation of MnSOD at K68. In addition, we also observed diminished interaction of MnSOD with sirtuin-3, the key mitochondrial deacetylase that deacetylates MnSOD at critical K68 and thereby activates it for scavenging O2(.-). Consequently, compromised deacetylation of MnSOD at K68 leading to its inhibition and a resultant buildup of O2(.-) within the mitochondria culminated in the activation of mTORC2. In agreement with this, human breast cancer tissue

  10. The effect of selective estrogen receptor modulators on type 2 diabetes onset in women: Basic and clinical insights.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beibei; Lovre, Dragana; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2017-01-20

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of compounds that interact with estrogen receptors (ERs) and exert agonist or antagonist effects on ERs in a tissue-specific manner. Tamoxifen, a first generation SERM, is used for treatment of ER positive breast cancer. Raloxifene, a second generation SERM, was used to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis. The third-generation SERM bazedoxifene (BZA) effectively prevents osteoporosis while preventing estrogenic stimulation of breast and uterus. Notably, BZA combined with conjugated estrogens (CE) is a new menopausal treatment. The menopausal state predisposes to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and therefore the effects of SERMs on metabolic homeostasis are gaining attention. Here, we summarize knowledge of SERMs' impacts on metabolic, homeostasis, obesity and diabetes in rodent models and postmenopausal women.

  11. Estrogenic effects of mixtures of phyto- and synthetic chemicals on uterine growth of prepubertal rats.

    PubMed

    van Meeuwen, J A; van den Berg, M; Sanderson, J T; Verhoef, A; Piersma, A H

    2007-04-25

    Through the diet humans are exposed to many weak estrogenic phytochemicals (PCs) and synthetic chemicals (SCs), but most experimental studies used individual compounds rather than mixtures. Estrogenic effects were determined in the rat juvenile uterotrophic assay using a predefined phytochemical mixture (PCmix) containing coumestrol, genistein, naringenin, (+,-)catechin, (-,-)epicatechin and quercetin, and a predefined synthetic chemical mixture (SCmix) containing nonyl-, and octylphenol, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, methoxychlor, bisphenol A and dibutylphthalate. The mixture composition was based on human dietary uptake and actual ratios in serum. 17beta-Estradiol and genistein were also tested individually. It was found that combinations of phytoestrogens and exogenous 17beta-estradiol act additive. In contrast SCmix, inactive by itself even at high dose levels relative to human exposure, caused no synergistic or antagonistic uterotrophic effect with E(2) and/or the PCmix. Based on ED(05) and ED(01) values of the PCmix the margin of exposure in regular human diet for a uterotrophic effect is estimated many orders of magnitude. However, food supplements with phytochemicals might bring individual exposure around ED(05) and ED(01) values of the PCmix. Based on the results of our study the contribution of SCs to total estrogenicity in human diet can probably be neglected.

  12. Effect of nonpersistent pesticides on estrogen receptor, androgen receptor, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Zoechling, Alfred; Gerster, Petra; Ivanova, Margarita M; Teng, Yun; Klinge, Carolyn M; Schildberger, Barbara; Gartner, Michael; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-10-01

    Nonpersistent pesticides are considered less harmful for the environment, but their impact as endocrine disruptors has not been fully explored. The pesticide Switch was applied to grape vines, and the maximum residue concentration of its active ingredients was quantified. The transactivation potential of the pesticides Acorit, Frupica, Steward, Reldan, Switch, Cantus, Teldor, and Scala and their active compounds (hexythiazox, mepanipyrim, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos-methyl, cyprodinil, fludioxonil, boscalid, fenhexamid, and pyrimethanil) were tested on human estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR) and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in vitro. Relative binding affinities of the pure pesticide constituents for AR and their effect on human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines were evaluated. Residue concentrations of Switch's ingredients were below maximum residue limits. Fludioxonil and fenhexamid were ERα agonists (EC50 -values of 3.7 and 9.0 μM, respectively) and had time-dependent effects on endogenous ERα-target gene expression (cyclin D1, progesterone receptor, and nuclear respiratory factor 1) in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Fludioxonil, mepanipyrim, cyprodinil, pyrimethanil, and chlorpyrifos-methyl were AhR-agonists (EC50 s of 0.42, 0.77, 1.4, 4.6, and 5.1 μM, respectively). Weak AR binding was shown for chlorpyrifos-methyl, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, and fludioxonil. Assuming a total uptake which does not take metabolism and clearance rates into account, our in vitro evidence suggests that pesticides could activate pathways affecting hormonal balance, even within permitted limits, thus potentially acting as endocrine disruptors.

  13. (Anti)estrogenic effects of phytochemicals on human primary mammary fibroblasts, MCF-7 cells and their co-culture.

    PubMed

    van Meeuwen, J A; Korthagen, N; de Jong, P C; Piersma, A H; van den Berg, M

    2007-06-15

    In the public opinion, phytochemicals (PCs) present in the human diet are often considered beneficial (e.g. by preventing breast cancer). Two possible mechanisms that could modulate tumor growth are via interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER) and inhibition of aromatase (CYP19). Multiple in vitro studies confirmed that these compounds act estrogenic, thus potentially induce tumor growth, as well as aromatase inhibitory, thus potentially reduce tumor growth. It is thought that in the in vivo situation breast epithelial (tumor) cells communicate with surrounding connective tissue by means of cytokines, prostaglandins and estradiol forming a complex feedback mechanism. Recently our laboratory developed an in vitro co-culture model of healthy mammary fibroblasts and MCF-7 cells that (at least partly) simulated this feedback mechanism (M. Heneweer et al., TAAP vol. 202(1): 50-58, 2005). In the present study biochanin A, chrysin, naringenin, apigenin, genistein and quercetin were studied for their estrogenic properties (cell proliferation, pS2 mRNA) and aromatase inhibition in MCF-7 breast tumor cells, healthy mammary fibroblasts and their co-culture. The proliferative potency of these compounds in the MCF-7 cells derived from their EC(50)s decreased in the following order: estadiol (4*10(-3) nM)>biochanin A (9 nM)>genistein (32 nM)>testosterone (46 nM)>naringenin (287 nM)>apigenin (440 nM)>chrysin (4 microM). The potency to inhibit aromatase derived from their IC(50)s decreased in the following order: chrysin (1.5 microM)>naringenin (2.2 microM)>genistein (3.6 microM)>apigenin (4.1 microM)>biochanin A (25 microM)>quercetin (30 microM). The results of these studies show that these PCs can induce cell proliferation or inhibit aromatase in the same concentration range (1-10 microM). Results from co-cultures did not elucidate the dominant effect of these compounds. MCF-7 cell proliferation occurs at concentrations that are not uncommon in blood of individuals using food

  14. (Anti)estrogenic effects of phytochemicals on human primary mammary fibroblasts, MCF-7 cells and their co-culture

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwen, J.A. van . E-mail: J.A.vanMeeuwen@iras.uu.nl; Korthagen, N.; Jong, P.C. de; Piersma, A.H.; Berg, M. van den

    2007-06-15

    In the public opinion, phytochemicals (PCs) present in the human diet are often considered beneficial (e.g. by preventing breast cancer). Two possible mechanisms that could modulate tumor growth are via interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER) and inhibition of aromatase (CYP19). Multiple in vitro studies confirmed that these compounds act estrogenic, thus potentially induce tumor growth, as well as aromatase inhibitory, thus potentially reduce tumor growth. It is thought that in the in vivo situation breast epithelial (tumor) cells communicate with surrounding connective tissue by means of cytokines, prostaglandins and estradiol forming a complex feedback mechanism. Recently our laboratory developed an in vitro co-culture model of healthy mammary fibroblasts and MCF-7 cells that (at least partly) simulated this feedback mechanism (M. Heneweer et al., TAAP vol. 202(1): 50-58, 2005). In the present study biochanin A, chrysin, naringenin, apigenin, genistein and quercetin were studied for their estrogenic properties (cell proliferation, pS2 mRNA) and aromatase inhibition in MCF-7 breast tumor cells, healthy mammary fibroblasts and their co-culture. The proliferative potency of these compounds in the MCF-7 cells derived from their EC{sub 50}s decreased in the following order: estadiol (4*10{sup -3} nM) > biochanin A (9 nM) > genistein (32 nM) > testosterone (46 nM) > naringenin (287 nM) > apigenin (440 nM) > chrysin (4 {mu}M). The potency to inhibit aromatase derived from their IC{sub 50}s decreased in the following order: chrysin (1.5 {mu}M) > naringenin (2.2 {mu}M) > genistein (3.6 {mu}M) > apigenin (4.1 {mu}M) > biochanin A (25 {mu}M) > quercetin (30 {mu}M). The results of these studies show that these PCs can induce cell proliferation or inhibit aromatase in the same concentration range (1-10 {mu}M). Results from co-cultures did not elucidate the dominant effect of these compounds. MCF-7 cell proliferation occurs at concentrations that are not uncommon in blood

  15. The effects of (-)-epicatechin on endothelial cells involve the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER).

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Mendez-Luna, David; Beltran-Partida, Ernesto; Castillo, Carmen; Guevara, Gustavo; Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Correa-Basurto, José; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    We have provided evidence that the stimulatory effects of (-)-epicatechin ((-)-EPI) on endothelial cell nitric oxide (NO) production may involve the participation of a cell-surface receptor. Thus far, such entity(ies) has not been fully elucidated. The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is a cell-surface receptor that has been linked to protective effects on the cardiovascular system and activation of intracellular signaling pathways (including NO production) similar to those reported with (-)-EPI. In bovine coronary artery endothelial cells (BCAEC) by the use of confocal imaging, we evidence the presence of GPER at the cell-surface and on F-actin filaments. Using in silico studies we document the favorable binding mode between (-)-EPI and GPER. Such binding is comparable to that of the GPER agonist, G1. By the use of selective blockers, we demonstrate that the activation of ERK 1/2 and CaMKII by (-)-EPI is dependent on the GPER/c-SRC/EGFR axis mimicking those effects noted with G1. We also evidence by the use of siRNA the role that GPER has on mediating ERK1/2 activation by (-)-EPI. GPER appears to be coupled to a non Gαi/o or Gαs, protein subtype. To extrapolate our findings to an ex vivo model, we employed phenylephrine pre-contracted aortic rings evidencing that (-)-EPI can mediate vasodilation through GPER activation. In conclusion, we provide evidence that suggests the GPER as a potential mediator of (-)-EPI effects and highlights the important role that GPER may have on cardiovascular system protection.

  16. Increasing women’s sexual desire: The comparative effectiveness of estrogens and androgens

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women’s sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women’s sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women’s sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women’s sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women’s sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women’s sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced. PMID:26589379

  17. Increasing women's sexual desire: The comparative effectiveness of estrogens and androgens.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Maurand; Wallen, Kim

    2016-02-01

    Both estradiol and testosterone have been implicated as the steroid critical for modulating women's sexual desire. By contrast, in all other female mammals only estradiol has been shown to be critical for female sexual motivation and behavior. Pharmaceutical companies have invested heavily in the development of androgen therapies for female sexual desire disorders, but today there are still no FDA approved androgen therapies for women. Nonetheless, testosterone is currently, and frequently, prescribed off-label for the treatment of low sexual desire in women, and the idea of testosterone as a possible cure-all for female sexual dysfunction remains popular. This paper places the ongoing debate concerning the hormonal modulation of women's sexual desire within a historical context, and reviews controlled trials of estrogen and/or androgen therapies for low sexual desire in postmenopausal women. These studies demonstrate that estrogen-only therapies that produce periovulatory levels of circulating estradiol increase sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Testosterone at supraphysiological, but not at physiological, levels enhances the effectiveness of low-dose estrogen therapies at increasing women's sexual desire; however, the mechanism by which supraphysiological testosterone increases women's sexual desire in combination with an estrogen remains unknown. Because effective therapies require supraphysiological amounts of testosterone, it remains unclear whether endogenous testosterone contributes to the modulation of women's sexual desire. The likelihood that an androgen-only clinical treatment will meaningfully increase women's sexual desire is minimal, and the focus of pharmaceutical companies on the development of androgen therapies for the treatment of female sexual desire disorders is likely misplaced.

  18. The effect of Momordica charantia intake on the estrogen receptors ESRα/ESRβ gene levels and apoptosis on uterine tissue in ovariectomy rats.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Ozge; Akpinar, Hikmet; Oba, Rabia; Cilingir, Ozlem Tugce; Ozdemir, Zarife Nigar; Cetinel, Sule; Yoldemir, Tevfik

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen or combinational hormone therapy can protect to menopausal symptoms but exogenous estrogen therapy has some potential risks which in turns lead to the appearance of various diseases. In recent years plants with high phytoestrogen content are recommended as therapeutic agents for postmenopausal hormonal treatment. In this research, we investigated the effects of Momordica charantia (MC) on the estrogen production and E2 as well as anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic role on the ovariectomy rat model. The rats were ovariectomized and fed on 2 g/kg of fruit extra of MC for 30 days by gavage. 17-β estradiol (E2) and 8-OHdG levels in serum, markers of oxidative damage of ROS and ESRα, ESRβ and NF-kB gene levels were measured in uterus horn tissue. Caspase-3, caspase-9, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, Bcl-2 and Nf-kB proteins expression were assessed by western blotting. Structural changes in tissue were examined with H&E staining. MC administration also stimulated the E2 production and ESRα/ESRβ gene levels and the inhibited oxidative damage. Furthermore, MC treatment enhanced anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory process and tissue regeneration. Data herein support that MC directly regulates uterine estrogen response and may serve as a new phytoestrogenic substance for the treatment of post-menopausal symptoms.

  19. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  20. Inhibitory effects of γ- and δ-tocopherols on estrogen-stimulated breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bak, Min Ji; Das Gupta, Soumyasri; Wahler, Joseph; Lee, Hong Jin; Li, Xiaowei; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S; Suh, Nanjoo

    2017-01-17

    Estrogens have been implicated as complete carcinogens for breast and other tissues through mechanisms involving increased cell proliferation, oxidative stress and DNA damage. Because of their potent antioxidant activity and other effects, tocopherols have been shown to exert anti-tumor activities in various cancers. However, limited information is available on the effect of different forms of tocopherols in estrogen-mediated breast cancer. To address this, we examined the effects of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as well as a natural γ-tocopherol rich mixture of tocopherols, γ-TmT, on estrogen-stimulated MCF-7 cells in vitro and in vivo. For the in vivo studies, MCF-7 cells were injected into the mammary fat pad of immunodeficient mice previously implanted with estrogen pellets. Mice were then administered diets containing 0.2% α-, γ-, δ-tocopherol or γ-TmT for 5 weeks. Treatment with α-, γ-, δ-tocopherols and γ-TmT reduced tumor volumes by 29% (p<0.05), 45% (p<0.05), 41% (p<0.05) and 58% (p<0.01), as well as tumor weights by 20%, 37% (p<0.05), 39% (p<0.05) and 52% (p<0.05), respectively. γ- and δ-Tocopherols and γ-TmT inhibited the expression of cell proliferation-related genes such as cyclin D1 and c-Myc, and estrogen-related genes such as TFF/pS2, cathepsin D and progesterone receptor in estrogen-stimulated MCF-7 cells in vitro. Further, γ- and δ-tocopherols decreased the levels of estrogen-induced oxidative stress and nitrosative stress markers, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and nitrotyrosine, as well as the DNA damage marker, γ-H2AX. Our results suggest that γ- and δ-tocopherols and the γ-tocopherol rich mixture are effective natural agents for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-mediated breast cancer.

  1. GPER: a novel target for non-genomic estrogen action in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Han, Guichun; Li, Fen; Yu, Xuan; White, Richard E

    2013-05-01

    A key to harnessing the enormous therapeutic potential of estrogens is understanding the diversity of estrogen receptors and their signaling mechanisms. In addition to the classic nuclear estrogen receptors (i.e., ERα and ERβ), over the past decade a novel G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been discovered in cancer and other cell types. More recently, this non-genomic signaling mechanism has been found in blood vessels, and mediates vasodilatory responses to estrogen and estrogen-like agents; however, downstream signaling events involved acute estrogen action remain unclear. The purpose of this review is to discuss the latest knowledge concerning GPER modulation of cardiovascular function, with a particular emphasis upon how activation of this receptor could mediate acute estrogen effects in the heart and blood vessels (i.e., vascular tone, cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis, endothelial function, myocardial protection). Understanding the role of GPER in estrogen signaling may help resolve some of the controversies associated with estrogen and cardiovascular function. Moreover, a more thorough understanding of GPER function could also open significant opportunities for the development of new pharmacological strategies that would provide the cardiovascular benefits of estrogen while limiting the potentially dangerous side effects.

  2. Estrogenic activity of glyceollins isolated from soybean elicited with Aspergillus sojae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Kang, Sun Chul; Park, Sunmin; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2010-04-01

    Glyceollins, which are synthesized from daidzein in soybeans cultured with fungi, have been shown to have antifungal effects and cancer preventive properties. Several studies have proposed that isoflavones and their metabolites act as a mixed agonist/antagonist for estrogen. Although glyceollins were reported to suppress some cancer cells via anti-estrogenic activity, it is not clear whether the compounds possess estrogenic potential. In contrast to the anti-estrogenic action reported thus far, we observed estrogenic effects of glyceollins using E-screen assay and pS2 expression, whereas glyceollins showed higher affinity for estrogen receptor (ER) beta than ERalpha. We also found that glyceollins were more efficiently produced de novo in minced than in half-sliced soybean, following infection with Aspergillus sojae. In conclusion, glyceollins may be useful in the prevention or amelioration of postmenopausal complications because they had strong estrogenic activity, and their production could be variable depending upon processing prior to fungal inoculation.

  3. Comparison of estrogen mixtures in vitro vs. in vivo

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous sources contribute to widespread contamination of drinking water sources with both natural and synthetic estrogens, which isa concern for potential ecological and human health effects. In vitro screening assays are valuable tools for identifying mechanisms of toxicity bu...

  4. Effects of High Estrogen Levels on Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Plackett, Timothy P.; Gregory, Meredith S.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Herein, we tested the effects of high levels of supplemental estrogen treatment on cutaneous wound healing. Approach: Female mice were implanted with a 17β-estradiol (E2) secreting pellet or placebo before receiving a full-thickness dermal excisional wound. Mice receiving the E2 pellet attained hormone levels that are comparable to those achieved during pregnancy. At 1, 3, and 5 days after injury, the dermal excision wound was examined for their histologic appearance, rate of closure, and chemokine levels. Results: Wound closure, assessed by percent reepithelialization, was slower in E2-treated mice relative to placebo (42.6%±6.6% vs. 70.0%±5.3%, respectively, 3 days after injury). In addition, there was a marked reduction in the subepithelial inflammatory infiltrate and granulation tissue in E2-treated mice relative to placebo. Wound levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were increased by 3 days after injury and continued to rise at 5 days after injury in placebo-treated mice (p<0.01). By contrast, MCP-1 levels were significantly reduced at 3 and 5 days after injury in E2-treated mice relative to placebo-treated controls (p<0.01). This attenuation could be reversed by treatment with an estrogen receptor antagonist. Innovation: High levels of estrogen are able to suppress normal wound closure. Conclusion: Dermal wound healing can be altered by manipulating the gonadal steroid hormone levels. In particular, high levels of estrogen can be utilized to slow down the rate of wound healing through a reduction in the inflammatory response. PMID:25713751

  5. Effect of steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, on epithelial mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer development.

    PubMed

    Jeon, So-Ye; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-04-01

    As the primary female sex steroid hormones, estrogens and progesterone play important roles to regulate growth, differentiation, and function of a broad range of target tissues in the human body and maintain the function of female reproductive tissues. Ovarian cancer is the most cause of cancer death in gynecological malignancy. Despite enormous outcomes in the understanding of ovarian cancer pathology, this disease has resulted in poor survival rates since most patients are asymptomatic until the disease has been metastasized. The exact molecular events leading to metastasis of ovarian tumor cells have not yet been well elucidated, although it is recognized that the acquisition of capacity for migration and invasiveness would be a necessary prerequisite. During metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important process, in which epithelial cells lose their intracellular adhesion and cell polarity and acquire increased motility and invasive properties to become mesenchymal like cells. The process of cancer cells to undergo EMT is regulated through the up- and down- regulation of a multiple cellular markers and signaling proteins. In this review, we focused the roles of women sex steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, in ovarian cancer, especially the ovarian cancer undergoing EMT and metastatic process. All things considered, we may suggest that progesterone is a potent hormone which inhibits the growth of human ovarian cancer cells and development to metastasis whereas estrogen may act as a risk factor of ovarian cancer progression and that progesterone therapy may be an alternative clinically effective tool for the treatment of human ovarian cancer.

  6. Estrogenic effects of a Kampo formula, Tokishakuyakusan, in parous ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mi Hwa; Suzuki, Sawako; Nishihara, Tsutomu; Hattori, Masao

    2008-06-01

    Female hormone-dependent cancers and other diseases pose a serious health threat for women, and low-risk medicines against such cancers have not yet been discovered. The present study examines the effects of the traditional Chinese herbal mixture, Tokishakuyakusan (TS) and 17beta-estradiol on the uterus of parous ovariectomized rats. Uterine atrophy that causes a reduction in uterine tissue and the uterine cavity area, was induced by ovariectomy, and slightly recovered by the daily oral administration of TS for two weeks (1000 mg/kg body weight). TS restored the decreased plasma estradiol concentration due to ovariectomy. However the yeast two-hybrid assay showed that TS did not bind estrogen receptors alpha and beta and immunohistochemical staining revealed that 17beta-estradiol stimulated the protein expression of estrogen receptor alpha, progesterone receptor, c-fos and c-jun in the uterus, whereas TS did not. These results suggest that TS might be useful for treating menopausal syndromes among women, as well as for patients when hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with estrogen is contraindicated.

  7. Changes in plasma volume during bed rest - Effects of menstrual cycle and estrogen administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortney, S. M.; Beckett, W. S.; Carpenter, A. J.; Davis, J.; Drew, H.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of increased blood estrogen concentration, caused either during normal menstrual cycles or by exogenous administration of premarin, on the bed-rest (BR) induced decrease in plasma volume (PV) was investigated. In women who underwent duplicate 11-day BR without estrogen supplementation, the PV was found to decrease significantly, during the first 5 days of BR, to a lower level at which it remained for the rest of the BR period. In women who began BR in the periovulatory stage of the menstrual cycle, the loss of PV was delayed, while women who began BR during other stages of the cycle exhibited the usual trend of the PV decrease during the BR. In women who underwent a single 12-day BR period while taking premarin (1.25 mg/day), PV was found to decrease during the first 4-5 days of BR, but then returned toward the pre-BR level during the remainder of the BR, indicating that estrogens have a role in stabilizing body fluid volume.

  8. Estrogens and Prostate Cancer: Etiology, Mediators, Prevention, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Shuk-Mei; Lee, Ming-tsung; Lam, Hung-Ming; Leung, Yuet-Kin

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between hormones and the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa) has been studied extensively. All the mainstay targets for hormonal PCa therapies are based on negating androgen action. Recent epidemiologic and experimental data have clearly pinpointed the key roles of estrogens in PCa development and progression. Racial and geographical differences, as well as age-associated changes, in estrogen synthesis and metabolism contribute significantly to the etiology by increasing the ratio of circulating estrogen to androgen, sex hormone binding globulin synthesis, and aromatase activity and reducing androgen glucuronidation and tissue bioactivation. Promotion of aberrant cell growth, evasion of apoptosis, increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and gains in adiposity and bioactivation to genotoxic carcinogens during adulthood are probable mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenicity, while “estrogen imprinting” via epigenetics in early-life also determines PCa risk. Although the effects of estrogens are known to be mediated by genomic actions of the two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes (ERα and ERβ), other non-canonical mediators, including the different ERβ isoforms, membrane and mitochondrial ERs, and G protein-coupled receptor 30, may have major actions diverging from classical ER actions. These new discoveries have led to renewed interest among the public and the medicinal field in estrogens and antiestrogens as singular and adjuvant PCa treatment and prevention regimens. This review summarizes current knowledge on how different estrogens/antiestrogens/estrogen mimics contribute to prostate carcinogenesis, the roles of the different mediators of estrogen in the process, and the potentials of new estrogenic/antiestrogenic compounds as targeted therapies for prevention and treatment of PCa. PMID:21889723

  9. Inhibitory effects of Chinese nutritional herbs in isogenic breast carcinoma cells with modulated estrogen receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Telang, Nitin; Li, Guo; Katdare, Meena; Sepkovic, Daniel; Bradlow, Leon; Wong, George

    2016-01-01

    In estrogen receptor (ER)+ MCF-7 cells, ER represents a ligand-activated transcription factor, and 17β-estradiol (E2) represents its physiological ligand. Maintenance of the human breast carcinoma-derived MCF-7 cells with 0.7% serum selected a proliferative sub-population of E2-responsive cells with transiently non-functional ER due to limited availability of E2. Culture of MCF-7 cells in the presence of either 0.7% serum, <1 nM E2 or 0.7% serum + 20 nM E2 selected isogenic cells with either non-functional ER (ER-NF) or functional ER (ER-F) phenotype. The two phenotypes responded to the growth-promoting effects of E2 and to the growth-inhibitory effects of the selective ER modulator tamoxifen, indicating retention of E2 responsiveness. Comparative dose-response experiments with Chinese nutritional herbs on ER-NF and ER-F cells identified the inhibitory concentration (IC)50 values for these herbs, while the IC50 ratios for the ER-NF:ER-F phenotypes facilitated their rank ordering in terms of efficacy. Out of the 11 efficacious herbs tested, five herbs exhibited ER-F > ER-NF inhibitory activity, four exhibited ER-F = ER-NF inhibitory activity and two exhibited ER-NF > ER-F inhibitory activity. Extracts from representative herbs, Lycium barbarum bark, Epimedium grandiflorum and Cornus officinalis, from each of the three groups inhibited anchorage-independent growth, induced G1 or G2/M arrest and/or apoptosis, and generated anti-proliferative E2 metabolites. The differential growth inhibition in ER-NF and ER-F phenotypes, together with the mechanistic efficacy of representative herbs, identified potential leads for their efficacy on ER+ and/or ER- breast cancer. PMID:27895755

  10. Inhibitory effects of Chinese nutritional herbs in isogenic breast carcinoma cells with modulated estrogen receptor function.

    PubMed

    Telang, Nitin; Li, Guo; Katdare, Meena; Sepkovic, Daniel; Bradlow, Leon; Wong, George

    2016-11-01

    In estrogen receptor (ER)+ MCF-7 cells, ER represents a ligand-activated transcription factor, and 17β-estradiol (E2) represents its physiological ligand. Maintenance of the human breast carcinoma-derived MCF-7 cells with 0.7% serum selected a proliferative sub-population of E2-responsive cells with transiently non-functional ER due to limited availability of E2. Culture of MCF-7 cells in the presence of either 0.7% serum, <1 nM E2 or 0.7% serum + 20 nM E2 selected isogenic cells with either non-functional ER (ER-NF) or functional ER (ER-F) phenotype. The two phenotypes responded to the growth-promoting effects of E2 and to the growth-inhibitory effects of the selective ER modulator tamoxifen, indicating retention of E2 responsiveness. Comparative dose-response experiments with Chinese nutritional herbs on ER-NF and ER-F cells identified the inhibitory concentration (IC)50 values for these herbs, while the IC50 ratios for the ER-NF:ER-F phenotypes facilitated their rank ordering in terms of efficacy. Out of the 11 efficacious herbs tested, five herbs exhibited ER-F > ER-NF inhibitory activity, four exhibited ER-F = ER-NF inhibitory activity and two exhibited ER-NF > ER-F inhibitory activity. Extracts from representative herbs, Lycium barbarum bark, Epimedium grandiflorum and Cornus officinalis, from each of the three groups inhibited anchorage-independent growth, induced G1 or G2/M arrest and/or apoptosis, and generated anti-proliferative E2 metabolites. The differential growth inhibition in ER-NF and ER-F phenotypes, together with the mechanistic efficacy of representative herbs, identified potential leads for their efficacy on ER(+) and/or ER- breast cancer.

  11. Factors That Effect Signal Transduction by the Estrogen Receptor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    Vivat , H. Gronemeyer, R. Losson, and P. Chambon. 1996. Ligand-dependent interaction of nuclear receptors with potential transcriptional... Academy of Sciences 0027-8424/97/9410132-6S2.00/0 PNAS is available online at http://www.pnas.org. inhibitors or CDIs), kinase function (5-8). Because

  12. Participation of estrogen receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of prolame on the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Lemini, C; Cruz-López, B; Martínez-Mota, L

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen therapy may produce antidepressant-like actions, but the side effects, such as thromboembolic events, may restrict its use among women. The 17β-aminoestrogens (AEs) [prolame [17β-(3-hidroxy-1-propylamino)-1,3,5(10)-estratrien-3-ol)], butolame [17β-(3-hidroxy-1-butylamino)-1,3,5(10)-estratrien-3-ol)], and pentolame [17β-(5-hidroxy-1-pentylamino)-1,3,5(10)-estratrien-3-ol)] induce estrogenic and anticoagulant actions, effects that could prove advantageous in an estrogen therapy; however, their antidepressant-like effects have not been described. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of these 17β-AEs (prolame, butolame and pentolame) in the forced swimming test (FST), an animal model sensitive to antidepressant drugs, and to establish the role of estrogen receptors in such actions. Ovariectomized female rats treated with prolame (10-200 μg/rat) showed a reduction in immobility and an increase in active behaviors in the FST, while this effect was not produced by butolame and pentolame (10-200 μg/rat). The antidepressant-like effect of prolame was similar to that of 17β-estradiol (E2, 5-20 μg/rat), sharing with it a biphasic profile but at higher doses. Antidepressant-like actions of prolame and E2 were not associated with changes in locomotor activity. With respect to a control group tamoxifen (15 mg/kg) by itself produced no changes in all behavioral evaluations, but canceled the antidepressant-like effect of prolame and E2. It is concluded that estrogen receptors participate in antidepressant-like effect of both estrogens in the FST. Antidepressant-like activity of different AEs is discussed considering their differences in chemical structure and the schedule used. Our results show additional central actions of prolame besides its pro-sexual, anti-coagulant, estrogenic and anxiolytic activity.

  13. Evaluation of prefrontal—hippocampal effective connectivity following 24 hours of estrogen infusion: An FDG-PET study

    PubMed Central

    Ottowitz, William E.; Siedlecki, Karen L.; Lindquist, Martin A.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Fischman, Alan J.; Hall, Janet E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Although several functional neuroimaging studies have addressed the relevance of hormones to cerebral function, none have evaluated the effects of hormones on network effective connectivity. Since estrogen enhances synaptic connectivity and has been shown to drive activity across neural systems, and because the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are putative targets for the effects of estrogen, we hypothesized that effective connectivity between these regions would be enhanced by an estrogen challenge. In order to test this hypothesis, FDG-PET scans were collected in eleven postmenopausal women at baseline and 24 h after a graded estrogen infusion. Subtraction analysis (SA) was conducted to identify sites of increased cerebral glucose uptake (CMRglc) during estrogen infusion. The lateral PFC and hippocampus were a priori sites for activation; SA identified the right superior frontal gyrus (RSFG; MNI coordinates 18, 60, 28) (SPM2, Wellcome Dept. of Cognitive Neurology, London, UK) as a site of increased CMRglc during estrogen infusion relative to baseline. Omnibus covariate analysis conducted relative to the RSFG identified the right hippocampus (MNI coordinates: 32, −32, −6) and right middle frontal gyrus (RMFG; MNI coordinates: 40, 22, 52) as sites of covariance. Path analysis (Amos 5.0 software) revealed that the path coefficient for the RSFG to RHIP path differed from zero only during E2 infusion (p < 0.05); moreover, the magnitude of the path coefficient for the RHIP to RMFG path showed a significant further increase during the estrogen infusion condition relative to baseline [Δχ2 = 4.05, Δd.f. = 1, p = 0.044]. These findings are consistent with E2 imparting a stimulatory effect on effective connectivity within prefrontal—hippocampal circuitry. This holds mechanistic significance for resting state network interactions and may hold implications for mood and cognition. PMID:18977091

  14. Estrogen evokes a rapid effect on intracellular calcium in neurons characterized by calcium oscillations in the arcuate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Oliver; Kow, Lee-Ming; Bogun, Magda; Pfaff, Donald W

    2007-06-01

    Rapid estrogen effects became an interesting topic to explain estrogen effects not associated with the classical nuclear pathway. The rapid estrogen effect on intracellular calcium oscillations was characterized in neurons of the arcuate nucleus. Ratiometric calcium imaging (fura-2AM) was used to measure intracellular calcium in brain slices of female Swiss Webster mice (median of age 27 days p.n.). Calcium oscillations were dependent on intracellular calcium and also on calcium influx from the extracellular space. The perfusion of slices with calcium-free solution inhibited spontaneous calcium oscillations. The metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist t-ACPD (5 microM) and low concentrated ryanodine (100 nM) induced intracellular calcium release when slices were perfused with calcium-free solution. 17beta-estradiol (10 nM) also induced intracellular calcium release in calcium-free ACSF. This effect was inhibited by the preceding administration of thapsigargin (2 microM) indicating the association of the rapid estrogen effect with intracellular calcium stores. The administration of the non-selective phospholipase C-inhibitor ET-18 (30 microM), but not U73122 (10 microM), and the inhibition of protein kinase A by H-89 (0.25 microM) suppressed the rapid estrogen effect. Analyses indicated a qualitative, but not quantitatively significant effect of 17beta-estradiol on calcium oscillations.

  15. The effects and mechanism of estrogen on rats with Parkinson’s disease in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Zhong; Sui, Chen-Yan; Chen, Qiang; Zhuang, Yuan-Su; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In order to investigate the effect and mechanism of estrogen in rotenone-induced Parkinson’s disease (PD) rats in different age groups. Methods: we established rat models of PD by rotenone at different interventions. Then, behavioral tests, immunohistochemistry, western blot, high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD) and electron microscopy were performed. Results: Results revealed the following: (1) Rotenone significantly reduced rotarod latencies in senile rats, prolonged their climbing pole time, and decreased TH positive cells, DA and its metabolite, DOPAC. Estrogen ameliorated this effect, in which weaker effects were observed in younger rats compared with older rats. (2) Rotenone increased the expression of LC3-II in older rats, but estrogen and tamoxifen did not show the same effect. (3) Rotenone increased the number of autophagosomes, but estrogen increased the proportion of autolysosomes/autophagosomes in the rotenone-treated group. (4) U0126 could reduce the number of autophagosomes in the rotenone-treated group, but this did not change the proportion of autolysosome/autophagosome in combining rotenone with the estrogen group. Rapamycin did not increase the number of autophagosomes in the rotenone-treated group, but combining rapamycin with estrogen and rotenone was able to further increase the proportion of autolysome/autophagosomes. Therefore, we speculate that the senile rat model of PD was more reliable than that in young rats. Conclusions: In addition, estrogen could promote autophagy maturation through the ERK pathway, and had an obvious therapeutic effect on the rat model of PD. PMID:27829998

  16. MiR-7-1 potentiated estrogen receptor agonists for functional neuroprotection in VSC4.1 motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, M; Banik, N L; Ray, S K

    2014-01-03

    Protection of motoneurons is an important goal in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). We tested whether neuroprotective microRNAs (miRs) like miR-206, miR-17, miR-21, miR-7-1, and miR-106a could enhance efficacy of estrogen receptor (ER) agonists such as 1,3,5-tris (4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole (PPT, ERα agonist), Way200070 (WAY, ERβ agonist), and estrogen (EST, ERα and ERβ agonist) in preventing apoptosis in the calcium ionophore (CI)-insulted ventral spinal cord 4.1 (VSC4.1) motoneurons. We determined that 200 nM CI induced 70% cell death. Treatment with 50 nM PPT, 100 nM WAY, and 150 nM EST induced overexpression of ERα, ERβ, and both receptors, respectively, at mRNA and protein levels. Treatment with ER agonists significantly upregulated miR-206, miR-17, and miR-7-1 in the CI-insulted VSC4.1 motoneurons. Transfection with miR-206, miR-17, or miR-7-1 mimic potentiated WAY or EST to inhibit apoptosis in the CI-insulted VSC4.1 motoneurons. Overexpression of miR-7-1 maximally increased efficacy of WAY and EST for down regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax and upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. A search using microRNA database (miRDB) indicated that miR-7-1 could inhibit the expression of L-type Ca(2+) channel protein alpha 1C (CPα1C). miR-7-1 overexpression and WAY or EST treatment down regulated CPα1C but upregulated p-Akt to trigger cell survival signaling. The same therapeutic strategy increased expression of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta (CaMKIIβ) and the phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) so as to promote Bcl-2 transcription. Whole cell membrane potential and mitochondrial membrane potential studies indicated that miR-7-1 highly potentiated EST to preserve functionality in the CI-insulted VSC4.1 motoneurons. In conclusion, our data indicated that miR-7-1 most significantly potentiated efficacy of EST for functional neuroprotection and this therapeutic strategy could be used in the future

  17. Short-term effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on the expression of estrogen-responsive genes in male medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Kohra, Shinya; Arizono, Koji; Tominaga, Nobuaki

    2005-04-30

    To evaluate the estrogenic activities of selected estrogenic compounds such as estradiol-17beta (E2), nonylphenol (NP), 4-(1-adamantyl)phenol (AdP), bisphenol A (BPA), BPA metabolite 4-methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) and 4,4'-dihydroxy-alpha-methylstilbene (DHMS) in the shortest possible time, we investigated the expression of estrogen-responsive genes such as vitellogenin I, vitellogenin II and alpha-type estrogen receptor genes in the liver of male medaka (Oryzias latipes) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. These estrogen-responsive genes responded rapidly to selected estrogenic compounds after 8 h exposure, and the expression of hepatic vitellogenin II and estrogen receptor alpha mRNA was found to be more responsive than that of vitellogenin I mRNA. As a result, the relative estrogenic potencies of tested chemicals descended in the order of E2 (100)>MBP (0.38)>AdP (0.25)>DHMS (0.05)>NP (0.02)>BPA (0.001). Moreover, this preliminary study indicates that AdP and DHMS should be considered as candidate estrogenic compounds with the potential to induce hepatic estrogen-responsive genes in male medaka. These results suggest that vitellogenin I, vitellogenin II and estrogen receptor alpha gene expression patterns alter in male medaka treated with selected estrogenic compounds, and that these genes may be useful molecular biomarkers for screening estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the shortest possible time.

  18. Estrogenic activity in Finnish municipal wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Välitalo, Pia; Perkola, Noora; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Sillanpää, Markus; Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Mikola, Anna; Hollert, Henner; Schultz, Eija

    2016-01-01

    Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a major source of estrogenic compounds to the aquatic environment. In the present work, estrogenic activities of effluents from eight municipal WWTPs in Finland were studied. The main objectives of the study were to quantify the concentrations of selected estrogenic compounds, to evaluate their contribution to estrogenic potency and to test the feasibility of the commercial bioassays for wastewater analysis. The effluent samples were analyzed by two in vitro tests, i.e. ERα-CALUX(®) and ELISA-E2, and by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for six estrogenic compounds: estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17α-estradiol and bisphenol A (BPA). Estrogenic effects were found in all of the effluent samples with both of the bioassays. The concentrations measured with ELISA-E2 (8.6-61.6 ng/L) were clearly higher but exhibited a similar pattern than those with chemical analysis (E2 estrogenic potency was possible only for E1 and BPA, which contributed less than 10% to the observed effects, except in one sample with a high BPA contribution (17%). The contribution of E2 was significant in two samples where it was detected (28% and 67%). The results demonstrated that more comprehensive information on potential estrogenic activity of wastewater effluents can be achieved by using in vitro biotests in addition to chemical analysis and their use would be beneficial in monitoring and screening purposes.

  19. [Mixture effects to vitellogenin induction by four environmental estrogens in freshwater fish].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Kong, Fan-Xiang; Wang, Shi-He; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min; Chen, Mei-Jun; Tan, Xiao; Qian, Shan-Qin

    2008-07-01

    Combined effects of estrogenic compounds to high risk life-form were demonstrated, and the study method on combined effects of environmental contaminant mixture and environmental risk assessment were also discussed. A nonlinear aggression was determined on the changes of plasma vitellogenin concentration in crucian carp via the environmental pollutant exposure concentration, and the concentration-response relationship was determined for the single chemical of estradiol, ethynylestradiol, bisphenol A, and octylphenol, and that of the mixed compounds at equipotent concentrations. The combined effects of the four xenoestrogens were tested using indices of mixture toxicity and the biomathematical models of concentration addition or independent action. Weibull function was indicated as the best-fit function (R2 > or = 0.92) with curve estimation, the 95% confidence limits of effect concentration was achieved using the bootstrap method, the media effective concentration (EC50) with 95% confidence interval was 0.007 9 (0.006 8-0.010 0), 0.098 7 (0.090 0-0.111 0), 63.50 (56.58-70.62) and 250.59 (228.46-271.99) Mg x L(-1) respectively. Results suggested that estrogenic chemicals acted together in an additive manner and the combined effects can be accurately predicted in whole range of exposure concentration by the concept of similar joint action or concentration addition.It is proved as a scientific and feasible method to apply the model of joint action whereas the outcome of indices with a great deal of indetermination.

  20. Window Of Opportunity: Estrogen As A Treatment For Ischemic Stroke✰

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ran; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The neuroprotection research in the last 2 decades has witnessed a growing interest in the functions of estrogens as neuroprotectants against neurodegenerative diseases including stroke. The neuroprotective action of estrogens has been well demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. However, the major conducted clinical trials so far have raised concern for the protective effect of estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. The discrepancy could be partly due to the mistranslation between the experimental stroke research and clinical trials. While predominant experimental studies tested the protective action of estrogens on ischemic stroke using acute treatment paradigm, the clinical trials have mainly focused on the effect of estrogen replacement therapy on the primary and secondary stroke prevention which has not been adequately addressed in the experimental stroke study. Although the major conducted clinical trials have indicated that estrogen replacement therapy has an adverse effect and raise concern for long term estrogen replacement therapy for stroke prevention, these are not appropriate for assessing the potential effects of acute estrogen treatment on stroke protection. The well established action of estrogen in the neurovascular unit and its potential interaction with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) makes it a candidate for the combined therapy with rtPA for the acute treatment of ischemic stroke. On the other hand, the “critical period” and newly emerged “biomarkers window” hypotheses have indicated that many clinical relevant factors have been underestimated in the experimental ischemic stroke research. The development and application of ischemic stroke models that replicate the clinical condition is essential for further evaluation of acute estrogen treatment on ischemic stroke which might provide critical information for future clinical trials. PMID:23340160

  1. Effects of Androgen and Estrogen Receptor Signaling Pathways on Bladder Cancer Initiation and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Guilherme; Gakis, Georgios; Smith, Carolyn L.; Fahmy, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have long demonstrated clear differences in incidence and progression of bladder cancer between genders suggesting that the mechanisms of development and progression in these tumors have a strong association with steroid hormonal pathways. Such observations led to preclinical studies investigating the role of androgen and estrogen receptors, as well as their cognate hormones in bladder cancer initiation and progression. Using various in vitro cell line assays and in vivo mouse models, studies have elucidated different mechanisms and signaling pathways through which these steroid receptors may participate in this disease. More recently, RNA expression data from multiple studies revealed a luminal subtype of bladder cancer that exhibited an estrogen receptor signaling pathway, making it a strong candidate for further consideration of targeted therapies in the future. Despite the promising preclinical data demonstrating potential roles for both antiandrogen and antiestrogen strategies targeting these pathways in different stages of bladder cancer, only two clinical trials are currently active and accruing patients for such clinical studies. Targeted therapies in bladder cancer are a large unmet need and have the potential to change treatment paradigms and improve oncological outcomes of patients with bladder cancer. PMID:27376135

  2. ERα Mediates Estrogen-Induced Expression of the Breast Cancer Metastasis Suppressor Gene BRMS1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongtao; Gollahon, Lauren S.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, estrogen has been reported as putatively inhibiting cancer cell invasion and motility. This information is in direct contrast to the paradigm of estrogen as a tumor promoter. However, data suggests that the effects of estrogen are modulated by the receptor isoform with which it interacts. In order to gain a clearer understanding of the role of estrogen in potentially suppressing breast cancer metastasis, we investigated the regulation of estrogen and its receptor on the downstream target gene, breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) in MCF-7, SKBR3, TTU-1 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Our results showed that estrogen increased the transcription and expression of BRMS1 in the ERα positive breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Additionally, the ERα specific agonist PPT also induced the transcription and expression of BRMS1. However, the two remaining estrogen receptor (ER) subtype agonists had no effect on BRMS1 expression. In order to further examine the influence of ERα on BRMS1 expression, ERα expression was knocked down using siRNA (siERα). Western blot analysis showed that siERα reduced estrogen-induced and PPT-induced BRMS1 expression. In summary, this study demonstrates estrogen, via its α receptor, positively regulates the expression of BRMS1, providing new insight into a potential inhibitory effect of estrogen on metastasis suppression. PMID:26821020

  3. Regulation of placental low-density lipoprotein uptake in baboons by estrogen: Dose-dependent effects of the anti-estrogen ethamoxytriphetol (MER-25)

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, M.C.; Pepe, G.J.; Albrecht, E.D. )

    1991-07-01

    In the present study, increasing amounts of the anti-estrogen 1-(p-2-diethylaminoethoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-2-p-methoxyphenoletha nol (MER-25) were administered to pregnant baboons (Papio anubis) to block the action of endogenous estrogen and to determine effect on placental low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake. Pregnant baboons were untreated (n = 8) or received MER-25 orally at a dosage of 25 (n = 10), 50 (n = 8), or 75 (n = 4) mg/kg BW daily on Days 140-170 of gestation (term = 184 days). Placentas were removed on Day 170 of gestation and villous tissue was dispersed with 0.1% collagenase. Placental cells were incubated in Medium 199 for 12 h at 37{degrees} C with increasing amounts of 125I-LDL, with or without a 100-fold excess of unlabeled baboon LDL. Mean ({plus minus} SEM) placental uptake (ng/micrograms cell protein) of 125I-LDL was 55% (6.4 {plus minus} 1.0), 75% (3.6 {plus minus} 0.7), and 81% (2.7 {plus minus} 0.2) lower (p less than 0.001) in baboons that received MER-25 in doses of 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg BW, respectively, than in untreated baboons (14.2 {plus minus} 1.3 ng/micrograms cell protein). Maximal effect occurred with 50 mg MER-25, because LDL uptake was not further decreased with greater levels of MER-25. Dissociation constants for placental LDL uptake, as determined by Scatchard analysis, were unaltered by anti-estrogen treatment. The amount of 125I-LDL degradation by placental cells of untreated and MER-25-treated baboons was proportional to LDL uptake.

  4. Olive oil exhibits osteoprotection in ovariectomized rats without estrogenic effects

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, XIAOHUA; HUANG, HUIJUAN; ZHENG, XIAOBING; LI, BAOHENG

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of olive oil on bone and uterus in ovariectomized rats. A total of 34 surgically ovariectomized or sham-operated virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: i) Sham-operated control rats (sham group); ii) Ovariectomized rats (OVX group); iii) Olive oil-supplemented ovariectomized rats (olive group); and iv) Diethylstilbestrol-supplemented ovariectomized rats (E2 group). At 12 weeks following left ventricular blood sacrificed to detect plasma estradiol (E2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the left femur proximal 1/3 slices were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Uterine wet weight and the uterus index (ratio of uterine wet weight and body weight) were compared, and the uterine endometrium was observed using a light microscope. In the OVX group, serum E2 was significantly lower and IL-1β and IL-6 levels were significantly higher compared with the sham group. By contrast, serum E2 levels increased and IL-1β levels decreased in the olive group, but showed no significant difference compared with the sham group. The lumbar spine BMD in the olive group was increased compared with OVX group. Electron microscopy revealed sparse collagen fibers in the OVX group, with decreased density and multi-cavity, showing pathological features of osteoporosis. By contrast, the situation was improved in the E2 and olive groups, in which organelles such as the rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and Golgi apparatus were visible and active. Compared with the sham group rats, the uterine wet weight and uterine index decreased in the OVX and olive groups; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in the E2 group. Furthermore, endometrial hyperplasia was not observed in the olive group, which were apparently different from E2 group. The present results suggest that olive

  5. Estrogen receptor signaling during vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    Bondesson, Maria; Hao, Ruixin; Lin, Chin-Yo; Williams, Cecilia; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptors are expressed and their cognate ligands produced in all vertebrates, indicative of important and conserved functions. Through evolution estrogen has been involved in controlling reproduction, affecting both the development of reproductive organs and reproductive behavior. This review broadly describes the synthesis of estrogens and the expression patterns of aromatase and the estrogen receptors, in relation to estrogen functions in the developing fetus and child. We focus on the role of estrogens for development of reproductive tissues, as well as non-reproductive effects on the developing brain. We collate data from human, rodent, bird and fish studies and highlight common and species-specific effects of estrogen signaling on fetal development. Morphological malformations originating from perturbed estrogen signaling in estrogen receptor and aromatase knockout mice are discussed, as well as the clinical manifestations of rare estrogen receptor alpha and aromatase gene mutations in humans. PMID:24954179

  6. The role of estrogen in turtle sex determination and the effect of PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Crews, D.; Bergeron, J.M.; McLachlan, J.A.

    1995-10-01

    Gonadal sex is fixed at fertilization by specific chromosomes, a process known as genotypic sex determination (GSD). Only after the gonad is formed do hormones begin to exert an influence that modifies specific structures that eventually will differ between the sexes. Many egg-laying reptiles do not exhibit GSD but rather depend on the temperature of the incubating egg to determine the gonadal sex of the offspring, a process termed temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Research on TSD indicates that gonadal sex is not irrevocably set by the genetic composition inherited at fertilization but depends ultimately on which genes encoding for steroidogenic enzymes and hormone receptors are activated during the midtrimester of embryonic development by temperature. Incubation temperature modifies the activity as well as the temporal and spatial sequence of enzymes and hormone receptors to determine gonad type. Estrogen is the physiologic equivalent of incubation temperature and the proximate cue that initiates female sex determination. increasing evidence indicates some polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds are capable of disrupting reproductive and endocrine function in fish, birds, and mammals, including humans. Reproductive disorders resulting from exposure to these xenobiotic compounds may include reductions in fertility, hatch rate in fish and birds, and viability of offspring, as well as alterations in hormone levels or adult sexual behaviors. Research on the mechanism through which these compounds may be acting to alter reproductive function indicates estrogenic activity, by which the compounds may be altering sexual differentiation. In TSD turtles, the estrogenic effect of some PCBs reverses gonadal sex in individuals incubating at an otherwise male-producing temperature. Furthermore, certain PCBs are synergistic in their effect at very low concentrations. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Estrogen receptor polymorphisms: significance to human physiology, disease and therapy.

    PubMed

    Figtree, Gemma A; Noonan, Jonathon E; Bhindi, Ravinay; Collins, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Other than its well-recognized effects on reproductive physiology, estrogen has important actions in a wide variety of other body systems with important examples including bone, blood vessels and the heart. These effects are seen in both females and males. Investigators have hypothesized those genetic variants in the genes coding for estrogen signaling proteins may cause variable sensitivity to the hormone and influence an individual's estrogen-sensitive phenotypes. The most obvious candidate genes are the estrogen receptors alpha and (ERalpha and beta). However, the regulation of these genes is complex and not well understood. Furthermore, their coding exons, and regulatory sequences are dispersed across large segments of the genome. A number of common polymorphisms have been identified in both ERalpha and ERbeta, with variable degrees of evidence of their direct biological significance and their association with human disease. The identification of genetic variations associated with altered estrogen response is of potential public health importance. Insights may be gained into the pathogenesis of estrogen sensitive diseases such as osteoporosis, breast cancer and cardiovascular disease contributing to the development and application of newer therapies for these disorders. Furthermore, genetic variants that alter sensitivity to estrogen may affect both therapeutic and harmful responses to exogenous estrogen administered in the form of the oral contraceptive pill or hormone replacement therapy. This clinical significance has led to the publication of a number of patents which will be reviewed.

  8. Effects of nutrition relevant mixtures of phytoestrogens on steroidogenesis, aromatase, estrogen, and androgen activity.

    PubMed

    Taxvig, Camilla; Elleby, Anders; Sonne-Hansen, Katrine; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E; Nellemann, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Phytoestrogens (PEs) are naturally occurring plant components produced in a large range of plants. They can induce biologic responses in vertebrates by mimicking or modulating the action or production of endogenous hormones. This study examined mixtures of 12 food relevant PEs for effects on steroid hormone production, aromatase activity, estrogenic activity, and for interaction with the androgen receptor. The results show that a mixture of all tested PEs increased estradiol production and decreased testosterone production in H295R human adrenal corticocarcinoma cells, indicating an induced aromatase activity. Furthermore, exposure of the H295R cells to isoflavonoids caused a decrease in testosterone production, and various mixtures of PEs significantly stimulated MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell growth and induced aromatase activity in JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells. The estrogenic effect in the MCF7 cells of the isoflavonoid mixture and coumestrol was supported by an observed increase in progesterone receptor protein expression as well as a decreased ERalpha expression. Overall, the results support that nutrition-relevant concentrations of PEs both alone and in mixtures possess various endocrine disrupting effects, all of which need to be considered when assessing the effects on human health.

  9. Effects of CYP7B1-mediated catalysis on estrogen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Hanna; Lundqvist, Johan; Norlin, Maria

    2010-09-01

    Most of the many biological effects of estrogens are mediated via the estrogen receptors ERalpha and beta. The current study examines the role of CYP7B1-mediated catalysis for activation of ER. Several reports suggest that CYP7B1 may be important for hormonal action but previously published studies are contradictory concerning the manner in which CYP7B1 affects ERbeta-mediated response. In the current study, we examined effects of several CYP7B1-related steroids on ER activation, using an estrogen response element (ERE) reporter system. Our studies showed significant stimulation of ER by 5-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol (Aene-diol) and 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol (3beta-Adiol). In contrast, the CYP7B1-formed metabolites from these steroids did not activate the receptor, indicating that CYP7B1-mediated metabolism abolishes the ER-stimulating effect of these compounds. The mRNA level of HEM45, a gene known to be stimulated by estrogens, was strongly up-regulated by Aene-diol but not by its CYP7B1-formed metabolite, further supporting this concept. We did not observe stimulation by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or 7alpha-hydroxy-DHEA, previously suggested to affect ERbeta-mediated response. As part of these studies we examined metabolism of Aene-diol in pig liver which is high in CYP7B1 content. These experiments indicate that CYP7B1-mediated metabolism of Aene-diol is of a similar rate as the metabolism of the well-known CYP7B1 substrates DHEA and 3beta-Adiol. CYP7B1-mediated metabolism of 3beta-Adiol has been proposed to influence ERbeta-mediated growth suppression. Our results indicate that Aene-diol also might be important for ER-related pathways. Our data indicate that low concentrations of Aene-diol can trigger ER-mediated response equally well for both ERalpha and beta and that CYP7B1-mediated conversion of Aene-diol into a 7alpha-hydroxymetabolite will result in loss of action.

  10. An ethanolic extract of black cohosh causes hematological changes but not estrogenic effects in female rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado-Feliciano, Minerva; Cora, Michelle C.; Witt, Kristine L.; Granville, Courtney A.; Hejtmancik, Milton R.; Fomby, Laurene; Knostman, Katherine A.; Ryan, Michael J.; Newbold, Retha; Smith, Cynthia; Foster, Paul M.; Vallant, Molly K.; Stout, Matthew D.

    2012-09-01

    Black cohosh rhizome (Actaea racemosa) is used as a remedy for pain and gynecological ailments; modern preparations are commonly sold as ethanolic extracts available as dietary supplements. Black cohosh was nominated to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) for toxicity testing due to its widespread use and lack of safety data. Several commercially available black cohosh extracts (BCE) were characterized by the NTP, and one with chemical composition closest to formulations available to consumers was used for all studies. Female B6C3F1/N mice and Wistar Han rats were given 0, 15 (rats only), 62.5 (mice only), 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day BCE by gavage for 90 days starting at weaning. BCE induced dose-dependent hematological changes consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia and increased frequencies of peripheral micronucleated red blood cells (RBC) in both species. Effects were more severe in mice, which had decreased RBC counts in all treatment groups and increased micronucleated RBC at doses above 125 mg/kg. Dose-dependent thymus and liver toxicity was observed in rats but not mice. No biologically significant effects were observed in other organs. Puberty was delayed 2.9 days at the highest treatment dose in rats; a similar magnitude delay in mice occurred in the 125 and 250 mg/kg groups but not at the higher doses. An additional uterotrophic assay conducted in mice exposed for 3 days to 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg found no estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity. These are the first studies to observe adverse effects of BCE in rodents. -- Highlights: ► Mice and rats were dosed with black cohosh extract for 90 days starting at weaning. ► Hematological changes were consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia. ► Peripheral micronucleated red blood cell frequencies increased. ► Puberty was delayed 2.9 days in rats. ► No estrogenic/anti-estrogenic activity was seen in the uterotrophic assay.

  11. Region-Specific Growth Effects in the Developing Rat Prostate Following Fetal Exposure to Estrogenic Ultraviolet Filters

    PubMed Central

    Hofkamp, Luke; Bradley, Sarahann; Tresguerres, Jesus; Lichtensteiger, Walter; Schlumpf, Margret; Timms, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors is a potential risk factor for humans. Many of these chemicals have been shown to exhibit disruption of normal cellular and developmental processes in animal models. Ultraviolet (UV) filters used as sunscreens in cosmetics have previously been shown to exhibit estrogenic activity in in vitro and in vivo assays. We examined the effects of two UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC), in the developing prostate of the fetal rat. Methods Pregnant Long Evans rats were fed diets containing doses of 4-MBC and 3-BC that resulted in average daily intakes of these chemicals corresponding to the lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL) and the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) doses in prior developmental toxicity studies. Using digital photographs of serial sections from postnatal day 1 animals, we identified, contoured, and aligned the epithelial ducts from specific regions of the developing prostate, plus the accessory sex glands and calculated the total volume for each region from three-dimensional, surface-rendered models. Results Fetal exposure to 4-MBC (7.0 mg/kg body weight/day) resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in tissue volume in the prostate and accessory sex glands. Treated males exhibited a 62% increase in the number of ducts in the caudal dorsal prostate. Increased distal branching morphogenesis appears to be a consequence of exposure in the ventral region, resulting in a 106% increase in ductal volume. Conclusions 4-MBC exposure during development of the male reproductive accessory sex glands exhibited classical growth effects associated with estrogenic endocrine disruptors. The different regional responses suggest that the two developmental processes of ductal outgrowth and branching morphogenesis are affected independently by exposure to the environmental chemicals. PMID:18629307

  12. Effects of neuron-specific estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ deletion on the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Rachel Y; Porteous, Robert; Chambon, Pierre; Abrahám, István; Herbison, Allan E

    2014-04-01

    The negative feedback mechanism through which 17β-estradiol (E2) acts to suppress the activity of the GnRH neurons remains unclear. Using inducible and cell-specific genetic mouse models, we examined the estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms expressed by neurons that mediate acute estrogen negative feedback. Adult female mutant mice in which ERα was deleted from all neurons in the neonatal period failed to exhibit estrous cycles or negative feedback. Adult mutant female mice with neonatal neuronal ERβ deletion exhibited normal estrous cycles, but a failure of E2 to suppress LH secretion was seen in ovariectomized mice. Mutant mice with a GnRH neuron-selective deletion of ERβ exhibited normal cycles and negative feedback, suggesting no critical role for ERβ in GnRH neurons in acute negative feedback. To examine the adult roles of neurons expressing ERα, an inducible tamoxifen-based Cre-LoxP approach was used to ablate ERα from neurons that express calmodulin kinase IIα in adults. This resulted in mice with no estrous cycles, a normal increase in LH after ovariectomy, but an inability of E2 to suppress LH secretion. Finally, acute administration of ERα- and ERβ-selective agonists to adult ovariectomized wild-type mice revealed that activation of ERα suppressed LH secretion, whereas ERβ agonists had no effect. This study highlights the differences in adult reproductive phenotypes that result from neonatal vs adult ablation of ERα in the brain. Together, these experiments expand previous global knockout studies by demonstrating that neurons expressing ERα are essential and probably sufficient for the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in female mice.

  13. Different effects of bisphenol-A on memory behavior and synaptic modification in intact and estrogen-deprived female mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohong; Gu, Ting; Shen, Qiaoqiao

    2015-03-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) has the capability of interfering with the effects of estrogens on modulating brain function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BPA on memory and synaptic modification in the hippocampus of female mice under different levels of cycling estrogen. BPA exposure (40, 400 μg/kg/day) for 8 weeks did not affect spatial memory and passive avoidance task of gonadally intact mice but improved ovariectomy (Ovx)-induced memory impairment, whereas co-exposure of BPA with estradiol benzoate (EB) diminished the rescue effect of EB on memory behavior of Ovx mice. The results of morphometric measurement showed that BPA positively modified the synaptic interface structure and increased the synaptic density of CA1 pyramidal cell in the hippocampus of Ovx females, but inhibited the enhancement of EB on synaptic modification and synaptogenesis of Ovx mice. Furthermore, BPA up-regulated synaptic proteins synapsin I and PSD-95 and NMDA receptor NR2B but inhibited EB-induced increase in PSD-95 and NR2B in the hippocampus of Ovx mice. These results suggest that BPA interfered with normal hormonal regulation in synaptic plasticity and memory of female mice as a potent estrogen mimetic and as a disruptor of estrogen under various concentrations of cycling estrogen.

  14. Genomic variation in the MMP-1 promoter influences estrogen receptor mediated activity in a mechanically activated environment: potential implications for microgravity risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, John; Myers, Ken; Lu, Ting; Hart, David

    examine the potential impact of the 1G/2G SNP on the cellular response to mechanical loading. HIG-82 cells are estrogen receptor (ER) negative and were transiently transfected with SV40 expression vectors for either ER-α or ER-β isoforms. Cells grown on glass slides were also co-transfected with either a 1G or 2G MMP-1 promoter-luciferase construct. Transfected cells were subjected to dynamic shear stress in a Flexcell Streamer Shear Stress Device. The dynamic loading regime was 0.5 Hz, 10 dyn/cm2 shear for 1 minute followed by 14 minutes rest and repeated for 8 hrs. A Promega Dual Luciferase Reporter Assay System was used to assess MMP-1 promoter activity. Results: Shear stress loading increased both 1G and 2G MMP-1 promoter activity compared to unloaded controls, however the 2G promoter had significantly higher rates of expression than the 1G promoter across all loading regimes and ER co-transfections. Transfection with ER-β resulted in higher MMP-1 promoter activity than that in cells expressing ER-α or in ER-neg cells. Conclusions: Specific genomic variations can lead to differences in cellular responses to changes in mechanical loading environments such as are encountered in microgravity environments or earth-based analogs. These genomic differences may predispose individuals to greater risk of bone loss. It is important to understand the combined effects of mechanical loading, genetic variation and sex hormones on bone maintenance so that risks can be identified for microgravity or analog environments, and specific interventions developed to counteract such risk or even exclude some individuals from prolonged space environments due to the extent of the risk.

  15. Bidirectional Estrogen-Like Effects of Genistein on Murine Experimental Autoimmune Ovarian Disease.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qiao; Wang, Yuxiao; Li, Na; Zhu, Kexue; Hu, Jielun; Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan; Nie, Shaoping

    2016-11-08

    This study was to investigate the bidirectional estrogen-like effects of genistein on murine experimental autoimmune ovarian disease (AOD). Female BALB/c mice were induced by immunization with a peptide from murine zona pellucida. The changes of estrous cycle, ovarian histomorphology were measured, and the levels of serum sex hormone were analyzed using radioimmunoassay. Proliferative responses of the ovary were also determined by immunohistochemistry. Administration of 25 or 45 mg/kg body weight genistein enhanced ovary development with changes in serum sex hormone levels and proliferative responses. Meanwhile, the proportions of growing and mature follicles increased and the incidence of autoimmune oophoritis decreased, which exhibited normal ovarian morphology in administration of 25 or 45 mg/kg body weight genistein, while a lower dose (5 mg/kg body weight genistein) produced the opposite effect. These findings suggest that genistein exerts bidirectional estrogen-like effects on murine experimental AOD, while a high dose (45 mg/kg body weight) of genistein may suppress AOD.

  16. Bidirectional Estrogen-Like Effects of Genistein on Murine Experimental Autoimmune Ovarian Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Qiao; Wang, Yuxiao; Li, Na; Zhu, Kexue; Hu, Jielun; Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan; Nie, Shaoping

    2016-01-01

    This study was to investigate the bidirectional estrogen-like effects of genistein on murine experimental autoimmune ovarian disease (AOD). Female BALB/c mice were induced by immunization with a peptide from murine zona pellucida. The changes of estrous cycle, ovarian histomorphology were measured, and the levels of serum sex hormone were analyzed using radioimmunoassay. Proliferative responses of the ovary were also determined by immunohistochemistry. Administration of 25 or 45 mg/kg body weight genistein enhanced ovary development with changes in serum sex hormone levels and proliferative responses. Meanwhile, the proportions of growing and mature follicles increased and the incidence of autoimmune oophoritis decreased, which exhibited normal ovarian morphology in administration of 25 or 45 mg/kg body weight genistein, while a lower dose (5 mg/kg body weight genistein) produced the opposite effect. These findings suggest that genistein exerts bidirectional estrogen-like effects on murine experimental AOD, while a high dose (45 mg/kg body weight) of genistein may suppress AOD. PMID:27834809

  17. Estrogen-like effects of wine extracts on nitric oxide synthesis in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Simoncini, Tommaso; Lenzi, Elena; Zöchling, Alfred; Gopal, Santhosh; Goglia, Lorenzo; Russo, Eleonora; Polak, Kinga; Casarosa, Elena; Jungbauer, Alois; Genazzani, Alessandro D; Genazzani, Andrea R

    2011-10-01

    Endothelial dysfunction frequently ensues during the climacteric due to hormonal and metabolic changes. Non-pharmacological interventions such as lifestyle and dietary modifications are emerging as valuable strategies to counteract the cardiovascular consequences of ageing. A number of chemical components of wine, including alcohol and some polyphenols, are known to be active on the vessels. However, the molecular mechanisms through which they modulate endothelial function are largely unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of non-alcoholic wine fractions from five different wines on the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) via the expression and enzymatic activation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. All non-alcoholic fractions studied increased NO synthesis, although with different potencies. All wine extracts maximally enhanced NO production at doses in the range achieved with a moderate wine intake, with decreasing effects with further increases of the dose. Interestingly, a part of these actions was recruited via estrogen receptors (ERs). Within the polyphenols with known binding activity for ERs contained in the tested wines, resveratrol, epicatechin, syringic acid, apigenin, malvidin and ellagic acid were largely responsible for eNOS activation. These findings show that some of the non-alcoholic components of wine enhance the production of NO by the vessels acting on ERs, and suggest that a moderate intake of wine may benefit the cardiovascular system through estrogen-like effects.

  18. Estrogen receptor modulatory effects of germinated brown rice bioactives in the uterus of rats through the regulation of estrogen-induced genes

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Bint; Saeed, Mohammed Ibrahim; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ishaka, Aminu

    2013-01-01

    -β reactivity at the glandular epithelium, while the group treated with EST showed immunoreactivity at the glandular, luminal, and stromal epithelium. Conclusion GBR phenolics moderately regulate the expression of ER-β, HSP70, and IL-4 receptor genes, and gave a positive immunoreaction to ER-β antigen in the uterus. ASG regulates the expression of CaBP9k and IL-4 receptor genes, and ORZ regulates the expression of the CaBP9k gene, while GABA at 100 mg/kg regulates the expression of the HSP70 gene. GBR and its bioactives might have an effect on estrogen-regulated genes in the uterus of rats. PMID:24324328

  19. Effects of estrogen receptor α and β gene deletion on estrogenic induction of progesterone receptors in the locus coeruleus in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Helena, Cleyde; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Korach, Kenneth; Pfaff, Donald; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2016-01-01

    Locus coeruleus (LC) is involved in the LHRH regulation by gonadal steroids. We investigated the expression of progesterone and estrogen receptors (PR; ER) in LC neurons of ERα (αERKO) or ERβ (βERKO) knockout mice, and their wild-type (αWT and βWT). Immunocytochemical studies showed that LC expresses PR and both ERs, although ERβ was more abundant. Estradiol benzoate (EB) decreased ERα-positive cells in WT and βERKO mice, and progesterone caused a further reduction, whereas none of the steroids influenced ERβ expression. ERβ deletion increased ERα while ERα deletion did not alter ERβ expression. In both WT mice, EB increased PR expression, which was diminished by progesterone. These steroid effects were also observed in αERKO animals but to a lesser extent, suggesting that ERα is partially responsible for the estrogenic induction of PR in LC. Steroid effects on PR in βERKO mice were similar to those in the αERKO but to a lesser extent, probably because PR expression was already high in the oil-treated group. This expression seems to be specific of LC neurons, since it was not observed in other areas studied, the preoptic area and ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus. These findings show that LC in mice expresses αER, βER, and PR, and that a balance between them may be critical for the physiological control of reproductive function. PMID:19551522

  20. Effects of 7-O Substitutions on Estrogenic and Antiestrogenic Activities of Daidzein Analogues in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Quan; Payton-Stewart, Florastina; Elliott, Steven; Driver, Jennifer; Rhodes, Lyndsay V.; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Shilong; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Boue, Stephen M.; Collins-Burow, Bridgette M.; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Stevens, Cheryl; McLachlan, John A.; Wiese, Thomas E.; Burow, Matthew E.; Wang, Guangdi

    2010-01-01

    Daidzein (1) is a natural estrogenic isoflavone. We report here that 1 can be transformed into antiestrogenic ligands by simple alkyl substitutions of the 7-hydroxyl hydrogen. To test the effect of such structural modifications on the hormonal activities of the resulting compounds, a series of daidzein analogues have been designed and synthesized. When MCF-7 cells were treated with the analogues, those resulting from hydrogen substitution by isopropyl (3d), isobutyl (3f), cyclopentyl (3g), and pyrano- (2), inhibited cell proliferation, estrogen-induced transcriptional activity, and estrogen receptor (ER) regulated progesterone receptor (PgR) gene expression. However, methyl (3a) and ethyl (3b) substitutions of the hydroxyl proton only led to moderate reduction of the estrogenic activities. These results demonstrated the structural requirements for the transformation of daidzein from an ER agonist to an antagonist. The most effective analogue, 2 was found to reduce in vivo estrogen stimulated MCF-7 cell tumorigenesis using a xenograft mouse model. PMID:20669983

  1. Effects of low-dose tamoxifen on breast cancer biomarkers Ki-67, estrogen and progesterone receptors

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Juarez Antônio; Facina, Gil; da Silva, Benedito Borges; Gebrim, Luiz Henrique

    2006-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy among women and it has a major impact on mortality. Studies of primary chemoprevention with tamoxifen have generated high expectations and considerable success rates. The efficacy of lower doses of tamoxifen is similar to that seen with a standard dose of the drug, and there has been a reduction in healthcare costs and side effects. The immune reaction to monoclonal antibody Ki-67 (MIB-1) and the expression of estrogen receptors (1D5) and progesterone receptors (PgR 636) in breast carcinoma were studied in patients treated with 10 mg of tamoxifen for a period of 14 days. A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted with 38 patients divided into two groups: Group A: N = 20 (control group-without medication) and Group B: N = 18 (tamoxifen/10 mg/day for 14 days). All patients signed an informed consent term previously approved by both institutions. Patients underwent incisional biopsy before treatment and 14 days later a tumor tissue sample was obtained during surgical treatment. Positivity was quantitatively assessed, counting at least 1.000 cells per slide. For statistical data analysis, a Wilcoxon non-parametric test was used, and α was set at 5%. Both groups (A and B) were considered homogeneous regarding control variables. In Group A (control), there was no statistically significant reduction in Ki-67 (MIB-1) (p = 0.627), estrogen receptor (1D5) (p = 0.296) and progesterone receptor positivity (PgR 636) (p = 0.381). In Group B (tamoxifen 10 mg/day), the mean percentage of nuclei stained by Ki-67 (MIB-1) was 24.69% before and 10.43% after tamoxifen treatment. Mean percentage of nuclei stained by estrogen receptor (1D5) was 59.53% before and 25.99% after tamoxifen treatment. Mean percentage of nuclei stained by progesterone receptor (PgR 636), was 59.34 before and 29.59% after tamoxifen treatment. A statistically significant reduction was found with the three markers (p < 0.001). Tamoxifen significantly

  2. Effects of estrogen deficiency and low bone mineral density on healthy knee cartilage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Santos; Largo, Raquel; Calvo, Emilio; Bellido, Miriam; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Herrero-Beaumont, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of estrogen deficiency and bone mass loss on normal knee cartilage in mature rabbits. Bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) was performed in 13 rabbits, 6 of which also received systemic glucocorticoid for 4 weeks. Seven additional healthy rabbits were used as controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in lumbar spine, knee, and subchondral bone of the knee at baseline and 22 weeks after OVX. After sacrifice, the knees were dissected, macroscopy was assessed, and histological cartilage abnormalities were evaluated according to the Mankin score. Correlations of Mankin with BMD at different regions were also performed. When compared to baseline, differences in BMD were only found in spine and knee of the animals receiving glucocorticoids. All the animals subjected to OVX had a significantly higher Mankin score than controls. Mankin was upper in OVX animals receiving glucocorticoids, but differences were not significant. The Mankin score was inversely related with BMD in lumbar spine (r = -0.67; p < 0.01). Although low bone mineral density contributes to the minor osteoarthritic alterations observed in our model, estrogen deficiency itself seems to act directly to induce the main pathogenic effects in healthy cartilage of the rabbit.

  3. Effect of estrogenic activity, and phytoestrogen and organochlorine pesticide contents in an experimental fish diet on reproduction and hepatic vitellogenin production in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Inudo, Makiko; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Naomi; Matsuoka, Munekazu; Mori, Taiki; Taniyama, Shigeto; Kadokami, Kiwao; Koga, Minoru; Shinohara, Ryota; Hutchinson, T H; Iguchi, Taisen; Arizono, Koji

    2004-12-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are giving rise to serious concerns for humans and wildlife. Phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and genistein in plants, and organochlorine pesticides are suspected EDCs, because their chemical structure is similar to that of natural or synthetic estrogens and they have estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. We assessed estrogenic activity and dietary phytoestrogen and organochlorine pesticide contents of various fish diets made in the United Kingdom, and compared them with those features of diets made in Japan that were tested in a previous study. Genistein and daidzein were detected in all of the diets. Using an in vitro bioassay, many of these diets had higher activation of estrogen beta-receptors than estrogen alpha-receptors. Organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene, beta-benzene hexachloride (BHC), and gamma-BHC were detected in all fish diets. On the basis of these data, we investigated the effect of differing dietary phytoestrogen content in Japanese fish diets on hepatic vitellogenin production and reproduction (fecundity and fertility) in medaka (Oryzias latipes). Assessment of the effects of a 28-day feeding period on reproduction of paired medaka did not indicate significant differences in the number of eggs produced and fertility among all feeding groups. However, hepatic vitellogenin values were significantly higher for male medaka fed diet C (genistein, 58.5 +/- 0.6 microg/g; daidzein, 37.3 +/- 0.2 microg/g) for 28 days compared with those fed diet A (genistein, < 0.8 microg/g; daidzein, < 0.8 microg/g) or diet B (genistein, 1.4 +/- 0.1 microg/g; daidzein, 2.0 +/- 0.1 microg/g). Our findings indicate that fish diets containing high amounts of phytoestrogens, such as diet C, have the potential to induce hepatic vitellogenin production in male medaka, even if reproductive parameters are unaffected. Therefore, some diets, by affecting vitellogenin production in males, may alter estrogenic activity of in

  4. Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seo Yeon; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system. PMID:25024731

  5. Mixture interactions of xenoestrogens with endogenous estrogens.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing concern of exposure to fish, wildlife, and humans to water sources contaminated with estrogens and the potential impact on reproductive health. These environmental estrogens originate from various sources including concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFO), m...

  6. Seladin-1 is a fundamental mediator of the neuroprotective effects of estrogen in human neuroblast long-term cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Paola; Deledda, Cristiana; Rosati, Fabiana; Benvenuti, Susanna; Cellai, Ilaria; Dichiara, Francesca; Morello, Matteo; Vannelli, Gabriella Barbara; Danza, Giovanna; Serio, Mario; Peri, Alessandro

    2008-09-01

    Estrogen exerts neuroprotective effects and reduces beta-amyloid accumulation in models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A few years ago, a new neuroprotective gene, i.e. seladin-1 (for selective AD indicator-1), was identified and found to be down-regulated in AD vulnerable brain regions. Seladin-1 inhibits the activation of caspase-3, a key modulator of apoptosis. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the seladin-1 gene encodes 3beta-hydroxysterol Delta24-reductase, which catalyzes the synthesis of cholesterol from desmosterol. We have demonstrated previously that in fetal neuroepithelial cells, 17beta-estradiol (17betaE2), raloxifene, and tamoxifen exert neuroprotective effects and increase the expression of seladin-1. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether seladin-1 is directly involved in estrogen-mediated neuroprotection. Using the small interfering RNA methodology, significantly reduced levels of seladin-1 mRNA and protein were obtained in fetal neuroepithelial cells. Seladin-1 silencing determined the loss of the protective effect of 17betaE2 against beta-amyloid and oxidative stress toxicity and caspase-3 activation. A computer-assisted analysis revealed the presence of half-palindromic estrogen responsive elements upstream from the coding region of the seladin-1 gene. A 1490-bp region was cloned in a luciferase reporter vector, which was transiently cotransfected with the estrogen receptor alpha in Chinese hamster ovarian cells. The exposure to 17betaE2, raloxifene, tamoxifen, and the soy isoflavones genistein and zearalenone increased luciferase activity, thus suggesting a functional role for the half-estrogen responsive elements of the seladin-1 gene. Our data provide for the first time a direct demonstration that seladin-1 may be considered a fundamental mediator of the neuroprotective effects of estrogen.

  7. Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Thongprakaisang, Siriporn; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2013-09-01

    Glyphosate is an active ingredient of the most widely used herbicide and it is believed to be less toxic than other pesticides. However, several recent studies showed its potential adverse health effects to humans as it may be an endocrine disruptor. This study focuses on the effects of pure glyphosate on estrogen receptors (ERs) mediated transcriptional activity and their expressions. Glyphosate exerted proliferative effects only in human hormone-dependent breast cancer, T47D cells, but not in hormone-independent breast cancer, MDA-MB231 cells, at 10⁻¹² to 10⁻⁶M in estrogen withdrawal condition. The proliferative concentrations of glyphosate that induced the activation of estrogen response element (ERE) transcription activity were 5-13 fold of control in T47D-KBluc cells and this activation was inhibited by an estrogen antagonist, ICI 182780, indicating that the estrogenic activity of glyphosate was mediated via ERs. Furthermore, glyphosate also altered both ERα and β expression. These results indicated that low and environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate possessed estrogenic activity. Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used for soybean cultivation, and our results also found that there was an additive estrogenic effect between glyphosate and genistein, a phytoestrogen in soybeans. However, these additive effects of glyphosate contamination in soybeans need further animal study.

  8. Estrogen effects on thyroid iodide uptake and thyroperoxidase activity in normal and ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lívia P; Barros, Inês A; Lisbôa, Patrícia C; Araújo, Renata L; Silva, Alba C M; Rosenthal, Doris; Ferreira, Andrea C F; Carvalho, Denise P

    2006-08-01

    Sex steroids interfere with the pituitary-thyroid axis function, although the reports have been controversial and no conclusive data is available. Some previous reports indicate that estradiol might also regulate thyroid function through a direct action on the thyrocytes. In this report, we examined the effects of low and high doses of estradiol administered to control and ovariectomized adult female rats and to pre-pubertal females. We demonstrate that estradiol administration to both intact adult and pre-pubertal females causes a significant increase in the relative thyroid weight. Serum T3 is significantly decreased in ovariectomized rats, and is normalized by estrogen replacement. Neither doses of estrogen produced a significant change in serum TSH and total T4 in ovariectomized, adult intact and pre-pubertal rats. The highest, supraphysiological, estradiol dose produced a significant increase in thyroid iodide uptake in ovariectomized and in pre-pubertal rats, but not in control adult females. Thyroperoxidase activity was significantly higher in intact adult rats treated with both estradiol doses and in ovariectomized rats treated with the highest estradiol dose. Since serum TSH levels were not significantly changed, we suggest a direct action of estradiol on the thyroid gland, which depends on the age and on the previous gonad status of the animal.

  9. Effects of ovariectomy on estrogen uptake capacity, mitotic index and morphology of immunocytochemically-identified gonadotropes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective of these studies was to examine the effects of ovariectomy on the pituitary gonadotrope population in the rat. Several parameters were examined including morphology, mitotic index and ability of individual cells to concentrate estrogen. Adult, female rats which had been ovariectomized 3, 14, or 50 previously, were injected with /sup 3/H-estradiol (i.v.) and killed 1 hour later. Pituitaries were excised and immediately hemisected (mid-sagittal cut). Trunk blood was collected for subsequent radioimmunoassay of serum LH levels to assess the activity of the pituitary gonadotropes. Frozen pituitaries were sectioned and processed for dry-mount autoradiography. Estrogen uptake capacity of gonadotropes increased with time after ovariectomy. This increase was not seen in male rats after castration. Hemi-pituitaries were sectioned (1 ..mu..m) and analyzed for the number of mitotic figures per mm/sup 2/ and dividing cells were characterized as to their hormonal content. Ovariectomy induced an increase in the mitotic index of the pituitary gland. Furthermore, a majority of the mitotic futures seen in the ovariectomized rat were found in cells containing LH-immunoreactivity. Electron microscopic examination of dividing gonadotropes revealed that these cells contained large amounts of vesiculated endoplasmic reticumum typical of post-castration gonadotropes.

  10. Anticonceptive and estrogenic effects of a seed extract of Ricinus communis var. minor.

    PubMed

    Okwuasaba, F K; Osunkwo, U A; Ekwenchi, M M; Ekpenyong, K I; Onwukeme, K E; Olayinka, A O; Uguru, M O; Das, S C

    1991-09-01

    An ether-soluble fraction of a methanol extract of Ricinus communis var. minor seeds administered subcutaneously to adult female rats and rabbits at doses up to 1.2 g/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively, in divided doses showed anti-implantation and anticonceptive activities. Laparotomy performed on Day 10 and Day 15 of pregnancy on mated female rats and rabbits treated with the extract did not reveal any uterine implantation sites. The animals were protected against pregnancy for over three gestation periods and among those that later delivered, there was no evidence of abnormality in the pups. In ovariectomized young female rats as well as in immature mice, the extract dose-dependently increased uterine wet weight. Furthermore, the extract induced premature opening of the vagina, increased the number of epithelial cells and cornified cells and decreased the leucocyte number in the vaginal smear. The estrogen-like activities exhibited by the extract were dose-dependent and the anticonceptive effect may be due at least in part to such estrogenic action.

  11. The effects of estrogen, its antagonist ICI 182, 780, and interferon-tau on the expression of estrogen receptors and integrin alphaV beta 3 on cycle day 16 in bovine endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Kimmins, Sarah; Russell, Gerald L; Lim, Hai Choo; Hall, Brian K; MacLaren, Leslie A

    2003-01-01

    We have shown previously that downregulation of intercaruncular stromal integrin αvβ3 in bovine endometrium on day 16 of the estrous cycle coincided with the antibody recognition of estrogen receptors (ER) in the luminal epithelium. In pregnancy, these changes were not observed. Our hypothesis was that on day 16 of the estrous cycle, estrogen from the dominant follicle causes a reduction in integrin αvβ3 and affects ERα in the luminal epithelium. The pregnancy recognition protein, interferon-τ (IFN-τ), may prevent downregulation of integrin αvβ3 and suppress ERα expression in the luminal epithelium. On days 14 to 16, heifers received uterine infusions of the anti-estrogen ICI 182, 780, estradiol 17β, IFN-τ or the saline control. On day 16, reproductive tracts were collected for analysis of integrin αvβ3 and ERα. Estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity was largely restricted to the luminal epithelium in control animals. Using anti-ERα recognizing the amino terminus, estrogen-treated animals showed reactivity in the stroma, shallow and deep glands and myometrium as is typical of estrus, whereas ICI 182, 870 treated heifers showed little or no reactivity. In contrast, carboxyl terminus-directed antibodies showed a widespread distribution of ERα with reactivity detected in the uterine epithelium, stroma and myometrium of both estrogen and ICI 182, 780 treated animals. Heifers treated with IFN-τ had low ERα reactivity overall. Control and IFN-τ treated heifers had lower intercaruncular stromal expression of integrin αvβ3 in comparison to estrogen and ICI 182, 780 treatments. Overall, the results suggest that on day 16 of the estrous cycle, estrogen effects on integrin αvβ3 are indirect and do not directly involve ERα in the luminal epithelium. During pregnancy, interferon-tau may block ERα in the luminal epithelium but likely does not rescue integrin αvβ3 expression. PMID:12756058

  12. Effects of natural and synthetic estrogens and various environmental contaminants on vitellogenesis in fish primary hepatocytes: comparison of bream (Abramis brama) and carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Rankouhi, T Rouhani; Sanderson, J T; van Holsteijn, I; van Leeuwen, C; Vethaak, A D; van den Berg, M

    2004-09-01

    Interaction of environmental estrogens with the estrogen receptor (ER) has been shown in various fish species. Our objective was to compare the sensitivity of bream (Abramis brama) to (xeno-)estrogens with that of the carp (Cyprinus carpio), by measuring the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), ethynylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), methoxychlor (MXCL), and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB126, PCB118), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin (TCDD), and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PCDF) on vitellogenesis in primary hepatocytes. Comparing the EC50 values in bream hepatocytes: EE2 (0.1-0.2 microM) < E1 (0.6-0.2 microM) < E2 (1.9 microM) with those of carp hepatocytes EE2 (0.03-0.06 microM) < E2 (0.3 microM) approximately E1 (0.2-0.3 microM) we found differences in sensitivity and ranking of the estrogenic potency of E2 and E1, indicating interspecies differences. Exposure to BPA, NP, MXCL, and HAHs did not or only weakly induce vitellogenesis. Bream hepatocytes coexposed to E2 and TCDD, PCB126 or PCDF showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of E2-induced vitellogenesis. IC50 (concentration of a compound that elicits 50% inhibition of E2-induced vitellogenesis) values determined in bream were: TCDD (0.02-0.09 nM) < PCB126 (0.35-0.1 nM) < PCDF (2.0-0.1) and in carp were: TCDD (0.01 nM) < PCB126 (0.4 nM). PCB118 showed no (anti-)estrogenic response. IC50 values and benchmark-concentration for TCDD and PCB126 in bream and carp hepatocytes were in the same range, indicating similar sensitivity to these compounds. Due to their anti-estrogenic capacity with benchmark-concentrations in the pM range TCDD, PCDF, and PCB126 may form a potential hazard for the reproductive success of fish species by inhibition of vitellogenesis.

  13. Short-time QiBaoMeiRan Formula Treatment Exerts Estrogenic Activities without Side Effects on Reproductive Tissues in Immature Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Ma, Xiao-ping; An, Jin-na; Zhang, Zi-jia; Ding, Jie; Qu, Ya-kun; Liu, Zhen-li; Lin, Na

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese herbal preparation QiBaoMeiRan formula (QBMR) displayed estrogenic effects in ovariectomized rats after long-term administration in a previous study. The uterus and vagina are negatively influenced by estrogens in hormone therapy. While QBMR is known to be a phytoestrogen, its estrogenic effects and safety on reproductive tissues after short-term administration and its mechanism via estrogen receptor (ER) pathway haven’t been studied. Here, we characterized its estrogenic effects using immature mice together with in vitro studies for further molecular characterization. Immature mice were treated with QBMR at doses of 1.125, 2.25, and 4.5 g/kg for 7 days. 1.125 and 2.25 g/kg QBMR promoted the growth and development of uterus and vagina, and upregulated ERα and ERβ expression in reproductive tissues. QBMR had a stimulatory effect on proliferating cell nuclear antigen in vagina but not in uterus, and was without any influence on ki-67 antigen in uterus and vagina. QBMR significantly induced luciferase expression from the ERα/β-estrogen response element (ERE) luciferase reporter and upregulated ERα and ERβ expressions in MCF-7 cells, which were significantly inhibited by estrogen antagonist ICI182,780. This study demonstrated QBMR exerts estrogenic effects on reproductive tissues without side effects and through ER-ERE-dependent pathway. PMID:26644197

  14. A Bayesian network model for assessing natural estrogen fate and transport in a swine waste lagoon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W; Yost, Erin; Meyer, Michael T; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Williams, C Michael; Reckhow, Kenneth H

    2014-10-01

    Commercial swine waste lagoons are regarded as a major reservoir of natural estrogens, which have the potential to produce adverse physiological effects on exposed aquatic organisms and wildlife. However, there remains limited understanding of the complex mechanisms of physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern the fate and transport of natural estrogens within an anaerobic swine lagoon. To improve lagoon management and ultimately help control the offsite transport of these compounds from swine operations, a probabilistic Bayesian network model was developed to assess natural estrogen fate and budget and then compared against data collected from a commercial swine field site. In general, the model was able to describe the estrogen fate and budget in both the slurry and sludge stores within the swine lagoon. Sensitivity analysis within the model demonstrated that the estrogen input loading from the associated barn facility was the most important factor in controlling estrogen concentrations within the lagoon slurry storage, whereas the settling rate was the most significant factor in the lagoon sludge storage. The degradation reactions were shown to be minor in both stores based on prediction of average total estrogen concentrations. Management scenario evaluations demonstrated that the best possible management options to reduce estrogen levels in the lagoon are either to adjust the estrogen input loading from swine barn facilities or to effectively enhance estrogen bonding with suspended solids through the use of organic polymers or inorganic coagulants.

  15. Lethal and estrogenic effects of 4-nonylphenol in the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum.

    PubMed

    Marin, Maria Gabriella; Rigato, Stefano; Ricciardi, Francesco; Matozzo, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    The lethal and sublethal effects of the xenoestrogen 4-nonylphenol (NP) were evaluated in the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum. In a 96-h lethality test, bivalves were exposed to 0, 0+ acetone, 0.19, 0.38, 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 mg NP/l. The 96-h LC(50) value was 0.3mg NP/l. No mortality was observed at 0.1 mg NP/l. The potential estrogenicity of NP was studied in both sexually undifferentiated (resting phase) and differentiated (pre-spawning phase) cockles, exposed for 7 and 14 days to 0, 0+ acetone, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg NP/l. Vitellogenin (Vg)-like protein levels were determined in both haemolymph and digestive gland by the alkali-labile phosphate (ALP) assay. In the resting phase, exposure for 7 days to 0.1 mg NP/l resulted in significant increases in ALP in both haemolymph and digestive gland, compared with controls. A significant increase was also observed in digestive gland of animals exposed to 0.0125 mg NP/l-exposed animals. After 14 days of exposure, haemolymph ALP levels were significantly increased in exposed animals at all NP concentrations tested, whereas no difference was recorded in digestive gland. In the pre-spawning phase, exposure for 7 days to NP significantly increased ALP levels in haemolymph from males exposed at all NP concentrations tested, whereas no significant variations were found in haemolymph from females. NP (0.05 and 0.1 mg/l) was also shown to increase ALP concentrations significantly in digestive gland of males, but not in those of females. Likewise, after 14 days' exposure, ALP levels significantly increased in haemolymph from males only at 0.1 mg NP/l. Conversely, NP caused significant increases in ALP levels in digestive gland from both males (at all NP concentrations tested) and females (at 0.025 and 0.1 mg NP/l). These results demonstrate that NP induces Vg synthesis in C. glaucum. Interestingly, males were more responsive to NP than females.

  16. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of licorice species in comparison with hops used in botanicals for menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Simmler, Charlotte; Yuan, Yang; Anderson, Jeffrey R; Chen, Shao-Nong; Nikolić, Dejan; Dietz, Birgit M; Pauli, Guido F; van Breemen, Richard B; Bolton, Judy L

    2013-01-01

    The increased cancer risk associated with hormone therapies has encouraged many women to seek non-hormonal alternatives including botanical supplements such as hops (Humulus lupulus) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza spec.) to manage menopausal symptoms. Previous studies have shown estrogenic properties for hops, likely due to the presence of 8-prenylnarigenin, and chemopreventive effects mainly attributed to xanthohumol. Similarly, a combination of estrogenic and chemopreventive properties has been reported for various Glycyrrhiza species. The major goal of the current study was to evaluate the potential estrogenic effects of three licorice species (Glycyrrhiza glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata) in comparison with hops. Extracts of Glycyrrhiza species and spent hops induced estrogen responsive alkaline phosphatase activity in endometrial cancer cells, estrogen responsive element (ERE)-luciferase in MCF-7 cells, and Tff1 mRNA in T47D cells. The estrogenic activity decreased in the order H. lupulus > G. uralensis > G. inflata > G. glabra. Liquiritigenin was found to be the principle phytoestrogen of the licorice extracts; however, it exhibited lower estrogenic effects compared to 8-prenylnaringenin in functional assays. Isoliquiritigenin, the precursor chalcone of liquiritigenin, demonstrated significant estrogenic activities while xanthohumol, a metabolic precursor of 8-prenylnaringenin, was not estrogenic. Liquiritigenin showed ERβ selectivity in competitive binding assay and isoliquiritigenin was equipotent for ER subtypes. The estrogenic activity of isoliquiritigenin could be the result of its cyclization to liquiritigenin under physiological conditions. 8-Prenylnaringenin had nanomolar estrogenic potency without ER selectivity while xanthohumol did not bind ERs. These data demonstrated that Glycyrrhiza species with different contents of liquiritigenin have various levels of estrogenic activities, suggesting the importance of precise labeling of botanical

  17. Estrogen therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Askanase, Anca D

    2004-01-01

    Given the female preponderance of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in humans, the adverse effects of female gender and sex hormones in murine lupus, and numerous reports (retrospective, often anecdotal and uncontrolled) that describe a temporal association between estrogen exposure and development or exacerbation of SLE, it is tempting to accept that estrogens and SLE simply do not mix. While there are valid concerns regarding the use of exogenous estrogens in women with SLE, there are also potential health benefits to be considered. Oral contraceptives (OCs) offer effective birth control and may be bone protective in corticosteroid-treated patients. Recent studies, albeit retrospective, suggest that OCs are well tolerated in patients with SLE. Several salutary effects of postmenopausal estrogens assume particular importance in SLE where the risks of osteoporosis, exaggerated by menopause (natural or cyclophosphamide-induced) and corticosteroids, are substantial. However, the results of the Women's Health Initiative trial significantly limit the use of hormone replacement therapy in the general population, and raise particular concern for SLE patients. Other exogenous hormones (clomifene, gonadotropins, gonadotropin-releasing hormones) may be used to elevate levels of endogenous estrogen and to stimulate ovulation in patients with diminished fertility. Patients with inactive or stable/moderate disease and at low risk for thrombosis may benefit from OCs and other hormonal therapies without a change in lupus activity. Large prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies inclusive of all ethnic groups should provide the basis for more definitive recommendations.

  18. Effect of source-separated urine storage on estrogenic activity detected using bioluminescent yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Kivistö, Anniina; Palmroth, Marja R T; Karp, Matti

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to demonstrate that a microbial whole cell biosensor, bioluminescent yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BMAEREluc/ERα) can be applied to detect overall estrogenic activity from fresh and stored human urine. The use of source-separated urine in agriculture removes a human originated estrogen source from wastewater influents, subsequently enabling nutrient recycling. Estrogenic activity in urine should be diminished prior to urine usage in agriculture in order to prevent its migration to soil. A storage period of 6 months is required for hygienic reasons; therefore, estrogenic activity monitoring is of interest. The method measured cumulative female hormone-like activity. Calibration curves were prepared for estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α- ethinylestradiol and estriol. Estrogen concentrations of 0.29-29,640 μg L(-1) were detectable while limit of detection corresponded to 0.28-35 μg L(-1) of estrogens. The yeast sensor responded well to fresh and stored urine and gave high signals corresponding to 0.38-3,804 μg L(-1) of estrogens in different urine samples. Estrogenic activity decreased during storage, but was still higher than in fresh urine implying insufficient storage length. The biosensor was suitable for monitoring hormonal activity in urine and can be used in screening anthropogenic estrogen-like compounds interacting with the receptor.

  19. Effects of treatment with estrogen and progesterone on the methamphetamine-induced cognitive impairment in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ghazvini, Hamed; Khaksari, Mohammad; Esmaeilpour, Khadijeh; Shabani, Mohammad; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Khodamoradi, Mehdi; Sheibani, Vahid

    2016-04-21

    Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the most powerful psychostimulant that leads to long lasting cognitive impairment. Earlier researches demonstrated that ovarian hormones including estrogen and progesterone ameliorate cognitive function against various central nervous system disorders. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate a neuroprotective role against methamphetamine toxicity. In current study the effects of estrogen and progesterone alone or in combination, on spatial learning and memory in METH-exposed ovariectomized (OVX) rats are investigated. Three weeks after ovariectomy, the animals were treated by estrogen (1mg/kg, i.p.) and progesterone (8mg/kg, i.p.) alone and in combination or vehicle during 14 consecutive days. On the 28th day, rats were exposed to a single-day METH regimens (four injections of 6mg/kg, s.c, at 2h intervals) 30min after the hormones treatment. Finally, spatial learning and memory were examined using the Morris water maze 2days after the last treatment. The findings showed that estrogen and progesterone did not have significant effect on spatial learning and memory in non METH-exposed OVX rats. The treatment with estrogen and progesterone alone in METH-exposed rats, significantly improved spatial learning and memory impairment. On the other hand, the cognitive performance of animals that received combination of estrogen plus progesterone in METH-exposed rats did not significantly differ from that of METH-exposed animals that received vehicle injections. Taken together, the present findings suggest that treatment with ovarian hormones can partially improve spatial learning and memory deficits induced by methamphetamine in OVX rats.

  20. Differential effect of pure isoflavones and soymilk on estrogen receptor activity in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Rando, Gianpaolo; Ramachandran, Balaji; Rebecchi, Monica; Ciana, Paolo; Maggi, Adriana

    2009-06-15

    Background: Because of the complexity of estrogen receptor (ER) physiological activity, the interaction of pure isoflavones or soy-based diets on ER needs to be clearly demonstrated. Objectives: To investigate the effects of the administration of isoflavones as a pure compound or as a component of diet on the ER transcriptional activity in adult mice. Methods: Effects of acute (6 h) and chronic (21 days) oral administration of soy milk, pure genistein and a mix of genistein and daidzein was studied in living ERE-Luc mice. In this animal model, the synthesis of luciferase is under the state of ER transcriptional activity. Luciferase activity was measured in living mice by daily bioluminescence imaging sessions and in tissue extracts by enzymatic assay. Results: Acute, oral administration of genistein or soymilk caused a significant increase of ER activity in liver. In a 20 day long treatment, soymilk was more potent than genistein in liver and appeared to extend its influence on ER transcriptional activity in other tissues, such as the digestive tract. A mixture of pure genistein and daidzein at the same concentration as in soymilk failed to induce significant changes during acute and chronic studies suggesting an important, uncharacterized role of the soymilk matrix. Consistent with this observation, synergistic effects of the matrix plus isoflavones were observed in MCF-7 cells stably transfected with the ERE-luc construct. Conclusions: This study underlines the limitations of the analysis of single food components in the evaluation of their effects on estrogen receptor activity and advocates the necessity to use complex organisms for the full comprehension of the effects of compounds altering the endocrine balance.

  1. Effects of Two Years of Conjugated Equine Estrogens on Cholinergic Neurons in Young and Middle-Aged Ovariectomized Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Carole; Tobin, Joseph R.; Voytko, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    The effect of estrogen on the number and size of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain was examined in surgically menopausal young and middle-aged cynomolgus monkeys. Young and middle-aged female monkeys were ovariectomized and treated with conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin) at doses that are equivalent to those currently prescribed to postmenopausal women. In the medial septum/diagonal band (MS/DB), no effect of treatment with Premarin was observed in the cholinergic neurons in either ovariectomized young or middle-aged monkeys. However, the number and size of cholinergic neurons in the MS/DB of middle-aged monkeys was greater than that in the young monkeys. In the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) of middle-aged monkeys, the number of cholinergic neurons in the intermediate region (Ch4i) was greater in Premarin-treated monkeys as compared to controls and numbers of neurons in this region were greater at higher levels of estrogen. No effects of estrogen were observed in other NBM regions in the middle-aged monkeys and the size of cholinergic neurons was unaffected by Premarin. These findings suggest that treatment with Premarin has selective beneficial effects on cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain but that these effects are both age and region specific. PMID:19401167

  2. Investigating the in Vitro Thermal Stability and Conformational Flexibility of Estrogen Receptors as Potential Key Factors of Their in Vivo Activity.

    PubMed

    Le Grand, Adélaïde; André-Leroux, Gwenaëlle; Marteil, Gaëlle; Duval, Hélène; Sire, Olivier; Le Tilly, Véronique

    2015-06-30

    Among hormone-inducible transcription factors, estrogen receptors (ERs) play important roles in tissue growth and differentiation, via either direct or indirect binding, in the nucleus, to specific DNA targets called estrogen responsive elements (EREs), or through nongenomic pathways. In humans, two estrogen receptor isoforms (hERs), designated hERα and hERβ, have been identified. These two hERs, encoded by genes located on distinct chromosomes, exhibit divergent tissue-specific functions and different subcellular distributions depending on their binding status, free or complexed to their cognate ligands. Because it is hypothesized that such distinct behaviors may arise from various conformational stabilities and flexibilities, the effect of salt concentration and temperature was studied on the free and estrogen-activated hERα and hERβ. Our results show that the conformational stability of hERβ is weakly modulated by salt concentration as opposed to hERα. In addition, we show that the estrogen-bound hERs exhibit a more constrained structure than the unliganded ones and that their conformational flexibility is more affected by diethylstilbestrol binding than that of estradiol, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, or raloxifen. In line with these results, conformational analysis and computational docking were performed on hERα and hERβ, which confer molecular support of a diethylstilbestrol-induced restrained flexibility as compared to other ligands. We found that Trp383 in hERα and Trp335 in hERβ can closely interact with the NR-box motif of the H12 helix and act as a gatekeeper of the agonist-bound versus antagonist-bound conformations. Altogether, our study contributes to an improved knowledge of the diverse physicochemical properties of full-length hERs, which will help in our understanding of their distinct cellular roles in various cellular contexts.

  3. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO THREE STEROID ESTROGENS ON REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS IN A FISH TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estradiol (E2), ethynylestradiol (EE2) and estrone (E4) are steroidal estrogens that are released into the aquatic environment in sewage treatment effluent. To determine whether these estrogens impact reproductive parameters in a model fish species, actively-reproducing cunner (T...

  4. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS ON REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS IN A MARINE FISH, TAUTOGOLABRUS ADSPERSUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estradiol (E2), ethynylestradiol (EE2) and estrone (E4) are steroidal estrogens that are released into the aquatic environment in sewage treatment effluent. To determine whether these estrogens could impact reproductive parameters in a model fish species, actively spawning male ...

  5. Coptis extracts enhance the anticancer effect of estrogen receptor antagonists on human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; He, Chengwei; Zhou, Keyuan; Wang, Jingdong; Kang, Jing X

    2009-01-09

    Estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists have been widely used for breast cancer treatment, but the efficacy and drug resistance remain to be clinical concerns. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the extracts of coptis, an anti-inflammatory herb, improve the anticancer efficacy of ER antagonists. The results showed that the combined treatment of ER antagonists and the crude extract of coptis or its purified compound berberine conferred synergistic growth inhibitory effect on MCF-7 cells (ER+), but not on MDA-MB-231 cells (ER-). Similar results were observed in the combined treatment of fulvestrant, a specific aromatase antagonist. Analysis of the expression of breast cancer related genes indicated that EGFR, HER2, bcl-2, and COX-2 were significantly downregulated, while IFN-beta and p21 were remarkably upregulated by berberine. Our results suggest that coptis extracts could be promising adjuvant to ER antagonists in ER positive breast cancer treatment through regulating expression of multiple genes.

  6. Using quantum chemical modeling and calculations for evaluation of cellulose potential for estrogen micropollutants removal from water effluents.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Amin; Asgarpour Khansary, Milad; Marjani, Azam; Shirazian, Saeed

    2017-03-03

    This paper is devoted to investigate the suitability of cellulose for estrogens micropollutants removal from water effluent. For this purpose, the sorption of eight estrogens including Estradiol, Estrone, Testosterone, Progesterone, Estriol, Mestranol, Ethinylestradiol and Diethylstilbestrol were investigated. The charge density profiles and sorption curves were obtained and discussed using quantum chemical calculations where the Accelrys Materials Studio software and COSMO-SAC model were employed. The geometry optimization of compound molecule and energy minimizations was performed using the Dmol3 Module and density functional theory of generalized gradient approximate and Volsko-Wilk-Nusair functional. We found that cellulose cannot be a reliable choice of sorbent for removal of Estrone and Estradiol, but it is a poor choice of sorbent for removal of Estriol, Ethinylestradiol. Cellulose can be used for Diethylstilbestrol, Mestranol, Testosterone and Progesterone removal from estrogens containing effluents.

  7. Exercise training is an effective alternative to estrogen supplementation for improving glucose homeostasis in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Tara L; Ritchie, Kerry L; Davies, Sarah; Hamilton, Melissa J; Cervone, Daniel T; Dyck, David J

    2015-01-01

    The irreversible loss of estrogen (specifically 17-β-estradiol; E2) compromises whole-body glucose tolerance in women. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is frequently prescribed to treat estrogen deficiency, but has several deleterious side effects. Exercise has been proposed as an HRT substitute, however, their relative abilities to treat glucose intolerance are unknown. Thirty ovariectomized (OVX) and 20 SHAM (control) rats underwent glucose tolerance tests (GTT) 10 weeks post surgery. Area under the curve (AUC) for OVX rats was 60% greater than SHAM controls (P = 0.0005). Rats were then randomly assigned to the following treatment groups: SHAM sedentary (sed) or exercise (ex; 60 min, 5×/weeks), OVX sed, ex, or E2 (28 μg/kg bw/day) for 4 weeks. OVX ex rats experienced a ∼45% improvement in AUC relative to OVX sed rats, whereas OVX E2 underwent a partial reduction (17%; P = 0.08). Maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus and EDL was not impaired in OVX rats, or augmented with exercise or E2. Akt phosphorylation did not differ in soleus, EDL, or liver of any group. However, OVX ex and OVX E2 experienced greater increases in p-Akt Ser473 in VAT and SQ tissues compared with SHAM and OVX sed groups. Mitochondrial markers CS, COXIV, and core1 were increased in soleus posttraining in OVX ex rats. The content of COXIV was reduced by 52% and 61% in SQ of OVX sed and E2 rats, compared to SHAM controls, but fully restored in OVX ex rats. In summary, exercise restores glucose tolerance in OVX rats more effectively than E2. This is not reflected by alterations in muscle maximal insulin response, but increased insulin signaling in adipose depots may underlie whole-body improvements. PMID:26603453

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-halogenated-1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylenes as potential estrogen receptor-targeted radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Robert N; Tongcharoensirikul, Pakamas; Barnsley, Kelton; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Hughes, Alun; DeSombre, Eugene R

    2015-04-01

    A series of three 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylene derivatives was prepared and evaluated as potential estrogen receptor imaging agents. The compounds display high binding affinity compared to estradiol, with the 2-iodo and 2-bromo-derivatives expressing higher affinity than the parent 2-nonhalogenated derivative. Evaluation in immature female rats also indicate that the compounds were all full estrogenic agonists with potencies in the same order of activity (I∼Br>H). Computational analysis of the interactions between the ligands and ERα-LBD demonstrated positive contribution of halide to binding properties. In preparation for studies using the radiohalogenated analogs, the corresponding protected 2-(tributylstannyl) derivative was prepared and converted to the corresponding 2-iodo-product.

  9. Paired box gene 2 is associated with estrogen receptor α in ovarian serous tumors: Potential theory basis for targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Ma, Haifen

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that Paired box gene (PAX)2 is activated by estradiol via estrogen receptor (ER)α in breast and endometrial cancer. The expression of PAX2 was restricted to ovarian serous tumors and only one case was positive in borderline mucinous tumor in our previous study. In the present study, immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the expression of ERα in 58 cases of ovarian serous tumors, including 30 serous cystadenomas, 16 borderline serous cystadenomas, 12 serous carcinomas and 67 cases of ovarian mucinous tumors, including 29 mucinous cystadenoma, 23 borderline mucinous cystadenoma and 15 mucinous carcinoma, which were the same specimens with detection of PAX2 expression. The results demonstrated that ERα was expressed in 10% (3/30) of serous cystadenomas, 62.5% (10/16) borderline serous cystadenomas and 66.7% (8/12) serous carcinomas. The expression of ERα in borderline serous cystadenomas and serous carcinomas were significantly higher compared with that in serous cystadenomas (P<0.01). ERα was detected in 3.4% (1/29) mucinous cystadenoma, 26.1% (6/23) borderline mucinous cystadenoma and only 6.7% (1/15) mucinous carcinoma. Furthermore, a scatter plot of the expression of PAX2 and ERα revealed a linear correlation between them in ovarian serous tumors (P<0.0001). With few positive results, no correlation was determined in ovarian mucinous tumors. It was demonstrated that PAX2 is associated with ERα in ovarian serous tumors, and this may become a potential theory basis for targeted therapy for ovarian serous tumors. Further research is required to determine how PAX2 and ERα work together, and the role of targeted therapy in ovarian serous tumors.

  10. Effect of estrogen on the blood supply of pituitary autografts in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lombardero, Matilde; Quintanar-Stephano, Andres; Vidal, Sergio; Horvath, Eva; Kovacs, Kalman; Lloyd, Ricardo V; Scheithauer, Bernd W

    2009-01-01

    Estrogens are known to cause pituitary enlargement and lactotroph proliferation. They also modulate pituitary angiogenesis and induce tumor formation. Pituitary grafts, due to the loss of hypothalamic dopamine, also show lactotroph hyperplasia. We investigated the role of estrogen on rat pituitary autograft vascularization by light and transmission electron microscopy, and assessed prolactin (PRL) blood levels, microvessel density (MVD) and cell proliferation using the BrdU labeling index. All adenohypophysial cell types were identified by immunohistochemistry (streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method). The proangiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), its receptor Flk-1, and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were similarly demonstrated. The prevalence of lactotrophs, as well as more intense staining for VEGF, Flk-1 and HIF-1α, was noted in those grafts exposed to estrogen, mainly in the area surrounding the central necrotic core. Immunostaining showed Flk-1 expression increased in endothelial cells of the estrogen-exposed grafts as compared with those unexposed. In contrast to the grafts not exposed to estrogen, in the estrogen-exposed grafts, only fenestrated endothelium could be demonstrated, suggesting that estrogen induces fenestration of newly formed capillaries. There was an increase in blood PRL levels in the estrogen-treated groups as compared with controls. Both MVD and BrdU labeling indices were higher in grafts exposed to estrogen, especially after 4 weeks. Our results suggest that estrogen administration not only enhances the expression of proangiogenic factors in the pituitary grafts but also induces their expression at earlier stages, leading to rapid neoformation of purely fenestrated capillaries. PMID:19207985

  11. Estrogen Opposes the Apoptotic Effects of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 on Tissue Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, David G.; Jin, Donald F.; Sanders, Michel M.

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between estrogen and growth factor signaling pathways at the level of gene expression play important roles in the function of reproductive tissues. For example, estrogen regulates transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) in the uterus during the proliferative phase of the mammalian reproductive cycle. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7), a member of the TGFβ superfamily, is also involved in the development and function of reproductive tissues. However, relatively few studies have addressed the expression of BMP-7 in reproductive tissues, and the role of BMP-7 remains unclear. As part of an ongoing effort to understand how estrogen represses gene expression and to study its interactions with other signaling pathways, chick BMP-7 (cBMP-7) was cloned. cBMP-7 mRNA levels are repressed threefold within 8 h following estrogen treatment in the chick oviduct, an extremely estrogen-responsive reproductive tissue. This regulation occurs at the transcriptional level. Estrogen has a protective role in many tissues, and withdrawal from estrogen often leads to tissue regression; however, the mechanisms mediating regression of the oviduct remain unknown. Terminal transferase-mediated end-labeling and DNA laddering assays demonstrated that regression of the oviduct during estrogen withdrawal involves apoptosis, which is a novel observation. cBMP-7 mRNA levels during estrogen withdrawal increase concurrently with the apoptotic index of the oviduct. Furthermore, addition of purified BMP-7 induces apoptosis in primary oviduct cells. This report demonstrates that the function of BMP-7 in the oviduct involves the induction of apoptosis and that estrogen plays an important role in opposing this function. PMID:10848589

  12. A transgenic mouse model expressing an ERα folding biosensor reveals the effects of Bisphenol A on estrogen receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Thillai V.; Foygel, Kira; Massoud, Tarik F.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) plays an important role in normal and abnormal physiology of the human reproductive system by interacting with the endogenous ligand estradiol (E2). However, other ligands, either analogous or dissimilar to E2, also bind to ERα. This may create unintentional activation of ER signaling in reproductive tissues that can lead to cancer development. We developed a transgenic mouse model that constitutively expresses a firefly luciferase (FLuc) split reporter complementation biosensor (NFLuc-ER-LBDG521T-CFLuc) to simultaneously evaluate the dynamics and potency of ligands that bind to ERα. We first validated this model using various ER ligands, including Raloxifene, Diethylstilbestrol, E2, and 4-hydroxytamoxifen, by employing FLuc-based optical bioluminescence imaging of living mice. We then used the model to investigate the carcinogenic property of Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental estrogen, by long-term exposure at full and half environmental doses. We showed significant carcinogenic effects on female animals while revealing activated downstream ER signaling as measured by bioluminescence imaging. BPA induced tumor-like outgrowths in female transgenic mice, histopathologically confirmed to be neoplastic and epithelial in origin. This transgenic mouse model expressing an ERα folding-biosensor is useful in evaluation of estrogenic ligands and their downstream effects, and in studying environmental estrogen induced carcinogenesis in vivo. PMID:27721470

  13. Cross-talk between non-genomic and genomic signalling pathways - Distinct effect profiles of environmental estrogens

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Elisabete; Kabil, Alena; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) transcriptional cross-talk after activation by 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) has been studied in considerable detail, but comparatively little is known about the ways in which synthetic estrogen-like chemicals, so-called xenoestrogens, interfere with these signalling pathways. E2 can stimulate rapid, non-genomic signalling events, such as activation of the Src/Ras/Erk signalling pathway. We investigated how activation of this pathway by E2, the estrogenic environmental contaminants o,p'-DDT, {beta}-HCH and p,p'-DDE, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) influences the expression of ER target genes, such as TFF1, ER, PR, BRCA1 and CCND1, and the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Despite commonalities in their estrogenicity as judged by cell proliferation assays, the environmental contaminants exhibited striking differences in their non-genomic and genomic signalling. The gene expression profiles of o,p'-DDT and {beta}-HCH resembled the effects observed with E2. In the case of {beta}-HCH this is surprising, considering its reported lack of affinity to the 'classical' ER. The expression profiles seen with p,p'-DDE showed some similarities with E2, but overall, p,p'-DDE was a fairly weak transcriptional inducer of TFF1, ER, PR, BRCA1 and CCND1. We observed distinct differences in the non-genomic signalling of the tested compounds. p,p'-DDE was unable to stimulate Src and Erk1/Erk2 activations. The effects of E2 on Src and Erk1/Erk2 phosphorylation were transient and weak when compared to EGF, but {beta}-HCH induced strong and sustained activation of all tested kinases. Transcription of TFF1, ER, PR and BRCA1 by E2, o,p'-DDT and {beta}-HCH could be suppressed partially by inhibiting the Src/Ras/Erk pathway with PD 98059. However, this was not seen with p,p'-DDE. Our investigations show that the cellular activities of estrogens and xenoestrogens are the result of a combination of extranuclear (non-genomic) and nuclear (genomic) events and highlight the

  14. ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

  15. Characterizing the Estrogenic Potential of 1060 Environmental Chemicals by Assessing Growth Kinetics in T47D Cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to detect environmental chemicals that pose a risk of endocrine disruption, high-throughput screening (HTS) tests capable of testing thousands of environmental chemicals are needed. Alteration of estrogen signaling has been implicated in a variety of adverse health effec...

  16. The use of a whole animal biophotonic model as a screen for the angiogenic potential of estrogenic compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for normal vascular growth and development during wound repair. VEGF is estrogen responsive and capable of regulating its own receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). Several agricultural pesticides (e.g., methoxychlor)...

  17. Effect of Vitamin D3 on Biosynthesis of Estrogen in Porcine Granulosa Cells via Modulation of Steroidogenic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, So-Hye; Lee, Jae-Eon; An, Sung-Min; Shin, Ye Young; Hwang, Dae Youn; Yang, Seung Yun; Cho, Seong-Keun; An, Beum-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D3 is a fat-soluble secosteroid responsible for enhancing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, and other materials. Vitamin D3 deficiency, therefore, can cause health problems such as metabolic diseases, and bone disorder. Female sex hormones including estrogen and progesterone are biosynthesized mainly in the granulosa cells of ovary. In this study, we isolated granulosa cells from porcine ovary and cultured for the experiments. In order to examine the effect of vitamin D3 on the ovarian granulosa cells, the mRNA and protein levels of genes were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot assay. The production of estrogen from the granulosa cells was also measured by the ELISA assay. Genes associated with follicle growth were not significantly altered by vitamin D3. However, it increases expression of genes involved in the estrogen-biosynthesis. Further, estrogen concentrations in porcine granulosa cell-cultured media increased in response to vitamin D3. These results showed that vitamin D3 is a powerful regulator of sex steroid hormone production in porcine granulosa cells, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency may result in inappropriate sexual development of industrial animals and eventually economic loss. PMID:28133513

  18. Estrogen Receptors and Their Implications in Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Caiazza, Francesco; Ryan, Elizabeth J.; Doherty, Glen; Winter, Desmond C.; Sheahan, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    Upon binding their cognate receptors, ERα (ESR1) and ERβ (ESR2), estrogens activate intracellular signaling cascades that have important consequences for cellular behavior. Historically linked to carcinogenesis in reproductive organs, estrogens have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of different cancer types of non-reproductive tissues including the colon. ERβ is the predominant estrogen receptor expressed in both normal and malignant colonic epithelium. However, during colon cancer progression, ERβ expression is lost, suggesting that estrogen signaling may play a role in disease progression. Estrogens may in fact exert an anti-tumor effect through selective activation of pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by ERβ, inhibition of inflammatory signals and modulation of the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we analyze the estrogen pathway as a possible therapeutic avenue in colorectal cancer, we report the most recent experimental evidence to explain the cellular and molecular mechanisms of estrogen-mediated protection against colorectal tumorigenesis, and we discuss future challenges and potential avenues for targeted therapy. PMID:25699240

  19. Synthesis and Functional Analysis of Novel Bivalent Estrogens

    PubMed Central

    Wendlandt, Alison E.; Yelton, Sharon M.; Lou, Dingyuan; Watt, David S.; Noonan, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The steroid hormone estrogen plays a critical role in female development and homeostasis. Estrogen mediates its effects through binding and activation of specific estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ), members of the steroid/nuclear receptor family of ligand-induced transcription factors. Due to their intimate roles in genomic and nongenomic signaling pathways, these hormones and their receptors have been also implicated in the pathologies of a variety of cancers and metabolic disorders, and have been the target of large therapeutic development efforts. The binding of estrogen to its respective receptors initiates a cascade of events that include receptor dimerization, nuclear localization, DNA binding and recruitment of co-regulatory protein complexes. In this manuscript, we investigate the potential for manipulating steroid receptor gene expression activity through the development of bivalent steroid hormones that are predicted to facilitate hormone receptor dimerization events. Data are presented for the development and testing of novel estrogen dimers, linked through their C-17 moiety, that can activate estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-mediated transcription events with efficacy and potency equal to or greater than that of ERα’s cognate ligand, 17β-estradiol. These bivalent estrogen structures open the door to the development of a variety of steroid therapeutics that could dramatically impact future drug development in this area. PMID:20685325

  20. The Effect of Prolonged Cold Ischemia Time on Estrogen Receptor Immunohistochemistry in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoxian; Deavers, Michael T.; Guo, Ming; Liu, Ping; Gong, Yun; Albarracin, Constance T.; Middleton, Lavinia P.; Huo, Lei

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate accurate detection of estrogen receptor expression in breast tumors, the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists recommends that cold ischemia time be kept under 1 h. However, data to address the upper threshold of cold ischemia time are limited. While it is our routine practice to keep cold ischemia time under 1 h for breast core biopsy specimens, this is difficult for surgical specimens because of the comprehensive intraoperative assessment performed at our institution. In this retrospective study, we compared estrogen receptor immunohistochemical staining results in paired breast tumor core biopsy specimens and resection specimens with cold ischemia times ranging from 64 to 357 min in 97 patients. The staining category (≥10%, positive; 1-9%, low positive; <1%, negative) between the core biopsy and resection specimens changed for 5 patients (5%). The weighted Kappa statistic for estrogen receptor staining category between the two specimen types was 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.99), indicating good concordance. The difference in the percentage of estrogen receptor staining between core biopsy and resection was not significantly associated with cold ischemia time (P = 0.81, Spearman correlation). Although we did not observe significant associations between the difference in estrogen receptor staining in the two specimen types and cold ischemia time after placing the patients in three groups of ‘increase’, ‘decrease’ and ‘no change’ using a difference of 25% in estrogen receptor staining percentage as the cutoff, a trend of decreased estrogen receptor staining with cold ischemia time > 2 h was detected. No statistically significant association was found between the change of estrogen receptor staining and the history of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Our findings indicate that prolonged cold ischemia time up to 4 h (97% of our cohort) in the practice setting of our institution has minimal clinical impact

  1. Estrogen actions in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, M E

    2009-01-01

    This brief review summarizes the current state of the field for estrogen receptor actions in the cardiovascular system and the cardiovascular effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). It is organized into three parts: a short Introduction and overview of the current view of how estrogen works on blood vessels; a summary of the current status of clinical information regarding HRT and cardiovascular effects; and an update on state-of-the-art mouse models of estrogen action using estrogen receptor knockout mice.

  2. In Silico Elucidation of the Molecular Mechanism Defining the Adverse Effect of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lei; Wang, Jian; Bourne, Philip E

    2007-01-01

    Early identification of adverse effect of preclinical and commercial drugs is crucial in developing highly efficient therapeutics, since unexpected adverse drug effects account for one-third of all drug failures in drug development. To correlate protein–drug interactions at the molecule level with their clinical outcomes at the organism level, we have developed an integrated approach to studying protein–ligand interactions on a structural proteome-wide scale by combining protein functional site similarity search, small molecule screening, and protein–ligand binding affinity profile analysis. By applying this methodology, we have elucidated a possible molecular mechanism for the previously observed, but molecularly uncharacterized, side effect of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). The side effect involves the inhibition of the Sacroplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ ion channel ATPase protein (SERCA) transmembrane domain. The prediction provides molecular insight into reducing the adverse effect of SERMs and is supported by clinical and in vitro observations. The strategy used in this case study is being applied to discover off-targets for other commercially available pharmaceuticals. The process can be included in a drug discovery pipeline in an effort to optimize drug leads and reduce unwanted side effects. PMID:18052534

  3. Longitudinal assessment of the effects of estrogen on blood pressure and cardiovascular autonomic activity in female rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A.

    2013-01-01

    1. Published data concerning the effect of ovarian hormones on hemodynamic variability is contradictory. This study employed, for the first time, radiotelemetric hemodynamic monitoring to investigate the long-term effects of chronic estrogen depletion and repletion on cardiovascular autonomic control and arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in female rats. 2. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and +dP/dtmax of arterial pressure (an estimate of myocardial contractility) were monitored in sham-operated (SO), ovariectomized (OVX), and estrogen-replaced OVX rats (OVXE2) for 16 weeks. Cardiovascular autonomic control and baroreflexes were assessed by frequency domain analysis of interbeat intervals (IBI) and systolic BP (SBP). 3. Compared with SO rats, OVX rats exhibited (i) no changes in BP, (ii) short-lived decreases in HR, and (iii) sustained reductions in dP/dtmax of arterial pressure. The high frequency (HF, 0.75-3 Hz) and low frequency (LF, 0.25-0.75 Hz) components of spectral power of IBI were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, by ovariectomy. An increase in the IBILF/HF ratio in OVX rats suggested a shift in the cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic dominance. Index α, the spectral index of spontaneous BRS, was reduced by OVX. 4. Estrogen replacement caused significant reductions in BP and HR and reversed OVX-induced changes in +dP/dtmax of arterial pressure and cardiac autonomic activity. The LF oscillations of SBP were reduced in OVX-E2 treated rats, suggesting a reduction in vascular sympathetic tone by estrogen. 5. These findings highlight the importance of long-term estrogen therapy in rectifying the detrimental cardiovascular and baroreflex influences caused by depletion of ovarian hormones. PMID:19413598

  4. Overexpression or knockdown of rat tryptophan hyroxylase-2 has opposing effects on anxiety behavior in an estrogen-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Hiroi, Ryoko; McDevitt, Ross A.; Morcos, Paul A.; Clark, Michael S.; Neumaier, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies showed that chronic estrogen treatment increases tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TpH2) mRNA in the caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), and this increase was associated with decreased anxiety. The present study explored the interaction of estrogen and targeted, bidirectional manipulation of TpH2 expression in the caudal DRN by knockdown or viral overexpression, to decrease or increase tryptophan hydroxylase expression respectively, on anxiety behavior. Rats were ovariectomized and replaced with empty or estradiol capsules (OVX, OVX/E, respectively). Animals received microinfusions of either antisense TpH2 or control morpholino oligonucleotides into caudal DRN and were later tested in the open field test. A separate group of animals were microinfused with TpH2-GFP or GFP-only herpes simplex viral vectors into caudal DRN and tested in the open field. The bidirectional impact of manipulations on TpH2 expression was confirmed using a combination of quantitative protein and mRNA measurements; TpH2 expression changes were limited to discrete subregions of DRN that were targeted by the manipulations. Estradiol decreased anxiety in all behavioral measures. In the OVX/E group, TpH2 knockdown significantly decreased time spent in the center of the open field, but not in the OVX group, suggesting that TpH2 knockdown reduced the anxiolytic effects of estrogen. Conversely, TpH2 overexpression in the OVX group mimicked the effects of estrogen, as measured by increased time spent in the center of the open field. These results suggest that estrogen and TpH2 in the caudal DRN have a critical interaction in regulating anxiety-like behavior. PMID:21182901

  5. The estrogen myth: potential use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Casadesus, Gemma; Garrett, Matthew R; Webber, Kate M; Hartzler, Anthony W; Atwood, Craig S; Perry, George; Bowen, Richard L; Smith, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Estrogen and other sex hormones have received a great deal of attention for their speculative role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but at present a direct connection between estrogen and the pathogenesis of AD remains elusive and somewhat contradictory. For example, on one hand there is a large body of evidence suggesting that estrogen is neuroprotective and improves cognition, and that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at the onset of menopause reduces the risk of developing AD decades later. However, on the other hand, studies such as the Women's Health Initiative demonstrate that HRT initiated in elderly women increases the risk of dementia. While estrogen continues to be investigated, the disparity of findings involving HRT has led many researchers to examine other hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis such as luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone. In this review, we propose that LH, rather than estrogen, is the paramount player in the pathogenesis of AD. Notably, both men and women experience a 3- to 4-fold increase in LH with aging, and LH receptors are found throughout the brain following a regional pattern remarkably similar to those neuron populations affected in AD. With respect to disease, serum LH level is increased in women with AD relative to non-diseased controls, and levels of LH in the brain are also elevated in AD. Mechanistically, we propose that elevated levels of LH may be a fundamental instigator responsible for the aberrant reactivation of the cell cycle that is seen in AD. Based on these aforementioned aspects, clinical trials underway with leuprolide acetate, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist that ablates serum LH levels, hold great promise as a ready means of treatment in individuals afflicted with AD.

  6. The removal of estrogenic activity with UV/chlorine technology and identification of novel estrogenic disinfection by-products.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Xu, Bi; Liungai, Zhiqi; Hu, Hong-Ying; Chen, Chao; Qiao, Juan; Lu, Yun

    2016-04-15

    As a recently developed disinfection technology, ultraviolet (UV)/chlorine treatment has received much attention. Many studies have evaluated its effects on pathogen inactivation, contaminant removal, and formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), but its potential for environmental estrogen removal and estrogenic DBP generation, which can also be a risk to both ecosystem and human health, have not been evaluated. In this study, UV/chlorine treatment resulted in a greater removal of estrogenic activity in synthetic effluent samples containing 17β-estradiol (E2) than did UV or chlorine treatment alone regardless of the water quality. For both the UV/chlorine and chlorine treatments, there was significant interference from NH3-N, although the UV/chlorine treatment was less affected. Estrogen receptor based affinity chromatography was used to isolate the specific estrogenic DBPs, and a novel product, with high estrogenic activity compared to E2, Δ9(11)-dehydro-estradiol, was identified. It was generated by all three treatments, and might be previously mistakenly recognized as estrone (E1). This study demonstrated that UV/chlorine is a better treatment for the removal of 17β-estradiol than chlorine and UV alone. The new identified estrogenic DBP, Δ9(11)-dehydro-estradiol, which can be isolated by affinity chromatography, could be an emerging concern in the future.

  7. Neuroprotective Effects of 17β-Estradiol Rely on Estrogen Receptor Membrane Initiated Signals

    PubMed Central

    Fiocchetti, Marco; Ascenzi, Paolo; Marino, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Besides its crucial role in many physiological events, 17β-estradiol (E2) exerts protective effects in the central nervous system. The E2 effects are not restricted to the brain areas related with the control of reproductive function, but rather are widespread throughout the developing and the adult brain. E2 actions are mediated through estrogen receptors (i.e., ERα and ERβ) belonging to the nuclear receptor super-family. As members of the ligand-regulated transcription factor family, classically, the actions of ERs in the brain were thought to mediate only the E2 long-term transcriptional effects. However, a growing body of evidence highlighted rapid, membrane initiated E2 effects in the brain that are independent of ER transcriptional activities and are involved in E2-induced neuroprotection. The aim of this review is to focus on the rapid effects of E2 in the brain highlighting the specific role of the signaling pathway(s) of the ERβ subtype in the neuroprotective actions of E2. PMID:22493583

  8. Effect of estrogen on morphine- and oxycodone-induced antinociception in a female femur bone cancer pain model.

    PubMed

    Ono, Hiroko; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kanemasa, Toshiyuki; Sakaguchi, Gaku; Shinohara, Shunji

    2016-02-15

    Although estrous cycle has been reported to influence antiociceptive effect of morphine in several pain conditions, its effect on cancer pain is not well established. We investigated the effect of estrogen on morphine antinociception using a bone cancer pain model and compared its potency with that of oxycodone. Female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) for preparation of a femur bone cancer pain (FBC) model. β-estradiol was subcutaneously (s.c.) administered and antinociceptive effects of opioids was assessed using the von Frey monofilament test. Although morphine (5-20mg/kg, s.c.) did have significant antinociceptive effects in the FBC-OVX group, its effects in the FBC-OVX+β-estradiol (OVX+E) group was limited. Oxycodone (1-5mg/kg, s.c.) exhibited significant effects in both groups. Expression changes in opioid-related genes (μ-, κ-, δ-opioid receptors, prodynorphin, proenkephalin, proopiomelanocortin) in the spinal and supraspinal sites were examined among the sham-OVX, sham-OVX+E, FBC-OVX, and FBC-OVX+E groups by in situ hybridization. These studies detected a significant increase in prodynorphin in the spinal dorsal horn of the FBC-OVX+E group. Spinal injection of a dynorphin-A antibody to FBC-OVX+E mice restored antinociception of morphine. In conclusion, we detected a differential effect of estrogen on morphine- and oxycodone-induced antinociception in a female FBC model. The effect of morphine was limited with estrogen exposure, which may be due to estrogen- and pain-mediated spinal expression of dynorphin-A.

  9. Selective estrogen receptor-beta (SERM-beta) compounds modulate raphe nuclei tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1) mRNA expression and cause antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Clark, J A; Alves, S; Gundlah, C; Rocha, B; Birzin, E T; Cai, S-J; Flick, R; Hayes, E; Ho, K; Warrier, S; Pai, L; Yudkovitz, J; Fleischer, R; Colwell, L; Li, S; Wilkinson, H; Schaeffer, J; Wilkening, R; Mattingly, E; Hammond, M; Rohrer, S P

    2012-11-01

    Estrogen acts through two molecularly distinct receptors termed estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) which bind estradiol with similar affinities and mediate the effects of estrogen throughout the body. ERα plays a major role in reproductive physiology and behavior, and mediates classic estrogen signaling in such tissues as the uterus, mammary gland, and skeleton. ERβ, however, modulates estrogen signaling in the ovary, the immune system, prostate, gastrointestinal tract, and hypothalamus, and there is some evidence that ERβ can regulate ERα activity. Moreover, ERβ knockout studies and receptor distribution analyses in the CNS suggest that this receptor may play a role in the modulation of mood and cognition. In recent years several ERβ-specific compounds (selective estrogen receptor beta modulators; SERM-beta) have become available, and research suggests potential utility of these compounds in menopausal symptom relief, breast cancer prevention, diseases that have an inflammatory component, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory bowel disease, as well as modulation of mood, and anxiety. Here we demonstrate an antidepressant-like effect obtained using two SERM-beta compounds, SERM-beta1 and SERM-beta2. These compounds exhibit full agonist activity at ERβ in a cell based estrogen response element (ERE) transactivation assay. SERM-beta1 and 2 are non-proliferative with respect to breast as determined using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell-based assay and non-proliferative in the uterus as determined by assessing the effects of SERM-beta compounds on immature rat uterine weight and murine uterine weight. In vivo SERM-beta1 and 2 are brain penetrant and display dose dependent efficacy in the murine dorsal raphe assays for induction of tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA and progesterone receptor protein. These compounds show activity in the murine forced swim test and promote hippocampal neurogenesis acutely in rats. Taken

  10. Estrogen effects on the expression of Brx in the brain and pituitary of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Eddington, David O; Baldwin, Emily L; Segars, James H; Wu, T J

    2006-04-28

    A member of the Dbl family of oncoproteins was discovered in breast cancer tissue extracts. This novel protein, designated Brx, contains an estrogen-receptor binding motif and is highly expressed in hormone-responsive breast tissue. Due to its ability to augment ligand-dependent activation of estrogen receptors, we analyzed the expression of Brx in the adult mouse brain and pituitary. Results indicated that Brx was expressed in specific regions of the brain and pituitary. Furthermore, the results indicate that differences exist in both brain and pituitary tissue of male and female mice with greater expression in the female. However, estrogen did not influence Brx expression in ovariectomized mice. The anatomical studies support a role for Brx in its association with the estrogen receptor and that Brx may be involved in neuronal and pituitary function in a sexually dimorphic manner.

  11. Is Homepathy Effective for Hot Flashes and other Estrogen-Withdrawal Symptoms in Breast Cancer Survivors? A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    AD__________ Award Number: DAMD17-99-1-9438 TITLE: Is Homeopathy Effective for Hot Flashes and Other Estrogen-Withdrawal Symptoms in Breast Cancer...Mar 00) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Is Homeopathy Effective for Hot Flashes and Other Estrogen- DAMD17-99-1-9438 Withdrawal Symptoms in...there is evidence that homeopathy is an effective treatment to improve the quality of life in breast cancer survivors who are experiencing hot flashes

  12. Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17α-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Ramji K; Deem, Sharon L; Holliday, Dawn K; Jandegian, Caitlin M; Kassotis, Christopher D; Nagel, Susan C; Tillitt, Donald E; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2015-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the mass-produced component of plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) are widely prevalent in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Many aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are exposed daily to high concentrations of BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), estrogen in birth control pills. In this review, we will predominantly focus on BPA and EE2, well-described estrogenic EDCs. First, the evidence that BPA and EE2 are detectable in almost all bodies of water will be discussed. We will consider how BPA affects sexual and neural development in these species, as these effects have been the best characterized across taxa. For instance, such chemicals have been in many cases reported to cause sex-reversal of males to females. Even if these chemicals do not overtly alter the gonadal sex, there are indications that several EDCs might demasculinize male-specific behaviors that are essential for attracting a mate. In so doing, these chemicals may reduce the likelihood that these males reproduce. If exposed males do reproduce, the concern is that they will then be passing on compromised genetic fitness to their offspring and transmitting potential transgenerational effects through their sperm epigenome. We will thus consider how diverse epigenetic changes might be a unifying mechanism of how BPA and EE2 disrupt several processes across species. Such changes might also serve as universal species diagnostic biomarkers of BPA and other EDCs exposure. Lastly, the evidence that estrogenic EDCs-induced effects in aquatic species might translate to humans will be considered.

  13. Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17α-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bhandari, Ramji K.; Deem, Sharon L.; Holliday, Dawn K.; Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Kassotis, Christopher D.; Nagel, Susan C.; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the mass-produced component of plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) are widely prevalent in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Many aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are exposed daily to high concentrations of BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), estrogen in birth control pills. In this review, we will predominantly focus on BPA and EE2, well-described estrogenic EDCs. First, the evidence that BPA and EE2 are detectable in almost all bodies of water will be discussed. We will consider how BPA affects sexual and neural development in these species, as these effects have been the best characterized across taxa. For instance, such chemicals have been in many cases reported to cause sex-reversal of males to females. Even if these chemicals do not overtly alter the gonadal sex, there are indications that several EDCs might demasculinize male-specific behaviors that are essential for attracting a mate. In so doing, these chemicals may reduce the likelihood that these males reproduce. If exposed males do reproduce, the concern is that they will then be passing on compromised genetic fitness to their offspring and transmitting potential transgenerational effects through their sperm epigenome. We will thus consider how diverse epigenetic changes might be a unifying mechanism of how BPA and EE2 disrupt several processes across species. Such changes might also serve as universal species diagnostic biomarkers of BPA and other EDCs exposure. Lastly, the evidence that estrogenic EDCs-induced effects in aquatic species might translate to humans will be considered.

  14. Estrogenic involvement in social learning, social recognition and pathogen avoidance.

    PubMed

    Choleris, Elena; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Phan, Anna; Valsecchi, Paola; Kavaliers, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Sociality comes with specific cognitive skills that allow the proper processing of information about others (social recognition), as well as of information originating from others (social learning). Because sociality and social interactions can also facilitate the spread of infection among individuals the ability to recognize and avoid pathogen threat is also essential. We review here various studies primarily from the rodent literature supporting estrogenic involvement in the regulation of social recognition, social learning (socially acquired food preferences and mate choice copying) and the recognition and avoidance of infected and potentially infected individuals. We consider both genomic and rapid estrogenic effects involving estrogen receptors α and β, and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1, along with their interactions with neuropeptide systems in the processing of social stimuli and the regulation and expression of these various socially relevant behaviors.

  15. Antiproliferative effect of estrogen in vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by Kruppel-like factor-4 and manganese superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Sivritas, Derya; Becher, Marc Ulrich; Ebrahimian, Talin; Arfa, Omar; Rapp, Stephanie; Bohner, Annika; Mueller, Cornelius Friedrich; Umemura, Takashi; Wassmann, Sven; Nickenig, Georg; Wassmann, Kerstin

    2011-06-01

    The mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and the zinc finger transcription factor Kruppel-like factor-4 (KLF4) are involved in the regulation of redox homeostasis, apoptosis and cell proliferation. We have shown that estrogen exerts antioxidative actions via induction of MnSOD in cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether estrogen inhibits VSMC proliferation via alteration of KLF4 and MnSOD expression. In cultured rat aortic VSMC, estrogen binding to estrogen receptor-alpha led to rapid increase in KLF4 expression and reduction of cell proliferation by 50%. Protein separation revealed that KLF4 was shifted to the nucleus when VSMC were treated with estrogen. Estrogen-mediated induction of KLF4 and the antiproliferative effect involved activation of PI-3 kinase, Akt phosphorylation and induction of NO synthase activity. Experiments in freshly isolated denuded aortic segments revealed an increase in KLF4 abundance after estrogen treatment and demonstrated that eNOS is expressed in the media at low levels. Transfection experiments showed that estrogen-induced overexpression of MnSOD required KLF4 and that both KLF4 and MnSOD were indispensable for the observed antiproliferative effect of estrogen in VSMC. To confirm these data in vivo, we investigated neointima formation after carotid artery injury in wild-type (WT) and MnSOD+/- mice. Estrogen deficiency led to enhanced neointima formation and higher numbers of Ki67-positive proliferating cells in the neointima of ovariectomized WT and MnSOD+/- mice. Moreover, MnSOD+/- mice showed more extensive neointima formation and Ki67 immunostaining. Interestingly, estrogen replacement prevented neointima formation in WT mice but failed to completely inhibit neointima formation in MnSOD+/- mice. Cultured VSMC derived from MnSOD+/- mice showed enhanced proliferation as compared to WT VSMC, and estrogen treatment failed to

  16. Effects of estrogen on very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism in fed and fasted chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    A single injection of estrogen into growing chicks resulted in a marked elevation in plasma triglyceride (TG) followed by phospholipid (PL) and cholesterol (CH) in both fed and fasted chicks. Estrogen caused a development of massive fatty liver in fed chicks. Hepatic malic enzyme and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities also increased significantly in fed chicks and, to a small extent, in fasted chicks. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were barely detectable in the fasted control plasma. However, the VLDL concentration increased markedly upon estrogen injection, becoming the most prevalent lipoprotein in the plasma. The administration of estrogen resulted in an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid content except in the cholesteryl ester of VLDL and LDL. VLDL of estrogenized birds had {beta}-mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis, and they eluted in two peaks on agarose gel filtration chromatography. Both peaks on gel filtration exhibited the same {beta}-mobility on agarose gel electrophoresis. Nevertheless, the apoprotein composition of these two peaks were substantially different from each other; apo B was not present in the first peak VLDL. VLDL-TG kinetic studies conducted in vivo, using {sup 14}C-TG-VLDL prepared endogenously from control and estrogenized chicks revealed that VLDL-TG produced from the former had a higher fractional catabolic rate (FCR) than VLDL-TG from the latter.

  17. Estrogen therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A

    2006-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a worldwide problem that results in fractures that lead to disability and high costs to society. Estrogen therapy is frequently utilized for postmenopausal symptoms, but also has proven protective effects on the skeleton. The main action of estrogen at the cellular level is to inhibit the osteoclast by increasing levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG). OPG binds to the receptor activator of NFkB and prevents osteoclast differentiation, activity and survival. Numerous trials have demonstrated the positive effect estrogen has on the improvement of bone mineral density, and lower doses have also proven efficacious with fewer side effects. Both observational and randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the ability of estrogen treatment to prevent fractures. Topics that remain controversial include the appropriate length of estrogen treatment for postmenopausal women and the appropriate follow-up after treatment discontinuation.

  18. Osteoprotective effect of cordycepin on estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-wei; Deng, Hualiang; Qi, Wei; Zhao, Guang-yue; Cao, Xiao-rui

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of cordycepin on ovariectomized osteopenic rats. Fifty Wistar female rats used were divided into 5 groups: (1) sham-operation rats (control), (2) ovariectomized (OVX) rats with osteopenia, and (3) OVX'd rats with osteopenia treated with cordycepin (5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg) for 8 weeks. After the rats were treated orally with cordycepin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), serum osteocalcin (OC), homocysteine (HCY) , C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX) level, and oxidative stress were examined, respectively. The femoral neck was used for mechanical compression testing. At the same time, we further investigated the effect of cordycepin in vitro assay. The beneficial effects of cordycepin on improvement of osteoporosis in rats were attributable mainly to decrease ALP activity, TRAP activity, and CTX level. At the same time, cordycepin also increases the OC level in ovariectomized osteopenic rats. The histological examination clearly showed that dietary cordycepin can prevent bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency. These experimental results suggest that complement cordycepin is protective after ovariectomized osteopenic in specific way.

  19. Osteoprotective Effect of Cordycepin on Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Osteoporosis In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Da-wei; Deng, Hualiang; Qi, Wei; Zhao, Guang-yue; Cao, Xiao-rui

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of cordycepin on ovariectomized osteopenic rats. Fifty Wistar female rats used were divided into 5 groups: (1) sham-operation rats (control), (2) ovariectomized (OVX) rats with osteopenia, and (3) OVX'd rats with osteopenia treated with cordycepin (5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg) for 8 weeks. After the rats were treated orally with cordycepin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), serum osteocalcin (OC), homocysteine (HCY) , C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX) level, and oxidative stress were examined, respectively. The femoral neck was used for mechanical compression testing. At the same time, we further investigated the effect of cordycepin in vitro assay. The beneficial effects of cordycepin on improvement of osteoporosis in rats were attributable mainly to decrease ALP activity, TRAP activity, and CTX level. At the same time, cordycepin also increases the OC level in ovariectomized osteopenic rats. The histological examination clearly showed that dietary cordycepin can prevent bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency. These experimental results suggest that complement cordycepin is protective after ovariectomized osteopenic in specific way. PMID:25874211

  20. Effects of estrogenic xenobiotics on molting of the water flea, Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Zou, E; Fingerman, M

    1997-12-01

    The effects of five xenobiotics, 2,4,5-trichloribiphenyl (PCB29), the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1242, diethyl phthalate, lindane, and 4-octylphenol, on molting of Daphnia magna were investigated. All except PCB29 are known to have unexpected estrogenicity in vertebrates. Daphnids exposed to PCB29, Aroclor 1242, and diethyl phthalate took significantly more time to complete four molts than did the controls. The inhibitory effects of these ortho-chlorinated PCBs suggest that certain structural features, most probably including ortho-chlorination, are related to the ability of a PCB to affect molting. Agents with multicyclic structures, such as PCBs, are more effective in inhibiting molting than are single-ringed xenobiotics, such as diethyl phthalate, which suggests that hydrophobicity may be a requirement for binding to the ecdysteroid receptor. These molt-inhibiting agents with multiple rings appear to bear more structural resemblance to the steroidal molting hormones of arthropods, the ecdysteroids, than do the single-ringed ones. While the possibility of alternative mechanisms, such as impairment of ecdysteroidogenesis exists, the results obtained herein support the hypothesis that some xenobiotics which disrupt endocrine processes in vertebrates can also interfere with the hormonally regulated molting process in arthropods through acting as antagonists of endogenous ecdysteroids by binding to and thereby blocking the ecdysteroid receptor.

  1. The effects of fulvestrant, an estrogen receptor antagonist, on the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of osteoprecursor cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Beom

    2013-02-01

    Fulvestrant is a novel type of endocrine treatment and is considered to be a potent inhibitor of breast cancer cell proliferation. Fulvestrant is reported to work by downregulating as well as degrading the estrogen receptor, leading to an inhibition of estrogen signaling through the estrogen receptor. The effects of various doses of fulvestrant for bone cells have not yet been fully investigated. In the present study, the effects of fulvestrant on osteoprecursor cells were evaluated. The effect on cell viability was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and protein measurement. Differentiation and mineralization were examined using an alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) test and Alizarin red S staining. The protein expression of osteocalcin was evaluated using western blot analysis. Cultures grown in the presence of fulvestrant at concentrations of 0.1-10 µM did not show any significant change in cell proliferation. Cultures grown in the presence of fulvestrant showed a dose-dependent reduction in ALP activity, however, statistically significant differences were not achieved. Cultures grown in the presence of fulvestrant presented with a dose-dependent reduction in mineralization with a statistically significant difference at the 10 µM concentration. The use of fulvestrant may produce negative effects on the mineralization of osteoprecursor cells, while long-term use of fulvestrant may have detrimental effects on osteoblastic activity.

  2. FIELD DEPLOYABLE TECHNIQUES TO MONITOR EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS THROUGHOUT THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF WILD BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern about potential for endocrine disrupting chemicals to interfere with normal breeding behaviors of wildlife prompted this study of effects of exposure to environmental estrogens during the breeding cycle of wild birds. The house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) was selected as...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A QUANTITATIVE ASSAY FOR VITELLOGENIN TO MONITOR ESTROGEN-LIKE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmental contaminants have the potential to disrupt endocrine systems of wildlife and humans resulting in impairment of reproductive and other systems. A subset of these contaminants may initiate these effects by binding to the estrogen receptor. In oviparous vertebrate...

  4. Estrogen supplements in menopause.

    PubMed

    Booher, D L

    1990-01-01

    The number of women aged 65 and older is expected to double by the year 2000, increasing the need for effective management of symptoms related to menopause. Contemporary management of menopause addresses the continuum of events associated with the effects of estrogen deprivation on quality and duration of life, including neuroendocrine changes, urogenital atrophy, sexual dysfunction, skin and hair changes, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. The risks and benefits of management strategies, including hormone replacement therapy, must be weighted carefully by both physician and patient. The use of estrogens and progestins, alterative compounds, dosages, routes of administration, and their advantages and disadvantages must be analyzed.

  5. Are typical human serum BPA concentrations measurable and sufficient to be estrogenic in the general population?

    PubMed

    Teeguarden, Justin; Hanson-Drury, Sesha; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Doerge, Daniel R

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian estrogen receptors modulate many physiological processes. Chemicals with structural features similar to estrogens can interact with estrogen receptors to produce biological effects similar to those caused by endogenous estrogens in the body. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a structural analogue of estrogen that binds to estrogen receptors. Exposure to BPA in humans is virtually ubiquitous in industrialized societies, but BPA is rapidly detoxified by metabolism and does not accumulate in the body. Whether or not serum concentrations of BPA in humans are sufficiently high to disrupt normal estrogen-related biology is the subject of intense political and scientific debate. Here we show a convergence of robust methods for measuring or calculating serum concentrations of BPA in humans from 93 published studies of more than 30,000 individuals in 19 countries across all life stages. Typical serum BPA concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than levels measurable by modern analytical methods and below concentrations required to occupy more than 0.0009% of Type II Estrogen Binding Sites, GPR30, ERα or ERβ receptors. Occupancies would be higher, but ≤0.04%, for the highest affinity receptor, ERRγ. Our results show limited or no potential for estrogenicity in humans, and question reports of measurable BPA in human serum.

  6. Bioassay of estrogenicity and chemical analyses of estrogens in streams across the United States associated with livestock operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, David A.; Shappell, Nancy W.; Billey, L.O.; Bermudez, Dietrich S.; Wilson, Vickie S.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Perkins, Stephanie D.; Evans, Nicola; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; Shipitalo, J.M.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Animal manures, used as a nitrogen source for crop production, are often associated with negative impacts on nutrient levels in surface water. The concentrations of estrogens in streams from these manures also are of concern due to potential endocrine disruption in aquatic species. Streams associated with livestock operations were sampled by discrete samples (n = 38) or by time-integrated polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS,n = 19). Samples were analyzed for estrogens by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MSM2) and estrogenic activity was assessed by three bioassays: Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES), T47D-KBluc Assay, MCF-7 Estrogenicity Screen (E-Screen). Samples were collected from 19 streams within small (∼1-30 km2) watersheds in 12 U.S. states representing a range of hydrogeologic conditions, dominated by: dairy (3), grazing beef (3), feedlot cattle (1); swine (5); poultry (3); and 4 areas where no livestock were raised or manure was applied. Water samples were consistently below the United Kingdom proposed Lowest Observable Effect Concentration for 17b-estradiol in fish (10 ng/L) in all watersheds, regardless of land use. Estrogenic activity was often higher in samples during runoff conditions following a period of manure application. Estrone was the most commonly detected estrogen (13 of 38 water samples, mean 1.9, maximum 8.3 ng/L). Because of the T47D-KBluc assay’s sensitivity towards estrone (1.4 times 17β-estradiol) it was the most sensitive method for detecting estrogens, followed by the E-Screen, GC-MS2, and YES. POCIS resulted in more frequent detections of estrogens than discrete water samples across all sites, even when applying the less-sensitive YES bioassay to the POCIS extracts.

  7. Metabolic Effect of Estrogen Receptor Agonists on Breast Cancer Cells in the Presence or Absence of Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Belkaid, Anissa; Čuperlović-Culf, Miroslava; Touaibia, Mohamed; Ouellette, Rodney J.; Surette, Marc E.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic shift is one of the major hallmarks of cancer development. Estrogen receptor (ER) activity has a profound effect on breast cancer cell growth through a number of metabolic changes driven by its effect on transcription of several enzymes, including carbonic anhydrases, Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and oncogenes including HER2. Thus, estrogen receptor activators can be expected to lead to the modulation of cell metabolism in estrogen receptor positive cells. In this work we have investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol, an ER activator, and ferulic acid, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, as well as ER activator, in the absence and in the presence of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide on the metabolism of MCF7 cells and MCF7 cells, stably transfected to express HER2 (MCF7HER2). Metabolic profiles were studied using 1D and 2D metabolomic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments, combined with the identification and quantification of metabolites, and the annotation of the results in the context of biochemical pathways. Overall changes in hydrophilic metabolites were largest following treatment of MCF7 and MC7HER2 cells with 17β-estradiol. However, the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide had the largest effect on the profile of lipophilic metabolites. PMID:27240414

  8. Identification of estrogen target genes during zebrafish embryonic development through transcriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ruixin; Bondesson, Maria; Singh, Amar V; Riu, Anne; McCollum, Catherine W; Knudsen, Thomas B; Gorelick, Daniel A; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen signaling is important for vertebrate embryonic development. Here we have used zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a vertebrate model to analyze estrogen signaling during development. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1 µM 17β-estradiol (E2) or vehicle from 3 hours to 4 days post fertilization (dpf), harvested at 1, 2, 3 and 4 dpf, and subjected to RNA extraction for transcriptome analysis using microarrays. Differentially expressed genes by E2-treatment were analyzed with hierarchical clustering followed by biological process and tissue enrichment analysis. Markedly distinct sets of genes were up and down-regulated by E2 at the four different time points. Among these genes, only the well-known estrogenic marker vtg1 was co-regulated at all time points. Despite this, the biological functional categories targeted by E2 were relatively similar throughout zebrafish development. According to knowledge-based tissue enrichment, estrogen responsive genes were clustered mainly in the liver, pancreas and brain. This was in line with the developmental dynamics of estrogen-target tissues that were visualized using transgenic zebrafish containing estrogen responsive elements driving the expression of GFP (Tg(5xERE:GFP)). Finally, the identified embryonic estrogen-responsive genes were compared to already published estrogen-responsive genes identified in male adult zebrafish (Gene Expression Omnibus database). The expressions of a few genes were co-regulated by E2 in both embryonic and adult zebrafish. These could potentially be used as estrogenic biomarkers for exposure to estrogens or estrogenic endocrine disruptors in zebrafish. In conclusion, our data suggests that estrogen effects on early embryonic zebrafish development are stage- and tissue- specific.

  9. Identification of Estrogen Target Genes during Zebrafish Embryonic Development through Transcriptomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ruixin; Bondesson, Maria; Singh, Amar V.; Riu, Anne; McCollum, Catherine W.; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Gorelick, Daniel A.; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen signaling is important for vertebrate embryonic development. Here we have used zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a vertebrate model to analyze estrogen signaling during development. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1 µM 17β-estradiol (E2) or vehicle from 3 hours to 4 days post fertilization (dpf), harvested at 1, 2, 3 and 4 dpf, and subjected to RNA extraction for transcriptome analysis using microarrays. Differentially expressed genes by E2-treatment were analyzed with hierarchical clustering followed by biological process and tissue enrichment analysis. Markedly distinct sets of genes were up and down-regulated by E2 at the four different time points. Among these genes, only the well-known estrogenic marker vtg1 was co-regulated at all time points. Despite this, the biological functional categories targeted by E2 were relatively similar throughout zebrafish development. According to knowledge-based tissue enrichment, estrogen responsive genes were clustered mainly in the liver, pancreas and brain. This was in line with the developmental dynamics of estrogen-target tissues that were visualized using transgenic zebrafish containing estrogen responsive elements driving the expression of GFP (Tg(5xERE:GFP)). Finally, the identified embryonic estrogen-responsive genes were compared to already published estrogen-responsive genes identified in male adult zebrafish (Gene Expression Omnibus database). The expressions of a few genes were co-regulated by E2 in both embryonic and adult zebrafish. These could potentially be used as estrogenic biomarkers for exposure to estrogens or estrogenic endocrine disruptors in zebrafish. In conclusion, our data suggests that estrogen effects on early embryonic zebrafish development are stage- and tissue- specific. PMID:24223173

  10. Do estrogenic compounds in drinking water migrating from plastic pipe distribution system pose adverse effects to human? An analysis of scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Yin, Hua; Dang, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    With the widespread application of plastic pipes in drinking water distribution system, the effects of various leachable organic chemicals have been investigated and their occurrence in drinking water supplies is monitored. Most studies focus on the odor problems these substances may cause. This study investigates the potential endocrine disrupting effects of the migrating compound 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (2,4-d-t-BP). The summarized results show that the migration of 2,4-d-t-BP from plastic pipes could result in chronic exposure and the migration levels varied greatly among different plastic pipe materials and manufacturing brands. Based on estrogen equivalent (EEQ), the migrating levels of the leachable compound 2,4-d-t-BP in most plastic pipes were relative low. However, the EEQ levels in drinking water migrating from four out of 15 pipes may pose significant adverse effects. With the increasingly strict requirements on regulation of drinking water quality, these results indicate that some drinking water transported with plastic pipes may not be safe for human consumption due to the occurrence of 2,4-d-t-BP. Moreover, 2,4-d-t-BP is not the only plastic pipe-migrating estrogenic compound, other compounds such as 2-tert-butylphenol (2-t-BP), 4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BP), and others may also be leachable from plastic pipes.

  11. Vascular estrogen receptors and endothelium-derived nitric oxide production in the mouse aorta. Gender difference and effect of estrogen receptor gene disruption.

    PubMed Central

    Rubanyi, G M; Freay, A D; Kauser, K; Sukovich, D; Burton, G; Lubahn, D B; Couse, J F; Curtis, S W; Korach, K S

    1997-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that estrogen receptors (ER) in the blood vessel wall play a role in the modulation of the release of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO). Both basal and stimulated release of EDNO were determined in aortic rings isolated from female and male wild-type and male homozygous estrogen receptor knock-out (ERKO) mice. 125I-17beta-estradiol binding in aortic tissue showed significantly more high affinity cytosolic- nuclear-binding sites in male compared with female wildtype mice. Estrogen receptor transcripts were present in the aorta of male wild-type mice, but they were absent in male ERKO animals. Basal release of EDNO (determined by endothelium-dependent contraction caused by NG-nitro-arginine) was significantly higher in aorta of wild-type male mice compared with wild-type female mice, and significantly lower in the aorta of male ERKO compared with male wild-type mice. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was similar in all groups studied. No difference was observed in the activity of calcium-dependent nitric oxide synthase in homogenates of lungs and brain taken from male wild-type and ERKO mice. These studies show a significant association between the number of estrogen receptors and basal release of EDNO in the aorta of mice, and suggest that decreased vascular estrogen receptor number may represent a novel risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:9153286

  12. Effects of a7nAChR agonist on the tissue estrogen receptor expression of castrated rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Gong, Fan; Lv, Jinhan; Gao, Jun; Ma, Jingzu

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one common disease in postmenopausal women due to depressed estrogen level. It has been known that inflammatory factors are involved in osteoporosis pathogenesis. One regulator of inflammatory cascade reaction, a7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7nAChR), therefore, may exert certain role in osteoporosis. This study thus investigated this question on an osteoporosis rat model after castration. Rats were firstly castrated to induce osteoporosis, and then received a7nAChR agonist (PNU-282987), diethylstilbestrol or saline via intraperitoneal injection. After 6 or 12 weeks, bone samples were collected for counting osteoblast number, bone density and estrogen receptor (ERα and ERβ) expression, in addition to the serum laboratory of inflammatory factors. Bone density, osteoclast number, ERα and ERβ expression level were significantly depressed in model group, and were remarkable potentiated in the drug treatment group (P<0.05). The levels of BGP and PTH in drug treatment group were decreased compared to diethylstilbestrol group, while E2 and IGF-1 showed up-regulation. Agonist of a7nAChR can up-regulate estrogen receptor expression and may prevent the occurrence and development of osteoporosis. PMID:26722551

  13. EFFECT OF HORMONE THERAPY AND CALCITRIOL ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL ELDERLY WOMEN: ASSOCIATION WITH ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA GENOTYPES

    PubMed Central

    SAI, ADARSH J.; GALLAGHER, J. CHRISTOPHER; FANG, XIANG

    2011-01-01

    Objective Examine the effect of conjugated equine estrogens alone (ET), conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone (EPT), calcitriol alone, calcitriol plus EPT/ET or placebo on serum lipid profile and analyze the interaction with estrogen receptor alpha gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (ESR-α SNPs) on response to therapy. Methods 489 postmenopausal women > 65 years age enrolled in 3-year double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial Results In both intent to treat and complier (>80% adherent) analysis, there was significant increase in serum high-density lipoproteins (HDL), significant decrease in serum low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and LDL:HDL ratio in all hormone treatment groups compared to placebo (p<0.05). However, serum triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) increased in EPT and ET+ calcitriol groups' versus placebo (p <0.05). ESR-α SNPs PvuII and XbaI appeared to have a significant effect on response to treatment. Genotypes containing p allele showed significantly greater decrease in serum cholesterol and VLDL than those having P allele in the ET plus calcitriol group (p<0.05) and those with x allele had significantly greater decrease in serum cholesterol in HT plus calcitriol group at the end of 3 years versus X allele and a greater decrease in serum LDL in alleles x versus X in ET plus calcitriol group (p<0.05). Conclusions ET with or without progesterone had a favorable effect on lipid profile in postmenopausal elderly women and this was dependent on estrogen receptor SNP's – PvuII and XbaI. However, this interaction with ESR-α SNPs need to be confirmed in larger studies. PMID:21712736

  14. Genetic effects of common polymorphisms in estrogen receptor alpha gene on osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hecheng; Wu, Weiqian; Yang, Xiaodi; Liu, Jianguo; Gong, Yubao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene has been implicated in the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the results are conflicting. We assessed the association of three common ESR1 polymorphisms, rs2234693, rs9340799 and rs2228480, with OA in this meta-analysis. Methods: A comprehensive search was performed to identify related studies. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using fixed or random effects model. Results: 15 studies (7036 cases and 9669 controls) for rs2234693 polymorphism, 14 studies (3904 cases and 6991 controls) for rs9340799 and 3 studies (331 cases and 619 controls) for rs2228480 polymorphism were identified. The final results indicated that the G allele in ESR1 rs9340799 was associated with decreased OA risk (GG+GA vs. AA: OR=0.878, 95% CI=0.792-0.972, P=0.012; G vs. A: OR=0.902, 95% CI=0.836-0.975, P=0.009). The A allele in rs2228480 might be associated with increased OA risk. But no significant association of rs2234693 polymorphism with OA susceptibility was observed. Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicates rs9340799 and rs2228480 rather than rs2234693 polymorphisms are associated with the incidence of OA. Some stable associations should be further confirmed in future. PMID:26550281

  15. The effect of estrogen on muscle damage biomarkers following prolonged aerobic exercise in eumenorrheic women

    PubMed Central

    Walz, E; Lane, AR; Pebole, M; Hackney, AC

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the influence of estrogen (E2) on muscle damage biomarkers [skeletal muscle - creatine kinase (CK); cardiac muscle - CK-MB] responses to prolonged aerobic exercise. Eumenorrheic women (n=10) who were physically active completed two 60-minute treadmill running sessions at ∼60-65% maximal intensity during low E2 (midfollicular menstrual phase) and high E2 (midluteal menstrual phase) hormonal conditions. Blood samples were collected prior to exercise (following supine rest), immediately post-, 30 min post-, and 24 hours post-exercise to determine changes in muscle biomarkers. Resting blood samples confirmed appropriate E2 hormonal levels Total CK concentrations increased following exercise and at 24 hours post-exercise were higher in the midfollicular low E2 phase (p<0.001). However, CK-MB concentrations were unaffected by E2 level or exercise (p=0.442) resulting in the ratio of CK-MB to total CK being consistently low in subject responses (i.e., indicative of skeletal muscle damage). Elevated E2 levels reduce the CK responses of skeletal muscle, but had no effect on CK-MB responses following prolonged aerobic exercise. These findings support earlier work showing elevated E2 is protective of skeletal muscle from exercise-induced damage associated with prolonged aerobic exercise. PMID:26424921

  16. Evaluation of estrogenic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorinated pesticides using immature rat uterotrophic assay.

    PubMed

    Uslu, U; Sandal, S; Cumbul, A; Yildiz, S; Aydin, M; Yilmaz, B

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorinated pesticides on the serum levels of luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and weights and histomorphometry of uterine tissue in immature female rats using uterotrophic assay. A total of 36 rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6 per group) as control, oestradiol (E2, 100 μg/kg), PCB 180, Aroclor 1221, endosulfan and mirex at 10 mg/kg dosage. After 3 days of injections (subcutaneous), animals were decapitated and blood samples were collected. Uteri were dissected, weighed out and then fixed in 10% formaldehyde. They were processed for histomorphometry. The serum levels of LH and FSH were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Uterine weight was significantly increased by E2 and reduced by mirex (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). Total volume of uterus was significantly raised by E2, Aroclor 1221 and endosulfan compared with that of the control group (p < 0.01). The ratio of epithelium was significantly increased by E2, PCBs and pesticides (p < 0.01). The uterine cavity ratio was decreased by aroclor (p < 0.01), PCB 180 and mirex (p < 0.05). The serum levels of LH did not significantly differ among the groups but the levels of FSH were decreased by PCB 180 and endosulfan (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). These findings suggest that PCB 180, Aroclor 1221 and endosulfan may be estrogenic in immature uterotrophic assay.

  17. Coptis extracts enhance the anticancer effect of estrogen receptor antagonists on human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; He, Chengwei; Zhou, Keyuan; Wang, Jingdong; Kang, Jing X.

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists have been widely used for breast cancer treatment, but the efficacy and drug resistance remain to be clinical concerns. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the extracts of coptis, an anti-inflammatory herb, improve the anticancer efficacy of ER antagonists. The results showed that the combined treatment of ER antagonists and the crude extract of coptis or its purified compound berberine conferred synergistic growth inhibitory effect on MCF-7 cells (ER+), but not on MDA-MB-231 cells (ER-). The similar results were observed in the combined treatment of fulvestrant, a specific aromatase antagonist. Analysis of the expression of breast cancer related genes indicated that EGFR, HER2, bcl-2 and COX-2 were significantly downregulated, while IFN-β and p21 were remarkably upregulated by berberine. Our results suggest that coptis extracts could be promising adjuvant to ER antagonists in ER positive breast cancer treatment through regulating expression of multiple genes. PMID:19000652

  18. Anti-proliferative effects of estrogen receptor-modulating compounds isolated from Rheum palmatum.

    PubMed

    Kang, Se Chan; Lee, Chang Min; Choung, Eui Su; Bak, Jong Phil; Bae, Jong Jin; Yoo, Hyun Sook; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Zee, Ok Pyo

    2008-06-01

    The Rheum palmatum L., a traditional medicine in Korea, was screened for their estrogenic activity in a recombinant yeast system with a human estrogen receptor (ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid used in a previous study. The EC50 values of the n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water fractions of the methanolic extract of R. palmatum in the yeast-based estrogenicity assay system were 0.145, 0.093, 0.125, 1.459, 2.853 microg/mL, respectively, with marked estrogenic activity in the dichloromethane fraction. Using an activity-guided fractionation approach, five known anthraquinones, chrysophanol (1), physcion (2), emodin (3), aloe-emodin (4) and rhein (5), were isolated from the dichloromethane fraction. Compound 3 had the highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 17bestradiol = 1.00) (6.3 x 10(-2)), followed by compound 4 (3.8 x 10(-3)), compound 5 (2.6 x 10(-4)), a compound 1 (2.1 x 10(-4)). Also, compound 3 and fraction 3 (which contained compound 3) of the dichloromethane fraction of R. palmatum showed strong cytotoxicity in both ER-positive (MCF-7) and-negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines.

  19. Estrogenic Effects of Several BPA Analogs in the Developing Zebrafish Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Nicolau, Joel; Vaillant, Colette; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Charlier, Thierry D.; Kah, Olivier; Coumailleau, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Important set of studies have demonstrated the endocrine disrupting activity of Bisphenol A (BPA). The present work aimed at defining estrogenic-like activity of several BPA structural analogs, including BPS, BPF, BPAF, and BPAP, on 4- or 7-day post-fertilization (dpf) zebrafish larva as an in vivo model. We measured the induction level of the estrogen-sensitive marker cyp19a1b gene (Aromatase B), expressed in the brain, using three different in situ/in vivo strategies: (1) Quantification of cyp19a1b transcripts using RT-qPCR in wild type 7-dpf larva brains exposed to bisphenols; (2) Detection and distribution of cyp19a1b transcripts using in situ hybridization on 7-dpf brain sections (hypothalamus); and (3) Quantification of the cyp19a1b promoter activity in live cyp19a1b-GFP transgenic zebrafish (EASZY assay) at 4-dpf larval stage. These three different experimental approaches demonstrated that BPS, BPF, or BPAF exposure, similarly to BPA, significantly activates the expression of the estrogenic marker in the brain of developing zebrafish. In vitro experiments using both reporter gene assay in a glial cell context and competitive ligand binding assays strongly suggested that up-regulation of cyp19a1b is largely mediated by the zebrafish estrogen nuclear receptor alpha (zfERα). Importantly, and in contrast to other tested bisphenol A analogs, the bisphenol AP (BPAP) did not show estrogenic activity in our model. PMID:27047331

  20. Estrogen receptors in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huaman, A

    1979-11-01

    On the basis of estrogen receptor assays, breast carcinomas are presently classified as estrogen-dependent tumors, which respond to endocrine therapy, and autonomous tumors, for which endocrine therapy is useless. This paper presents a short review of the biochemical principles of estrogen dependence, the procedures used to determine estrogen receptors, and the clinical applications of the findings of these assay procedures. Biobhemically, the estroogen dependence of normal breast cells is explained as a biochemical reaction occurring between the circulating estradiol and the breast cell, which occurs in 3 steps: 1) circulating estradiol penetrates the cellular membrane by passive diffusion, followed by 2) combining of estradiol with the estrogen-binding protein (estrophilin) and formation of an estrogen receptor complex which undergoes activation and translocation into the nucleus, to result in 3) the activated steroid receptor which combines with the nuclear charomatin and stimulates ribonucleic acid synthesis for the formation of estradiol binding proteins or estradiol receptors. The cytosol method of Wittliff et al. is described in brief and entails radioactive competitive analysis; the other available laboratory procedure is immunofluorescence of tumor sections. Quantification of estrogen receptor content can be used clinically to decide on ablative endocrine therapy, to determine the effectiveness of anti-estrogen administration, to determine the primary site of metastatic carcinoma, and as a screenng device.

  1. Predicted-no-effect concentrations for the steroid estrogens estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Daniel J; Mastrocco, Frank; Anderson, Paul D; Länge, Reinhard; Sumpter, John P

    2012-06-01

    The authors derive predicted-no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for the steroid estrogens (estrone [E1], 17β-estradiol [E2], estriol [E3], and 17α-ethinylestradiol [EE2]) appropriate for use in risk assessment of aquatic organisms. In a previous study, they developed a PNEC of 0.35 ng/L for EE2 from a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) based on all available chronic aquatic toxicity data. The present study updates that PNEC using recently published data to derive a PNEC of 0.1 ng/L for EE2. For E2, fish were the most sensitive taxa, and chronic reproductive effects were the most sensitive endpoint. Using the SSD methodology, we derived a PNEC of 2 ng/L for E2. Insufficient data were available to construct an SSD for E1 or E3. Therefore, the authors used in vivo vitellogenin (VTG) induction studies to determine the relative potency of the steroid estrogens to induce VTG. Based on the relative differences between in vivo VTG induction, they derive PNECs of 6 and 60 ng/L for E1 and E3, respectively. Thus, for long-term exposures to steroid estrogens in surface water (i.e., >60 d), the PNECs are 6, 2, 60, and 0.1 ng/L for E1, E2, E3, and EE2, respectively. Higher PNECs are recommended for short-term (i.e., a few days or weeks) exposures.

  2. Effects of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and metoprolol on gene expression levels of enzymes of biotransformation, excretion pathways and estrogenicity in primary hepatocytes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Gröner, Frederike; Ziková, Andrea; Kloas, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The expression levels of key enzymes of the xenobiotic metabolism and excretion pathways concerning biotransformation phases I (cytochrome P4501A), II (glutathione S-transferase) and III (multidrug resistance protein) and of the estrogenic biomarker vitellogenin (vtg) were investigated in primary hepatocytes isolated from male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after exposure to diclofenac and metoprolol, two pharmaceuticals prevalent in the aquatic environment worldwide. The lowest test concentration (4×10(-9) M) was chosen to reflect an environmentally relevant exposure situation. Furthermore concentration dependent effects were investigated. Therefore a series of concentrations higher than the environmentally relevant range were used (10- and 100-fold). Diclofenac significantly induced all chosen biomarkers already at the environmentally relevant concentration indicating that biotransformation and elimination occur via the pathways under investigation. Estrogenic potential of this substance was demonstrated by VTG up-regulation as well. Metoprolol was either less effective than diclofenac or metabolized using different pathways. Key enzymes of the xenobiotic metabolism were less (CYP1A, GST) or not (MDRP) induced and a mild increase in vtg mRNA was detected only for 4×10(-8) M. No concentration-dependency for metoprolol was found.

  3. Effect of the combination of methyltestosterone and esterified estrogens compared with esterified estrogens alone on apolipoprotein CIII and other apolipoproteins in very low density, low density, and high density lipoproteins in surgically postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chiuve, Stephanie E; Martin, Lisa A; Campos, Hannia; Sacks, Frank M

    2004-05-01

    Androgens are known to lower plasma triglycerides, an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Triglycerides are carried in plasma on very low density (VLDL) and low density (LDL) lipoprotein particles. Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII), a strong predictor of CHD, impairs the metabolism of VLDL and LDL, contributing to increased triglycerides. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of oral methyltestosterone (2.5 mg/d), added to esterified estrogens (1.25 mg/d), on concentrations of apolipoproteins and lipoproteins, specifically those containing apoCIII, compared with esterified estrogens alone in surgically postmenopausal women. The women in the methyltestosterone plus esterified estrogen group had significant decreases in total triglycerides, apoCI, apoCII, apoCIII, apoE, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared with those in the esterified estrogen group. The decreases in apoCIII concentrations occurred in VLDL (62%; P = 0.02), LDL (35%; P = 0.001), and HDL (17%; P < 0.0001). There were also decreases in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations of apoCIII containing LDL, and apoCI concentration of apoCIII containing VLDL. There was no effect on VLDL and LDL particles that did not contain apoCIII or on apoB concentrations. In conclusion, methyltestosterone, when administered to surgically postmenopausal women taking esterified estrogen, has a selective effect to reduce the apoCIII concentration in VLDL and LDL, a predictor of CHD. Methyltestosterone may lower plasma triglycerides through a reduction in apoCIII.

  4. Preliminary report: effect of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone maturation and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Arisaka, O; Hoshi, M; Kanazawa, S; Numata, M; Nakajima, D; Kanno, S; Negishi, M; Nishikura, K; Nitta, A; Imataka, M; Kuribayashi, T; Kano, K

    2001-04-01

    To clarify the independent physiological roles of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone growth, we compared the lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in prepubertal girls with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (n = 17) and girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) (n = 18). When BMD was analyzed according to chronologic age, no significant differences were found between CPP and CAH patients. However, when adjusted to bone age, BMD was statistically higher in CAH than in CPP subjects. This finding suggests that adrenal androgen, as well as estrogen, plays an important role in increasing BMD. Adrenal androgen may act on bone not only as androgen, but as estrogen after having been metabolized into an aromatized bone-active compound in peripheral tissues, such as bone and fat. Therefore, adrenal androgen may have a more important role in increasing BMD than previously realized.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF POSTNATAL ESTROGEN THERAPY ON BRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN PRETERM BABOONS

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Sandra; Loeliger, Michelle; Shields, Amy; Shaul, Philip W.; McCurnin, Donald; Yoder, Bradley; Inder, Terrie

    2010-01-01

    Objective Estrogen receptors are present within the fetal brain suggesting that estrogens may exert an influence on cerebral development. Loss of placentally-derived estrogen in preterm birth may impair development. Study Design Baboons were delivered at 125 days of gestation (term~185 days), randomly allocated to receive estradiol (n=10) or placebo (n=8) and ventilated for 14 days. Brains were assessed for developmental and neuropathological parameters. Results Body and brain weights were not different between groups but the brain/body weight ratio was increased (p<0.05) in estradiol-treated animals. There were no differences (p>0.05) between groups in any neuropathological measure in either the forebrain or cerebellum. There were no intraventricular hemorrhages; one estradiol animal displayed ectactic vessels in the subarachnoid space. Conclusions Brief postnatal estradiol administration to primates does not pose an increased risk of injury or impaired brain development. PMID:21074139

  6. Risks of estrogens and progestogens.

    PubMed

    L'Hermite, M

    1990-09-01

    The risks and benefits of specific types of postmenopausal estrogens and progestogens are explored: those affecting serum lipids, clotting elements, hepatic proteins synthesis, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, endometrial, breast and cervical cancer. Ethinyl estradiol taken orally is the only estrogen likely to cause gall bladder disease. It also induces liver protein synthesis when taken orally or vaginally. Natural estrogens do not heighten coagulation factors, and may shift towards fibrinolysis. Both ethinyl estradiol and equine estrogens may increase blood pressure, while natural estrogens may decrease it. Similarly natural estrogens induce prostacyclin synthesis, while ethinyl estradiol activates both prostacyclin and thromboxanes. Progestagens, especially so the norprogestins, disturb carbohydrate metabolism and tend to reverse the beneficial effects of estrogens on serum lipids, a 40-70% reduction in risk of mortality from coronary heart disease. A meta- analysis of 23 studies concluded that menopausal estrogens do not increase the risk of breast cancer by a measurable degree, except in high doses and in those predisposed by family history. There is an increased risk of endometrial carcinoma for those taking unopposed estrogens for more than 3-6 years. This can be attenuated by taking combined estrogen-progestins, which will eventually result in absence of bleeding, or a 12-day progestogen course every 4-6 cycles. Oral micronized progesterone decreases blood pressure. The relative androgenic effects of progestins other than the norprogesterone derivatives are less significant. As an alternative to taking a progestogen, a woman could have regular endometrial sampling or abdominal or vaginal sonograms to detect endometrial cancer.

  7. High Fat Diet Decreases Beneficial Effects of Estrogen on Serotonin-Related Gene Expression in Marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Reddy, Arubala P; Flowers, Matthew; Shapiro, Robert A.; Colman, Ricki J; Abbott, David H; Levine, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    suppressed urocortin 1 (UCN1; stresscopin) expression (p=0.045) but E treatment had no effect. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) was different due to treatment across the groups (p=0.028). MAO-A was increased in the E+HFD group (p<0.01) whereas previous studies showed E suppressed MAO-A in macaques. The serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT), the serotonin 1A receptor (5HT1A), estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and progestin receptor (PR) expressions were not different between groups. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) was undetectable. In summary, the data indicate that important actions of hormone therapy in the serotonin system may be lost in the context of a HFD. PMID:25542371

  8. Antiproliferative effect of ASC-J9 delivered by PLGA nanoparticles against estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Verderio, Paolo; Pandolfi, Laura; Mazzucchelli, Serena; Marinozzi, Maria Rosaria; Vanna, Renzo; Gramatica, Furio; Corsi, Fabio; Colombo, Miriam; Morasso, Carlo; Prosperi, Davide

    2014-08-04

    Among polymeric nanoparticles designed for cancer therapy, PLGA nanoparticles have become one of the most popular polymeric devices for chemotherapeutic-based nanoformulations against several kinds of malignant diseases. Promising properties, including long-circulation time, enhanced tumor localization, interference with "multidrug" resistance effects, and environmental biodegradability, often result in an improvement of the drug bioavailability and effectiveness. In the present work, we have synthesized 1,7-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one (ASC-J9) and developed uniform ASC-J9-loaded PLGA nanoparticles of about 120 nm, which have been prepared by a single-emulsion process. Structural and morphological features of the nanoformulation were analyzed, followed by an accurate evaluation of the in vitro drug release kinetics, which exhibited Fickian law diffusion over 10 days. The intracellular degradation of ASC-J9-bearing nanoparticles within estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells was correlated to a time- and dose-dependent activity of the released drug. A cellular growth inhibition associated with a specific cell cycle G2/M blocking effect caused by ASC-J9 release inside the cytosol allowed us to put forward a hypothesis on the action mechanism of this nanosystem, which led to the final cell apoptosis. Our study was accomplished using Annexin V-based cell death analysis, MTT assessment of proliferation, radical scavenging activity, and intracellular ROS evaluation. Moreover, the intracellular localization of nanoformulated ASC-J9 was confirmed by a Raman optical imaging experiment designed ad hoc. PLGA nanoparticles and ASC-J9 proved also to be safe for a healthy embryo fibroblast cell line (3T3-L1), suggesting a possible clinical translation of this potential nanochemotherapeutic to expand the inherently poor bioavailability of hydrophobic ASC-J9 that could be proposed for the treatment of malignant breast cancer.

  9. In vitro assessment of thyroidal and estrogenic activities in poultry and broiler manure.

    PubMed

    Valdehita, A; Quesada-García, A; Delgado, M M; Martín, J V; García-González, M C; Fernández-Cruz, M L; Navas, J M

    2014-02-15

    Among the many chemicals found in avian manure, endocrine disruptors (EDs), of natural or anthropogenic origin, are of special environmental concern. Nowadays, an increasing amount of estrogens is being released into the environment via the use of manure to fertilize agricultural land. While most research in this field has focused on estrogenic phenomena, little is known about alterations related to other endocrine systems, such as the thyroidal one. Here we simultaneously assessed the potential estrogenic and thyroidal activity of poultry and broiler litter manure using in vitro approaches based on estrogen receptor (Er) and thyroid receptor (Tr) transactivation assays. In addition, leaching experiments were performed to assess whether the EDs present in the manure pass through a soil column and potentially reach the groundwater. Manure from four broiler and four poultry farms was collected in two sampling campaigns carried out in two seasons (fall and spring). Extracts from broiler and poultry manure exhibited strong thyroidal activity. Only poultry manure showed estrogenic activity, which is consistent with the low levels of estrogens expected in hatchlings. Leakage experiments were performed in columns with two kinds of arable soils: sandy and loamy. No estrogenicity or thyroidal activity was detectable in soils treated with the manure or in the corresponding leachates. These results indicate that substances with estrogenic or thyroidal activity were degraded in the soil under our experimental conditions. However, the long-term effects associated with the constant and intensive application of manure to agricultural land in some regions require further research.

  10. Are rapid changes in gonadal testosterone release involved in the fast modulation of brain estrogen effects?

    PubMed Central

    Cornil, Charlotte A.; Stevenson, Tyler J.; Ball, Gregory F.

    2009-01-01

    Estradiol facilitates the expression of male sexual behavior in Japanese quail within a few minutes. These rapid behavioral effects of estradiol could result from rapid changes in its local production in the preoptic area by aromatase, the enzyme converting testosterone into estradiol. Alternatively, aromatase activity may remain constant but fluctuations of local estradiol production could arise from rapid changes in the concentration of the enzymatic substrate, namely testosterone. Rapid increases of circulating testosterone levels have been observed in males of various species following social encounters. Surprisingly, in quail, the interaction with a female seems to result in a decrease in circulating testosterone levels. However, in that study conducted in quail, the samples were collected at intervals longer than the recently observed rapid effects of estradiol on sexual behavior. In the present study we investigated whether plasma testosterone concentrations fluctuate on a shorter time-frame. Eleven male were tested 5 min before and 5, 15 or 30 min after being allowed to have visual access to a female or to copulate with a female for 5 min. Both types of interactions resulted in a significant decline in circulating testosterone levels at latencies as short as 5 min. These data demonstrate that the decrease in testosterone levels is initiated shortly after sexual encounters. Because visual interactions with a female did not result in a rapid increase in testosterone concentrations, these findings rule out the possibility that a rapid rise in circulating testosterone levels participates in the rapid increase in brain estrogen synthesis and its facilitatory effects on copulatory behavior. PMID:19416729

  11. Effects of genistein and estrogen receptor subtype-specific agonists in ArKO mice following different administration routes.

    PubMed

    Bliedtner, Anja; Zierau, Oliver; Albrecht, Steffen; Liebhaber, Steffi; Vollmer, Günter

    2010-01-15

    We have scrutinized the effects of the phytoestrogen genistein and three synthetic estrogen receptor agonists, 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE), propylpyrazole-triol (PPT) and diarylpropionitrile (DPN) in the completely estrogen-free background of aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice by means of two routes of substance administration: oral via diet (per os; po) or subcutaneous injection (sc) with the intention to evaluate the ArKO mice as sensitive model organism for uterotrophic assays. Additionally, we were aiming to qualitatively analyze effects resulting from oral administration path, in particular for PPT and DPN. Therefore, we analyzed the resulting uterine wet weights (UWW) and epithelial heights as physiological endpoints of function as well as the gonadotropin levels. Moreover, the gene expression profiles of estrogen receptors as well as important uterine and ovarian estrogen-response genes were investigated by real-time PCR. The uterus of ArKO mice responded very sensitive upon the substitution with EE (sc 5 microg/kg BW; po 50 microg/kg BW) in a proliferative manner. This was evaluated inter alia by increased UWW and by up-regulation of the expression of proliferation-associated and estrogen-response genes. It is important to note, that ER alpha and ER beta-agonist, PPT and DPN respectively (po 5mg/kg BW and sc 0.5mg/kg BW), have only been used for sc applications so far. Here, effects resulting from oral application were qualitatively described and evaluated for their applicability. The UWW and expression of proliferation-associated genes were increased following both po and sc treatment with PPT. In contrast, DPN did not exert an increase of the UWW, but a significant decrease of proliferation-associated gene and protein expression. Additionally, a substantial hypoplasia was detectable in the uterine cross-sections of DPN-treated mice. On the other hand, the phytoestrogen genistein (sc 10mg/kg BW; po 70 mg/kg BW) did not cause detectable uterotrophic

  12. Estrogen contributes to regulating iron metabolism through governing ferroportin signaling via an estrogen response element.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yi; Yin, Chunyang; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Shuping; Jiang, Li; Wang, Fudi; Zhao, Meirong; Liu, Sijin

    2015-05-01

    Ferroportin (FPN) is the only known iron exporter in mammalian cells, and is universally expressed in most types of cells. FPN signaling plays a crucial role in maintaining iron homeostasis through governing the level of intracellular iron. Serum iron storage is conversely related with the estrogen level in the female bodies, and women in post-menopause are possibly subjected to iron retention. However, the potential effects of estrogen on iron metabolism are not clearly understood. Here, FPN mRNA transcription in all selected estrogen receptor positive (ER+) cells was significantly reduced upon 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment; and this inhibitory effect could be attenuated by ER antagonist tamoxifen. Likewise, in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), FPN reduction with elevated intracellular iron (reflected by increased ferritin) was observed in response to E2; however, ferritin level barely responded to E2 in FPN-null BMDMs. The observation of inhibition of FPN mRNA expression was not replicated in ER(-) cells upon E2. A functional estrogen response element (ERE) was identified within the promoter of FPN, and this ERE was responsible for the suppressive effect of E2 on FPN expression. Moreover, ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) mice were used to further confirm the in vitro finding. The expression of hepatic FPN was induced in OVX mice, compared to that in the SHAM mice. Taken together, our results demonstrated that estrogen is involved in regulating FPN expression through a functional ERE on its promoter, providing additional insights into a vital role of estrogen in iron metabolism.

  13. The estrogenic effects of apigenin, phloretin and myricetin based on uterotrophic assay in immature Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Barlas, Nurhayat; Özer, Saadet; Karabulut, Gözde

    2014-04-07

    Chemicals that occur in vegetal food and known as phytoestrogens, because of their structures similarity to estrogen, have benefits on chronic diseases. Despite this, when they are taken at high amounts, they can cause harmful effects on endocrine system of human and animals. In this study, it has been intended to determine the estrogenic potencies of phytoestrogens apigenin, phloretin and myricetin whose affinities for estrogen receptors in vitro. The female rats divided into 17 groups, each containing six rats. There was a negative control group and there were positive control dose groups which contains ethinyl estradiol, ethinyl estradiol+tamoxifen and genistein. The other dose groups which were tested for estrogenic activity contains apigenin, myricetin and phloretin All chemicals have been given to Wistar immature female rats with oral gavage for 3 consecutive days. By using uterotrophic analysis, uterus wet and blotted weights, vaginal opening, uterus length of female rats has been recorded at the end of the experiment. For detect of cell response, luminal epithelium height, gland number and lactoferrin intensity in luminal epithelium of uterus were evaluated. Biochemical analysises in blood were performed. Relative uterus weights of rats in 100 mg/kg/day dose group of myricetin were statistically increased according to vehicle control and positive control groups. In dose groups of apigenin and phloretin it was found that there were cell responses in uterus. All treatment groups had a significant difference in the high intensity of lactoferrin and uterine gland count compared to oil control group. There was no difference between phloretin and apigenin treatment groups in uterine weight statictically. Uterine heights were increased in positive control groups and 100 mg/kg/day dose group of myricetin. Epithelial cell heights were increased in treatment groups except apigenin and phloretin dose groups. There was no difference between all treatment groups in

  14. The Effects of Synthetic Estrogen Exposure on the Sexually Dimorphic Liver Transcriptome of the Sex-Role-Reversed Gulf Pipefish

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Emily; Flanagan, Sarah P.; Jones, Adam G.

    2015-01-01

    Species exhibiting sex-role reversal provide an unusual perspective on the evolution of sex roles and sex differences. However, the proximate effects of sex-role reversal are largely unknown. Endocrine disruptors provide an experimental mechanism to address hormonal regulation of sexually dimorphic gene expression in sex-role-reversed taxa. Here, we investigate gene expression patterns in the liver of the sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish, because the liver is known to be sexually dimorphic and estrogen-regulated in species with conventional sex roles. Using next-generation RNA-sequencing technology (RNA-seq), we detected sexually dimorphic hepatic gene expression patterns, with a total of 482 differentially expressed genes between the sexes in Gulf pipefish. Two-thirds of these genes were over-expressed in females, and the sex-specific transcriptomes of this sex-role-reversed pipefish’s liver were superficially similar to those of fishes with conventional sex-roles. We exposed females, pregnant males, and non-pregnant males to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at ecologically relevant concentrations of 5ng/L and compared gene expression patterns in the livers of exposed fish to control fish. Several genes that were up-regulated in EE2-exposed males relative to control males were also found to be female-biased in control animals. These genes included several of the classic estrogen biomarkers, such as vitellogenin, choriogenin, and zona pellucida. Thus, estrogen exposure induced feminization of the male liver transcriptome in a sex-role-reversed pipefish. These results suggest that the ancestral state of estrogen-regulated female reproductive physiology has been retained in all sex-role-reversed vertebrates thus far studied, despite substantial evolution of the hormonal regulation of ornamentation and mating behavior in these interesting taxa. PMID:26448558

  15. Characterization of the neuroprotective effects of estrogens on hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in hippocampal HT22 cells: time and dose-dependency.

    PubMed

    Vedder, H; Teepker, M; Fischer, S; Krieg, J C

    2000-01-01

    Time and dose-dependency of the effects of estrogens (17-beta estradiol, estrone) and non-estrogenic steroids (progesterone, dexamethasone and methylprednisolone) on the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide were examined in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Hydrogen peroxide, an important intermediate of various disease-relevant oxidative stressors, induced cell death in HT22 cells in extracellular concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5 mM in a dose-dependent manner (EC50=0.95 mM). Regarding the underlying mechanisms of toxicity, incubation with hydrogen peroxide did not induce lipid peroxidation in living HT22 cells under these conditions. After preincubation with estrogens and non-estrogenic steroids for 22 hours, estrogen compounds protected the cells against hydrogen peroxide toxicity. Estrogens showed a maximal protective effect at 60-70% of hydrogen peroxide toxicity which diminished at higher and lower concentrations of the toxic challenge. Dose-dependency studies of estrogens revealed that concentrations of 1 microM already exerted a significant cytoprotective effect. Co- and postincubation with 17-beta estradiol and estrone also resulted in significant cell protection even if the estrogens were added 30 min after the initiation of the challenge with hydrogen peroxide. In contrast, preincubation with other steroids like progesterone, a physiological gonadal steroid, dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid and methylprednisolone, a glucocorticoid with radical scavenging properties, did not protect the cells against hydrogen peroxide toxicity but resulted in a dose-related decrease of HT22 cell survival in the course of the toxic challenge.

  16. Evidence of temperature-dependent effects on the estrogenic response of fish: implications with regard to climate change.

    PubMed

    Brian, Jayne V; Harris, Catherine A; Runnalls, Tamsin J; Fantinati, Andrea; Pojana, Giulio; Marcomini, Antonio; Booy, Petra; Lamoree, Marja; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Sumpter, John P

    2008-07-01

    Chemical risk assessment is fraught with difficulty due to the problem of accounting for the effects of mixtures. In addition to the uncertainty arising from chemical-to-chemical interactions, it is possible that environmental variables, such as temperature, influence the biological response to chemical challenge, acting as confounding factors in the analysis of mixture effects. Here, we investigate the effects of temperature on the response of fish to a defined mixture of estrogenic chemicals. It was anticipated that the response to the mixture may be exacerbated at higher temperatures, due to an increase in the rate of physiological processing. This is a pertinent issue in view of global climate change. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to the mixture in parallel exposure studies, which were carried out at different temperatures (20 and 30 degrees C). The estrogenic response was characterised using an established assay, involving the analysis of the egg yolk protein, vitellogenin (VTG). Patterns of VTG gene expression were also analysed using real-time QPCR. The results revealed that there was no effect of temperature on the magnitude of the VTG response after 2 weeks of chemical exposure. However, the analysis of mixture effects at two additional time points (24 h and 7 days) revealed that the response was induced more rapidly at the higher temperature. This trend was apparent from the analysis of effects both at the molecular and biochemical level. Whilst this indicates that climatic effects on water temperature are not a significant issue with regard to the long-term risk assessment of estrogenic chemicals, the relevance of short-term effects is, as yet, unclear. Furthermore, analysis of the patterns of VTG gene expression versus protein induction gives an insight into the physiological mechanisms responsible for temperature-dependent effects on the reproductive phenology of species such as roach. Hence, the data contribute to our

  17. Immunomodulation of Mytilus hemocytes by individual estrogenic chemicals and environmentally relevant mixtures of estrogens: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Canesi, Laura; Lorusso, Lucia Cecilia; Ciacci, Caterina; Betti, Michele; Rocchi, Marco; Pojana, Giulio; Marcomini, Antonio

    2007-02-15

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are almost ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. In the marine bivalve Mytilus the natural estrogen 17beta-estradiol (E2) and different EDCs have been recently demonstrated to affect the function of the immune cells, the hemocytes. The effects were Tamoxifen-sensitive and were mediated by rapid modulation of kinase-mediated transduction pathways. In this work we compared the in vitro effects of individual estrogenic chemicals (E2, EE: 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol; MES: mestranol; NP: nonylphenol; NP1EC: nonylphenol monoethoxylate carboxylate; BPA: bisphenol A; BP: benzophenone) on hemocyte parameters: lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), phagocytosis, lysozyme release. LMS was the most sensitive effect parameter, showing a decreasing trend at increasing concentrations of estrogens. EC50 values obtained from LMS data were utilized to calculate the estradiol equivalency factor (EEF) for each compound; these EEFs allowed for an estimation of the estrogenic potential of a synthetic mixture with a composition very similar to that previously found in waters of the Venice lagoon. Concentrated mixtures significantly affected hemocyte parameters in vitro and the effects were prevented by Tamoxifen. Significant effects of the mixture were also observed in vivo, at longer exposure times and at concentrations comparable with environmental exposure levels. The results indicate that Mytilus immune parameters can be suitably utilized to evaluate the estrogenic potential of environmental samples.

  18. Estrogens and Male Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wynder, Jalissa L.; Nicholson, Tristan M.; DeFranco, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common clinical problems in urology and affect the majority of men at some time during their lives. The development of BPH/LUTS is associated with an increased ratio of estrogen to androgen levels, and this ratio, when mimicked in a variety of animals, induces BPH and lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). While the precise molecular etiology remains unclear, estrogens have been implicated in the development and maintenance of BPH. Numerous endogenous and exogenous estrogens exist in humans. These estrogens act via multiple estrogen receptors to promote or inhibit prostatic hyperplasia and other BPH-associated processes. The prostate is an estrogen target tissue, and estrogens directly and indirectly affect growth and differentiation of prostate. The precise role of estrogen action directly affecting prostate growth and differentiation in the context of BPH is an understudied area and remains to be elucidated. Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been shown to promote or inhibit prostate proliferation illustrating their potential roles in the development of BPH as therapy. More work will be required to identify estrogen signaling pathways associated with LUTD in order to develop more efficacious drugs for BPH treatment and prevention. PMID:26156791

  19. Fate and removal of estrogens in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Racz, LeeAnn; Goel, Ramesh K

    2010-01-01

    Natural and synthetic estrogens are some of the most potent endocrine disrupting compounds found in municipal wastewater. Much research has been conducted on the source and fate of estrogens in wastewater treatment plants. Sorption and biodegradation are the primary removal mechanisms for estrogens in activated sludge systems, which are widely used biological treatment techniques for municipal wastewater treatment. However, when removal of estrogens in a wastewater treatment plant is incomplete, these compounds enter the environment through wastewater discharges or waste activated sludge at concentrations that can cause endocrine-reproductive system alterations in birds, reptiles and mammals. Therefore, studies have also focused on potential advanced treatment technologies with the aim of removing the compounds before discharging wastewater effluent or disposing waste sludge. This review discusses the physiological effects of these estrogens and the degree of problems estrogens pose as they enter the wastewater stream. Thereafter, this review also analyzes their fate in wastewater treatment systems and how they may reach drinking water sources. Furthermore, this review includes a discussion on various treatment technologies being investigated and future research trends for this pressing environmental issue.

  20. A novel mechanism of non-feminizing estrogens in neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Covey, Douglas F; Simpkins, James W

    2016-11-03

    Estrogens are potent and efficacious neuroprotectants both in vitro and in vivo in a variety of models of neurotoxicity. We determined the structural requirements for neuroprotection in an in vitro assay using a panel of >70 novel estratrienes, synthesized to reduce or eliminate estrogen receptor (ER) binding. We observed that neuroprotection could be enhanced by as much as 200-fold through modifications that positioned a large bulky group at the C2 or C4 position of the phenolic A ring of the estratriene. Further, substitutions on the B, C or D rings either reduced or did not markedly change neuroprotection. Collectively, there was a negative correlation between binding to ERs and neuroprotection with the more potent compounds showing no ER binding. In an in vivo model for neuroprotection, transient cerebral ischemia, efficacious compounds were active in protection of brain tissue from this pro-oxidant insult. We demonstrated that these non-feminizing estrogens engage in a redox cycle with glutathione, using the hexose monophosphate shunt to apply cytosolic reducing potential to cellular membranes. Together, these results demonstrate that non-feminizing estrogens are neuroprotective and protect brain from the induction of ischemic- and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neuropathology in an animal model. These features of non-feminizing estrogens make them attractive compounds for assessment of efficacy in AD and stroke, as they are not expected to show the side effects of chronic estrogen therapy that are mediated by ER actions in the liver, uterus and breast.

  1. Impact of Apparent Antagonism of Estrogen Receptor β by Fulvestrant on Anticancer Activity of 2-Methoxyestradiol.

    PubMed

    Gorska, Magdalena; Wyszkowska, Roksana Maja; Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Wozniak, Michal

    2016-05-01

    Osteosarcoma is one of the most malignant bone tumors of childhood and adolescence. Interestingly, the presence of estrogen receptors α and β has been reported in human bone cells, including osteosarcoma. Thus, inhibitors of estrogens such as fulvestrant, are considered candidates for novel endocrine therapy in treatment of osteosarcoma. Another anticancer agent that seems to be very effective in treatment of osteosarcoma is a derivative of 17β-estradiol, 2-methoxyestradiol. The aim of this study was to determine the anticancer activities of pure anti-estrogen, fulvestrant and combined treatment of fulvestrant and 2-methoxyestradiol towards highly metastatic osteosarcoma 143B cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay was used in order to determine the antiproliferative potential of the compounds, and western blotting for estrogen receptors α and β. Flow cytometry was used in order to determine induction of cell death, cell-cycle arrest, mitochondrial depolarization, and DNA damage. Herein, we showed that fulvestrant has anticancer activity only at high concentrations. We were able to find and expression of estrogen receptor β, while we did not detect estrogen receptor α in osteosarcoma 143B cells. Moreover, fulvestrant down-regulated the expression of estrogen receptor β, and this effect was reversed by 2-methoxyestradiol. Thus, the obtained data suggest that 2-methoxyestradiol may exert part of its anticancer activity through modulation of expression of estrogen receptor β.

  2. Ethanolic extract of dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum) induces estrogenic activity in MCF-7 cells and immature rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Min; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Lee, Yong Hwa; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2015-11-01

    Plants of the genus Taraxacum, commonly known as dandelions, are used to treat breast cancer in traditional folk medicine. However, their use has mainly been based on empirical findings without sufficient scientific evidence. Therefore, we hypothesized that dandelions would behave as a Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and be effective as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the postmenopausal women. In the present study, in vitro assay systems, including cell proliferation assay, reporter gene assay, and RT-PCR to evaluate the mRNA expression of estrogen-related genes (pS2 and progesterone receptor, PR), were performed in human breast cancer cells. Dandelion ethanol extract (DEE) significantly increased cell proliferation and estrogen response element (ERE)-driven luciferase activity. DEE significantly induced the expression of estrogen related genes such as pS2 and PR, which was inhibited by tamoxifen at 1 μmol·L(-1). These results indicated that DEE could induce estrogenic activities mediated by a classical estrogen receptor pathway. In addition, immature rat uterotrophic assay was carried out to identify estrogenic activity of DEE in vivo. The lowest concentration of DEE slightly increased the uterine wet weight, but there was no significant effect with the highest concentration of DEE. The results demonstrate the potential estrogenic activities of DEE, providing scientific evidence supporting their use in traditional medicine.

  3. THE USE OF DNA MACROARRAYS TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS ON WILDLIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the mid-1990s, several investigations in the United States and United Kingdom showed that wild fish of several species collected downstream of sewage treatment plants or industrial discharges presented expression of estrogen-responsive genes, or phenotypic sex reversal. Su...

  4. Profiling the biological effects of wastewater samples via bioluminescent bacterial biosensors combined with estrogenic assays.

    PubMed

    Bazin, Ingrid; Seo, Ho Bin; Suehs, Carey M; Ramuz, Marc; De Waard, Michel; Gu, Man Bock

    2017-01-01

    Various water samples were successfully evaluated using a panel of different recombinant bioluminescent bacteria and estrogenic activity analysis. The bioluminescent bacteria strains induced by oxidative (superoxide radical or hydroxyl radical), protein damage, cell membrane damage, or cellular toxicity were used. Estrogenic activities were examined by using the yeast strain BY4741, which carries the β-galactosidase reporter gene under the control of the estrogen-responsive element (ERE). A total of 14 samples from three wastewater treatment plants, one textile factory, and seawater locations in Tunisia were analyzed. A wide range of bio-responses were described. Site/sample heterogeneity was prevalent, in combination with generally high relative bioluminescence scores for oxidative stress (OH•). Estrogenic activity was detected at all sites and was particularly elevated at certain sites. Our perspectives include the future exploration of the variation detected in relation to treatment plant operations and environmental impacts. In conclusion, this new multi-experimental method can be used for rapid bio-response profile monitoring and the evaluation of environmental samples spanning a wide range of domains. This study confirms that bio-reactive wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are discharged into seawater, where they may impact coastal populations.

  5. The Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Mixture DE-71 Is Mildly Estrogenic

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Feliciano, Minerva; Bigsby, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely found in the environment, and they may act as endocrine disruptors. Objective Our goal in this study was to test the PBDE mixture DE-71 for estrogenic activity. Methods We used proliferation of cultured breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and trophic effects in the reproductive tracts of ovariectomized mice as estrogen bioassays. DE-71 was administered to mice by subcutaneous injection (sc) or oral gavage (po), alone or in combination with estradiol, for 3 or 34 days. Liver weights and cytochrome P450 enzyme activities were also measured. Results DE-71 increased MCF-7 cell proliferation, and this was prevented by antiestrogen. DE-71 cotreatment reduced the effect of estradiol in MCF-7 cells. In the mouse 3-day assay, DE-71 administered alone had no effect on uterine weight, uterine epithelial height (UEH), or vaginal epithelial thickness (VET); however, when DE-71 was administered as a cotreatment, it potentiated estradiol’s effect on uterine weight. DE-71 administered sc to BALB/c mice for 34 days slightly increased UEH and VET, and attenuated the estradiol-induced increase in UEH; these effects were not seen in BALB/c mice treated po or in C57BL/6 mice treated sc. DE-71 increased liver weight in BALB/c, C57BL/6, and estrogen receptor-α knockout mice. We also found an increase in liver cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and CYP2B activities when DE-71 was administered po, but only CYP2B increased after sc treatment. Conclusion DE-71 behaves as a weak estrogen. In mice, the treatment route and duration determined if DE-71 was estrogenic. BALB/c mice are more susceptible to DE-71 effects in estrogen target tissues than C57BL/6 mice. DE-71 increased liver weight independently of estrogen receptor-α. PMID:18470304

  6. Effects of melatonin and dexpanthenol on antioxidant parameters when combined with estrogen treatment in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Ozan; Ay, Aybala Agac; Turgut, Hulya; Ay, Ahmet; Kafkas, Samet; Dost, Turhan

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess whether it is possible to reduce the oxidative damage using antioxidant agents combined with hormone replacement therapy after menopause. In this prospective experimental study, 50 mature female Wistar albino rats weighing 270-310 g were used. Rats were divided into the following six groups: (1) Ovx group (n = 7): the animals underwent bilateral ovariectomy. No drug was administered following bilateral ovariectomy. (2) Ovx + E 2 group (n = 7): bilateral ovariectomy + 17β-estradiol (100 μg/kg/day); (3) Ovx + E 2 + MT5 group (n = 7): bilateral ovariectomy + 17β-estradiol (100 μg/kg/day) + melatonin (5 mg/kg/day); (4) Ovx + E 2 + MT20 group (n = 7): bilateral ovariectomy + 17β-estradiol (100 μg/kg/day) + melatonin (20 mg/kg/day); (5) Ovx + E 2 + Dxp250 group (n = 7): bilateral ovariectomy + 17β-estradiol (100 μg/kg/day) + dexpanthenol (250 mg/kg/day); (6) Ovx + E 2 + Dxp500 group (n = 7): bilateral ovariectomy + 17β-estradiol (100 μg/kg/day) + dexpanthenol (500 mg/kg/day), and the activity of these antioxidative enzymes and oxidative stress products were measured. Enzymatic activity levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), and glutathione reductase and levels of free radicals (malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide) were both analyzed. We observed an increase in the level of GSH activity, but no significant differences in levels of CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px enzymatic activity and in levels of free radical MDA following 17β-estradiol or additional antioxidant treatment (melatonin or dexpanthenol). Despite the present study indicating that the addition of melatonin and dexpanthenol into the hormone replacement therapy regimen may contribute to the antioxidant effect of estrogen, the existence of limited data in this field indicates that further studies are warranted.

  7. Aging and serum exomiR content in women-effects of estrogenic hormone replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Reeta; Törmäkangas, Timo; Fey, Vidal; Pursiheimo, Juha; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Alen, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sipilä, Sarianna; Säämänen, Anna-Marja; Kovanen, Vuokko; Laakkonen, Eija K.

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes participate in intercellular messaging by transporting bioactive lipid-, protein- and RNA-molecules and -complexes. The contents of the exosomes reflect the physiological status of an individual making exosomes promising targets for biomarker analyses. In the present study we extracted exosome microRNAs (exomiRs) from serum samples of premenopausal women (n = 8) and monozygotic postmenopausal twins (n = 10 female pairs), discordant for the use of estrogenic hormone replacement therapy (HRT), in order to see whether the age or/and the use of HRT associates with exomiR content. A total of 241 exomiRs were detected by next generation sequencing, 10 showing age, 14 HRT and 10 age +HRT -related differences. When comparing the groups, differentially expressed miRs were predicted to affect cell proliferation processes showing inactivation with younger age and HRT usage. MiR-106-5p, -148a-3p, -27-3p, -126-5p, -28-3p and -30a-5p were significantly associated with serum 17β-estradiol. MiRs formed two hierarchical clusters being indicative of positive or negative health outcomes involving associations with body composition, serum 17β-estradiol, fat-, glucose- and inflammatory markers. Circulating exomiR clusters, obtained by NGS, could be used as indicators of metabolic and inflammatory status affected by hormonal changes at menopause. Furthermore, the individual effects of HRT-usage could be evaluated based on the serum exomiR signature. PMID:28195143

  8. Attachment surface energy effects on nitrification and estrogen removal rates by biofilms for improved wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohiuddin Md Taimur; Chapman, Timothy; Cochran, Kristin; Schuler, Andrew J

    2013-05-01

    Submerged biofilm systems, such as integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) and moving bed bioreactors (MBBRs), are increasingly being used for domestic wastewater treatment, often to improve nitrification. Little is known about whether and how biofilm attachment surface chemical properties affect treatment performance, although surface chemistry is known to affect attachment in other systems, and work with pure strains has suggested that attachment of nitrifying bacteria may be enhanced on high surface energy surfaces. The objective of this research was to systematically evaluate the effects of surface chemistry on biofilm quantity and rates of nitrification and estrogen removal. Biofilms were grown on four plastic attachment surfaces with a range of hydrophobicity and surface energy values (nylon, melamine, high-density-polyethylene [HDPE], and acetal polymeric plastic) by immersing them in a full scale nitrifying activated sludge wastewater treatment system, followed by batch test experiments. The attachment surface water contact angles ranged from 53° to 98° and surface energies ranged from 48.9 to 20.9 mJ/m(2). Attachment surface hydrophilicity and surface energy were positively correlated with total biomass attachment, with more than twice as much biomass on the highest surface energy, most hydrophilic surface (nylon) than on the lowest surface energy, least hydrophilic surface (acetal plastic). Absolute and specific nitrification rates were also correlated with hydrophilicity and surface energy (varying by factors of 5 and 2, respectively), as were absolute and specific removal first order rate constants of the hormones estrone (E1), β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). These results suggested that attachment surface chemistry may be a useful design parameter for improving biofilm performance for removal of ammonia and endocrine disrupting hormones from wastewater. Further research is required to verify these results at longer time

  9. Gene expression profiling in hearts of diabetic mice uncovers a potential role of estrogen-related receptor γ in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Lasheras, Jaime; Vilà, Maria; Zamora, Mònica; Riu, Efrén; Pardo, Rosario; Poncelas, Marcos; Cases, Ildefonso; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Hernández, Cristina; Feliu, Juan E; Simó, Rafael; García-Dorado, David; Villena, Josep A

    2016-07-15

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by an abnormal oxidative metabolism, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be defined. To uncover potential mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy, we performed a gene expression profiling study in hearts of diabetic db/db mice. Diabetic hearts showed a gene expression pattern characterized by the up-regulation of genes involved in lipid oxidation, together with an abnormal expression of genes related to the cardiac contractile function. A screening for potential regulators of the genes differentially expressed in diabetic mice found that estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) was increased in heart of db/db mice. Overexpression of ERRγ in cultured cardiomyocytes was sufficient to promote the expression of genes involved in lipid oxidation, increase palmitate oxidation and induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our findings strongly support a role for ERRγ in the metabolic alterations that underlie the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  10. Identification of Potential Glycoprotein Biomarkers in Estrogen Receptor Positive (ER+) and Negative (ER-) Human Breast Cancer Tissues by LC-LTQ/FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Semaan, Suzan M.; Wang, Xu; Marshall, Alan G.; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most fatal cancer in American women. To increase the life expectancy of patients with breast cancer new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and drug targets must be identified. A change in the glycosylation on a glycoprotein often causes a change in the function of that glycoprotein; such a phenomenon is correlated with cancerous transformation. Thus, glycoproteins in human breast cancer estrogen receptor positive (ER+) tissues and those in the more advanced stage of breast cancer, estrogen receptor negative (ER-) tissues, were compared. Glycoproteins showing differences in glycosylation were examined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with double staining (glyco- and total protein staining) and identified by reversed-phase nano-liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid linear quadrupole ion trap/ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Among the identified glycosylated proteins are alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1-antitrypsin, calmodulin, and superoxide dismutase mitochondrial precursor that were further verified by Western blotting for both ER+ and ER- human breast tissues. Results show the presence of a possible glycosylation difference in alpha-1-antitrypsin, a potential tumor-derived biomarker for breast cancer progression, which was expressed highest in the ER- samples. PMID:22773931

  11. Regulation of prolactin synthesis in vitro by estrogenic and antiestrogenic derivatives of estradiol and estrone.

    PubMed

    Jordan, V C; Koch, R

    1989-04-01

    The estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of derivatives of estradiol and estrone were determined in vitro using the ability of primary cultures of immature rat pituitary cells to synthesize PRL. Estradiol derivatives were the most potent estrogens in the assay. Large ethinyl substitutions in the 17 alpha position generally caused a decrease in estrogenic potency (up to 1000-fold). The 3 phenolic hydroxyl was important, but not essential, for the estrogenic activity of the estradiol molecule. Estratriene was approximately 1000 times less potent than estradiol. However, significant estrogenic activity was observed with the compound anordin (EC50, 8 x 10(-9) M), which could potentially be converted to a dihydroxylated derivative but without an aromatic A ring. Similarly, the steroid androst-5-ene-3,17-diol was weakly estrogenic (EC50, 3 x 10(-8) M). Steriods with a ketone in the A and D rings were generally inactive as estrogens and antiestrogens. Estradiol derivatives with 17 beta amines were only weak estrogens. Estrone derivatives were less active than the corresponding estradiol derivatives. 4-Nitromethoxyestrone exhibited weak antiestrogenic properties; however, 4-nitroestrone and methoxyestrone were both estrogens. The reason for the antiestrogenic properties of 4-nitromethoxyestrone is obscure, as the compound does not have structural features similar to those of known nonsteroidal antiestrogens. Minor alterations to the estradiol molecule at the 11 beta (OH) or 6 (ketone) position had little effect on estrogenic potency; however, large substitutions at the 11 beta (RU 39,411) or 7 alpha (ICI 164384) position produced antiestrogenic compounds. RU 39,411 was approximately 10 times more active as an antiestrogen than 4-hydroxytamoxifen, whereas ICI 164,384 was approximately 10 times less active than 4-hydroxytamoxifen. A series of hypothetical models is proposed that could explain the antiestrogenic properties of RU 39,411 and ICI 164,384 by an interaction

  12. In vitro and in vivo estrogenic effects of 17alpha-estradiol in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Huang, Chong; Zhang, Zhaobin; Wu, Shimin; Zhao, Yanbin; Hu, Jianying

    2010-07-01

    17alpha-Estradiol (17alpha-E2), the stereoisomer of 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E2), is considered a weak estrogen in mammals. However, little is known about its estrogenic potency in teleost fish, even though 17alpha-E2 has been frequently detected in aquatic environment. To investigate the estrogenic activity of 17alpha-E2, an in vitro assay based on the ligand-dependent interaction between medaka estrogen receptor alpha (med-ERalpha) and coactivator was conducted. Japanese medaka (Oryziaslatipes) were exposed to 1, 10, 100, 1000 and 10000ng L(-1) 17alpha-E2 (actual concentrations of 1.91, 12.81, 96.24, 1045.15, and 9320.81ng L(-1), respectively) for 3 weeks, and expression for vitellogenins (VTG-I), Choriogenin H (CHG-H) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) mRNA in the livers was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR). The in vitro study showed that the EC(50) of 17alpha-E2 was 114.10nM, which was 30 times less potent than that of 17beta-E2 (3.80nM). Dose-dependent induction of gene expression of VTG-I, CHG-H and ERalpha were observed. The benchmark dose (BMD) values for VTG-I, CHG-H and ERalpha were 44.16ng L(-1), 15.25ng L(-1) and 66.03ng L(-1), which were about 11-, 17- and 14-times less potent than that of 17beta-E2, respectively. Comparing this study with those reported previously in mammals, it is suggested that fish species may be more susceptive to 17alpha-E2 than mammals.

  13. The effect of estrogen on the expression of cartilage-specific genes in the chondrogenesis process of adipose-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Farzaneh; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Hashemibeni, Batool; Atef, Fateme; Salehi, Hosein; Shabani, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Background: During adolescence, sex hormones play an important role in regulating proliferation, differentiation, maturation, and the scheduled death of chondrocytes. Although some studies have reported the regulatory role of estrogen in the development and progression of cartilage, some of the mechanisms still remain unclear, including the role of estrogen in the expression of cartilage-specific genes in chondrogenesis process, which we cover in this study. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we used adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to differentiate into cartilage. Differentiated cartilage cells were used in the control (without estrogen E2 in the culture medium) and experimental (with estrogen in the culture medium) groups to evaluate the expression of type II collagen and aggrecan as chondrogenic genes markers, with -real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. Results: Our results indicated that estrogen leads to inhibition of type II collagen gene expression and reduction of aggrecan gene expression. Conclusion: Therefore, estrogen probably has negative effects on chondrogenesis process of ADSCs. PMID:25789269

  14. Interstrain Differences in the Development of Pyometra after Estrogen Treatment of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brossia, Lisa Jane; Roberts, Christopher Sean; Lopez, Jennifer T; Bigsby, Robert M; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2009-01-01

    This case report describes the unanticipated development of pyometra in Brown Norway rats after treatment with estrogen. Sprague Dawley and Brown Norway rats were ovariectomized and randomly assigned to treatment groups (subcutaneous implantation of either a capsule containing 20 mg 17β-estradiol or an empty capsule, as a control). After irradiation of only the right eye, the rats were followed for several months in an attempt to determine the effects of estrogen on radiation cataractogenesis and investigate potential strain differences in this phenomenon. However, all Brown Norway rats that received estradiol treatment developed pyometra, whereas none the Sprague Dawley or control Brown Norway rats did. This case demonstrates the potential adverse effects of exogenous estrogen therapy, which are strain-specific in the rat. Caution should be taken when designing estrogen-related experiments involving Brown Norway rats and other potentially sensitive strains. PMID:19807973

  15. The influence of a surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, on the estrogenic response to a mixture of (xeno)estrogens in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Harris, Catherine A; Brian, Jayne V; Pojana, Giulio; Lamoree, Marja; Booy, Petra; Marcomini, Antonio; Sumpter, John P

    2009-01-18

    The effect of the presence of a surfactant on the activity of a mixture of environmental estrogens was assessed. In their natural habitat, fish are subject not only to exposure to mixtures of estrogenic compounds, as has been addressed in previous publications, but also to other confounding factors (chemical, physical and biological), which may, in theory, affect their responses to such compounds. To assess the potential for such interference, the commonly occurring surfactant, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), was applied to the yeast estrogen screen at various concentrations, independently and together with a mixture of estrogens at constant concentrations. LAS enhanced the estrogenic activity of the mixture, an effect which became less pronounced over the course of time. This information was used to design an in vivo study to assess induction of vitellogenin in fathead minnows exposed to the same mixture of estrogens plus LAS. A similar trend was observed, that is, the response was enhanced, but the effect became less pronounced as the study progressed. However, the enhanced response in vivo occurred only at the highest concentration of LAS tested (362microg/L), and was transient because it was no longer apparent by the end of the study. Although LAS is a significant contaminant in terms of both concentration and frequency of detection in the aquatic environment, these data do not suggest that it will have a significant impact on the response of fish to environmental estrogens.

  16. Phytoestrogens and Mycoestrogens Induce Signature Structure Dynamics Changes on Estrogen Receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xueyan; Uzuner, Ugur; Li, Man; Shi, Weibing; Yuan, Joshua S.; Dai, Susie Y.

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disrupters include a broad spectrum of chemicals such as industrial chemicals, natural estrogens and androgens, synthetic estrogens and androgens. Phytoestrogens are widely present in diet and food supplements; mycoestrogens are frequently found in grains. As human beings and animals are commonly exposed to phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens in diet and environment, it is important to understand the potential beneficial or hazardous effects of estrogenic compounds. Many bioassays have been established to study the binding of estrogenic compounds with estrogen receptor (ER) and provided rich data in the literature. However, limited assays can offer structure information with regard to the ligand/ER complex. Our current study surveys the global structure dynamics changes for ERα ligand binding domain (LBD) when phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens bind. The assay is based on the structure dynamics information probed by hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and offers a unique viewpoint to elucidate the mechanism how phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens interact with estrogen receptor. The cluster analysis based on the hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX) assay data reveals a unique pattern when phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens bind with ERα LBD compared to that of estradiol and synthetic estrogen modulators. Our study highlights that structure dynamics could play an important role in the structure function relationship when endocrine disrupters interact with estrogen receptors. PMID:27589781

  17. Importance of Estrogenic Signaling and Its Mediated Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Kin-Mang; To, Ka-Fai

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) treatment was first established by Huggins and Hodges in 1941, primarily described as androgen deprivation via interference of testicular androgen production. The disease remains incurable with relapse of hormone-refractory cancer after treatments. Epidemiological and clinical studies disclosed the importance of estrogens in PCa. Discovery of estrogen receptor ERβ prompted direct estrogenic actions, in conjunction with ERα, on PCa cells. Mechanistically, ERs upon ligand binding transactivate target genes at consensus genomic sites via interactions with various transcriptional co-regulators to mold estrogenic signaling. With animal models, Noble revealed estrogen dependencies of PCa, providing insight into potential uses of antiestrogens in the treatment. Subsequently, various clinical trials were conducted and molecular and functional consequences of antiestrogen treatment in PCa were delineated. Besides, estrogens can also trigger rapid non-genomic signaling responses initiated at the plasma membrane, at least partially via an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR30. Activation of GPR30 significantly inhibited in vitro and in vivo PCa cell growth and the underlying mechanism was elucidated. Currently, molecular networks of estrogenic and antiestrogenic signaling via ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in PCa have not been fully deciphered. This crucial information could be beneficial to further developments of effective estrogen- and antiestrogen-based therapy for PCa patients. PMID:27589731

  18. Computational estimation of rainbow trout estrogen receptor binding affinities for environmental estrogens

    SciTech Connect

    Shyu, Conrad; Cavileer, Timothy D.; Nagler, James J.; Ytreberg, F. Marty

    2011-02-01

    Environmental estrogens have been the subject of intense research due to their documented detrimental effects on the health of fish and wildlife and their potential to negatively impact humans. A complete understanding of how these compounds affect health is complicated because environmental estrogens are a structurally heterogeneous group of compounds. In this work, computational molecular dynamics simulations were utilized to predict the binding affinity of different compounds using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) estrogen receptors (ERs) as a model. Specifically, this study presents a comparison of the binding affinity of the natural ligand estradiol-17{beta} to the four rainbow trout ER isoforms with that of three known environmental estrogens 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, and raloxifene. Two additional compounds, atrazine and testosterone, that are known to be very weak or non-binders to ERs were tested. The binding affinity of these compounds to the human ER{alpha} subtype is also included for comparison. The results of this study suggest that, when compared to estradiol-17{beta}, bisphenol A binds less strongly to all four receptors, 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol binds more strongly, and raloxifene has a high affinity for the {alpha} subtype only. The results also show that atrazine and testosterone are weak or non-binders to the ERs. All of the results are in excellent qualitative agreement with the known in vivo estrogenicity of these compounds in the rainbow trout and other fishes. Computational estimation of binding affinities could be a valuable tool for predicting the impact of environmental estrogens in fish and other animals.

  19. Aging Negatively Affects Estrogens-Mediated Effects on Nitric Oxide Bioavailability by Shifting ERα/ERβ Balance in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Novensà, Laura; Novella, Susana; Medina, Pascual; Segarra, Gloria; Castillo, Nadia; Heras, Magda; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Dantas, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    Aims Aging is among the major causes for the lack of cardiovascular protection by estrogen (E2) during postmenopause. Our study aims to determine the mechanisms whereby aging changes E2 effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAM). Methods and Results Although we found no differences on NO production in females SAM prone (SAMP, aged) compared to SAM resistant (SAMR, young), by either DAF-2 fluorescence or plasmatic nitrite/nitrate (NO2/NO3), in both cases, E2 treatment increased NO production in SAMR but had no effect in SAMP. Those results are in agreement with changes of eNOS protein and gene expression. E2 up-regulated eNOS expression in SAMR but not in SAMP. E2 is also known to increase NO by decreasing its catabolism by superoxide anion (O2-). Interestingly, E2 treatment decreased O2− production in young females, while increased O2− in aged ones. Furthermore, we observed that aging changed expression ratio of estrogen receptors (ERβ/ERα) and levels of DNA methylation. Increased ratio ERβ/ERα in aged females is associated to a lack of estrogen modulation of NO production and with a reversal in its antioxidant effect to a pro-oxidant profile. Conclusions Together, our data suggest that aging has detrimental effects on E2-mediated benefits on NO bioavailability, partially by affecting the ability of E2 to induce up regulation of eNOS and decrease of O2−. These modifications may be associated to aging-mediated modifications on global DNA methylation status, but not to a specific methylation at 5′flanking region of ERα gene. PMID:21966501

  20. Di-n-butyl phthalate causes estrogenic effects in adult male Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Kumar, Anupama; Ogino, Yukiko; Gregg, Adrienne; Chapman, John; McLaughlin, Mike J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-04-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are a class of synthetic industrial chemicals commonly found in the aquatic environment worldwide. PAEs have been recognised as anti-androgens in male mammals but little is known about their endocrine disrupting effects in fish. This study investigated the effects of 7-day exposures to nominal (measured) concentrations of 125 (62), 250 (140), 500 (230) and 1,000 (383) μg/L of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) on the biomarkers of reproduction in adult male Murray River rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) using molecular, biochemical and histological endpoints. None of the tested concentrations of DnBP had any effect on survival or the vital body indices of the fish. The sizes of spermatogonia, Type A and B spermatocytes and spermatids were significantly smaller relative to the controls after treatment with DnBP. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in fish treated with 250-1,000 μg/L of DnBP in comparison to the unexposed fish. At the end of the exposure period, the expressions of the transcripts for the androgen receptors α and β were significantly elevated in the livers of the fish treated with 500 and 1,000 μg/L of DnBP. In addition, there was also an increase in the circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in the plasma in the higher treatment groups. An induction in the activity of aromatase was noted in the brains of 1,000 μg/L DnBP-treated fish. This was accompanied by an increase in the hepatic expression of the genes (here and later, whenever the phrase gene expression is used as a synonym for gene transcription although it is acknowledged that it is also regulated, e.g., by translation, mRNA stability and protein stability) encoding for the oestrogen receptors α and β and choriogenin L. Collectively, an increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in the testes, the upregulation of the genes for the oestrogen receptors and choriogenin in the liver, an induction in the brain

  1. Nephroprotective effect of estrogen and progesterone combination on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in ovariectomized female rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, M.; Nematbakhsh, M.; Pezeshki, Z.; Soltani, N.; Moeini, M.; Talebi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported that estrogen (Es) has no beneficial effect on cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity, but the role of progesterone (Pr) and the combination of Es and Pr are not yet well-defined. In this study, we investigated the protective role of Pr, and co-administration of Es/Pr on CP-induced nephrotoxicity. Eighty-six ovariectomized female Wistar rats were divided into 13 groups, and the experiments were performed in two phases. In Phase I, Groups 1–4 received 2, 5, 10, and 25 mg/kg, IM Pr dissolved in sesame oil every 5 days for four doses. Groups 5–8 had the same treatment regimen as Groups 1–4, but after the third injection the animals also received continuous dose of CP (2.5 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 8 days. Group 9, as the positive control group, received sesame oil instead of Pr plus CP. Group 10, as the negative control group, received sesame oil instead of Pr. After the most effective dose of Pr was determined in Phase I, Groups 11–13 in Phase II received 10 mg/kg Pr plus either 0.25, 0.5, or 1 mg/kg, IM estradiol valerate every 5 days for four doses. After the third injection, they also received a continuous dose of CP for 8 days. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr), kidney tissue damage score (KTDS), and kidney weight (KW) increased and body weight (BW) decreased in the positive control group (P < 0.05). Administration of Pr (10 mg/kg) plus CP decreased KTDS and BW loss and KW. Co-administration of ES/Pr at specific doses improved Cr, BUN, and KTDS; and resulted in reduced CP-induced nephrotoxicity. The results obtained suggest that the beneficial effect of Pr on CP-induced nephrotoxicity is dose-dependent. In addition, combination of Es/Pr with a specific dose decreased CP-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:27194830

  2. Tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids mimic direct but not receptor-mediated inhibitory effects of estrogens and phytoestrogens on testicular endocrine function. Possible significance for Leydig cell insufficiency in alcohol addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Stammel, W.; Thomas, H. ); Staib, W.; Kuehn-Velten, W.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Possible effects of various tetrahydroisoquinolines (TIQs) on rat testicular endocrine function were tested in vitro in order to prove whether these compounds may be mediators of the development of Leydig cell insufficiency. TIQ effects on different levels of regulation of testis function were compared in vitro with estrogen effects, since both classes of compounds have structural similarities. Gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone production by testicular Leydig cells was inhibited by tetrahydropapaveroline and isosalsoline, the IC{sub 50} values being comparable to those of estradiol, 2-hydroxyestradiol, and the phytoestrogens, coumestrol and genistein; salsolinol and salsoline were less effective, and salsolidine was ineffective. None of these TIQs interacted significantly with testicular estrogen receptor as analyzed by estradiol displacement. However, tetrahydropapaveroline, isosalsoline and salsolinol competitively inhibited substrate binding to cytochrome P45OXVII, with similar efficiency as the estrogens did; salsoline and salsolidine were again much less effective.

  3. Dose-dependent effect of estrogen suppresses the osteo-adipogenic transdifferentiation of osteoblasts via canonical Wnt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Huang, Qiang; Lin, Yan-Shui; Wei, Bo-Yuan; Guo, Yun-Shan; Sun, Zhen; Wang, Long; Fan, Jing; Zhang, Hong-Yang; Han, Yue-Hu; Li, Xiao-Jie; Shi, Jun; Liu, Jian; Yang, Liu; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Fat infiltration within marrow cavity is one of multitudinous features of estrogen deficiency, which leads to a decline in bone formation functionality. The origin of this fat is unclear, but one possibility is that it is derived from osteoblasts, which transdifferentiate into adipocytes that produce bone marrow fat. We examined the dose-dependent effect of 17β-estradiol on the ability of MC3T3-E1 cells and murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMMSC)-derived osteoblasts to undergo osteo-adipogenic transdifferentiation. We found that 17β-estradiol significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity (P<0.05); calcium deposition; and Alp, Col1a1, Runx2, and Ocn expression levels dose-dependently. By contrast, 17β-estradiol significantly decreased the number and size of lipid droplets, and Fabp4 and PPARγ expression levels during osteo-adipogenic transdifferentiation (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression levels of brown adipocyte markers (Myf5, Elovl3, and Cidea) and undifferentiated adipocyte markers (Dlk1, Gata2, and Wnt10b) were also affected by 17β-estradiol during osteo-adipogenic transdifferentiation. Western blotting and immunostaining further showed that canonical Wnt signaling can be activated by estrogen to exert its inhibitory effect of osteo-adipogenesis. This is the first study to demonstrate the dose-dependent effect of 17β-estradiol on the osteo-adipogenic transdifferentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and BMMSCs likely via canonical Wnt signaling. In summary, our results indicate that osteo-adipogenic transdifferentiation modulated by canonical Wnt signaling pathway in bone metabolism may be a new explanation for the gradually increased bone marrow fat in estrogen-inefficient condition.

  4. The effect of chlorination of estrogenic chemicals on the level of serum vitellogenin of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Tabata, A; Miyamoto, N; Ohnishi, Y; Itoh, M; Yamada, T; Kamei, T; Magara, Y

    2003-01-01

    Mature male medaka were continually exposed to four chemicals, p-n-nonylphenol (p-n-NP), nonylphenol (p-NP), bisphenol-A (BPA) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) to evaluate their estrogenic activities in the laboratory. In order to understand the effect of the chlorination that is applied widely in water and wastewater treatment, the above chemicals were chlorinated and then exposed to mature male medaka. Furthermore, in the case of vitellogenin, a is a female specific protein induced by the exposure to test waters containing the above chemicals after 5 weeks, medaka was returned to uncontaminated tap water to determine whether male medaka have a self recovery function from the effect of estrogenic chemicals. Much greater vitellogenin compared to the background levels were induced in the male medaka by separate exposure to 100 microg/L of p-NP, 1,000 microg/L of BPA and 0.05 microg/L of E2. The levels of vitellogenin increased with increasing exposure periods. The relative potencies of these chemicals descended in the order of E2>p-NP>BPA. Vitellogenin levels inducible by these chemicals were drastically reduced as a result of the chlorination for 24 hours. However, a moderate increase in hepatocyte somatic index (HSI) meant the hepatic fatness was observed as a result of chlorination. It is not clear at this stage whether or not the formation of chlorination byproducts is responsible for this moderate increase in HSI. The vitellogenin concentration of male medaka exposed to chemicals for 5 weeks decreased gradually after return to the uncontaminated water. However, the vitellogenin concentration did not return to the initial normal levels even after 5 weeks. A clear relationship between the serum vitellogenin concentration and the hepatic vitellogenin concentration was also found. Since quantitative analytical procedures for hepatic vitellogenin are easier than those of the serum vitellogenin, measuring the estrogenic effect using the measurement of vitellogenin in liver

  5. Effects of diverse dietary phytoestrogens on cell growth, cell cycle and apoptosis in estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Takako; Horiguchi, Hyogo; Oguma, Etsuko; Kayama, Fujio

    2010-09-01

    Phytoestrogens have attracted attention as being safer alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and as chemopreventive reagents for breast cancer because dietary soy isoflavone intake has been correlated with reduction in risk. To identify safe and effective phytoestrogen candidates for HRT and breast cancer prevention, we investigated the effects of daidzein, genistein, coumestrol, resveratrol and glycitein on cell growth, cell cycle, cyclin D1 expression, apoptosis, Bcl-2/Bax expression ratio and p53-dependent or NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Phytoestrogens, except for glycitein, significantly enhanced estrogen-response-element-dependent transcriptional activity up to a level similar to that of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)). E(2) increased cell growth significantly, coumestrol increased cell growth moderately, and resveratrol and glycitein reduced cell growth. Phytoestrogens, except for glycitein, stimulated the promotion of cells to G(1)/S transition in cell cycle analysis, similar to E(2). This stimulation was accompanied by transient up-regulation of cyclin D1. While genistein, resveratrol and glycitein all increased apoptosis and reduced the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, resveratrol reduced this ratio more than either genistein or glycitein. Moreover, resveratrol significantly enhanced p53-dependent transcriptional activity, but slightly reduced NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activity. On knockdown analysis, genistein, resveratrol and glycitein all reduced the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in the presence of apoptosis-inducing stimuli, and estrogen receptor (ER) alpha silencing had no effect on these reductions. In contrast, in the absence of apoptosis-inducing stimuli, only resveratrol reduced the ratio, and ERalpha silencing abolished this reduction. Thus, resveratrol might be the most promising candidate for HRT and chemoprevention of breast cancer due to its estrogenic activity and high antitumor activity.

  6. Effects of steroid hormone on estrogen sulfotransferase and on steroid sulfatase expression in endometriosis tissue and stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Piccinato, Carla A; Neme, Rosa M; Torres, Natália; Sanches, Lívia Renta; Derogis, Priscilla Bento Mattos Cruz; Brudniewski, Heloísa F; Rosa e Silva, Júlio C; Ferriani, Rui A

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease that afflicts about 10% of women in their reproductive age, causing severe pain and infertility. The potential roles of female steroid hormones in modulating key estrogen-metabolizing enzymes, steroid sulfatase (STS) and estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1), were investigated. The expression of STS and SULT1E1 mRNA in biopsy samples (n=78) of superficial and deep endometriotic lesions, eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis and endometrium from control patients were compared according to the menstrual cycle phase. Increased STS gene expression was detected in superficial and deep-infiltrating lesions and a reduced SULT1E1 expression was also observed in the eutopic endometrium relative to the superficial lesions. Additionally, a significantly positive correlation was detected between STS and SULT1E1 mRNA expression levels in biopsy specimens collected from the endometriosis patients, and not in control individuals. The actions of female steroid hormones on SULT1E1 and STS expression were evidenced in endometriosis, revealed by increased expression levels in the luteal phase of the cycle. There was an increased STS expression in primary eutopic and ectopic endometrial stromal cells treated with estradiol and progesterone (representative of the luteal phase, n=3). Although an increased STS mRNA expression was observed in hormone-induced endometrial stromal cells in vitro, no difference could be detected between the hormone treatment groups in estradiol formation from estradiol sulfate measured by LC-MS-MS. Interestingly, a greater expression of STS was observed in stromal cells from eutopic endometrium with an agreement in estradiol formation originated from estradiol sulfate. The differential regulation of STS and SULT1E1 could provide insights for novel studies of the therapeutic use of STS inhibitors.

  7. Hops (Humulus lupulus) inhibits oxidative estrogen metabolism and estrogen-induced malignant transformation in human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A).

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, L P; Madhubhani, P; Chandrasena, R; Esala, P; Chen, Shao-Nong; Main, Matthew; Lankin, David C; Scism, Robert A; Dietz, Birgit M; Pauli, Guido F; Thatcher, Gregory R J; Bolton, Judy L

    2012-01-01

    Long-term exposure to estrogens including those in traditional hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the risk of developing hormone-dependent cancers. As a result, women are turning to over-the-counter (OTC) botanical dietary supplements, such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and hops (Humulus lupulus), as natural alternatives to HRT. The two major mechanisms which likely contribute to estrogen and/or HRT cancer risk are: the estrogen receptor-mediated hormonal pathway; and the chemical carcinogenesis pathway involving formation of estrogen quinones that damage DNA and proteins, hence initiating and promoting carcinogenesis. Because, OTC botanical HRT alternatives are in widespread use, they may have the potential for chemopreventive effects on estrogen carcinogenic pathways in vivo. Therefore, the effect of OTC botanicals on estrogen-induced malignant transformation of MCF-10A cells was studied. Cytochrome P450 catalyzed hydroxylation of estradiol at the 4-position leads to an o-quinone believed to act as the proximal carcinogen. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of estradiol metabolites showed that 4-hydroxylation was inhibited by hops, whereas black cohosh was without effect. Estrogen-induced expression of CYP450 1B1 and CYP450 1A1 was attenuated by the hops extract. Two phenolic constituents of hops (xanthohumol, XH; 8-prenylnaringenin, 8-PN) were tested: 8-PN was a potent inhibitor, whereas XH had no effect. Finally, estrogen-induced malignant transformation of MCF-10A cells was observed to be significantly inhibited by hops (5 μg/mL) and 8-PN (50 nmol/L). These data suggest that hops extracts possess cancer chemopreventive activity through attenuation of estrogen metabolism mediated by 8-PN.

  8. The effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on serum estrogen, progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels in healthy post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Edlefsen, Kerstin L.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Prentice, Ross L.; Janssen, Imke; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Anderson, Garnet

    2010-01-01

    Objective Differences in disease outcomes between users and non-users of hormone therapy (HT) and between users of estrogen alone (ET) and users of estrogen plus progesterone therapy (EPT) may relate to differences in serum hormone concentrations between these populations. In this study, we examine the response of serum hormone levels in healthy post-menopausal women after one year of HT. Methods A representative sub-sample of 200 healthy adherent participants from the active and placebo groups of the Women's Health Initiative randomized, controlled clinical trials of ET (conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg daily) or EPT (ET plus medroxyprogesterone actetate 2.5 mg daily) were selected for determination of selected sex hormone levels at baseline and one year after randomization. Results In participants receiving active ET intervention compared to placebo, estrogenic hormone levels increased from baseline to year 1 by 3.6-fold for total estrone, 2.7-fold for total estradiol, and 1.8-fold for bioavailable and free estradiol concentrations. Serum SHBG concentrations also increased 2.5-fold. In contrast, progesterone levels decreased slightly in women taking exogenous EPT. The response of serum estrogens and SHBG did not differ substantially with the addition of progesterone. In subgroup analyses, hormone response varied by age, ethnicity, BMI, smoking, vasomotor symptoms, and baseline hormone levels. Conclusions These data provide a reference point for the serum hormone response to HT, and demonstrate that response of serum estrogens is similar for ET and EPT. The implications of the slight decrease in serum progesterone levels with EPT therapy are uncertain. Potential treatment interactions for estrogenic hormones were identified, which suggest a larger response to HT in women with low endogenous levels. PMID:20215977

  9. Paradoxical effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on basal prolactin secretion and the estrogen-induced prolactin surge

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Leemin ); Pan, Jenntser )

    1990-01-01

    The roles of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on both basal and estrogen-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion were examined. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats that were ovariectomized for 3 weeks and received estrogen treatment for 1 week were used. Intravenous administration of hormones and serial blood sampling were accomplished through indwelling intraatrial catheters which were implanted two days before. Plasma PRL levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Oxytocin at a dose of 20 {mu}g/rat stimulated a moderate PRL release in the morning and lower doses were without effect. Vasopressin was most effective at a dose of 5 {mu}g/rat in stimulating PRL release, while consecutive injections of higher doses were less effective. In contrast, TRH, ranging from 1 to 8 {mu}g/rat, induced a dose-dependent increases in PRL secretion. Using the effective dosages determined from the morning studies, repeated injections of either OT, AVP or their specific antagonists MPOMeOVT were given hourly between 1300 to 1800h and blood samples were obtained hourly from 1100 to 1900h. It was found that either OT or AVP significantly reduced the afternoon PRL surge, while their antagonists were not as effective.

  10. The role of environmental estrogens and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Chighizola, Cecilia; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2012-05-01

    The prevalence of autoimmune diseases has significantly increased over the recent years. It has been proposed that this epidemiological evidence could be in part attributable to environmental estrogens, compounds that display estrogen-like activity and are ubiquitously present in the environment. Environmental estrogens can be found in a wide variety of foods: phytoestrogens occur in plants such as clover and soy, while mycoestrogens are food contaminants produced by fungi. Meat, eggs and dairy products from animals given exogenous hormones contain relatively high concentration of estrogens. Among xenoestrogens, industrial estrogens are synthetic chemicals produced for specific purposes (pesticides, plastics, surfactants and detergents) while metalloestrogens are found in heavy metals. Estrogens can be also administered through medications (contraceptive pill, hormone replacement therapy, genistein, cimetidine, creams). There is a considerable burden of evidence in vitro and in animal models that these compounds may exert immunotoxic effects. However, to date there is no convincing data that exposure to environmental estrogens can be regarded as a risk for human health. In particular, there is no consensus whether prolonged exposure to relatively low concentrations of different estrogenic chemicals can affect the human immune system and induce clinically evident diseases in real-life scenario. Moreover, the effects on human health of the synergistic interactions between natural, medical, dietary and environmental estrogens have not been fully elucidated yet. Here we provide an extensive review of the in vivo and in vitro effects of environmental estrogens on the immune system, focusing on the evidences of association between exposure and autoimmune disorders.

  11. ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFOS) FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids) which ...

  12. Androgenic, anabolic, estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects of desogestrel and lynestrenol: effects on serum proteins and vaginal cytology.

    PubMed

    Cullberg, G

    1984-07-01

    Eight healthy (apart from pelvic endometriosis) women were given daily doses of 0.125, 0.250 and 0.500 mg of desogestrel or 5 mg of lynestrenol orally in a randomized order. Duration of each treatment was 6 weeks. Serum was analyzed for sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), ceruloplasmin, cortisol binding globulin (CBG), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and prealbumin using an electroimmunoassay. Serum 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Vaginal cytology was studied using the maturation value (MV). E2 levels were depressed by desogestrel and lynestrenol apart from values in two women after 0.125 mg desogestrel. T concentration was suppressed by desogestrel but not by lynestrenol. SHBG concentration and MV were dose-dependently suppressed indicating an antiestrogenic or possibly androgenic effect of desogestrel and lynestrenol. No androgenic or anabolic effects of desogestrel were however seen, e.g. suppression of TBG content or increase in prealbumin levels. For lynestrenol, however, a small but significant increase in prealbumin concentration indicated a weak androgenic/anabolic effect. No estrogenic effects were seen, e.g. increases in ceruloplasmin, CBG levels or in elevations of MV. A depressed SHBG production ability in the hepatocytes during treatment with 19-nortestosterone derivatives is postulated, possibly due to competitive receptor binding.

  13. Effects of estrogen and gender on cataractogenesis induced by high-LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, M.A.; Rusek, A.; Valluri, S.; Garrett, J.; Lopez, J.; Caperell-Grant, A.; Mendonca, M.; Bigsby, R.; Dynlacht, J.

    2010-02-01

    Planning for long-duration manned lunar and interplanetary missions requires an understanding of radiation-induced cataractogenesis. Previously, it was demonstrated that low-linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation with 10 Gy of {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays resulted in an increased incidence of cataracts in male rats compared to female rats. This gender difference was not due to differences in estrogen, since male rats treated with the major secreted estrogen 17-{beta}-estradiol (E2) showed an identical increase compared to untreated males. We now compare the incidence and rate of progression of cataracts induced by high-LET radiation in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats received a single dose of 1 Gy of 600 MeV {sup 56}Fe ions. Lens opacification was measured at 2-4 week intervals with a slit lamp. The incidence and rate of progression of radiation-induced cataracts was significantly increased in the animals in which estrogen was available from endogenous or exogenous sources. Male rats with E2 capsules implanted had significantly higher rates of progression compared to male rats with empty capsules implanted (P = 0.025) but not compared to the intact female rats. These results contrast with data obtained after low-LET irradiation and suggest the possibility that the different types of damage caused by high- and low-LET radiation may be influenced differentially by steroid sex hormones.

  14. Hypergravity and estrogen effects on avian anterior pituitary growth hormone and prolactin levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorindo, R. P.; Negulesco, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Developing female chicks with fractured right radii were maintained for 14 d at either earth gravity (1 g) or a hypergravity state (2 g). The birds at 1 g were divided into groups which received daily injections of (1) saline, (2) 200 micrograms estrone, and (3) 400 micrograms estrone for 14 d. The 2-g birds were divided into three similarly treated groups. All 2-g birds showed significantly lower body weights than did 1-g birds. Anterior pituitary (AP) glands were excised and analyzed for growth hormone and prolactin content by analytical electrophoresis. The 1-g chicks receiving either dose of daily estrogen showed increased AP growth hormone levels, whereas hypergravity alone did not affect growth hormone content. Chicks exposed to daily estrogen and hypergravity displayed reduced growth hormone levels. AP prolactin levels were slightly increased by the lower daily estrogen dose in 1-g birds, but markedly reduced in birds exposed only to hypergravity. Doubly-treated chicks displayed normal prolactin levels. Reduced growth in 2-g birds might be due, in part, to reduced AP levels of prolactin and/or growth hormone.

  15. Presence of estrogenic activity from emission of fossil fuel combustion as detected by a recombinant yeast bioassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingxian; Wu, Wenzhong; Henkelmann, Bernhard; You, Li; Kettrup, Antonius; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    Estrogenic activities of emission samples generated by fossil fuel combustion were investigated with human estrogen receptor (ER) recombinant yeast bioassay. The results showed that there were weak but clear estrogenic activities in combustion emissions of fossil fuels including coal, petroleum, and diesel. The estrogenic relative potency (RP) of fossil fuel combustion was the highest in petroleum-fired car, followed by coal-fired stove, diesel-fired agrimotor, coal-fired electric power station. On the other hand, the estrogenic relative inductive efficiency (RIE) was the highest in coal-fired stove and coal-fired electric power station, followed by petroleum-fired car and diesel-fired agrimotor. The estrogenic activities in the sub-fractions from chromatographic separation of emitted materials were also determined. The results indicated that different chemical fractions in these complex systems have different estrogenic potencies. The GC/MS analysis of the emission showed that there were many aromatic carbonyls, big molecular alcohol, PAHs and derivatives, and substituted phenolic compounds and derivatives which have been reported as environmental estrogens. The existence of estrogenic substances in fossil fuel combustion demands further investigation of their potential adverse effects on human and on the ecosystem. The magnitude of pollution due to global usage of fossil fuels makes it imperative to understand the issue of fossil fuel-derived endocrine activities and the associated health risks, particularly the aggregated risks stemmed from exposure to toxicants of multiple sources.

  16. Effects of growth hormone and low dose estrogen on bone growth and turnover in long bones of hypophysectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, L. S.; Schmidt, I. U.; Evans, G. L.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Pituitary hormones are recognized as critical to longitudinal growth, but their role in the radial growth of bone and in maintaining cancellous bone balance are less clear. This investigation examines the histomorphometric effects of hypophysectomy (Hx) and ovariectomy (OVX) and the subsequent replacement of growth hormone (GH) and estrogen (E), in order to determine the effects and possible interactions between these two hormones on cortical and cancellous bone growth and turnover. The replacement of estrogen is of interest since Hx results in both pituitary and gonadal hormone insufficiencies, with the latter being caused by the Hx-associated reduction in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). All hypophysectomized animals received daily supplements of hydrocortisone (500 microg/kg) and L-thyroxine (10 microg/kg), whereas intact animals received daily saline injections. One week following surgery, hypophysectomized animals received either daily injections of low-dose 17 beta-estradiol (4.8 microg/kg s.c.), 3 X/d recombinant human GH (2 U/kg s.c.), both, or saline for a period of two weeks. Flurochromes were administered at weekly intervals to label bone matrix undergoing mineralization. Whereas Hx resulted in reductions in body weight, uterine weight, and tibial length, OVX significantly increased body weight and tibial length, while reducing uterine weight. The combination of OVX and Hx resulted in values similar to Hx alone. Treatment with GH normalized body weight and bone length, while not affecting uterine weight in hypophysectomized animals. Estrogen increased uterine weight, while not impacting longitudinal bone growth and reduced body weight. Hypophysectomy diminished tibial cortical bone area through reductions in both mineral appositional rate (MAR) and bone formation rate (BFR). While E had no effect, GH increased both MAR and BFR, though not to sham-operated (control) levels. Hypophysectomy reduced proximal tibial trabecular number and cancellous bone

  17. Differential effects of Glycyrrhiza species on genotoxic estrogen metabolism: licochalcone A downregulates P450 1B1 whereas isoliquiritigenin stimulates

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Tareisha L.; Wang, Shuai; Simmler, Charlotte; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.; Dietz, Birgit M.; Bolton, Judy L.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen chemical carcinogenesis involves 4-hydroxylation of estrone/estradiol (E1/E2) by P450 1B1, generating catechol and quinone genotoxic metabolites that cause DNA mutations and initiate/promote breast cancer. Inflammation enhances this effect by up-regulating P450 1B1. The present study tested the three authenticated medicinal species of licorice, [Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG), G. uralensis (GU), and G. inflata (GI)], used by women as dietary supplements, for their anti-inflammatory activities and their ability to modulate estrogen metabolism. The pure compounds, liquiritigenin (LigF), its chalcone isomer isoliquiritigenin (LigC), and the GI specific licochalcone A (LicA) were also tested. The licorice extracts and compounds were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by measuring inhibition of iNOS activity in macrophage cells: GI > GG > GU and LigC ≅ LicA > LigF. The Michael acceptor chalcone LicA, is likely responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of GI. A sensitive LC-MS/MS assay was employed to quantify estrogen metabolism by measuring 2-MeOE1 as non-toxic and 4-MeOE1 as genot