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Sample records for potential helminth infections

  1. Allergic diseases and helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Sitcharungsi, Raweerat; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between allergic diseases and helminth infections are inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that helminth infections induce or increase the severity of atopic diseases. Other studies report that children infected with some helminths have lower prevalence and milder atopic symptoms. Expanding our knowledge on the mechanism of immunological modification as a result of helminth infection, and understanding the interaction between helminth infections and allergic diseases will be useful for developing potentially new treatments using some helminths, and for evaluating the risks and benefits of eradicating helminth infections in endemic areas. This article reviews current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergic disease, the immunological modifications that result from helminth infections, and clinical evidence of the effects of these infections on allergic diseases. PMID:23683364

  2. Concomitant helminth infection downmodulates the Vaccinia virus-specific immune response and potentiates virus-associated pathology.

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; de Freitas, Lorena Falabella Daher; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Coelho, Fabiana; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Nogueira, Denise; Amorim, Chiara; Dhom-Lemos, Lucas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Luciana Maria; da Silveira, Alexandre Barcelos; da Fonseca, Flávio Guimarães; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the immunopathological mechanisms of how helminths may influence the course of a viral infection, using a murine model. Severe virulence, a relevant increase in the virus titres in the lung and a higher mortality rate were observed in Ascaris and Vaccinia virus (VACV) co-infected mice, compared with VACV mono-infected mice. Immunopathological analysis suggested that the ablation of CD8(+) T cells, the marked reduction of circulating CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-γ, and the robust pulmonary inflammation were associated with the increase of morbidity/mortality in co-infection and subsequently with the negative impact of concomitant pulmonary ascariasis and respiratory VACV infection for the host. On the other hand, when evaluating the impact of the co-infection on the parasitic burden, co-infected mice presented a marked decrease in the total number of migrating Ascaris lung-stage larvae in comparison with Ascaris mono-infection. Taken together, our major findings suggest that Ascaris and VACV co-infection may potentiate the virus-associated pathology by the downmodulation of the VACV-specific immune response. Moreover, this study provides new evidence of how helminth parasites may influence the course of a coincident viral infection.

  3. Helminth parasites alter protection against Plasmodium infection.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response.

  4. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus.

  5. Helminth infection during pregnancy: insights from evolutionary ecology

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Aaron D

    2016-01-01

    Helminths are parasitic nematodes and trematodes, grouped together because of morphological similarities and commonalities in the effects infections have on hosts. These include complications such as anemia and biasing of immune responses, which can alter susceptibility for other diseases. For pregnant women, these complications might have implications for pregnancy outcomes or neonatal health. Here, I review studies of helminth infections during pregnancy, and ask the following questions: Do helminths affect maternal health or pregnancy outcomes? Are there consequences of maternal infection for infants? What are the effects of antihelminth treatment during pregnancy? The evidence suggests that the answers to these questions depend on the particular helminth species in question, maternal nutritional status, and the presence or absence of comorbid infection with other species, such as malaria. Moreover, there may also be unexpected consequences of treatment, as maternal infections can affect the priming of infant immune systems, with potential effects on infants later in life. These complex interactions suggest that a consideration of the evolutionary history of human–helminth interactions, as well as the ecological context of infections, can help to clarify an understanding of these host–parasite interactions and provide direction for future investigations. PMID:27956844

  6. Helminth Infections and Host Immune Regulation

    PubMed Central

    McSorley, Henry J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Helminth parasites infect almost one-third of the world's population, primarily in tropical regions. However, regions where helminth parasites are endemic record much lower prevalences of allergies and autoimmune diseases, suggesting that parasites may protect against immunopathological syndromes. Most helminth diseases are spectral in nature, with a large proportion of relatively asymptomatic cases and a subset of patients who develop severe pathologies. The maintenance of the asymptomatic state is now recognized as reflecting an immunoregulatory environment, which may be promoted by parasites, and involves multiple levels of host regulatory cells and cytokines; a breakdown of this regulation is observed in pathological disease. Currently, there is much interest in whether helminth-associated immune regulation may ameliorate allergy and autoimmunity, with investigations in both laboratory models and human trials. Understanding and exploiting the interactions between these parasites and the host regulatory network are therefore likely to highlight new strategies to control both infectious and immunological diseases. PMID:23034321

  7. Helminth Infection and Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zaccone, Paola; Hall, Samuel W.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and autoimmune diseases in industrialized countries cannot be exclusively explained by genetic factors. Human epidemiological studies and animal experimental data provide accumulating evidence for the role of environmental factors, such as infections, in the regulation of allergy and autoimmune diseases. The hygiene hypothesis has formally provided a rationale for these observations, suggesting that our co-evolution with pathogens has contributed to the shaping of the present-day human immune system. Therefore, improved sanitation, together with infection control, has removed immunoregulatory mechanisms on which our immune system may depend. Helminths are multicellular organisms that have developed a wide range of strategies to manipulate the host immune system to survive and complete their reproductive cycles successfully. Immunity to helminths involves profound changes in both the innate and adaptive immune compartments, which can have a protective effect in inflammation and autoimmunity. Recently, helminth-derived antigens and molecules have been tested in vitro and in vivo to explore possible applications in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including T1D. This exciting approach presents numerous challenges that will need to be addressed before it can reach safe clinical application. This review outlines basic insight into the ability of helminths to modulate the onset and progression of T1D, and frames some of the challenges that helminth-derived therapies may face in the context of clinical translation. PMID:23804266

  8. Immunodiagnostic tests for protozoan and helminthic infections.

    PubMed

    Higashi, G I

    1984-01-01

    Immunodiagnostic tests for human protozoan and helminthic infections are reviewed. The need for immunodiagnostic tests varies with each infection but is of paramount importance in those infections that cannot be parasitologically diagnosed readily such as toxoplasmosis, pneumocystosis, Chagas' disease, trichinosis, hydatidosis, cysticercosis, and visceral larva migrans. Immunoassays are also needed for those worldwide highly prevalent infections with severe morbidity to be used in seroepidemiology and in the follow-up evaluation of control programs. The most important are malaria, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and trypanosomiasis. Major advances have been made in the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a practical and rapid test for use in endemic countries and in the identification and isolation of diagnostic parasite antigens aided in particular by the use of monoclonal antibodies. Development of immunodiagnostic tests for specific parasite antigens in body fluids for many infections is being actively pursued.

  9. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection.

  10. Zoonotic helminth infections with particular emphasis on fasciolosis and other trematodiases

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark W.; Dalton, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic infections are among the most common on earth and are responsible for >60 per cent of all human infectious diseases. Some of the most important and well-known human zoonoses are caused by worm or helminth parasites, including species of nematodes (trichinellosis), cestodes (cysticercosis, echinococcosis) and trematodes (schistosomiasis). However, along with social, epidemiological and environmental changes, together with improvements in our ability to diagnose helminth infections, several neglected parasite species are now fast-becoming recognized as important zoonotic diseases of humans, e.g. anasakiasis, several fish-borne trematodiasis and fasciolosis. In the present review, we discuss the current disease status of these primary helminth zoonotic infections with particular emphasis on their diagnosis and control. Advances in molecular biology, proteomics and the release of helminth genome-sequencing project data are revolutionizing parasitology research. The use of these powerful experimental approaches, and their potential benefits to helminth biology are also discussed in relation to the future control of helminth infections of animals and humans. PMID:19687044

  11. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    PubMed Central

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  12. Why does infection with some helminths cause cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Brindley, Paul J.; da Costa, José M. Correia; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-01-01

    Infections with Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma haematobium are classified as Group 1 biological carcinogens: definitive causes of cancer. These worms are metazoan eukaryotes, unlike the other Group 1 carcinogens including human papilloma virus, hepatitis C virus, and Helicobacter pylori. By contrast, infections with phylogenetic relatives of these helminths, also trematodes of the phylum Platyhelminthes and major human pathogens, are not carcinogenic. These inconsistencies prompt several questions, including how might these infections cause cancer? And why is infection with only a few helminth species carcinogenic? Here we present an interpretation of mechanisms contributing to the carcinogenicity of these helminth infections, including roles for catechol estrogen- and oxysterol-metabolites of parasite origin as initiators of carcinogenesis. PMID:26618199

  13. Parasitic infections and immune function: effect of helminth infections in a malaria endemic area.

    PubMed

    Boef, Anna G C; May, Linda; van Bodegom, David; van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J; Maier, Andrea B; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Eriksson, Ulrika K

    2013-05-01

    According to the hygiene hypothesis, reduced exposure to infections could explain the rise of atopic diseases in high-income countries. Helminths are hypothesised to alter the host's immune response in order to avoid elimination and, as a consequence, also reduce the host responsiveness to potential allergens. To elucidate the effect of current helminth infections on immune responsiveness in humans, we measured cytokine production in a rural Ghanaian population in an area with multiple endemic parasites including malaria, intestinal helminths and protozoa. Multiplex real-time PCR in stool samples was used for the detection of four gastrointestinal helminths, of which only Necator americanus was commonly present. A similar assay was used to test for Giardia lamblia in stool samples and malaria infection in venous blood samples. Levels of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17, IL-6, IL-13, and interferon (IFN)-γ were determined in whole-blood samples ex vivo-stimulated either with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and zymosan (for innate cytokine production) or the T-cell mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). There were no significant differences in either innate or PHA-stimulated cytokine production dependent on current N. americanus infection. Plasmodium falciparum malarial infection was associated with a pro-inflammatory response indicated by increased innate production of TNF-α, IL-17 and IL-6. There was no clear pattern in cytokine responses dependent on G. lamblia-infection. In conclusion, in this rural Ghanaian population current N. americanus infections are not associated with altered immune function, while infection with P. falciparum is associated with pro-inflammatory innate immune responses.

  14. Differences in helminth infections between captive and wild spur-thighed tortoises Testudo graeca in southern Spain: a potential risk of reintroductions of this species.

    PubMed

    Chávarri, Malva; Berriatua, Eduardo; Giménez, Andrés; Gracia, Eva; Martínez-Carrasco, Carlos; Ortiz, Juana M; de Ybáñez, Rocío Ruiz

    2012-07-06

    Although the spur-thighed tortoise, Testudo graeca, is one of the most widely distributed species of tortoises, its natural populations are threatened through its whole range. Particularly at south-eastern Spain, the species is mainly threatened by habitat destruction and over-collection, given that this chelonian has been traditionally considered an appreciate pet. As south-eastern Spanish wildlife recovery centers shelter hundreds of captive animals mainly coming from illegal trade or captive-bred, there is a strong debate about what to do with these animals: maintaining them in captivity all along their lives or reintroducing them to wildlife. It is well known that the reintroduction of captive animals supposes a risk for the wild population due to the uncertainty of their genetic origin and to the possible spread of infectious diseases. However, despite the increasing evidence that infectious agents are a potential health hazard for wildlife, little is known about the risk that introduced parasites could suppose for the wild populations of spur-thighed tortoise. The present study investigates for the first time the presence of helminth eggs and worms in faeces from 107 wild and captive individuals collected from mid-March to mid-June 2010, and relates the findings to different environmental and host variables. Sixteen oxyurid species and the ascarid Angusticaecum holopterum were identified. This last nematode and the oxyurid species Tachygonetria palearticus and T. seurati had not been reported in Spanish wild T. graeca previously. The prevalence of oxyurid eggs and worms were 94% and 70%, respectively; while, ascarid eggs and worms were found in 26% and 5% of tortoises, respectively. Ascarid infections affected mostly captive animals and were associated to caparace deformities and symptoms of upper respiratory tract disease (p<0.05). Oxyurid infections were not associated to negative health traits and prevalence increased with age. In free-living tortoises

  15. Infection levels of intestinal helminths in two commensal rodent species from rural households in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Panti-May, J A; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Robles, M R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) trapped in rural households of Yucatan, Mexico. Sampling was conducted during the rainy season from October to December 2011 and the dry season from January to March 2012. A total of 154 M. musculus and 46 R. rattus were examined, with 84.2% of M. musculus being infected with helminths compared with a significantly lower prevalence of 52.2% in R. rattus (P< 0.01). Adult M. musculus were more likely to be infected with helminths (89%) than subadults (63%) (P< 0.01). Four helminth species were identified: Taenia taeniaeformis larvae, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris and Trichuris muris. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis was present more frequently in M. musculus than in R. rattus (P< 0.01) and in adult mice compared to subadults (P< 0.01). Trichuris muris was present only in adult mice. This is the first report of N. brasiliensis, S. muris and T. muris in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as the first to report the presence of N. brasiliensis in M. musculus from Mexico. The helminth fauna of commensal rodents present in households appears to constitute a low potential health risk to local inhabitants; however, it would be advisable to conduct further studies to better understand the public health risk posed by these rodent intestinal helminths.

  16. Alternatively activated macrophages in helminth infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helminthic parasites can trigger highly polarized immune responses typically associated with increased numbers of CD4+ Th2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils. These cell populations are thought to coordinate an effective response ultimately leading to parasite expulsion, but they also pl...

  17. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation.

  18. Geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Cambodia: do socioeconomic factors improve predictions?

    PubMed

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    aggregated large-scale analysis due to their large between- and within-village heterogeneity. Specific information of both the infection risk and potential predictors might be needed to obtain any existing association. The presented soil-transmitted helminth infection risk estimates for Cambodia can be used for guiding and evaluating control and elimination efforts.

  19. Granulocytes in Helminth Infection - Who is Calling the Shots?

    PubMed Central

    Makepeace, BL; Martin, C; Turner, JD; Specht, S

    2012-01-01

    Helminths are parasitic organisms that can be broadly described as “worms” due to their elongated body plan, but which otherwise differ in shape, development, migratory routes and the predilection site of the adults and larvae. They are divided into three major groups: trematodes (flukes), which are leaf-shaped, hermaphroditic (except for blood flukes) flatworms with oral and ventral suckers; cestodes (tapeworms), which are segmented, hermaphroditic flatworms that inhabit the intestinal lumen; and nematodes (roundworms), which are dioecious, cylindrical parasites that inhabit intestinal and peripheral tissue sites. Helminths exhibit a sublime co-evolution with the host´s immune system that has enabled them to successfully colonize almost all multicellular species present in every geographical environment, including over two billion humans. In the face of this challenge, the host immune system has evolved to strike a delicate balance between attempts to neutralize the infectious assault versus limitation of damage to host tissues. Among the most important cell types during helminthic invasion are granulocytes: eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils. Depending on the specific context, these leukocytes may have pivotal roles in host protection, immunopathology, or facilitation of helminth establishment. This review provides an overview of the function of granulocytes in helminthic infections. PMID:22360486

  20. Gastrointestinal helminths of wild hogs and their potential livestock and public health significance in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Okoro, C K; Wilson, B S; Lorenzo-Morales, J; Robinson, R D

    2016-03-01

    An investigation into the potential for transmission of gastrointestinal helminths from wild hogs to livestock and humans was prompted by concerns of recreational wild-hog hunting in the Caribbean region and the recent practice, by livestock farmers in Jamaica, of co-rearing wild and domesticated swine. Thirty-one wild hogs from the Hellshire Hills, a dry limestone forest in southern Jamaica, were necropsied during the period June 2004 to August 2006. Thirteen of the captured animals were male and 18 female. Four species of adult helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of the wild hogs: Hyostrongylus rubidus (77%), Globocephalus urosubulatus (48%), Oesophagostomum dentatum (42%) and Macroacanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (77%). Two (6.2%), ten (32.2%) and 18 (58.0%) hogs harboured one, two and three species of helminths, respectively. Mean infection intensities varied from 8.1 for M. hirudinaceus, to 115.5 for O. dentatum. There was no association between any of the recovered helminths and sex of the host; however, a multivariate analysis indicated a positive association between the prevalence of G. urosubulatus and host age (odds ratio (OR) = 6.517). Domesticated hogs co-reared with wild hogs are potentially at risk of infection with all four helminths, while wild-hog hunters and pig farmers may be exposed to M. hirudinaceus.

  1. Human Helminth Co-Infection: Analysis of Spatial Patterns and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Community

    PubMed Central

    Pullan, Rachel L.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Geiger, Stefan M.; Cundill, Bonnie; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Brooker, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Background Individuals living in areas endemic for helminths are commonly infected with multiple species. Despite increasing emphasis given to the potential health impacts of polyparasitism, few studies have investigated the relative importance of household and environmental factors on the risk of helminth co-infection. Here, we present an investigation of exposure-related risk factors as sources of heterogeneity in the distribution of co-infection with Necator americanus and Schistosoma mansoni in a region of southeastern Brazil. Methodology Cross-sectional parasitological and socio-economic data from a community-based household survey were combined with remotely sensed environmental data using a geographical information system. Geo-statistical methods were used to explore patterns of mono- and co-infection with N. americanus and S. mansoni in the region. Bayesian hierarchical models were then developed to identify risk factors for mono- and co-infection in relation to community-based survey data to assess their roles in explaining observed heterogeneity in mono and co-infection with these two helminth species. Principal Findings The majority of individuals had N. americanus (71.1%) and/or S. mansoni (50.3%) infection; 41.0% of individuals were co-infected with both helminths. Prevalence of co-infection with these two species varied substantially across the study area, and there was strong evidence of household clustering. Hierarchical multinomial models demonstrated that relative socio-economic status, household crowding, living in the eastern watershed and high Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were significantly associated with N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection. These risk factors could, however, only account for an estimated 32% of variability between households. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that variability in risk of N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection between households cannot be entirely explained by exposure-related risk

  2. Helminth infection in southern Laos: high prevalence and low awareness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Helminthiasis is a public health concern in Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos). This study aimed to understand helminth infection and associated risk factors in relation to existing local knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding worm infections in endemic communities. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 randomly selected villages in Saravane district, Southern Laos. Two stool samples obtained from 574 members (aged ≥2 years) of selected households were examined using the Kato Katz method. Household heads (n = 130) were interviewed. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) and direct observations were performed. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict infection. Content analysis was conducted for qualitative data. Results The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia sp. was 88.7%, 86.6%, 32.9%, 9.8% and 11.5%, respectively. Most individuals were co-infected with O. viverrini and hookworm. More men had multiple helminth infections than did women. Only one-third of household heads had heard about liver fluke before, of which 59.2% associated it with eating raw fish dish. Among the soil-transmitted helminths, roundworm was the most well known (70.8%) but was attributed to raw food consumption (91.3%). Eating raw fish was a common practice (75.4%); few households possessed a latrine (16.1%); less than half of the study participants mentioned health benefits from latrine use and personal hygiene. Focus group discussion participants had a low level of awareness of worm infections; more men liked eating raw fish than did women; some disliked using latrines because they were not used to it and because of their bad smell. Poor personal and village hygiene practices were observed. Conclusions This study highlights a high helminth infection rate and poor community awareness of worm infections and associated risk factors. Only a

  3. Intestinal helminth infections amongst HIV-infected adults in Mthatha General Hospital, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yogeswaran, Parimalaranie; Wright, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Background In South Africa, studies on the prevalence of intestinal helminth co-infection amongst HIV-infected patients as well as possible interactions between these two infections are limited. Aim To investigate the prevalence of intestinal helminth infestation amongst adults living with HIV or AIDS at Mthatha General Hospital. Setting Study participants were recruited at the outpatient department of Mthatha General Hospital, Mthatha, South Africa. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2013 amongst consecutive consenting HIV-positive adult patients. Socio-demographic and clinical information were obtained using data collection forms and structured interviews. Stool samples were collected to investigate the presence of helminths whilst blood samples were obtained for the measurement of CD4+ T-cell count and viral load. Results Data were obtained on 231 participants, with a mean age of 34.9 years, a mean CD4 count of 348 cells/µL and a mean viral load of 4.8 log10 copies/mL. Intestinal helminth prevalence was 24.7%, with Ascaris Lumbricoides (42.1%) the most prevalent identified species. Statistically significant association was found between CD4 count of less than 200 cells/µL and helminth infection (p = 0.05). No statistically significant association was found between intestinal helminth infection and the mean CD4 count (p = 0.79) or the mean viral load (p = 0.98). Conclusion A high prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was observed amongst the study population. Therefore, screening and treatment of helminths should be considered as part of the management of HIV and AIDS in primary health care. PMID:26842519

  4. Comprehensive Transcriptome Meta-analysis to Characterize Host Immune Responses in Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guangyan; Stevenson, Mary M.; Geary, Timothy G.; Xia, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections affect more than a third of the world’s population. Despite very broad phylogenetic differences among helminth parasite species, a systemic Th2 host immune response is typically associated with long-term helminth infections, also known as the “helminth effect”. Many investigations have been carried out to study host gene expression profiles during helminth infections. The objective of this study is to determine if there is a common transcriptomic signature characteristic of the helminth effect across multiple helminth species and tissue types. To this end, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of publicly available gene expression datasets. After data processing and adjusting for study-specific effects, we identified ~700 differentially expressed genes that are changed consistently during helminth infections. Functional enrichment analyses indicate that upregulated genes are predominantly involved in various immune functions, including immunomodulation, immune signaling, inflammation, pathogen recognition and antigen presentation. Down-regulated genes are mainly involved in metabolic process, with only a few of them are involved in immune regulation. This common immune gene signature confirms previous observations and indicates that the helminth effect is robust across different parasite species as well as host tissue types. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first comprehensive meta-analysis of host transcriptome profiles during helminth infections. PMID:27058578

  5. Immunity against Helminths: Interactions with the Host and the Intercurrent Infections

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Emmanuelle; Chauvin, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Helminth parasites are of considerable medical and economic importance. Studies of the immune response against helminths are of great interest in understanding interactions between the host immune system and parasites. Effector immune mechanisms against tissue-dwelling helminths and helminths localized in the lumen of organs, and their regulation, are reviewed. Helminth infections are characterized by an association of Th2-like and Treg responses. Worms are able to persist in the host and are mainly responsible for chronic infection despite a strong immune response developed by the parasitized host. Two types of protection against the parasite, namely, premune and partial immunities, have been described. Immune responses against helminths can also participate in pathogenesis. Th2/Treg-like immunomodulation allows the survival of both host and parasite by controlling immunopathologic disorders and parasite persistence. Consequences of the modified Th2-like responses on co-infection, vaccination, and inflammatory diseases are discussed. PMID:20150967

  6. The immune response to parasitic helminths of veterinary importance and its potential manipulation for future vaccine control strategies.

    PubMed

    Foster, Neil; Elsheikha, Hany M

    2012-05-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the immunobiology and epidemiology of parasitic helminths of the gastrointestinal system and the cardiorespiratory system, complications arising from infections of animals and humans with these parasites are a major clinical and economic problem. This has been attributed to the high incidence of these parasites, the widespread emergence of multi-drug resistant parasite strains and the lack of effective vaccines. Efforts to develop and produce vaccines against virtually all helminths (with the exception of Dictyocaulus viviparus and some cestode species) have been hindered by the complexity of the host-parasite relationship, and incomplete understanding of the molecular and immune regulatory pathways associated with the development of protective immunity against helminths. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and characterisation of effector mechanisms and molecules that govern the host-parasite interactions in these two body systems. Such knowledge provided clues on how appropriate and protective responses are elicited against helminths and, thus, may lead to the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Here, we review advances in the immune response to selected helminths of animal health significance, and subsequent vaccine potential. The topics addressed are important for understanding how helminths interact with host immune defences and also are relevant for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases caused by helminths.

  7. [Influencing factors on infections of human intestinal helminthes in suburb of Shangyu City].

    PubMed

    Song-Lin, Hu

    2011-06-01

    The infections of human intestinal helminthes and socioeconomic status were investigated in suburb of Shangyu City in 1990 and 2005, respectively. The results showed that the economic status, the save drinking water and latrines, working environment, and health habits and consciousness of the residents improved obviously. The infection rate of intestinal helminthes decreased significantly and the prevalence of intestinal helminthosis was controlled effectively.

  8. Tuberculin Skin-Test Reactions Are Unaffected by the Severity of Hyperendemic Intestinal Helminth Infections and Co-Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zevallos, Karine; Vergara, Katherine C.; Vergara, Antonio; Vidal, Carlos; Garcia, Hector H.; Evans, Carlton A.

    2010-01-01

    The tuberculin skin test (TST) quantifies cell-mediated immunity to tuberculosis antigens. Helminths suppress cell-mediated immunity, so we studied the effect of helminth infection and deworming on the TST in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in an indigenous Amazon community (N = 195). Stool microscopy diagnosed helminths in 98% and co-infection with multiple species in 24% of study subjects. The TST was positive (≥ 10 mm) for 49%, and responses increased with age (P < 0.001), Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination (P = 0.01), and tuberculosis contact (P = 0.05). TST results had no association with helminth-egg concentrations, species, or co-infections (all P > 0.1). One month after deworming with albendazole (three daily 400-mg doses), helminths were reduced, but 63% remained infected with helminths. Albendazole did not cause a change in TST size (P = 0.8) or positivity (P = 0.9) relative to placebo. Thus, TST reactions were unaffected by albendazole therapy that partially cured intestinal helminth infections, and TST interpretation was unaffected by high-burden helminth infections and co-infection with multiple helminth species. PMID:20682875

  9. Lessons from helminth infections: ES-62 highlights new interventional approaches in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, M A; Al-Riyami, L; Harnett, W; Harnett, M M

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic worms are able to survive in their mammalian host for many years due to their ability to manipulate the immune response by secreting immunomodulatory products. It is increasingly clear that, reflecting the anti-inflammatory actions of such worm-derived immunomodulators, there is an inverse correlation between helminth infection and autoimmune diseases in the developing world. As the decrease in helminth infections due to increased sanitation has correlated with an alarming increase in prevalence of such disorders in industrialized countries, this ‘hygiene hypothesis’ has led to the proposal that worms and their secreted products offer a novel platform for the development of safe and effective strategies for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. In this study we review the anti-inflammatory effects of one such immunomodulator, ES-62 on innate and adaptive immune responses and the mechanisms it exploits to afford protection in the murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As its core mechanism involves targeting of interleukin (IL)-17 responses, which despite being pathogenic in RA are important for combating infection, we discuss how its selective targeting of IL-17 production by T helper type 17 (Th17) and γδ T cells, while leaving that of CD49b+ natural killer (NK and NK T) cells intact, reflects the ability of helminths to modulate the immune system without immunocompromising the host. Exploiting helminth immunomodulatory mechanisms therefore offers the potential for safer therapies than current biologicals, such as ‘IL-17 blockers’, that are not able to discriminate sources of IL-17 and hence present adverse effects that limit their therapeutic potential. PMID:24666108

  10. Repurposing drugs for the treatment and control of helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Panic, Gordana; Duthaler, Urs; Speich, Benjamin; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Helminth infections are responsible for a considerable public health burden, yet the current drug armamentarium is small. Given the high cost of drug discovery and development, the high failure rates and the long duration to develop novel treatments, drug repurposing circumvents these obstacles by finding new uses for compounds other than those they were initially intended to treat. In the present review, we summarize in vivo and clinical trial findings testing clinical candidates and marketed drugs against schistosomes, food-borne trematodes, soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, the major human filariases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. While expanding the applications of broad-spectrum or veterinary anthelmintics continues to fuel alternative treatment options, antimalarials, antibiotics, antiprotozoals and anticancer agents appear to be producing fruitful results as well. The trematodes and nematodes continue to be most investigated, while cestodal drug discovery will need to be accelerated. The most clinically advanced drug candidates include the artemisinins and mefloquine against schistosomiasis, tribendimidine against liver flukes, oxantel pamoate against trichuriasis, and doxycycline against filariasis. Preclinical studies indicate a handful of promising future candidates, and are beginning to elucidate the broad-spectrum activity of some currently used anthelmintics. Challenges and opportunities are further discussed. PMID:25516827

  11. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, although the clinically related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in a helminth-infected population, we performed ImmunoCAP tests in filarial-infected and noninfected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins as well as IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologs. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and nonhomologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of ImmunoCAP-identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologs in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologs in helminths. Mice infected with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologs in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications, altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and bringing a new perspective to the "hygiene hypothesis."

  12. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ojurongbe, Olusola; Adegbayi, Adebola M; Bolaji, Oloyede S; Akindele, Akeem A; Adefioye, Olusegun A; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. METHODS: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV) was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%), hookworm (5.1%), Trichuris trichiura (2.6%), Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9%) and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%). For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9%) were more infected than males (2.0%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978). Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR) = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359) were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria. PMID:22091292

  13. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most important helminth parasite for small ruminants. Here we characterized the impact of helminth infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were exposed to 5,000 H. contortus L3 larvae for 50 days. Six age-matched goats served a...

  14. Epidemiological Study of the Association Between Malaria and Helminth Infections in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Efunshile, Akinwale Michael; Olawale, Temitope; Stensvold, Christen Rune; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A. L.; König, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between intestinal helminth infection and susceptibility to malaria remains unclear. We studied the relationship between these infections. Seven schools in Ilero, Nigeria referred all pupils with febrile illness to our study center for free malaria treatment during a 3-month study period. At the end, all pupils submitted a stool sample for microscopic investigation for helminth eggs. We used an unmatched case-control design to calculate the odds ratios for helminth infection in children with at least one attack of malaria (cases) and children with no malaria episodes during the study (controls). We recorded 115 malaria cases in 82 of 354 (23.2%), 16 of 736 (2.2%), and 17 of 348 (4.7%) children ages ≤ 5, 6–10, and 11–15 years old, respectively (P = 0.001). Helminth infection rate in cases was 21 of 115 (18.3%) compared with 456 of 1,327 (34.4%) in controls. Weighted odds ratio stratified by age group for helminth infection in cases versus controls was 0.50 (95% confidence interval = 0.2–0.84, P < 0.01). Ascaris and hookworm were the most common helminths detected, with prevalence rates of 14 (12.2%) and 6 (5.2%) among cases compared with 333 (25.1%) and 132 (10.0%) in controls, respectively (P = 0.001). The negative association between helminth infection and malaria may be of importance in the design of deworming programs. PMID:25624401

  15. Parasitic infections in travelers and immigrants: part II helminths and ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Norman, Francesca F; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Perez-Molina, Jose A; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    Travel and migration contribute to the emergence of certain parasites which may be imported into nonendemic areas. Noncontrolled importation of food products and animals may also contribute to the diagnosis of infections caused by helminths in nonendemic countries. Some helminth infections such as strongyloidiasis may be life-threatening, especially in immunocompromised patients, and outcome depends on correct diagnosis and treatment. Other helminth infections are neglected tropical diseases associated with chronic disease and/or disability. Major challenges concern the development of improved diagnostic techniques, safer and more effective drug therapies and identification of markers of response to treatment. The study of these imported infections in travelers and immigrants may provide opportunities for research which may not be readily available in resource-poor endemic countries. Updated reviews and guidelines are necessary as new data become available. The second part of this review focuses on infections in travelers and immigrants caused by helminths and ectoparasites.

  16. Generating super-shedders: co-infection increases bacterial load and egg production of a gastrointestinal helminth.

    PubMed

    Lass, Sandra; Hudson, Peter J; Thakar, Juilee; Saric, Jasmina; Harvill, Eric; Albert, Réka; Perkins, Sarah E

    2013-03-06

    Co-infection by multiple parasites is common within individuals. Interactions between co-infecting parasites include resource competition, direct competition and immune-mediated interactions and each are likely to alter the dynamics of single parasites. We posit that co-infection is a driver of variation in parasite establishment and growth, ultimately altering the production of parasite transmission stages. To test this hypothesis, three different treatment groups of laboratory mice were infected with the gastrointestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus, the respiratory bacterial pathogen Bordetella bronchiseptica lux(+) or co-infected with both parasites. To follow co-infection simultaneously, self-bioluminescent bacteria were used to quantify infection in vivo and in real-time, while helminth egg production was monitored in real-time using faecal samples. Co-infection resulted in high bacterial loads early in the infection (within the first 5 days) that could cause host mortality. Co-infection also produced helminth 'super-shedders'; individuals that chronically shed the helminth eggs in larger than average numbers. Our study shows that co-infection may be one of the underlying mechanisms for the often-observed high variance in parasite load and shedding rates, and should thus be taken into consideration for disease management and control. Further, using self-bioluminescent bacterial reporters allowed quantification of the progression of infection within the whole animal of the same individuals at a fine temporal scale (daily) and significantly reduced the number of animals used (by 85%) compared with experiments that do not use in vivo techniques. Thus, we present bioluminescent imaging as a novel, non-invasive tool offering great potential to be taken forward into other applications of infectious disease ecology.

  17. Interventions to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene for preventing soil-transmitted helminth infection

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Matthew C; Strunz, Eric; Utzinger, Jürg; Addiss, David G

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effectiveness of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to prevent soil-transmitted helminth infection. PMID:27346984

  18. Levels of helminth infection in the flat lizard Tropidurus semitaeniatus from north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, C H; Ávila, R W; Passos, D C; Zanchi-Silva, D; Galdino, C A B

    2016-11-01

    Parasites represent a great, unknown component of animal biodiversity. Recent efforts have begun to uncover patterns of infection by helminth parasites in several Neotropical lizards. The present study reports, for the first time, levels of helminth infection in a population of the flat lizard Tropidurus semitaeniatus. One hundred and thirty-nine lizards were examined and evidence of five intestinal helminth species was found, comprising four species of nematodes, one species of cestode and an unidentified encysted larval nematode. The most frequently occurring species was the intestinal nematode Parapharyngodon alvarengai, which did not exhibit differences in prevalence and intensity of infection relative to host sex or age/body size. Furthermore, helminth species richness was not related to host body size.

  19. Successful vaccination of immune suppressed recipients using Listeria vector HIV-1 vaccines in helminth infected mice.

    PubMed

    Shollenberger, Lisa M; Bui, Cac; Paterson, Yvonne; Allen, Kelsey; Harn, Donald

    2013-04-12

    Vaccines for HIV, malaria and TB remain high priorities, especially for sub-Saharan populations. The question is: will vaccines currently in development for these diseases function in populations that have a high prevalence of helminth infection? Infection with helminth parasites causes immune suppression and a CD4+ Th2 skewing of the immune system, thereby impairing Th1-type vaccine efficacy. In this study, we conduct HIV vaccine trials in mice with and without chronic helminth infection to mimic the human vaccine recipient populations in Sub-Saharan Africa and other helminth parasite endemic regions of the world, as there is large overlap in global prevalence for HIV and helminth infection. Here, we demonstrate that Listeria monocytogenes functions as a vaccine vector to drive robust and functional HIV-specific cellular immune responses, irrespective of chronic helminth infection. This observation represents a significant advance in the field of vaccine research and underscores the concept that vaccines in the developmental pipeline should be effective in the target populations.

  20. Helminthic Infections Rates and Malaria in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Ivan, Emil; Crowther, Nigel J.; Mutimura, Eugene; Osuwat, Lawrence Obado; Janssen, Saskia; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Within sub-Saharan Africa, helminth and malaria infections cause considerable morbidity in HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring. Helminth infections are also associated with a higher risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and the protective and risk factors for helminth and malaria infections in pregnant HIV-positive Rwandan women receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Methodology and principle findings Pregnant females (n = 980) were recruited from health centres in rural and peri-urban locations in the central and eastern provinces of Rwanda. Helminth infection was diagnosed using the Kato Katz method whilst the presence of Plasmodium falciparum was identified from blood smears. The prevalence of helminth infections was 34.3%; of malaria 13.3%, and of co-infections 6.6%. Helminth infections were more common in rural (43.1%) than peri-urban (18.0%; p<0.0005) sites. A CD4 count ≤350 cells/mm3 was associated with a higher risk of helminth infections (odds ratio, 3.39; 95% CIs, 2.16–5.33; p<0.0005) and malaria (3.37 [2.11–5.38]; p<0.0005) whilst helminth infection was a risk factor for malaria infection and vice versa. Education and employment reduced the risk of all types of infection whilst hand washing protected against helminth infection (0.29 [0.19–0.46]; p<0.0005);). The TDF-3TC-NVP (3.47 [2.21–5.45]; p<0.0005), D4T-3TC-NVP (2.47 [1.27–4.80]; p<0.05) and AZT-NVP (2.60 [1.33–5.08]; p<0.05) regimens each yielded higher helminth infection rates than the AZT-3TC-NVP regimen. Anti-retroviral therapy had no effect on the risk of malaria. Conclusion/significance HIV-positive pregnant women would benefit from the scaling up of de-worming programs alongside health education and hygiene interventions. The differential effect of certain ART combinations (as observed here most strongly with AZT-3TC-NVP) possibly protecting against helminth infection warrants further

  1. Impact of Helminth Infection on the Clinical and Microbiological Presentation of Chagas Diseases in Chronically Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Martínez-Gallo, Mónica; Carrillo, Eugenia; Molina, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Helminth infections are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, coexisting in Chagas disease endemic areas. Helminth infections in humans may modulate the host immune system, changing the Th1/Th2 polarization. This immunological disturbance could modify the immune response to other infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical, microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease patients, with the presence of helminth infection. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted at Vall d’Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Inclusion criteria were: age over 18 years, diagnosis of Chagas disease, and not having received specific treatment for Chagas disease previously to the inclusion. The study protocol included Chagas disease assessment (cardiac and digestive evaluation, detection of T. cruzi DNA measured by PCR in peripheral blood), and helminth infection diagnosis (detection of IgG anti-Strongyloides stercoralis by ELISA, microscopic examination of stool samples from three different days, and specific faecal culture for S. stercoralis larvae). Results Overall, 65 patients were included, median age was 38 years, 75.4% were women and most of them came from Bolivia. Cardiac and digestive involvement was present in 18.5% and 27.7% of patients respectively. T. cruzi PCR was positive in 28 (43.1%) patients. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 12 (18.5%) patients. No differences were observed in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between patients with and without helminth infection. Nevertheless, the proportion of patients with positive T. cruzi PCR was higher among patients with helminth infection compared with patients without helminth infection (75% vs 35.8%, p = 0.021). Conclusions We observed a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among chronic Chagas disease patients attended in our tropical medicine unit. Strongyloidiasis was associated

  2. Impact of Helminth Infections and Nutritional Constraints on the Small Intestine Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cattadori, Isabella M.; Albert, Istvan; Eilertson, Kirsten E.; Kapur, Vivek; Pathak, Ashutosh; Mitchell, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections and nutrition can independently alter the composition and abundance of the gastrointestinal microbiota, however, their combined effect is poorly understood. Here, we used the T. retortaeformis-rabbit system to examine how the helminth infection and host restriction from coprophagy/ready-to-absorb nutrients affected the duodenal microbiota, and how these changes related to the acquired immune response at the site of infection. A factorial experiment was performed where the bacterial community, its functionality and the immune response were examined in four treatments (Infect, Infect+Collar, Control+Collar and Control). Helminths reduced the diversity and abundance of the microbiota while the combination of parasites and coprophagic restriction led to a more diversified and abundant microbiota than infected cases, without significantly affecting the intensity of infection. Animals restricted from coprophagy and free from parasites exhibited the richest and most abundant bacterial community. By forcing the individuals to absorb nutrients from less digested food, the coprophagic restriction appears to have facilitated the diversity and proliferation of bacteria in the duodenum. Changes in the microbiota were more clearly associated with changes in the immune response for the infected than the nutrient restricted animals. The functional and metabolic characteristics of the duodenal microbiota were not significantly different between treatments. Overall, infection and diet affect the gut microbiota but their interactions and outcome can be complex. These findings can have important implications for the development of control measures to helminth infections where poor nutrition/malnutrition can also be a concern. PMID:27438701

  3. Prevalence of soil transmitted helminthes infections among Bangladeshi males seeking job abroad.

    PubMed

    Khatun, M; Naher, A

    2006-07-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken to identify the prevalence of soil transmitted helminthes infections and its relation to socio-demographic characteristics among Bangladeshi males seeking job abroad. The stool sample of each respondent coming for medical check up was collected by code number and examined under microscope to see the presence helminthic ova or larvae. Among 8140 respondents, 68.05% were from rural and 31.95% from urban area. As a whole, helminthic infection was found in 20.22% respondents. Off which rural and urban distribution were 27.58% and 5.22% respectively (p<0.001). Pattern of helminthes as per rural and urban basis were as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides in 12.45% & 2.61%, Trichuris trichurias in 2.61% & 2.50% samples respectively. As per age distribution was concerned, number of positive cases among rural population in all age groups was statistically higher (p<0.001) than that of urban population. Similarly, rate of combined infections among the rural population was also statistically higher (p<0.001). Higher positivity of helminthes was obtained in low-level educated respondents and in the farmers group. Since the study reflected a high proportion of helminthes infections in rural people, so it was recommended to launch regular deworming programme in rural community at national level. Health education activities on proper sanitary practice, safe disposal of excreta and taking safe food-drinks should be meaningful to eradicating helminthes infections. Further study is needed for monitoring the active status in the community.

  4. Infection status with helminthes in feral cats purchased from a market in Busan, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon Mok; Chai, Jong Yil

    2005-09-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the infection status with helminth in a group of feral cats in Korea. More than 29 helminth species including adults or eggs were detected in visceral and fecal samples of the examined cats. Among these were a host of nematodes, including toxocarids, Ancylostoma sp. and the larva of Anisakis simplex; trematodes, including Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Pharyngostomum cordatum, Metagonimus spp., Heterophyes nocens, Pygidiopsis summa, Heterophyopsis continua, Stictodora fuscata, Stictodora lari, Acanthotrema felis, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Centrocestus armatus, Procerovum varium, Cryptocotyle sp., Echinostoma revolutum, Echinostoma hortense, Echinochasmus japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., Plagiorchis muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and diplostomulum. We also detected a variety of cestodes, including Spirometra erinacei, Taenia taeniaeformis and unidentified species of tapeworm. We also found examples of the acanthocephalan, Bolbosoma sp. In our assessment of the stools, we detected at least 12 species of helminth eggs. These findings confirmed that feral cats in Korea are infected with a variety of helminth parasite species. Furthermore, among the helminths detected, E. pancreaticum, S. fuscata, S. lari, A. felis, S. falcatus, C. armatus, P. varium, Cryptocotyle sp., E. revolutum, E. japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., P. muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and Bolbosoma sp. represent helminth fauna which have not been reported previously in feral cats in the Republic of Korea.

  5. Infection status with helminthes in feral cats purchased from a market in Busan, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2005-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the infection status with helminth in a group of feral cats in Korea. More than 29 helminth species including adults or eggs were detected in visceral and fecal samples of the examined cats. Among these were a host of nematodes, including toxocarids, Ancylostoma sp. and the larva of Anisakis simplex; trematodes, including Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Pharyngostomum cordatum, Metagonimus spp., Heterophyes nocens, Pygidiopsis summa, Heterophyopsis continua, Stictodora fuscata, Stictodora lari, Acanthotrema felis, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Centrocestus armatus, Procerovum varium, Cryptocotyle sp., Echinostoma revolutum, Echinostoma hortense, Echinochasmus japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., Plagiorchis muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and diplostomulum. We also detected a variety of cestodes, including Spirometra erinacei, Taenia taeniaeformis and unidentified species of tapeworm. We also found examples of the acanthocephalan, Bolbosoma sp. In our assessment of the stools, we detected at least 12 species of helminth eggs. These findings confirmed that feral cats in Korea are infected with a variety of helminth parasite species. Furthermore, among the helminths detected, E. pancreaticum, S. fuscata, S. lari, A. felis, S. falcatus, C. armatus, P. varium, Cryptocotyle sp., E. revolutum, E. japonicus, Stephanoprora sp., P. muris, Neodiplostomum sp. and Bolbosoma sp. represent helminth fauna which have not been reported previously in feral cats in the Republic of Korea. PMID:16192750

  6. Intestinal Helminth Infections in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kitale District Hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Wekesa, A. W.; Mulambalah, C. S.; Muleke, C. I.; Odhiambo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%). Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%), hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%), and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%). Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75) and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75) were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ≥ 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57). It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment. PMID:24971167

  7. Evaluation of Allergy Effector Cell Function: Suppression of Basophils in Chronic Helminth Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    basophils are probably best known for their participation in the effector phase of immediate hypersensitivity reactions, some studies have suggested...had Schistosoma mansoni infections were then sensitized to Penicillin V. When mice in these groups were challenged with Pen V, body temperature was... hypersensitivity reactions, reduced basophil functionality could be one way helminth infection protects against allergic disease. 2. Determine the

  8. Helminth Infections of Meriones persicus (Persian Jird), Mus musculus (House Mice) and Cricetulus migratorius (Grey Hamster): A Cross-Sectional Study in Meshkin-Shahr District, Northwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    ZAREI, Zabiholah; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; HEIDARI, Zahra; DAVOODI, Jaber; SHABESTARI, Afshin; MOTEVALLI HAGHI, Afsaneh; KHANALIHA, Khadijeh; KIA, Eshrat Beigom

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rodents have important role as reservoirs of different parasites. The aim of this study was to determine helminth parasites of abundant rodents in Meshkin-Shahr, Ardabil Province northwest Iran. Methods: From April 2014 to March 2015; 205 rodents including 118 Meriones persicus, 63 Mus musculus and 24 Cricetulus migratorius were collected, using live traps. All rodents were dissected and their different tissues examined for infectivity with helminth parasites. Results: Overall, 74.2% of rodents were infected with helminth parasites. The rate of infectivity in M. persicus, M. musculus and C. migratorius was 82.2%, 61.9%, 66.7%, respectively. In general, among all 205 rodents, the species and infection rates of helminthes were as follows: Nematoda: Trichuris sp. (46.8%), Capillaria hepatica (18.1%), Syphacia frederici (14.2%), Aspicularis tetraptera (3.4%), Trichuris rhombomidis (2%), Heligmosomom sp. (2%), Streptopharagus kuntzi (0.5%), Spiruridae gen. sp. (0.5%); Cestoda: Hymenolepis nana fraterna (16.6%) Hymenolepis diminuta (7.3%) tetratiridium of Mesocestoides sp. (1%), Paranoplocephala sp. (0.5%), Cysticercus fasciolaris (0.5%), Taenia endothoracicus larva (0.5%), and Acanthocephala: Moniliformis moniliformis (18.5%). Conclusions: Variable species of helminthes circulate in the rodents of the study area. Presence of several zoonotic species highlights the potential risk of infections for public health. PMID:28096855

  9. Prevalence and clinical relevance of helminth co-infections among tuberculosis patients in urban Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Hella, Jerry; Said, Khadija; Kamwela, Lujeko; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Maroa, Thomas; Chiryamkubi, Magreth; Mhalu, Grace; Schindler, Christian; Reither, Klaus; Knopp, Stefanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Gagneux, Sébastien; Fenner, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Background Helminth infections can negatively affect the immunologic host control, which may increase the risk of progression from latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis (TB) disease and alter the clinical presentation of TB. We assessed the prevalence and determined the clinical relevance of helminth co-infection among TB patients and household contact controls in urban Tanzania. Methodology Between November 2013 and October 2015, we enrolled adult (≥18 years) sputum smear-positive TB patients and household contact controls without TB during an ongoing TB cohort study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We used Baermann, FLOTAC, Kato-Katz, point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen, and urine filtration to diagnose helminth infections. Multivariable logistic regression models with and without random effects for households were used to assess for associations between helminth infection and TB. Principal findings A total of 597 TB patients and 375 household contact controls were included. The median age was 33 years and 60.2% (585/972) were men. The prevalence of any helminth infection among TB patients was 31.8% (190/597) and 25.9% (97/375) among controls. Strongyloides stercoralis was the predominant helminth species (16.6%, 161), followed by hookworm (9.0%, 87) and Schistosoma mansoni (5.7%, 55). An infection with any helminth was not associated with TB (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–1.80, p = 0.22), but S. mansoni infection was (aOR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.03–4.45, p = 0.040). Moreover, S. mansoni infection was associated with lower sputum bacterial load (aOR 2.63, 95% CI: 1.38–5.26, p = 0.004) and tended to have fewer lung cavitations (aOR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.12–1.16, p = 0.088). Conclusions/Significance S. mansoni infection was an independent risk factor for active TB and altered the clinical presentation in TB patients. These findings suggest a role for schistosomiasis in modulating the pathogenesis of human TB

  10. The relationship between helminth infections and low haemoglobin levels in Ethiopian children with blood type A.

    PubMed

    Degarege, A; Yimam, Y; Madhivanan, P; Erko, B

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the nature of association of ABO blood type with helminth infection and related reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Stool samples were collected from 403 school-age children attending Tikur Wuha Elementary School from February to April 2011. Helminth infection was examined using formol-ether concentration and thick Kato-Katz (two slides per stool specimen) techniques. Haemoglobin level was determined using a HemoCue machine and ABO blood type was determined using the antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status was assessed using height and weight measurements. Out of 403 children examined, 169, 120, 96 and 18 had blood type O, A, B and AB, respectively. The prevalences of helminth infections were 46.9% for hookworm, 24.6% for Schistosoma mansoni, 4.2% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.7% for Trichuris trichiura and 58.3% for any helminth species. The relative odds of infection with at least one helminth species was significantly higher among children with blood type A (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-3.45) or blood type B (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.22-3.56) as compared to children with blood type O. Among children infected with helminths, mean haemoglobin concentration was lower in those with blood type A than those with blood type O (β, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.72 to -0.01). The relative odds of hookworm infection (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08-2.92) and related reduction in haemogobin levels (β, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.04) was higher among children with blood type A as compared to those with blood type O. Although the difference was not significant, the relative odds of S. mansoni or A. lumbricoides infections and related reduction in haemoglobin levels was also higher in children with blood type A or B as compared to children with blood type O. In conclusion, children with blood type A are associated with an increased risk of helminth, particularly hookworm, infection and related reduction

  11. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantifying the burden of parasitic diseases in relation to other diseases and injuries requires reliable estimates of prevalence for each disease and an analytic framework within which to estimate attributable morbidity and mortality. Here we use data included in the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection to derive new global estimates of numbers infected with intestinal nematodes (soil-transmitted helminths, STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms) and use disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate disease burden. Methods Prevalence data for 6,091 locations in 118 countries were sourced and used to estimate age-stratified mean prevalence for sub-national administrative units via a combination of model-based geostatistics (for sub-Saharan Africa) and empirical approaches (for all other regions). Geographical variation in infection prevalence within these units was approximated using modelled logit-normal distributions, and numbers of individuals with infection intensities above given thresholds estimated for each species using negative binomial distributions and age-specific worm/egg burden thresholds. Finally, age-stratified prevalence estimates for each level of infection intensity were incorporated into the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 analytic framework to estimate the global burden of morbidity and mortality associated with each STH infection. Results Globally, an estimated 438.9 million people (95% Credible Interval (CI), 406.3 - 480.2 million) were infected with hookworm in 2010, 819.0 million (95% CI, 771.7 – 891.6 million) with A. lumbricoides and 464.6 million (95% CI, 429.6 – 508.0 million) with T. trichiura. Of the 4.98 million years lived with disability (YLDs) attributable to STH, 65% were attributable to hookworm, 22% to A. lumbricoides and the remaining 13% to T. trichiura. The vast majority of STH infections (67%) and YLDs (68%) occurred in Asia. When considering YLDs relative to total populations

  12. Helminth infections predispose mice to pneumococcal pneumonia but not to other pneumonic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Apiwattanakul, Nopporn; Thomas, Paul G; Kuhn, Raymond E; Herbert, De'Broski R; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2014-10-01

    Pneumonia is the leading killer of children worldwide. Here, we report that helminth-infected mice develop fatal pneumonia when challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mice were chronically infected with either the flatworm Taenia crassiceps or the roundworm Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Upon challenge with a pneumonic type 3 strain of S. pneumoniae (A66.1), the worm-infected mice developed pneumonia at a rate and to a degree higher than age-matched control mice as measured by bioluminescent imaging and lung titers. This predisposition to pneumonia appears to be specific to S. pneumoniae, as worm-infected mice did not show evidence of increased morbidity when challenged with a lethal dose of influenza virus or sublethal doses of Staphylococcus aureus or Listeria monocytogenes. The defect was also present when worm-infected mice were challenged with a type 2 sepsis-causing strain (D39); an increased rate of pneumonia, decreased survival, and increased lung and blood titers were found. Pneumococcal colonization and immunity against acute otitis media were unaffected. Anti-helminthic treatment in the H. polygyrus model reversed this susceptibility. We conclude that helminth coinfection predisposes mice to fatal pneumococcal pneumonia by promoting increased outgrowth of bacteria in the lungs and blood. These data have broad implications for the prevention and treatment for pneumonia in the developing world, where helminth infections are endemic and pneumococcal pneumonia is common.

  13. Cross-sectional survey on helminth infections of chickens in the Samsun region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kurt, M; Acici, M

    2008-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to determine the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections in 185 chickens from nine districts in the Samsun region, northern Turkey between July 1999 and June 2000. In total, 88% of 83 scavenging chickens and 4% of 52 layers from laying batteries were infected, but none of the 50 broilers harboured helminths in the alimentary tract or trachea. The difference in prevalence was statistically significant among broilers, layers from laying batteries and scavenging chickens. A total of 16 different species were detected. The helminth species found were: Davainea proglottina (23%), Raillietina echinobothrida (13%), Raillietina cesticillus (12%), Hymenolepis carioca (10%), Raillietina tetragona (6%), Choanotaenia. infundibulum (2%), Amoebotaenia cuneata (2%), Echinoparyhium recurvatum (1%), Echinostoma revolutum (1%), Heterakis gallinarum (29%), Ascaridia galli (16%), Capillaria caudinflata (12%), Capillaria retusa (6%), Capillaria bursata (4%), Capillaria annulata (1%) and Syngamus trachea (2%).

  14. Helminth co-infection in Helicobacter pylori infected INS-GAS mice attenuates gastric premalignant lesions of epithelial dysplasia and glandular atrophy and preserves colonization resistance of the stomach to lower bowel microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Whary, Mark T.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Ge, Zhongming; Feng, Yan; Lofgren, Jennifer; Shi, Hai Ning; Taylor, Nancy S.; Correa, Pelayo; Versalovic, James; Wang, Timothy C.; Fox, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Higher prevalence of helminth infections in H. pylori infected children was suggested to potentially lower the life-time risk for gastric adenocarcinoma. In rodent models, helminth co-infection does not reduce Helicobacter-induced inflammation but delays progression of pre-malignant gastric lesions. Because gastric cancer in INS-GAS mice is promoted by intestinal microflora, the impact of Heligmosomoides polygyrus co-infection on H. pylori-associated gastric lesions and microflora were evaluated. Male INS-GAS mice co-infected with H. pylori and H. polygyrus for 5 months were assessed for gastrointestinal lesions, inflammation-related mRNA expression, FoxP3+ cells, epithelial proliferation, and gastric colonization with H. pylori and Altered Schaedler Flora. Despite similar gastric inflammation and high levels of proinflammatory mRNA, helminth co-infection increased FoxP3+ cells in the corpus and reduced H. pylori-associated gastric atrophy (p<0.04), dysplasia (p<0.02) and prevented H. pylori-induced changes in the gastric flora (p<0.05). This is the first evidence of helminth infection reducing H. pylori-induced gastric lesions while inhibiting changes in gastric flora, consistent with prior observations that gastric colonization with enteric microbiota accelerated gastric lesions in INS-GAS mice. Identifying how helminths reduce gastric premalignant lesions and impact bacterial colonization of the H. pylori infected stomach could lead to new treatment strategies to inhibit progression from chronic gastritis to cancer in humans. PMID:24513446

  15. Exploring the host transcriptome for mechanisms underlying protective immunity and resistance to helminth infection in ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helminth infections in ruminants are a major impediment to the profitable production of meat and dairy products, especially for small farmers. Gastrointestinal parasitism is not just a disease that negatively impacts productivity, including reduced weight gain and milk yield, but is also a leading ...

  16. 6Questionnaire-based approach to assess schoolchildren's physical fitness and its potential role in exploring the putative impact of helminth and Plasmodium spp. infections in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disability weights (DWs) are important for estimating burden of disease in terms of disability-adjusted life years. The previous practice of eliciting DWs by expert opinion has been challenged. More recent approaches employed quality of life (QoL) questionnaires to establish patient-based DWs, but results are ambiguous. Methods In early 2010, we administered a questionnaire pertaining to physical fitness to 200 schoolchildren in Côte d'Ivoire. Helminth and Plasmodium spp. infections were determined and schoolchildren's physical fitness objectively measured in a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test. Associations between objectively measured and self-reported physical fitness and between self-reported physical fitness and infection status were determined. Spearman rank correlation coefficient, uni- and multivariable linear regression models adjusting for children's age and sex, ambient air temperature and humidity, Fisher's test, χ² and t-test statistics were used for statistical analysis. Results The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides in 167 children with complete parasitological results was 84.4%, 74.9%, 54.5%, 14.4% and 1.2%, respectively. High infection intensities and multiple species parasite infections were common. In the 137 children with complete data also from the shuttle run test, we found statistically significant correlations between objectively measured and self-reported physical fitness. However, no statistically significant correlation between the children's parasitic infection status and self-reported physical fitness was identified. An attrition analysis revealed considerably lower self-reported physical fitness scores of parasitized children who were excluded from shuttle run testing due to medical concerns in comparison to parasitized children who were able to successfully complete the shuttle run test. Conclusions Our QoL questionnaire proofed valid to

  17. Birthweight in offspring of mothers with high prevalence of helminth and malaria infection in coastal Kenya.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Jessica K; Bisanzio, Donal; King, Charles H; Kitron, Uriel; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric; King, Christopher L; Malhotra, Indu

    2013-01-01

    Results of studies on the associations of maternal helminth infection and malaria-helminth co-infection on birth outcomes have been mixed. A group of 696 pregnant women from the Kwale district in Kenya were recruited and tested for malaria and helminth infection at delivery. Birthweight was documented for 664 infants. A total of 42.7% of the mothers were infected with Plasmodium falciparum, 30.6% with Schistosoma haematobium, 36.2% with filariasis, 31.5% with hookworm, and 5.9% with Trichuris trichiura; co-infection was present in 46.7%. Low birthweight (LBW) (weight < 2,500 grams) was present in 15.4% of the offspring, and 8.3% had a weight z-score ≤ 2 SD below the World Health Organization mean. Only gravida, age, and locale had a significant association with LBW. The high prevalence of maternal infection coupled with a higher than expected percentage of LBW highlight a need for further investigation of the association of maternal co-infection with LBW.

  18. Distribution and Risk Factors for Plasmodium and Helminth Co-infections: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Children in Bagamoyo District, Coastal Region of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Nahya; Knopp, Stefanie; Lweno, Omar; Abdul, Ummi; Mohamed, Ali; Schindler, Tobias; Rothen, Julian; Masimba, John; Kwaba, Denis; Mohammed, Alisa S.; Althaus, Fabrice; Abdulla, Salim; Tanner, Marcel; Daubenberger, Claudia; Genton, Blaise

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasmodium and soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) are a major public health problem, particularly among children. There are conflicting findings on potential association between these two parasites. This study investigated the Plasmodium and helminth co-infections among children aged 2 months to 9 years living in Bagamoyo district, coastal region of Tanzania. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1033 children. Stool, urine and blood samples were examined using a broad set of quality controlled diagnostic methods for common STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichura), schistosoma species and Wuchereria bancrofti. Blood slides and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) were utilized for Plasmodium diagnosis. Results Out of 992 children analyzed, the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 13% (130/992), helminth 28.5% (283/992); 5% (50/992) had co-infection with Plasmodium and helminth. The prevalence rate of Plasmodium, specific STH and co-infections increased significantly with age (p < 0.001), with older children mostly affected except for S. stercoralis monoinfection and co-infections. Spatial variations of co-infection prevalence were observed between and within villages. There was a trend for STH infections to be associated with Plasmodium infection [OR adjusted for age group 1.4, 95% CI (1.0–2.1)], which was more marked for S. stercoralis (OR = 2.2, 95% CI (1.1–4.3). Age and not schooling were risk factors for Plasmodium and STH co-infection. Conclusion The findings suggest that STH and Plasmodium infections tend to occur in the same children, with increasing prevalence of co-infection with age. This calls for an integrated approach such as using mass chemotherapy with dual effect (e.g., ivermectin) coupled with improved housing, sanitation and hygiene for the control of both parasitic infections. PMID:25837022

  19. Intestinal helminthic infections in striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius, from two southern regions of Korea.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Song, Hyeon-Je; Kim, Chung-Mo; Nam, Gi-Jin

    2014-08-01

    The present study was performed to know the infection status of intestinal helminths in a most common species of field mice, Apodemus agrarius, from 2 southern regions of Korea. Total 133 and 103 mice were collected by the mouse trap in Hapcheon-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do and Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do, respectively, from July 2005 to June 2006. The small intestine of each mouse was resected and longitudinally opened with a pair of scissors. The intestinal contents were washed with 0.85% saline until the supernatant became clear. Helminths were collected with naked eyes or under a stereomicroscope from the sediment of the intestinal content. More than 11 species of helminths (4 nematode spp., 5 trematode spp., and 2 cestode spp.) were recovered. Among these, heligmosomoid nematodes (97.5%) was the most highly and heavily infected species. As the members of trematodes, Plagiorchis muris, Brachylaima sp., Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma cinetorchis, and unidentified echinostome larvae were found in the small intestines of 35 (14.8%), 12 (5.1%), 6 (2.5%), 1 (0.4%), and 1 (0.4%) mice respectively. Two species of tapeworms, Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta were also detected in 79 (33.5%) and 21 (8.9%) mice, respectively. Conclusively, heligmosomoid nematodes were the most prevalent (dominant) species among more than 11 helminth species detected, and Brachylaima sp. fluke is newly added in the list of intestinal trematodes in Korea.

  20. Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) Family Members in Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2011-01-01

    Helminth parasites are a diverse group of multicellular organisms. Despite their heterogeneity, helminths share many common characteristics, such as the modulation of the immune system of their hosts towards a permissive state that favors their development. They induce strong Th2-like responses with high levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 cytokines, and decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ. IL-4, IFN-γ and other cytokines bind with their specific cytokine receptors to trigger an immediate signaling pathway in which different tyrosine kinases (e.g. Janus kinases) are involved. Furthermore, a seven-member family of transcription factors named Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) that initiate the transcriptional activation of different genes are also involved and regulate downstream the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. However, how helminths avoid and modulate immune responses remains unclear; moreover, information concerning STAT-mediated immune regulation during helminth infections is scarce. Here, we review the research on mice deficient in STAT molecules, highlighting the importance of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in regulating susceptibility and/or resistance in these infections. PMID:22110388

  1. Lesser snow goose helminths show recurring and positive parasite infection-diversity relations.

    PubMed

    Dargent, Felipe; Morrill, André; Alisauskas, Ray T; McLaughlin, J Daniel; Shutler, Dave; Forbes, Mark R

    2017-04-01

    The patterns and mechanisms by which biological diversity is associated with parasite infection risk are important to study because of their potential implications for wildlife population's conservation and management. Almost all research in this area has focused on host species diversity and has neglected parasite diversity, despite evidence that parasites are important drivers of community structure and ecosystem processes. Here, we assessed whether presence or abundance of each of nine helminth species parasitizing lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens) was associated with indices of parasite diversity (i.e. species richness and Shannon's Diversity Index). We found repeated instances of focal parasite presence and abundance having significant positive co-variation with diversity measures of other parasites. These results occurred both within individual samples and for combinations of all samples. Whereas host condition and parasite facilitation could be drivers of the patterns we observed, other host- or parasite-level effects, such as age or sex class of host or taxon of parasite, were discounted as explanatory variables. Our findings of recurring and positive associations between focal parasite abundance and diversity underscore the importance of moving beyond pairwise species interactions and contexts, and of including the oft-neglected parasite species diversity in infection-diversity studies.

  2. Helminthic Infection and Nutritional Studies among Orang Asli Children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, Perak

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Weng Kin; Foo, Phiaw Chong; Roze, Mohamad Noor Mohamad; Pim, Chau Dam; Subramaniam, Puvaneswari; Lim, Boon Huat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Orang Asli (aborigine) children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC), Kato-Katz (KK), and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33) of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33) of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97%) were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs. PMID:27366156

  3. Gastrointestinal helminths in indigenous and exotic chickens in Vietnam: association of the intensity of infection with the Major Histocompatibility Complex.

    PubMed

    Schou, T W; Permin, A; Juul-Madsen, H R; Sørensen, P; Labouriau, R; Nguyên, T L H; Fink, M; Pham, S L

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the prevalence and intensity of infections of helminths in 2 chicken breeds in Vietnam, the indigenous Ri and the exotic Luong Phuong. Also, possible correlations with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) were tested. The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis beramporia, Tetrameres mothedai, Capillaria obsignata, Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between the 2 breeds. Comparing the 2 groups of adult birds, Ri chickens were observed to have higher prevalence and infection intensities of several species of helminths, as well as a higher mean number of helminth species. In contrast, A. galli and C. obsignata were shown to be more prevalent in Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, an age-dependent difference was indicated in the group of Ri chickens in which the prevalence and the intensity of infection was higher for the adult than the young chickens for most helminths. The most notable exception was the significantly lower prevalence and intensities of A. galli in the group of adult chickens. In contrast, the prevalence and intensity were very similar in both age groups of Luong Phuong chickens. Using a genetic marker located in the MHC, a statistically significant correlation between several MHC haplotypes and the infection intensity of different helminth species was inferred. This is the first report of an association of MHC haplotype with the intensity of parasite infections in chickens.

  4. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Proportions Are Diminished in Young Helminth Infected Children and Restored by Curative Anti-helminthic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nausch, Norman; Appleby, Laura J.; Sparks, Alexandra M.; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mutapi, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Background Group 2 Innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are innate cells that produce the TH2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. The importance of these cells has recently been demonstrated in experimental models of parasitic diseases but there is a paucity of data on ILC2s in the context of human parasitic infections and in particular of the blood dwelling parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Methodology/Principal Findings In this case-control study human peripheral blood ILC2s were analysed in relation to infection with the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 36 S. haematobium infected and 36 age and sex matched uninfected children were analysed for frequencies of ILC2s identified as Lin-CD45+CD127+CD294+CD161+. ILC2s were significantly lower particularly in infected children aged 6–9 years compared to healthy participants. Curative anti-helminthic treatment resulted in an increase in levels of the activating factor TSLP and restoration of ILC2 levels. Conclusion This study demonstrates that ILC2s are diminished in young helminth infected children and restored by removal of the parasites by treatment, indicating a previously undescribed association between a human parasitic infection and ILC2s and suggesting a role of ILC2s before the establishment of protective acquired immunity in human schistosomiasis. PMID:25799270

  5. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Robert W.; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L.; Urban, Joseph F.

    2016-02-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health.

  6. The effect of helminth infection on the microbial composition and structure of the caprine abomasal microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert W.; Li, Weizhong; Sun, Jiajie; Yu, Peng; Baldwin, Ransom L.; Urban, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is arguably the most injurious helminth parasite for small ruminants. We characterized the impact of H. contortus infection on the caprine abomasal microbiome. Fourteen parasite naive goats were inoculated with 5,000 H. contortus infective larvae and followed for 50 days. Six age-matched naïve goats served as uninfected controls. Reduced bodyweight gain and a significant increase in the abosamal pH was observed in infected goats compared to uninfected controls. Infection also increased the bacterial load while reducing the abundance of the Archaea in the abomasum but did not appear to affect microbial diversity. Nevertheless, the infection altered the abundance of approximately 19% of the 432 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU) detected per sample. A total of 30 taxa displayed a significantly different abundance between control and infected goats. Furthermore, the infection resulted in a distinct difference in the microbiome structure. As many as 8 KEGG pathways were predicted to be significantly affected by infection. In addition, H. contortus-induced changes in butyrate producing bacteria could regulate mucosal inflammation and tissue repair. Our results provided insight into physiological consequences of helminth infection in small ruminants and could facilitate the development of novel control strategies to improve animal and human health. PMID:26853110

  7. Influence of helminth infections on childhood nutritional status in lowland Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Tanner, S; Leonard, W R; McDade, T W; Reyes-Garcia, V; Godoy, R; Huanca, T

    2009-01-01

    Infectious disease, such as diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and parasitic infections, are an important source of nutritional and energetic stress in many populations. Inspired by the research and methodological innovations of A. Roberto Frisancho, this work considers the impact of childhood environment and local disease ecology on child health and nutritional patterns among an indigenous group in lowland Bolivia. Specifically, we examine the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection, especially hookworm species, and anthropometric markers of short- and long-term nutritional status. Fecal samples, anthropometric dimensions, and health interviews were collected for 92 children ranging in age from 2.0 to 10.9 years. Microscopic examination revealed high levels of parasitic infection, with 76% of children positive for hookworm species infections (77% of girls and 74% of boys). Less common infections included Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichurius trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis with only 15% of children positive for multiple-species infections. After adjusting for sex and age, no statistically significant associations were observed between helminth infections and the frequency of reported illness or anthropometric measures of nutritional status. These data demonstrate the difficulty of assessing nutritional impacts of endemic infections.

  8. The effects of local medicinal knowledge and hygiene on helminth infections in an Amazonian society.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Susan; Chuquimia-Choque, Maria E; Huanca, Tomás; McDade, Thomas W; Leonard, William R; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Social science has long recognized the importance of understanding how interactions between culture and behavior shape disease patterns, especially in resource-poor areas where individuals draw on multiple medical treatments to maintain health. While global health programs aimed at controlling high infection rates of soil-transmitted helminthes among indigenous groups often acknowledge the value of local culture, little research has been able to examine this value. This study investigates the association between parental ethnomedical knowledge, parental biomedical knowledge, and household sanitation behavior and childhood soil-transmitted helminth infections among a group of foragers-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon (Tsimane'). During 2007, a parasitological survey was completed for 329 children (≤ 16 years of age) from 109 households in combination with a comprehensive survey of both of the child's parents to assess biomedical and ethnomedical knowledge and household sanitary environment. Soil-transmitted helminthes were found to be common with 67% of sample positive for hookworm species. Indices that capture a household's relative state of risky and preventive hygienic behavior were significantly associated with risk of hookworm infection. Mother's but not father's ethnomedical knowledge was also negatively associated with a child's probability of being positive for hookworm infection. The effect was stronger for young children and boys. Like many rural populations, Tsimane' actively draw upon multiple medical systems to respond to health challenges. Integration into markets and national societies is likely to affect local medical systems by increasing the use of biomedicine as formal education prioritizes biomedical over ethnomedical systems. This study underscores the value of considering both ethnomedical knowledge systems and household hygiene in public health campaigns to treat and control soil-transmitted helminths. There is no question that providing

  9. Quantitative evaluation of a handheld light microscope for field diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456 for Trichuris trichiura; both P < 0.05). Using regression coefficients and accounting for intensity of infection, we found that the agreement between the two devices was excellent for both species (κ = 0.90, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.99 for A. lumbricoides and κ = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00 for T. trichiura). The Newton Nm1 microscope may be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth infection in clinical, epidemiologic, and public health settings.

  10. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M O

    2014-03-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum; Angiostrongylus vasorum; and Sarcoptes scabiei, but Toxascaris leonina was only recorded in foxes of southern Jutland. A high prevalence and abundance of A. vasorum in foxes of Copenhagen was observed. The prevalence of four nematode species; Eucoleus (Capillaria) aerophilus, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, and Crenosoma vulpis, in foxes of both localities were comparable and ranging from 22.9% to 89%. The prevalence of Mesocestoides sp. was significantly higher in foxes of Copenhagen. Taenia spp. were detected using morphological and molecular analysis, which revealed the dominance of T. polyacantha in foxes of both localities. Infections with sarcoptic mange were evident only among foxes of Copenhagen (44.9%), which significantly affected the average weight of the infected animals. Further remarks on the zoonotic and veterinary implications of the parasites recovered are given.

  11. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in ovine population of Kashmir Valley

    PubMed Central

    Tramboo, S. R.; Shahardar, R. A.; Allaie, I. M.; Wani, Z. A.; Bushra, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    spp., Dicrocoelium spp. and Moniezia spp.) was found to be non-significantly higher in winter, but paramphistomes showed the highest prevalence in the summer season. Nemathelminth infection was found highest in summer season and lowest during the winter season. Eggs per gram (EPG) ranged from 0 to 1800, and an average EPG count was found to be 454.35±27.85. EPG was found to be highest in summer (684.00±69.83) and lowest in winter (202.38±18.82). The overall prevalence of GI helminths was found more in adult sheep (83.00%) compared to young ones (53.11%), the difference being statistically significant (p<0.05). Similarly, the prevalence of helminths was found to be higher in females (78.32%) as compared to males (72.97%), the variation being statistically non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: Seasonal variation plays an important role in the prevalence of GI helminths in addition to age and sex of the animal. PMID:27047017

  12. Interactions between multiple helminths and the gut microbiota in wild rodents.

    PubMed

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Bastien, Géraldine; Hauffe, Heidi C; Marchesi, Julian; Perkins, Sarah E

    2015-08-19

    The gut microbiota is vital to host health and, as such, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms altering its composition and diversity. Intestinal helminths are host immunomodulators and have evolved both temporally and spatially in close association with the gut microbiota, resulting in potential mechanistic interplay. Host-helminth and host-microbiota interactions are comparatively well-examined, unlike microbiota-helminth relationships, which typically focus on experimental infection with a single helminth species in laboratory animals. Here, in addition to a review of the literature on helminth-microbiota interactions, we examined empirically the association between microbiota diversity and composition and natural infection of multiple helminth species in wild mice (Apodemus flavicollis), using 16S rRNA gene catalogues (metataxonomics). In general, helminth presence is linked with high microbiota diversity, which may confer health benefits to the host. Within our wild rodent system variation in the composition and abundance of gut microbial taxa associated with helminths was specific to each helminth species and occurred both up- and downstream of a given helminth's niche (gut position). The most pronounced helminth-microbiota association was between the presence of tapeworms in the small intestine and increased S24-7 (Bacteroidetes) family in the stomach. Helminths clearly have the potential to alter gut homeostasis. Free-living rodents with a diverse helminth community offer a useful model system that enables both correlative (this study) and manipulative inference to elucidate helminth-microbiota interactions.

  13. Geophagy (Soil-eating) in relation to Anemia and Helminth infection among HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kosuke; Saathoff, Elmar; Antelman, Gretchen; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2009-01-01

    Geophagy, the regular and deliberate consumption of soil, is prevalent among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the associations of geophagy with anemia and helminth infection among 971 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive pregnant women in Tanzania. About 29% of pregnant women regularly consumed soil. Occupation, marital status, and gestational age were associated with geophagy. Ascaris lumbricoides infection was associated with the prevalence of geophagy (adjusted-prevalence ratio 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37-2.40); however, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis showed no association. Anemia and red blood cell characteristics suggestive of iron deficiency were strongly correlated with geophagy at baseline. In longitudinal analyses, we found evidence suggesting that soil consumption may be associated with an increased risk of anemia (adjusted-relative risk 1.16; 95% CI = 0.98-1.36) and a lower hemoglobin concentration (adjusted-mean difference -3.8 g/L; 95% CI [-7.3, -0.4]). Pregnant women should be informed about the potential risks associated with soil consumption.

  14. Counter-regulatory anti-parasite cytokine responses during concurrent Plasmodium yoelii and intestinal helminth infections in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malaria and helminth infections are two of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in tropical areas. While concomitant infection is common, mechanisms contributing to altered disease outcomes during co-infection remain poorly defined. We have previously reported exacerbation of normally non-lethal ...

  15. Associations between mild-to-moderate anaemia in pregnancy and helminth, malaria and HIV infection in Entebbe, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muhangi, Lawrence; Woodburn, Patrick; Omara, Mildred; Omoding, Nicholas; Kizito, Dennison; Mpairwe, Harriet; Nabulime, Juliet; Ameke, Christine; Morison, Linda A; Elliott, Alison M

    2007-09-01

    It is suggested that helminths, particularly hookworm and schistosomiasis, may be important causes of anaemia in pregnancy. We assessed the associations between mild-to-moderate anaemia (haemoglobin >8.0 g/dl and <11.2 g/dl) and helminths, malaria and HIV among 2507 otherwise healthy pregnant women at enrolment to a trial of deworming in pregnancy in Entebbe, Uganda. The prevalence of anaemia was 39.7%. The prevalence of hookworm was 44.5%, Mansonella perstans 21.3%, Schistosoma mansoni 18.3%, Strongyloides 12.3%, Trichuris 9.1%, Ascaris 2.3%, asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia 10.9% and HIV 11.9%. Anaemia showed little association with the presence of any helminth, but showed a strong association with malaria (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.22, 95% CI 2.43-4.26) and HIV (AOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.90-3.19). There was a weak association between anaemia and increasing hookworm infection intensity. Thus, although highly prevalent, helminths showed little association with mild-to-moderate anaemia in this population, but HIV and malaria both showed a strong association. This result may relate to relatively good nutrition and low helminth infection intensity. These findings are pertinent to estimating the disease burden of helminths and other infections in pregnancy. [Clinical Trial No. ISRCTN32849447].

  16. Conceptual framework for analysing farm-specific economic effects of helminth infections in ruminants and control strategies.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, Mariska; Charlier, Johannes; Lauwers, Ludwig; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Van Meensel, Jef

    2013-05-01

    Helminth infections are considered to be an important constraint on livestock productivity worldwide. The economic impact of these infections or their control strategies has traditionally been assessed by their effect on animal performance indicators or traditional economic calculation methods (e.g. budgeting and cost-benefit analysis). Because the impact of helminth infections has become more subtle and is farm-specific, one needs more refined economic evaluations of actions meant to increase or maintain the health of livestock on individual farms. This paper proposes an interdisciplinary framework that combines the developments in the veterinary control of helminth infections with economic performance measurements to identify farm-specific and profitable anthelmintic management decisions. Our framework positions individual farms' performance against performance benchmarks and is based on the farms' efficiency in transforming input(s) into output(s). We show how this positioning makes it possible to establish a linkage between input and output transformation, helminth infection levels and effects of control strategies. Furthermore, the framework allows for the identification of improvement paths that are not necessarily related to the helminth infection, but which may lead to other management improvements. We discuss the epidemiological information required and which complementary methods (e.g. efficiency analysis and budgeting techniques) can be used to make the framework operational.

  17. A survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) in Kermanshah, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pakdel, Norollah; Naem, Soraya; Rezaei, Farid; Chalehchaleh, Abdol-Ali

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. Based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of Iran. The current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of Kermanshah county, Iran. Mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from January to October 2011 and euthanized. Rodents included 110 Mus musculus (79.00%), 23 Rattus norvegicus (17.00%), and five Rattus rattus (4.00%). The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts were removed and examined to identify parasitic helminths. The results indicated that 42.02% of examined rodents were infected with eight helminths species, i.e. Trichuris muris (14.49%), Syphacia obvelata (13.76%), Syphacia muris (2.89%), Aspicularis tetrapetra (5.07%), Heterakis spumosa (5.07%), Capillaria hepatica eggs (3.62%), Hyminolepis diminuta (12.30%), and Cystisercus fasciolaris, the larva of Taenia teanieformis (4.34%). Given the results of this study, we concluded that examined rodents were more infected with nematodes than other helminths. As rodents are usually infected with a number of zoonotic parasites, hence control of these animals has an important role in safeguarding public health. PMID:25653780

  18. Helminth infections in British troops following an operation in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Bailey, M S; Thomas, R; Green, A D; Bailey, J W; Beeching, N J

    2006-09-01

    One hundred and fifty-three British soldiers and 86 Royal Air Force (RAF) personnel were deployed on a hostage rescue operation in Sierra Leone. For 3 days they were exposed to various infection risks and 6 weeks later some of the soldiers presented with gastrointestinal complaints. Both groups were screened with structured questionnaires, blood investigations and (where indicated) faecal microscopy and charcoal culture for helminths. Definite and probable cases of helminth infection were treated with albendazole and all soldiers were screened again after 3 months. Among the soldiers investigated, 73/145 (50%) reported gastrointestinal symptoms and 70/139 (50%) had eosinophilia. Among these, 17/66 (26%) had hookworm infection, 6/66 (9%) had Strongyloides stercoralis infection and 1/66 (2%) had Giardia lamblia infection. Eosinophilia was most strongly associated with entering the enemy camp and being in the platoon that attacked the area around the camp latrines. Among RAF personnel, who were not involved in activities on the ground, 3/86 (3%) had borderline eosinophilia. Treatment of 105/153 (69%) soldiers with albendazole was well tolerated and, on follow-up screening 3 months later, 23/124 soldiers (19%) had gastrointestinal symptoms and 18/121 (15%) had eosinophilia. Faecal investigations and schistosomiasis serology tests were all negative at this stage.

  19. The association between multiple intestinal helminth infections and blood group, anaemia and nutritional status in human populations from Dore Bafeno, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Degarege, A; Animut, A; Medhin, G; Legesse, M; Erko, B

    2014-06-01

    In this cross-sectional study, the associations between helminth infections and ABO blood group, anaemia and undernutrition were investigated in 480 febrile outpatients who visited Dore Bafeno Health Centre, southern Ethiopia, in December 2010. Stool specimens were processed using the Kato-Katz method and examined for intestinal helminth infections. Haemoglobin level was measured using a HemoCue machine and blood group was determined using an antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using height and weight measurements. Among the study participants, 50.2% were infected with intestinal helminths. Ascaris lumbricoides (32.7%), Trichuris trichiura (12.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (11.9%) and hookworm (11.0%) were the most frequently diagnosed helminths. The odds of infection and mean eggs per gram of different intestinal helminth species were comparable between the various blood groups. Among individuals who were infected with intestinal helminth(s), the mean haemoglobin level was significantly lower in individuals harbouring three or more helminth species and blood type AB compared to cases with double or single helminth infection and blood type O, respectively. The odds of being underweight was significantly higher in A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infected individuals of age ≤ 5 and ≥ 20 years, respectively, when compared to individuals of the matching age group without intestinal helminths. In conclusion, infection with multiple intestinal helminths was associated with lower haemoglobin level, which was more severe in individuals with blood type AB. Future studies should focus on mechanisms by which blood group AB exacerbates the helminth-related reduction in mean haemoglobin level.

  20. Role of Macrophages in the Repair Process during the Tissue Migrating and Resident Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Faz-López, Berenice

    2016-01-01

    The Th1/Th2/Th17 balance is a fundamental feature in the regulation of the inflammatory microenvironment during helminth infections, and an imbalance in this paradigm greatly contributes to inflammatory disorders. In some cases of helminthiasis, an initial Th1 response could occur during the early phases of infection (acute), followed by a Th2 response that prevails in chronic infections. During the late phase of infection, alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) are important to counteract the inflammation caused by the Th1/Th17 response and larval migration, limiting damage and repairing the tissue affected. Macrophages are the archetype of phagocytic cells, with the primary role of pathogen destruction and antigen presentation. Nevertheless, other subtypes of macrophages have been described with important roles in tissue repair and immune regulation. These types of macrophages challenge the classical view of macrophages activated by an inflammatory response. The role of these subtypes of macrophages during helminthiasis is a controversial topic in immunoparasitology. Here, we analyze some of the studies regarding the role of AAMs in tissue repair during the tissue migration of helminths. PMID:27648452

  1. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Reduces the Development of Colitis-Associated Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    León-Cabrera, Sonia; Callejas, Blanca E.; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Coronel, Jossimar; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Cirlos, Emma B.; Ávila-Moreno, Federico; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Marquina-Castillo, Brenda; Chirino, Yolanda I.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2014-01-01

    Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is one of the most common cancers and is closely related to chronic or deregulated inflammation. Helminthic infections can modulate inflammatory responses in some diseases, but their immunomodulatory role during cancer development remains completely unknown. We have analyzed the role of Taenia crassiceps-induced anti-inflammatory response in determining the outcome of CAC. We show that extraintestinal T. crassiceps infection in CAC mice inhibited colonic inflammatory responses and tumor formation and prevented goblet cell loss. There was also increased expression of IL-4 and alternatively activated macrophages markers in colonic tissue and negative immunomodulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In addition, T. crassiceps infection prevented the upregulation of β-catenin and CXCR2 expression observed in the CAC mice, which are both markers associated with CAC-tumorigenesis, and reduced the numbers of circulating and colonic CD11b+Ly6ChiCCR2+ monocytes. Thus, immunomodulatory activities induced by helminth infections may have a role in the progression of CAC. PMID:25210492

  2. Extraintestinal helminth infection reduces the development of colitis-associated tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    León-Cabrera, Sonia; Callejas, Blanca E; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Coronel, Jossimar; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Cirlos, Emma B; Ávila-Moreno, Federico; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Marquina-Castillo, Brenda; Chirino, Yolanda I; Terrazas, Luis I

    2014-01-01

    Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is one of the most common cancers and is closely related to chronic or deregulated inflammation. Helminthic infections can modulate inflammatory responses in some diseases, but their immunomodulatory role during cancer development remains completely unknown. We have analyzed the role of Taenia crassiceps-induced anti-inflammatory response in determining the outcome of CAC. We show that extraintestinal T. crassiceps infection in CAC mice inhibited colonic inflammatory responses and tumor formation and prevented goblet cell loss. There was also increased expression of IL-4 and alternatively activated macrophages markers in colonic tissue and negative immunomodulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In addition, T. crassiceps infection prevented the upregulation of β-catenin and CXCR2 expression observed in the CAC mice, which are both markers associated with CAC-tumorigenesis, and reduced the numbers of circulating and colonic CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi)CCR2(+) monocytes. Thus, immunomodulatory activities induced by helminth infections may have a role in the progression of CAC.

  3. Global epidemiology, ecology and control of soil-transmitted helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Clements, Archie CA; Bundy, Don AP

    2007-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are among the most prevalent of chronic human infections worldwide. Based on the demonstrable impact on child development, there is a global commitment to finance and implement control strategies with a focus on school-based chemotherapy programmes. The major obstacle to the implementation of cost-effective control is the lack of accurate descriptions of the geographical distribution of infection. In recent years considerable progress has been made in the use of geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) to better understand helminth ecology and epidemiology, and to develop low cost ways to identify target populations for treatment. This chapter explores how this information has been used practically to guide large-scale control programmes. The use of satellite-derived environmental data has yielded new insights into the ecology of infection at a geographical scale that has proven impossible to address using more traditional approaches, and has in turn allowed spatial distributions of infection prevalence to be predicted robustly by statistical approaches. GIS/RS have increasingly been used in the context of large-scale helminth control programmes, including not only STH infections but also those focusing on schistosomiasis, filariasis and onchocerciasis. The experience indicates that GIS/RS provides a cost-effective approach to designing and monitoring programs at realistic scale. Importantly, the use of this approach has begun to transition from being a specialist approach of international vertical programs to become a routine tool in developing public sector control programs. GIS/RS is used here to describe the global distribution of STH infections and to estimate the number of infections in school age children in sub-Saharan Africa (89.9 million) and the annual cost of providing a single anthelmintic treatment using a school-based approach (US$5.0-7.6 million). These are the first estimates at a

  4. Application of Taxonomic Modeling to Microbiota Data Mining for Detection of Helminth Infection in Global Populations

    PubMed Central

    Torbati, Mahbaneh Eshaghzadeh; Mitreva, Makedonka; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

    2017-01-01

    Human microbiome data from genomic sequencing technologies is fast accumulating, giving us insights into bacterial taxa that contribute to health and disease. The predictive modeling of such microbiota count data for the classification of human infection from parasitic worms, such as helminths, can help in the detection and management across global populations. Real-world datasets of microbiome experiments are typically sparse, containing hundreds of measurements for bacterial species, of which only a few are detected in the bio-specimens that are analyzed. This feature of microbiome data produces the challenge of needing more observations for accurate predictive modeling and has been dealt with previously, using different methods of feature reduction. To our knowledge, integrative methods, such as transfer learning, have not yet been explored in the microbiome domain as a way to deal with data sparsity by incorporating knowledge of different but related datasets. One way of incorporating this knowledge is by using a meaningful mapping among features of these datasets. In this paper, we claim that this mapping would exist among members of each individual cluster, grouped based on phylogenetic dependency among taxa and their association to the phenotype. We validate our claim by showing that models incorporating associations in such a grouped feature space result in no performance deterioration for the given classification task. In this paper, we test our hypothesis by using classification models that detect helminth infection in microbiota of human fecal samples obtained from Indonesia and Liberia countries. In our experiments, we first learn binary classifiers for helminth infection detection by using Naive Bayes, Support Vector Machines, Multilayer Perceptrons, and Random Forest methods. In the next step, we add taxonomic modeling by using the SMART-scan module to group the data, and learn classifiers using the same four methods, to test the validity of the

  5. Application of Taxonomic Modeling to Microbiota Data Mining for Detection of Helminth Infection in Global Populations.

    PubMed

    Torbati, Mahbaneh Eshaghzadeh; Mitreva, Makedonka; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

    2016-12-01

    Human microbiome data from genomic sequencing technologies is fast accumulating, giving us insights into bacterial taxa that contribute to health and disease. The predictive modeling of such microbiota count data for the classification of human infection from parasitic worms, such as helminths, can help in the detection and management across global populations. Real-world datasets of microbiome experiments are typically sparse, containing hundreds of measurements for bacterial species, of which only a few are detected in the bio-specimens that are analyzed. This feature of microbiome data produces the challenge of needing more observations for accurate predictive modeling and has been dealt with previously, using different methods of feature reduction. To our knowledge, integrative methods, such as transfer learning, have not yet been explored in the microbiome domain as a way to deal with data sparsity by incorporating knowledge of different but related datasets. One way of incorporating this knowledge is by using a meaningful mapping among features of these datasets. In this paper, we claim that this mapping would exist among members of each individual cluster, grouped based on phylogenetic dependency among taxa and their association to the phenotype. We validate our claim by showing that models incorporating associations in such a grouped feature space result in no performance deterioration for the given classification task. In this paper, we test our hypothesis by using classification models that detect helminth infection in microbiota of human fecal samples obtained from Indonesia and Liberia countries. In our experiments, we first learn binary classifiers for helminth infection detection by using Naive Bayes, Support Vector Machines, Multilayer Perceptrons, and Random Forest methods. In the next step, we add taxonomic modeling by using the SMART-scan module to group the data, and learn classifiers using the same four methods, to test the validity of the

  6. IFNγ and IL-12 Restrict Th2 Responses during Helminth/Plasmodium Co-Infection and Promote IFNγ from Th2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Coomes, Stephanie M.; Pelly, Victoria S.; Kannan, Yashaswini; Okoye, Isobel S.; Czieso, Stephanie; Entwistle, Lewis J.; Perez-Lloret, Jimena; Nikolov, Nikolay; Potocnik, Alexandre J.; Biró, Judit; Langhorne, Jean; Wilson, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic helminths establish chronic infections in mammalian hosts. Helminth/Plasmodium co-infections occur frequently in endemic areas. However, it is unclear whether Plasmodium infections compromise anti-helminth immunity, contributing to the chronicity of infection. Immunity to Plasmodium or helminths requires divergent CD4+ T cell-driven responses, dominated by IFNγ or IL-4, respectively. Recent literature has indicated that Th cells, including Th2 cells, have phenotypic plasticity with the ability to produce non-lineage associated cytokines. Whether such plasticity occurs during co-infection is unclear. In this study, we observed reduced anti-helminth Th2 cell responses and compromised anti-helminth immunity during Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Plasmodium chabaudi co-infection. Using newly established triple cytokine reporter mice (Il4gfpIfngyfpIl17aFP635), we demonstrated that Il4gfp+ Th2 cells purified from in vitro cultures or isolated ex vivo from helminth-infected mice up-regulated IFNγ following adoptive transfer into Rag1–/– mice infected with P. chabaudi. Functionally, Th2 cells that up-regulated IFNγ were transcriptionally re-wired and protected recipient mice from high parasitemia. Mechanistically, TCR stimulation and responsiveness to IL-12 and IFNγ, but not type I IFN, was required for optimal IFNγ production by Th2 cells. Finally, blockade of IL-12 and IFNγ during co-infection partially preserved anti-helminth Th2 responses. In summary, this study demonstrates that Th2 cells retain substantial plasticity with the ability to produce IFNγ during Plasmodium infection. Consequently, co-infection with Plasmodium spp. may contribute to the chronicity of helminth infection by reducing anti-helminth Th2 cells and converting them into IFNγ-secreting cells. PMID:26147567

  7. Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  8. Reprint of 'Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  9. Estimating the number of helminthic infections in the Republic of Cameroon from data on infection prevalence in schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, S.; Donnelly, C. A.; Guyatt, H. L.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of infection with helminths is markedly dependent on age, yet estimates of the total number of infections are typically based on data only from school-aged children. Such estimates, although useful for advocacy, provide inadequate information for planning control programmes and for quantifying the burden of disease. Using readily available data on the prevalence of infection in schoolchildren, the relation between the prevalence of infection in school-aged children and prevalence in the wider community can be adequately described using species-specific models. This paper explores the reliability of this approach to predict the prevalence infection in the community and provides a model for estimating the total number of people infected in the Republic of Cameroon. METHODS: Using data on the prevalence of helminthic infection in school-aged children in Cameroon, the prevalence of infection in pre-school children and adults was estimated from species-specific linear and logistic regression models developed previously. The model predictions were then used to estimate the number of people infected in each district in each age group in Cameroon. RESULTS: For Cameroon, if only the prevalence of infection in schoolchildren is used, the number of people infected with each helminthic species will be overestimated by up to 32% when compared with the estimates provided by the species-specific models. The calculation of confidence intervals supports the statistical reliability of the model since a narrow range of parameter estimates is evident. Furthermore, this work suggests that estimation of national prevalence of infection and the number infected will be enhanced if data are stratified by age; this model represents a useful planning tool for obtaining more accurate estimates. Estimates based on data aggregated from three geographical levels (district, regional, and national) show that summarizing prevalence data at the national level will result

  10. Alternative prey use affects helminth parasite infections in grey wolves.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Olwyn C; Roth, James D

    2016-09-01

    Predators affect prey populations not only through direct predation, but also by acting as definitive hosts for their parasites and completing parasite life cycles. Understanding the affects of parasitism on prey population dynamics requires knowing how their predators' parasite community is affected by diet and prey availability. Ungulates, such as moose (Alces americanus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), are often important prey for wolves (Canis lupus), but wolves also consume a variety of alternative prey, including beaver (Castor canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). The use of alternative prey, which may host different or fewer parasites than ungulates, could potentially reduce overall abundance of ungulate parasites within the ecosystem, benefiting both wolves and ungulate hosts. We examined parasites in wolf carcasses from eastern Manitoba and estimated wolf diet using stable isotope analysis. Taeniidae cestodes were present in most wolves (75%), reflecting a diet primarily comprised of ungulates, but nematodes were unexpectedly rare. Cestode abundance was negatively related to the wolf's δ(13) C value, indicating diet affects parasite abundance. Wolves that consumed a higher proportion of beaver and caribou (Rangifer tarandus), estimated using Bayesian mixing models, had lower cestode abundance, suggesting the use of these alternative prey can reduce parasite loads. Long-term consumption of beavers may lower the abundance of adult parasites in wolves, eventually lowering parasite density in the region and ultimately benefiting ungulates that serve as intermediate hosts. Thus, alternative prey can affect both predator-prey and host-parasite interactions and potentially affect food web dynamics.

  11. microRNAs of parasitic helminths – Identification, characterization and potential as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D.; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. They were first identified in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where the miRNAs lin-4 and let-7 were shown to be essential for regulating correct developmental progression. The sequence of let-7 was subsequently found to be conserved in higher organisms and changes in expression of let-7, as well as other miRNAs, are associated with certain cancers, indicating important regulatory roles. Some miRNAs have been shown to have essential functions, but the roles of many are currently unknown. With the increasing availability of genome sequence data, miRNAs have now been identified from a number of parasitic helminths, by deep sequencing of small RNA libraries and bioinformatic approaches. While some miRNAs are widely conserved in a range of organisms, others are helminth-specific and many are novel to each species. Here we review the potential roles of miRNAs in regulating helminth development, in interacting with the host environment and in development of drug resistance. Use of fluorescently-labeled small RNAs demonstrates uptake by parasites, at least in vitro. Therefore delivery of miRNA inhibitors or mimics has potential to alter miRNA activity, providing a useful tool for probing the roles of miRNAs and suggesting novel routes to therapeutics for parasite control. PMID:25057458

  12. Pronounced phenotype in activated regulatory T cells during a chronic helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Layland, Laura E; Mages, Jörg; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Hoerauf, Achim; Wagner, Hermann; Lang, Roland; da Costa, Clarissa U Prazeres

    2010-01-15

    Although several markers have been associated with the characterization of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their function, no studies have investigated the dynamics of their phenotype during infection. Since the necessity of Tregs to control immunopathology has been demonstrated, we used the chronic helminth infection model Schistosoma mansoni to address the impact on the Treg gene repertoire. Before gene expression profiling, we first studied the localization and Ag-specific suppressive nature of classically defined Tregs during infection. The presence of Foxp3+ cells was predominantly found in the periphery of granulomas and isolated CD4+CD25(hi)Foxp3+ Tregs from infected mice and blocked IFN-gamma and IL-10 cytokine secretion from infected CD4+CD25- effector T cells. Furthermore, the gene expression patterns of Tregs and effector T cells showed that 474 genes were significantly regulated during schistosomiasis. After k-means clustering, we identified genes exclusively regulated in all four populations, including Foxp3, CD103, GITR, OX40, and CTLA-4--classic Treg markers. During infection, however, several nonclassical genes were upregulated solely within the Treg population, such as Slpi, Gzmb, Mt1, Fabp5, Nfil3, Socs2, Gpr177, and Klrg1. Using RT-PCR, we confirmed aspects of the microarray data and also showed that the expression profile of Tregs from S. mansoni-infected mice is simultaneously unique and comparable with Tregs derived from other infections.

  13. The gastro-intestinal helminth infections of domestic fowl in Dschang, western Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mpoame, M; Agbede, G

    1995-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty one chickens purchased from the Dschang animal market were examined for gastro-intestinal helminths. Ten species were found with the following prevalences: Heterakis brevispiculum (59.3%), Ascaridia galli (51.6%), Hymenolepis carioca (48.4%), Dispharynx spiralis (20.8%), Tetrameres americana (17.1%), Amoebotaenia cuneata (15.1%), Raillietina tetragona (14.5%), Syngamus trachea (13.7%), Hymenolepis cantaniana (5.7%) and Capillaria contorta (2.0%). Infections were predominantly mixed (93.5%). The infection rates were not influenced by host sex except for A. galli which was more prevalent in cocks. Older chickens showed some resistance to A. cuneata and S. trachea. Parasite prevalence and/or worm burdens were generally higher during the rainy season (April to October).

  14. Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strunz, Eric C.; Addiss, David G.; Stocks, Meredith E.; Ogden, Stephanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventive chemotherapy represents a powerful but short-term control strategy for soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Since humans are often re-infected rapidly, long-term solutions require improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The purpose of this study was to quantitatively summarize the relationship between WASH access or practices and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of improved WASH on infection with STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and Strongyloides stercoralis). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and LILACS were searched from inception to October 28, 2013 with no language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided an estimate for the effect of WASH access or practices on STH infection. We assessed the quality of published studies with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. A total of 94 studies met our eligibility criteria; five were randomized controlled trials, whilst most others were cross-sectional studies. We used random-effects meta-analyses and analyzed only adjusted estimates to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding respectively. Use of treated water was associated with lower odds of STH infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.36–0.60). Piped water access was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.39–0.41) and T. trichiura infection (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45–0.72), but not any STH infection (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.28–3.11). Access to sanitation was associated with decreased likelihood of infection with any STH (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57–0.76), T. trichiura (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50–0.74), and A. lumbricoides (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44–0.88), but not with hookworm infection (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61–1.06). Wearing shoes was associated with reduced

  15. Relationship between intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and anemia during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Larocque, Renee; Casapia, Martin; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2005-10-01

    A direct relationship exists between the intensity of hookworm infection and blood loss. Other parasites may also contribute to blood loss. Our objective was to assess the relationship between the intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and anemia in pregnant women in a highly endemic area of Peru. Recruitment occurred between April and November 2003. Overall, 47.31% of 1,042 women had anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL), 47.22% were infected with hookworm and 82.25% with Trichuris. Prevalences of infections were not associated with anemia. However, those infected with moderate and heavy intensities of hookworm infection (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.06, 3.17) and those with moderate and heavy intensities of both hookworm and Trichuris infections (OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.10, 4.13) were more likely to suffer from anemia than women having no or light intensities. These results support routine anthelminthic treatment within prenatal care programs in highly endemic areas.

  16. Spatio-temporal dynamics of gastrointestinal helminths infecting four lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) stocks in northern lakes Michigan and Huron, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Mohamed; Fayed, Walied; Nour, Abdelaziz; Brenden, Travis

    2011-10-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the community composition, structure, and dynamics of helminths infecting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) collected from 4 sites in northern lakes Huron (Cheboygan and De Tour Village) and Michigan (Big Bay de Noc and Naubinway) from fall 2003 through summer 2006. A total of 21,203 helminths was retrieved from the GITs of 1,284 lake whitefish. Approximately 42% (SE  =  1.4%) of the examined lake whitefish were infected with at least 1 helminth species in their GIT, with a mean intensity of 39.4 worms/fish (SE  =  0.3) and a mean abundance of 16.4 worms/fish (SE  =  0.1). Collected helminths appeared to be generalists and consisted of 2 phyla (Acanthocephala and Cestoda) and 5 species (Acanthocephalus dirus, Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Echinorhynchus salmonis, Cyathocephalus truncatus, and Bothriocephalus sp.). Lake whitefish from Lake Huron on average had greater infection prevalences, abundances, and intensities than did fish from Lake Michigan. Infection parameters for each of the helminth species generally followed the same pattern observed for the combined data. Acanthocephalus dirus was the most prevalent and abundant helminth in lake whitefish GITs, although intensity of infection was the greatest for C. truncatus. Helminth infection parameters often peaked in the spring while diversity was greatest in the winter samples. There was substantial temporal variability in helminth infections with prevalences, abundances, and intensities often fluctuating widely on consecutive sampling occasions. Analysis of the GIT helminth community composition suggested that 3 (Big Bay de Noc, De Tour Village, and Cheboygan) of the 4 primary spawning sites, overall, had similar community compositions. The reason for the observed spatial and temporal variability in the lake whitefish GIT helminth infections remains to be elucidated. The findings of this study represent the most

  17. A 12-month survey of gastrointestinal helminth infections of cervids kept in two zoos in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Els; Vercruysse, Jozef; Boomker, Joop; Vercammen, Francis; Dorny, Pierre

    2005-09-01

    Infections with helminths are a major health issue in captive and wild deer. In this study, fecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastrointestinal nematodes were assessed for 12 mo in nine cervid herds kept under different husbandry conditions at two sites. At site 1, an urban zoo, fecal egg counts remained low and no clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis were seen in the herds of fallow deer (Dama dama), Dybowski's deer (Cervus nippon dybowski), pudu (Pudu pudu), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Helminth infection at this site may have been successfully prevented by daily dung removal of the small sandy-soil enclosures, and applying routine anthelmintic treatment was not justified. At site 2, a wild animal park, involved species were red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus), Nelson's elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus), European elk (Alces alces alces), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Nematode eggs were frequently encountered in herds of red deer, Nelson's elk, and European elk, which were kept on larger, grassy enclosures that were irregularly cleaned. The trimodal pattern of fecal egg counts in herds from the wild animal park, consisting of a small spring rise in June, a peak in October, and a small rise in February, indicates that infective larvae on pastures are the main source of infection. In addition, routine anthelmintic treatment with fenbendazole in April and July limited egg shedding, but reinfection rapidly occurred. In two European elk and one reindeer, increasing fecal egg counts were associated with loss of fecal consistency and reduced appetite. Three genera and three species of nematodes were recovered at necropsy of one red deer and three Nelson's elk: Spiculopteragia spiculoptera, Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus filicollis, Capillaria spp., Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Trichuris spp., with total worm counts between 950 and 8,700.

  18. Efficacy of ivermectin in a patient population concomitantly infected with intestinal helminths and ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Wilcke, Thomas; Winter, Benedikt; Sales de Oliveira, Fabíola Araújo; Sabóia Moura, Rômulo César; Harms, Gundel; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    Ivermectin (CAS 70288-86-7) is a potent antiparasitic drug. However, studies have not been published evaluating the efficacy of ivermectin in a patient population concomitantly infected with intestinal helminths and ectoparasites. Here the results of an open trial on the efficacy of ivermectin in a heavily poly-parasitized population in northeast Brazil are presented. Two hundred and fifty-one patients were enrolled. Two doses of ivermectin (200 microg/kg) were given at an interval of 10 days. The cure rates for intestinal helminthiases were: 100% for strongyloidiasis and enterobiasis, 99% for ascariasis, 84% for trichuriasis, 68% for hookworm disease, and 50% for hymenolepiasis. Cure rates for ectoparasitoses were: 100% for cutaneous larva migrans, 99% for pediculosis, 88% for scabies and 64% for tungiasis. The results show that two doses of ivermectin are highly efficacious for most intestinal helminths and ectoparasites simultaneously present in an impoverished population. The drug seems to be particularly useful when polyparasitism is expected to occur or when public health measures aim to reduce both intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases by mass chemotherapy.

  19. Helminth infection impairs the immunogenicity of a Plasmodium falciparum DNA vaccine, but not irradiated sporozoites, in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of an effective vaccine against malaria remains a priority. However, a significant number of individuals living in tropical areas are also likely to be co-infected with helminths, which are known to adversely affect immune responses to a number of different existing vaccines. Here we com...

  20. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D.; D’Haese, Patrick C.; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E.; Junco Díaz, Raquel; Angel Núñez, Fidel; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano; Doak, Colleen M.; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Wieringa, Frank T.; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25903454

  1. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  2. Risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections on agritourism farms in central and eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Gawor, Jakub; Borecka, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Agritourism provides ecological tourist services for urban dwellers in rural areas. Agritourism farms offer space and attractive scenery for people seeking to rest in quiet place and wanting healthy, outdoor recreational activities. The high epidemiological standard of agritourism farms is beneficial for the health of the farm owners and the guests. Upgraded level of the farm sanitation, also from parasitological point of view is of great importance, especially that among agritourism farms guests predominate families with small children. A field survey was carried out in 57 farms in central-eastern Poland to evaluate the environmental risk factors for geohelminth infections on agritourism farms offering tourist services for urban dwellers. Samples of soil were collected from 76 sites, i.e. yards surrounding houses, vegetable, fruit and flower gardens, playgrounds and sandpits. In addition, samples were taken from 27 public places of recreation (playgrounds at forest clearing) visited by agritourism farm guests. During visits the farms were inspected and the owners were questioned about their awareness of the threat of parasitic infections. Soil contamination with geohelminth eggs was found in 4 examined farms (7.0%), in one locality on each farm. The eggs of Toxocara spp. and Ascaris spp. were detected in single samples from 3 backyards (6.4%) and one sandpit (10.0%). In the soil samples from places of recreation outside the farms eggs of human or animal helminths were not identified. The results of this study showed that the risk of helminth infections on agritourism farms is low, since geohelminth eggs (1-3 per sample) were detected only in four samples (0.5%) among 760 collected from farms households. The farm owners must be aware of the importance of preventive measures to eliminate the environmental contamination with eggs of zoonotic soiltransmitted helminths. Special attention should be paid to the risk of intestinal parasites of cats of semi domestic

  3. Naturally infected dog droppings from public parks and playgrounds as a possible source of infections with Salmonellae and helminths.

    PubMed

    Schaffert, R M; Strauch, D

    1978-01-01

    In two periods (spring/summer and autumn/winter) investigations for salmonellae and helminths were made with 300 naturally infected dog droppings each. In the first period 10.33% of the collected fecal samples had been infected with salmonellae of 10 different serovars. Eggs of Taxascaris leonina were found in 3.33%, eggs of Toxocara canis in 4.33%, taeniid eggs in 1.67% and Ancylostomatides in 3.33% of examined droppings. The investigations in the autumn/winter period showed 9% fecal samples infected with salmonellae of 11 different serovars. 5% fecal specimens contained eggs of T. canis, 2% eggs of T. leonina, 0.33% eggs of Taenia spp. and Ancylostomatidae made up to 2%.

  4. Commensal-pathogen interactions in the intestinal tract: lactobacilli promote infection with, and are promoted by, helminth parasites.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Smith, Katherine A; Filbey, Kara J; Harcus, Yvonne; Hewitson, James P; Redpath, Stephen A; Valdez, Yanet; Yebra, María J; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-07-01

    The intestinal microbiota are pivotal in determining the developmental, metabolic and immunological status of the mammalian host. However, the intestinal tract may also accommodate pathogenic organisms, including helminth parasites which are highly prevalent in most tropical countries. Both microbes and helminths must evade or manipulate the host immune system to reside in the intestinal environment, yet whether they influence each other's persistence in the host remains unknown. We now show that abundance of Lactobacillus bacteria correlates positively with infection with the mouse intestinal nematode parasite, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, as well as with heightened regulatory T cell (Treg) and Th17 responses. Moreover, H. polygyrus raises Lactobacillus species abundance in the duodenum of C57BL/6 mice, which are highly susceptible to H. polygyrus infection, but not in BALB/c mice, which are relatively resistant. Sequencing of samples at the bacterial gyrB locus identified the principal Lactobacillus species as L. taiwanensis, a previously characterized rodent commensal. Experimental administration of L. taiwanensis to BALB/c mice elevates regulatory T cell frequencies and results in greater helminth establishment, demonstrating a causal relationship in which commensal bacteria promote infection with an intestinal parasite and implicating a bacterially-induced expansion of Tregs as a mechanism of greater helminth susceptibility. The discovery of this tripartite interaction between host, bacteria and parasite has important implications for both antibiotic and anthelmintic use in endemic human populations.

  5. Species-specific treatment effects of helminth/HIV-1 co-infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sangaré, Laura R; Herrin, Bradley R; Herrin, Bradely R; John-Stewart, Grace; Walson, Judd L

    2011-10-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, over 22 million people are estimated to be co-infected with both helminths and HIV-1. Several studies have suggested that de-worming individuals with HIV-1 may delay HIV-1 disease progression, and that the benefit of de-worming may vary by individual helminth species. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to determine the effect of treatment of individual helminth infections on markers of HIV-1 progression (CD4 count and HIV viral load). There was a trend towards an association between treatment for Schistosoma mansoni and a decrease in HIV viral load (Weighted mean difference (WMD)=-0·10; 95% Confidence interval (CI): -0·24, 0·03), although this association was not seen for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm or Trichuris trichiura. Treatment of A. lumbricoides, S. mansoni, hookworm or T. trichiura was not associated with a change in CD4 count. While pooled data from randomized trials suggested clinical benefit of de-worming for individual helminth species, these effects decreased when observational data were included in the pooled analysis. While further trials are needed to confirm the role of anthelmintic treatment in HIV-1 co-infected individuals, providing anthelmintics to individuals with HIV-1 may be a safe, inexpensive and practical intervention to slow progression of HIV-1.

  6. HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses induced by Listeria vector vaccines are maintained in mice subsequently infected with a model helminth parasite, Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Shollenberger, Lisa M; Bui, Cac T; Paterson, Yvonne; Nyhoff, Lindsay; Harn, Donald A

    2013-11-19

    In areas co-endemic for helminth parasites and HIV/AIDS, infants are often administered vaccines prior to infection with immune modulatory helminth parasites. Systemic Th2 biasing and immune suppression caused by helminth infection reduces cell-mediated responses to vaccines such as tetanus toxoid and BCG. Therefore, we asked if infection with helminthes post-vaccination, alters already established vaccine induced immune responses. In our model, mice are vaccinated against HIV-1 Gag using a Listeria vaccine vector (Lm-Gag) in a prime-boost manner, then infected with the human helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. This allows us to determine if established vaccine responses are maintained or altered after helminth infection. Our second objective asked if helminth infection post-vaccination alters the recipient's ability to respond to a second boost. Here we compared responses between uninfected mice, schistosome infected mice, and infected mice that were given an anthelminthic, which occurred coincident with the boost or four weeks prior, as well as comparing to un-boosted mice. We report that HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses generated by Listeria vector HIV-1 vaccines are maintained following subsequent chronic schistosome infection, providing further evidence that Listeria vector vaccines induce potent vaccine-specific responses that can withstand helminth infection. We also were able to demonstrate that administration of a second Listeria boost, which markedly enhanced the immune response, was minimally impacted by schistosome infection, or anthelminthic therapy. Surprisingly, we also observed enhanced antibody responses to HIV Gag in vaccinated mice subsequently infected with schistosomes.

  7. The global limits and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections in 2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the global limits of transmission of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) species is essential for quantifying the population at-risk and the burden of disease. This paper aims to define these limits on the basis of environmental and socioeconomic factors, and additionally seeks to investigate the effects of urbanisation and economic development on STH transmission, and estimate numbers at-risk of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm in 2010. Methods A total of 4,840 geo-referenced estimates of infection prevalence were abstracted from the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection and related to a range of environmental factors to delineate the biological limits of transmission. The relationship between STH transmission and urbanisation and economic development was investigated using high resolution population surfaces and country-level socioeconomic indicators, respectively. Based on the identified limits, the global population at risk of STH transmission in 2010 was estimated. Results High and low land surface temperature and extremely arid environments were found to limit STH transmission, with differential limits identified for each species. There was evidence that the prevalence of A. lumbricoides and of T. trichiura infection was statistically greater in peri-urban areas compared to urban and rural areas, whilst the prevalence of hookworm was highest in rural areas. At national levels, no clear socioeconomic correlates of transmission were identified, with the exception that little or no infection was observed for countries with a per capita gross domestic product greater than US$ 20,000. Globally in 2010, an estimated 5.3 billion people, including 1.0 billion school-aged children, lived in areas stable for transmission of at least one STH species, with 69% of these individuals living in Asia. A further 143 million (31.1 million school-aged children) lived in areas of unstable transmission for at least one STH

  8. The nutritional impacts of soil-transmitted helminths infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in rural Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections, anaemia and malnutrition are major public health problems in school-age children in developing countries. This study was conducted on 289 Orang Asli (aboriginal) schoolchildren in order to assess the current prevalence and predictors of anaemia and malnutrition, as well as the nutritional impacts of STH infections among these children. Methods A cross-sectional study was combined with a longitudinal follow-up three months after treatment with anthelminthic drugs. Blood samples were collected from the children to measure haemoglobin (Hb) level. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were also collected and the children were screened for STH. Results The baseline findings revealed that the prevalence of anaemia, significant stunting, underweight and wasting among the children were 41.0%, 28.0%, 29.2% and 12.5%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 84.6%, 47.6% and 3.9%, respectively. Haemoglobin level was significantly lower among the moderate-to-heavy infected children compared to the negative-to-light infected children. Age <10years and moderate-to-heavy ascariasis were the predictors of anaemia. Stunting was associated with gender, age, moderate-to-heavy ascariasis and trichuriasis. Three months post-treatment assessment showed that the moderate-to-heavy infected children gained significant increment in their mean Hb level compared to the negative-to-light infected children (0.44 g/dL compared to 0.08 g/dL). However, no difference was found in the mean increments in growth indices between the groups. Conclusion STH infections, anaemia and malnutrition are still prevalent and a matter of public health concern in Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Sustainable deworming programme at school and community levels among these populations will help to improve their health and nutritional status. PMID:22704549

  9. A Scoping Review and Prevalence Analysis of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, José Antonio; Rueda, María Mercedes; Mejia, Rosa Elena; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Canales, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Background Honduras is endemic for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, but critical information gaps still remain on the prevalence and intensity of these infections as well as on their spatial distribution at subnational levels. Objectives Firstly, to review the research activity on STH infections in Honduras and secondly, to carry out a national prevalence analysis and map the geographical distribution of these infections in children. Methods A systematic search was conducted of the published and grey literature to identify scientific work on the impact and prevalence of STH infections done between May 1930 and June 30, 2012. International databases and Honduran journals were searched. Grey literature was gleaned from local libraries and key informants. Select studies conducted between 2001 and 2012 were used to produce prevalence maps and to investigate association between STH prevalence and socio-economic and environmental factors. Results Of 257 identified studies, 211 (21.4% peer-reviewed) were retained for analysis and categorized as clinical research (10.9%), treatment efficacy studies (8.1%) or epidemiological studies (81%). Prevalence analysis and geographical mapping included 36 epidemiological studies from Honduras's 18 departments and 23% of its municipalities. Overall STH prevalence was >50% in 40.6% of municipalities. Prevalences above 20% for each trichuriasis, ascariasis, and hookworm infection were found in 68%, 47.8%, and 7.2% of studied municipalities, respectively. Municipalities with lower human development index, less access to of potable water, and with higher annual precipitation showed higher STH prevalences. Conclusions This is the first study to provide a comprehensive historic review of STH research activity and prevalence in Honduras, revealing important knowledge gaps related to infection risk factors, disease burden, and anti-parasitic drug efficacy, among others. Our decade-long prevalence analysis reveals geographical

  10. Stunting and helminth infection in early preschool-age children in a resource-poor community in the Amazon lowlands of Peru.

    PubMed

    Gyorkos, Theresa W; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Casapía, Martín; Joseph, Serene A; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary

    2011-04-01

    The World Health Organization recommends deworming of children aged 12-24 months in highly endemic areas. Our research objectives were to: 1) examine prevalence patterns of helminth infection in early childhood; 2) assess the association between helminth infection and socio-demographic characteristics; and 3) examine the effect of the intensity of helminth infection on stunting and anemia. A survey of children (7-9 and 12-14 months) living in Belén (Peru) was undertaken between July 2007 and February 2008. A questionnaire was administered to obtain socio-demographic characteristics, blood and stool samples were collected, and length-for-age Z scores were calculated. The Kato-Katz method was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm infections. Of 370 participating children, 349 had parasitological results. Infections first appeared in children at 8 months of age. The prevalence of any helminth infection increased linearly to approximately 37.0% (95%CI: 24.3-51.3%) by 14 months of age. Multivariate analysis showed that age, female sex, and residing in the floodplain were significant determinants of helminth infection. Among infected children, moderate-to-heavy infection of any helminth was associated with stunting (βadjusted=-0.84; 95%CI: -1.48, -0.20). These results support the implementation of deworming programs aimed at young children in highly endemic areas.

  11. Assessment of a school-based mass treatment for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Capiz, the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Kristina M; Shah, Mirat; Taylor, Laura; Macatangay, Bernard Jonas C; Veldkamp, Peter; Belizario, Vicente Y

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated the War on Worms in the Western Visayas (WOW-V) school-based mass treatment strategy in Capiz, the Philippines by assessing potential determinants of program acceptance among parents, teachers, and local health and education officials involved. Written surveys were distributed to parents and teachers assessing knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Associations between data were examined using the Fisher's exact test (alpha = 0.05). Descriptive statistics and t-tests were employed to analyze teacher survey results. Local health and education officials participated in key-informant interviews (KIs) to evaluate their attitudes and practices regarding WOW-V; data was qualitatively analyzed and grouped. A strong association was observed between parental consent during the first two rounds of treatment and willingness to do so again. Most parents gave consent for their child to receive treatment at least once and demonstrated a high level of knowledge regarding STH infections. The majority of teachers had positive attitudes toward their role in the program. Many identified lack of training and a fear of side effects as barriers to higher coverage. Lack of funding, program monitoring difficulties and insufficient parental education were identified by local officials as barriers. Proper planning and design is important to achieve high initial consent for program acceptance. The results correlate with studies showing relationships between health education and treatment acceptance. The implementation of health education and monitoring measures has the potential to greatly improve both treatment coverage and program infrastructure.

  12. The Role of Helminth Infection and Environment in the Development of Allergy: A Prospective Study of Newly-Arrived Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Miguel; Greenberg, Zalman; Boaz, Mona; Handzel, Zeev T.; Meshesha, Mesfin K.; Bentwich, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infection may be protective against allergy and account for the low prevalence of allergy in developing countries. We studied prospectively the prevalence of allergy in Ethiopian immigrants with heavy helminth infection on arrival in Israel, and again after a year of adjustment to an urban industrialized setting, to explore the roles of helminth infection, changed environment and background immunity on the manifestations of allergy. 126 newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants were studied at baseline and 115 after a year of follow up in Israel. Allergic symptoms, Skin prick tests (SPT), Tuberculin (PPD) skin tests, stool and blood samples were obtained for determining parasites, blood IgE and eosinophil levels, respectively. Anti-helminthic therapy was offered to the entire infected individuals, but only 50/108 (46.3%) took the medication. At baseline, there was a significant negative association between helminth infection and allergy, 4/18 (22.2%) of uninfected participants were allergic compared to 7/108 (6.5%) of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.028), as well as between helminth infection and SPT reactivity, 12/18 (66.6%) of uninfected participants compared to 43/108 (39.8%) of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.033). After one year, a significant general increase in allergy and SPT was observed. While only 11/126 (8.7%) were allergic at baseline, 30/115 (26.1%) became allergic at follow-up (p<0.0001), and while 55/126 (43.7%) were SPT+ at baseline, 79/115 (68.7%) became SPT+ at follow-up (p<0.001). A twofold increase in allergen sensitization was also observed after one year in Israel, particularly for dust mites, grasses and olive tree (p<0.001). These results show that: a) Helminth infection is significantly associated with low allergy and low SPT reactivity; b) One year after immigration to Israel, allergy and SPT reactivity increased significantly in all immigrants; c) Higher increases in positive SPT and allergy were observed after a year in

  13. The Role of Helminth Infection and Environment in the Development of Allergy: A Prospective Study of Newly-Arrived Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel.

    PubMed

    Stein, Miguel; Greenberg, Zalman; Boaz, Mona; Handzel, Zeev T; Meshesha, Mesfin K; Bentwich, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infection may be protective against allergy and account for the low prevalence of allergy in developing countries. We studied prospectively the prevalence of allergy in Ethiopian immigrants with heavy helminth infection on arrival in Israel, and again after a year of adjustment to an urban industrialized setting, to explore the roles of helminth infection, changed environment and background immunity on the manifestations of allergy. 126 newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants were studied at baseline and 115 after a year of follow up in Israel. Allergic symptoms, Skin prick tests (SPT), Tuberculin (PPD) skin tests, stool and blood samples were obtained for determining parasites, blood IgE and eosinophil levels, respectively. Anti-helminthic therapy was offered to the entire infected individuals, but only 50/108 (46.3%) took the medication. At baseline, there was a significant negative association between helminth infection and allergy, 4/18 (22.2%) of uninfected participants were allergic compared to 7/108 (6.5%) of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.028), as well as between helminth infection and SPT reactivity, 12/18 (66.6%) of uninfected participants compared to 43/108 (39.8%) of helminth-infected participants (p = 0.033). After one year, a significant general increase in allergy and SPT was observed. While only 11/126 (8.7%) were allergic at baseline, 30/115 (26.1%) became allergic at follow-up (p<0.0001), and while 55/126 (43.7%) were SPT+ at baseline, 79/115 (68.7%) became SPT+ at follow-up (p<0.001). A twofold increase in allergen sensitization was also observed after one year in Israel, particularly for dust mites, grasses and olive tree (p<0.001). These results show that: a) Helminth infection is significantly associated with low allergy and low SPT reactivity; b) One year after immigration to Israel, allergy and SPT reactivity increased significantly in all immigrants; c) Higher increases in positive SPT and allergy were observed after a year in

  14. Infection and Co-infection with Helminths and Plasmodium among School Children in Côte d’Ivoire: Results from a National Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yapi, Richard B.; Hürlimann, Eveline; Houngbedji, Clarisse A.; Ndri, Prisca B.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Soro, Gotianwa; Kouamé, Ferdinand N.; Vounatsou, Penelope; Fürst, Thomas; N’Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Background Helminth infection and malaria remain major causes of ill-health in the tropics and subtropics. There are several shared risk factors (e.g., poverty), and hence, helminth infection and malaria overlap geographically and temporally. However, the extent and consequences of helminth-Plasmodium co-infection at different spatial scales are poorly understood. Methodology This study was conducted in 92 schools across Côte d’Ivoire during the dry season, from November 2011 to February 2012. School children provided blood samples for detection of Plasmodium infection, stool samples for diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and Schistosoma mansoni infections, and urine samples for appraisal of Schistosoma haematobium infection. A questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data. Multinomial regression models were utilized to determine risk factors for STH-Plasmodium and Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Principal Findings Complete parasitological and questionnaire data were available for 5,104 children aged 5-16 years. 26.2% of the children were infected with any helminth species, whilst the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 63.3%. STH-Plasmodium co-infection was detected in 13.5% and Schistosoma-Plasmodium in 5.6% of the children. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that boys, children aged 10 years and above, and activities involving close contact to water were significantly and positively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection. Boys, wells as source of drinking water, and water contact were significantly and positively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Access to latrines, deworming, higher socioeconomic status, and living in urban settings were negatively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection; whilst use of deworming drugs and access to modern latrines were negatively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Conclusions/Significance More than 60% of the

  15. Critical role of fatty acid metabolism in ILC2-mediated barrier protection during malnutrition and helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Christoph; Harrison, Oliver J; Schmitt, Vanessa; Pelletier, Martin; Spencer, Sean P; Urban, Joseph F; Ploch, Michelle; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R; Siegel, Richard M; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2016-07-25

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) play an important role in many immune processes, including control of infections, inflammation, and tissue repair. To date, little is known about the metabolism of ILC and whether these cells can metabolically adapt in response to environmental signals. Here we show that type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), important mediators of barrier immunity, predominantly depend on fatty acid (FA) metabolism during helminth infection. Further, in situations where an essential nutrient, such as vitamin A, is limited, ILC2 sustain their function and selectively maintain interleukin 13 (IL-13) production via increased acquisition and utilization of FA. Together, these results reveal that ILC2 preferentially use FAs to maintain their function in the context of helminth infection or malnutrition and propose that enhanced FA usage and FA-dependent IL-13 production by ILC2 could represent a host adaptation to maintain barrier immunity under dietary restriction.

  16. Critical role of fatty acid metabolism in ILC2-mediated barrier protection during malnutrition and helminth infection

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Oliver J.; Urban, Joseph F.; Ramalingam, Thirumalai R.; Siegel, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) play an important role in many immune processes, including control of infections, inflammation, and tissue repair. To date, little is known about the metabolism of ILC and whether these cells can metabolically adapt in response to environmental signals. Here we show that type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), important mediators of barrier immunity, predominantly depend on fatty acid (FA) metabolism during helminth infection. Further, in situations where an essential nutrient, such as vitamin A, is limited, ILC2 sustain their function and selectively maintain interleukin 13 (IL-13) production via increased acquisition and utilization of FA. Together, these results reveal that ILC2 preferentially use FAs to maintain their function in the context of helminth infection or malnutrition and propose that enhanced FA usage and FA-dependent IL-13 production by ILC2 could represent a host adaptation to maintain barrier immunity under dietary restriction. PMID:27432938

  17. Helminth Infections and Cardiovascular Diseases: Toxocara Species is Contributing to the Disease.

    PubMed

    Zibaei, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Toxocariasis is the clinical term used to describe human infection with either the dog ascarid Toxocara canis or the feline ascarid Toxocara cati. As with other helminths zoonoses, the infective larvae of these Toxocara species cannot mature into adults in the human host. Instead, the worms wander through organs and tissues, mainly the liver, lungs, myocardium, kidney and central nervous system, in a vain attempt to find that, which they need to mature into adults. The migration of these immature nematode larvae causes local and systemic inflammation, resulting in the "larva migrans" syndrome. The clinical manifestations of toxocariasis are divided into visceral larva migrans, ocular larva migrans and neurotoxocariasis. Subclinical infection is often referred to as covert toxocariasis. One of the primary causes of death all around the world is cardiovascular disease that accounted for up to 30 percent of all-cause mortality. Cardiovascular disease and more precisely atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is predicted to remain the single leading cause of death (23.3 million deaths by 2030). A-quarter of people presenting the disease does not show any of the known cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, there is considerable interest in looking for novel components affecting cardiovascular health, especially for those that could improve global cardiovascular risk prediction. This review endeavours to summarize the clinical aspects, new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives of toxocaral disease with cardiovascular manifestations.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal protozoan and helminth infections among pulmonary tuberculosis patients without HIV infection in a rural county in P. R. China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-09-01

    Although co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites, including protozoa and helminths, in humans has been widely studied globally, very little of this phenomenon is known in China. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural county of China to investigate such co-infections. Patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) undergoing anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (anti-MTB) treatment were surveyed by questionnaires, and their feces and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal protozoa and helminths, routine blood examination and HIV detection. The χ(2) test and multivariate logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors. A total of 369 patients with PTB were included and all of them were HIV negative. Overall, only 7.3% of participants were infected with intestinal protozoa, among which prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba spp. and Trichomonas hominis were 6.0%, 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively; 7.0% were infected with intestinal helminths, among which prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis sinensis were 4.3%, 1.9%, 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively; and 0.5% were simultaneously infected with intestinal protozoa and helminths. Among patients with PTB, body mass index (BMI)≤18 (OR=3.30, 95% CI=1.44-7.54) and raised poultry or livestock (e.g., chicken, duck, pig) (OR=3.96, 95% CI=1.32-11.89) were significantly associated with harboring intestinal protozoan infection, while BMI≤18 (OR=3.32, 95% CI=1.39-7.91), anemia (OR=3.40, 95% CI=1.44-8.02) and laboring barefoot in farmlands (OR=4.54, 95% CI=1.88-10.92) were significantly associated with having intestinal helminth infection. Additionally, there was no significant relationship between duration of anti-MTB treatment and infection rates of intestinal parasites including protozoa and helminths. Therefore, preventing malnutrition, avoiding unprotected contact with reservoirs of protozoa, and improving health education for good

  19. Effect of Poor Access to Water and Sanitation As Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: Selectiveness by the Infective Route

    PubMed Central

    Echazú, Adriana; Bonanno, Daniela; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Silvana P.; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Cimino, Ruben O.; Caro, Nicolas; Vargas, Paola A.; Paredes, Gladys; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a public health problem in resource-limited settings worldwide. Chronic STH infection impairs optimum learning and productivity, contributing to the perpetuation of the poverty-disease cycle. Regular massive drug administration (MDA) is the cardinal recommendation for its control; along with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The impact of joint WASH interventions on STH infections has been reported; studies on the independent effect of WASH components are needed to contribute with the improvement of current recommendations for the control of STH. The aim of this study is to assess the association of lacking access to water and sanitation with STH infections, taking into account the differences in route of infection among species and the availability of adequate water and sanitation at home. Methods and Findings Cross-sectional study, conducted in Salta province, Argentina. During a deworming program that enrolled 6957 individuals; 771 were randomly selected for stool/serum sampling for parasitological and serological diagnosis of STH. Bivariate stratified analysis was performed to explore significant correlations between risk factors and STH infections grouped by mechanism of entry as skin-penetrators (hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis) vs. orally-ingested (Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). After controlling for potential confounders, unimproved sanitation was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of skin-penetrators (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.6–5.9). Unimproved drinking water was significantly associated with increased odds of infection of orally-ingested (aOR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.7). Conclusions Lack of safe water and proper sanitation pose a risk of STH infections that is distinct according to the route of entry to the human host used by each of the STH species. Interventions aimed to improve water and sanitation access should

  20. The Interaction of Deworming, Improved Sanitation, and Household Flooring with Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Nazneen, Arifa; Halder, Amal K.; Haque, Rashidul; Siddique, Abdullah; Uddin, Muhammed Salah; Koporc, Kim; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Hubbard, Alan E.; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P.; Addiss, David G.; Colford, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The combination of deworming and improved sanitation or hygiene may result in greater reductions in soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection than any single intervention on its own. We measured STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh and assessed potential interactions among deworming, hygienic latrines, and household finished floors. Methodology We conducted a cross-sectional survey (n = 1,630) in 100 villages in rural Bangladesh to measure three exposures: self-reported deworming consumption in the past 6 months, access to a hygienic latrine, and household flooring material. We collected stool samples from children 1–4 years, 5–12 years, and women 15–49 years. We performed mini-FLOTAC on preserved stool samples to detect Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura ova. Approximately one-third (32%) of all individuals and 40% of school-aged children had an STH infection. Less than 2% of the sample had moderate/heavy intensity infections. Deworming was associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.53; 95% CI 0.40, 0.71), but there was no significant association with hookworm (PR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.60, 1.44) or Trichuris (PR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.74, 1.08). PRs for hygienic latrine access were 0.91 (95% CI 0.67,1.24), 0.73 (95% CI 0.43,1.24), and 1.03 (95% CI 0.84,1.27) for Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris, respectively. Finished floors were associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (PR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.97) but not associated with hookworm (PR = 0.48 95% CI 0.16,1.45) or Trichuris (PR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.72,1.33). Across helminths and combinations of exposures, adjusted prevalence ratios for joint exposures were consistently more protective than those for individual exposures. Conclusions We found moderate STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh among children and women of childbearing age. This study is one of the first to examine independent and combined associations with deworming, sanitation

  1. Comparative transcriptomics of stickleback immune gene responses upon infection by two helminth parasites, Diplostomum pseudospathaceum and Schistocephalus solidus.

    PubMed

    Haase, David; Rieger, Jenny K; Witten, Anika; Stoll, Monika; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kalbe, Martin; Schmidt-Drewello, Alexander; Scharsack, Jörn P; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2016-08-01

    Immune systems of vertebrates are much more diverse than previously thought, in particular at the base of the vertebrate clade. RNA-seq was used to describe in detail the transcriptomic response of stickleback hosts to infection by two helminth parasites, the trematode Diplostomum pseudospathaceum (2 genotypes plus a genotype mix) and the cestode Schistocephalus solidus. Based on a global transcription profiling, we present immune genes that are active during chronic or multiple repeated infection. We found that the transcription profiles of D. pseudospathaceum genotypes were as divergent as those of the two parasite species. When comparing the host immune response, only 5 immune genes were consistently upregulated upon infection by both species. These genes indicated a role for enhanced toll like receptor (TLR) activity (CTSK, CYP27B1) and an associated positive regulation of macrophages (CYP27B1, THBS1) for general helminth defense. We interpret the largely differentiated gene expression response among parasite species as general redundancy of the vertebrate immune system, which was also visible in genotype-specific responses among the different D. pseudospathaceum infections. The present study provides the first evidence that IL4-mediated activation of T-helper lymphocyte cells is also important in anti-helminthic immune responses of teleost fish.

  2. Comparison of the thick smear and Kato-Katz techniques for diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fred Luciano Neves; Cerqueira, Elúzio José Lima; Soares, Neci Matos

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the efficiency of Kato-Katz thick smear and thick smear techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths. The sensitivity of the thick smear technique was higher than that of the Kato-Katz method for the diagnosis of all helminths except Schistosoma mansoni.

  3. Contribution of Wastewater Irrigation to Soil Transmitted Helminths Infection among Vegetable Farmers in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Abubakari, Amina; Stenström, Thor Axel; Abaidoo, Robert Clement; Seidu, Razak

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater irrigation is associated with several benefits but can also lead to significant health risks. The health risk for contracting infections from Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs) among farmers has mainly been assessed indirectly through measured quantities in the wastewater or on the crops alone and only on a limited scale through epidemiological assessments. In this study we broadened the concept of infection risks in the exposure assessments by measurements of the concentration of STHs both in wastewater used for irrigation and the soil, as well as the actual load of STHs ova in the stool of farmers and their family members (165 and 127 in the wet and dry seasons respectively) and a control group of non-farmers (100 and 52 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively). Odds ratios were calculated for exposure and non-exposure to wastewater irrigation. The results obtained indicate positive correlation between STH concentrations in irrigation water/soil and STHs ova as measured in the stool of the exposed farmer population. The correlations are based on reinfection during a 3 months period after prior confirmed deworming. Farmers and family members exposed to irrigation water were three times more likely as compared to the control group of non-farmers to be infected with Ascaris (OR = 3.9, 95% CI, 1.15–13.86) and hookworm (OR = 3.07, 95% CI, 0.87–10.82). This study therefore contributes to the evidence-based conclusion that wastewater irrigation contributes to a higher incidence of STHs infection for farmers exposed annually, with higher odds of infection in the wet season. PMID:27923048

  4. Distribution of infective gastrointestinal helminth larvae in tropical erect grass under different feeding systems for lambs.

    PubMed

    Tontini, Jalise Fabíola; Poli, Cesar Henrique Espírito Candal; Bremm, Carolina; de Castro, Juliane Machado; Fajardo, Neuza Maria; Sarout, Bruna Nunes Marsiglio; Castilhos, Zélia Maria de Souza

    2015-08-01

    This study examined tropical pasture contamination dynamics under different feeding systems for finishing lambs. The experiment aimed to evaluate the vertical distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infective larvae (L3) in erect grass subjected to grazing and to assess the parasite load and its impact on lamb performance in three production systems. Three treatments based on Aruana grass (Panicum maximum cv. IZ-5) were as follows: T1, grass only; T2, grass with 1.5% of body weight (BW) nutrient concentrate supplementation; and T3, grass with 2.5% BW concentrate supplementation. The randomized block design had three replicates of three treatments, with six lambs per replicate. L3 were recovered from three pasture strata (upper, middle, and bottom), each representing one third of the sward height, and correlated with microclimatic data. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among treatments in the L3 recovery. Despite different grass heights between treatments and microclimates within the sward, the L3 concentration generally did not differ significantly among the three strata within a treatment (P > 0.05). Pasture microclimate did not correlate with larval recovery. At the end of the experiment, the animal fecal egg count was similar among treatments (P > 0.05). The results indicated that different lamb feeding systems in a tropical erect grassland caused differences in grass height but did not affect the distribution of infective larvae among strata. Larvae were found from the base to the top of the grass sward.

  5. Combining Footwear with Public Health Iconography to Prevent Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections.

    PubMed

    Paige, Sarah B; Friant, Sagan; Clech, Lucie; Malavé, Carly; Kemigabo, Catherine; Obeti, Richard; Goldberg, Tony L

    2017-01-11

    Shoes are effective for blocking soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) that penetrate the skin. Unfortunately, shoe-wearing is uncommon in many areas where STHs are prevalent, in part because local populations are unaware of the health benefits of wearing shoes. This is especially true in low-literacy populations, where information dissemination through written messages is not possible. We launched a public health intervention that combines a public health image with sandals. The image is a "lenticular image" that combines two alternating pictures to depict the efficacy of shoes for preventing STH infection. This image is adhered to the shoe, such that the message is linked directly to the primary means of prevention. To create a culturally appropriate image, we conducted five focus group discussions, each with a different gender and age combination. Results of focus group discussions reinforced the importance of refining public health messages well in advance of distribution so that cultural acceptability is strong. After the image was finalized, we deployed shoes with the image in communities in western Uganda where hookworm is prevalent. We found that the frequency of shoe-wearing was 25% higher in communities receiving the shoes than in control communities. Microscopic analyses of fecal samples for parasites showed a sustained reduction in infection intensity for parasites transmitted directly through the feet when people received shoes with a public health image. Our results show that combining culturally appropriate images with public health interventions can be effective in low-literacy populations.

  6. Instruction in behavior modification can significantly alter soil-transmitted helminth (STH) re-infection following therapeutic de-worming.

    PubMed

    Albright, Julia W; Basaric-Keys, Jasna

    2006-01-01

    Five elementary ("prototypic") schools located in five districts in central Java were selected and the children examined for helminth infections (Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm). They were de-wormed with a course of mebendazole and provided with 6-7 months of "behavioral remediation instruction" (BRI). In other ("control") schools, children were treated with mebendazole but were not provided BRI. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of BRI in minimizing infection/re-infection following deworming. After the 6-7 month course of BRI in the prototypic schools, all the children (in both the prototypic and control schools) were re-examined for geohelminth infection. The schools in two of the five districts were omitted from further analysis because the overall prevalence of infection was low (<10%) and the infections were dominated by hookworm which are only moderately susceptible to mebendazole. Comparisons of prototypic and control schools in the other three districts provided compelling evidence that BRI was quite effective in reducing both the frequency and intensity of infection with Ascaris and Trichuris. We suggest that instructing children and adults corrects personal habits which are conducive to infection and can be an effective and safe substitute for repeated deworming, reducing the opportunity for the emergence of drug-resistant helminthes, which should prolong the time benzimidazoles may be used for treatment of geohelminth infection.

  7. Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio Infection.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-08-01

    A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio.

  8. Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Min, Duk-Young; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Insisiengmay, Sithat; Phommasack, Bounlay; Rim, Han-Jong

    2015-01-01

    A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio. PMID:26323842

  9. Short Report: Quantitative Evaluation of a Handheld Light Microscope for Field Diagnosis of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bogoch, Isaac I.; Andrews, Jason R.; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M.; Ali, Said M.; Stothard, J. Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456 for Trichuris trichiura; both P < 0.05). Using regression coefficients and accounting for intensity of infection, we found that the agreement between the two devices was excellent for both species (κ = 0.90, 95% confidence interval = 0.82–0.99 for A. lumbricoides and κ = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91–1.00 for T. trichiura). The Newton Nm1 microscope may be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth infection in clinical, epidemiologic, and public health settings. PMID:25246697

  10. The Differentiation of CD4+ T-Helper Cell Subsets in the Context of Helminth Parasite Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bouchery, Tiffany; Kyle, Ryan; Ronchese, Franca; Le Gros, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Helminths are credited with being the major selective force driving the evolution of the so-called “type 2” immune responses in vertebrate animals, with their size and infection strategies presenting unique challenges to the immune system. Originally, type 2 immune responses were defined by the presence and activities of the CD4+ T-helper 2 subset producing the canonical cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. This picture is now being challenged by the discovery of a more complex pattern of CD4+ T-helper cell subsets that appear during infection, including Tregs, Th17, Tfh, and more recently, Th22, Th9, and ThGM. In addition, a clearer view of the mechanisms by which helminths and their products selectively prime the CD4+ T-cell subsets is emerging. In this review, we have focused on recent data concerning the selective priming, differentiation, and functional role of CD4+ T-helper cell subsets in the context of helminth infection. We argue for a re-evaluation of the original Th2 paradigm and discuss how the observed plasticity of the T-helper subsets may enable the parasitized host to achieve an appropriate compromise between elimination, tissue repair, containment, and pathology. PMID:25360134

  11. Effect of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections on Physical Fitness of School Children in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Ivan; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Fürst, Thomas; Knopp, Stefanie; Hattendorf, Jan; Krauth, Stefanie J.; Stete, Katarina; Righetti, Aurélie A.; Glinz, Dominik; Yao, Adrien K.; Pühse, Uwe; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2011-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are important public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa causing malnutrition, anemia, and retardation of physical and cognitive development. However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined. Methodology We investigated the relationship between schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and physical performance of children, controlling for potential confounding of Plasmodium spp. infections and environmental parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and humidity). A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 156 school children aged 7–15 years from Côte d'Ivoire. Each child had two stool and two urine samples examined for helminth eggs by microscopy. Additionally, children underwent a clinical examination, were tested for Plasmodium spp. infection with a rapid diagnostic test, and performed a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) as a proxy for physical fitness. Principal Findings The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was 85.3%, 71.2%, 53.8%, 13.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Children with single, dual, triple, quadruple and quintuple species infections showed VO2 max of 52.7, 53.1, 52.2, 52.6 and 55.6 ml kg−1 min−1, respectively. The VO2 max of children with no parasite infections was 53.5 ml kg−1 min−1. No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that VO2 max was influenced by sex (reference: female, coef. = 4.02, p<0.001) and age (years, coef. = −1.23, p<0.001), but not by helminth infection and intensity, Plasmodium spp. infection, and environmental parameters. Conclusion/Significance School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status. Future studies on children's physical fitness

  12. Ten weeks of infection with a tissue-invasive helminth protects against local immune complex-mediated inflammation, but not cutaneous type I hypersensitivity, in previously sensitized mice

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Holly; Killoran, Kristin E.; Mitre, Blima K.; Morris, C. Paul; Kim, So-Young; Mitre, Edward

    2015-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect chronic helminth infection has on allergic disease in mice previously sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA). 10 weeks of infection with Litomosoides sigmodontis reduced immunological markers of type I hypersensitivity, including OVA-specific IgE, basophil activation, and mast cell degranulation. Despite these reductions, there was no protection against immediate clinical hypersensitivity following intradermal OVA challenge. However, late phase ear swelling, due to type III hypersensitivity, was significantly reduced in chronically infected animals. Levels of total IgG2a, OVA-specific IgG2a, and OVA-specific IgG1 were reduced in the setting of infection. These reductions were likely due to increased antibody catabolism as ELISPOT assays demonstrated that infected animals do not have suppressed antibody production. Ear histology 24 hours after challenge showed infected animals have reduced cellular infiltration in the ear, with significant decreases in numbers of neutrophils and macrophages. Consistent with this, infected animals had less neutrophil-specific chemokines CXCL-1 and CXCL-2 in the ear following challenge. Additionally, in vitro stimulation with immune-complexes resulted in significantly less CXCL-1 and CXCL-2 production by eosinophils from chronically infected mice. Expression of FcγRI was also significantly reduced on eosinophils from infected animals. These data indicate that chronic filarial infection suppresses eosinophilic responses to antibody-mediated activation and has the potential to be used as a therapeutic for pre-existing hypersensitivity diseases. PMID:26324775

  13. [Influence of helminthic infections and nutritional status on immune response in Venezuelan children].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, D; Afonso, C; Hagel, I; Rodriguez, O; Ortiz, C; Palenque, M; Lynch, N R

    2000-09-01

    We investigated the influence of nutritional status, as determined from anthropometric measurement, and of helminthic infections on the immune response of children of low socioeconomic status in two rural communities in Venezuela: El Cardón in the state of Nueva Esparta and San Daniel in the state of Miranda. A total of 125 boys and girls between 2 and 15 years old participated in the study. Their socioeconomic stratum was determined by a modified Graffar method. A physical examination was performed, as was also an anthropometric evaluation that took into account three indicators--weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and height-for-age--according to parameters established by the World Health Organization. Other examinations included feces, secretory IgA in saliva, total serum IgE, and anti-Ascaris-specific immunoglobulins. The children in both of the communities were in strata IV and V of the of Graffar scale, with a significantly greater number of stratum V inhabitants in San Daniel (P < 0.001). The results suggest that exposure level and individual susceptibility to the parasites are determining factors in parasitic infection and immune system behavior. The intensity of the parasitic burden plays an important role in stimulating polyclonal IgE, which diminishes the effectiveness of the specific response to those infections. On the other hand, nutritional deficiencies could change the immune mechanisms of the mucous membranes, negatively influence the synthesis of secretory IgA, and stimulate the production of polyclonal IgE. Poor sanitary and socioeconomic conditions promote more exposure to gastrointestinal parasites and a deficient nutritional status, which modulates the immune response and affects serum IgE and secretory IgA production mechanisms.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years) from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Results Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%), whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection. Protected spring water

  15. Species dependent impact of helminth-derived antigens on human macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Direct effect on the innate anti-mycobacterial response

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Susmita K.; McKay, Derek M.

    2017-01-01

    Background In countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis there is high coincident of helminth infections that might worsen disease outcome. While Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) gives rise to a pro-inflammatory Th1 response, a Th2 response is typical of helminth infections. A strong Th2 response has been associated with decreased protection against tuberculosis. Principal findings We investigated the direct effect of helminth-derived antigens on human macrophages, hypothesizing that helminths would render macrophages less capable of controlling Mtb. Measuring cytokine output, macrophage surface markers with flow cytometry, and assessing bacterial replication and phagosomal maturation revealed that antigens from different species of helminth directly affect macrophage responses to Mtb. Antigens from the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and the nematode Trichuris muris caused an anti-inflammatory response with M2-type polarization, reduced macrophage phagosome maturation and ability to activate T cells, along with increased Mtb burden, especially in T. muris exposed cells which also induced the highest IL-10 production upon co-infection. However, antigens from the trematode Schistosoma mansoni had the opposite effect causing a decrease in IL-10 production, M1-type polarization and increased control of Mtb. Conclusion We conclude that, independent of any adaptive immune response, infection with helminth parasites, in a species-specific manner can influence the outcome of tuberculosis by either enhancing or diminishing the bactericidal function of macrophages. PMID:28192437

  16. mTORC2 signalling regulates M2 macrophage differentiation in response to helminth infection and adaptive thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hallowell, R. W.; Collins, S. L.; Craig, J. M.; Zhang, Y.; Oh, M.; Illei, P. B.; Chan-Li, Y.; Vigeland, C. L.; Mitzner, W.; Scott, A. L.; Powell, J. D.; Horton, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    Alternatively activated macrophages (M2) have an important function in innate immune responses to parasitic helminths, and emerging evidence also indicates these cells are regulators of systemic metabolism. Here we show a critical role for mTORC2 signalling in the generation of M2 macrophages. Abrogation of mTORC2 signalling in macrophages by selective conditional deletion of the adaptor molecule Rictor inhibits the generation of M2 macrophages while leaving the generation of classically activated macrophages (M1) intact. Selective deletion of Rictor in macrophages prevents M2 differentiation and clearance of a parasitic helminth infection in mice, and also abrogates the ability of mice to regulate brown fat and maintain core body temperature. Our findings define a role for mTORC2 in macrophages in integrating signals from the immune microenvironment to promote innate type 2 immunity, and also to integrate systemic metabolic and thermogenic responses. PMID:28128208

  17. Status of soil transmitted helminthic infections in India--observations on sample surveys using Kato-Katz technique.

    PubMed

    Bora, D; Singh, S K; Bhagat, H; Sharma, R C; Datta, K K

    2001-06-01

    Results of surveys conducted in eight different ecologically homogenous zones in the country, using WHO sampling design methodologies and Kato-Katz technique are presented in this communication. Hilly and coastal areas had high STH prevalence ranging from 34%-36% with total epg ranging from 53,952-4,67,976. Apart from this, Chitradurga urban area had STH prevalence of 39.6% with epg of 81,792. However, except in few cases, in all these surveyed areas, intensity of STH infection was found to be light. A national programme for control of soil transmitted helminthic infections is advocated.

  18. Infection of larval herring by helminth parasites in the North Sea and the effect on feeding incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, M.; Nicoll, N.

    1991-12-01

    Specimens of larval herring ( Clupea harengus L.) collected during the Autumn Circulation Experiment in the North Sea were found to be infected with two species of helminth parasites—a trematode Hemiurus sp. and a cestode Scolex pleuronectis. The prevalence of both parasites was significantly dependent on larval length, sampling month and sampling area. Analysis of larval stomach contents indicated that feeding incidence was significantly lower in larvae which were infected with S. pleuronectis. The difference in feeding incidence between parasitized and non-parasitized larvae represented up to 50% reduction in prey uptake rate. Up to 40% of larvae were infected with S. pleuronectis and the consequences of infection for the mean growth rate in the population could therefore be significant. The geographical variation in the distribution of S. pleuronectis infection suggests the possibility of an interaction between larval advection routes and growth rate, which could influence recruitment.

  19. The effect of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) on parasite intensities and performance of lambs naturally infected with helminth parasites.

    PubMed

    Marley, C L; Cook, R; Keatinge, R; Barrett, J; Lampkin, N H

    2003-02-28

    Conventionally, farmers rely upon the routine use of anthelmintics to control helminth parasites and their use has proved highly cost-effective. However, several factors, including the emergence of helminths resistant to pharmaceutical anthelmintics, are forcing farmers to seek alternative approaches to parasite control. Studies in New Zealand have shown that some alternative forages may reduce parasitic infestation in sheep. In the current study, it was found that under UK environmental conditions lambs with naturally acquired helminth infections grazing chicory (Cichorium intybus) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) had fewer helminth parasites than sheep grazing ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens). Twelve pure-bred Lleyn male lambs grazed replicated 0.5ha plots of birdsfoot trefoil, chicory or ryegrass/white clover for 5 weeks. Liveweight and faecal egg counts (FECs) were determined weekly and eight lambs per forage were slaughtered at the end of the trial to determine total helminth intensities. Lambs grazing birdsfoot trefoil had a lower FEC on day 7 (P<0.05) and fewer total adult helminths than those grazing the other forages on day 35 (P<0.01). Lambs grazing chicory did not have significantly lower FEC than lambs grazing other forages but these lambs were found to have fewer total adult abomasal helminths than lambs grazing ryegrass/white clover (P<0.001). As the performance of grazing lambs is inversely correlated with the intensity of helminth parasites, these alternative forages could be used to improve the liveweight gain of lambs produced in the UK. Overall, the results support the contention that alternative forages could have a positive role in the control of helminth parasites in sheep, subject to successful agronomic development and integration of these forages into whole farm systems.

  20. A comparison of the prevalence and burdens of helminth infections in growers and adult free-range chickens.

    PubMed

    Magwisha, H B; Kassuku, A A; Kyvsgaard, N C; Permin, A

    2002-05-01

    Matched samples of 100 chickens of each of growers and adult rural free-range chickens in Morogoro, Tanzania, were purchased from the beginning to the end of the long rainy season. At necropsy, the trachea, the gastrointestinal tract and the oviduct were examined for helminth infections. The helminth species isolated comprised 18 nematodes and 8 cestodes but no trematodes. Tetrameres fissispina is a new record in Tanzania. All the chickens harboured at least three different helminth species. Growers contained 4-14 and adults 3-12 helminth species. The number of species isolated per chicken increased as the rainy season advanced. The prevalence of the following species were significantly higher in growers than in adults (p < 0.05); Ascaridia galli (69% of growers, 29% of adults); Syngamus trachea (14%, 3%); Tetrameres americana (94%, 82%); Trichostrongylus tenuis (43%, 7%); Choanotaenia infundibulum (15%, 6%); Davainea proglottina (9%, 2%); and Raillietina tetragona (36%, 21%). Allodapa suctoria (3%, 20%) and Capillaria annulata (1%, 10%) had a significantly lower prevalence in growers than in adults (p < 0.05). There were significantly higher worm burdens (p < 0.05) in growers than in adults for A. galli, Capillaria caudinflata, R. tetragona, S. trachea, T. americana, T. fissispina and T. tenuis. Conversely, A. suctoria and C. annulata showed significantly higher worm burdens in adults (p < 0.05). The sex of the chickens influenced the burdens of Heterakis brevispiculum (p < 0.05). There was an interaction effect such that growing males and adult females had statistically higher (p < 0.05) burdens of T. tenuis and A. suctoria, respectively.

  1. Co-endemicity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Intestinal Helminth Infection in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Ren, Zhou-Peng; Wang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-03-01

    Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and intestinal helminth infection (IHI) affect millions of individuals every year in China. However, the national-scale estimation of prevalence predictors and prevalence maps for these diseases, as well as co-endemic relative risk (RR) maps of both diseases' prevalence are not well developed. There are co-endemic, high prevalence areas of both diseases, whose delimitation is essential for devising effective control strategies. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models including socio-economic, climatic, geographical and environmental predictors were fitted separately for active PTB and IHI based on data from the national surveys for PTB and major human parasitic diseases that were completed in 2010 and 2004, respectively. Prevalence maps and co-endemic RR maps were constructed for both diseases by means of Bayesian Kriging model and Bayesian shared component model capable of appraising the fraction of variance of spatial RRs shared by both diseases, and those specific for each one, under an assumption that there are unobserved covariates common to both diseases. Our results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP) per capita had a negative association, while rural regions, the arid and polar zones and elevation had positive association with active PTB prevalence; for the IHI prevalence, GDP per capita and distance to water bodies had a negative association, the equatorial and warm zones and the normalized difference vegetation index had a positive association. Moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in western regions, low to moderate prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in north-central regions and the southeast coastal regions, and moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and high prevalence of IHI were predicted in the south-western regions. Thus, co-endemic areas of active PTB and IHI were located in the south-western regions of China, which

  2. Helminths infection patterns in a lizard (Tropidurus hispidus) population from a semiarid neotropical area: associations between female reproductive allocation and parasite loads.

    PubMed

    Galdino, Conrado A B; Ávila, Robson W; Bezerra, Castiele H; Passos, Daniel C; Melo, Gabriela C; Zanchi-Silva, Djan

    2014-12-01

    This study reports helminth infection patterns of the lizard Tropidurus hispidus from an area of semiarid caatinga in northeastern Brazil (Ceará state). The lizard population was parasitized by 8 helminth species, and the species composition of the component community resembles that found for other Neotropical lizards. The prevalence of parasites was higher for males compared with females, whereas no relation was found between intensity of infection of 2 parasites (Parapharyngodon alvarengai and Physaloptera lutzi) and the lizards body size. For reproductive females, parasite infection intensity was negatively correlated to reproductive investment.

  3. The burden of moderate-to-heavy soil-transmitted helminth infections among rural malaysian aborigines: an urgent need for an integrated control programme

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, among the most common neglected tropical diseases, continue to be a major threat to the health and socioeconomic wellbeing of infected people especially children in developing countries. Methods A cross-sectional study among 254 aboriginal schoolchildren was conducted in order to determine the current prevalence and intensity of infections and to investigate the potential risk factors associated with moderate-to-heavy burden of STH infections among these children. Results Overall, 93.7% of children were found to be infected with one or more STH species. The prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 84.6%, 47.6% and 3.9%, respectively. Almost half of the participants had heavy trichuriasis, one-quarter had heavy ascariasis whereas all hookworm infections were light infections. Overall, moderate-to-heavy STH infections accounted for 56.7% of the total infections. Univariate analysis revealed that those using untreated water supply (P = 0.013), living in houses without toilets (P = 0.027) and having domestic animals in the houses (P = 0.044) had significantly higher prevalence of moderate-to-heavy infections than others. Logistic regression analysis confirmed using untreated water for drinking (P = 0.001) and the absence of a toilet in the house (P = 0.003) as significant risk factors of moderate-to-heavy STH infections among these children. Conclusion The high proportion of moderate-to-heavy STH infections further confirms the need for serious attention towards these devastating diseases that has put lives and the future of aboriginal children in jeopardy. Introduction of more poverty alleviation schemes, proper sanitation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, health education, as well as the introduction of periodic school-based deworming programmes are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused by STH. PMID:22208559

  4. Age-related prevalence, intensity and frequency distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infection in urban slum children from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bundy, D A; Kan, S P; Rose, R

    1988-01-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth infection status of 1574 children living in a slum area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was assessed by quantitative coprology. Almost two-thirds were infected with Trichuris trichiura, 49.6% with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 5.3% with hookworm. Infection prevalence rose rapidly to a stable asymptote at 7 years of age, and the age-intensity profile was convex with maximal values in the 5-10 year age classes. This pattern was the same for males and females, but differed markedly between different ethnic groups. The frequency distributions of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were highly overdispersed (k values were 0.21 and 0.27, respectively), and age-dependent over the 0-8 year age classes. This suggests that the force of infection with these nematodes is lower in infants than in older children.

  5. Diplomatic Assistance: Can Helminth-Modulated Macrophages Act as Treatment for Inflammatory Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Steinfelder, Svenja; O’Regan, Noëlle Louise; Hartmann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Helminths have evolved numerous pathways to prevent their expulsion or elimination from the host to ensure long-term survival. During infection, they target numerous host cells, including macrophages, to induce an alternatively activated phenotype, which aids elimination of infection, tissue repair, and wound healing. Multiple animal-based studies have demonstrated a significant reduction or complete reversal of disease by helminth infection, treatment with helminth products, or helminth-modulated macrophages in models of allergy, autoimmunity, and sepsis. Experimental studies of macrophage and helminth therapies are being translated into clinical benefits for patients undergoing transplantation and those with multiple sclerosis. Thus, helminths or helminth-modulated macrophages present great possibilities as therapeutic applications for inflammatory diseases in humans. Macrophage-based helminth therapies and the underlying mechanisms of their therapeutic or curative effects represent an under-researched area with the potential to open new avenues of treatment. This review explores the application of helminth-modulated macrophages as a new therapy for inflammatory diseases. PMID:27101372

  6. The Increase of Exotic Zoonotic Helminth Infections: The Impact of Urbanization, Climate Change and Globalization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Catherine A; McManus, Donald P; Jones, Malcolm K; Gray, Darren J; Gobert, Geoffrey N

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic parasitic diseases are increasingly impacting human populations due to the effects of globalization, urbanization and climate change. Here we review the recent literature on the most important helminth zoonoses, including reports of incidence and prevalence. We discuss those helminth diseases which are increasing in endemic areas and consider their geographical spread into new regions within the framework of globalization, urbanization and climate change to determine the effect these variables are having on disease incidence, transmission and the associated challenges presented for public health initiatives, including control and elimination.

  7. Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Schistosoma mansoni Infections in Ethiopian Orthodox Church Students around Lake Tana, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Afework Bitew, Aschalew; Abera, Bayeh; Seyoum, Walle; Endale, Befekadu; Kiber, Tibebu; Goshu, Girma; Admass, Addiss

    2016-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and Schistosoma mansoni infections are the major neglected tropical diseases that result in serious consequences on health, education and nutrition in children in developing countries. The Ethiopian Orthodox church students, who are called Yekolotemari in Amharic, live in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. Moreover, they are not included in the national STH control programs. Thus, STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence is unknown. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 384 students in June 2014 to determine STH and S. mansoni infections prevalence. Moreover, the knowledge of students about STH and S. mansoni was assessed. Data on knowledge and clinical symptoms were collected using structured questionnaires via face to face interview. Stool specimens were examined by formol-ether concentration method. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths infections was 85.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 82.1–89%). STHs infections prevalence was 65.6% (95% CI: 60.7–70.2%). The prevalence of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were 31.8% (95% CI: 27.3–36.6%), 29.4% (25–31%) and 3.1% (1.8–5.4%), respectively. On the other hand, S. mansoni prevalence was 14.3% (95% CI: 11.1–18.1%). Majority of students infected with S. mansoni had bloody stool with crud odds-ratio of 2.9 (95% CI: 1.5–5.5). Knowledge assessment showed that 50 (13%) and 18 (4.9%) of the respondents knew about transmission of STH and S. mansoni, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of STH and S. mansoni infections were high thus de-worming program should include the students of Ethiopian Orthodox churches. Furthermore, provision and use of sanitary facilities, health education for students to create awareness of parasitic infections and improved personal hygiene should be in place. PMID:27203749

  8. Water, sanitation and hygiene related risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth and Giardia duodenalis infections in rural communities in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Suzy J; Nery, Susana V; D'Este, Catherine A; Gray, Darren J; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca J; Andrews, Ross M; Llewellyn, Stacey; Vallely, Andrew J; Williams, Gail M; Amaral, Salvador; Clements, Archie C A

    2016-11-01

    There is little evidence on prevalence or risk factors for soil transmitted helminth infections in Timor-Leste. This study describes the epidemiology, water, sanitation and hygiene, and socioeconomic risk factors of STH and intestinal protozoa amongst communities in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste. As part of a cluster randomised controlled trial, a baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted across 18 villages, with data from six additional villages. Stool samples were assessed for soil transmitted helminth and protozoal infections using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and questionnaires administered to collect water, sanitation and hygiene and socioeconomic data. Risk factors for infection were assessed using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression, stratified by age group (preschool, school-aged and adult). Overall, soil transmitted helminth prevalence was 69% (95% Confidence Interval 67-71%), with Necator americanus being most common (60%; 95% Confidence Interval 58-62%) followed by Ascaris spp. (24%; 95% Confidence Interval 23-26%). Ascaris-N. americanus co-infection was common (17%; 95% Confidence Interval 15%-18%). Giardia duodenalis was the main protozoan identified (13%; 95% Confidence Interval 11-14%). Baseline water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure and behaviours were poor. Although risk factors varied by age of participants and parasite species, risk factors for N. americanus infection included, generally, age in years, male sex, and socioeconomic quintile. Risk factors for Ascaris included age in years for children, and piped water to the yard for adults. In this first known assessment of community-based prevalence and associated risk factors in Timor-Leste, soil transmitted helminth infections were highly prevalent, indicating a need for soil transmitted helminth control. Few associations with water, sanitation and hygiene were evident, despite water, sanitation and hygiene being generally poor. In our water, sanitation and hygiene we will

  9. Concurrent Infection with an Intestinal Helminth Parasite Impairs Host Resistance to Enteric Citrobacter rodentium and Enhances Citrobacter-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Louie, Steve; McCormick, Beth; Walker, W. Allan; Shi, Hai Ning

    2005-01-01

    Infections with intestinal helminth and bacterial pathogens, such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, continue to be a major global health threat for children. To test the hypothesis that intestinal helminth infection may be a risk factor for enteric bacterial infection, a murine model was established by using the intestinal helminth Heligomosomoides polygyrus. To analyze the modulatory effect of a Th2-inducing helminth on the outcome of enteric bacterium Citrobacter rodentium infection, BALB/c and STAT 6 knockout (KO) mice were infected with H. polygyrus, C. rodentium, or both. We found that only BALB/c mice coinfected with H. polygyrus and C. rodentium displayed a marked morbidity and mortality. The enhanced susceptibility to C. rodentium and intestinal injury of coinfected BALB/c mice were shown to be associated with a significant increase in helminth-driven Th2 responses, mucosally and systemically, and correlated with a significant downregulation of protective gamma interferon and with a dramatic upregulation of the proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor alpha response. In addition, C. rodentium-associated colonic pathology in coinfected BALB/c mice was significantly enhanced, whereas bacterial burden was increased and clearance was delayed. In contrast, coinfection in STAT 6 KO mice failed to promote C. rodentium infection or to induce a more severe intestinal inflammation and tissue injury, demonstrating a mechanism by which helminth influences the development of host protective immunity and susceptibility to bacterial infections. We conclude that H. polygyrus coinfection can promote C. rodentium-associated disease and colitis through a STAT 6-mediated immune mechanism. PMID:16113263

  10. Asymptomatic Vivax and Falciparum Parasitaemia with Helminth Co-Infection: Major Risk Factors for Anaemia in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Burdam, Faustina Helena; Hakimi, Mohammad; Thio, Franciscus; Kenangalem, Enny; Indrawanti, Ratni; Noviyanti, Rintis; Trianty, Leily; Marfurt, Jutta; Handayuni, Irene; Soenarto, Yati; Douglas, Nicholas M.; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Price, Ric N.; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini

    2016-01-01

    Background Anaemia in children under five years old is associated with poor health, growth and developmental outcomes. In Papua, Indonesia, where the burden of anaemia in infants is high, we conducted a community survey to assess the association between Plasmodium infection, helminth carriage and the risk of anaemia. Methods A cross sectional household survey was carried out between April and July 2013 in 16 villages in the District of Mimika using a multistage sampling procedure. A total of 629 children aged 1–59 months from 800 households were included in the study. Demographic, symptom and anthropometry data were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. Blood and stool samples were collected for examination. Results Of the 533 children with blood film examination, 8.8% (47) had P. vivax parasitaemia and 3.9% (21) had P. falciparum; the majority of children with malaria were asymptomatic (94.4%, 68/72). Soil transmitted helminth (STH) infection was present in 43% (105/269) of children assessed; those with STH were at significantly greater risk of P. vivax parasitaemia compared to those without STH (OR = 3.7 [95%CI 1.5–9.2], p = 0.004). Anaemia (Hb<10 g/dl) was present in 24.5% (122/497) of children and associated with P. vivax parasitaemia (OR = 2.9 [95%CI, 1.7–4.9], p = 0.001), P. falciparum parasitaemia (OR = 4.3 [95%CI, 2.0–9.4], p<0.001), hookworm carriage (OR = 2.6 [95%CI, 1.2–5.8], p = 0.026), Plasmodium–helminth coinfection (OR 4.0 [95%CI, 1.4–11.3], p = 0.008) and severe stunting (OR = 1.9 ([95%CI, 1.1–3.3], p = 0.012). Conclusions Asymptomatic P. vivax and P. falciparum infections and hookworm all contribute to risk of paediatric anaemia in coendemic areas and should be targeted with prevention and treatment programs. The relationship between helminth infections and the increased risk of P. vivax parasitaemia should be explored prospectively. PMID:27504828

  11. Effects of albendazole on the clinical outcome and immunological responses in helminth co-infected tuberculosis patients: a double blind randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Abate, E; Elias, D; Getachew, A; Alemu, S; Diro, E; Britton, S; Aseffa, A; Stendahl, O; Schön, T

    2015-02-01

    Despite several review papers and experimental studies concerning the impact of chronic helminth infection on tuberculosis in recent years, there is a scarcity of data from clinical field studies in highly endemic areas for these diseases. We believe this is the first randomised clinical trial investigating the impact of albendazole treatment on the clinical and immunological outcomes of helminth co-infected tuberculosis patients. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of albendazole (400mg per day for 3 days) in helminth-positive tuberculosis patients was conducted in Gondar, Ethiopia. The primary outcome was clinical improvement (ΔTB score) after 2 months. Among secondary outcomes were changes in the levels of eosinophils, CD4+ T cells, regulatory T cells, IFN-γ, IL-5 and IL-10 after 3 months. A total of 140 helminth co-infected tuberculosis patients were included with an HIV co-infection rate of 22.8%. There was no significant effect on the primary outcome (ΔTB score: 5.6±2.9 for albendazole versus 5.9±2.5 for placebo, P=0.59). The albendazole-treated group showed a decline in eosinophil cells (P=0.001) and IL-10 (P=0.017) after 3 months. In an exploratory analysis after 12 weeks, the albendazole treated group showed a trend towards weight gain compared with the placebo group (11.2±8.5 kg versus 8.2±8.7 kg, P=0.08)). The reductions in eosinophil counts and IL-10 show that asymptomatic helminth infection significantly affects host immunity during tuberculosis and can be effectively reversed by albendazole treatment. The clinical effects of helminth infection on chronic infectious diseases such as tuberculosis merit further characterisation.

  12. Integrated community-directed treatment for the control of onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and intestinal helminths infections in Uganda: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Kabatereine, Narcis

    2003-11-01

    Onchocerciasis is co-endemic with schistosomiasis and intestinal helminths infections, which are all diseases of the rural and the poorest communities in Africa. Community-directed treatment (ComDT) for the control of onchocerciasis is the only functional health approach in most of these communities and the strategy has proven to be effective for onchocerciasis control. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of integrating ComDT with ivermectin for the control of onchocerciasis, and with praziquantel (PZQ) and mebendazole (MBD) for the control of schistosomiasis and intestinal helminths infections in children aged 5-14 years, and to assess advantages and disadvantages of the integrated ComDT over the routine ComDT and the school-based treatment approach. Integrated ComDT achieved higher treatment coverage (85%) for PZQ and MBD than the school-based treatment approach (79%) among children aged 5-14 years (P = 0.03). There were more reported adverse reactions after treatment with a combination of PZQ and MBD in the school-based treatment approach (33%) than for the combination of ivermectin and MBD on day 1 and PZQ on day 2 in the integrated ComDT (18%). However, all adverse reactions were mild (headache, nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain). The integrated ComDT also achieved higher ivermectin treatment coverage for all ages (81.3%) than routine ComDT (77.2%) (P = 0.0003). To achieve even better coverage for PZQ and MBD among the targeted high risk groups, integrated ComDT should treat all age groups in areas where the prevalence of schistosomiasis and intestinal helminths infections is >50%. This would minimize the shortage of the drugs targeted to treat the high risk groups, as the non-targeted groups, will inevitably demand and receive the treatment from the distributors. The results of this study show that PZQ and MBD treatment for the control of schistosomiasis and intestinal helminths, respectively, can be integrated with ivermectin treatment for

  13. Co-endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum and Intestinal Helminths Infection in School Age Children in Rural Communities of Kwara State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adedoja, Ayodele; Tijani, Bukola Deborah; Akanbi, Ajibola A.; Ojurongbe, Taiwo A.; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A.; Ojurongbe, Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection are major public health problems particularly among school age children in Nigeria. However the magnitude and possible interactions of these infections remain poorly understood. This study determined the prevalence, impact and possible interaction of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria. Methods Blood, urine and stool samples were collected from 1017 primary school pupils of ages 4–15 years. Stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal helminths infection. Urine samples were analyzed using sedimentation method for Schistosoma haematobium. Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by microscopy using thick and thin blood films methods and packed cell volume (PCV) was determined using hematocrit reader. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results Overall, 61.2% of all school children had at least an infection of either P. falciparum, S. haematobium, or intestinal helminth. S. haematobium accounted for the largest proportion (44.4%) of a single infection followed by P. falciparum (20.6%). The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection in the study was 14.4%. Four species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were hookworm (22.5%), Hymenolepis species (9.8%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.9%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.6%). The mean densities of P. falciparum in children co-infected with S. haematobium and hookworm were higher compared to those infected with P. falciparum only though not statistically significant (p = 0.062). The age distribution of both S. haematobium (p = 0.049) and hookworm (p = 0.034) infected children were statistically significant with the older age group (10–15 years) recording the highest prevalence of 47.2% and 25% respectively

  14. Intrinsic Factors Influencing the Infection by Helminth Parasites in Horses under an Oceanic Climate Area (NW Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, I.; Arias, M.; Cortiñas, F. J.; Francisco, R.; Mochales, E.; Dacal, V.; Suárez, J. L.; Uriarte, J.; Morrondo, P.; Sánchez-Andrade, R.; Díez-Baños, P.; Paz-Silva, A.

    2009-01-01

    A coprological survey to determine the influence of some intrinsic factors (breed, age, and sex) on the infection by helminth parasites in equine livestock (n = 418) under an oceanic climate area (NW Spain) was conducted. Faecal samples were individually collected and analyzed by the coprological techniques. The main strongylid genera identified were Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles). The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode was 89% (95% CI 86, 92) and 1% cestoda (0, 2). The percentage of horses with strongyloid parasites was 89% (86, 92), 11% (8, 14) for Parascaris, and 3% (1, 5) for Oxyuris. The highest prevalence for ascariosis was observed in the youngest horses (<3 years), for oxyurosis in the >10 years animals, and for strongylosis in the 3–10 years ones. Females were significantly more parasitized than males. A negative correlation between the age and the egg-excretion of ascarids and strongyles was recorded. The autochthonous and the English Pure Blood horses were the most parasitized. We concluded that the infections by helminths, especially the strongyloids, are significantly common in the region, so that greater importance should be given to this situation. PMID:20721327

  15. Tolerance and efficacy of combined diethylcarbamazine and albendazole for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti and intestinal helminth infections in Haitian children.

    PubMed

    Fox, Leanne M; Furness, Bruce W; Haser, Jennifer K; Desire, Dardith; Brissau, Jean-Marc; Milord, Marie-Denise; Lafontant, Jack; Lammie, Patrick J; Beach, Michael J

    2005-07-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled trial investigated the tolerance, efficacy, and nutritional benefit of combining chemotherapeutic treatment of intestinal helminths and lymphatic filariasis. Children were infected with Ascaris (30.7%), Trichuris (53.4%), and hookworm (9.7%) with 69.9% having more than one of these parasites. A total of 15.8% of the children had Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae. Children were randomly assigned treatment with placebo, albendazole (ALB), diethylcarbamazine (DEC), or combined therapy. The combination of DEC/ALB reduced microfilarial density compared with placebo, ALB, or DEC (P < or = 0.03). Albendazole and DEC/ALB reduced the prevalence of Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm more than placebo or DEC (P < or = 0.03). Among Trichuris-infected children, those receiving ALB and DEC/ALB demonstrated greater gains in weight compared with placebo (P < or = 0.05). Albendazole and DEC/ALB were equally efficacious in treating intestinal helminths and for children with W. bancrofti microfilaremia, DEC/ALB was more effective than DEC, with no increase in severity of adverse reactions.

  16. The unusual lipid binding proteins of parasitic helminths and their potential roles in parasitism and as therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Gisela R; Pórfido, Jorge L; Ibáñez Shimabukuro, Marina; Rey Burusco, María F; Bélgamo, Julián A; Smith, Brian O; Kennedy, Malcolm W; Córsico, Betina

    2015-02-01

    In this review paper we aim at presenting the current knowledge on structural aspects of soluble lipid binding proteins (LBPs) found in parasitic helminths and to discuss their potential role as novel drug targets. Helminth parasites produce and secrete a great variety of LBPs that may participate in the acquisition of nutrients from their host, such as fatty acids and cholesterol. It is also postulated that LBPs might interfere in the regulation of the host׳s immune response by sequestering lipidic intermediates or delivering bioactive lipids. A detailed comprehension of the structure of these proteins, as well as their interactions with ligands and membranes, is important to understand host-parasite relationships that they may mediate. This information could also contribute to determining the role that these proteins may play in the biology of parasitic helminths and how they modulate the immune systems of their hosts, and also towards the development of new therapeutics and prevention of the diseases caused by these highly pathogenic parasites.

  17. Mast cells: new therapeutic target in helminth immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Vukman, K V; Lalor, R; Aldridge, A; O'Neill, S M

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infection and their secreted antigens have a protective role in many immune-mediated inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, studies have focused primarily on identifying immune protective mechanisms of helminth infection and their secreted molecules on dendritic cells and macrophages. Given that mast cells have been shown to be implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of many inflammatory disorders, their role should also be examined and considered as cellular target for helminth-based therapies. As there is a dearth of studies examining the interaction of helminth-derived antigens and mast cells, this review will focus on the role of mast cells during helminth infection and examine our current understanding of the involvement of mast cells in TH 1/TH 17-mediated immune disorders. In this context, potential mechanisms by which helminths could target the TH 1/TH 17 promoting properties of mast cells can be identified to unveil novel therapeutic mast cell driven targets in combating these inflammatory disorders.

  18. Co-Infection With Intestinal Helminths Markedly Reduces Proinflammatory Cytokines And Disease Severity In Natural And Induced High-Pathology Schistosomiasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with the trematode helminth Schistosoma mansoni results in a parasite egg-induced, CD4 T cell-mediated, hepato-intestinal granulomatous and fibrosing inflammation that varies greatly in severity, with a higher frequency of milder forms typical in endemic areas. One possible explanation is...

  19. Atopy and helminths.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M Branco; da Silva, S Lopes; Carlos, A G Palma

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the authors review current and latest evidence linking helminth infections and the development of atopy. Although there is intense ongoing investigation and debate on this issue, the review of experimental, clinical and epidemiological data apparently shows that helminth infections can have beneficial aspects in regard to the pathogenesis of atopy and allergic diseases. Despite the fact that simplistic views are not recommended, it seems that polyclonal IgE production and mainly the stimulation of host immunoregulatory networks leading to synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, TGF-beta and others) can provide new insights into how mechanisms that helminths have developed throughout their evolution and that are useful for parasite evasion and persistence, could also be used in humans in order to provide new approaches in atopy prevention.

  20. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections Are Associated With an Increase in Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and a T-Helper Type 2 Cytokine Signature in Cervical Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Gravitt, Patti E.; Marks, Morgan; Kosek, Margaret; Huang, Christine; Cabrera, Lilia; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Medrano, Alberto Mejia; Trigoso, Dixner R.; Qureshi, Sarah; Bardales, Gustavo S.; Manrique-Hinojosa, Javier; Cardenas, Albert Z.; Larraondo, Manuel A.; Cok, Jaime; Qeadan, Fares; Siracusa, Mark; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Background. An ecological correlation between invasive cervical cancer incidence and burden of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) is hypothesized to explain the excess in detectable human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Latin America, via a global T-helper type 2 (Th2)–biased mucosal immune response secondary to STH infection. Methods. The association between current STH infection and HPV prevalence was compared in regions of Peru where STH is or is not endemic. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) with robust variance were estimated as an effect measure of STH infection on HPV prevalence in each study site. Soluble immune marker profiles in STH-infected and STH-uninfected women were compared using Spearman rank correlation with the Sidak correction. Results. Among women in the helminth-endemic region of the Peruvian Amazon, those with STH infection women had a 60% higher prevalence of HPV, compared with those without STH infection (PR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–2.7). Non-STH parasitic/protozoal infections in the non–STH-endemic population of Peru were not associated with HPV prevalence. In Iquitos, A Th2 immune profile was observed in cervical fluid from helminth-infected women but not helminth-uninfected women. Conclusions. A proportion of the increased HPV prevalence at older ages observed in Latin America may be due to a population-level difference in the efficiency of immunological control of HPV across the lifespan due to endemic STH infection. PMID:26486638

  1. Helminth-host immunological interactions: prevention and control of immune-mediated diseases.

    PubMed

    Elliott, David E; Weinstock, Joel V

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to commensal and pathogenic organisms strongly influences our immune system. Exposure to helminths was frequent before humans constructed their current highly hygienic environment. Today, in highly industrialized countries, contact between humans and helminths is rare. Congruent with the decline in helminth infections is an increase in the prevalence of autoimmune and inflammatory disease. It is possible that exclusion of helminths from the environment has permitted the emergence of immune-mediated disease. We review the protective effects of helminths on expression of inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, and animal models of these and other inflammatory diseases. We also review the immune pathways altered by helminths that may afford protection from these illnesses. Helminth exposure tends to inhibit IFN-γ and IL-17 production, promote IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β release, induce CD4(+) T cell Foxp3 expression, and generate regulatory macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells. Helminths enable protective pathways that may vary by specific species and disease model. Helminths or their products likely have therapeutic potential to control or prevent immune-mediated illness.

  2. Effect of climatic warming on the Pacific walrus, and potential modification of its helminth fauna.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Robert L; George, John C; Brower, Harry K

    2007-10-01

    The decreasing extent of sea-ice in the arctic basin as a consequence of climatic warming is modifying the behavior and diets of pagophilic pinnipeds, including the Pacific walrus, Odobenus rosmarus divergens Illiger, the species emphasized here. Mammals such as the walrus and bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus (Erxleben), cannot remain associated with the sea-ice, and continue to feed on their usual diet of benthic invertebrates inhabiting coastal waters to a depth of approximately 100 m, when the northwestward retreating ice reaches deep waters beyond the margins of the continental shelf. With reduction of their customary substrate (ice), the walrus has become more pelagic and preys more often on ringed seals, Phoca hispida Schreber. Dietary changes, with modifications of helminth faunas, may be induced by various factors. Increased consumption of mammals or their remains by walruses may lead to a higher prevalence of trichinellosis in them and to more frequent occurrence in indigenous peoples inhabiting the arctic coasts. To assess predicted effects on the composition of helminth fauna of the walrus, we recommend systematic surveys of their helminths as part of research on effects of climatic warming.

  3. Comparison of the Kato-Katz method and ether-concentration technique for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections in the framework of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Speich, B; Utzinger, J; Marti, H; Ame, S M; Ali, S M; Albonico, M; Keiser, J

    2014-05-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are a major public health problem. An accurate diagnosis is important in order to identify individuals and communities in need of intervention, and for monitoring drug efficacy and potential emergence of resistance. We compared the accuracy of the Kato-Katz method and ether-concentration technique for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections within a randomised controlled trial. Quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears (duplicate Kato-Katz from two stool samples each) were examined before (baseline) and 3 weeks after treatment (follow-up). Additionally, at baseline and follow-up, the first stool sample was subjected to an ether-concentration method. We determined the prevalence, sensitivity, negative predictive value, diagnostic agreement and cure rates for single and duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from the first stool sample, quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears produced from two stool samples and single ether-concentration as compared to our 'gold' standard (i.e. quadruplicate Kato-Katz plus ether-concentration). Quadruplicate Kato-Katz revealed a higher sensitivity than single ether-concentration for Trichuris trichiura at baseline (94.3 % vs. 88.5 %, p = 0.002) and follow-up (93.8 % vs. 83.5 %, p < 0.001). In contrary, at follow-up, ether-concentration showed a higher sensitivity than quadruplicate Kato-Katz for Ascaris lumbricoides diagnosis (86.7 % vs. 46.7 %, p = 0.012). The ether-concentration method showed similar or slightly higher sensitivity than the Kato-Katz technique based on a single stool sample for all soil-transmitted helminth infections. The estimated cure rates were heavily dependent on the diagnostic technique and sampling effort. In conclusion, data on the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections and the efficacy of anthelminthics are greatly influenced by the diagnostic method and sampling effort. The ether-concentration technique is a valuable alternative to the Kato-Katz method for

  4. A faecal analysis of helminth infections in wild and captive wolves, Canis lupus L., in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szafrańska, E; Wasielewski, O; Bereszyński, A

    2010-12-01

    One hundred and three samples of faeces of reared grey wolves from four locations (Stobnica Park and Zoological Gardens in Bydgoszcz, Wrocław and Cracow) and twenty-six samples of faeces from two free-roaming packs of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Piła (Forest Divisions: Borne Sulinowo, Czarnobór, Jastrowo) and Zielona Góra (Forest Divisions: Torzym, Krosno Odrzańskie) were collected between 2005 and 2007. Helminth eggs were detected in 78.6% of faecal samples of reared grey wolves and in 88.4% of those of free-roaming wolves. The trematode Alaria alata (80.1%) and nematodes Eucoleus aerophilus (23.1%) and Spirocerca lupi (11.5%) were only detected from wild packs of wolves and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (35.9%), Trichuris vulpis (15.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.9%) were only detected from reared wolves. Differences were observed in the prevalence and composition of helminth fauna between reared and wild grey wolves and our results are compared with those from studies within Poland and elsewhere in Europe.

  5. Helminth parasites of small mammals in Kerman province, southeastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Madjdzadeh, Seyed Massoud; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-one specimens of small mammals were collected from different locations of Kerman province, southeastern Iran during 2007 and 2009. They constitute six species of rodents (Meriones persicus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica, Dryomys nitedula and Mus musculus), one species of Erinaceomorpha (Paraechinus hypomelas) and one species of hare (Lepus europeus). The rate of helminthic infection was 45.1 % among all trapped specimens. In 28 out of 51 hunted specimens no intestinal helminth parasite was found. Of all mammals examined, 15 (29.4 %) had nematodes, 5 (9.8 %) had cestodes, and 3 (5.9 %) were infected with Acanthocephala. Five different species of parasites were isolated: Trichuris muris, Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Mastophorus muris. Results of the present study indicate the potential of small mammals in the transmission of zoonotic helminthic infection.

  6. Adoptive transfer of dendritic cells isolated from helminth-infected mice enhanced T regulatory cell responses in airway allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, J-Y; Li, L-Y; Yang, X-Z; Li, J; Zhong, G; Wang, J; Li, L-J; Ji, B; Wu, Z-Q; Liu, H; Yang, X; Liu, P-M

    2011-10-01

    Our and others' previous studies have shown that Schistosoma japonicum (SJ) infection can inhibit allergic reactions. Moreover, we found that adoptive transfer of dendritic cells (DCs) from inhibited mice showed a similar inhibitory effect on allergy, suggesting a critical role of DCs in SJ-infected mediated inhibition of allergy. In this study, we further examined the mechanism by which DCs contribute to inhibition of allergy. Our results showed that DCs from SJ-infected mice (SJDCs) produced significantly higher levels of IL-10 compared to those from naive control mice (NDCs). Adoptive transfer of SJDCs, unlike NDCs, significantly increased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and CD4+CD25+IL-10+ T cells regulatory T-cell responses in vivo. This was correlated with significantly reduced production of IL-4 and IL-5 by CD4+ T cells, eotaxin in lung tissues and reduced airway allergic inflammation in the SJDC recipients following allergen sensitization and challenge. These data suggest that helminth infection may induce tolerogenic DCs that can inhibit the development of airway allergic inflammation through enhancing T regulatory cell responses.

  7. Parasitic infection by larval helminths in Antarctic fishes: pathological changes and impact on the host body condition index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Work, Thierry; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nardi, Valentina; Cipriani, Paolo; Bellisario, Bruno; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We examined pathological changes and relationship between body condition index (BCI) and parasitic infection in 5 species of fish, including 42 icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Channichtyidae), 2 dragonfish Cygnodraco mawsoni (Bathydraconidae), 30 emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii, 46 striped rock cod T. hansoni and 9 dusty rock cod T. newnesi (Nototheniidae) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. All parasites were identified by a combination of morphology and mtDNA cytochrome-oxidase-2 sequence (mtDNA cox2) analysis, except Contracaecum osculatum s.l., for which only the latter was used. Five larval taxa were associated with pathological changes including 2 sibling species (D and E) of the C. osculatum species complex and 3 cestodes including plerocercoids of a diphyllobothridean, and 2 tetraphyllidean forms including cercoids with monolocular and bilocular bothridia. The most heavily infected hosts were C. hamatus and C. mawsoni, with C. hamatus most often infected by C. osculatum sp. D and sp. E and diphyllobothrideans, while C. mawsoni was most often infected with tetraphyllidean forms. Histologically, all fish showed varying severity of chronic inflammation associated with larval forms of helminths. Diphyllobothrideans and C. osculatum spp. were located in gastric muscularis or liver and were associated with necrosis and mild to marked fibrosis. Moderate multifocal rectal mucosal chronic inflammation was associated with attached tetraphyllidean scolices. C. hamatus showed a strong negative correlation between BCI and parasite burden.

  8. Intestinal helminth infections in feral cats and a raccoon dog on Aphaedo Island, Shinan-gun, with a special note on Gymnophalloides seoi infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Hee; Park, Jae-Hwan; Guk, Sang-Mee; Kim, Jae-Lip; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2009-06-01

    Four feral cats and a raccoon dog purchased from a local collector on Aphaedo Island, Shinan-gun, where human Gymnophalloides seoi infections are known to be prevalent, were examined for their intestinal helminth parasites. From 2 of 4 cats, a total of 310 adult G. seoi specimens were recovered. Other helminths detected in cats included Heterophyes nocens (1,527 specimens), Pygidiopsis summa (131), Stictodora fuscata (4), Acanthotrema felis (2), Spirometra erinacei (15), toxocarids (4), and a hookworm (1). A raccoon dog was found to be infected with a species of echinostome (55), hookworms (7), toxocarids (3), P. summa (3), and S. erinacei (1). No G. seoi was found in the raccoon dog. The results indicate that feral cats and raccoon dogs on Aphaedo are natural definitive hosts for intestinal trematodes and cestodes, including G. seoi, H. nocens, and S. erinacei. It has been first confirmed that cats, a mammalian species other than humans, play the role of a natural definitive host for G. seoi on Aphaedo Island.

  9. Prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and assessment of sanitary conditions of pig slaughter slabs in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel

    2011-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and to assess the pig slaughter slab sanitary conditions in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. A total of 24 privately owned pig slaughter slabs were assessed. All slaughter slabs were sub-standard; wrongly located, poorly designed and constructed and lacked most basic requirements for a slaughter house. Because of inadequate slaughtering, disposal and cleaning facilities, the slaughter slabs were under unhygienic condition with questionable safety, soundness and wholesomeness of the pork produced. Routine meat inspection procedures were used to detect extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections. Of the 731 examined pigs; 8.1%, 5.9% and 0.4% were infected with ascariosis, porcine cysticercosis and hydatidosis, respectively. It was noted that almost all slaughter pigs in Dar es Salaam originated from different regions. Based on the region of origin, the status of porcine cysticercosis was 8.2% for Dodoma (n = 98), 8.2% for Manyara (n = 260) and 6.9% for Mbeya (n = 116). This study disclosed the unhygienic sanitary condition prevailing in Dar es Salaam pig slaughter slabs and recommends that strategies should be devised to improve the situation. Porcine ascariosis and cysticercosis were widely prevalent and caused economic losses due to condemnations. Because of their zoonotic nature, the observed extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections in pig pose a public health risk among consumers. Thus, there is a need to introduce appropriate control measures of parasitic infections in pigs.

  10. The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zaiss, Mario M; Rapin, Alexis; Lebon, Luc; Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Mosconi, Ilaria; Sarter, Kerstin; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Menin, Laure; Walker, Alan W; Rougemont, Jacques; Paerewijck, Oonagh; Geldhof, Peter; McCoy, Kathleen D; Macpherson, Andrew J; Croese, John; Giacomin, Paul R; Loukas, Alex; Junt, Tobias; Marsland, Benjamin J; Harris, Nicola L

    2015-11-17

    Intestinal helminths are potent regulators of their host's immune system and can ameliorate inflammatory diseases such as allergic asthma. In the present study we have assessed whether this anti-inflammatory activity was purely intrinsic to helminths, or whether it also involved crosstalk with the local microbiota. We report that chronic infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb) altered the intestinal habitat, allowing increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Transfer of the Hpb-modified microbiota alone was sufficient to mediate protection against allergic asthma. The helminth-induced anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion and regulatory T cell suppressor activity that mediated the protection required the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)-41. A similar alteration in the metabolic potential of intestinal bacterial communities was observed with diverse parasitic and host species, suggesting that this represents an evolutionary conserved mechanism of host-microbe-helminth interactions.

  11. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and associated risk factors in three Orang Asli tribes in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati

    2014-02-14

    Currently, information on prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among different tribes of Orang Asli (aboriginal) is scarce in Malaysia. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the prevalence of STH infections among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes. Faecal samples were collected from 500 participants and socioeconomic data was collected via pre-tested questionnaire. All samples were processed using formalin-ether sedimentation and Wheatley's trichrome staining. Trichuris trichiura (57%) was the most common STH seen among the participants, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (23.8%) and hookworm (7.4%). Trichuriasis and ascariasis showed an age-dependency relationship; significantly higher rates were observed among Senois who aged <15 years. Likewise, Negritos also showed an age-dependency association with ascariasis affecting mainly the under 15 years old individuals. Multivariate logistic regression model indicated the following predictors of trichuriasis among these communities; being aged <15 years, consuming raw vegetables, belonging to a large household members (≥8) and earning low household income (infection; consuming raw vegetables and eating contaminated fresh fruits.

  12. Analysis of Association Between Remotely Sensed (RS) Data and Soil Transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS): Boaco, Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MorenoMadrinan, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Podest, Erika; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths are intestinal nematodes that can infect all members of a population but specially school-age children living in poverty. Infection can be significantly reversed with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Implementation of effective public health programs requires reliable and updated information to identify areas at higher risk and to calculate amount of drug required. Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Prevalence data and RS data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those variables from RS data that better correlate with prevalence will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define sampling clusters without the need for any ground-based survey. Such information is invaluable to identify areas of high risk and to geographically target control programs that maximize cost-effectiveness and sanitation efforts.

  13. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Associated Risk Factors in Three Orang Asli Tribes in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati

    2014-01-01

    Currently, information on prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among different tribes of Orang Asli (aboriginal) is scarce in Malaysia. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the prevalence of STH infections among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes. Faecal samples were collected from 500 participants and socioeconomic data was collected via pre-tested questionnaire. All samples were processed using formalin-ether sedimentation and Wheatley's trichrome staining. Trichuris trichiura (57%) was the most common STH seen among the participants, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (23.8%) and hookworm (7.4%). Trichuriasis and ascariasis showed an age-dependency relationship; significantly higher rates were observed among Senois who aged <15 years. Likewise, Negritos also showed an age-dependency association with ascariasis affecting mainly the under 15 years old individuals. Multivariate logistic regression model indicated the following predictors of trichuriasis among these communities; being aged <15 years, consuming raw vegetables, belonging to a large household members (≥8) and earning low household income (infection; consuming raw vegetables and eating contaminated fresh fruits. PMID:24525479

  14. Concurrent urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthic infections in schoolchildren in Ilobu, South-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugbomoiko, U S; Dalumo, V; Danladi, Y K; Heukelbach, J; Ofoezie, I E

    2012-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in a schistosome-endemic rural community in Southwestern Nigeria. We assessed prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted nematodes and the co-occurrence with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni. Urine and stool samples from 419 schoolchildren were examined, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain socio-demographic characteristics. In total, 78.3% (328/419) were infected with at least one helminth species, with a prevalence (mean egg-count) of 55.1% (3069.2) of Ascaris lumbricoides, 41.1% (127.5) of S. haematobium, 22.7% (98.6) of hookworms, 17.9% (161.3) of Trichuris trichiura, and 10.3% (12.9) of S. mansoni. Multiple infections were significantly more common among children from households with more playmates, absence of toilet facilities and low income level (all p<0.001). Children with heavy hookworm burden were at a significantly higher chance of acquiring S. mansoni (OR=36.35; 95% Cl: 13.22-100.97; p<0.0001). The risk of S. mansoni and A. lumbricoides infections was increased in co-infections with S. haematobium. Logistic regression analysis revealed infections by hookworms and S. mansoni (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=3.90, 95% Cl: 2.03-7.46; p<0.0001), and by hookworms and T. trichiura (aOR=2.46, 95% Cl: 1.44-4.22; p=0.001) as significant risk factors for multiple infections. Our study shows that polyparasitism is common in the study area. Focused interventions such as mass treatment with anthelminthics and health education are needed to improve the well-being of the affected population.

  15. An essential role for TH2-type response in limiting acute tissue damage during experimental helminth infection.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helminths induce potent Th2-type immune responses that can lead to worm expulsion, but it remains undetermined whether components of this response can enhance the wound healing responses elicited as these large multi-cellular parasites traffic thru vital tissues. We used a model of helminth infecti...

  16. Patterns and processes influencing helminth parasites of Arctic coastal communities during climate change.

    PubMed

    Galaktionov, K V

    2017-03-22

    This review analyses the scarce available data on biodiversity and transmission of helminths in Arctic coastal ecosystems and the potential impact of climate changes on them. The focus is on the helminths of seabirds, dominant parasites in coastal ecosystems. Their fauna in the Arctic is depauperate because of the lack of suitable intermediate hosts and unfavourable conditions for species with free-living larvae. An increasing proportion of crustaceans in the diet of Arctic seabirds would result in a higher infection intensity of cestodes and acanthocephalans, and may also promote the infection of seabirds with non-specific helminths. In this way, the latter may find favourable conditions for colonization of new hosts. Climate changes may alter the composition of the helminth fauna, their infection levels in hosts and ways of transmission in coastal communities. Immigration of boreal invertebrates and fish into Arctic seas may allow the circulation of helminths using them as intermediate hosts. Changing migratory routes of animals would alter the distribution of their parasites, facilitating, in particular, their trans-Arctic transfer. Prolongation of the seasonal 'transmission window' may increase the parasitic load on host populations. Changes in Arctic marine food webs would have an overriding influence on the helminths' circulation. This process may be influenced by the predicted decreased of salinity in Arctic seas, increased storm activity, coastal erosion, ocean acidification, decline of Arctic ice, etc. Greater parasitological research efforts are needed to assess the influence of factors related to Arctic climate change on the transmission of helminths.

  17. Impact of Long-Term Treatment with Ivermectin on the Prevalence and Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Ana Lucia; Vaca, Maritza; Amorim, Leila; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Erazo, Silvia; Oviedo, Gisela; Quinzo, Isabel; Padilla, Margarita; Chico, Martha; Lovato, Raquel; Gomez, Eduardo; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Cooper, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections relies on the periodic and long-term administration of anthelmintic drugs to high-risk groups, particularly school-age children living in endemic areas. There is limited data on the effectiveness of long-term periodic anthelmintic treatment on the prevalence of STHs, particularly from operational programmes. The current study investigated the impact of 15 to 17 years of treatment with the broad-spectrum anthelmintic ivermectin, used for the control of onchocerciasis, on STH prevalence and intensity in school-age and pre-school children. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities that had received annual or twice-annual ivermectin treatments and geographically adjacent communities that had not received treatment in two districts of Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador. Stool samples were collected from school-age children and examined for STH infection using the Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration methods. Samples were collected also from pre-school children and examined by the formol-ether concentration method. Data on risk factors for STH infection were collected by parental questionnaire. We sampled a total of 3,705 school-age children (6–16 years) from 31 treated and 27 non-treated communities, and 1,701 pre-school children aged 0–5 years from 18 treated and 18 non-treated communities. Among school-age children, ivermectin treatment had significant effects on the prevalence (adjusted OR =  0.06, 95% CI 0.03–0.14) and intensity of Trichuris trichiura infection (adjusted RR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.11–0.70), but appeared to have no impact on Ascaris lumbricoides or hookworm infection. Reduced prevalence and intensities of T. trichiura infection were observed among children not eligible to receive ivermectina, providing some evidence of reduced transmission of T. trichiura infection in communities receiving mass ivermectin treatments. Conclusion Annual and twice

  18. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Nutritional Status in School-age Children from Rural Communities in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children's health. Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. Methodology A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height-for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Results Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7–14 years, mean 9.76±1.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children >10 years of age were generally more infected than 7–10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (p<0.001). Stunting was observed in 5.6% of children and it was associated with increasing age. Also, 2.2% of studied children were thin, 1.3% underweight and 2.2% had anemia. Moderate-to-heavy infections and polyparasitism were significantly associated with decreased values in WAZ and marginally associated with decreased values in HAZ. Conclusions STH infections remain a public health concern in Honduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite

  19. Elimination of Iron Deficiency Anemia and Soil Transmitted Helminth Infection: Evidence from a Fifty-four Month Iron-Folic Acid and De-worming Program

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Gerard J.; Montresor, Antonio; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca T.; Thu, Hoang; Phu, Luong B.; Tinh, Ta T.; Tien, Nong T.; Phuc, Tran Q.; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background Intermittent iron-folic acid supplementation and regular de-worming are effective initiatives to reduce anemia, iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and soil transmitted helminth infections in women of reproductive age. However, few studies have assessed the long-term effectiveness of population-based interventions delivered in resource-constrained settings. Methodology/Principal Findings The objectives were to evaluate the impact of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and de-worming on mean hemoglobin and the prevalence of anaemia, iron deficiency, and soil transmitted helminth infection in a rural population of women in northern Vietnam and to identify predictive factors for hematological outcomes. A prospective cohort design was used to evaluate a population-based supplementation and deworming program over 54 months. The 389 participants were enrolled just prior to commencement of the intervention. After 54 months 76% (95% CI [68%, 84%]) were taking the iron-folic acid supplement and 95% (95% CI [93%, 98%]) had taken the most recently distributed deworming treatment. Mean hemoglobin rose from 122 g/L (95% CI [120, 124]) to 131 g/L (95% CI [128, 134]) and anemia prevalence fell from 38% (95% CI [31%, 45%]) to 18% (95% CI [12%, 23%]); however, results differed significantly between ethnic groups. Iron deficiency fell from 23% (95% CI [17%, 29%]) to 8% (95% CI [4%, 12%]), while the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was reduced to 4% (95% CI [1%, 7%]). The prevalence of hookworm infection was reduced from 76% (95% CI [68%, 83%]) to 11% (95% CI [5%, 18%]). The level of moderate or heavy infestation of any soil-transmitted helminth was reduced to less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance Population-based interventions can efficiently and effectively reduce anemia and practically eliminate iron deficiency anemia and moderate to heavy soil transmitted helminth infections, maintaining them below the level of public health concern. PMID:23593517

  20. Coprological prevalence and intensity of helminth infection in working horses in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Upjohn, Melissa M; Shipton, Kate; Lerotholi, Thabo; Attwood, Gillian; Verheyen, Kristien L P

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to (1) estimate infection prevalence of strongyle, Oxyuris equi and Parascaris equorum species and the intensity of infection with strongyles in working horses in lowland Lesotho and (2) investigate associations between infection and horse age, sex and owner-reported use of anthelmintics. In a cross-sectional survey, fresh faecal samples were obtained from 305 randomly selected horses and worm egg counts performed using a validated field laboratory kit. Details of anthelmintic use were collected using a standardised face-to-face owner questionnaire. Infection prevalence estimates for each species were calculated, as were infection intensity estimates for strongyle species. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between exposure variables and infection status/intensity. Prevalence of strongyle infection was 88.2%; 11.8% of horses were not infected and infection intensity was low (1-500 eggs per gram (epg)) in 19.7%, medium (501-1,000 epg) in 19.7%) and high (>1,001 epg) in 48.8%. Decreasing strongyle infection intensity was associated with the use of proprietary equine anthelmintic products (OR 0.18, 95%CI 0.11-0.30, p<0.0001). Prevalence of O. equi infection was 6.2%; the odds of infection with this parasite decreased with increasing horse age (OR 0.84, 95%CI 0.72-0.97, p = 0.02). P. equorum infection prevalence was 21.6%; no statistically significant associations with the investigated exposure variables were found. In conclusion, strongyle infection is endemic in working horses in lowland Lesotho, but proprietary equine anthelmintics assist in managing infection. The apparent lack of age-acquired immunity to P. equorum infection may deserve further investigation. Although O. equi infection is less widespread, measures to protect younger animals may be appropriate.

  1. Contrasting patterns in the small-scale heterogeneity of human helminth infections in urban and rural environments in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Simon; Alexander, Neal; Geiger, Stefan; Moyeed, Rana A; Stander, Julian; Fleming, Fiona; Hotez, Peter J; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bethony, Jeffrey

    2006-09-01

    Marked heterogeneity exists in the patterns of parasitic infection between individuals, households and communities. Analysis of parasite distributions within populations is complicated by the fact that parasite distributions are highly aggregated and few studies have explicitly incorporated this distribution when investigating small-scale spatial heterogeneities. This study aimed to quantify the small-scale (within- and between-household) heterogeneity of helminth infection in an area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with rural and urban sectors. Parasitological data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,249 individuals aged 0-86 years from 242 households were analysed. Within-household clustering of infection was assessed using random effect logistic regression models and between-household spatial heterogeneity was assessed using a Bayesian negative binomial spatial model. The overall prevalence of hookworm (Necator americanus) was 66.9%, the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni was 44.9% and the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 48.8%. Statistical analysis indicated significant (within) household and (between household) spatial clustering of hookworm in both rural and urban areas and of S. mansoni in rural areas. There was no evidence of either household or spatial clustering of S. mansoni in urban areas. The spatial correlation of S. mansoni was estimated to reduce by half over a distance of 700 m in the rural area. Rural hookworm had a much smaller half-distance (28 m) and urban hookworm showed an even smaller half-distance (12 m). We suggest that such species-specific differences in patterns of infection by environment are primarily due to variation in exposure and parasite life cycle, although host genetic factors cannot be ruled out.

  2. Contrasting patterns in the small-scale heterogeneity of human helminth infections in urban and rural environments in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Alexander, Neal; Geiger, Stefan; Moyeed, Rana A; Stander, Julian; Fleming, Fiona; Hotez, Peter J; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bethony, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    Marked heterogeneity exists in the patterns of parasitic infection between individuals, households and communities. Analysis of parasite distributions within populations is complicated by the fact that parasite distributions are highly aggregated, and few studies have explicitly incorporated this distribution when investigating small-scale spatial heterogeneities. This study aimed to quantify the small-scale (within and between household) heterogeneity of helminth infection in an area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil with rural and urban sectors. Parasitological data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,249 individuals aged 0-86 years from 242 households were analysed. Within household clustering of infection was assessed using random effect logistic regression models and between household spatial heterogeneity was assessed using a Bayesian negative binomial spatial model. The overall prevalence of hookworm (Necator americanus) was 66.9%, the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni was 44.9%, and the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 48.8%. Statistical analysis indicated significant (within) household and (between household) spatial clustering of hookworm in both rural and urban areas and of S. mansoni in rural areas. There was no evidence of either household or spatial clustering of S. mansoni in urban areas. The spatial correlation of S. mansoni was estimated to reduce by half over a distance of 700m in the rural area. Rural hookworm had a much smaller half-distance and urban hookworm showed an even smaller half-distance (12m). We suggest that such species-specific differences in patterns of infection by environment are primarily due to variation in exposure and parasite life cycle, although host genetic factors cannot be ruled out. PMID:16814294

  3. Potentially zoonotic helminthiases of murid rodents from the Indo-Chinese peninsula: impact of habitat and the risk of human infection.

    PubMed

    Chaisiri, Kittipong; Siribat, Praphaiphat; Ribas, Alexis; Morand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the potential rodent-borne zoonotic helminths in wild-caught murid rodents from four categorized habitats-forest, nonflooded land, irrigated land, and human settlement in seven localities of Thailand, Cambodia, and Lao PDR. Out of 2478 rodent samples, 735 (29.7%) were infected by at least one of the following zoonotic helminth species: Echinostoma malayanum, Echinostoma ilocanum, Plagiorchis muris, Raillietina spp., Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, Cyclodontostomum purivisi, and Moniliformis moniliformis. Raillietina spp. showed the highest prevalence (13.8%), followed by H. diminuta (8.6%), H. nana (6.7%), and C. purvisi (1.0%). Habitat affected the intensity of helminth infection in murid rodent hosts. Specific habitats favoring each zoonotic helminth species are discussed in relation to the risk of human infection. Season and host maturity influenced intensity of total zoonotic helminths, but there was no influence of host gender. However, in terms of individual helminth species, female rodents were more infected by E. malayanum, E. ilocanum, and C. purvisi than males. Among the rodent species, Rattus tanezumi seems to play the most important role as a reservoir by hosting seven zoonotic heminth species. This rat is ubiquitously found in all types of the habitats, suggesting that it can act as an important bridge species, carrying parasites across different habitats.

  4. Potentially Zoonotic Helminthiases of Murid Rodents from the Indo-Chinese Peninsula: Impact of Habitat and the Risk of Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chaisiri, Kittipong; Siribat, Praphaiphat; Ribas, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we report the potential rodent-borne zoonotic helminths in wild-caught murid rodents from four categorized habitats—forest, nonflooded land, irrigated land, and human settlement in seven localities of Thailand, Cambodia, and Lao PDR. Out of 2478 rodent samples, 735 (29.7%) were infected by at least one of the following zoonotic helminth species: Echinostoma malayanum, Echinostoma ilocanum, Plagiorchis muris, Raillietina spp., Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, Cyclodontostomum purivisi, and Moniliformis moniliformis. Raillietina spp. showed the highest prevalence (13.8%), followed by H. diminuta (8.6%), H. nana (6.7%), and C. purvisi (1.0%). Habitat affected the intensity of helminth infection in murid rodent hosts. Specific habitats favoring each zoonotic helminth species are discussed in relation to the risk of human infection. Season and host maturity influenced intensity of total zoonotic helminths, but there was no influence of host gender. However, in terms of individual helminth species, female rodents were more infected by E. malayanum, E. ilocanum, and C. purvisi than males. Among the rodent species, Rattus tanezumi seems to play the most important role as a reservoir by hosting seven zoonotic heminth species. This rat is ubiquitously found in all types of the habitats, suggesting that it can act as an important bridge species, carrying parasites across different habitats. PMID:25629783

  5. Antihelminthic Therapy and Antimony in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial in Patients Co-Infected with Helminths and Leishmania braziliensis

    PubMed Central

    Newlove, Tracey; Guimarães, Luiz H.; Morgan, Daniel J.; Alcântara, Leda; Glesby, Marshall J.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Machado, Paulo R.

    2011-01-01

    Helminth infections influence the clinical response to certain diseases and are associated with delayed healing time of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to examine the role of early versus deferred treatment of intestinal helminth infection on the clinical course of patients with CL treated with pentavalent antimony. (Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00469495). A total of 90 patients were enrolled, 51.1% (N = 23) of control patients had persistent lesions at Day 90, compared with 62.2% (N = 28) in the treatment group (difference 11.1%, 95% confidence interval = −9.1–30.0%). There was no statistically significant difference in overall time to cure between groups, although there was a tendency for shorter cure times in the control group. This study shows that early introduction of antihelminthic therapy does not improve clinical outcome in patients co-infected with helminths and L. braziliensis. PMID:21460008

  6. Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic infection among Orang Asli pre-school children in Gua Musang, Kelantan, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geik, Oui Pek; Sidek, Razalee

    2015-09-01

    Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infection is still a major concern among Orang Asli pre-school children in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and STH infection. Besides, this study was also to identify the association between malnutrition and STH. A total of 256 Orang Asli (131 males and 125 females) from Temiar sub-tribes pre-school children aged one to six years from 19 villages in three Orang Asli settlements of Pos Hendrop, Pos Balar and Pos Tohoi located in Gua Musang, Kelantan had participated in this cross-sectional study between September to December 2014. A face-to-face interview was carried out using pre-tested questionnaires on socio-demographic. Children were measured on their body weight and height. The collected stool samples were examined using direct wet smear method for the presence of STH parasite. The results showed the prevalence of underweight and stunting among the children were 45.3% and 76.2% respectively. A total of 161 (62.9%) subjects were positively infected by at least one species of STH. The overall parasite infections were Ascaris lumbricoides (41.0%), Trichuris trichiura (28.5%) and hookworm (2.0%). From the total infected children, 8.6% of them were infected by two species of STH. This research revealed that gender and age group showed statistically significance with stunted with (p=0.003, p=0.049) respectively. Gender and age groups also reported significant association to STH infection among the subjects with (p=0.013, p=0.001) respectively. However, our results indicated that there was no significant association between STH infection with underweight and stunted. Our study reported that the prevalence of malnutrition and STH are still a major concern for the public health and a threat among Orang Asli pre-school children in Kelantan. Immediate action and innovative intervention should be taken by the Government to overcome the problems as these children are the

  7. Intestinal helminthic infections diagnosed by colonoscopy in a regional hospital during 2001-2008.

    PubMed

    Do, Kyong-Rock; Cho, Young-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Hwang, Byung-Hee; Shin, Eun-Jung; Jeong, Hae-Bin; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2010-03-01

    The present study investigated characteristics of 24 parasite infection cases detected during colonoscopy in a regional hospital from January 2001 to December 2008. Sixteen patients were confirmed with Trichuris trichiura infection, 6 patients were with Ascaris lumbricoides infection, 1 patient with Enterobius vermicularis infection, and 1 patient with Anisakis infection. Among them, 7 patients (43.8%) were asymptomatic. Colonoscopy findings were normal in 18 patients (75.0%). Among the patients with T. trichiura infection, colonoscopy showed several erosions in 2 patients (8.3%) and non-specific inflammation of the affected segment of the colon in 3 patients (12.5%). In 1 patient with anisakiasis, colonoscopy revealed a markedly swollen colonic wall. Stool examinations were performed before treatment in 7 patients (29.2%) and were all negative for parasite eggs or worms. These results suggest that colonoscopy is a useful diagnostic approach for parasitic infections even for asymptomatic patients and for patients with negative stool examinations.

  8. Comparative prevalences of some common intestinal helminth infections in different altitudinal regions in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jemaneh, L

    1998-01-01

    Infection prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms in school children in several communities of three altitudinal regions in Ethiopia have been analyzed. The prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection was 29% in the highlands, 35% in the temperate areas and 38% in the lowlands. The prevalence of hookworm infection was highest in the lowlands (24%) followed by the temperate (15%) and highland (7%) areas and the difference was significant (p < 0.0001). T. trichiura infection exhibited similar prevalences in all altitudinal regions (13% on the average). The prevalence of infection due to Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura was significantly correlated (rs = 0.55, p < 0.001) in the lowlands hinting the closely related distribution and co-occurrence of these parasites. The prevalence of infection due to the hookworms and T. trichiura in the temperate areas showed some pattern of association (rs = 0.29). A similar pattern has also been noted between the prevalence of infection due to A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura in the highland areas (rs = 0.48). The co-occurrence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections in the lowlands and in the highlands suggest that a concurrent intervention against infection due to these two parasites using the same control methods would be advantageous.

  9. Proteomic profile of Ortleppascaris sp.: A helminth parasite of Rhinella marina in the Amazonian region

    PubMed Central

    e Silva, Jefferson Pereira; Furtado, Adriano Penha; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Ortleppascaris sp. is a helminth that, in its larval stage, infects the liver parenchyma of the amphibian Rhinella marina, resulting in severe physiological and pathological changes. This study used a proteomic approach to determine the overall profile of proteins expressed in a somatic extract from the nematodes to investigate the relationship between the parasite and its host. A total of 60 abundant proteins were selected from the two-dimensional electrophoresis, identified by peptide mass fingerprinting, and grouped based on their Gene Ontology by the biological processes in which they are potentially involved. Important helminthic derivatives, such as the immunoreactive As37 antigen, guanylyl cyclases, proteolytic enzymes, and other proteins conserved among different parasites, were identified through homology. This study represents a new approach to helminth-related proteomic studies using an amphibian animal model. Furthermore, this study identified protein markers that are important to the host–parasite relationship and the viability, development, infectivity, and virulence of helminths. PMID:25161903

  10. Immunity-dependent reduction of segmented filamentous bacteria in mice infected with the helminthic parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immune modulation by helminth (worm) parasites could protect the host against autoimmune diseases. We report that the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces changes in the expression of antimicrobial peptides that are associated with marked microbial composition shifts, including re...

  11. Sensitivity of diagnostic tests for human soil-transmitted helminth infections: a meta-analysis in the absence of a true gold standard.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Brooker, Simon J; Pullan, Rachel L

    2014-10-01

    Reliable, sensitive and practical diagnostic tests are an essential tool in disease control programmes for mapping, impact evaluation and surveillance. To provide a robust global assessment of the relative performance of available diagnostic tools for the detection of soil-transmitted helminths, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the sensitivities and the quantitative performance of the most commonly used copro-microscopic diagnostic methods for soil-transmitted helminths, namely Kato-Katz, direct microscopy, formol-ether concentration, McMaster, FLOTAC and Mini-FLOTAC. In the absence of a perfect reference standard, we employed a Bayesian latent class analysis to estimate the true, unobserved sensitivity of compared diagnostic tests for each of the soil-transmitted helminth species Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms. To investigate the influence of varying transmission settings we subsequently stratified the analysis by intensity of infection. Overall, sensitivity estimates varied between the different methods, ranging from 42.8% for direct microscopy to 92.7% for FLOTAC. The widely used double slide Kato-Katz method had a sensitivity of 74-95% for the three soil-transmitted helminth species at high infection intensity, however sensitivity dropped to 53-80% in low intensity settings, being lowest for hookworm and A. lumbricoides. The highest sensitivity, overall and in both intensity groups, was observed for the FLOTAC method, whereas the sensitivity of the Mini-FLOTAC method was comparable with the Kato-Katz method. FLOTAC average egg count estimates were significantly lower compared with Kato-Katz, while the compared McMaster counts varied. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the Kato-Katz and Mini-FLOTAC methods had comparable sensitivities. We further show that test sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method is reduced in low transmission settings.

  12. Update on the Mapping of Prevalence and Intensity of Infection for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Call for Action

    PubMed Central

    Saboyá, Martha Idalí; Catalá, Laura; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Ault, Steven Kenyon

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) at least 13.9 million preschool age and 35.4 million school age children are at risk of infections by soil-transmitted helminths (STH): Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale). Although infections caused by this group of parasites are associated with chronic deleterious effects on nutrition and growth, iron and vitamin A status and cognitive development in children, few countries in the LAC Region have implemented nationwide surveys on prevalence and intensity of infection. The aim of this study was to identify gaps on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of STH infections based on data published between 2000 and 2010 in LAC, and to call for including mapping as part of action plans against these infections. A total of 335 published data points for STH prevalence were found for 18 countries (11.9% data points for preschool age children, 56.7% for school age children and 31.3% for children from 1 to 14 years of age). We found that 62.7% of data points showed prevalence levels above 20%. Data on the intensity of infection were found for seven countries. The analysis also highlights that there is still an important lack of data on prevalence and intensity of infection to determine the burden of disease based on epidemiological surveys, particularly among preschool age children. This situation is a challenge for LAC given that adequate planning of interventions such as deworming requires information on prevalence to determine the frequency of needed anthelmintic drug administration and to conduct monitoring and evaluation of progress in drug coverage. PMID:24069476

  13. The helminth parasite proteome at the host-parasite interface - Informing diagnosis and control.

    PubMed

    van der Ree, Anna M; Mutapi, Francisca

    2015-10-01

    Helminth parasites are a significant health burden for humans in the developing world and also cause substantial economic losses in livestock production across the world. The combined lack of vaccines for the major human and veterinary helminth parasites in addition to the development of drug resistance to anthelmintics in sheep and cattle mean that controlling helminth infection and pathology remains a challenge. However, recent high throughput technological advances mean that screening for potential drug and vaccine candidates is now easier than in previous decades. A better understanding of the host-parasite interactions occurring during infection and pathology and identifying pathways that can be therapeutically targeted for more effective and 'evolution proof' interventions is now required. This review highlights some of the advances that have been made in understanding the host-parasite interface in helminth infections using studies of the temporal expression of parasite proteins, i.e. the parasite proteome, and discuss areas for potential future research and translation.

  14. Some southern African plant species used to treat helminth infections in ethnoveterinary medicine have excellent antifungal activities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diseases caused by microorganisms and parasites remain a major challenge globally and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa to man and livestock. Resistance to available antimicrobials and the high cost or unavailability of antimicrobials complicates matters. Many rural people use plants to treat these infections. Because some anthelmintics e.g. benzimidazoles also have good antifungal activity we examined the antifungal activity of extracts of 13 plant species used in southern Africa to treat gastrointestinal helminth infections in livestock and in man. Methods Antifungal activity of acetone leaf extracts was determined by serial microdilution with tetrazolium violet as growth indicator against Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. These pathogens play an important role in opportunistic infections of immune compromised patients. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT cellular assay. Therapeutic indices were calculated and selectivity for different pathogens determined. We proposed a method to calculate the relation between microbicidal and microbistatic activities. Total activities for different plant species were calculated. Results On the whole, all 13 extracts had good antifungal activities with MIC values as low as 0.02 mg/mL for extracts of Clausena anisata against Aspergillus fumigatus and 0.04 mg/mL for extracts of Zanthoxylum capense, Clerodendrum glabrum, and Milletia grandis, against A. fumigatus. Clausena anisata extracts had the lowest cytotoxicity (LC50) of 0.17 mg/mL, a reasonable therapeutic index (2.65) against A. fumigatus. It also had selective activity against A. fumigatus, an overall fungicidal activity of 98% and a total activity of 3395 mL/g against A. fumigatus. This means that 1 g of acetone leaf extract can be diluted to 3.4 litres and it would still inhibit the growth. Clerodendrum glabrum, Zanthoxylum capense and Milletia grandis extracts also yielded promising results. Conclusions Some plant extracts

  15. Macrophage origin limits functional plasticity in helminth-bacterial co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Sharon M.; Duncan, Sheelagh; Hewitson, James P.; Barr, Tom A.; Jackson-Jones, Lucy H.; Maizels, Rick M.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid reprogramming of the macrophage activation phenotype is considered important in the defense against consecutive infection with diverse infectious agents. However, in the setting of persistent, chronic infection the functional importance of macrophage-intrinsic adaptation to changing environments vs. recruitment of new macrophages remains unclear. Here we show that resident peritoneal macrophages expanded by infection with the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri altered their activation phenotype in response to infection with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in vitro and in vivo. The nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages efficiently upregulated bacterial induced effector molecules (e.g. MHC-II, NOS2) similarly to newly recruited monocyte-derived macrophages. Nonetheless, recruitment of blood monocyte-derived macrophages to Salmonella infection occurred with equal magnitude in co-infected animals and caused displacement of the nematode-expanded, tissue resident-derived macrophages from the peritoneal cavity. Global gene expression analysis revealed that although nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages made an anti-bacterial response, this was muted as compared to newly recruited F4/80low macrophages. However, the F4/80high macrophages adopted unique functional characteristics that included enhanced neutrophil-stimulating chemokine production. Thus, our data provide important evidence that plastic adaptation of MΦ activation does occur in vivo, but that cellular plasticity is outweighed by functional capabilities specific to the tissue origin of the cell. PMID:28334040

  16. Gender-associated differential expression of cytokines in specific areas of the brain during helminth infection.

    PubMed

    López-Griego, Lorena; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Tiempos Guzmán, Nelly; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Besedovsky, Hugo O; Pavón, Lenin; Becerril Villanueva, Luis Enrique; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    Intraperitoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice alters several behaviors, including sexual, aggressive, and cognitive function. Cytokines and their receptors are produced in the central nervous system (CNS) by specific neural cell lineages under physiological and pathological conditions, regulating such processes as neurotransmission. This study is aimed to determine the expression patterns of cytokines in various areas of the brain in normal and T. crassiceps-infected mice in both genders and correlate them with the pathology of the CNS and parasite counts. IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb increased significantly in infected male mice, but IL-6 was downregulated in these regions in female mice. IL-1β expression in the hippocampus was unaffected by infection in either gender. Our novel findings demonstrate a clear gender-associated pattern of cytokine expression in specific areas of the brain in mammals that parasitic infection can alter. Thus, we hypothesize that intraperitoneal infection is sensed by the CNS of the host, wherein cytokines are important messengers in the host-parasite neuroimmunoendocrine network.

  17. Gender-Associated Differential Expression of Cytokines in Specific Areas of the Brain During Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    López-Griego, Lorena; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Tiempos Guzmán, Nelly; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Besedovsky, Hugo O.; Pavón, Lenin; Becerril Villanueva, Luis Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal infection with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci in mice alters several behaviors, including sexual, aggressive, and cognitive function. Cytokines and their receptors are produced in the central nervous system (CNS) by specific neural cell lineages under physiological and pathological conditions, regulating such processes as neurotransmission. This study is aimed to determine the expression patterns of cytokines in various areas of the brain in normal and T. crassiceps-infected mice in both genders and correlate them with the pathology of the CNS and parasite counts. IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α levels in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb increased significantly in infected male mice, but IL-6 was downregulated in these regions in female mice. IL-1β expression in the hippocampus was unaffected by infection in either gender. Our novel findings demonstrate a clear gender-associated pattern of cytokine expression in specific areas of the brain in mammals that parasitic infection can alter. Thus, we hypothesize that intraperitoneal infection is sensed by the CNS of the host, wherein cytokines are important messengers in the host–parasite neuroimmunoendocrine network. PMID:25495255

  18. Questionnaire survey and prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections in Barru, Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Toma, A; Miyagi, I; Kamimura, K; Tokuyama, Y; Hasegawa, H; Selomo, M; Dahlan, D; Majid, I; Hasanuddi, I; Ngatimin, R; Mogi, M; Kuwabara, N

    1999-03-01

    A questionnaire survey with parasitological study was carried out on the inhabitants of 4 villages in Barru district, Sulawesi, Indonesia from 1994 to 1995. The questionnaire dealt with life style and sanitary conditions. In 482 houses in the 4 villages, interviews for the items of the questionnaire were conducted with the owner, housekeeper and children of the same family. In Pancana and Lalolang, 37.7% and 50% respectively of man inhabitants surveyed were fishermen, while in Lompo Riaja and Pattappa, 38.6% and 65.5% respectively were farmers. The highest proportion of official workers was 33.7% in Lompo Riaja. Educational level was low; 88.4% in Pancana, 90.4% in Lalolang, 62.1% in Lompo Riaja and 91.2% in Pattappa had elementary or below elementary school education. In Lompo Riaja, 30.8% of the inhabitants graduated from senior high school or university. The percentage of families having their own latrine was 30.3% in Pancana, 13.2% in Lalolang, 31.9% in Pattapa and 60% in Lompo Riaja. The people without latrines usually defecated in rice fields, seaside or riverside. A total of 654 fecal samples was examined by the modified Kato-Katz thick smear method. Five nematode species, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis and unidentified Rhabditoids of free-living nature were detected. Cestode, Hymenolepis nana infection was confirmed. All the hookworms examined by the modified Harada-Mori culture technic were Necator americanus. Trichuris infection was most common, followed by hookworm and Ascaris infections, both in young (aged 4-14) and older (aged over 15) age groups. The prevalence of hookworm infection was significantly higher in males than in females of older age. Among the older age group, the prevalence of Trichuris infection was significantly lower in Lompo Riaja, while hookworm infection was the highest in Pattappa. Among all the inhabitants examined for parasite infection, 17.4% had 3 kinds of nematode

  19. Effect of Mass Stool Examination and Mass Treatment For Decreasing Intestinal Helminth and Protozoan Infection Rates in Bolivian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Asai, Takao; Còrdova Vidal, Claudia; Strauss, Wilma; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Endoh, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2016-12-01

    Bolivia is one of the countries with a high intestinal helminth and protozoan infection rate. Despite the high prevalence of the parasitic infection, nationwide preventive measures for Bolivian children have not yet been implemented. We evaluated the effect of mass stool examination and treatment as a strategy for decreasing the infection rate. This study was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in children aged 2-18 years. A total of 2,033 stool samples (575 in 2013, 815 in 2014 and 642 in 2015) were collected and examined using the formalin-ether medical sedimentation method. As an anthelminthic medicine, nitazoxanide was given to all infected children within 2 months post-examination, each year. The effect of mass stool examination and treatment was evaluated based on the changes in the overall or individual parasitic infection rates during the study period. The overall parasitic infection rate decreased significantly from 65.2% in 2013 to 43.0% in 2015; a 22.2 percentage point decrease (P<0.001). Protozoan infection accounted for a large portion of the parasitic infections, in the following rates: 62.4% in 2013, 49.3% in 2014, and 41.0% in 2015. The rate of the most common helminth infection, Hymenolepis nana, decreased significantly from 9.0% in 2013 to 6.4% in 2014 to 3.4% in 2015 (P<0.001). Prevalence of the most common pathogenic protozoan infection, Entamoeba histolytica, decreased significantly from 19.0% in 2013 to 3.0% in 2015 (P<0.001). Conversely, the rate of Giardia intestinalis increased significantly from 16.5% in 2013 to 21.2% in 2015 (P<0.01). Mass stool examination and treatment for intestinal helminth and protozoan infections was effective for decreasing the overall parasitic infection rate in the study population, excluding Giardia intestinalis. Further studies on the long-term effect of mass stool examination and treatment for decreasing all intestinal parasitic infection rates in Bolivian children are needed.

  20. Effect of Mass Stool Examination and Mass Treatment For Decreasing Intestinal Helminth and Protozoan Infection Rates in Bolivian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Còrdova Vidal, Claudia; Strauss, Wilma; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Endoh, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the countries with a high intestinal helminth and protozoan infection rate. Despite the high prevalence of the parasitic infection, nationwide preventive measures for Bolivian children have not yet been implemented. We evaluated the effect of mass stool examination and treatment as a strategy for decreasing the infection rate. This study was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in children aged 2–18 years. A total of 2,033 stool samples (575 in 2013, 815 in 2014 and 642 in 2015) were collected and examined using the formalin-ether medical sedimentation method. As an anthelminthic medicine, nitazoxanide was given to all infected children within 2 months post-examination, each year. The effect of mass stool examination and treatment was evaluated based on the changes in the overall or individual parasitic infection rates during the study period. The overall parasitic infection rate decreased significantly from 65.2% in 2013 to 43.0% in 2015; a 22.2 percentage point decrease (P<0.001). Protozoan infection accounted for a large portion of the parasitic infections, in the following rates: 62.4% in 2013, 49.3% in 2014, and 41.0% in 2015. The rate of the most common helminth infection, Hymenolepis nana, decreased significantly from 9.0% in 2013 to 6.4% in 2014 to 3.4% in 2015 (P<0.001). Prevalence of the most common pathogenic protozoan infection, Entamoeba histolytica, decreased significantly from 19.0% in 2013 to 3.0% in 2015 (P<0.001). Conversely, the rate of Giardia intestinalis increased significantly from 16.5% in 2013 to 21.2% in 2015 (P<0.01). Mass stool examination and treatment for intestinal helminth and protozoan infections was effective for decreasing the overall parasitic infection rate in the study population, excluding Giardia intestinalis. Further studies on the long-term effect of mass stool examination and treatment for decreasing all intestinal parasitic infection rates in Bolivian children are needed. PMID:27923058

  1. Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections in Kao District, north Halmahera, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mangali, A; Sasabone, P; Syafruddin; Abadi, K; Hasegawa, H; Toma, T; Kamimura, K; Hasan, M; Miyagi, I; Mogi, M

    1994-12-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted on the inhabitants of six villages of Kao District, Halmahera Island, North Maluku, Indonesia, in July 1993. A total of 422 fecal samples were examined by using Kato-Katz thick smear, modified Harada-Mori culture and formalin ether concentration techniques. Seven nematode species, ie Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis and unidentified rhabditoids of free-living nature, were detected. Trematode and cestode infection was not proven. Necator americanus was the predominant species of hookworm. Soil-transmitted nematode infections were highly prevalent. Among the young inhabitants aged less than 15, positive rates of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infections were 32.7, 52.7 and 68.6%, respectively. Among the people aged 15 or more, the positive rate for hookworm (85.9%) was much higher than that for Ascaris and Trichuris (13.5 and 40.5%, respectively). Egg count revealed that more than 90% of inhabitants with Trichuris or hookworm had light infections. The latrines in the surveyed area seemed to have only limited effects on the improvement of the parasitological status because the prevalence of Trichuris infections was much higher in a village where most houses were provided with latrines. These conflicting conditions were considered to have been caused by many factors including the inadequate structure of the latrines.

  2. Interleukin (Il)-18 Promotes the Development of Chronic Gastrointestinal Helminth Infection by Downregulating IL-13

    PubMed Central

    Helmby, Helena; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Grencis, Richard K.

    2001-01-01

    Expulsion of the gastrointestinal nematode Trichuris muris is mediated by a T helper (Th) 2 type response involving interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13. Here we show that Th1 response–associated susceptibility involves prior activation of IL-18 and caspase-1 followed by IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ in the intestine. IL-18–deficient mice are highly resistant to chronic T. muris infection and in vivo treatment of normal mice with recombinant (r)IL-18 suppresses IL-13 and IL-4 secretion but does not affect IFN-γ. In vivo treatment of T. muris–infected IFN-γ–deficient mice with rIL-18 demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of IL-18 on IL-13 secretion is independent of IFN-γ. Hence, IL-18 does not function as an IFN-γ–inducing cytokine during chronic T. muris infection but rather as a direct regulator of Th2 cytokines. These results provide the first demonstration of the critical role of IL-18 in regulating Th cell responses during gastrointestinal nematode infection. PMID:11489954

  3. Impact on prevalence of intestinal helminth infection in school children administered with seven annual rounds of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) with albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Sunish, I. P.; Rajendran, R.; Munirathinam, A.; Kalimuthu, M.; Kumar, V. Ashok; Nagaraj, J.; Tyagi, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: One third of the world's population is infected with one or more of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Albendazole (ALB) is being administered with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) in filariasis endemic areas to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) and helminth infections. In this study, the cumulative impact of seven annual rounds of mass drug administrations (MDA) of DEC and ALB on STH infection in school children in selected villages in southern India was determined. Methods: During 2001-2010, seven MDAs were implemented by the Tamil Nadu State Health Department, India. LF and STH infections were monitored in school children from 18 villages of the two treatment arms (viz, DEC alone and DEC+ALB). Kato-Katz cellophane quantitative thick smear technique was employed to estimate STH infections at three weeks, six months and one year post MDA. Results: Prior to treatment, an overall STH prevalence was 60 per cent. After each MDA, infection markedly reduced at three weeks post-treatment in both the arms. The prevalence increased at six months period, which was maintained up to one year. After seven rounds of MDA, the infection reduced from 60.44 to 12.48 per cent in DEC+ALB arm; while the reduction was negligible in DEC alone arm (58.77 to 52.70%). Interpretation & conclusions: Seven rounds of MDA with DEC+ALB reduced the infection load significantly, and further sustained low level of infection for 10 years. However, complete parasite elimination could not be achieved. To curtail STH infection in the community, MDA should be regularized and environmental sanitation measures need to be improved by effective community-based campaigns. PMID:25963494

  4. Co-endemicity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Intestinal Helminth Infection in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Xu; Ren, Zhou-Peng; Wang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Jin-Feng; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-01-01

    Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and intestinal helminth infection (IHI) affect millions of individuals every year in China. However, the national-scale estimation of prevalence predictors and prevalence maps for these diseases, as well as co-endemic relative risk (RR) maps of both diseases’ prevalence are not well developed. There are co-endemic, high prevalence areas of both diseases, whose delimitation is essential for devising effective control strategies. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models including socio-economic, climatic, geographical and environmental predictors were fitted separately for active PTB and IHI based on data from the national surveys for PTB and major human parasitic diseases that were completed in 2010 and 2004, respectively. Prevalence maps and co-endemic RR maps were constructed for both diseases by means of Bayesian Kriging model and Bayesian shared component model capable of appraising the fraction of variance of spatial RRs shared by both diseases, and those specific for each one, under an assumption that there are unobserved covariates common to both diseases. Our results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP) per capita had a negative association, while rural regions, the arid and polar zones and elevation had positive association with active PTB prevalence; for the IHI prevalence, GDP per capita and distance to water bodies had a negative association, the equatorial and warm zones and the normalized difference vegetation index had a positive association. Moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in western regions, low to moderate prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in north-central regions and the southeast coastal regions, and moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and high prevalence of IHI were predicted in the south-western regions. Thus, co-endemic areas of active PTB and IHI were located in the south-western regions of China, which

  5. Helminth infections in faecal samples of wolves Canis lupus L. from the western Beskidy Mountains in southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Popiołek, Marcin; Szczesnaa, Justyna; Nowaka, Sabina; Mysłajeka, Robert W

    2007-12-01

    Eighty-nine samples of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) faeces were collected between 2002 and 2004 from two areas in the western Beskidy Mts (south Poland). Helminth eggs were observed in 56.2% of faeces examined. These included: Alaria alata (2.2%), taeniid eggs (11.2%), Toxocara canis (5.6%), Toxascaris leonina (1.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (14.6%), Ancylostoma caninum (12.3%), Uncinaria stenocephala (37%) and unidentified roundworm eggs of the family Strongyloididae (1.1%). Eucoleus aerophilus is recorded for the first time from Poland. The results are compared with the helminth fauna of other wolf populations in Europe.

  6. Cohabitation in the Intestine: Interactions among Helminth Parasites, Bacterial Microbiota, and Host Immunity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett; Maizels, Rick M

    2015-11-01

    Both intestinal helminth parasites and certain bacterial microbiota species have been credited with strong immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies reported that the presence of helminth infection alters the composition of the bacterial intestinal microbiota and, conversely, that the presence and composition of the bacterial microbiota affect helminth colonization and persistence within mammalian hosts. This article reviews recent findings on these reciprocal relationships, in both human populations and mouse models, at the level of potential mechanistic pathways and the implications these bear for immunomodulatory effects on allergic and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the multidirectional complex interactions among intestinal microbes, helminth parasites, and the host immune system allows for a more holistic approach when using probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and anthelmintics, as well as when designing treatments for autoimmune and allergic conditions.

  7. Total IgE in urban Black South African teenagers: the influence of atopy and helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Levin, M E; Le Souëf, P N; Motala, C

    2008-08-01

    Total IgE levels are usually elevated in allergic diseases, being highest in atopic eczema, followed by atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis. Genetic factors are believed to play a role in total IgE levels, with higher levels seen in Black African subjects. Total IgE is also raised in parasite infection. Thus, the higher total IgE levels in Black Africans could be because of environmental rather than genetic factors. Few studies have investigated the usefulness of total IgE levels in the evaluation of atopy in Black Africans. The objective of this study was to determine the total IgE levels in unselected urban Black African high school children and to correlate this with atopy and ascaris sensitization. Atopic status was assessed by means of specific allergen sensitization (skin prick tests to eight inhalant and four food allergens), self-reported asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness measured by methacholine challenge. Ascaris sensitization was assessed by means of ascaris IgE measured by CAP-RAST. Total IgE levels were markedly skewed toward the left and were not distributed in a Gaussian or a log-normal distribution. Skin prick tests were positive for aeroallergens in 32.3% of subjects. Thirty four percent had elevated ascaris IgE. Total IgE was higher in atopic vs. non-atopic subjects and correlated with the number of positive skin prick tests, self-reported asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Subjects without allergy (or) atopy had a median total IgE of 80-90 kU/I. In addition total IgE correlated with ascaris IgE. Subjects with no ascaris sensitization had median total IgE of 77.1 kU/l. Subjects with neither atopy/asthma nor ascaris sensitisation had a median total IgE of 69.9 kU/I, similar to the levels seen in people of other genetic origins. This study suggests that helminthic infection rather than genetic differences, may be the major determining factor of IgE levels in certain populations.

  8. [Helminths of Antarctic fishes].

    PubMed

    Rocka, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Antarctic fishes are represented by sharks, skates (Chondrichthyes) and bony fishes (Teleostei). Teleosts play an important role in the completion of life cycles of many helminth species. They serve as either definitive or intermediate and paratenic hosts. Chondrichthyes are definitive hosts only. Seventy three helminth species occur as the adult stage in fishes: Digenea (45), Cestoda (14), Nematoda (6), Acanthocephala (8), Also, 11 larval stages of Cestoda (7) and Nematoda (4) are known, together with 7 species of Acanthocephala in the cystacanth stage. One digenean species, Otodistomum cestoides, matures in skates. Among cestodes maturing in fishes only one, Parabothriocephalus johnstoni, occurs in a bony fish, Macrourus whitsoni. Antarctic Chondrichthyes are not infected with nematodes and acanthocephalans. Cestode larvae from teleosts belong to Tetraphyllidea (parasites of skates), and Tetrabothriidae and Diphyllobothriidae (parasites of birds and mammals). Larval nematodes represent Anisakidae, parasites of fishes, birds and mammals. Acanthocephalan cystacanths mature in pinnipeds and birds. The majority of parasites maturing in Antarctic fishes are endemics. Only 4 digenean and one nematode species, Hysterothylacium aduncum, are cosmopolitan. All acanthocephalans, almost all digeneans, the majority of cestodes and some nematodes occur mainly or exclusively in benthic fishes. Specificity of the majority of helminths utilizing teleosts as intermediate and/or paratenic hosts is low. Among parasites using fishes as definitive hosts, all Cestoda, most Digenea and Nematoda, and almost all Acanthocephala have a range of hosts restricted to one order or even to 1-2 host species.

  9. Uncovering the Pathogenic Landscape of Helminth (Opisthorchis viverrini) Infections: A Cross-Sectional Study on Contributions of Physical and Social Environment and Healthcare Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Xueyuan; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Namsanor, Jutamas; Taylor, David; Laithavewat, Luxana

    2016-01-01

    Background Helminth infections have proven recalcitrant to control by chemotherapy in many parts of Southeast Asia and indeed farther afield. This study isolates and examines the influence of different aspects of the physical and social environment, and uneven intervention effort contributing to the pathogenic landscape of human Opisthorchis viverrini infections. Methodology A cross-sectional survey, involving 632 participants, was conducted in four villages in northeast Thailand to examine the impact on prevalence and parasite burden of the reservoir dam environment, socio-economic, demographic, and behavioral factors, and health center intervention efforts. Formalin-ether concentration technique was used for diagnoses, and multivariate models were used for analyses. Principal Findings The importance attributed to O. viverrini infections varied among health centers in the four study villages. Villages where O. viverrini infections were not prioritized by the health centers as the healthcare focus were at a higher risk of infection (prevalence) with odds ratio (risk factor) of 5.73 (3.32–10.27) and p-value < 0.01. Priority of healthcare focus, however, did not appear to influence behavior, as the consumption of raw fish, the main source of O. viverrini infections in the study area, was 11.4% higher in villages that prioritized O. viverrini infections than those that did not (p-value = 0.01). Landscape variation, notably proximity to reservoir, affects vulnerability of local population to infection. Infection intensity was higher in population located closer to the reservoir with risk ratio of 2.09 (1.12–4.02) and p-value < 0.01. Patterns of infection intensities among humans were found to match fish infection intensity, where higher infection intensities were associated with fish obtained from the reservoir waterbody type (p-value = 0.023). Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrated the importance of environmental influence and healthcare focus as risk

  10. A 12-month survey of gastrointestinal helminth infections of lemurs kept in two zoos in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Junge, Randall E

    2010-12-01

    Infections with gastrointestinal parasites may be a major threat to lemurs kept in captivity, as they are a common cause of diarrhea. In this study, fecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastrointestinal nematodes were assessed for 12 mo in 40 lemurs kept under different husbandry and climatic conditions at two sites in Madagascar. Involved species were black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata), eastern grey bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur griseus), greater bamboo lemurs (Prolemur simus), red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer), common brown lemurs (Eulemurfulvus), crowned lemurs (Eulemur coronatus), and Sclater's black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons). At site 1 (Tsimbazaza Zoological Park), lemurs were kept in small enclosures with daily cleaning of the cement soiling and without routine anthelmintic program, whereas at site 2 (Ivoloina Zoological Park), lemurs received routine anthelmintic prophylaxis and were housed in small enclosure with daily cleaning of sandy soil enclosures. A total of five genera of nematode eggs from the orders Strongylida, Oxyurida, and Enoplida were recovered and identified from 198 out of 240 samples (83%) at site 1 and 79% (189 out of 240) at site 2 with the use of a modified McMaster technique. Significant differences were found for parasites from the order Strongylida between the two sites. The differences may be due to climate conditions and the presumed life cycle of these parasites. No significant differences were found for parasites from the other orders. No significant differences were noted between sexes or between seasons. No clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis were seen in either lemur collection.

  11. Epidemiology of Soil-Transmitted Helminth and Intestinal Protozoan Infections in Preschool-Aged Children in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aiemjoy, Kristen; Gebresillasie, Sintayehu; Stoller, Nicole E; Shiferaw, Ayalew; Tadesse, Zerihun; Chanyalew, Melsew; Aragie, Solomon; Callahan, Kelly; Keenan, Jeremy D

    2017-02-06

    Intestinal parasites are important contributors to global morbidity and mortality and are the second most common cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. This cross-sectional survey describes the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa in preschool children 0-5 years of age in seven communities in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and investigates associations between infection, household water and sanitation characteristics, and child growth. Stool samples were collected from children 0-5 years of age, 1 g of sample was preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and examined for intestinal helminth eggs and protozoa cysts ether-concentration method. A total of 212 samples were collected from 255 randomly selected children. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm were 10.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.6-15.1), 1.4% (95% CI = 0-3.0), and 0% (95% CI = 0-1.7), respectively. The prevalence of the pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar were 10.4% (95% CI = 6.2-14.6) and 3.3% (95% CI = 0.09-5.7), respectively. Children with A. lumbricoides infections had lower height-for-age z-scores compared with those without, but were not more likely to have stunting. Compared with those without G. lamblia, children with G. lamblia infections had lower weight-for-age and weight-for-height z-scores and were more than five times as likely to meet the z-score definition for wasting (PR = 5.42, 95% CI = 2.97-9.89). This article adds to a growing body of research on child growth and intestinal parasitic infections and has implications for their treatment and prevention in preschool-aged children.

  12. The microbiota and helminths: sharing the same niche in the human host.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, Laura; Nausch, Norman; Free, Andrew; Taylor, David W; Mutapi, Francisca

    2014-09-01

    Human gastrointestinal bacteria often share their environment with parasitic worms, allowing physical and physiological interaction between the two groups. Such associations have the potential to affect host health as well as the bacterial and helminth populations. Although still in its early stages, research on the interaction between the microbiome and parasitic helminths in humans offers the potential to improve health by manipulating the microbiome. Previously, supplementation with various nutritional compounds has been found to increase the abundance of potentially beneficial gut commensal bacteria. Thus, nutritional microbiome manipulation to produce an environment which may decrease malnutrition associated with helminth infection and/or aid host recovery from disease is conceivable. This review discusses the influence of the gut microbiota and helminths on host nutrition and immunity and the subsequent effects on the human host's overall health. It also discusses changes occurring in the microbiota upon helminth infections and the underlying mechanisms leading to these changes. There are still significant knowledge gaps which need to be filled before meaningful progress can be made in translating knowledge from studying the human gut microbiome into therapeutic strategies. Ultimately this review aims to discuss our current knowledge as well as highlight areas requiring further investigation.

  13. Performance and Parasitology of Semi-intensively Managed West African Dwarf Sheep Exposed to Gastrointestinal Helminth Infected Paddocks and Varied Protein-energy Feeds

    PubMed Central

    SONIBARE, Adekayode Olarinwaju; SOWANDE, Olusiji Sunday; IPOSU, Shamusideen Oladeinde; LUKA, Joshua; AYANKOSOI, Michael; EGBETADE, Adeniyi Olugbega

    2016-01-01

    Background: The performance and parasitology of semi-intensively managed West African dwarf (WAD) lambs were evaluated following exposure to gastrointestinal helminth infected paddock and varied protein-energy feeds. Methods: Twenty four lambs obtained from the Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics and brought to Directorate of University farm (DUFARM) of Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria, where the research was carried out in 2014, were grouped into four each containing six animals based on different energy-protein feed combination thus; group 1(G1) low energy low protein, group 2 (G2) low energy high protein, group 3 (G3) high energy low protein and group 4 (G4) high energy high protein. Experimental animals were supplemented with concentrate feed after grazing on daily in a nematode infected paddock. Clinical signs of infection were monitored. Live weight, faecal egg count (FEC), worm counts, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and red blood cell count (RBC) were determined using standard methods. Results: Anorexia and intermittent diarrhea were the observed signs. Worm counts did not differ significantly (P=0.309) among the groups. The weight and FEC differed significantly (P<0.05) across the days and among the groups, while haematological parameters increased significantly (P<0.05) across the days and among the groups. Conclusion: Lambs in G2 followed by G4 showed improved parameters and superior performance when compared to the other groups. It is therefore recommended that feed high in protein content is capable of mitigating deleterious effect of gastrointestinal helminth parasitism. PMID:28127368

  14. Managing helminths of ruminants in organic farming.

    PubMed

    Cabaret, Jacques; Bouilhol, Michel; Mage, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The use of anthelmintics is strongly limited in organic farming. This may induce a change in the intensity (no of worms) and diversity (proportions of species) of helminth infection. Helminths remain a major preoccupation in organic sheep farming: high levels of infection have been recorded on several farms and helminth diversity is always higher. The helminth infection in milk cattle of northern Europe is controlled and diversity is higher in organic farms, as recorded in sheep. The role of helminth diversity on intensity is still unclear. Grazing management is one of the means to controlling helminths. The use of safe pastures for calves and sheep after weaning is one of the major components of control. The use of alternate or mixed grazing is common for cattle in northern countries but is uncommon for sheep in France. Grazing management is not sufficient to controlling infection in sheep and conventional anthelmintic treatments are performed. Additionally, alternative treatments are used. The alternative therapies based on phytotherapy or homeopathy are largely recommended in organic farming but do not have any demonstrated efficacy. More research is needed to evaluate such therapies.

  15. Improved PCR-Based Detection of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Using a Next-Generation Sequencing Approach to Assay Design

    PubMed Central

    Pilotte, Nils; Papaiakovou, Marina; Grant, Jessica R.; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Llewellyn, Stacey; McCarthy, James S.; Williams, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The soil transmitted helminths are a group of parasitic worms responsible for extensive morbidity in many of the world’s most economically depressed locations. With growing emphasis on disease mapping and eradication, the availability of accurate and cost-effective diagnostic measures is of paramount importance to global control and elimination efforts. While real-time PCR-based molecular detection assays have shown great promise, to date, these assays have utilized sub-optimal targets. By performing next-generation sequencing-based repeat analyses, we have identified high copy-number, non-coding DNA sequences from a series of soil transmitted pathogens. We have used these repetitive DNA elements as targets in the development of novel, multi-parallel, PCR-based diagnostic assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Utilizing next-generation sequencing and the Galaxy-based RepeatExplorer web server, we performed repeat DNA analysis on five species of soil transmitted helminths (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis). Employing high copy-number, non-coding repeat DNA sequences as targets, novel real-time PCR assays were designed, and assays were tested against established molecular detection methods. Each assay provided consistent detection of genomic DNA at quantities of 2 fg or less, demonstrated species-specificity, and showed an improved limit of detection over the existing, proven PCR-based assay. Conclusions/Significance The utilization of next-generation sequencing-based repeat DNA analysis methodologies for the identification of molecular diagnostic targets has the ability to improve assay species-specificity and limits of detection. By exploiting such high copy-number repeat sequences, the assays described here will facilitate soil transmitted helminth diagnostic efforts. We recommend similar analyses when designing PCR-based diagnostic tests for the detection of other

  16. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Limits Pathology and Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression during DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis: A Role for Alternatively Activated Macrophages and Prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Callejas, Blanca E; Terrazas, César A; Reyes, Jose L; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; González, Marisol I; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Morales, Rosario; Olguín, Jonadab E; Saavedra, Rafael; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R; Terrazas, Luis I

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa is characteristic of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Helminth parasites have developed immunomodulatory strategies that may impact the outcome of several inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether Taenia crassiceps infection is able to decrease the inflammatory effects of dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Preinfection significantly reduced the manifestations of DSS-induced colitis, as weight loss and shortened colon length, and decreased the disease activity index independently of the genetic background of the mice. Taenia infection decreased systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing levels of IL-4 and IL-10, and the inflammatory infiltrate into the colon was also markedly reduced. RT-PCR assays from colon showed that T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed increased expression of Arginase-1 but decreased expression of iNOS compared to DSS-treated uninfected mice. The percentages of T regulatory cells were not increased. The adoptive transfer of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMФs) from infected mice into mice with DSS-induced colitis reduced the severity of colon inflammation. Administration of indomethacin abrogated the anticolitic effect of Taenia. Thus, T. crassiceps infection limits the pathology of ulcerative colitis by suppressing inflammatory responses mechanistically associated with AAMФs and prostaglandins.

  17. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Limits Pathology and Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression during DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis: A Role for Alternatively Activated Macrophages and Prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Callejas, Blanca E.; Terrazas, César A.; Reyes, Jose L.; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; González, Marisol I.; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Morales, Rosario; Olguín, Jonadab E.; Saavedra, Rafael; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa is characteristic of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Helminth parasites have developed immunomodulatory strategies that may impact the outcome of several inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether Taenia crassiceps infection is able to decrease the inflammatory effects of dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Preinfection significantly reduced the manifestations of DSS-induced colitis, as weight loss and shortened colon length, and decreased the disease activity index independently of the genetic background of the mice. Taenia infection decreased systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing levels of IL-4 and IL-10, and the inflammatory infiltrate into the colon was also markedly reduced. RT-PCR assays from colon showed that T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed increased expression of Arginase-1 but decreased expression of iNOS compared to DSS-treated uninfected mice. The percentages of T regulatory cells were not increased. The adoptive transfer of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMФs) from infected mice into mice with DSS-induced colitis reduced the severity of colon inflammation. Administration of indomethacin abrogated the anticolitic effect of Taenia. Thus, T. crassiceps infection limits the pathology of ulcerative colitis by suppressing inflammatory responses mechanistically associated with AAMФs and prostaglandins. PMID:26090422

  18. Harnessing the Helminth Secretome for Therapeutic Immunomodulators

    PubMed Central

    Anandarajah, Emmanuela M.; Meissner, Kamila A.; Brattig, Norbert; Liebau, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Helminths are the largest and most complex pathogens to invade and live within the human body. Since they are not able to outpace the immune system by rapid antigen variation or faster cell division or retreat into protective niches not accessible to immune effector mechanisms, their long-term survival depends on influencing and regulating the immune responses away from the mode of action most damaging to them. Immunologists have focused on the excretory and secretory products that are released by the helminths, since they can change the host environment by modulating the immune system. Here we give a brief overview of the helminth-associated immune response and the currently available helminth secretome data. We introduce some major secretome-derived immunomodulatory molecules and describe their potential mode of action. Finally, the applicability of helminth-derived therapeutic proteins in the treatment of allergic and autoimmune inflammatory disease is discussed. PMID:25133189

  19. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the feasibility of measuring children's physical fitness and to relate it to STH infections. Our study was carried out among school-aged children of the Bulang ethnic group in rural southwest People's Republic of China (P.R. China). Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique), haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height) and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test). Results A compliance of 87% suggested good acceptance of the methods used. Among 69 children with complete data records, infection prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 81%, 44% and 6%, respectively. The maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized within 1 min during exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate) of T. trichiura-infected children was 1.94 ml kg-1 min-1 lower than that of their non-infected counterparts (P = 0.005). Until exhaustion, T. trichiura-infected children had completed 6.14 20-m laps less (P = 0.004). Additionally, the mean VO2 max estimate of stunted children was lowered by 1.63 ml kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.002) and they completed 5.32 20-m laps less (P = 0.001) compared to children of normal stature. No significant association between stunting and infection with any STH species could be established. Conclusions Implementation of physical fitness tests in rural, resource-constraint settings is feasible. The physical fitness of children who are stunted or infected with STHs, particularly T. trichiura, is significantly impaired. We have launched a larger study and will determine the dynamics of school-aged children's physical fitness over a 7-month period after administration of anthelminthic drugs. PMID:22424138

  20. Helminth Parasites of Wild Boars, Sus scrofa, in Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    MANSOURI, Majid; SARKARI, Bahador; MOWLAVI, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, of wide distribution considered as a potential source of zoonotic parasites. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of helminth infections in wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area (Bushehr Province), Southwestern Iran. Methods: Twenty-five wild boars, including 11 males and 14 females, were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in the Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran in 2013. The specimen were immediately dissected and carefully searched for the parasites. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any helminthic agents. Tissue samples were taken from each organ. Moreover, samples were taken from the content of digestive system. Blood samples were also collected from each boar. All the samples were evaluated for helminth infections by parasitological methods. Results: Twenty-two (88%) of the wild boars were infected with at least one helminth. Out of 25 wild boars, 1 (4%) were infected with Cysticercus tenuicollis, the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena, 13 (52%) with Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, 17 (68%) with Metastrongylus spp, and 20 (80%) with Ascarops spp. Hydatid cyst was detected in the lung of one of the wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in any of the tissues of the animals when evaluated by artificial digestion method. In addition, no contamination with microfilaria was detected in any of animals when the blood samples were tested with Knott’s method. Conclusion: Wild boars are contaminated by some helminthes including zoonotic ones. These animals could be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic helminth by acting as reservoir hosts. This in turn may bring potential risk for locals and residents of the Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran. PMID:28127344

  1. Does treatment of intestinal helminth infections influence malaria? Background and methodology of a longitudinal study of clinical, parasitological and immunological parameters in Nangapanda, Flores, Indonesia (ImmunoSPIN Study)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Given that helminth infections are thought to have strong immunomodulatory activity, the question whether helminth infections might affect responses to malaria antigens needs to be addressed. Different cross-sectional studies using diverse methodologies have reported that helminth infections might either exacerbate or reduce the severity of malaria attacks. The same discrepancies have been reported for parasitemia. Methods/Design To determine the effect of geohelminth infections and their treatment on malaria infection and disease outcome, as well as on immunological parameters, the area of Nangapanda on Flores Island, Indonesia, where malaria and helminth parasites are co-endemic was selected for a longitudinal study. Here a Double-blind randomized trial will be performed, incorporating repeated treatment with albendazole (400 mg) or placebo at three monthly intervals. Household characteristic data, anthropometry, the presence of intestinal helminth and Plasmodium spp infections, and the incidence of malaria episodes are recorded. In vitro cultures of whole blood, stimulated with a number of antigens, mitogens and toll like receptor ligands provide relevant immunological parameters at baseline and following 1 and 2 years of treatment rounds. The primary outcome of the study is the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infection. The secondary outcome will be incidence and severity of malaria episodes detected via both passive and active follow-up. The tertiary outcome is the inflammatory cytokine profile in response to parasite antigens. The project also facilitates the transfer of state of the art methodologies and technologies, molecular diagnosis of parasitic diseases, immunology and epidemiology from Europe to Indonesia. Discussion The study will provide data on the effect of helminth infections on malaria. It will also give information on anthelminthic treatment efficacy and effectiveness and could help develop evidence

  2. Fish innate immunity against intestinal helminths.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, B S; Bosi, G; DePasquale, J A; Manera, M; Giari, L

    2016-03-01

    Most individual fish in farmed and wild populations are infected with parasites. Upon dissection of fish, helminths from gut are often easily visible. Enteric helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, acanthocephalans and nematodes. Some insights into biology, morphology and histopathological effects of the main fish enteric helminths taxa will be described here. The immune system of fish, as that of other vertebrates, can be subdivided into specific and aspecific types, which in vivo act in concert with each other and indeed are interdependent in many ways. Beyond the small number of well-described models that exist, research focusing on innate immunity in fish against parasitic infections is lacking. Enteric helminths frequently cause inflammation of the digestive tract, resulting in a series of chemical and morphological changes in the affected tissues and inducing leukocyte migration to the site of infection. This review provides an overview on the aspecific defence mechanisms of fish intestine against helminths. Emphasis will be placed on the immune cellular response involving mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, rodlet cells and mucous cells against enteric helminths. Given the relative importance of innate immunity in fish, and the magnitude of economic loss in aquaculture as a consequence of disease, this area deserves considerable attention and support.

  3. MHCII-mediated dialog between group 2 innate lymphoid cells and CD4(+) T cells potentiates type 2 immunity and promotes parasitic helminth expulsion.

    PubMed

    Oliphant, Christopher J; Hwang, You Yi; Walker, Jennifer A; Salimi, Maryam; Wong, See Heng; Brewer, James M; Englezakis, Alexandros; Barlow, Jillian L; Hams, Emily; Scanlon, Seth T; Ogg, Graham S; Fallon, Padraic G; McKenzie, Andrew N J

    2014-08-21

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) release interleukin-13 (IL-13) during protective immunity to helminth infection and detrimentally during allergy and asthma. Using two mouse models to deplete ILC2s in vivo, we demonstrate that T helper 2 (Th2) cell responses are impaired in the absence of ILC2s. We show that MHCII-expressing ILC2s interact with antigen-specific T cells to instigate a dialog in which IL-2 production from T cells promotes ILC2 proliferation and IL-13 production. Deletion of MHCII renders IL-13-expressing ILC2s incapable of efficiently inducing Nippostrongylus brasiliensis expulsion. Thus, during transition to adaptive T cell-mediated immunity, the ILC2 and T cell crosstalk contributes to their mutual maintenance, expansion and cytokine production. This interaction appears to augment dendritic-cell-induced T cell activation and identifies a previously unappreciated pathway in the regulation of type-2 immunity.

  4. Biodiversity and distribution of helminths and protozoa in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", México.

    PubMed

    Güiris, A D M; Rojas, H N M; Berovides, A V; Sosa, P J; Pérez, E M E; Cruz, A E; Chávez, H C; Moguel, A J A; Jimenez-Coello, M; Ortega-Pacheco, A

    2010-06-24

    A cross sectional survey was performed to identify gastrointestinal helminths and protozoans in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve known as "La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", Mexico (El Triunfo and La Sepultura). During a three-year survey, fecal samples from 90 horses and parasites from 2 necropsied animals were collected. Five families from the Nematoda class: Ascaridae, Kathlanidae, Oxyuridae, Strongylidae and Trichostrongylidae were found, whereas, only one family from the class Cestoda, was observed: Anoplocephalidae. One family from the class Insecta, was observed: Gasterophiilidae. The number of species of parasites ranged from 13 to 18 with an average of 15 per animal. Adult parasites were recovered from the large intestine luminal contents at necropsy. Species recovered included: Strongylus vulgaris, S. equinus, S. edentatus, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Coronocyclus coronatum, C. labiatus, C. labratus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus insigne, C. leptostomus, Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, Cylicostephanus asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, Petrovinema poculatum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Cylicostephanus goldi, Tridentoinfundibulum gobi, Triodontophorus serratus and T. tenuicollis. One species of Diptera were recovered from stomach and identified: Gasterophilus intestinalis. Furthermore, different species of protozoa were recovered from fresh horse-dung and identified in four classes: Sporozoa, Litostomatea, Ciliasida and Suctoria. Nine families: Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Balantidiidae, Buetschliidae, Blepharocorythidae, Cycloposthiidae, Spirodiniididae, Ditoxidae, Acinetidae; and 31 ciliates species were recorded: Allantosoma dicorniger, A. intestinalis, Alloiozona trizona, Blepharosphaera intestinalis, Blepharoprosthium pireum, Blepharoconus benbrooki, Bundleia postciliata, Didesmis ovalis, D. quadrata, Sulcoarcus pellucidulus, Blepharocorys angusta, B. cardionucleata, B. curvigula, B. juvata, B

  5. Helminth infracommunity structure of the sympatric garter snakes Thamnophis eques and Thamnophis melanogaster from the Mesa Central of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ruiz, F Agustin; García-Prieto, Luis; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2002-06-01

    Seventy-two Mexican garter snakes (Thamnophis eques) and 126 black-bellied garter snakes (T. melanogaster) were collected from 4 localities of the Mesa Central of Mexico between July 1996 and February 1998 and examined for helminths. Both species of garter snakes occurred sympatrically in every locality except in Lake Cuitzeo. Both species of snakes shared 9 helminth species, and in general, T. melanogaster hosted a larger number of species than T. eques. In each locality, a different helminth species showed the highest levels of prevalence and abundance (Spiroxys susanae in Ciénaga de Lerma, Telorchis corti in Lago de Pátzcuaro, Proteocephalus variabilis in Lago de Cuitzeo, and Contracaecum sp. in Lago de Chapala). Helminth communities in garter snakes of the Mesa Central are depauperate and dominated by a single parasite species. In those localities where the snakes occurred in sympatry, helminth communities were, in general, more diverse and species-rich in T. melanogaster. Differences in the ecology and physiology of these species of garter snakes may explain this pattern because black-bellied garter snakes (T. melanogaster) are more aquatic than Mexican garter snakes (T. eques) and primarily eat aquatic prey, potentially exposing themselves to a larger number of helminths transmitted by predator-prey infection. The helminth infracommunities of garter snakes in the Mesa Central of Mexico show a strong Nearctic influence because most of the species infecting these hosts have been recorded in other Nearctic colubrid snakes. However, the helminth infracommunities of these garter snakes are less species-rich and less diverse than those in colubrid snakes in more temperate latitudes. The widespread ecological perturbation of sampling sites in the Mesa Central because of human activity, and geographic differences in foraging ecology of the hosts and, thus, exposure to parasites transmitted by intermediate hosts may help to explain these patterns.

  6. A worm of one's own: how helminths modulate host adipose tissue function and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Guigas, Bruno; Molofsky, Ari B

    2015-09-01

    Parasitic helminths have coexisted with human beings throughout time. Success in eradicating helminths has limited helminth-induced morbidity and mortality but is also correlated with increasing rates of 'western' diseases, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in mice describe how type 2 immune cells, traditionally associated with helminth infection, maintain adipose tissue homeostasis and promote adipose tissue beiging, protecting against obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Here, we review these studies and discuss how helminths and helminth-derived molecules may modulate these physiologic pathways to improve metabolic functions in specific tissues, such as adipose and liver, as well as at the whole-organism level.

  7. Antihelminthics in helminth-endemic areas: effects on Hiv disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Means, Arianna Rubin; Burns, Paul; Sinclair, David; Walson, Judd L

    2016-01-01

    confirmed helminth infections (difference in mean change 37.86 CD4+ cells/µL, 95% CI 7.36 to 68.35; P = 0.01; three trials, 358 participants, low quality evidence). Adverse events and mortality There is no indication that antihelminthic drugs impart additional risks in HIV-positive populations. However, adverse events were not well reported (very low quality evidence) and trials were underpowered to evaluate effects on mortality (low quality evidence). Authors' conclusions There is low quality evidence that treating confirmed helminth infections in HIV-positive adults may have small, short-term favourable effects on markers of HIV disease progression. Further studies are required to confirm this finding. Current evidence suggests that deworming with antihelminthics is not harmful, and this is reassuring for the routine treatment of confirmed or suspected helminth infections in people living with HIV in co-endemic areas. Further long-term studies are required to make confident conclusions regarding the impact of presumptively deworming all HIV-positive individuals irrespective of helminth infection status, as the only long-term trial to date did not demonstrate an effect. Antihelminthics in helminth endemic areas: effects on HIV infection This Cochrane Review summarizes trials that evaluated the benefits and potential risks of providing deworming drugs (antihelminthics) to people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). After we searched for relevant trials up to 29 September 2015 we included eight trials that enrolled 1612 participants. What are deworming drugs and why might they delay HIV disease progression Deworming drugs are used to treat a variety of human helminth infections, such as soil-transmitted helminths, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and lymphatic filariasis. In areas where these infections are common, the World Health Organization currently recommends that targeted populations are routinely treated every six to 12 months without prior confirmation

  8. Towards an effective control programme of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Part 1: Prevalence and associated key factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the continuous efforts to improve the quality of life of Orang Asli (Aborigines) communities, these communities are still plagued with a wide range of health problems including parasitic infections. The first part of this study aimed at determining the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and identifying their associated factors among rural Orang Asli children. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 484 Orang Asli children aged ≤ 15 years (235 females and 249 males) belonging to 215 households from 13 villages in Lipis district, Pahang, Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected and examined by using formalin-ether sedimentation, Kato Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and behavioural information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, 78.1% of the children were found to be infected with one or more STH species. The prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 71.7%, 37.4% and 17.6%, respectively. Almost all, three quarters and one fifth of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections, respectively, were of moderate-to-heavy intensities. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age of ≥ 6 years (school-age), using unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, absence of a toilet in the house, large family size (≥ 7 members), not washing hands before eating, and not washing hands after defecation were the key factors significantly associated with STH among these children. Conclusion This study reveals an alarmingly high prevalence of STH among Orang Asli children and clearly brings out an urgent need to implement school-based de-worming programmes and other control measures like providing a proper sanitation, as well as a treated drinking water supply and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices. Such an integrated control program will help significantly in

  9. The impact of two semiannual treatments with albendazole alone on lymphatic filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections: a community-based study in the Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Pion, Sébastien D S; Chesnais, Cédric B; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Fischer, Peter U; Majewski, Andrew C; Weil, Gary J; Boussinesq, Michel; Missamou, François

    2015-05-01

    Implementation of mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin plus albendazole (ALB) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been delayed in central Africa because of the risk of serious adverse events in subjects with high Loa loa microfilaremia. We conducted a community trial to assess the impact of semiannual MDA with ALB (400 mg) alone on LF and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in the Republic of Congo. Evaluation at 12 months showed that ALB MDA had not significantly reduced Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia or microfilaria (mf) rates in the community (from 17.3% to 16.6% and from 5.3% to 4.2%, respectively). However, the geometric mean mf count in mf-positive subjects was reduced from 202.2 to 80.9 mf/mL (60% reduction, P = 0.01). The effect of ALB was impressive in 38 subjects who were mf-positive at baseline and retested at 12 months: 37% had total mf clearance, and individual mf densities were reduced by 73.0%. MDA also dramatically reduced the hookworm infection rate in the community from 6.5% to 0.6% (91% reduction), with less impressive effects on Ascaris and Trichuris. These preliminary results suggest that semiannual community MDA with ALB is a promising strategy for controlling LF and STH in areas with coendemic loiasis.

  10. Worming Their Way into the Picture: Microbiota Help Helminths Modulate Host Immunity.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Finlay, B Brett

    2015-11-17

    Parasitic helminths are potent regulators of host immunity, including inhibition of allergic inflammation. In this issue of Immunity, Zaiss et al. (2015) reveal that microbiota compositional shifts during helminth infection contribute to the multifaceted ways that helminths modulate host immunity.

  11. Seven new species of helminths for reptiles from Armenia.

    PubMed

    Nelli, Sargsyan; Felix, Danielyan; Marine, Arakelyan

    2014-09-01

    Helminthic infections of reptiles habiting in the territory of Armenia are examined. Seven species of helminths new for reptiles from Armenia are registered: Parapharyngodon skrjabini, Oswaldocruzia goezei, Neoxysomatium sp., Telorchis assula, Nematotaenia tarentolae, Mesocestoides lineatus and Spirometra erinacei europea. Descriptions and pictures of them are given.

  12. Complexities and Perplexities: A Critical Appraisal of the Evidence for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection-Related Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Susana V.; Doi, Suhail A.; Gray, Darren J.; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; McCarthy, James S.; Traub, Rebecca J.; Andrews, Ross M.; Clements, Archie C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) have acute and chronic manifestations, and can result in lifetime morbidity. Disease burden is difficult to quantify, yet quantitative evidence is required to justify large-scale deworming programmes. A recent Cochrane systematic review, which influences Global Burden of Disease (GBD) estimates for STH, has again called into question the evidence for deworming benefit on morbidity due to STH. In this narrative review, we investigate in detail what the shortfalls in evidence are. Methodology/Principal Findings: We systematically reviewed recent literature that used direct measures to investigate morbidity from STH and we critically appraised systematic reviews, particularly the most recent Cochrane systematic review investigating deworming impact on morbidity. We included six systematic reviews and meta-analyses, 36 literature reviews, 44 experimental or observational studies, and five case series. We highlight where evidence is insufficient and where research needs to be directed to strengthen morbidity evidence, ideally to prove benefits of deworming. Conclusions/Significance: Overall, the Cochrane systematic review and recent studies indicate major shortfalls in evidence for direct morbidity. However, it is questionable whether the systematic review methodology should be applied to STH due to heterogeneity of the prevalence of different species in each setting. Urgent investment in studies powered to detect direct morbidity effects due to STH is required. PMID:27196100

  13. Community ecology of helminth parasitism in an insular passerine avifauna.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C L; Crites, J L

    1976-02-01

    Three hundred and thirty specimens of 7 species of passerine birds from South Bass Island, Ottawa County, Ohio, were examined for helminth parasites. The total number of helminth specimens collected was 4,333. Forty-one helminth taxa were identified. Ten species of helminths were identified as having foci of infection on the island. An index of association for these 10 species is presented. The low association revealed between helminth species utilizing common species of intermediate hosts indicated that a single intermediate host specimen is likely to harbor infective stages of only one species of parasitic helminth. An index of similarity is presented to express the species importance relationships of the helminth faunas of the 7 species of birds: red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), house sparrows (Passer domesticus), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), and robins (Turdus migratorius). The results reveal that competition between these avian species for invertebrate food resources helps to maximize the transmission of those helminth populations which utilize these same invertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aggregation of birds into mixed feeding flocks insures a heavy loading of the feeding grounds with agents infective for the invertebrate populations.

  14. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of local chickens from selected communities in Nsukka region of south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Idika, I K; Obi, C F; Ezeh, I O; Iheagwam, C N; Njoku, I N; Nwosu, C O

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of local chickens in Nsukka region of Southeastern Nigeria was studied using 125 free range local birds purchased from four communities in Nsukka zone namely, Obollo-afor, Orba, Nsukka urban and Owerre Eze-orba. The birds were sacrificed humanely and their oesophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine and caecum examined for the presence of gastrointestinal helminths. Worms when present were isolated and identified using standard parasitological procedures. The study identified four species of cestodes namely Raillietina echinobothridia, R. tetragona, R. cesticillus and Choanotaenia infundibulum and two species of nematodes namely, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum. Results obtained showed 96.8 % prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in the birds with cestodes being the more prevalent class (70.4 %). Raillietina spp was the most prevalent cestode encountered and A. galli the most prevalent nematode. Prevalence rates of infections recorded 14.4 % for nematode species, 26.4 % for cestodes and 56 % for mixed infections of nematodes and cestodes. It was concluded that local chickens are common in the area and could serve as a potential source of helminth infections to intensively managed birds in the study area.

  15. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans

  16. The Mannose Receptor (CD206) is an important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in the detection of the infective stage of the helminth Schistosoma mansoni and modulates IFNγ production.

    PubMed

    Paveley, Ross A; Aynsley, Sarah A; Turner, Joseph D; Bourke, Claire D; Jenkins, Stephen J; Cook, Peter C; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa; Mountford, Adrian P

    2011-11-01

    In this study, infective larvae of the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni were shown to contain a large number of glycosylated components specific for the Mannose Receptor (MR; CD206), which is an important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) of the innate immune system. MR ligands were particularly rich in excretory/secretory (E/S) material released during transformation of cercariae into schistosomula, a process critical for infection of the host. E/S material from carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE)-labelled cercariae showed enhanced binding by cells lines that over-express the MR. Conversely, uptake was significantly lower by bone marrow-derived macrophages (MΦ) from MR(-/-) mice, although they were more active as judged by enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and CD40 expression. After natural percutaneous infection of MR(-/-) mice with CFDA-SE-labelled parasites, there were fewer cells in the skin and draining lymph nodes that were CFDA-SE(+) compared with wild-type mice, implying reduced uptake and presentation of larval parasite antigen. However, antigen-specific proliferation of skin draining lymph node cells was significantly enhanced and they secreted markedly elevated levels of IFNγ but decreased levels of IL-4. In conclusion, we show that the MR on mononuclear phagocytic cells, which are plentiful in the skin, plays a significant role in internalising E/S material released by the invasive stages of the parasite which in turn modulates their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the absence of the MR, antigen-specific CD4(+) cells are Th1 biased, suggesting that ligation of the MR by glycosylated E/S material released by schistosome larvae modulates the production of CD4(+) cell specific IFNγ.

  17. Intestinal helminthes and/or Toxocara infection are unrelated to anti-HBs titers in seven-year-old children vaccinated at birth with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Marisa B C L; Fragoso, Roberta; Foletto, Silvio; Lemos, Elenice M; Pereira, Fausto E L

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possible effect of nematode infection on anti-HBs antibody levels in the serum of seven-year-old schoolchildren vaccinated at birth with the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Anti-HBs and anti HBc antibodies were evaluated in the sera of 100 schoolchildren with at least one intestinal nematode and/or a positive serological reaction for anti-Toxocara antibodies and in 95 schoolchildren without intestinal helminthiasis or serum anti-Toxocara antibodies. Both groups were from public elementary schools located on the urban periphery of Vitória, ES, Brazil. Among these 195 children, the median anti-HBs antibody titer was 31.3 IU/ml and the frequency of titers less than 10 IU/ml was 33.8% (95% CI: 27.1-40.4%). There were no significant differences between the medians of anti-HBs titers or the frequency of titers less than 10 IU/ml between the groups with or without helminthes (29.5 and 32.9 IU/ml and 33 and 34.7%, respectively; p>0.05). Even when the children with intestinal nematodes and/or anti-Toxocara antibodies and with blood eosinophil counts over 600/mm(3) were compared with children without infection from intestinal nematodes and without anti-Toxocara antibodies, with blood eosinophil counts less than 400 eosinophils/mm(3), these differences were not significant. None of the children presented anti-HBc antibodies. In conclusion, infections with intestinal nematodes and/or the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies did not interfere with the anti-HBs antibody titers in seven-year-old children vaccinated at birth with the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

  18. [Parasitic helminths infection in Coho salmón, Oncorhynchus kisutch, during their return to Simpson river, Chile].

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Aedo, E; Figueroa, L; Siegmund, I; Silva, R; Navarrete, N; Puga, S; Marín, F; Aedo, E

    2000-01-01

    Between may and july 1994, 17 adult returning salmons, Oncorhynchus kisutch, were collected in the River Simpson, Chile. All fishes showed infection by plerocercoids of Diphyllobothrium sp. in different locations: stomach, spleen, liver, mesenteries and gonads. Infection with larval cestodes of an unidentified species of Phillobothriidae was determined in the intestine of seven (41.2%) salmons and its prevalences of infection showed significant differences between female and male salmons. The 94.4% of total plerocercoids of Diphyllobothrium were isolated from the stomach wall. Prevalence and mean intensity of infection by Diphyllobothrium sp. did not show significant differences between fishes of different sex.

  19. Thermostability of heterophile antibodies from human sera infected with Schistosoma mansoni and geo-helminths. An immuno-metric statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chamone, Munir; Atuncar, Gregorio S; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech

    2006-01-01

    Antibody in human sera that induces lysis of sheep erythrocytes in hemolytic assay was investigated. The present study showed that the presence in serum of the thermostable cytolytic anti-sheep red blood cells antibodies is dependent on the Schistosoma mansoni infection, and this is more frequent in adults than in children. The thermostable characteristic of hemolysins in normal sera was not dependent on the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura or hookworm geo-helminths. Further, thermostable complement-activating heterophile antibodies were noticed in children in association with massive number of S. mansoni eggs. The results were obtained by using the z- and the chi-square tests. The z-test allows us to formulate a one-sided alternative, i.e., a tendency of one of the attributes. On the other hand, the chi-square test analyzes the independence between attributes by using a contingency table. Besides the obtained results being interesting in the field of schistosomiasis mansoni, they can provide a new insight into the use of statistics in medical science.

  20. Assessment of Efficacy and Quality of Two Albendazole Brands Commonly Used against Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in School Children in Jimma Town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Suleman, Sultan; Mohammed, Tesfaye; Deti, Habetewold; D'Hondt, Matthias; Wynendaele, Evelien; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Vercruysse, Jozef; Duchateau, Luc; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a worldwide upscale in mass drug administration (MDA) programs to control the morbidity caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STHs): Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Although anthelminthic drugs which are used for MDA are supplied by two pharmaceutical companies through donation, there is a wide range of brands available on local markets for which the efficacy against STHs and quality remain poorly explored. In the present study, we evaluated the drug efficacy and quality of two albendazole brands (Bendex and Ovis) available on the local market in Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings A randomized clinical trial was conducted according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines to assess drug efficacy, by means of egg reduction rate (ERR), of Bendex and Ovis against STH infections in school children in Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition, the chemical and physicochemical quality of the drugs was assessed according to the United States and European Pharmacopoeia, encompassing mass uniformity of the tablets, amount of active compound and dissolution profile. Both drugs were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides (>97%), but showed poor efficacy against T. trichiura (~20%). For hookworms, Ovis was significantly (p < 0.05) more efficacious compared to Bendex (98.1% vs. 88.7%). Assessment of the physicochemical quality of the drugs revealed a significant difference in dissolution profile, with Bendex having a slower dissolution than Ovis. Conclusion/Significance The study revealed that differences in efficacy between the two brands of albendazole (ABZ) tablets against hookworm are linked to the differences in the in-vitro drug release profile. Differences in uptake and metabolism of this benzimidazole drug among different helminth species may explain that this efficacy difference was only observed in hookworms and not in the two other species. The results of the present study underscore the importance of assessing the

  1. A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Modelling for Control and Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Basáñez, María-Gloria; McCarthy, James S.; French, Michael D.; Yang, Guo-Jing; Walker, Martin; Gambhir, Manoj; Prichard, Roger K.; Churcher, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modelling of helminth infections has the potential to inform policy and guide research for the control and elimination of human helminthiases. However, this potential, unlike in other parasitic and infectious diseases, has yet to be realised. To place contemporary efforts in a historical context, a summary of the development of mathematical models for helminthiases is presented. These efforts are discussed according to the role that models can play in furthering our understanding of parasite population biology and transmission dynamics, and the effect on such dynamics of control interventions, as well as in enabling estimation of directly unobservable parameters, exploration of transmission breakpoints, and investigation of evolutionary outcomes of control. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. A research and development agenda for helminthiasis modelling is proposed based on identified gaps that need to be addressed for models to become useful decision tools that can support research and control operations effectively. This agenda includes the use of models to estimate the impact of large-scale interventions on infection incidence; the design of sampling protocols for the monitoring and evaluation of integrated control programmes; the modelling of co-infections; the investigation of the dynamical relationship between infection and morbidity indicators; the improvement of analytical methods for the quantification of anthelmintic efficacy and resistance; the determination of programme endpoints; the linking of dynamical helminth models with helminth geostatistical mapping; and the investigation of the impact of climate change on human helminthiases. It is concluded that modelling should be embedded in helminth research, and in the planning

  2. Landscape features and helminth co-infection shape bank vole immunoheterogeneity, with consequences for Puumala virus epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Guivier, E; Galan, M; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

    2014-03-01

    Heterogeneity in environmental conditions helps to maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity in ecosystems. As such, it may explain why the capacity of animals to mount immune responses is highly variable. The quality of habitat patches, in terms of resources, parasitism, predation and habitat fragmentation may, for example, trigger trade-offs ultimately affecting the investment of individuals in various immunological pathways. We described spatial immunoheterogeneity in bank vole populations with respect to landscape features and co-infection. We focused on the consequences of this heterogeneity for the risk of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection. We assessed the expression of the Tnf-α and Mx2 genes and demonstrated a negative correlation between PUUV load and the expression of these immune genes in bank voles. Habitat heterogeneity was partly associated with differences in the expression of these genes. Levels of Mx2 were lower in large forests than in fragmented forests, possibly due to differences in parasite communities. We previously highlighted the positive association between infection with Heligmosomum mixtum and infection with PUUV. We found that Tnf-α was more strongly expressed in voles infected with PUUV than in uninfected voles or in voles co-infected with the nematode H. mixtum and PUUV. H. mixtum may limit the capacity of the vole to develop proinflammatory responses. This effect may increase the risk of PUUV infection and replication in host cells. Overall, our results suggest that close interactions between landscape features, co-infection and immune gene expression may shape PUUV epidemiology.

  3. Critical role of fatty acid metabolism in ILC2 mediated barrier protection during malnutrition and helminth infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play an important role in many immune processes, including control of infections, inflammation and tissue repair. To date little is known about the metabolism of ILCs under steady-state conditions and infection, and whether these cells can metabolically adapt in response...

  4. Helminthic therapy: using worms to treat immune-mediated disease.

    PubMed

    Elliott, David E; Weinstock, Joel V

    2009-01-01

    There is an epidemic of immune-mediated disease in highly-developed industrialized countries. Such diseases, like inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis and asthma increase in prevalence as populations adopt modern hygienic practices. These practices prevent exposure to parasitic worms (helminths). Epidemiologic studies suggest that people who carry helminths have less immune-mediated disease. Mice colonized with helminths are protected from disease in models of colitis, encephalitis, Type 1 diabetes and asthma. Clinical trials show that exposure to helminths reduce disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. This chapter reviews some of the work showing that colonization with helminths alters immune responses, against dysregulated inflammation. These helminth-host immune interactions have potentially important implications for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases.

  5. Bacteria isolated from parasitic nematodes--a potential novel vector of pathogens?

    PubMed

    Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Salisbury, Vyv; Humphrey, Tom J; Stafford, Kathryn; Perkins, Sarah E

    2009-12-21

    Bacterial pathogens are ubiquitous in soil and water - concurrently so are free-living helminths that feed on bacteria. These helminths fall into two categories; the non-parasitic and the parasitic. The former have been the focus of previous work, finding that bacterial pathogens inside helminths are conferred survival advantages over and above bacteria alone in the environment, and that accidental ingestion of non-parasitic helminths can cause systemic infection in vertebrate hosts. Here, we determine the potential for bacteria to be associated with parasitic helminths. After culturing helminths from fecal samples obtained from livestock the external bacteria were removed. Two-hundred parasitic helminths from three different species were homogenised and the bacteria that were internal to the helminths were isolated and cultured. Eleven different bacterial isolates were found; of which eight were indentified. The bacteria identified included known human and cattle pathogens. We concluded that bacteria of livestock can be isolated in parasitic helminths and that this suggests a mechanism by which bacteria, pathogenic or otherwise, can be transmitted between individuals. The potential for helminths to play a role as pathogen vectors poses a potential livestock and human health risk. Further work is required to assess the epidemiological impact of this finding.

  6. Intestinal helminths regulate lethal acute graft-versus-host disease and preserve the graft-versus-tumor effect in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Chen, Hung-Lin; Bannick, Nadine; Henry, Michael; Holm, Adrian N; Metwali, Ahmed; Urban, Joseph F; Rothman, Paul B; Weiner, George J; Blazar, Bruce R; Elliott, David E; Ince, M Nedim

    2015-02-01

    Donor T lymphocyte transfer with hematopoietic stem cells suppresses residual tumor growth (graft-versus-tumor [GVT]) in cancer patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). However, donor T cell reactivity to host organs causes severe and potentially lethal inflammation called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). High-dose steroids or other immunosuppressive drugs are used to treat GVHD that have limited ability to control the inflammation while incurring long-term toxicity. Novel strategies are needed to modulate GVHD, preserve GVT, and improve the outcome of BMT. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) control alloantigen-sensitized inflammation of GVHD, sustain GVT, and prevent mortality in BMT. Helminths colonizing the alimentary tract dramatically increase the Treg activity, thereby modulating intestinal or systemic inflammatory responses. These observations led us to hypothesize that helminths can regulate GVHD and maintain GVT in mice. Acute GVHD was induced in helminth (Heligmosomoides polygyrus)-infected or uninfected BALB/c recipients of C57BL/6 donor grafts. Helminth infection suppressed donor T cell inflammatory cytokine generation and reduced GVHD-related mortality, but maintained GVT. H. polygyrus colonization promoted the survival of TGF-β-generating recipient Tregs after a conditioning regimen with total body irradiation and led to a TGF-β-dependent in vivo expansion/maturation of donor Tregs after BMT. Helminths did not control GVHD when T cells unresponsive to TGF-β-mediated immune regulation were used as donor T lymphocytes. These results suggest that helminths suppress acute GVHD using Tregs and TGF-β-dependent pathways in mice. Helminthic regulation of GVHD and GVT through intestinal immune conditioning may improve the outcome of BMT.

  7. Adjusting for the acute phase response is essential to interpret iron status indicators among young Zanzibari children prone to chronic malaria and helminth infections.

    PubMed

    Kung'u, Jacqueline K; Wright, Victoria J; Haji, Hamad J; Ramsan, Mahdi; Goodman, David; Tielsch, James M; Bickle, Quentin D; Raynes, John G; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2009-11-01

    The extent to which the acute phase response (APR) influences iron status indicators in chronic infections is not well documented. We investigated this relationship using reported recent fever and 2 acute phase proteins (APP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). In a sample of 690 children matched on age and helminth infection status at baseline, we measured plasma for AGP, CRP, ferritin, transferrin receptor (TfR), and erythropoietin (EPO) and whole blood for hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), and malaria parasite density, and we obtained maternal reports of recent fever. We then examined the influence of the APR on each iron status indicator using regression analysis with Hb as the outcome variable. Ferritin was inversely related to Hb in the APR-unadjusted model. Adjusting for the APR using reported recent fever alone was not sufficient to reverse the inverse Hb-ferritin relationship. However, using CRP and/or AGP resulted in the expected positive relationship. The best fit model included reported recent fever, AGP and CRP (R(2) = 0.241; P < 0.001). The best fit Hb-ZPP, Hb-TfR, and Hb-EPO models included reported recent fever and AGP but not CRP (R(2) = 0.253, 0.310, and 0.292, respectively; P < 0.001). ZPP, TfR, and EPO were minimally influenced by the APR, whereas ferritin was immensely affected. Reported recent fever alone cannot be used as a marker for the APR. Either AGP or CRP is useful for adjusting if only 1 APP can be measured. However, AGP best predicted the APR in this population.

  8. Impact of Health Education on Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren of the Peruvian Amazon: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gyorkos, Theresa W.; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Blouin, Brittany; Casapia, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background To control soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, the World Health Organization recommends school-based deworming programs with a health hygiene education component. The effect of such health hygiene interventions, however, has not been adequately studied. The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a health hygiene education intervention on the occurrence of STH re-infection four months post-de-worming. Methodology/Principal Findings An open-label pair-matched cluster-randomized trial was conducted in Grade 5 schoolchildren of 18 primary schools (9 intervention and 9 control) in the Peruvian Amazon. Baseline assessment included interview with a pre-tested questionnaire and collection of single stool specimens that were examined using the single Kato-Katz thick smear. All schoolchildren were then treated with single-dose albendazole (400 mg). Schoolchildren in intervention schools then received 1) an initial one hour in-class activity on health hygiene and sanitation and 30-minute refresher activities every two weeks over four months; and 2) a half-day workshop for teachers and principals, while children in control schools did not. Four months later, STH infection was re-assessed in all schools by laboratory technologists blinded to intervention status. From April 21–October 20, 2010, a total of 1,089 schoolchildren (518 and 571 from intervention and control schools, respectively) participated in this study. Intervention children scored significantly higher on all aspects of a test of STH-related knowledge compared with control children (aOR = 18·4; 95% CI: 12·7 to 26·6). The intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides infection at follow-up was statistically significantly lower (by 58%) in children in intervention schools compared with children in control schools (aIRR = 0·42; 95% CI = 0·21 to 0·85). No significant changes in hookworm or Trichuris trichiura intensity were observed. Conclusions/Significance A

  9. Use of Remote Sensing/Geographical Information Systems (RS/GIS) to Identify the Distributional Limits of Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STHs) and Their Association to Prevalence of Intestinal Infection in School-Age Children in Four Rural Communities in Boaco, Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    variables that can help predict the prevalence of STH infections. (2) To understand potential applications of RS/GIS to national helminth control programs. (3) To asses the applicability of RS/GIS to control STH infections.

  10. Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Culurgioni, J; Sabatini, A; De Murtas, R; Mattiucci, S; Figus, V

    2014-12-01

    An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host-parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax.

  11. Antibodies to major pasture borne helminth infections in bulk-tank milk samples from organic and nearby conventional dairy herds in south-central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Höglund, Johan; Dahlström, Frida; Engström, Annie; Hessle, Anna; Jakubek, Eva-Britt; Schnieder, Thomas; Strube, Christina; Sollenberg, Sofia

    2010-08-04

    The objective of this randomised pairwise survey was to compare the regional distribution of antibody levels against the three most important helminth infections in organic and conventional dairy herds in Sweden. Bulk-tank milk from 105 organic farms and 105 neighbouring conventional dairy farms with access to pasture in south-central Sweden were collected in September 2008. Samples were also collected from 8 organic and 8 conventional herds located in a much more restricted area, on the same as well as 3 additional occasions during the grazing season, to reveal evidence for seasonal patterns against cattle stomach worm (Ostertagia ostertagi). Antibody levels to the stomach worm (O. ostertagi), liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus) were then determined by detection of specific antibodies using three different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). According to the Svanovir Ostertagia ELISA, the mean optical density ratio (ODR) was significantly higher in the milk from organic compared to conventional herds, i.e. 0.82 (95% CL=0.78-0.86) versus 0.66 (0.61-0.71). However, no significant differences were observed in the samples collected at different time points from the same 16 herds (F(3,39)=1.18, P=0.32). Antibodies to D. viviparus infection were diagnosed with an ELISA based on recombinant major sperm protein (MSP), and seropositivity was found in 21 (18%) of the 113 organic herds and 11 (9%) of the 113 conventional herds. The seroprevalence of D. viviparus was somewhat higher in the organic herds (Chi-square=3.65, P=0.056), but with the positive conventional herds were located in the vicinity of infected organic herds. Of the 16 herds that were sampled on repeated occasions, as many as 10 (63%), were seropositive on at least one sampling occasion. Many of these turned positive towards the end of the grazing season. Only one herd was positive in all 4 samples and 3 were positive only at turn-out. Considering F. hepatica there

  12. Effect of Acanthocephala infection on the reproductive potential of crustacean intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, B S; Lui, A; Giovinazzo, G; Giari, L

    2008-05-01

    The effect of a naturally acquired infection by three acanthocephalan parasites Dentitruncus truttae, Echinorhynchus truttae, and Polymorphus minutus on the reproductive potential of their intermediate host, Echinogammarus tibaldii (Amphipoda) from Lake Piediluco (Centre of Italy) was assessed. During May 2007, 1135 amphipods were collected from two different samplings and examined for larval helminths. Forty-five amphipods were infected and of those, 16 were infected with D. truttae (intensity=1-3 larvae), 15 with E. truttae (intensity=1-2 larvae), and 14 with P. minutus (intensity=1 larva). The sex ratio was nearly 1:1 in all examined amphipods. One female infected with D. truttae contained six eggs in the brood pouch and another female infected with E. truttae contained five eggs. However, none of the eight female amphipods harbouring P. minutus larva contained eggs in their brood pouch. Uninfected females of the same size and body length as that of the infected females contained between 20 and 32 eggs. No acanthocephalan species were found to co-occur.

  13. Intestinal helminths of feral cat populations from urban and suburban districts of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Behnke, Jerzy M; Prabhaker, K S; Al-Ibrahim, Roda; Lewis, John W

    2010-03-25

    A survey of the helminths of 658 adult cats from feral urban and suburban populations in Qatar was conducted across all months in 2006 and 2007. Six species of helminths were identified, comprising two cestodes (Taenia taeniaeformis [73.6%] and Diplopylidium acanthotetra [47.1%]) and four nematodes (Ancylostoma tubaeforme [14.7%], Physaloptera praeputialis [5.2%], Toxocara cati [0.8%] and Toxascaris leonina [0.2%]), and 83% of cats were infected with at least one of these. The average number of species harboured was 1.4 and the average worm burden was 55.8 worms/cat. The vast majority of worms (97.6%) were cestodes, nematodes being relatively rare. Prevalence and abundance of infections were analyzed, taking into consideration four factors: year (2006 and 2007), site (urban and suburban), season (winter and summer) and sex of the host. Analyses revealed marked year effects, female host bias in some species and interactions involving combination of factors, but especially sex and season of the year. The results indicate that whilst the majority of adult feral cats in Qatar carry helminth infections, infections are variable between years and subject to annual changes that may reflect climatic and other environmental changes in the rapidly developing city of Doha and its suburban surroundings. Only two species have the potential to infect humans and both were rare among the sampled cats (A. tubaeforme and T. cati).

  14. Helminthes of synanthropic rodents (Rodentia: Muridae) from Dakahlia and Menoufia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elshazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha I; Azab, Manar S; Elsheikha, Hany M; Abdel-Gawad, Abdel Gawad E; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2008-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to monitor and compare the prevalence of helminthes in rodents from Dakahlia and Menoufia governorates. The domestic rodents (271) were Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus frugivorous, Rattus r. alexandrinus, & Mus musculus. The overall prevalence of helminthes was 52.8%. In Dakahlia, 72/145 rats (49.6%) were infected. The highest prevalence of infection was in R. r. frugivorous 43 (60.4%), then R. r. alexandrinus 44 (47.7%), R. norvegicus 38 (44.7%), and the lowest was M. musculus 20 (40%). In Menoufia, 71/126 rats (56.3%) were infected. The highest prevalence of infection was in R. r. frugivorous 36 (77.7%), then M. musculus 27 (48.1%), R. norvegicus 23 (47.8%), and the lowest was in R. r. alexandrinus 40 (47.5%). A total of 24 species of helminthes (11 trematodes, 4 cestodes & 10 nematodes) were identified among the 271 rodents. The commonest trematode was Mesostephanus aegypticus followed by Stictodora tridactyla. The commonest cestode was Hymenolepis diminuta followed by Taenia taeniaformis. The commonest nematode was Capillaria hepatica followed by Trichurus muris. Given the zoonotic potential of rodents' parasites and since several residential, commercial, and agricultural sites exist in the examined geographic areas, the potential health risk should not be ignored.

  15. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown.

  16. BAGER P, Vinkel Hansen A, Wohlfahrt J, Melbye M, et al. Helminth infection does not reduce risk for chronic inflammatory disease in a population-based cohort study. Gastroenterology. 2012;142:55-62

    PubMed Central

    Weinstock, Joel V.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Childhood infections with some helminths have been reported to reduce the risk of acquiring some immune-mediated diseases like sensitization to allergens, asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. Denmark keeps a medical registry that collects data on disease prevalence and medication use throughout the country. Mebendazole frequently is used to treat pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) infection. In this population-based analysis of a cohort of 924,749 children, prescriptions for Mebendazole were used as a surrogate marker for pinworm infection. Children who received this medication were compared to children who did not, for the frequency of asthma, type I diabetes, juvenile arthritis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. It was found that Mebendazole use, and by inference pinworm infection, did not appear to reduce the risk for acquiring any of these immune-mediated diseases. PMID:23429450

  17. Identifying the immunomodulatory components of helminths.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, C; Navarro, S; Wangchuk, P; Wilson, D; Daly, N L; Loukas, A

    2015-06-01

    Immunomodulatory components of helminths offer great promise as an entirely new class of biologics for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Here, we discuss the emerging themes in helminth-driven immunomodulation in the context of therapeutic drug discovery. We broadly define the approaches that are currently applied by researchers to identify these helminth molecules, highlighting key areas of potential exploitation that have been mostly neglected thus far, notably small molecules. Finally, we propose that the investigation of immunomodulatory compounds will enable the translation of current and future research efforts into potential treatments for autoimmune and allergic diseases, while at the same time yielding new insights into the molecular interface of host-parasite biology.

  18. [Of worms and men--Administration of helminth products as an innovative approach to treatment of autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Sega, Yahel; Versini, Mathilde; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-07-01

    In areas where helminth infections are common, there is a low prevalence of autoimmune diseases. This observation gave rise to the hygiene hypothesis, claiming that certain organisms which were abundant in the human microenvironment hold an immunoregulatory and immunosuppressive effect, therefore, their eradication led to an increase in immune mediated diseases. This hypothesis laid the foundation for several directions of research which demonstrated an immunosuppressive and immunoregulatory effect of helminths on both the acquired and the innate immune systems. These studies led to the examination of the therapeutic potential of helminths and their components in treating different autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. The administration of helminth products in murine models of these diseases exhibited a positive effect on disease expression, morbidity and mortality, as well as the ability to prevent the onset of disease to some extent (when given in a preventive protocol). Recently, a synthetic molecule composed of phosphorylcholine (a product of the nematode a. vitae) combined with the protein tuftsin, which is produced by human splenocytes, was shown to exert the aforementioned positive effects on a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These discoveries point to a new direction in research for developing helminth-based therapies for autoimmune diseases.

  19. Exosome-transported microRNAs of helminth origin: new tools for allergic and autoimmune diseases therapy?

    PubMed

    Siles-Lucas, M; Morchon, R; Simon, F; Manzano-Roman, R

    2015-04-01

    Chronic diseases associated with inflammation show fast annual increase in their incidence. This has been associated with excessive hygiene habits that limit contacts between the immune system and helminth parasites. Helminthic infections induce regulation and expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg) leading to atypical Th2 type immune responses, with downregulation of the inflammatory component usually associated with these type of responses. Many cells, including those of the immune system, produce extracellular vesicles called exosomes which mediate either immune stimulation (DCs) or immune modulation (T cells). The transfer of miRNAs contained in T-cell exosomes has been shown to contribute to downregulate the production of inflammatory mediators. It has been recently described the delivery to the host-parasite interface of exosomes containing miRNAs by helminths and its internalization by host cells. In this sense, helminth microRNAs transported in exosomes and internalized by immune host cells exert an important role in the expansion of Treg cells, resulting in the control of inflammation. We here provide relevant information obtained in the field of exosomes, cell-cell communication and miRNAs, showing the high potential of helminth miRNAs delivered in exosomes to host cells as new therapeutic tools against diseases associated with exacerbated inflammatory responses.

  20. Integrated School-Based Surveillance for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Lymphatic Filariasis in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Gunawardena, Nipul K.; Kahathuduwa, Ganga; Karunaweera, Nadira D.; de Silva, Nilanthi R.; Ranasinghe, Udaya B.; Samarasekara, Sandhya D.; Nagodavithana, Kumara C.; Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Rebollo, Maria P.; Weil, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the practicality of integrating surveillance for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH, assessed by Kato-Katz) with transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in two evaluation units (EUs) in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka (population 2.3 million). The surveys were performed 6 years after five annual rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Each transmission assessment survey tested children (N = 1,462 inland EU; 1,642 coastal EU) sampled from 30 primary schools. Low filarial antigenemia rates (0% and 0.1% for the inland and coastal EUs) suggest that LF transmission is very low in this district. The STH rates and stool sample participation rates were 0.8% and 61% (inland) and 2.8% and 58% (coastal). Most STH detected were low or moderate intensity Trichuris trichiura infections. The added cost of including STH testing was ∼$5,000 per EU. These results suggest that it is feasible to integrate school-based surveillance for STH and LF. PMID:24493672

  1. Functional genomics approaches in parasitic helminths.

    PubMed

    Hagen, J; Lee, E F; Fairlie, W D; Kalinna, B H

    2012-01-01

    As research on parasitic helminths is moving into the post-genomic era, an enormous effort is directed towards deciphering gene function and to achieve gene annotation. The sequences that are available in public databases undoubtedly hold information that can be utilized for new interventions and control but the exploitation of these resources has until recently remained difficult. Only now, with the emergence of methods to genetically manipulate and transform parasitic worms will it be possible to gain a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in nutrition, metabolism, developmental switches/maturation and interaction with the host immune system. This review focuses on functional genomics approaches in parasitic helminths that are currently used, to highlight potential applications of these technologies in the areas of cell biology, systems biology and immunobiology of parasitic helminths.

  2. Anthelmintic metabolism in parasitic helminths: proteomic insights.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Peter M; MacKintosh, Neil; Morphew, Russell M

    2012-08-01

    Anthelmintics are the cornerstone of parasitic helminth control. Surprisingly, understanding of the biochemical pathways used by parasitic helminths to detoxify anthelmintics is fragmented, despite the increasing global threat of anthelmintic resistance within the ruminant and equine industries. Reductionist biochemistry has likely over-estimated the enzymatic role of glutathione transferases in anthelmintic metabolism and neglected the potential role of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily (CYPs). Proteomic technologies offers the opportunity to support genomics, reverse genetics and pharmacokinetics, and provide an integrated insight into both the cellular mechanisms underpinning response to anthelmintics and also the identification of biomarker panels for monitoring the development of anthelmintic resistance. To date, there have been limited attempts to include proteomics in anthelmintic metabolism studies. Optimisations of membrane, post-translational modification and interaction proteomic technologies in helminths are needed to especially study Phase I CYPs and Phase III ABC transporter pumps for anthelmintics and their metabolites.

  3. First survey of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; He, S W; Li, H; Guo, Q C; Pan, W W; Wang, X J; Zhang, J; Liu, L Z; Liu, W; Liu, Y

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present survey was to reveal the prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, the People's Republic of China. From July 2010 through February 2013, a total of 479 goats slaughtered in local abattoirs and markets were examined for the presence of helminths using a helminthological approach. Eighty-six percent of the examined goats were infected with at least one species of helminths. In total, 15 genera of helminths were found representing 2 phyla, 3 classes, 5 orders, and 11 families. Oesophago-stomum, Ostertagia and Haemonchus were the most prevailing nematode genera, Eurytrema was the predominant trematode genus detected, whereas the infection of adult goats with cestodes was not common, with Cysticercus tenuicollis being the most common genus. The worm burdens showed obvious seasonal variation in that nematodes and cestodes were abundant in summer and winter, and the trematodes peaked in winter, which was consistent with the seasonal precipitation of Hunan Province. The geographical distribution of helminths in goats ascended with altitude. Goats in the mountainous areas were more severely infected with helminths than goats in the hilly areas, whereas infection of goats with helminths was much less in the lake areas. The present investigation highlights the high prevalence of helminths in adult goats in Hunan Province, China, which provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of future prevention and controlling measures against helminth infection in adult goats in this province and elsewhere.

  4. Selenoprotein expression in macrophages is critical for optimal clearance of parasitic helminth Helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plasticity of macrophages is evident in helminthic parasite infections where they play a role in both inflammation and protection. Previously, we demonstrated that selenium (Se), in the form of selenoproteins, induced a phenotypic switch in macrophage activation from a pro-inflammatory (M1) towa...

  5. Prevalence and risk factors associated with the presence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in children studying in Municipal Corporation of Delhi Schools of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Sobhana; Passi, Santosh Jain; Singh, Som Nath

    2015-09-01

    To determine the type, prevalence, intensity and the potential risk factors for helminths infection harboured by primary school aged children from selected schools of Delhi, India. Stool samples collected from 347 boys and girls studying in grades I-IV (aged 5-15 years) were examined by the semi-quantitative Kato-Katz method for presence of eggs of soil-transmitted helminths. Questionnaire data on the potential risk factors, associated variables and consequences of infection were categorized as individual, household, hygiene/sanitation related and behavioural factors. Associations between infection and these factors were assessed by multiple logistic regressions. The overall prevalence of infection with any of the helminths was 29.7 %. The prevalence of single infection with Ascaris lumbricoides was 8.1 % while that of hookworm and Trichuris trichiura was 3.7 % each. Strongest predictors for the helminths presence were never deworming (OR = 1.76; 95 % CI: 1.05, 2.95), no facility for defection (OR = 4.31; 95 % CI: 1.22, 15.22), using left hand for cleaning anal region (OR = 2.01; 95 % CI: 1.18, 3.43) and not reporting pain in stomach (OR = 1.93; 95 % CI: 1.14, 3.26). Though the infection intensities were low, we highlighted some of the potential risk factors that increase the susceptibility to these infections. Periodic deworming along with improvement in hygiene and sanitation practices through concerted efforts, not only from the school infrastructure but also the community at large, will help prevent helminths transmission and reinfection.

  6. Helminth parasites found in hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cirak, Veli Y; Senlik, Bayram; Aydogdu, Ali; Selver, Melih; Akyol, Volkan

    2010-10-01

    Hedgehog diseases are becoming important issues for veterinary surgeons due to growing interest in this animal species among pet owners and an increase in cases of rescued hedgehogs requiring veterinary care. A parasitological study was carried out on hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in the Bursa province of Turkey, found dead mainly due to road casualties, to determine their helminth parasite burden. The detected helminths and their prevalences were as follows: Physaloptera clausa (72.2%), Crenosoma striatum (55.5%), Aonchotheca erinacei (55.5%), Hymenolepis erinacei (55.5%), Nephridiorhynchus major (50%) and Eucoleus aerophilus (22.2%). The number of parasites in infected animals varied from 1 to 203. The highest mean intensity of infection was observed with C. striatum, and the lowest was observed with N. major. The mean abundance of different species varied from 0.7 to 41.8, where E. aerophilus and C. striatum had the lowest and highest abundance, respectively. This study represents the first time N. major and E. aerophilus have been reported in hedgehogs in Turkey. The presence of E. aerophilus and its potential role as a zoonotic agent are discussed.

  7. Helminth Parasites of the Juvenile Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Testudines: Cheloniidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Werneck, M R; Lima, E H S M; Pires, T; Silva, R J

    2015-08-01

    The helminth fauna of 31 juvenile specimens of Eretmochelys imbricata from the Brazilian coast was examined. Seventeen individuals were infected with helminths (54.8%). The helminths found were: Diaschistorchis pandus, Cricocephalus albus, Metacetabulum invaginatum, Pronocephalus obliquus (Pronocephalidae), Cymatocarpus solearis (Brachycoeliidae), Styphlotrema solitaria (Styphlotrematidae), Carettacola stunkardi, Amphiorchis caborojoensis (Spirorchiidae), Orchidasma amphiorchis (Telorchiidae), and Anisakis nematode larvae. This report is the first analysis of parasite communities in this host.

  8. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health topics Data Media centre Publications Countries Programmes Governance About WHO Language عربي 中文 English Français Русский ... Data Media centre Publications Countries Programmes and projects Governance About WHO Help and Services Contacts FAQs Employment ...

  9. Towards effective prevention and control of helminth neglected tropical diseases in the Western Pacific Region through multi-disease and multi-sectoral interventions.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Jun; Ehrenberg, John P; Nealon, Joshua; Fürst, Thomas; Aratchige, Padmasiri; Gonzales, Glenda; Chanthavisouk, Chitsavang; Hernandez, Leda M; Fengthong, Tayphasavanh; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) cause serious health, social and economic burdens in the countries of the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region. Among the NTDs, helminth infections are particularly prominent with regard to the number of infected individuals and health impact. Co-endemicity is common among impoverished and marginalized populations. To achieve effective and sustainable control of helminth NTDs, a deeper understanding of the social-ecological systems governing their endemicity and strategies beyond preventive chemotherapy are required to tackle the multiple causes of infection and re-infection. We discuss the feasibility of implementing multi-disease, multi-sectoral intervention packages for helminth NTDs in the Western Pacific Region. After reviewing the main determinants for helminth NTD endemicity and current control strategies, key control activities that involve or concern other programmes within and beyond the health sector are discussed. A considerable number of activities that have an impact on more than one helminth NTD are identified in a variety of sectors, suggesting an untapped potential for synergies. We also highlight the challenges of multi-sectoral collaboration, particularly of involving non-health sectors. We conclude that multi-sectoral collaboration for helminth NTD control is feasible if the target diseases and sectors are carefully selected. To do so, an incentive analysis covering key stakeholders in the sectors is crucial, and the disease-control strategies need to be well understood. The benefits of multi-disease, multi-sectoral approaches could go beyond immediate health impacts by contributing to sustainable development, raising educational attainment, increasing productivity and reducing health inequities.

  10. Coprological study on intestinal helminths in Swiss dogs: temporal aspects of anthelminthic treatment.

    PubMed

    Sager, H; Moret, Ch Steiner; Grimm, F; Deplazes, P; Doherr, M G; Gottstein, B

    2006-03-01

    Coproscopic examination of 505 dogs originating from the western or central part of Switzerland revealed the presence (prevalence data) of the following helminthes: Toxocara canis (7.1%), hookworms (6.9%), Trichuris vulpis (5.5%), Toxascaris leonina (1.3%), Taeniidae (1.3%), Capillaria spp. (0.8%), and Diphyllobothrium latum (0.4%). Potential risk factors for infection were identified by a questionnaire: dogs from rural areas significantly more often had hookworms and taeniid eggs in their feces when compared to urban family dogs. Access to small rodents, offal, and carrion was identified as risk factor for hookworm and Taeniidae, while feeding of fresh and uncooked meat did not result in higher prevalences for these helminths. A group of 111 dogs was treated every 3 months with a combined medication of pyrantel embonate, praziquantel, and febantel, and fecal samples were collected for coproscopy in monthly intervals. Despite treatment, the yearly incidence of T. canis was 32%, while hookworms, T. vulpis, Capillaria spp., and Taeniidae reached incidences ranging from 11 to 22%. Fifty-seven percent of the 111 dogs had helminth eggs in their feces at least once during the 1-year study period. This finding implicates that an infection risk with potential zoonotic pathogens cannot be ruled out for the dog owner despite regular deworming four times a year.

  11. Looking beyond the induction of Th2 responses to explain immunomodulation by helminths.

    PubMed

    Nutman, T B

    2015-06-01

    Although helminth infections are characteristically associated with Th2-mediated responses that include the production of the prototypical cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by CD4(+) cells, the production of IgE, peripheral blood eosinophilia and mucus production in localized sites, these responses are largely attenuated when helminth infections become less acute. This modulation of the immune response that occurs with chronic helminth infection is often induced by molecules secreted by helminth parasites, by non-Th2 regulatory CD4(+) cells, and by nonclassical B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. This review will focus on those parasite- and host-mediated mechanisms underlying the modulated T-cell response that occurs as the default in chronic helminth infections.

  12. Cutting edge: in the absence of TGF-β signaling in T cells, fewer CD103+ regulatory T cells develop, but exuberant IFN-γ production renders mice more susceptible to helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lisa A; Maizels, Rick M

    2012-08-01

    Multiple factors control susceptibility of C57BL/6 mice to infection with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus, including TGF-β signaling, which inhibits immunity in vivo. However, mice expressing a T cell-specific dominant-negative TGF-β receptor II (TGF-βRII DN) show dampened Th2 immunity and diminished resistance to infection. Interestingly, H. polygyrus-infected TGF-βRII DN mice show greater frequencies of CD4(+)Foxp3(+)Helios(+) Tregs than infected wild-type mice, but levels of CD103 are greatly reduced on both these cells and on the CD4(+)Foxp3(+)Helios(-) population. Although Th9 and Th17 levels are comparable between infected TGF-βRII DN and wild-type mice, the former develop exaggerated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell IFN-γ responses. Increased susceptibility conferred by TGF-βRII DN expression was lost in IFN-γ-deficient mice, although they remained unable to completely clear infection. Hence, overexpression of IFN-γ negatively modulates immunity, and the presence of Helios(+) Tregs may maintain susceptibility on the C57BL/6 background.

  13. Safety of a New Chewable Formulation of Mebendazole for Preventive Chemotherapy Interventions to Treat Young Children in Countries with Moderate-to-High Prevalence of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Andrew J.; Ali, Said M.; Albonico, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the new chewable formulation of mebendazole to treat soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in children ≤10 years old with the goal of using this formulation in preventive chemotherapy programs and expand treatment to young children who are unable to swallow solid tablets. In this open-label, single-arm, phase 3 study conducted at Pemba Island, Zanzibar, Tanzania, children aged 2 to 10 years (median age: 4 years) were administered a single dose of the mebendazole 500 mg chewable tablet. Safety was assessed 30 minutes after dose and 3 days later. Of the 390 (98%) children who completed the study, 195 (55%) had ≥1 STH infection and 157 (45%) had no infection at baseline. The most common STH infections were Trichuris trichiura (51%), hookworm (16%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (7%). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were experienced by 11% of children. There was no difference in the percentage of children experiencing TEAEs between the age strata of 2–5 years and 6–10 years. Diarrhea was reported only in children aged 2–5 years. No correlation was observed between the type or percentage of AEs and presence or severity of infection. A single dose of mebendazole 500 mg chewable tablet was safe and well tolerated in children aged 2 to 10 years. PMID:23319961

  14. Cardiopulmonary helminths in foxes from the Pyrenees.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Castañé, Ignasi; Ortuño, Anna; Marco, Ignasi; Castellà, Joaquim

    2015-12-01

    The present survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of cardiopulmonary helminths in red foxes in Pyrenees area and to evaluate the role of foxes in the eco-epidemiology of these nematodes. Hearts and entire respiratory tracts were obtained from 87 foxes from Vall d'Aran region, Pyrenees, Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. The cardiopulmonary tracts were dissected, flushed and examined for nematodes using sedimented flushing water. Of the 87 examined foxes, 53 (61%) were positive for cardiopulmonary helminths. The identified nematodes were Crenosoma vulpis (44.8%), Eucoleus aerophilus (29.9%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.4%). Statistical differences were observed only on comparing age and C.vulpis prevalence, with young foxes being more infected than adults. The high prevalence of cardiopulmonary nematodes suggested that red foxes may play an important role in their transmission and maintenance in the studied area.

  15. Helminth Parasites and the Modulation of Joint Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Matisz, Chelsea E.; McDougall, Jason J.; Sharkey, Keith A.; McKay, Derek M.

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop better therapeutics for autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases, of which musculoskeletal disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis are particularly prevalent and debilitating. Helminth parasites are accomplished masters at modifying their hosts' immune activity, and so attention has focused on rodent-helminth model systems to uncover the workings of the mammalian immune response to metazoan parasites, with the hope of revealing molecules and/or mechanisms that can be translated into better treatments for human autoimmune and idiopathic disorders. Substantial proof-of-principal data supporting the concept that infection with helminth parasites can reduce the severity of concomitant disease has been amassed from models of mucosal inflammation. Indeed, infection with helminth parasites has been tried as a therapy in inflammatory bowel disease, and there are case reports relating to other conditions (e.g., autism); however, the impact of infection with parasitic helminths on musculoskeletal diseases has not been extensively studied. Here, we present the view that such a strategy should be applied to the amelioration of joint inflammation and review the literature that supports this contention. PMID:21584243

  16. Giardia duodenalis and soil-transmitted helminths infections in children in São Tomé and Príncipe: do we think Giardia when addressing parasite control?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Baptista-Fernandes, Teresa; Oliveira, Dinamene; Rodrigues, Rúben; Neves, Edgar; Lima, António; Garrido, Eduardo; Afonso, Guilherme; Zaky, Ahmed; Telles de Freitas, Paulo; Atouguia, Jorge; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis prevalence is commonly as high as soil-transmitted helminths (STH), nevertheless is not considered for large-scale chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA) due to its short incubation period and frequent reinfections, its control being associated to improving access to water and sanitation. A study enrolling 444 children attending preschools was conducted in May 2011 during a deworming campaign. Faecal samples were obtained and analysed through microscopy of wet mounting and after Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques. The majority of children were infected with at least one pathogenic parasite (86.7%, 385 of 444). Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura (56.3%, 250 of 444 and 52.5%, 233 of 444, respectively) were the most frequent parasites followed by G. duodenalis infecting 41.7% (185 of 444) of the children. The present work aimed at obtaining updated information concerning intestinal parasite infections in children attending preschools in São Tomé and Príncipe and to contribute for the adequate management of the enteric infections.

  17. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1 replication in vitro through different mechanisms including, but not limited, to down regulation of CCR5. In addition RAPA synergistically enhances the anti-HIV activity of entry inhibitors such as vicriviroc, aplaviroc and enfuvirtide in vitro. RAPA also inhibits HIV-1 infection in human peripheral blood leucocytes-SCID reconstituted mice. In addition, a prospective nonrandomized trial of HIV patient series receiving RAPA monotherapy after liver transplantation indicated significantly better control of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication among patients taking RAPA monotherapy. Taken together, the evidence presented in this review suggests that RAPA may be a useful drug that should be evaluated for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:21175433

  18. [Gastro-intestinal helminths detected by fecal examination in stray dogs in the Aydin province].

    PubMed

    Unlü, Hakki; Eren, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    Fecal specimens of a total of 200 dogs were examined by native, Fulleborn's floatation and Benedek's sedimentation methods to determine the prevalence of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in stray dogs in the Aydin Municipality Animal Shelter and the Kuşadasi Municipality Animal Shelter. Helminth infections were encountered in 82 (41%) of the fecal samples examined. One cestode egg and four nematode eggs were found in the infected fecal samples. The helminth eggs found were identified as follows: Taenia spp. (7.5%), Toxacara spp. (20%), Toxascaris leonina (1%), Uncinaria stenocephala (21%) and Trichuris vulpis (1.5%). No trematode eggs and nematode larvae were found in this study.

  19. Intestinal Helminths in Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura) from Arizona, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Tennessee, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.A.; Franson, J.C.; Kinsella, J.M.; Hollmen, T.; Hansen, S.P.; Hollmen, A.

    2004-01-01

    We examined 115 hunter-killed mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) from 4 states (Arizona, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Tennessee, U.S.A.) in 1998 and 1999 to investigate geographical variation in the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections. Four intestinal helminth species were identified: Killigrewia delafondi, Ornithostrongylus crami, Ascaridia columbae, and Capillaria obsignata. The number of worms (all helminth species combined) per infected bird ranged from 1 to 166 (mean ± SE = 12.7 ± 7.45, median = 2.0). Filarids. Aproctella stoddardi, were found in 2 birds but were probably adhering to the outside of the intestine. Overall, 18% of the doves were infected with 1 or more species of helminths. The percentage of doves infected with at least 1 helminth species varied from 4% in Arizona to 27% in South Carolina. Mixed infections occurred in only 3 individuals (14% of infected birds). We found no significant differences in prevalence of infection among any of the 4 helminths by host age or sex, and prevalences were too low to test for differences among states. The intensity of O. crami was higher in males than in females but did not differ significantly among states. Intensities of the other 3 helminths did not differ by sex or state, and we found no differences in helminth intensity by age. Intestinal length was significantly greater in infected than in uninfected birds.

  20. Helminth parasites of the bufflehead duck, Bucephala albeola, wintering in the Chihuahua Desert with a checklist of helminth parasites reported from this host.

    PubMed

    Gladden, Beverly W; Canaris, A G

    2009-02-01

    The bufflehead duck (Bucephala albeola) (Mergini) ranges from Alaska and Canada to the United States and Mexico. Buffleheads ingest invertebrates as a major component of their food throughout life. Puddle ducks (Anatinae) change mainly to vegetable foods at an early age. Loss of helminth parasite species and abundance in the fall migration has been reported for puddle ducks. This change in food has been hypothesized to cause some of the parasite loss. Nothing was known about helminth community dynamics in wintering buffleheads, including possible loss of helminths evident in puddle ducks. Helminth communities of the buffleheads were compared between wintering localities in the Chihuahua Desert of Texas and Mexico and to results from a nesting locality in Manitoba, Canada. There were no significant differences for average helminth species richness, prevalence, or abundance between the nesting and wintering grounds. Replenishment of helminths occurred in wintering buffleheads, and abundance of some helminth species increased significantly over time. The majority of helminth life cycles were indirect. These results were mostly related to the bufflehead's continued ingestion of invertebrate foods. Seven of the 41 helminth species present in buffleheads were in common to the 3 localities. Helminth community similarities between Manitoba and Texas and Manitoba and Mexico were much lower than similarity between Texas and Mexico. The dissimilarities were mostly attributable to differences in habitats but may also indicate loss of helminth species with subsequent infections with other species. The component community of the bufflehead from the Chihuahua Desert in Texas (n = 41) consisted of 23 species of helminths (10 species of cestodes, 7 trematodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) for a total of 4,008 individual specimens. Cestodes accounted for 69% of the total abundance. The component community of B. albeola from the Chihuahua Desert in Mexico (n = 26) consisted

  1. Survival of model helminth eggs and larvae (Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum sp.) in the ensilaging process.

    PubMed

    Juris, P; Rataj, D; Ilavská, I; Ziláková, J; Knotek, S; Vasilková, Z

    1997-06-01

    Ascaris suum nonembryonated eggs remained viable for the most part even after 42 days of ensilaging. At the end of the anaerobic fermentation, mean of damaged eggs was 15.2 +/- 4.02 (min. 11, max. 21), 32.9%. Conversely, the viability of Oesophagostomum sp. nonembryonated eggs and infective L3 larvae was reduced-eggs: mean number 23.6 +/- 3.64 (min. 20. max. 28) specimens (93.3%), L3 larvae: mean number 24.2 +/- 4.38 (min. 19, max. 28) specimens (96.7%), during the period of study (42 days). Control group of the same helminth propagative stages, was kept under optimum aerobic conditions. After 42 days of exposition, 9.0 +/- 3.46 (min. 5, max. 11) nonembryonated Ascaris suum eggs (12.9%), 17.33 +/- 2.51 (min. 15, max. 20) Oesophagostomum sp. eggs (36.4%) and 3.66 +/- 1.15 (min. 3, max. 5) Oesophagostomum sp. larvae L3 (6.3%) were damaged on average. Helminth eggs, thick-walled and more resistant to the environment in particular, are able to survive the anaerobic process of ensilaging. To protect animals against parasitic diseases, it is necessary to consider the epidemiological hazard of silages and silage juices, which are potentially contaminated by helminth propagative stages. Silages and silage juices under certain conditions may become harmful to polygastric animals.

  2. Detection of Helminth Eggs and Identification of Hookworm Species in Stray Cats, Dogs and Soil from Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tun, Sandee; Ithoi, Init; Mahmud, Rohela; Samsudin, Nur Izyan; Kek Heng, Chua; Ling, Lau Yee

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats) and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin-ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%-79.9%), in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%), Toxocara (11.1%), Trichuris (8.4%), Spirometra (7.4%) and Ascaris (2.4%). The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p < 0.001). Only three genera of helminths were detected in soil samples with the prevalence of 23% (95% CI = 15.1%-31%), consisting of hookworms (16.6%), Ascaris (4%) and Toxocara (2.4%). The molecular identification of hookworm species revealed that Ancylostoma ceylanicum was dominant in both faecal and soil samples. The dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections.

  3. Detection of Helminth Eggs and Identification of Hookworm Species in Stray Cats, Dogs and Soil from Klang Valley, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Rohela; Samsudin, Nur Izyan; Kek Heng, Chua; Ling, Lau Yee

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats) and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin–ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%–79.9%), in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%), Toxocara (11.1%), Trichuris (8.4%), Spirometra (7.4%) and Ascaris (2.4%). The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p < 0.001). Only three genera of helminths were detected in soil samples with the prevalence of 23% (95% CI = 15.1%–31%), consisting of hookworms (16.6%), Ascaris (4%) and Toxocara (2.4%). The molecular identification of hookworm species revealed that Ancylostoma ceylanicum was dominant in both faecal and soil samples. The dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections. PMID:26671680

  4. Epidemiology of intestinal helminth parasites of dogs in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sowemimo, O A; Asaolu, S O

    2008-03-01

    An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal helminths of dogs (Canis familiaris) in two veterinary clinics in Ibadan, Nigeria, was conducted between January 2001 and December 2002. Faecal samples collected from 959 dogs were processed by modified Kato-Katz technique and then examined for helminth eggs. The results of the study showed that 237 (24.7%) of the dogs examined were infected with different types of helminths. The prevalences for the various helminth eggs observed were: Toxocara canis 9.0%, Ancylostoma spp. 17.9%, Toxascaris leonina 0.6%, Trichuris vulpis 0.5%, Uncinaria stenocephala 0.4% and Dipylidium caninum 0.2%. The faecal egg intensities, determined as mean egg count/gram of faeces ( +/- SEM), were: T. canis 462.0 +/- 100.5, Ancylostoma spp. 54.1 +/- 8.6, T. leonina 0.8 +/- 0.4, T. vulpis 0.1 +/- 0.0, U. stenocephala 1.0 +/- 0.7 and D. caninum 0.2 +/- 0.1. Host age was found to be a significant factor with respect to the prevalence and intensity of T. canis and Ancylostoma spp. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites between male (27.0%) and female (22.5%) dogs (P>0.05). The prevalence of helminth parasites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the local breed (African shepherd) (41.2%) than in Alsatian dogs (16.2%) or in other exotic breeds (21.0%). Single parasite infections (85.7%) were more common than mixed infections (3.5%).

  5. Helminths and Intestinal Flora Team Up to Improve Gut Health.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Paul; Agha, Zainab; Loukas, Alex

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with impaired intestinal barrier function, chronic inflammation, and microbial dysbiosis. In a recent publication in Science, Ramanan et al. used murine and human studies to demonstrate that infections with gastrointestinal helminths can protect against IBD by provoking immune responses that alter the balance of commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the intestine.

  6. Helminth parasites (Cestoidea: Nematoda) of select herpetofauna from Paraguay.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R; Freed, Paul S

    2010-02-01

    Thirty-four amphibians (6 families, 12 species) and 28 reptiles (5 families, 16 species) from Paraguay were examined for helminths. Fifteen (44%) amphibians and 6 (21%) reptiles were found to harbor at least 1 species of helminth; 4 (12%) amphibians and 2 (7%) reptiles harbored multiple infections. Three species of Cestoidea and 17 species of Nematoda were found in the herptiles surveyed. Fourteen new host and 12 new locality records are documented, including the first report of the filaroid nematode, Macdonaldius grassi (Caballero, 1954) Chabaud and Frank, 1961, from South America.

  7. Helminth parasites of the bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinsella, J.M.; Foster, Garry W.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Forrester, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty species of helminths (9 trematodes, 9 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans), including 9 new host records, were collected from 40 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from Florida. Intensities of infection were low and no lesions were attributed to the parasites. No species were considered specialists in bald eagles; 5 species were considered raptor generalists and the remainder, generalists in other orders of fish-eating birds. An undescribed species of Hamatospiculum was found in 3 birds. Most of the common helminths were acquired from eating fish intermediate hosts.

  8. A Cross-Sectional Study of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene-Related Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Urban School- and Preschool-Aged Children in Kibera, Nairobi

    PubMed Central

    Worrell, Caitlin M.; Wiegand, Ryan E.; Davis, Stephanie M.; Odero, Kennedy O.; Blackstock, Anna; Cuéllar, Victoria M.; Njenga, Sammy M.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Roy, Sharon L.; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections affect persons living in areas with poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Preschool-aged children (PSAC) and school-aged children (SAC) are disproportionately affected by STH infections. We aimed to identify WASH factors associated with STH infection among PSAC and SAC in Kibera, Kenya. In 2012, households containing a PSAC or SAC were randomly selected from those enrolled in the International Emerging Infections Program, a population-based surveillance system. We administered a household questionnaire, conducted environmental assessments for WASH, and tested three stools from each child for STH eggs using the Kato-Katz method. WASH factors were evaluated for associations with STH infection using univariable and multivariable Poisson regression. Any-STH prevalence was 40.8% among 201 PSAC and 40.0% among 475 SAC enrolled. Using the Joint Monitoring Programme water and sanitation classifications, 1.5% of households reported piped water on premises versus 98.5% another improved water source; 1.3% reported improved sanitation facilities, while 81.7% used shared sanitation facilities, 13.9% had unimproved facilities, and 3.1% reported no facilities (open defecation). On univariable analysis, STH infection was significantly associated with a household toilet located off-premises (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.33; p = 0.047), while always treating water (PR = 0.81; p = 0.04), covering drinking water containers (PR = 0.75; p = 0.02), using clean towels during hand drying (PR = 0.58; p<0.01), having finished household floor material (PR = 0.76; p<0.01), having electricity (PR = 0.70; p<0.01), and increasing household elevation in 10-meter increments (PR = 0.89; p<0.01) were protective against STH infection. On multivariable analysis, usually versus always treating water was associated with increased STH prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.52; p<0.01), while having finished household floor material (aPR = 0.76; p = 0

  9. A Cross-Sectional Study of Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene-Related Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Urban School- and Preschool-Aged Children in Kibera, Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Caitlin M; Wiegand, Ryan E; Davis, Stephanie M; Odero, Kennedy O; Blackstock, Anna; Cuéllar, Victoria M; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Roy, Sharon L; Fox, LeAnne M

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections affect persons living in areas with poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Preschool-aged children (PSAC) and school-aged children (SAC) are disproportionately affected by STH infections. We aimed to identify WASH factors associated with STH infection among PSAC and SAC in Kibera, Kenya. In 2012, households containing a PSAC or SAC were randomly selected from those enrolled in the International Emerging Infections Program, a population-based surveillance system. We administered a household questionnaire, conducted environmental assessments for WASH, and tested three stools from each child for STH eggs using the Kato-Katz method. WASH factors were evaluated for associations with STH infection using univariable and multivariable Poisson regression. Any-STH prevalence was 40.8% among 201 PSAC and 40.0% among 475 SAC enrolled. Using the Joint Monitoring Programme water and sanitation classifications, 1.5% of households reported piped water on premises versus 98.5% another improved water source; 1.3% reported improved sanitation facilities, while 81.7% used shared sanitation facilities, 13.9% had unimproved facilities, and 3.1% reported no facilities (open defecation). On univariable analysis, STH infection was significantly associated with a household toilet located off-premises (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.33; p = 0.047), while always treating water (PR = 0.81; p = 0.04), covering drinking water containers (PR = 0.75; p = 0.02), using clean towels during hand drying (PR = 0.58; p<0.01), having finished household floor material (PR = 0.76; p<0.01), having electricity (PR = 0.70; p<0.01), and increasing household elevation in 10-meter increments (PR = 0.89; p<0.01) were protective against STH infection. On multivariable analysis, usually versus always treating water was associated with increased STH prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.52; p<0.01), while having finished household floor material (aPR = 0.76; p = 0

  10. Helminth communities of the exotic introduced turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans in southwestern Spain: Transmission from native turtles.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Vila, J; Díaz-Paniagua, C; Ribas, A; Florencio, M; Pérez-Santigosa, N; Casanova, J C

    2009-06-01

    We report the prevalence and diversity of helminth parasites found in native turtles Mauremys leprosa and Emys orbicularis from three localities in southwestern Spain and we describe the helminth communities of exotic turtles Trachemys scripta elegans coexisting in the wild with both native turtle species. Five nematodes species were identified, of which Serpinema microcephalus was the only species common between two localities, although infection parameters were different between them. This is the first report of cross transmission of S. microcephalus and Falcaustra donanaensis from native to exotic turtles and the first report of genus Physaloptera in turtles of the Palearctic Region. Continuous releasing of exotic pet turtles in wildlife ecosystems increases the risk of parasite introductions and, consequently, potential transmission to native species, and highlights the impending need for regulation of pet turtle trade in Europe.

  11. Gastrointestinal helminths of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in center of Iran.

    PubMed

    Anvari-Tafti, M; Sazmand, A; Hekmatimoghaddam, S; Moobedi, I

    2013-03-01

    Camels are multipurpose animals in Iran. As parasitic diseases are the major cause of impaired meat and milk production in this animal, the present study aimed at determining gastrointestinal helminthic infections of Iranian camels in the center of the country. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract of 144 carcasses of one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Yazd, Esfahan and Kerman provinces' abattoirs were examined for adult helminths. Camels were from both sexes and different ages. Recovered parasites were identified according to described keys by light microscope. Of 144 tested camels, 117 were infected with at least one helminth species (81.3%). A total of 28 worm species from 14 genera were identified in the digestive tract of infected animals, including 26 species of nematodes and two species of cestodes. The infection rates in stomach, small intestine, and caecum/large intestine were 86.3%, 91.5% and 11.1%, respectively. However, no worm was found in the oesophagus. The recovered worms with infection rates are discussed in this paper. In the present study, Haemonchus tataricus, Trichostrongylus hamatus and Trichuris infundibulus are reported from Iranian dromedaries for the first time. Regarding high prevalence of infection, using anthelminthic drugs seemed necessary to improve the health and productivity of camels. On the other hand, the high rate of zoonotic species indicated that camels have important role in maintaining and transmitting infection to humans.

  12. Contamination of commonly consumed raw vegetables with soil transmitted helminth eggs in Mazandaran province, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Ali; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Mehravar, Saeed; Fallah Omrani, Vahid; Fallahi, Shirzad; Behniafar, Hamed

    2016-05-16

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are responsible for significant burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consumption of raw vegetables without proper washing is one of the major routes of such infections. We evaluate the prevalence of STH contamination in commonly used vegetables in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. A total of 772 fresh raw vegetables were obtained from retail markets. Each sample was divided into two groups. One group was used as the unwashed sample and the second group was washed with standard washing procedures. Then, samples were examined for helminth eggs by using standard methods. Data analysis was performed using SPSS20. The overall prevalence of STHs was 14.89% (115/772). The rate of STH contamination was significantly higher in warm seasons (20.5%, 79/386) than in cold seasons (9.32%, 36/386) among the unwashed vegetables (OR=2.50; CI 95%=1.64-3.8; P<0.001). No parasites were observed in standard washed samples (OR=271.40; CI 95%=16.84-4373.64; P<0.001). Prevalence of STH contamination was significantly higher in leafy vegetables than root vegetables (OR=1.67; CI 95%=1.09-2.55; P<0.05). The prevalence of STHs species in all the vegetables were as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides (3.36%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), hookworms (2.9%), Toxocara spp. (1.68%), Trichostrongylus spp. (1.55), Taenia sp. (0.9%) and Hymenolepis nana (2.2%). The results of the present study emphasized that vegetables are potential risk factor for transmission of helminth infection to human in northern Iran. It is necessary that health authorities trained the consumers to proper and standard washing of vegetables before consumption.

  13. Economic Analysis of the Impact of Overseas and Domestic Treatment and Screening Options for Intestinal Helminth Infection among US-Bound Refugees from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Maskery, Brian; Coleman, Margaret S.; Weinberg, Michelle; Zhou, Weigong; Rotz, Lisa; Klosovsky, Alexander; Cantey, Paul T.; Fox, LeAnne M.; Cetron, Martin S.; Stauffer, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many U.S.-bound refugees travel from countries where intestinal parasites (hookworm, Trichuris trichuria, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis) are endemic. These infections are rare in the United States and may be underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, leading to potentially serious consequences. This evaluation examined the costs and benefits of combinations of overseas presumptive treatment of parasitic diseases vs. domestic screening/treating vs. no program. Methods An economic decision tree model terminating in Markov processes was developed to estimate the cost and health impacts of four interventions on an annual cohort of 27,700 U.S.-bound Asian refugees: 1) “No Program,” 2) U.S. “Domestic Screening and Treatment,” 3) “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin” presumptive treatment, and 4) “Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides”. Markov transition state models were used to estimate long-term effects of parasitic infections. Health outcome measures (four parasites) included outpatient cases, hospitalizations, deaths, life years, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results The “No Program” option is the least expensive ($165,923 per cohort) and least effective option (145 outpatient cases, 4.0 hospitalizations, and 0.67 deaths discounted over a 60-year period for a one-year cohort). The “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin” option ($418,824) is less expensive than “Domestic Screening and Treatment” ($3,832,572) or “Overseas Albendazole and Domestic Screening for Strongyloides” ($2,182,483). According to the model outcomes, the most effective treatment option is “Overseas Albendazole and Ivermectin,” which reduces outpatient cases, deaths and hospitalization by around 80% at an estimated net cost of $458,718 per death averted, or $2,219/$24,036 per QALY/life year gained relative to “No Program”. Discussion Overseas presumptive treatment for U.S.-bound refugees is a cost

  14. Helminth-induced arginase-1 exacerbates lung inflammation and disease severity in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Monin, Leticia; Griffiths, Kristin L; Lam, Wing Y; Gopal, Radha; Kang, Dongwan D; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Rajamanickam, Anuradha; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Zúñiga, Joaquín; Babu, Subash; Kolls, Jay K; Mitreva, Makedonka; Rosa, Bruce A; Ramos-Payan, Rosalio; Morrison, Thomas E; Murray, Peter J; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Pearce, Edward J; Khader, Shabaana A

    2015-12-01

    Parasitic helminth worms, such as Schistosoma mansoni, are endemic in regions with a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) among the population. Human studies suggest that helminth coinfections contribute to increased TB susceptibility and increased rates of TB reactivation. Prevailing models suggest that T helper type 2 (Th2) responses induced by helminth infection impair Th1 immune responses and thereby limit Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) control. Using a pulmonary mouse model of Mtb infection, we demonstrated that S. mansoni coinfection or immunization with S. mansoni egg antigens can reversibly impair Mtb-specific T cell responses without affecting macrophage-mediated Mtb control. Instead, S. mansoni infection resulted in accumulation of high arginase-1-expressing macrophages in the lung, which formed type 2 granulomas and exacerbated inflammation in Mtb-infected mice. Treatment of coinfected animals with an antihelminthic improved Mtb-specific Th1 responses and reduced disease severity. In a genetically diverse mouse population infected with Mtb, enhanced arginase-1 activity was associated with increased lung inflammation. Moreover, in patients with pulmonary TB, lung damage correlated with increased serum activity of arginase-1, which was elevated in TB patients coinfected with helminths. Together, our data indicate that helminth coinfection induces arginase-1-expressing type 2 granulomas, thereby increasing inflammation and TB disease severity. These results also provide insight into the mechanisms by which helminth coinfections drive increased susceptibility, disease progression, and severity in TB.

  15. Temporal occurrence and community structure of helminth parasites in southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala, from north central Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Vhora, M Suhail; Bolek, Matthew G

    2015-03-01

    Currently, little information is available about the temporal recruitment of helminth communities in amphibian hosts. We examined the helminth community structure and temporal recruitment of helminth parasites in southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala. Specifically, we were interested in how host life history such as habitat, age and/or size, diet, sex, and temporal variation in abiotic factors (precipitation and temperature) were important in determining monthly infection patterns of helminth populations and communities in southern leopard frogs. From May to September 2011, 74 southern leopard frogs were collected from Teal Ridge in Stillwater Payne County, OK, USA. Sixty-nine (93 %) of 74 frogs were infected with 1 or more helminth species. During our collecting period, the average monthly temperature was lowest in May and highest in July, and monthly precipitation was highest in May and lowest during the first week of September. The component community consisted of 11 species of helminth, including 1 larval and 1 adult cestode, 2 larval and 3 adult trematodes, and 1 juvenile and 3 adult nematodes. Of the 1790 helminths recovered, 51 % (911) were nematodes, 47 % (842) were cestodes, and 2 % (37) were trematodes. There were significant differences in the total abundance and mean species richness of helminths acquired by skin contact or through frog diet in monthly component communities of southern leopard frogs. A positive correlation existed for percentage of all helminths acquired by skin contact and monthly precipitation (r = 0.94, P < 0.01). Conversely, a negative correlation existed for monthly precipitation and percentage of helminths acquired by diet (r = -0.94, P < 0.01). Our results indicate that abiotic conditions such as precipitation have a major influence on the avenues for and constraints on the transmission of helminths with life cycles associated with water/moisture or terrestrial intermediate/paratenic hosts and are important in structuring

  16. A comparison of the intestinal helminth communities of Equidae in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Matthee, Sonja; Krecek, Rosina C; McGeoch, Melodie A

    2004-12-01

    The intestinal helminth communities of 8 horses, 12 donkeys, 21 Hartmann's mountain zebras, and 44 Burchell's zebras were compared using the original data from 6 studies in South Africa and Namibia. Necropsy and worm recovery techniques were comparable between the studies. Sixty helminth species (58 nematode, 1 cestode, and 1 trematode species) were recorded. There were significant differences in the helminth community structures of the 4 Equus species. The helminth communities of the 2 closely related zebra subspecies were most similar, and they jointly shared 7 helminth species with donkeys and only 1 with horses. Geographic variation and host-mixing contributed to the helminth species composition. Multiple confamilial species infections were the norm in the donkeys and zebra subspecies, and no single-species infection was recorded for the Strongylidae. Congeneric species were commonly recorded in 3 genera (Cyathostomum, Cylicocyclus, and Cylicostephanus). The shape of the occupancy frequency distributions for the donkeys and zebra subspecies was multimodal, with no clear satellite or core modes. Despite the presence of environmental variability and comparatively low parasite-host specificity, the phylogenetic signal within Equus helminth communities remains strong.

  17. Helminth-induced alterations of the gut microbiota exacerbate bacterial colitis.

    PubMed

    Su, C; Su, L; Li, Y; Long, S R; Chang, J; Zhang, W; Walker, W A; Xavier, R J; Cherayil, B J; Shi, H N

    2017-03-29

    Infection with the intestinal helminth parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus exacerbates the colitis caused by the bacterial enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium. To clarify the underlying mechanism, we analyzed fecal microbiota composition of control and helminth-infected mice and evaluated the functional role of compositional differences by microbiota transplantation experiments. Our results showed that infection of Balb/c mice with H. polygyrus resulted in significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, characterized by a marked increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreases in Firmicutes and Lactobacillales. Recipients of the gut microbiota from helminth-infected wide-type, but not STAT6-deficient, Balb/c donors had increased fecal pathogen shedding and significant worsening of Citrobacter-induced colitis compared to recipients of microbiota from control donors. Recipients of helminth-altered microbiota also displayed increased regulatory T cells and IL-10 expression. Depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells and neutralization of IL-10 in recipients of helminth-altered microbiota led to reduced stool C. rodentium numbers and attenuated colitis. These results indicate that alteration of the gut microbiota is a significant contributor to the H. polygyrus-induced exacerbation of C. rodentium colitis. The helminth-induced alteration of the microbiota is Th2-dependent and acts by promoting regulatory T cells that suppress protective responses to bacterial enteropathogens.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 29 March 2017 doi:10.1038/mi.2017.20.

  18. Helminth parasites of the wild boar, Sus scrofa, in Luristan province, western Iran and their public health significance.

    PubMed

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, S; Mobedi, I; Rezaian, M; Massoud, J; Mohebali, M; Hooshyar, H; Ashrafi, K; Rokni, M B

    2003-09-01

    Seven helminth species were obtained from 12 wild boars (Sus scrofa) during a survey from 2000 to 2001 in Luristan province, western Iran. These species include the cestode larvae Cysticercus tenuicollis (25%), C. cellulosae (8.3%), the nematodes Metastrongylus apri (41.6%), M. pudendotectus (16.6%), M. salmi (8.3%), Trichuris suis (8.3%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (41.6%). No trematodes were found. Seven wild boars (58.3%) were identified as having at least one helminth species. A single infection was detected in 16.6% of cases, but a three species infection covered the highest rank (25%). All these helminths have been reported from other areas of Iran including the north, northeast and southwest, but not in Luristan. Among seven helminths identified, at least three species are transmissible to humans. The public health significance of these helminths is discussed.

  19. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pumidonming, Wilawan; Salman, Doaa; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Abdelbaset, Abdelbaset E; Sangkaeo, Khamphon; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Igarashi, Makoto

    2017-01-10

    Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of dogs and cats have a public health concern worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand and utilized molecular tools for species identification of hookworms and Opisthorchis viverrini. Fecal samples of 197 dogs and 180 cats were collected. Overall prevalence of infection using microscopy was 40.1% in dogs and 33.9% in cats. Helminth infection found in both dogs and cats included hookworms, Spirometra spp., Taenia spp., Toxocara spp., O. viverrini, Strongyloides spp. and Trichuris spp. Hookworms were the most common helminth in dogs, while Spirometra spp. were the most prevalent in cats. Among hookworm infection in dogs and cats, Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the most prevalent hookworm, being 82.1% in hookworm infected dogs and 95.8% in hookworm infected cats. Mixed-infection due to hookworms and Spirometra spp. was the most dominant in both dogs and cats. Our finding showed that zoonotic helminth infection is highly prevalent in dogs and cats in the lower Northern area of Thailand.

  20. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    PUMIDONMING, Wilawan; SALMAN, Doaa; GRONSANG, Dulyatad; ABDELBASET, Abdelbaset E.; SANGKAEO, Khamphon; KAWAZU, Shin-ichiro; IGARASHI, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of dogs and cats have a public health concern worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand and utilized molecular tools for species identification of hookworms and Opisthorchis viverrini. Fecal samples of 197 dogs and 180 cats were collected. Overall prevalence of infection using microscopy was 40.1% in dogs and 33.9% in cats. Helminth infection found in both dogs and cats included hookworms, Spirometra spp., Taenia spp., Toxocara spp., O. viverrini, Strongyloides spp. and Trichuris spp. Hookworms were the most common helminth in dogs, while Spirometra spp. were the most prevalent in cats. Among hookworm infection in dogs and cats, Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the most prevalent hookworm, being 82.1% in hookworm infected dogs and 95.8% in hookworm infected cats. Mixed-infection due to hookworms and Spirometra spp. was the most dominant in both dogs and cats. Our finding showed that zoonotic helminth infection is highly prevalent in dogs and cats in the lower Northern area of Thailand. PMID:27570099

  1. Use of remote sensing and a geographical information system in a national helminth control programme in Chad.

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Beasley, Michael; Ndinaromtan, Montanan; Madjiouroum, Ester Mobele; Baboguel, Marie; Djenguinabe, Elie; Hay, Simon I.; Bundy, Don A. P.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To design and implement a rapid and valid epidemiological assessment of helminths among schoolchildren in Chad using ecological zones defined by remote sensing satellite sensor data and to investigate the environmental limits of helminth distribution. METHODS: Remote sensing proxy environmental data were used to define seven ecological zones in Chad. These were combined with population data in a geographical information system (GIS) in order to define a sampling protocol. On this basis, 20 schools were surveyed. Multilevel analysis, by means of generalized estimating equations to account for clustering at the school level, was used to investigate the relationship between infection patterns and key environmental variables. FINDINGS: In a sample of 1023 schoolchildren, 22.5% were infected with Schistosoma haematobium and 32.7% with hookworm. None were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides or Trichuris trichiura. The prevalence of S. haematobium and hookworm showed marked geographical heterogeneity and the observed patterns showed a close association with the defined ecological zones and significant relationships with environmental variables. These results contribute towards defining the thermal limits of geohelminth species. Predictions of infection prevalence were made for each school surveyed with the aid of models previously developed for Cameroon. These models correctly predicted that A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura would not occur in Chad but the predictions for S. haematobium were less reliable at the school level. CONCLUSION: GIS and remote sensing can play an important part in the rapid planning of helminth control programmes where little information on disease burden is available. Remote sensing prediction models can indicate patterns of geohelminth infection but can only identify potential areas of high risk for S. haematobium. PMID:12471398

  2. Immune antibodies and helminth products drive CXCR2-dependent macrophage-myofibroblast crosstalk to promote intestinal repair.

    PubMed

    Esser-von Bieren, Julia; Volpe, Beatrice; Sutherland, Duncan B; Bürgi, Jérôme; Verbeek, J Sjef; Marsland, Benjamin J; Urban, Joseph F; Harris, Nicola L

    2015-03-01

    Helminth parasites can cause considerable damage when migrating through host tissues, thus making rapid tissue repair imperative to prevent bleeding and bacterial dissemination particularly during enteric infection. However, how protective type 2 responses targeted against these tissue-disruptive multicellular parasites might contribute to homeostatic wound healing in the intestine has remained unclear. Here, we observed that mice lacking antibodies (Aid-/-) or activating Fc receptors (Fcrg-/-) displayed impaired intestinal repair following infection with the murine helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hpb), whilst transfer of immune serum could partially restore chemokine production and rescue wound healing in Aid-/- mice. Impaired healing was associated with a reduced expression of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL2/3) by macrophages (MΦ) and myofibroblasts (MF) within intestinal lesions. Whilst antibodies and helminths together triggered CXCL2 production by MΦ in vitro via surface FcR engagement, chemokine secretion by intestinal MF was elicited by helminths directly via Fcrg-chain/dectin2 signaling. Blockade of CXCR2 during Hpb challenge infection reproduced the delayed wound repair observed in helminth infected Aid-/- and Fcrg-/- mice. Finally, conditioned media from human MΦ stimulated with infective larvae of the helminth Ascaris suum together with immune serum, promoted CXCR2-dependent scratch wound closure by human MF in vitro. Collectively our findings suggest that helminths and antibodies instruct a chemokine driven MΦ-MF crosstalk to promote intestinal repair, a capacity that may be harnessed in clinical settings of impaired wound healing.

  3. Environmental conditions predict helminth prevalence in red foxes in Western Australia☆

    PubMed Central

    Dybing, Narelle A.; Fleming, Patricia A.; Adams, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most common and widely distributed wild carnivore worldwide. These predators harbour a wide range of parasites, many of which may have important conservation, agricultural and zoonotic repercussions. This project investigated the occurrence of helminth parasites from the intestines of 147 red foxes across 14 sampling localities of southwest Western Australia. Helminth parasites were detected in 58% of fox intestines: Dipylidium caninum (27.7% of foxes), Uncinaria stenocephala (18.2%), Toxocara canis (14.9%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (5.4%), Toxascaris leonina (4.7%), Taenia serialis (1.4%), Taenia hydatigena (0.7%), unidentified Taenia spp. (4.1%), Brachylaima cribbi (0.7%), Plagiorchis maculosus (0.7%) and an Acanthocephalan; family Centrorhynchidae (2.1%). Importantly, two cestodes of agricultural significance, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia ovis, were not detected in red foxes in this study, despite the presence of suitable intermediate hosts in the diets of these animals. Parasite richness varied from 1–3 species per host, with average parasite number varying from 1–39 worms (across all helminth species). Regression analyses indicated that the presence of four helminth parasites was related to various environmental factors. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei (p < 0.001), T. leonina (p < 0.01) and U. stenocephala (p < 0.01) was positively associated with average relative humidity which may affect the longevity of infective stages in the environment. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with 5-y-average minimum temperature which could reflect poor survival of infective stages through cold winter conditions. The presence of T. canis and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with the percentage cover of native vegetation at each sampling location, which is likely to reflect transmission from native prey species acting as paratenic hosts

  4. Environmental conditions predict helminth prevalence in red foxes in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Dybing, Narelle A; Fleming, Patricia A; Adams, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most common and widely distributed wild carnivore worldwide. These predators harbour a wide range of parasites, many of which may have important conservation, agricultural and zoonotic repercussions. This project investigated the occurrence of helminth parasites from the intestines of 147 red foxes across 14 sampling localities of southwest Western Australia. Helminth parasites were detected in 58% of fox intestines: Dipylidium caninum (27.7% of foxes), Uncinaria stenocephala (18.2%), Toxocara canis (14.9%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (5.4%), Toxascaris leonina (4.7%), Taenia serialis (1.4%), Taenia hydatigena (0.7%), unidentified Taenia spp. (4.1%), Brachylaima cribbi (0.7%), Plagiorchis maculosus (0.7%) and an Acanthocephalan; family Centrorhynchidae (2.1%). Importantly, two cestodes of agricultural significance, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia ovis, were not detected in red foxes in this study, despite the presence of suitable intermediate hosts in the diets of these animals. Parasite richness varied from 1-3 species per host, with average parasite number varying from 1-39 worms (across all helminth species). Regression analyses indicated that the presence of four helminth parasites was related to various environmental factors. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei (p < 0.001), T. leonina (p < 0.01) and U. stenocephala (p < 0.01) was positively associated with average relative humidity which may affect the longevity of infective stages in the environment. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with 5-y-average minimum temperature which could reflect poor survival of infective stages through cold winter conditions. The presence of T. canis and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with the percentage cover of native vegetation at each sampling location, which is likely to reflect transmission from native prey species acting as paratenic hosts

  5. Composition, structure and pattern of helminth assemblages associated with central European herons (Ardeidae).

    PubMed

    Sitko, Jiljí; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-02-01

    Helminths parasitizing the ardeid birds are poorly understood, and the majority of studies are limited to checklists and records of novel host-parasite interactions. Here we analyzed the prevalence, intensity and diversity of the helminth component communities associated with an extensive cohort of the five most common Czech herons (Ardea cinerea, Ardea alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Botaurus stellaris and Ixobrychus minutus) collected in the years 1962-2013. Comparison with Ukrainian datasets supports the existence of local helminth component communities, subject to strong geographic variation. The diversity of the component communities ranged between 37.3±9.6 (A. cinerea) and 2.5±1.1 (I. minutus) species. Similarly, the frequency of particular helminths differed by over one order of magnitude, whereas the helminth load differed by over two orders of magnitude. Typically, the dominant species (Echinochasmus beleocephalus, Uroproctepisthmium bursicola, Posthodiplostomum cuticola, Apharyngostrigea cornu, Desmidocercella numidica and Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus) were considered local, with intermediate host species available onsite, as represented by freshwater mollusks. Of the digeneans, 52% of the species likely infected their definitive hosts outside the study area, frequently utilizing invertebrates of salt or brackish waters. For A. cinerea, the largest number of species was in adult males; however the helminth load of the adults was lower than in their juvenile counterparts. This study provides the first systematically collected evidence for the intra-annual changes of the helminth assemblages in herons.

  6. Spatiotemporal distributions of intestinal helminths in female lesser scaup Aythya affinis during spring migration from the upper Midwest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    England, J. C.; Levengood, J.M.; Osborn, J. M.; Yetter, A. P.; Kinsella, J.M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Cory D. Suski,; Hagy, Heath M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between intestinal helminth infracommunity structure and infection parameters and the age, size, and year and region of collection of 130 female lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) during their 2014–2015 spring migrations through the upper Midwest, USA. We identified a total of 647,174 individual helminths from 40 taxa, including 20 trematodes, 14 cestodes, 4 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans parasitizing lesser scaup within the study area. Lesser scaup were each infected with 2–23 helminth taxa. One digenean, Plenosoma minimum, is reported for the first time in lesser scaup and in the Midwest. Mean trematode abundance and total helminth abundance was significantly less in 2015 than 2014, and we suspect that colder weather late in 2015 impacted the intermediate host fauna and caused the observed differences. Brillouin's species diversity of helminths was greatest in the northernmost region of the study area, which coincides with the range of a non-indigenous snail that indirectly causes annual mortality events of lesser scaup. While host age and size were not determined to be influential factors of helminth infracommunity structure, non-parametric ordination and permutational analysis of co-variance revealed that year and region of collection explained differences in helminth infracommunities. Our results suggest that spatiotemporal variations play an important role in the structure of intestinal helminth infracommunities found in migrating lesser scaup hosts, and may therefore impact host ability to build endogenous reserves at certain stopover locations in the Midwest.

  7. [Helminths in chickens in Sudan].

    PubMed

    el-Khawad; el-Badawi; Eisa, A M

    1977-09-01

    The identification of the helminthic parasites of the poultry in Khartoum province, during the months of October and November, 1969, 230 hens, 6--12 months old, were examined in the laboratory; 87% of the hens exhibited mono- and polyinfections. The following species were found: Subulura brumpti, Raillietina tetragona, Tetrameres americana, Gongylonema ingluvicola and Dispharynx spiralis, mostly as polyinfections.

  8. [Natural helminth infection in Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766), by Acuaria mayori Lent, Freitas and Proença, 1945 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Maria L de A; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C; Pinto, Roberto M; Lins, Fernanda P; Riehl Vaz, Mônica G; de Abreu, Ana Paula M; de Souza, Paulo César A

    2005-01-01

    This is the first report of a natural infection in the saffron finch Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766) captured in Brazil, with the establishment of a new host record for the acuarioid nematode Acuaria mayori Lent, Freitas and Proença, 1945, previously referred in Cyanocorax chrysops (Vieillot, 1818) from Paraguay and Sporophila caerulescens caerulescens (Vieillot, 1823) and C. cyanomelas (Wied, 1821) from Brazil and Myarchus nuttingi (Ridgway, 1883) from Costa Rica.

  9. Stray animal and human defecation as sources of soil-transmitted helminth eggs in playgrounds of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Zain, S N; Rahman, R; Lewis, J W

    2015-11-01

    Soil contaminated with helminth eggs and protozoan cysts is a potential source of infection and poses a threat to the public, especially to young children frequenting playgrounds. The present study determines the levels of infection of helminth eggs in soil samples from urban and suburban playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia and identifies one source of contamination via faecal screening from stray animals. Three hundred soil samples from 60 playgrounds in five states in Peninsular Malaysia were screened using the centrifugal flotation technique to identify and determine egg/cyst counts per gram (EPG) for each parasite. All playgrounds, especially those in Penang, were found to be contaminated with eggs from four nematode genera, with Toxocara eggs (95.7%) the highest, followed by Ascaris (93.3%), Ancylostoma (88.3%) and Trichuris (77.0%). In addition, faeces from animal shelters were found to contain both helminth eggs and protozoan cysts, with overall infection rates being 54% and 57% for feline and canine samples, respectively. The most frequently occurring parasite in feline samples was Toxocara cati (37%; EPG, 42.47 ± 156.08), while in dog faeces it was Ancylostoma sp. (54%; EPG, 197.16 ± 383.28). Infection levels also tended to be influenced by season, type of park/playground and the texture of soil/faeces. The occurrence of Toxocara, Ancylostoma and Trichuris eggs in soil samples highlights the risk of transmission to the human population, especially children, while the presence of Ascaris eggs suggests a human source of contamination and raises the issue of hygiene standards and public health risks at sites under investigation.

  10. Interactions between worm infections and malaria.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Mathieu

    2004-04-01

    Helminths are the most prevalent parasitic infections and malaria is the deadliest parasitic disease. Helminths have been reported to be protective against the severe forms of malaria but they were also possibly linked to increased malaria-incidence and gametocyte carriage. Connecting the dots between observations suggests that statistical regularities throughout the evolution of worms and malaria parasites in the same hosts, may have led to the emergence of non-zero interactions as observed in iterated prisoners dilemma games. Thus by protecting the host, helminths protect themselves and their reproductive potential, but also favor the dissemination and reproduction of Plasmodium falciparum. The proximate causes of this evolutionarily stable strategy might be mediated by IgE and the CD23/NO pathway, the protective role of IL10 in helminth-infected patients, and possibly the hematological consequences of worms. The chronic activation of the CD23/NO pathway might be instrumental in downregulating the expression of cytoadherence receptors thus reducing sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the deep organs. Mild anemia in helminth-infected patients might favor gametocytogenesis and send attractive cues to the vector. This framework leads to numerous testable hypotheses and could explain certain singularities regarding the double edged role of IgE and NO. Among these hypotheses, there are 2 practical ones: the impact of helminths on malaria vaccine candidates, and the theoretical risk of increasing the severity of malaria after anthelmintics. The capacity for increased IgE responses could thus have been vital in our ancestor's wormy and malarious past. Allergies may be what remains of it in the modern world.

  11. A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: The Problem of Helminthiases

    PubMed Central

    Lustigman, Sara; Prichard, Roger K.; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Grant, Warwick N.; Boatin, Boakye A.; McCarthy, James S.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2012-01-01

    A disproportionate burden of helminthiases in human populations occurs in marginalised, low-income, and resource-constrained regions of the world, with over 1 billion people in developing areas of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and the Americas infected with one or more helminth species. The morbidity caused by such infections imposes a substantial burden of disease, contributing to a vicious circle of infection, poverty, decreased productivity, and inadequate socioeconomic development. Furthermore, helminth infection accentuates the morbidity of malaria and HIV/AIDS, and impairs vaccine efficacy. Polyparasitism is the norm in these populations, and infections tend to be persistent. Hence, there is a great need to reduce morbidity caused by helminth infections. However, major deficiencies exist in diagnostics and interventions, including vector control, drugs, and vaccines. Overcoming these deficiencies is hampered by major gaps in knowledge of helminth biology and transmission dynamics, platforms from which to help develop such tools. The Disease Reference Group on Helminths Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. In this review, we provide an overview of the forces driving the persistence of helminthiases as a public health problem despite the many control initiatives that have been put in place; identify the main obstacles that impede progress towards their control and elimination; and discuss recent advances, opportunities, and challenges for the understanding of the biology, epidemiology, and control of these infections. The helminth infections that will be discussed include: onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, food-borne trematodiases, and taeniasis/cysticercosis. PMID:22545164

  12. Identification of potential protein markers of noble rot infected grapes.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Millioni, Renato; Franchin, Cinzia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Simonato, Barbara

    2015-07-15

    The evaluation of Botrytis cinerea as noble rot on withered grapes is of great importance to predict the wine sensory/organoleptic properties and to manage the winemaking process of Amarone, a passito dry red wine. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of grapes infected by noble rot under withering conditions to identify possible markers of fungal infection. 2-D gel electrophoresis revealed that protein profiles of infected and not infected grape samples are significantly different in terms of number of spots and relative abundance. Protein identification by MS analysis allowed to identify only in infected berries proteins of B. cinerea that represent potential markers of the presence of the fungus in the withered grapes.

  13. Helminth burden and ecological factors associated with alterations in wild host gastrointestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Lindsay K; Burthe, Sarah J; Oliver, Anna E; Gweon, Hyun S; Barnes, Christopher J; Daunt, Francis; van der Gast, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Infection by gastrointestinal helminths of humans, livestock and wild animals is common, but the impact of such endoparasites on wild hosts and their gut microbiota represents an important overlooked component of population dynamics. Wild host gut microbiota and endoparasites occupy the same physical niche spaces with both affecting host nutrition and health. However, associations between the two are poorly understood. Here we used the commonly parasitized European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) as a model wild host. Forty live adults from the same colony were sampled. Endoscopy was employed to quantify helminth infection in situ. Microbiota from the significantly distinct proventriculus (site of infection), cloacal and faecal gastrointestinal tract microbiomes were characterised using 16S rRNA gene-targeted high-throughput sequencing. We found increasingly strong associations between helminth infection and microbiota composition progressing away from the site of infection, observing a pronounced dysbiosis in microbiota when samples were partitioned into high- and low-burden groups. We posit this dysbiosis is predominately explained by helminths inducing an anti-inflammatory environment in the proventriculus, diverting host immune responses away from themselves. This study, within live wild animals, provides a vital foundation to better understand the mechanisms that underpin the three-way relationship between helminths, microbiota and hosts. PMID:27983724

  14. Helminth burden and ecological factors associated with alterations in wild host gastrointestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Lindsay K; Burthe, Sarah J; Oliver, Anna E; Gweon, Hyun S; Barnes, Christopher J; Daunt, Francis; van der Gast, Christopher J

    2017-03-01

    Infection by gastrointestinal helminths of humans, livestock and wild animals is common, but the impact of such endoparasites on wild hosts and their gut microbiota represents an important overlooked component of population dynamics. Wild host gut microbiota and endoparasites occupy the same physical niche spaces with both affecting host nutrition and health. However, associations between the two are poorly understood. Here we used the commonly parasitized European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) as a model wild host. Forty live adults from the same colony were sampled. Endoscopy was employed to quantify helminth infection in situ. Microbiota from the significantly distinct proventriculus (site of infection), cloacal and faecal gastrointestinal tract microbiomes were characterised using 16S rRNA gene-targeted high-throughput sequencing. We found increasingly strong associations between helminth infection and microbiota composition progressing away from the site of infection, observing a pronounced dysbiosis in microbiota when samples were partitioned into high- and low-burden groups. We posit this dysbiosis is predominately explained by helminths inducing an anti-inflammatory environment in the proventriculus, diverting host immune responses away from themselves. This study, within live wild animals, provides a vital foundation to better understand the mechanisms that underpin the three-way relationship between helminths, microbiota and hosts.

  15. Comparison of the Kato-Katz, Wet Mount, and Formol-Ether Concentration Diagnostic Techniques for Intestinal Helminth Infections in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Endris, Mengistu; Tekeste, Zinaye; Lemma, Wossenseged; Kassu, Afework

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the operational characteristics (sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV)) of wet mount, formol-ether concentration (FEC), and Kato-Katz techniques for the determination of intestinal parasitic infections. Method. A total of 354 faecal specimens were collected from students in Northwest Ethiopia and screened with Kato-Katz, wet mount, and FEC for the presence of intestinal parasitic infection. Since a gold standard test is not available for detection of intestinal parasites, the combined results from the three methods were used as diagnostic gold standard. Result. The prevalences of intestinal parasites using the single wet mount, FEC, and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques were 38.4%, 57.1%, and 59%, respectively. Taking the combined results of three techniques as a standard test for intestinal parasitic infection, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of Kato-Katz is 81.0% (confidence interval (CI) = 0.793-0.810) and 66.2% (CI = 0.63-0.622), respectively. The FEC detected 56 negative samples that were positive by the gold standard, indicating 78.3% (CI = 0.766-0.783) and 63.2% (CI = 0.603-63) sensitivity and NPV, respectively. Furthermore, Kato-Katz detects 113 cases that were negative by a single wet mount. The κ agreement between the wet mount and Kato-Katz methods for the diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm was substantial (κ = 0.61 for Ascaris lumbricoides, κ = 0.65 for hookworm).

  16. Parasites of the flounder Platichthys flesus (L.) from the German Bight, North Sea, and their potential use in ecosystem monitoring. A. Infection characteristics of potential indicator species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, V.; Zander, S.; Körting, W.; Steinhagen, D.

    2003-10-01

    As part of integrated biological-effect monitoring, the parasite fauna of the flounder Platichthys flesus (L.) was investigated at five locations in the German Bight, with a view to using parasite species as bio-indicators. Over a period of 6 years, parasites from 30 different taxa were identified, but only 7 taxa of the parasite community occurred regularly at all locations and in sufficient abundance that they could be considered as potential indicator species. These species were the ciliophoran Trichodina spp., the copepods Acanthochondria cornuta, Lepeophtheirus pectoralis and Lernaeocera branchialis, the helminths Zoogonoides viviparus and Cucullanus heterochrous and metacercaria of an unidentified digenean species. Infection characteristics of these parasites are presented, with a comparison of the results from individual sampling periods and those of the long-term data set. Natural influences on the infection levels, such as temporal variations, habitat conditions and host-related factors, were evaluated. All of these parasite species showed significant differences in their infection levels between the Elbe estuary, as the most polluted site, and the less polluted coastal and marine locations: Helgoland, Outer Eider estuary and Spiekeroog, especially in the long-term data set. Gradual differences between the Elbe, the Outer Eider and Helgoland, which were not detected in individual sampling periods, also became evident in the pooled-data set. These were found in the prevalence of Trichodina spp., A. cornuta, Z. viviparus and C. heterochrous. Although salinity is considered as the most important natural factor, influencing the distribution pattern of the majority of the potential indicator species, infection levels of most of these species differed between locations with similar salinity conditions. Infection levels corresponded to a contamination gradient (Elbe > Inner Eider, Outer Eider > Helgoland) established across the locations. Seasonal variation in

  17. Helminth protection against autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice is independent of a type 2 immune shift and requires TGFβ

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Marc P; Shi, Yinghui; Torrero, Marina N; Mueller, Ellen; Larson, David; Soloviova, Kateryna; Gondorf, Fabian; Hoerauf, Achim; Killoran, Kristin E.; Stocker, J Thomas; Davies, Stephen J; Tarbell, Kristin V; Mitre, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Leading hypotheses to explain helminth-mediated protection against autoimmunity postulate that type 2 or regulatory immune responses induced by helminth infections in the host limit pathogenic Th1-driven autoimmune responses. We tested these hypotheses by investigating whether infection with the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis prevents diabetes onset in IL-4-deficient nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and whether depletion or absence of regulatory T cells, IL-10, or TGFβ alters helminth-mediated protection. In contrast to IL-4-competent NOD mice, IL-4-deficient NOD mice failed to develop a type 2 shift in either cytokine or antibody production during L. sigmodontis infection. Despite the absence of a type 2 immune shift, infection of IL-4-deficient NOD mice with L. sigmodontis prevented diabetes onset in all mice studied. Infections in immunocompetent and IL-4-deficient NOD mice were accompanied by increases in CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cell frequencies and numbers, respectively, and helminth infection increased proliferation of CD4+FoxP3+ cells. However, depletion of CD25+ cells in NOD mice or FoxP3+ T cells from splenocytes transferred into NOD.scid mice did not decrease helminth-mediated protection against diabetes onset. Continuous depletion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGFβ, but not blockade of IL-10 signaling, prevented the beneficial effect of helminth infection on diabetes. Changes in Th17 responses did not seem to play an important role in helminth-mediated protection against autoimmunity as helminth infection was not associated with a decreased Th17 immune response. This study demonstrates that L. sigmodontis-mediated protection against diabetes in NOD mice is not dependent on the induction of a type 2 immune shift but does require TGFβ. PMID:22174447

  18. The hygiene theory harnessing helminths and their ova to treat autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami Shor, Dana; Harel, Michal; Eliakim, Rami; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2013-10-01

    The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing in Western countries, possibly due to the improved sanitary conditions and reduced exposure to infections in childhood (the hygiene hypothesis). There is an ongoing debate whether infection prevents or precipitates autoimmune diseases. Various helminths species used in several animal models were shown to limit inflammatory activity in a variety of diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. At present the scientific data is based mostly on experimental animal models; however, there is an increasing body of evidence in a number of clinical trials being conducted. Herein we review several clinical trials evaluating the anti-inflammatory effects of helminths and assessing their association with different autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, and autoimmune liver diseases. We also describe the common pathways by which helminths induce immune modulation and the key changes observed in the host immune system following exposure to helminths. These common pathways include the inhibition of IFN-γ and IL-17 production, promotion of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β release, induction of CD4(+) T cell FoxP3(+) expression, and generation of regulatory macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells. Helminths products are becoming significant candidates for anti-inflammatory agents in this context. However, further research is needed for synthetic analogues of helminths' potent products that mimic the parasite-mediated immunomodulation effect.

  19. Induction of regulatory cells by helminth parasites: exploitation for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Conor M; Walsh, Kevin P; Mills, Kingston H G

    2014-05-01

    Helminth parasites are highly successful pathogens, chronically infecting a quarter of the world's population, causing significant morbidity but rarely causing death. Protective immunity and expulsion of helminths is mediated by T-helper 2 (Th2) cells, type 2 (M2) macrophages, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, and eosinophils. Failure to mount these type 2 immune responses can result in immunopathology mediated by Th1 or Th17 cells. Helminths have evolved a wide variety of approaches for immune suppression, especially the generation of regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β. This is a very effective strategy for subverting protective immune responses to prolong their survival in the host but has the bystander effect of modulating immune responses to unrelated antigens. Epidemiological studies in humans have shown that infection with helminth parasites is associated with a low incidence of allergy/asthma and autoimmunity in developing countries. Experimental studies in mice have demonstrated that regulatory immune responses induced by helminth can suppress Th2 and Th1/Th17 responses that mediate allergy and autoimmunity, respectively. This has provided a rational explanation of the 'hygiene hypothesis' and has also led to the exploitation of helminths or their immunomodulatory products in the development of new immunosuppressive therapies for inflammatory diseases in humans.

  20. Studies on the parasitic helminths of slaughtered animals in Iraq. I. Parasitic helminths of the liver of herbivores.

    PubMed

    Wajdi, N; Nassir, J K

    1983-12-01

    The livers and lungs of 580 sheep, 160 goats, 418 cattle, 50 camels and 48 buffaloes slaughtered in Baghdad in April-July, 1981 were examined for helminth parasites; 14.3% of the sheep, 0.6% of the goats, 18.2% of the cattle, 72.0% of the camels and 8.3% of the buffaloes were infected with trematodes and cestodes. Dicrocoelium dendriticum is reported from the livers of sheep in Iraq for the first time.

  1. Endemic infection reduces transmission potential of an epidemic parasite during co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Randall, J.; Cable, J.; Guschina, I. A.; Harwood, J. L.; Lello, J.

    2013-01-01

    Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed ad libitum, starved or infected with an endemic parasite, Gregarina blattarum. Reproductive output of an epidemic parasite, Steinernema carpocapsae, was then assessed by counting the number of infective stages emerging from these three host groups. We found both starvation and gregarine infection reduced cockroach lipids, mainly through depletion of TAG. Further, both starvation and G. blattarum infection resulted in reduced emergence of nematode transmission stages. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate directly that host resource depletion caused by endemic infection could affect epidemic disease transmission. In view of the ubiquity of endemic infections in nature, future studies of epidemic transmission should take greater account of endemic co-infections. PMID:23966641

  2. Helminth fauna of two species of Physalaemus (Anura: Leiuperidae) from an undisturbed fragment of the Atlantic rainforest, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Gislayne M; Aguiar, Aline; Silva, Reinaldo J; Anjos, Luciano A

    2013-10-01

    Two amphibian species, Physalaemus cuvieri and Physalaemus olfersii, from Serra do Mar State Park, which is an old-growth environment of the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil, were surveyed for endoparasites. Hosts were sampled in 2 ponds; each was colonized by only 1 Physalaemus species. The overall prevalence of helminths was high and similar in both amphibian species. The mean intensity of infection in P. olfersii did not differ statistically from that in P. cuvieri . Nine helminth species were found: 2 acanthocephalans, 1 cestode, and 6 nematodes. Parasite richness in the 2 host species was similar. The composition of helminth fauna differed but the 2 hosts shared the most prevalent taxon of nematode (an unidentified species of Cosmocercidae). All helminth species exhibited an aggregated distribution pattern in the host species. The present results demonstrate relatively low species richness and the dominance of generalist parasite species. This study contributes to knowledge regarding the structure and composition of the helminth community in anurans.

  3. [Relevance of helminths in the prevention and healing of immune diseases].

    PubMed

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor

    2009-03-01

    The incidence of immune diseases has had a steady significant increase in the industrialized countries since the end of the last century. Epidemiological data suggest that prevention of exposure to helminths may be one of the factors promoting the rise in these diseases. Animal models of immune diseases support this concept by showing that these parasites can prevent and reverse developed diseases. Helminths strongly modulate the host's immune system inducing regulatory immune cells and pathways that afford protection from these illnesses. Helminthic therapy has emerged as a promising treatment for several immune diseases; the potential benefits are startling and new therapeutic strategies for the control of these conditions may result.

  4. Identifying Geographic Areas at Risk of Soil-transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems: Boaco, Nicaragua as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Podest, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Several types of intestinal nematodes, that can infect humans and specially school-age children living in poverty, develop part of their life cycle in soil. Presence and survival of these parasites in the soil depend on given environmental characteristics like temperature and moisture that can be inferred with remote sensing (RS) technology. Prevalence of diseases caused by these parasitic worms can be controlled and even eradicated with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Reliable and updated identification of geographic areas at risk is required to implement effective public health programs; to calculate amount of drug required and to distribute funding for sanitation projects. RS technology and geographical information systems (GIS) will be used to analyze for associations between in situ prevalence and remotely sensed data in order to establish RS proxies of environmental parameters that indicate the presence of these parasits. In situ data on helminthisasis will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define clusters and areas at risk. Such information will help to the implementation of time and cost efficient control programs and sanitation efforts.

  5. Fine structure and cellular responses at the host-parasite interface in a range of fish-helminth systems.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, B S; Bo, T; Lorenzoni, M; Shinn, A P; Giari, L

    2015-03-15

    A series of ultrastructural-based studies were conducted on the interface region in different fish-helminth systems: (a) an intestinal infection of the cestode Monobothrium wageneri in tench, Tinca tinca; (b) an extensive intestinal submucosa and mucosal infection in tench by metacercariae of an unidentified digenean trematode; (c) an intestinal infection in brown trout, Salmo trutta, by the acanthocephalan Dentitruncus truttae; (d) an extraintestinal infection by larvae of the acanthocephalan, Pomphorhynchus laevis in three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus; and (e) an infection in the livers of Eurasian minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus, by larvae of the nematode Raphidascaris acus. Endoparasitic helminths frequently cause inflammation of the digestive tract and associated organs, inducing the recruitment of various immune cells to the site of infection. In each of the fish-helminth systems that were studied, a massive hyperplastic granulocyte response involving mast cells (MCs) and neutrophils in close proximity to the helminths was documented. The current study presents data on the interface region in each fish-helminth system and documents the penetration of mast cells granules within the tegument of P. laevis larvae. No extracellular vesicles containing tegumental secretions from any of the four different taxa of endoparasitic helminths species at the host-parasite interface region were seen.

  6. Helminth infracommunity structure of Leptodactylus melanonotus (Anura) in Tres Palos, Guerrero, and other records for this host species in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mata-López, Rosario; León-Règagnon, Virginia; García-Prieto, Luis

    2013-06-01

    The amphibian genus Leptodactylus includes around 50 species, of which only 2 are distributed in Mexico; the helminth fauna of these 2 species is poorly known. As part of a research program on amphibian parasites in Mexico from 1997 to 2005, 281 sabinal frogs Leptodactylus melanonotus from 42 localities in 11 Mexican states were examined from a helminthological perspective. A total of 20 taxa of helminths-7 digeneans (5 adults, 2 larvae) and 13 nematodes (8 adults, 5 larvae)-was found to infect this amphibian host species. These data represent 105 new locality records, and 11 taxa are recorded in L. melanonotus for the first time. Infracommunity analyses of the sabinal frogs from Tres Palos indicated that these hosts are depauperate. The helminth community is dominated by specialist species, with Cosmocerca podicipinus the most common in almost 50% of the infracommunities. Percutaneous infection and predator-prey interactions were the 2 most common infection routes by helminths in frogs from Tres Palos, with 79% of the parasites recruited via skin penetration. Finally, our results show that the helminth fauna parasitizing L. melanonotus throughout Mexico has low similarity with the helminth fauna of leptodactylids studied comprehensively in South America, with only 2 digeneans and 3 nematodes being shared by hosts from both regions. As a result of our survey, the number of helminth species parasitizing L. melanonotus increased to 34. Considering its native distribution range, this number is now 36 with the inclusion of the nematodes Oswaldocruzia costaricensis and Cruzia empera in Costa Rica.

  7. [Cathepsin L cysteine protease from Taenia solium: its biological role in the infection and potential use for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis].

    PubMed

    León, Nancy; Padilla, Carlos; Pajuelo, Mónica; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2013-07-01

    Taenia solium is a plane helminth responsible for taeniasis and human cysticercosis, the latter being the result of the consumption of infective eggs. Cysticerci can develop in different human tissues, often in the central nervous system, causing neurocysticercosis (NCC). For the diagnosis of NCC, an adequate interpretation of clinical data, neuroimaging results and serological tests are required. However, serological tests could be improved by developing candidate antigens able to increase their sensibility and specificity. In the last years, a series of surface and secretory proteins of T. solium essential for the parasite-host interaction have been described. One of these families is cathepsin L cysteine proteases, which have a predominant role in the development and survival of the parasite. They take part in the tissue invasion, immune response evasion, excystation and encystment of cysticercus. They are considered potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

  8. Production and glyco-engineering of immunomodulatory helminth glycoproteins in plants

    PubMed Central

    Wilbers, Ruud H. P.; Westerhof, Lotte B.; van Noort, Kim; Obieglo, Katja; Driessen, Nicole N.; Everts, Bart; Gringhuis, Sonja I.; Schramm, Gabriele; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; Smits, Hermelijn H.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Schots, Arjen; Hokke, Cornelis H.

    2017-01-01

    Helminth parasites control host-immune responses by secreting immunomodulatory glycoproteins. Clinical trials and mouse model studies have demonstrated the potential of helminth-derived glycoproteins for the treatment of immune-related diseases, like allergies and autoimmune diseases. Studies are however hampered by the limited availability of native parasite-derived proteins. Moreover, recombinant protein production systems have thus far been unable to reconstitute helminth-like glycosylation essential for the functionality of some helminth glycoproteins. Here we exploited the flexibility of the N-glycosylation machinery of plants to reconstruct the helminth glycoproteins omega-1 and kappa-5, two major constituents of immunomodulatory Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens. Fine-tuning transient co-expression of specific glycosyltransferases in Nicotiana benthamiana enabled the synthesis of Lewis X (LeX) and LDN/LDN-F glycan motifs as found on natural omega-1 and kappa-5, respectively. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the introduction of native LeX motifs on plant-produced omega-1 confirmed that LeX on omega-1 contributes to the glycoprotein’s Th2-inducing properties. These data indicate that mimicking the complex carbohydrate structures of helminths in plants is a promising strategy to allow targeted evaluation of therapeutic glycoproteins for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. In addition, our results offer perspectives for the development of effective anti-helminthic vaccines by reconstructing native parasite glycoprotein antigens. PMID:28393916

  9. The bifacial role of helminths in cancer: involvement of immune and non-immune mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Oikonomopoulou, Katerina; Brinc, Davor; Hadjisavvas, Andreas; Christofi, Georgios; Kyriacou, Kyriacos; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2014-06-01

    Infectious agents have been associated with cancer due to activation of pro-carcinogenic inflammatory processes within their host. Several reports, however, indicate that specific pathogens may be able to elicit anti-tumor immune responses that can lead to protection from tumorigenesis or cancer regression. Amongst these "beneficial" pathogens are some helminthic parasites that have already been connected with prevention of autoimmune diseases and allergies, immune conditions increasingly associated with cancer. Even though helminths have co-existed with humans and their ancestors for millions of years, investigations of their impact on human (patho)physiology are relatively new and the functions of components that can explain the helminth bi-directional influence on carcinogenesis are not well understood. This review aims to discuss evidence for the helminth-induced immune, genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, hormonal and metabolic changes that may ultimately mediate the potential pro- or anti-carcinogenic role of helminths. This overview may serve future investigations in clarifying the tumorigenic role of the most common helminthic parasites. It may also inspire the development of anti-cancer regimens and vaccines, in parallel to ongoing efforts of using helminth-based components for the prevention and/or treatment of autoimmune diseases and allergies.

  10. Leishmania (L.) mexicana Infected Bats in Mexico: Novel Potential Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R.; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729

  11. Extracellular vesicles from infected cells: potential for direct pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Angela; Meyering, Shabana S.; Lepene, Ben; Iordanskiy, Sergey; van Hoek, Monique L.; Hakami, Ramin M.; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2015-01-01

    Infections that result in natural or manmade spread of lethal biological agents are a concern and require national and focused preparedness. In this manuscript, as part of an early diagnostics and pathogen treatment strategy, we have focused on extracellular vesicles (EVs) that arise following infections. Although the field of biodefense does not currently have a rich resource in EVs literature, none the less, similar pathogens belonging to the more classical emerging and non-emerging diseases have been studied in their EV/exosomal contents and function. These exosomes are formed in late endosomes and released from the cell membrane in almost every cell type in vivo. These vesicles contain proteins, RNA, and lipids from the cells they originate from and function in development, signal transduction, cell survival, and transfer of infectious material. The current review focuses on how different forms of infection exploit the exosomal pathway and how exosomes can be exploited artificially to treat infection and disease and potentially also be used as a source of vaccine. Virally-infected cells can secrete viral as well as cellular proteins and RNA in exosomes, allowing viruses to cause latent infection and spread of miRNA to nearby cells prior to a subsequent infection. In addition to virally-infected host cells, bacteria, protozoa, and fungi can all release small vesicles that contain pathogen-associated molecular patterns, regulating the neighboring uninfected cells. Examples of exosomes from both virally and bacterially infected cells point toward a re-programming network of pathways in the recipient cells. Finally, many of these exosomes contain cytokines and miRNAs that in turn can effect gene expression in the recipient cells through the classical toll-like receptor and NFκB pathway. Therefore, although exosomes do not replicate as an independent entity, they however facilitate movement of infectious material through tissues and may be the cause of many

  12. Leishmania (L.) mexicana infected bats in Mexico: novel potential reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology.

  13. Serine Proteases of Parasitic Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-01-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  14. Cranial helminths of Mustela vison Schreber, 1777 in Spain.

    PubMed

    Torres, J; Miquel, J; Mañas, S; Asensio, V; Eira, C; Palazón, S

    2006-04-30

    A survey was carried out to investigate the presence of cranial helminths in 337 American minks (Mustela vison) from Spain. This information was obtained partly in order to evaluate potential conservation problems and sanitary risks to the congeneric European mink (Mustela lutreola), one of the most endangered carnivores in the world. Skulls and rectal faeces of each specimen were simultaneously analysed. Troglotrema acutum and Skrjabingylus nasicola were found in 5.6% of the M. vison analysed. No cranial lesions were seen in any of the examined skulls. The finding of both helminths in Spanish free-living M. vison specimens enlarges their natural definitive host spectrum in Western Europe. One relatively important focus of T. acutum in M. vison was detected (30.4%) in the Spanish Alava province while S. nasicola was found to be very infrequent. The suitability of both analytical methods was assessed in order to know to what degree coprological analysis reflects the real prevalence of cranial helminths in this host. It is possible to conclude that coprological analysis can be used instead of necropsies to analyse the possible incidence of pathogenic cranial helminths in mustelids. This aspect is very important and useful when trying to analyse the helminthological status of endangered species such as the native mink (M. lutreola) particularly in areas where both congeneric species are present and strict competition occurs.

  15. Parasites that cause problems in Malaysia: soil-transmitted helminths and malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Cox-Singh, J

    2001-12-01

    Malaysia is a developing country with a range of parasitic infections. Indeed, soil-transmitted helminths and malaria parasites continue to have a significant impact on public health in Malaysia. In this article, the prevalence and distribution of these parasites, the problems associated with parasitic infections, the control measures taken to deal with these parasites and implications for the future will be discussed.

  16. Transmission potential of Rickettsia felis infection by Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Dieme, Constentin; Bechah, Yassina; Socolovschi, Cristina; Audoly, Gilles; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Faye, Ousmane; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of recent reports have implicated Rickettsia felis as a human pathogen, paralleling the increasing detection of R. felis in arthropod hosts across the globe, primarily in fleas. Here Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the primary malarial vectors in sub-Saharan Africa, were fed with either blood meal infected with R. felis or infected cellular media administered in membrane feeding systems. In addition, a group of mosquitoes was fed on R. felis-infected BALB/c mice. The acquisition and persistence of R. felis in mosquitoes was demonstrated by quantitative PCR detection of the bacteria up to day 15 postinfection. R. felis was detected in mosquito feces up to day 14. Furthermore, R. felis was visualized by immunofluorescence in salivary glands, in and around the gut, and in the ovaries, although no vertical transmission was observed. R. felis was also found in the cotton used for sucrose feeding after the mosquitoes were fed infected blood. Natural bites from R. felis-infected An. gambiae were able to cause transient rickettsemias in mice, indicating that this mosquito species has the potential to be a vector of R. felis infection. This is particularly important given the recent report of high prevalence of R. felis infection in patients with “fever of unknown origin” in malaria-endemic areas. PMID:26056256

  17. Phosphorylation events during viral infections provide potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Julie A.; Striker, Rob

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY For many medically relevant viruses, there is now considerable evidence that both viral and cellular kinases play important roles in viral infection. Ultimately, these kinases, and the cellular signaling pathways that they exploit, may serve as therapeutic targets for treating patients. Currently, small molecule inhibitors of kinases are under investigation as therapy for herpes viral infections. Additionally, a number of cellular or host-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors that have been previously FDA-approved for cancer treatment are under study in animal models and clinical trials, as they have shown promise for the treatment of various viral infections as well. This review will highlight the wide range of viral proteins phosphorylated by viral and cellular kinases, and the potential for variability of kinase recognition sites within viral substrates to impact phosphorylation and kinase prediction. Research studying kinase-targeting prophylactic and therapeutic treatments for a number of viral infections will also be discussed. PMID:22113983

  18. Leptospirosis risk around a potential source of infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaiza-Echeverry, Erica; Hincapié-Palacio, Doracelly; Ochoa Acosta, Jesús; Ospina Giraldo, Juan

    2015-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis with world distribution and multiform clinical spectrum in men and animals. The etiology of this disease is the pathogenic species of Leptospira, which cause diverse manifestations of the disease, from mild to serious, such as the Weil disease and the lung hemorrhagic syndrome with lethal proportions of 10% - 50%. This is an emerging problem of urban health due to the growth of marginal neighborhoods without basic sanitary conditions and an increased number of rodents. The presence of rodents and the probability of having contact with their urine determine the likelihood for humans to get infected. In this paper, we simulate the spatial distribution of risk infection of human leptospirosis according to the proximity to rodent burrows considered as potential source of infection. The Bessel function K0 with an r distance from the potential point source, and the scale parameter α in meters was used. Simulation inputs were published data of leptospirosis incidence rate (range of 5 to 79 x 10 000), and a distance of 100 to 5000 meters from the source of infection. We obtained an adequate adjustment between the function and the simulated data. The risk of infection increases with the proximity of the potential source. This estimation can become a guide to propose effective measures of control and prevention.

  19. Helminth fauna of the Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus Laxmann (Rodentia, Sciuridae) introduced in suburban French forests.

    PubMed

    Pisanu, Benoît; Jerusalem, Christelle; Huchery, Cindy; Marmet, Julie; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

    2007-05-01

    The spread of an immigrant host species can be influenced both by its specific helminth parasites that come along with it and by newly acquired infections from native fauna. The Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus Laxmann (Rodentia, Sciuridae), a northeastern Eurasiatic ground nesting Sciurid, has been introduced in France for less than three decades. Thirty individuals were collected from three suburban forests in the Ile-de-France Region between 2002 and 2006. Two intestinal nematode species dominated the helminth fauna: Brevistriata skrjabini [Prevalence, P, 99% C.I., 87% (64-97%); mean intensity, M.I., 99% C.I., 43 (28-78)] and Aonchotheca annulosa [P, 47% (25-69%); M.I., 35 (3-157)]. B. skrjabini is a direct life cycle nematode species of North Eurasiatic origin, with a restricted spectrum of phylogenetically related suitable hosts. This result indicates that B. skrjabini successfully settled and spread with founder pet chipmunks maintained in captivity and released in natura. Chipmunks acquired A. annulosa, a nematode species with a large spectrum of phylogenetically unrelated suitable host species, from local Muroid rodent species with similar behavior, life-history traits and habitats. Quantitative studies are needed to evaluate the potential for both B. skrjabini and A. annulosa to impede the spread of Tamias and for B. skrjabini to favor chipmunk colonization through detrimental effects upon native co-inhabiting host species.

  20. Helminth infracommunities of the maculated toad Amietophrynus regularis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Ismailia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Moussa Ibrahim

    2008-10-16

    The objective of the present work was to study the helminth infracommunities of Amietophrynus (Bufo) regularis and the possible effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on infracommunity structure and on the infection parameters of each parasite species involved. A total of 129 A. regularis were collected from Ismailia, Egypt, over 3 seasons. Helminth infracommunities consisted of 8 helminth taxa (1 monogenean, 1 digenean, 1 cestode, 3 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans [1 adult and 1 cystacanth]). Aplectana macintoshii had the highest prevalence (82.94%), mean abundance (73.74), and mean intensity (88.91) and can be considered a core species. A. macintoshii dominated in 68.99% of the infracommunities, with a high Berger-Parker index value (0.9). Only 9 toads were uninfected; the remainder harbored between 1 and 7 helminth species and 1 to 632 ind. Mean species richness and abundance were 2.13 +/- 0.13 and 81.34 +/- 13.60, respectively, while evenness and diversity were 0.3 and 0.44, respectively. The results revealed that season, host sex, and age played significant roles in determining infracommunity species richness. The patterns of helminth infracommunity richness and diversity were similar to those previously observed in other amphibian hosts. This study indicated that the helminth community of A. regularis was depauperate.

  1. Gastrointestinal helminths of pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus/Pipistrellus pygmaeus) (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) of England.

    PubMed

    Lord, Jennifer S; Parker, Steve; Parker, Fiona; Brooks, Darren R

    2012-03-01

    Although bats are one of the most successful and diverse of mammalian orders, studies that focus upon bat endoparasites are limited. To further knowledge of bat parasitology, pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus) were acquired from across the Greater Manchester and Lancashire region of England and examined for gastrointestinal helminths using morphological and molecular analyses. Sixty-eight of 90 adult/juvenile bats (76% prevalence) were infected with at least 1 species of helminth and mean helminth abundance was 48·2 (+/-7·0). All helminths were digenean trematodes and the following species were identified in 51 P. pipistrellus specimens (prevalence in parentheses): Lecithodendrium linstowi (80·4%), L. spathulatum (19·6%), Prosthodendrium sp. (35·3%), Plagiorchis koreanus (29·4%) and Pycnoporus heteroporus (9·8%). Statistical analyses, incorporating multifactorial models, showed that male bats exhibited a significantly more aggregated helminth distribution and lower abundance than females. Positive associations were observed between L. linstowi and L. spathulatum, Prosthodendrium sp. and P. heteroporus and between L. spathulatum and P. koreanus. A revised phylogeny of bat-associated Lecithodendriidae, incorporating novel L. spathulatum and Prosthodendrium sp. 28S rRNA sequences, separated the controversial clade formed by L. linstowi and P. hurkovaae. Further studies are likely to assist the understanding of bat-parasite/pathogen relationships, helminth infracommunity structures and phylogenetics.

  2. [Helminthic cenosis of does in regions of Bulgaria].

    PubMed

    Bratanov, V; Lilkova, N; Zheliazkov, P; Markov, D

    1987-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the species composition of helminths as found in does in individual region of the Rhodope and Balkan Mountains and in the northeast part of this country. A total of 28 helminth species were found, belonging to 8 families as follows: class Trematoda--one family with one species; class Cestoda--one family with one species; and class Nematoda--6 families with 26 species. Most widespread were the species Chabertia ovina, with 82 per cent of infected animals; Spiculopteragia spiculoptera, with 74.1 per cent of infected animals; Ostertagia leptospicularis, with 66.6 per cent of infected animals; and Ostertagia asymetrica and Muflonagia podjapolskyi, with 33.3 per cent of infected animals. The necropsy of a doe, found in the region of the central Rhodope Mountains in a state of strongly manifested cachexia, revealed a massive Chabertia ovina infection. The severe traumatic and toxic inflammation of the intestines as caused by the parasite was characterized by oedema of the mucous membrane, with hyperaemia and pin-point hemorrhages. Similar Chabertia ovina infections were also found in does of other regions.

  3. Helminths and their implication in sepsis - a new branch of their immunomodulatory behaviour?

    PubMed

    Hübner, Marc P; Layland, Laura E; Hoerauf, Achim

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of autoimmune and allergic disorders has dramatically increased in developed countries, and it is believed that our 'cleaner living' reduces exposure to certain microorganisms and leads to deviated and/or reduced regulation of the immune system. In substantiation of this health hygiene hypothesis, multiple epidemiological studies and animal models have characterized the protective immune responses induced by helminths during auto-inflammatory disorders. The beneficial effects of such helminths, like schistosomes and filariae, are thought to lie in their immunomodulatory capacity, which can be induced by different life-cycle stages or components thereof. In addition to suppressing autoimmunity recent evidence indicates that concurrent helminth infections also counterbalance exacerbated pro-inflammatory immune responses that occur during sepsis, improving survival. As with allergy, epidemiological studies have observed a steady rise in severe sepsis cases and although this may have resulted from several factors (immunosuppressive drugs, chemotherapy, transplantation, increased awareness and increased surgical procedures), it is tempting to hypothesize that the lack of helminth infections in Western countries may have contributed to this phenomenon. This review summarizes how helminths modulate host immunity during sepsis, such as manipulating macrophage activation and provides an overview about the possible implications that may arise during overwhelming bacterial co-infections.

  4. Helminth Colonization Is Associated with Increased Diversity of the Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Ching; Tang, Mei San; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Choy, Seow Huey; Kurtz, Zachary D.; Cox, Laura M.; Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Cho, Ilseung; Bonneau, Richard; Blaser, Martin J.; Chua, Kek Heng; Loke, P'ng

    2014-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths colonize more than 1.5 billion people worldwide, yet little is known about how they interact with bacterial communities in the gut microbiota. Differences in the gut microbiota between individuals living in developed and developing countries may be partly due to the presence of helminths, since they predominantly infect individuals from developing countries, such as the indigenous communities in Malaysia we examine in this work. We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities from the fecal microbiota of 51 people from two villages in Malaysia, of which 36 (70.6%) were infected by helminths. The 16S rRNA V4 region was sequenced at an average of nineteen thousand sequences per samples. Helminth-colonized individuals had greater species richness and number of observed OTUs with enrichment of Paraprevotellaceae, especially with Trichuris infection. We developed a new approach of combining centered log-ratio (clr) transformation for OTU relative abundances with sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (sPLS-DA) to enable more robust predictions of OTU interrelationships. These results suggest that helminths may have an impact on the diversity, bacterial community structure and function of the gut microbiota. PMID:24851867

  5. Intestinal helminths of river otters (Lutra canadensis) from the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoberg, Eric P.; Henny, Charles J.; Hedstrom, O.R.; Grove, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    The intestinal helminth fauna of river otters, Lutra canadensis, from the Pacific Northwest was characterized by low species richness and intensity of infection. River otters from the lower Columbia River (n = 23) were infected with 9 species of helminths (83% prevalence); those from a relatively undisturbed reference area near the headwaters of the Trask and Wilson rivers on the Oregon coast (n = 6) were infected by 5 species of helminths (100% prevalence). Single species of Eucestoda (Schistocephalus solidus), Digenea (Euparyphium inerme), Acanthocephala (Corynosoma strumosum), and 8 species of Nematoda (Strongyloides lutrae; larvae of Eustrongylides sp., Anisakis sp., and Contracaecum sp.; 3 of Cystidicolidae, and Hedruris sp.) were collected. Most species are typical of piscine definitive hosts and were present as incidental parasites of river otters. Notably, specimens of Euparyphium inerme are reported for the first time in river otters from North America; occurrence of other helminths constitutes new host or geographic records for parasites in river otters in Oregon and Washington. Parasites with marine life cycles were acquired by river otters in freshwater habitats at a great distance from the ocean. The helminth fauna of river otters in the Pacific Northwest was influenced primarily by ecological factors and was indicative of eclectic food habits and the relatively extensive home ranges occupied by these mustelids.

  6. IL-1β Suppresses Innate IL-25 and IL-33 Production and Maintains Helminth Chronicity

    PubMed Central

    Zaiss, Mario M.; Maslowski, Kendle M.; Mosconi, Ilaria; Guenat, Nadine; Marsland, Benjamin J.; Harris, Nicola L.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 2 billion people currently suffer from intestinal helminth infections, which are typically chronic in nature and result in growth retardation, vitamin A deficiency, anemia and poor cognitive function. Such chronicity results from co-evolution between helminths and their mammalian hosts; however, the molecular mechanisms by which these organisms avert immune rejection are not clear. We have found that the natural murine helminth, Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp) elicits the secretion of IL-1β in vivo and in vitro and that this cytokine is critical for shaping a mucosal environment suited to helminth chronicity. Indeed in mice deficient for IL-1β (IL-1β−/−), or treated with the soluble IL-1βR antagonist, Anakinra, helminth infection results in enhanced type 2 immunity and accelerated parasite expulsion. IL-1β acts to decrease production of IL-25 and IL-33 at early time points following infection and parasite rejection was determined to require IL-25. Taken together, these data indicate that Hp promotes the release of host-derived IL-1β that suppresses the release of innate cytokines, resulting in suboptimal type 2 immunity and allowing pathogen chronicity. PMID:23935505

  7. Hendra and nipah infection: pathology, models and potential therapies.

    PubMed

    Vigant, Frederic; Lee, Benhur

    2011-06-01

    The Paramyxoviridae family comprises of several genera that contain emerging or re-emerging threats for human and animal health with no real specific effective treatment available. Hendra and Nipah virus are members of a newly identified genus of emerging paramyxoviruses, Henipavirus. Since their discovery in the 1990s, henipaviruses outbreaks have been associated with high economic and public health threat potential. When compared to other paramyxoviruses, henipaviruses appear to have unique characteristics. Henipaviruses are zoonotic paramyxoviruses with a broader tropism than most other paramyxoviruses, and can cause severe acute encephalitis with unique features among viral encephalitides. There are currently no approved effective prophylactic or therapeutic treatments for henipavirus infections. Although ribavirin was empirically used and seemed beneficial during the biggest outbreak caused by one of these viruses, the Nipah virus, its efficacy is disputed in light of its lack of efficacy in several animal models of henipavirus infection. Nevertheless, because of its highly pathogenic nature, much effort has been spent in developing anti-henipavirus therapeutics. In this review we describe the unique features of henipavirus infections and the different strategies and animal models that have been developed so far in order to identify and test potential drugs to prevent or treat henipavirus infections. Some of these components have the potential to be broad-spectrum antivirals as they target effectors of viral pathogenecity common to other viruses. We will focus on small molecules or biologics, rather than vaccine strategies, that have been developed as anti-henipaviral therapeutics.

  8. Infections and parasitic diseases of the gray wolf and their potential effects on wolf populations in North America.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, C.J.; Pybus, M.J.; Ballard, W.B.; Peterson, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous infections and parasitic diseases have been reported for the gray wolf, including more than 10 viral, bacterial, and mycotic disease and more than 70 species of helminths and ectoparasites. However, few studies have documented the role of diseases in population dynamics. Disease can affect wolf populations directly by causing mortality or indirectly by affecting physiological and homeostatic processes, thriftiness, reproduction, behavior, or social structure. In addition, wolves are hosts to diseases that can affect prey species, thus affecting wolf populations indirectly by reducing prey abundance or increasing vulnerability to predation. Diseases such as canine distemper and infectious canine hepatitis are enzootic in wolf populations, whereas rabies occurs in wolves primarily as a result of transmission from other species such as artic and red foxes. Contact between wolves and domestic pets and livestock may affect the composition of diseases in wolves and their effects on wolf populations. Dogs were suspected of introducing lice and canine parovirus to several wolf populations. THe potential for disease to affect wolf populations and other wild and domestic animals should be considered in wolf management plans, particularly in plans for reintroduction of wolves to area within their former range.

  9. Richness and diversity of helminth communities in tropical freshwater fishes: Empirical evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choudhury, A.; Dick, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: Published information on the richness and diversity of helminth parasite communities in tropical freshwater fishes is reviewed in response to expectations of species-rich parasite communities in tropical regions. Location: Areas covered include the tropics and some subtropical areas. In addition, the north temperate area of the nearctic zone is included for comparison. Methods: Data from 159 communities in 118 species of tropical freshwater fish, summarized from 46 published studies, were used for this review. Parasite community descriptors used in the analyses included component community richness and calculated mean species richness. Data from 130 communities in 47 species of nearctic north temperate freshwater fish were summarized from 31 studies and used for comparison. Results: The component helminth communities of many tropical freshwater fish are species-poor, and considerable proportions of fish from certain parts of the tropics, e.g. West African drainages, are uninfected or lightly infected. Mean helminth species richness was low and equaled or exceeded 2.0 in only 22 of 114 communities. No single group of helminths was identified as a dominant component of the fauna and species composition was variable among and within broader geographical areas. The richest enteric helminth assemblages were found in mochokid and clariid catfish with a mixed carnivorous diet, whereas algal feeders, herbivores and detritivores generally had species-poor gut helminth communities. Comparisons indicated that certain areas in the north temperate region had higher helminth species richness in fishes than areas in the tropics. Main conclusions: Expectations of high species richness in helminth communities of tropical freshwater fishes are not fulfilled by the data. Direct comparisons of infracommunities and component communities in host species across widely separated phylogenetic and geographical lines are inappropriate. Examination of latitudinal differences in richness

  10. Helminth collection and identification from wildlife.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Maria S; Kinsella, John M

    2013-12-14

    Wild animals are commonly parasitized by a wide range of helminths. The four major types of helminths are "roundworms" (nematodes), "thorny-headed worms" (acanthocephalans), "flukes" (trematodes), and "tapeworms" (cestodes). The optimum method for collecting helminths is to examine a host that has been dead less than 4-6 hr since most helminths will still be alive. A thorough necropsy should be conducted and all major organs examined. Organs are washed over a 106 μm sieve under running water and contents examined under a stereo microscope. All helminths are counted and a representative number are fixed (either in 70% ethanol, 10% buffered formalin, or alcohol-formalin-acetic acid). For species identification, helminths are either cleared in lactophenol (nematodes and small acanthocephalans) or stained (trematodes, cestodes, and large acanthocephalans) using Harris' hematoxylin or Semichon's carmine. Helminths are keyed to species by examining different structures (e.g. male spicules in nematodes or the rostellum in cestodes). The protocols outlined here can be applied to any vertebrate animal. They require some expertise on recognizing the different organs and being able to differentiate helminths from other tissue debris or gut contents. Collection, preservation, and staining are straightforward techniques that require minimal equipment and reagents. Taxonomic identification, especially to species, can be very time consuming and might require the submission of specimens to an expert or DNA analysis.

  11. Predictability of helminth parasite host range using information on geography, host traits and parasite community structure.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Tad; Park, Andrew W; Drake, John M

    2017-02-01

    Host-parasite associations are complex interactions dependent on aspects of hosts (e.g. traits, phylogeny or coevolutionary history), parasites (e.g. traits and parasite interactions) and geography (e.g. latitude). Predicting the permissive host set or the subset of the host community that a parasite can infect is a central goal of parasite ecology. Here we develop models that accurately predict the permissive host set of 562 helminth parasites in five different parasite taxonomic groups. We developed predictive models using host traits, host taxonomy, geographic covariates, and parasite community composition, finding that models trained on parasite community variables were more accurate than any other covariate group, even though parasite community covariates only captured a quarter of the variance in parasite community composition. This suggests that it is possible to predict the permissive host set for a given parasite, and that parasite community structure is an important predictor, potentially because parasite communities are interacting non-random assemblages.

  12. The helminth parasites of the wild rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and their effect on host condition in Dunas de Mira, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Eira, C; Torres, J; Miquel, J; Vingada, J

    2007-09-01

    The present study focuses on the helminth parasite community of the wild rabbit in a sand dune area in Portugal over a 5-year period. The influence of host sex and year on the composition of the helminth community is assessed, along with the potential effect of the detected helminths on host body condition. The basic structure of the helminth community comprises Mosgovoyia ctenoides, Graphidium strigosum, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Nematodiroides zembrae and Passalurus ambiguus. Mean intensities of G. strigosum varied between years. General G. strigosum intensities were also found to vary according to both year and host sex, but not according to the interaction of both factors. When assessing the effect of helminths on rabbit body condition (expressed by the kidney fat index), higher burdens of M. ctenoides, a cestode that presents a relatively large body mass, were found to induce a reduction in rabbit condition.

  13. Helminth parasites of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) from southern Indiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Moraga, P; Kinsella, J M; Sepúlveda, M S

    2012-03-01

    Very little is known about parasitic diseases of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). The objective of this study was to examine the parasitic fauna of eastern box turtles collected from southern Indiana, USA. Turtles (n = 40) were salvaged mostly as road kills from southern Indiana between May and October 2009. Seven species of helminths in total were found parasitizing the gastrointestinal tract, including two digenean trematodes (Brachycoelium salamandrae and Telorchis robustus) and five nematodes (Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Cosmocercoides dukae, Falcaustra affinis, F. chelydrae and Serpinema trispinosus). We report prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of infection for all helminths. Helminths were not found in any other organs examined (heart, gonads, liver, heart, kidney and urinary bladder) and no ectoparasites were found. Overall, mean intensity of infections was low (1-14 parasites/host), suggesting that these parasites are unlikely to be associated with negative health impacts. This constitutes the first study of this kind for Indiana.

  14. Changes in duodenal tissue-associated microbiota following hookworm infection and consecutive gluten challenges in humans with coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    Giacomin, Paul; Zakrzewski, Martha; Jenkins, Timothy P.; Su, Xiaopei; Al-Hallaf, Rafid; Croese, John; de Vries, Stefan; Grant, Andrew; Mitreva, Makedonka; Loukas, Alex; Krause, Lutz; Cantacessi, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    A reduced diversity of the gastrointestinal commensal microbiota is associated with the development of several inflammatory diseases. Recent reports in humans and animal models have demonstrated the beneficial therapeutic effects of infections by parasitic worms (helminths) in some inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and coeliac disease (CeD). Interestingly, these studies have described how helminths may alter the intestinal microbiota, potentially representing a mechanism by which they regulate inflammation. However, for practical reasons, these reports have primarily analysed the faecal microbiota. In the present investigation, we have assessed, for the first time, the changes in the microbiota at the site of infection by a parasitic helminth (hookworm) and gluten-dependent inflammation in humans with CeD using biopsy tissue from the duodenum. Hookworm infection and gluten exposure were associated with an increased abundance of species within the Bacteroides phylum, as well as increases in the richness and diversity of the tissue-resident microbiota within the intestine, results that are consistent with previous reports using other helminth species in humans and animal models. Hence, this may represent a mechanism by which parasitic helminths may restore intestinal immune homeostasis and exert a therapeutic benefit in CeD, and potentially other inflammatory disorders. PMID:27827438

  15. Helminths of the two mountain frogs, banded frog, Rana camerani Boulenger, 1886 and Uludağ frog Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 (Anura: Ranidae), collected from the Antalya province.

    PubMed

    Düşen, Serdar

    2007-01-01

    In this study, two mountain frogs (Rana camerani and Rana macrocnemis) were collected in the Antalya Province in south-western Turkey during 2001 and 2002 and were examined for helminths. Out of 15 Rana camerani, 10 (66.7%) were infected with 1 or more helminths and out of 20 Rana macrocnemis, 17 (85%) were infected with 1 or more helminths. The helminth fauna of Rana camerani included 4 species of which were 3 trematode species (Haplometra cylindracea, Pleurogenoides medians, Opisthioglyphe rastellus), and 1 nematode species (Cosmocerca ornata). The helminth fauna of Rana macrocnemis included 3 species with 1 trematode species (H. cylindracea), 1 nematode species (C. ornata), and 1 acanthocephalan species (Acanthocephalus ranae). H. cylindracea and C. ornata were observed in both of the mountain frogs.

  16. Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.

    PubMed

    Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoliņs, J

    2009-03-01

    Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles.

  17. A checklist of helminth parasites of Elasmobranchii in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Merlo-Serna, Aldo Iván; García-Prieto, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive and updated summary of the literature and unpublished records contained in scientific collections on the helminth parasites of the elasmobranchs from Mexico is herein presented for the first time. At present, the helminth fauna associated with Elasmobranchii recorded in Mexico is composed of 132 (110 named species and 22 not assigned to species), which belong to 70 genera included in 27 families (plus 4 incertae sedis families of cestodes). These data represent 7.2% of the worldwide species richness. Platyhelminthes is the most widely represented, with 128 taxa: 94 of cestodes, 22 of monogeneans and 12 of trematodes; Nematoda and Annelida: Hirudinea are represented by only 2 taxa each. These records come from 54 localities, pertaining to 15 states; Baja California Sur (17 sampled localities) and Baja California (10), are the states with the highest species richness: 72 and 54 species, respectively. Up to now, 48 elasmobranch species have been recorded as hosts of helminths in Mexico; so, approximately 82% of sharks and 67% of rays distributed in Mexican waters lack helminthological studies. The present list provides the host, distribution (with geographical coordinates), site of infection, accession number in scientific collections, and references for the parasites. A host-parasite list is also provided. PMID:27047240

  18. Helminth and leech community structure in tadpoles and caudatan larvae of two amphibian species from Western Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Rhoden, Heather R; Bolek, Matthew G

    2012-04-01

    Currently no comparative studies exist on helminth and leech community structure among sympatric anuran tadpoles and salamander larvae. During June-August 2007-2009, we examined 50 bullfrog tadpoles, Rana catesbeiana , 50 barred tiger salamander larvae, Ambystoma mavortium , and 3 species of snails from Nevens Pond, Keith County, Nebraska for helminth and leech infections. The helminth and leech compound community of this larval amphibian assemblage consisted of at least 7 species, 4 in bullfrog tadpoles and 4 in barred tiger salamander larvae. Bullfrog tadpoles were infected with 2 species of nematodes ( Gyrinicola batrachiensis and Spiroxys sp.) and 2 types of metacercariae ( Telorchis sp. and echinostomatids), whereas barred tiger salamander larva were infected with 1 species of leech ( Placobdella picta ), 2 species of adult trematodes ( Telorchis corti and Halipegus sp.), and 1 species of an unidentified metacercaria. The component community of bullfrog tadpoles was dominated by helminths acquired through active penetration, or incidentally ingested through respiratory currents, or both, whereas the component community of larval salamanders was dominated by helminths acquired through ingestion of intermediate hosts (χ²  =  3,455.00, P < 0.00001). Differences in amphibian larval developmental time (2-3 yr for bullfrog tadpoles versus 2-5 mo for salamander larvae), the ephemeral nature of intermediate hosts in Nevens Pond, and the ability of bullfrog tadpole to eliminate echinostome infections had significant effects on mean helminth species richness among amphibian species and years (t  =  12.31, P < 0.0001; t  =  2.09, P  =  0.04). Differences in herbivorous and carnivorous diet and time to metamorphosis among bullfrog tadpoles and barred tiger salamander larvae were important factors in structuring helminth communities among the larval stages of these 2 sympatric amphibian species, whereas size was important in structuring helminth and leech

  19. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively.

  20. Helminth parasitism in two closely related South African rodents: abundance, prevalence, species richness and impinging factors.

    PubMed

    Spickett, Andrea; Junker, Kerstin; Krasnov, Boris R; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Matthee, Sonja

    2017-04-01

    We investigated patterns of helminth infection in two closely related rodents (social Rhabdomys pumilio occurring mainly in xeric habitats and solitary R. dilectus occurring mainly in mesic habitats) at 20 localities in different biomes of South Africa and asked if between-species differences were mainly caused by difference in sociality or difference in environmental conditions of their respective habitats. Helminths recovered from the gastrointestinal tract totalled 11 nematode and 5 cestode species from R. pumilio and 19 nematode and 7 cestode species from R. dilectus. In both hosts, mean abundance and prevalence of nematodes were higher compared to cestodes. Cestode infection as well as nematode abundance, species richness or prevalence did not differ between the two rodents. However, incidence of nematode infection was significantly higher in R. dilectus than in R. pumilio. Moreover, nematode numbers and species richness in infracommunities of R. pumilio inhabiting the relatively more xeric Karoo biome were significantly lower than in those inhabiting the relatively less xeric Fynbos biome. Although we could not unequivocally distinguish between effects of host sociality and environmental factors on the number of individuals and species of helminths in the two hosts, differences in the incidence of nematode infection between R. pumilio and R. dilectus as well as differences in the number of nematode individuals and species between R. pumilio from the Fynbos and the Karoo suggested the effect of environmental conditions on helminth infection to be more important than that of sociality.

  1. Effects of oil spill related chemical pollution on helminth parasites in Mexican flounder Cyclopsetta chittendeni from the Campeche Sound, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Centeno-Chalé, Oscar Arturo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2015-09-01

    During an environmental impact study of an accidental oil spill in the Campeche Sound in October 2007, we examined the helminth parasites of the benthic flatfish Cyclopsetta chittendeni as well as the concentrations of hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the sediment. The aim of this study was to determine the potential effects of these contaminants on the helminth communities of the flatfish. A total of 427 hosts were examined, and 16,895 helminths, representing 17 species, were obtained from two surveys (March and July, 2008). Statistically significant negative associations were observed between the hydrocarbons and helminth parasite abundances using multivariate methods. The results suggest that in October 2007, the oil spill had a strong negative effect on these helminth communities. However, after five months, the impacted stations were re-populated by both the flatfish and helminths. The most likely explanation for this rapid recovery is the rescue effect from non-impacted habitats to impacted stations.

  2. HelmCoP: an online resource for helminth functional genomics and drug and vaccine targets prioritization.

    PubMed

    Abubucker, Sahar; Martin, John; Taylor, Christina M; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2011-01-01

    A vast majority of the burden from neglected tropical diseases result from helminth infections (nematodes and platyhelminthes). Parasitic helminthes infect over 2 billion, exerting a high collective burden that rivals high-mortality conditions such as AIDS or malaria, and cause devastation to crops and livestock. The challenges to improve control of parasitic helminth infections are multi-fold and no single category of approaches will meet them all. New information such as helminth genomics, functional genomics and proteomics coupled with innovative bioinformatic approaches provide fundamental molecular information about these parasites, accelerating both basic research as well as development of effective diagnostics, vaccines and new drugs. To facilitate such studies we have developed an online resource, HelmCoP (Helminth Control and Prevention), built by integrating functional, structural and comparative genomic data from plant, animal and human helminthes, to enable researchers to develop strategies for drug, vaccine and pesticide prioritization, while also providing a useful comparative genomics platform. HelmCoP encompasses genomic data from several hosts, including model organisms, along with a comprehensive suite of structural and functional annotations, to assist in comparative analyses and to study host-parasite interactions. The HelmCoP interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, allows users to search for multi-factorial combinations of properties and serves readily accessible information that will assist in the identification of various genes of interest. HelmCoP is publicly available at: http://www.nematode.net/helmcop.html.

  3. Parasitic helminths and their beneficial impact on type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Berbudi, Afiat; Ajendra, Jesuthas; Wardani, Ajeng P F; Hoerauf, Achim; Hübner, Marc P

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2035 almost 600 million people will suffer from diabetes. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the strongest increase of diabetes incidence occurs in developing and newly industrialized countries. This increase correlates not only with a progressing sedentary lifestyle and nutritional changes, but also environmental changes. Similarly, the increase of type 1 diabetes incidence in industrialized countries over the past decades cannot be explained by genetic factors alone, suggesting that environmental changes are also involved. One such environmental change is a reduced exposure to pathogens because of improved hygiene. Parasitic helminths modulate the immune system of their hosts and induce type 2 as well as regulatory immune responses. As pro-inflammatory immune responses are crucial for the onset of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, helminth-induced immunomodulation may prevent diabetes onset and ameliorate insulin sensitivity. Several epidemiological studies in human and experimental animal models support such a protective effect of helminths for autoimmune diabetes. Recent studies further suggest that helminths may also provide such a beneficial effect for type 2 diabetes. In this review we summarize studies that investigated parasitic helminths and helminth-derived products and their impact on both type 1 and type 2 diabetes highlighting potential protective mechanisms.

  4. Helminth fauna of the Iberian lynx, Lynx pardinus.

    PubMed

    Torres, J; Garciá-Perea, R; Gisbert, J; Feliu, C

    1998-09-01

    Specimens of 12 helminth species were collected from carcasses of eight Lynx pardinus (Temminck, 1827), a carnivore endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. These species included: Brachylaima sp. (12.5%) (Trematoda); Taenia pisiformis (12.5%), T. polyacantha (25%), T. taeniaeformis (25%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (37.5%) (Cestoda); Eucoleus aerophilus (12.5%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (12.5%), Toxocara cati (37.5%), Toxascaris leonina (62.5%), Vigisospirura potekhina potekhina (12.5%), Mastophorus muris (12.5%) and Physaloptera praeputialis (12.5%) (Nematoda). The helminth fauna in Iberian lynx is compared with that of L. canadensis and L. rufus in America, and for L. lynx in Eurasia. The potential relationships between the parasitological data and some geographical, historical and dietary factors are discussed.

  5. Heavy metal pollution across sites affecting the intestinal helminth communities of the Egyptian lizard, Chalcides ocellatus (Forskal, 1775).

    PubMed

    Soliman, M F M

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible effects of heavy metal pollution across sites and some biological factors on helminth communities infecting the lizard, Chalcides ocellatus. The possibility of heavy metal accumulation by such helminths was also investigated. A total of 202 C. ocellatus were collected from three different sites (industrial, rural, and urban systems) in Ismailia governorate, Egypt, during summer 2009. The lizards were classified according to their sex and size and were examined for the intestinal helminths. Heavy metal levels were detected in the intestinal tissue of the lizards and the recovered helminths. Species richness was 6, 5, and 3 in rural, urban, and industrial systems, respectively. Significant site variations regarding infection prevalence, intensity, and abundance were encountered at different levels. Some noticeable effects of the host size were found. The significant differences found between the metal levels of the intestinal tissues and the recovered helminths and the other relations found in this study may be indications for a possible metals accumulation capacity by helminths. The cestode Oochoristica tuberculata could be a promising biomonitor for Cu and Pb, while the intestinal nematodes were less sensitive to the pollution. Differences in the accumulation capacity may be attributed to the intensity of infection, parasite species, and metal. The observed patterns of distribution and occurrence of helminths and the metals accumulation capacity reflect the need for more studies since this study proposes the model intestinal helminth/C. ocellatus as another promising bioindication system in the terrestrial habitat, especially in areas where the lizard C. ocellatus are available.

  6. Intestinal helminths in wild Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Conga, David F; Bowler, Mark; Tantalean, Manuel; Montes, Daniel; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Mayor, Pedro

    2014-04-01

    Parasites are important in the management of the health of primate populations. We examined 36 fecal samples from Peruvian red uakari monkeys (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) collected from wild animals in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. Samples were positive for helminth infection. Nematodes egg: Strongyloididae, Trypanoxyuris sp., Spirurid, and a cestode egg were identified.

  7. Application of small RNA technology for improved control of parasitic helminths.

    PubMed

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D; Marks, Neil D; Gu, Henry; McNeilly, Tom N; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2015-08-15

    Over the last decade microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. miRNAs are short, non-coding RNAs that regulate a variety of processes including cancer, organ development and immune function. This class of small RNAs bind with partial complementarity to their target mRNA sequences, most often in the 3'UTR, to negatively regulate gene expression. In parasitic helminths, miRNAs are being increasingly studied for their potential roles in development and host-parasite interactions. The availability of genome data, combined with small RNA sequencing, has paved the way to profile miRNAs expressed at particular developmental stages for many parasitic helminths. While some miRNAs are conserved across species, others appear to be unique to specific parasites, suggesting important roles in adaptation and survival in the host environment. Some miRNAs are released from parasites, in exosomes or in protein complexes, and the potential effects of these on host immune function are being increasingly studied. In addition, release of miRNAs from schistosome and filarial parasites into host plasma can be exploited for the development of specific and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of infection. Interfering with miRNA function, as well as silencing key components of the pathways they regulate, will progress our understanding of parasite development and provide a novel approach to therapeutic control. RNA interference (RNAi) by siRNAs has proven to be inconsistent in parasitic nematodes. However, the recent successes reported for schistosome and liver fluke RNAi, encourage further efforts to enhance delivery of RNA and improve in vitro culture systems and assays to monitor phenotypic effects in nematodes. These improvements are important for the establishment of reliable functional genomic platforms for novel drug and vaccine development. In this review we focus on the important roles of mi

  8. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control.

  9. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE) may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis), food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis) and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis). Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs) or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber) causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears PMID:21429191

  10. Potential Vaccines and Post-Exposure Treatments for Filovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Brian M.; Trefry, John C.; Biggins, Julia E.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Honko, Anna N.; Smith, Darci R.; Olinger, Gene G.

    2012-01-01

    Viruses of the family Filoviridae represent significant health risks as emerging infectious diseases as well as potentially engineered biothreats. While many research efforts have been published offering possibilities toward the mitigation of filoviral infection, there remain no sanctioned therapeutic or vaccine strategies. Current progress in the development of filovirus therapeutics and vaccines is outlined herein with respect to their current level of testing, evaluation, and proximity toward human implementation, specifically with regard to human clinical trials, nonhuman primate studies, small animal studies, and in vitro development. Contemporary methods of supportive care and previous treatment approaches for human patients are also discussed. PMID:23170176

  11. Potential vaccines and post-exposure treatments for filovirus infections.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Brian M; Trefry, John C; Biggins, Julia E; Hensley, Lisa E; Honko, Anna N; Smith, Darci R; Olinger, Gene G

    2012-09-01

    Viruses of the family Filoviridae represent significant health risks as emerging infectious diseases as well as potentially engineered biothreats. While many research efforts have been published offering possibilities toward the mitigation of filoviral infection, there remain no sanctioned therapeutic or vaccine strategies. Current progress in the development of filovirus therapeutics and vaccines is outlined herein with respect to their current level of testing, evaluation, and proximity toward human implementation, specifically with regard to human clinical trials, nonhuman primate studies, small animal studies, and in vitro development. Contemporary methods of supportive care and previous treatment approaches for human patients are also discussed.

  12. Discovery of potential anti-infectives against Staphylococcus aureus using a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The limited antibiotic options for effective control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections has led to calls for new therapeutic approaches to combat this human pathogen. An alternative approach to control MRSA is through the use of anti-infective agents that selectively disrupt virulence-mediated pathways without affecting microbial cell viability or by modulating the host natural immune defenses to combat the pathogen. Methods We established a C. elegans – S. aureus liquid-based assay to screen for potential anti-infectives against S. aureus. The assay was utilized to screen 37 natural extracts and 29 synthetic compounds for the ability to extend the lifespan of infected nematodes. Disc diffusion and MIC microdilution tests were used to evaluate the anti-microbial properties of these natural extracts and synthetic compounds whilst in vivo bacterial CFU within the C. elegans gut were also enumerated. Results We screened a total of 37 natural extracts and 29 synthetic compounds for anti-infective properties. The screen successfully revealed 14 natural extracts from six plants (Nypa fruticans, Swietenia macrophylla, Curcuma longa, Eurycoma longifolia, Orthosiphon stamineus and Silybum eburneum) and one marine sample (Faunus ater) that improved the survival of S. aureus-infected worms by at least 2.8-fold as well as 14 synthetic compounds that prolonged the survival of S. aureus-infected nematodes by 4-fold or greater. An anti-microbial screen of all positive hits demonstrated that 8/28 hits had no effect on S. aureus growth. Of these 8 candidates, 5 of them also protected the worms from MRSA infection. We also noted that worms exposed to N. fruticans root and O. stamineus leaf extracts showed reduced intestinal colonization by live S. aureus. This suggests that these extracts could possibly activate host immunity to eliminate the bacteria or interfere with factor/s that prevents pathogen accumulation. Conclusion We have successfully

  13. Helminth parasites of amphibians and reptiles from the Ucayali Region, Peru.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R; Freed, Paul S

    2010-04-01

    Twenty individual amphibians representing 9 species within 6 families and 44 individual reptiles representing 15 species within 8 families from the Ucayali Region, Peru, were examined for helminths. Seven (35%) of the amphibian species and 15 (34%) of the reptiles were found to harbor at least 1 species of helminth; 5 (25%) of the amphibians and 4 (9%) of the reptiles harbored multiple infections. A cyclophyllidean cestode and 14 taxa of nematodes within 7 families were found in the herpetofauna surveyed. Thirteen new host and 6 new geographic distribution records are documented.

  14. [Helminths of wolves (Canis lupus) from south Mazurian Lakeland, a coprological study].

    PubMed

    Kloch, Agnieszka; Bajer, Anna

    2003-01-01

    52 wolf scats collected during winter 2001/2002 in Puszcza Piska and Napiwodzko-Ramuckic forests were examined using Fulleborn's method. The overall helminth prevalence was 28.8%. Six helminth species were recorded, the most frequent species were Uncinaria stenocepmhala/Ancylostoma caninmu (treated together; found in 6 samples), Toxocara canis and Trichuris vulpis (both identified in 4 samples). The mean intensity of egg expulsion was 2.0 eggs/g feces, the most intense infection was this with Toxocara canis (average 23.0 eggs/g feces). There were observed differences in prevalence of parasite' species between packs. Present paper is first such an investigation in northeastern Poland.

  15. Parasitic infection as a potential therapeutic tool against rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Apaer, Shadike; Tuxun, Tuerhongjiang; Ma, Hai-Zhang; Zhang, Heng; Aierken, Amina; Aini, Abudusalamu; Li, Yu-Peng; Lin, Ren-Yong; Wen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Parasites, which are a recently discovered yet ancient dweller in human hosts, remain a great public health burden in underdeveloped countries, despite preventative efforts. Rheumatoid arthritis is a predominantly cosmopolitan health problem with drastic morbidity rates, although encouraging progress has been achieved regarding treatment. However, although various types of methods and agents have been applied clinically, their broad usage has been limited by their adverse effects and/or high costs. Sustained efforts have been exerted on the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ since the 1870s. The immunosuppressive nature of parasitic infections may offer potential insight into therapeutic strategies for rheumatoid arthritis, in which the immune system is overactivated. An increasing number of published papers are focusing on the preventive and/or curative effect of various parasitic infection on rheumatoid arthritis from experimental studies to large-scale epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Therefore, the present review aimed to provide a general literature review on the possible beneficial role of parasitic infection on rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27698735

  16. [Potential utility of ceftaroline fosamil in osteoarticular infections].

    PubMed

    Reinoso, Javier Cobo; Cardenal, Javier Ariza

    2014-03-01

    Osteoarticular infections (OAI) include a wide-usually complex-spectrum of clinical scenarios. The approach is usually medical-surgical. In addition to this complexity, there is a low grade of evidence in the medical literature on these infections. Nevertheless, it is possible-and necessary-to integrate microbiological, pharmacological, experimental and clinical information to achieve the best possible clinical results. The most appropriate choice of antibiotic therapy largely depends on the clinical scenario and, obviously, on the microorganisms involved. Given the protagonism of staphylococci in OAI, it is appropriate to elucidate the role that could be played by a new antistaphylococcic agent in these infections. For clinicians who manage OAI, the incorporation of ceftaroline represents the recovery of a beta-lactam to treat methicillin-resistant staphylococci. This perspective can be used to guide the potential role of this new antibiotic for the management of OAI in various scenarios and the clinical research required for its introduction in clinical practice.

  17. Helminth infracommunities of Rana vaillanti brocchi (Anura: Ranidae) in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Calderón, Laura; León-Règagnon, Virginia; García-Prieto, Luis

    2004-08-01

    A total of 76 adult individuals of Rana vaillanti were collected in Laguna Escondida, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico, and their helminth infracommunity structure was determined. Among the 21 helminth taxa collected (10 digeneans, 8 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans), the digenean Langeronia macrocirra reached the highest prevalence (64.4%), mean abundance (6.6), and mean intensity (10.4), as well as the highest total number of individuals (499). Only 2 frogs were uninfected, the remainder harbored between 1 and 7 helminth species and 1-102 individuals; mean species richness and abundance were 3.49 +/- 0.22 and 16.1 +/- 16.3, respectively. Langeronia macrocirra dominated in 50.6% of the infracommunities, with relatively low Berger-Parker index values (0.56); for this reason, the evenness was high (0.70 +/- 0.31), and consequently, diversity values are the highest recorded to date in species of Rana. However, patterns of helminth infracommunity richness and diversity were similar to those previously observed in amphibians. This structure is attributed to the feeding habits (between 66.7 and 81% of helminth species parasitizing R. vaillanti enter using the food web dynamics) and low vagility (the remainder species infect by host penetration).

  18. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net.

    PubMed

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N; Brindley, Paul J; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases' interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species' omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net.

  19. RNA-mediated communication between helminths and their hosts: The missing links.

    PubMed

    Claycomb, Julie; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Buck, Amy H

    2017-01-26

    Small RNAs have been discovered in a wide variety of extracellular environments and are now thought to participate in communication between cells and even between different organisms and species. Helminths are parasitic worms that generally reside in extracellular niches in their hosts and can establish chronic infection through the release of immunomodulatory factors. Recent work has demonstrated that Extracellular RNA (exRNA) may be another class of immunomodulator secreted by helminths. Here we will detail what is known about small RNA pathways in helminth pathogens (focusing on nematodes) and mammalian hosts. We will then explore the computational challenges with identifying RNA-RNA interactions between 2 different species and the paradigm of RNA-RNA co-evolution that accompanies this. Finally we explore the lingering questions that require further investigation to understand the properties of exRNA that would enable it to function as an immunomodulator.

  20. Parasitic helminths of red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) from the Apalachicola National Forest in Florida.

    PubMed

    Foster, Garry W; Kinsella, John M; Walters, Eric L; Schrader, Mathew S; Forrester, Donald J

    2002-12-01

    Seventy-four red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) from the Apalachicola National Forest (30 degrees 10'N, 84 degrees 40'W) in northwest Florida were examined for helminths. The most prevalent parasites were the nematode Aproctella stoddardi (11%) and the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus centurorum (11%). New host records include Pseudaprocta samueli, A. stoddardi, Tridentocapillaria tridens, Diplotriaena americana, Dispharynx nasuta, Procyrnea pileata, Orthoskrjabinia rostellata, and Brachylaima fuscatum. The helminth fauna was characterized by low prevalences and intensities of infection and low numbers of species per bird (1.2). The frequency of prescribed burning and habitat understory flora composition did not influence the prevalences or intensities of helminths in red-bellied woodpeckers collected from 2 similar but differently managed sites within the forest.

  1. Macrobiota — helminths as active participants and partners of the microbiota in host intestinal homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gause, William C; Maizels, Rick M

    2016-01-01

    Important insights have recently been gained in our understanding of the intricate relationship in the intestinal milieu between the vertebrate host mucosal immune response, commensal bacteria, and helminths. Helminths are metazoan worms (macrobiota) and trigger immune responses that include potent regulatory components capable of controlling harmful inflammation, protecting barrier function and mitigating tissue damage. They can secrete a variety of products that directly affect immune regulatory function but they also have the capacity to influence the composition of microbiota, which can also then impact immune function. Conversely, changes in microbiota can affect susceptibility to helminth infection, indicating that crosstalk between these two disparate groups of endobiota can play an essential role in host intestinal immune function and homeostasis. PMID:27116368

  2. Safety of anti-immunoglobulin E therapy with omalizumab in allergic patients at risk of geohelminth infection

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, A A; Lima, F; Sarinho, E; Ayre, G; Martin, C; Fox, H; Cooper, P J

    2007-01-01

    Background Although the role of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in immunity against helminth parasites is unclear, there is concern that therapeutic antibodies that neutralize IgE (anti-IgE) may be unsafe in subjects at risk of helminth infection. Objective We conducted an exploratory study to investigate the safety of omalizumab (anti-IgE) in subjects with allergic asthma and/or perennial allergic rhinitis at high risk of intestinal helminth infection. The primary safety outcome was risk of infections with intestinal helminths during anti-IgE therapy. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 137 subjects (12–30 years) at high risk of geohelminth infection. All subjects received pre-study anthelmintic treatment, followed by 52 weeks' treatment with omalizumab or placebo. Results Of the omalizumab subjects 50% (34/68) experienced at least one intestinal geohelminth infection compared with 41% (28/69) of placebo subjects [odds ratio (OR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74–2.95, one-sided P = 0.14; OR (adjusted for study visit, baseline infection status, gender and age) 2.2 (0.94–5.15); one-sided P = 0.035], providing some evidence for a potential increased incidence of geohelminth infection in subjects receiving omalizumab. Omalizumab therapy was well tolerated, and did not appear to be associated with increased morbidity attributable to intestinal helminths as assessed by clinical and laboratory adverse events, maximal helminth infection intensities and additional anthelmintic requirements. Time to first infection (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.79–2.15, one-sided P = 0.15) was similar between treatment groups. Infection severity and response to anthelmintics appeared to be unaffected by omalizumab therapy. Conclusions In this exploratory study of allergic subjects at high risk of helminth infections, omalizumab therapy appeared to be safe and well tolerated, but may be associated with a modest increase in the incidence of geohelminth

  3. The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), as a reservoir for helminth parasites in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Naem, Soraya; Pourreza, Behzad; Gorgani-Firouzjaee, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    From April 2009 to December 2011, 44 dead hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) were collected incidentally from areas of Urmia, Iran. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 95.0%. Specific parasites and their prevalences were: Physaloptera clausa (93.0%), Crenosoma striatum (61.0%), Capillaria aerophila (9.0%), Capillarias spp. (4.0%), Brachylaemus erinacei (2.0%) and Hymenolepis erinacei (16.0%). There were no significant differences in helminth occurrence between hedgehog sexes, either in single or in mixed infections (p > 0.05). The mixed infection involving Crenosoma striatum and P. clausa occurred significantly more frequently than other mixed infection (p < 0.05). There were significant differences in prevalence among seasons, with the highest prevalence in summer and spring especially among P. clausa and C. striatum (p < 0.05). PMID:26261711

  4. Helminth parasites of the digestive tract of the oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus, in the Wadden Sea, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgsteede, F. H. M.; Van den Broek, E.; Swennen, C.

    The digestive tracts of 90 oystercatchers (equal numbers of males and females and of juveniles, subadults and adults) wintering in the Dutch Wadden Sea were examined for helminth parasites. The nematodes Capillaria sp. (36.7%) and Streptocara crassicauda (7.8%) were found in the stomach. Unidentified cestodes (76.7%) and the trematodes Psilostomum brevicolle (42.2%), Notocotylus sp. (81.1%), and unidentified gymnophallids (100%) were found in the intestine and caeca. Two birds were infected with Gymnophallidae only, while all other birds contained additional helminth species. Compared with subadult and adult birds, the juveniles had significantly more infections with Capillaria sp. and cestodes. Moreover, the juveniles were infected with a greater variety of species. No further relation was found between the presence of helminths or worm numbers and age groups or sexes of birds.

  5. Intestinal epithelial tuft cells initiate type 2 mucosal immunity to helminth parasites.

    PubMed

    Gerbe, François; Sidot, Emmanuelle; Smyth, Danielle J; Ohmoto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Dardalhon, Valérie; Cesses, Pierre; Garnier, Laure; Pouzolles, Marie; Brulin, Bénédicte; Bruschi, Marco; Harcus, Yvonne; Zimmermann, Valérie S; Taylor, Naomi; Maizels, Rick M; Jay, Philippe

    2016-01-14

    Helminth parasitic infections are a major global health and social burden. The host defence against helminths such as Nippostrongylus brasiliensis is orchestrated by type 2 cell-mediated immunity. Induction of type 2 cytokines, including interleukins (IL) IL-4 and IL-13, induce goblet cell hyperplasia with mucus production, ultimately resulting in worm expulsion. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of type 2 responses remain incompletely understood. Here we show that tuft cells, a rare epithelial cell type in the steady-state intestinal epithelium, are responsible for initiating type 2 responses to parasites by a cytokine-mediated cellular relay. Tuft cells have a Th2-related gene expression signature and we demonstrate that they undergo a rapid and extensive IL-4Rα-dependent amplification following infection with helminth parasites, owing to direct differentiation of epithelial crypt progenitor cells. We find that the Pou2f3 gene is essential for tuft cell specification. Pou2f3(-/-) mice lack intestinal tuft cells and have defective mucosal type 2 responses to helminth infection; goblet cell hyperplasia is abrogated and worm expulsion is compromised. Notably, IL-4Rα signalling is sufficient to induce expansion of the tuft cell lineage, and ectopic stimulation of this signalling cascade obviates the need for tuft cells in the epithelial cell remodelling of the intestine. Moreover, tuft cells secrete IL-25, thereby regulating type 2 immune responses. Our data reveal a novel function of intestinal epithelial tuft cells and demonstrate a cellular relay required for initiating mucosal type 2 immunity to helminth infection.

  6. Helminth parasites of finfish commercial aquaculture in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Soler-Jiménez, L C; Paredes-Trujillo, A I; Vidal-Martínez, V M

    2017-03-01

    Latin America has tripled production by aquaculture up to 78 million tonnes in the past 20 years. However, one of the problems that aquaculture is facing is the presence of helminth parasites and the diseases caused by them in the region. In this review we have collected all the available information on helminths affecting commercial aquaculture in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), emphasizing those causing serious economic losses. Monogeneans are by far the most common and aggressive parasites affecting farmed fish in LAC. They have been recognized as serious pathogens in intensive fish culture because they reach high levels of infection rapidly, and can infect other phylogenetically related fish species. The next most important group comprises the larval stages of digeneans (metacercariae) such as Diplostomum sp. and Centrocestus formosanus, which cause serious damage to farmed fish. Since LAC aquaculture has been based mainly on exotic species (tilapia, salmon, trout and carp), most of their parasites have been brought into the region together with the fish for aquaculture. Recently, one of us (A.I.P.-T.) has suggested that monogeneans, which have generally been considered to be harmless, can produce serious effects on the growth of cultured Nile tilapia. Therefore, the introduction of fish together with their 'harmless' parasites into new sites, regions or countries in LAC should be considered a breakdown of biosecurity in those countries involved. Therefore, the application of quarantine procedures and preventive therapeutic treatments should be considered before allowing these introductions into a country.

  7. Helminthic eosinophilic meningitis: emerging zoonotic diseases in the South.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    Today most emerging infectious diseases, such as West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), arise in the natural environment as zoonoses and are often imported into the United States (US). The most common helminthic infections that can cause eosinophilic meningitis (EoM) in the US, neuroangiostrongyliasis and baylisascariasis, share many of the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases. Neuroangiostrongyliasis, a rodent zoonosis caused by the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is now endemic in the US following the importation of infected rats on container ships and African land snails, the parasite's intermediate hosts, as biological controls and exotic pets. Baylisascariasis, a raccoon zoonosis, caused by the raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, has extended its US distribution range from suburban neighborhoods in the northern US to the Southeast and West Coast since the 1980s. Both A. cantonensis and B. procyonis are now enzootic in Louisiana and have caused EoM in humans. This review analyzes scientific articles selected by MEDLINE search, 1966-2008, in order to assess the evolving epidemiology of EoM in the US, and specifically in Louisiana; and to alert Louisiana clinicians to populations at increased risk of helminthic EoM as a result of age, ethnicity, lifestyle, food choices, location of permanent residence, or recent travel in the Americas or Caribbean. Most parasitic diseases causing EoM are no longer confined to tropical countries; they are now endemic in the US and in Louisiana and more cases may be anticipated.

  8. Spatial distribution of soil-transmitted helminths, including Strongyloides stercoralis, among children in Zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Stefanie; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Simba Khamis, I; Mgeni, Ali F; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David; Marti, Hanspeter; Utzinger, Jürg

    2008-11-01

    A programme periodically distributing anthelminthic drugs to school-aged children for the control of soiltransmitted helminthiasis was launched in Zanzibar in the early 1990s. We investigated the spatial distribution of soiltransmitted helminth infections, including Strongyloides stercoralis, in 336 children from six districts in Unguja, Zanzibar, in 2007. One stool sample per child was examined with the Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate and Baermann methods. The point prevalence of the different helminth infections was compared to the geological characteristics of the study sites. The observed prevalences for Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and S. stercoralis were 35.5%, 12.2%, 11.9% and 2.2%, respectively, with considerable spatial heterogeneity. Whilst T. trichiura and hookworm infections were found in all six districts, no A. lumbricoides infections were recorded in the urban setting and only a low prevalence (2.2%) was observed in the South district. S. stercoralis infections were found in four districts with the highest prevalence (4.0%) in the West district. The prevalence of infection with any soil-transmitted helminth was highest in the North A district (69.6%) and lowest in the urban setting (22.4%). A. lumbricoides, hookworm and, with the exception of the North B district, S. stercoralis infections were observed to be more prevalent in the settings north of Zanzibar Town, which are characterized by alluvial clayey soils, moist forest regions and a higher precipitation. After a decade of large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections across Unguja is still considerable. Hence, additional measures, such as improving access to adequate sanitation and clean water and continued health education, are warranted to successfully control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Zanzibar.

  9. The potential for emerging therapeutic options for Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Harsh; Rea, Mary C; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is mainly a nosocomial pathogen and is a significant cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It is also implicated in the majority of cases of pseudomembranous colitis. Recently, advancements in next generation sequencing technology (NGS) have highlighted the extent of damage to the gut microbiota caused by broad-spectrum antibiotics, often resulting in C. difficile infection (CDI). Currently the treatment of choice for CDI involves the use of metronidazole and vancomycin. However, recurrence and relapse of CDI, even after rounds of metronidazole/vancomycin administration is a problem that must be addressed. The efficacy of alternative antibiotics such as fidaxomicin, rifaximin, nitazoxanide, ramoplanin and tigecycline, as well as faecal microbiota transplantation has been assessed and some have yielded positive outcomes against C. difficile. Some bacteriocins have also shown promising effects against C. difficile in recent years. In light of this, the potential for emerging treatment options and efficacy of anti-C. difficile vaccines are discussed in this review.

  10. The prevalence of helminth parasites in Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Anura: Ranidae) from Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Men, Qifei; Han, Hongyu; Zhao, Qiping; Xia, Weili; Dong, Hui; Zhu, Shunhai; Wang, Ziwen; Li, Cong; Zhu, Xuelong; Huang, Bing

    2016-12-01

    Parasites are ubiquitous members of biotic communities. To investigate the infective status of helminth parasites in Pelophylax nigromaculatus from Shanghai, 90 frogs were collected from July 2013 to July 2014 and examined for the presence of internal parasites. Of these, 86.67% (78/90) of frogs were infected with parasites, the total helminth intensity within infected frogs ranged from 1 to 367, and the mean intensity was 28.49. The infection rates and intensities were 78.89% and 22.89 for trematodes, 50.00% and 5.24 for nematodes, 13.33% and 3.92 for cestodes, and 41.11% and 8.49 for acanthocephalas, respectively. The majority (60.04%) of parasites were parasitic in the intestine, followed by urinary bladder (24.8%) and lungs (7.38%). Based on morphological features, 13 different species of helminth, including 9 undetermined species, were identified. The infective status of different species was significantly different. The most prevalent species were Diplodiscus nigromaculati (64.44%), Diplodiscus sp. (37.78%), Pomphorhynchus sp. (35.56%), Strongyloides sp. (33.33%). The mean infection intensity of Diplorchis nigromaculatus (139.25) was higher than the others' species ranged from 3.57-14.63. This is the first reported discovery of Pomphorhynchus sp. (Pomphorhynchidae Yamaguti, 1939) in frogs from China. These data provide the foundation for further analyses of parasites in this and other species of amphibians.

  11. Helminth communities of two species of piscivorous birds, Ardea alba (Linnaeus) and Nyctanassa violacea (Gmelin) (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae), in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero state, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín A; Flores-Rodríguez, Pedro

    2012-07-01

    The composition and species richness in helminth communities of two species of heron, Ardea alba and Nyctanassa violacea, in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero, Mexico were examined. Nineteen species of helminth (7,804 individuals) were identified in 43 adult birds: 15 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 2 nematodes. Eight species co-occurred in herons of both species and lagoons. The prevalence values of seven species and the mean abundance of five species varied significantly between species of birds and between lagoons. The heterophyid, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, was the helminth numerically dominant in the helminth community of A. alba in both lagoons, while the cestode, Parvitaenia cochlearii, dominated the community of N. violacea. At the component community level, species richness varied significantly: 10 species in A. alba from Coyuca to 16 in N. violacea (Tres Palos). All of the birds examined were infected with helminth parasites: three to seven species per host in A. alba from Coyuca, and two to eight species in A. alba and N. violacea from Tres Palos. The results indicate that even though species composition was similar between both species of heron, the structure of their communities was not the same. Differences in the feeding behavior of the birds (day/night habits), as well as local differences in the abundance of species of fish, and infection levels of helminths in each lagoon are suggested as being responsible for the variations registered in the structure of the helminth communities.

  12. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic)

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Rodney A.; Hunt, David; Georgiev, Boyko B.; Scholz, Tomaš; Harris, Philip D.; Bakke, Tor A.; Pojmanska, Teresa; Niewiadomska, Katarzyna; Kostadinova, Aneta; Tkach, Vasyl; Bain, Odile; Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude; Gibbons, Lynda; Moravec, František; Petter, Annie; Dimitrova, Zlatka M.; Buchmann, Kurt; Valtonen, E. Tellervo; de Jong, Yde

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea), Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended. PMID:25349520

  13. Fauna europaea: helminths (animal parasitic).

    PubMed

    Gibson, David I; Bray, Rodney A; Hunt, David; Georgiev, Boyko B; Scholz, Tomaš; Harris, Philip D; Bakke, Tor A; Pojmanska, Teresa; Niewiadomska, Katarzyna; Kostadinova, Aneta; Tkach, Vasyl; Bain, Odile; Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude; Gibbons, Lynda; Moravec, František; Petter, Annie; Dimitrova, Zlatka M; Buchmann, Kurt; Valtonen, E Tellervo; de Jong, Yde

    2014-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea), Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.

  14. Schistosome and liver fluke derived catechol-estrogens and helminth associated cancers

    PubMed Central

    Correia da Costa, José M.; Vale, Nuno; Gouveia, Maria J.; Botelho, Mónica C.; Sripa, Banchob; Santos, Lúcio L.; Santos, Júlio H.; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Brindley, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Infection with helminth parasites remains a persistent public health problem in developing countries. Three of these pathogens, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium, are of particular concern due to their classification as Group 1 carcinogens: infection with these worms is carcinogenic. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approaches, we identified steroid hormone like (e.g., oxysterol-like, catechol estrogen quinone-like, etc.) metabolites and related DNA-adducts, apparently of parasite origin, in developmental stages including eggs of S. haematobium, in urine of people with urogenital schistosomiasis, and in the adult stage of O. viverrini. Since these kinds of sterol derivatives are metabolized to active quinones that can modify DNA, which in other contexts can lead to breast and other cancers, helminth parasite associated sterols might induce tumor-like phenotypes in the target cells susceptible to helminth parasite associated cancers, i.e., urothelial cells of the bladder in the case of urogenital schistosomiasis and the bile duct epithelia or cholangiocytes, in the case of O. viverrini and C. sinensis. Indeed we postulate that helminth induced cancers originate from parasite estrogen-host epithelial/urothelial cell chromosomal DNA adducts, and here we review recent findings that support this conjecture. PMID:25566326

  15. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: social ecology, environmental determinants, and health systems.

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli, Andrea; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Yang, Guo-Jing; Boatin, Boakye A; Kloos, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for the socioeconomic and health systems research required for the development of sustainable control programmes. Using Stockols' social-ecological approach, we describe the role of various social (poverty, policy, stigma, culture, and migration) and environmental determinants (the home environment, water resources development, and climate change) in the perpetuation of helminthic diseases, as well as their impact as contextual factors on health promotion interventions through both the regular and community-based health systems. We examine these interactions in regard to community participation, intersectoral collaboration, gender, and possibilities for upscaling helminthic disease control and elimination programmes within the context of integrated and interdisciplinary approaches. The research agenda summarises major gaps that need to be addressed.

  16. A Research Agenda for Helminth Diseases of Humans: Social Ecology, Environmental Determinants, and Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gazzinelli, Andrea; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Yang, Guo-Jing; Boatin, Boakye A.; Kloos, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), with the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps, focuses on the environmental, social, behavioural, and political determinants of human helminth infections and outlines a research and development agenda for the socioeconomic and health systems research required for the development of sustainable control programmes. Using Stockols' social-ecological approach, we describe the role of various social (poverty, policy, stigma, culture, and migration) and environmental determinants (the home environment, water resources development, and climate change) in the perpetuation of helminthic diseases, as well as their impact as contextual factors on health promotion interventions through both the regular and community-based health systems. We examine these interactions in regard to community participation, intersectoral collaboration, gender, and possibilities for upscaling helminthic disease control and elimination programmes within the context of integrated and interdisciplinary approaches. The research agenda summarises major gaps that need to be addressed. PMID:22545168

  17. Helminth parasites of the leopard frog Lithobates sp. Colima (Amphibia: Ranidae) from Colima, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Garrido-Olvera, Lorena; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2010-08-01

    The helminth fauna inhabiting Lithobates sp. Colima from Ticuizitán, Colima, Mexico, comprises 10 species: 4 digeneans ( Clinostomum sp., Glypthelmins quieta , Haematoloechus sp., and Langeronia macrocirra ), 5 nematodes ( Aplectana itzocanensis , Cosmocerca podicipinus , Foleyellides striatus , Oswaldocruzia subauricularis , and Rhabdias sp.), and 1 cestode (Cyclophyllidea). Glypthelmins quieta , L. macrocirra , and A. itzocanensis represent new host records. These observations, added to previous records from Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, indicate that the helminth fauna of Lithobates sp. from Colima comprises 25 taxa. Frogs are being parasitized by 3 infection routes: ingestion of intermediate host, skin penetration by larval forms, and transmission by vectors. Species of Aplectana , Cosmocerca , Foleyellides , and Oswaldocruzia occurred in high prevalence in Colima, similar to a previous study on the same frog species from Guerrero. In Colima, Glypthelmins , Haematoloechus , and Rhabdias also occurred in high prevalence. Haematoloechus species reached the highest mean intensity in both localities. The semiaquatic habits of this species of frog and the availability of particular feeding resources appear to determine the helminth composition and infection levels; however, co-speciation events also play an important role structuring these helminth communities.

  18. Alteration of the rat cecal microbiome during colonization with the helminth Hymenolepis diminuta

    PubMed Central

    McKenney, Erin A; Williamson, Lauren; Yoder, Anne D; Rawls, John F; Bilbo, Staci D; Parker, William

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome is now widely recognized as being important in health and disease, and makes up a substantial subset of the biome within the ecosystem of the vertebrate body. At the same time, multicellular, eukaryotic organisms such as helminths are being recognized as an important component of the biome that shaped the evolution of our genes. The absence of these macroscopic organisms during the early development and life of humans in Western culture probably leads to a wide range of human immunological diseases. However, the interaction between the microbiome and macroscopic components of the biome remains poorly characterized. In this study, the microbiome of the cecum in rats colonized for 2 generations with the small intestinal helminth Hymenolepis diminuta was evaluated. The introduction of this benign helminth, which is of considerable therapeutic interest, led to several changes in the cecal microbiome. Most of the changes were within the Firmicutes phylum, involved about 20% of the total bacteria, and generally entailed a shift from Bacilli to Clostridia species in the presence of the helminth. The results point toward ecological relationships between various components of the biome, with the observed shifts in the microbiome suggesting potential mechanisms by which this helminth might exert therapeutic effects. PMID:25942385

  19. Gastrointestinal helminth community of loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Gračan, Romana; Buršić, Moira; Mladineo, Ivona; Kučinić, Mladen; Lazar, Bojan; Lacković, Gordana

    2012-07-25

    We analysed the intestinal helminth community of 70 loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta with a curved carapace length ranging from 25 to 85.4 cm, recovered dead in neritic foraging habitats in the Adriatic Sea in 1995 to 2004. The overall prevalence of infection was high (70.0%), with a mean abundance of 36.8 helminth parasites per turtle. Helminth fauna comprised 5 trematodes (Calycodes anthos, Enodiotrema megachondrus, Orchidasma amphiorchis, Pachypsolus irroratus, Rhytidodes gelatinosus) and 3 nematodes (Sulcascaris sulcata, Anisakis spp., Hysterothylacium sp.), with 6 taxa specific for marine turtles. In terms of infection intensity and parasite abundance, O. amphiorchis was the dominant species (mean intensity: 49.8; mean abundance: 12.8), followed by R. gelatinosus (30.5 and 8.3, respectively) and P. irroratus (23.5 and 7.0, respectively), while larval Anisakis spp. exhibited the highest prevalence (34.3%). The intensity of helminth infection ranged from 1 to 302 (mean: 52.6 ± 69.1) and was not correlated with the size of turtles; this relationship held for all species, except R. gelatinosus (rS = 0.556, p < 0.05). In comparison to other marine habitats, the helminth community of Adriatic loggerheads is characterised by higher species diversity (Shannon-Wiener H' = 1.58) and evenness (E = 0.76), and lower dominance values (Berger-Parker d = 0.35), which can be attributed to the life history and feeding ecology of sea turtles in recruited neritic grounds and the diversity of their benthic prey.

  20. Mixed-host aggregations and helminth parasite sharing in an East African wildlife-livestock system.

    PubMed

    VanderWaal, Kimberly; Omondi, George Paul; Obanda, Vincent

    2014-09-15

    Parasitic infections transmitted between livestock and wildlife pose a significant risk to wildlife conservation efforts and constrain livestock productivity in tropical regions of the world. Gastrointestinal helminths are among the most ubiquitous parasites, and many parasites within this taxon can readily infect a wide range of host species. Factors shaping bidirectional transmission of parasites in wildlife-livestock systems are understudied. In this study, we investigate the prevalence and diversity of helminth infections in an East African community of wild and domestic ungulates. We also identify pairs of host species between which transmission may be possible based on shared parasite taxa, and explore the role of multi-host aggregations in shaping patterns of parasite sharing. Helminth taxa detected included Trichostrongylus, Trichuris, Paramphistomum, Skrjabinema, Strongyloides, Strongylus spp., and other strongyle-type nematodes. We found that nearly 50% of individuals harbored at least one species of helminth, but certain species, such as zebra and impala, exhibited higher prevalence than others. High canopy feeders, like giraffe, had lower prevalence than hosts feeding at medium and low foraging heights. For helminths, patterns of parasite sharing likely emerge from shared space use, which is mediated in part by mixed-species aggregations. The frequency with which host species associated together in mixed-species aggregations was positively correlated with the number of parasite taxa shared. We suggest that variation among species in their tendency to form mixed-species aggregations creates heterogeneity in transmission opportunities, and consequently, parasite sharing across ungulate species. These results enhance our understanding of the role of spatiotemporal relationships among host species in shaping parasite communities in mixed wildlife-livestock grazing systems.

  1. Check list of the helminths of equines in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükbaş, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

    2010-01-01

    Helminths of equines are one of the most important agents of parasitic diseases. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on helminths of equines in Turkey. In this article, a check list and prevalence rates of helminths of equines in Turkey have been given.

  2. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Banaraja fowls reared in semi-intensive system of management in Mayurbhanj district of Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Hembram, Ananta; Panda, M. R.; Mohanty, B. N.; Pradhan, C. R.; Dehuri, M.; Sahu, A.; Behera, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Studies on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths infection in Banaraja fowls of three blocks (Chandua, Shamakhunta and Bangriposi) of Mayurbhanj district in Odisha with respect to semi-intensive system of rearing. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 Banaraja birds (30 males and 130 females) belonging to two age groups (below 1 month age and above 1 month) were examined for the presence of different species of gastrointestinal helminth infection over a period of 1-year. The method of investigation included collection of fecal sample and gastrointestinal tracts, examination of fecal sample of birds, collection of parasites from different part of gastrointestinal tract, counting of parasites, and examination of the collected parasites by standard parasitological techniques followed by morphological identification as far as possible up to the species level. Results: Overall, 58.75% birds were found infected with various gastrointestinal helminths. Total five species of parasites were detected that included Ascaridia galli (25.63%), Heterakis gallinarum (33.75%), Raillietina tetragona (46.25%), Raillietina echinobothrida (11.87%), and Echinostoma revolutum (1.87%). Both single (19.15%) as well as mixed (80.85%) infection were observed. Highest incidence of infection was observed during rainy season (68.88%) followed by winter (66.66%) and least in summer season (41.81%). Sex-wise incidence revealed slightly higher occurrence among females (59.23%) than males (56.67%). Age-wise prevalence revealed that chicks were more susceptible (77.77%) than adults (51.30%) to gastrointestinal helminths infection. Conclusions: Present study revealed that mixed infection with gastrointestinal helminths of different species was more common than infection with single species and season-wise prevalence was higher in rainy season followed by winter and summer. Chicks were found to be more prone to this parasitic infection and a slight higher prevalence among female birds was

  3. Loss of helminth species diversity in the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus on the Tierra del Fuego Island, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, M C; Abba, A M; Navone, G T

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the taxonomic diversity of parasite species of the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus in its native range and in another recently introduced population (Tierra del Fuego island), and to evaluate whether the isolation of the latter determines a decrease in its parasitic diversity. Forty specimens from Buenos Aires and Tierra del Fuego Provinces were collected and examined for helminths. Eleven parasite species were found in the native population, and only one species was present in Tierra del Fuego (Trichohelix tuberculata). This may be explained because isolation and climatic conditions prevent encounters between potential host species and infective forms of parasites. Further sampling will be needed throughout the entire Patagonia steppe to confirm how the characteristic parasitic fauna of C. villosus behaves across the armadillo's southern distribution.

  4. Helminth-induced Ly6Chi monocyte-derived alternatively activated macrophages suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Terrazas, Cesar; de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Juan; Amici, Stephanie A.; Jablonski, Kyle A.; Martinez-Saucedo, Diana; Webb, Lindsay M.; Cortado, Hanna; Robledo-Avila, Frank; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Terrazas, Luis I.; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Helminths cause chronic infections and affect the immune response to unrelated inflammatory diseases. Although helminths have been used therapeutically to ameliorate inflammatory conditions, their anti-inflammatory properties are poorly understood. Alternatively activated macrophages (AAMϕs) have been suggested as the anti-inflammatory effector cells during helminth infections. Here, we define the origin of AAMϕs during infection with Taenia crassiceps, and their disease-modulating activity on the Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our data show two distinct populations of AAMϕs, based on the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 molecules, resulting upon T. crassiceps infection. Adoptive transfer of Ly6C+ monocytes gave rise to PD-L1+/PD-L2+, but not PD-L1+/PD-L2− cells in T. crassiceps-infected mice, demonstrating that the PD-L1+/PD-L2+ subpopulation of AAMϕs originates from blood monocytes. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of PD-L1+/PD-L2+ AAMϕs into EAE induced mice reduced disease incidence, delayed disease onset, and diminished the clinical disability, indicating the critical role of these cells in the regulation of autoimmune disorders. PMID:28094319

  5. The potential for emerging therapeutic options for Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Harsh; Rea, Mary C; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is mainly a nosocomial pathogen and is a significant cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It is also implicated in the majority of cases of pseudomembranous colitis. Recently, advancements in next generation sequencing technology (NGS) have highlighted the extent of damage to the gut microbiota caused by broad-spectrum antibiotics, often resulting in C. difficile infection (CDI). Currently the treatment of choice for CDI involves the use of metronidazole and vancomycin. However, recurrence and relapse of CDI, even after rounds of metronidazole/vancomycin administration is a problem that must be addressed. The efficacy of alternative antibiotics such as fidaxomicin, rifaximin, nitazoxanide, ramoplanin and tigecycline, as well as faecal microbiota transplantation has been assessed and some have yielded positive outcomes against C. difficile. Some bacteriocins have also shown promising effects against C. difficile in recent years. In light of this, the potential for emerging treatment options and efficacy of anti-C. difficile vaccines are discussed in this review. PMID:25564777

  6. Impact of the degree of urbanization on composition and structure of helminth communities in the Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) Peters, 1869.

    PubMed

    Dugarov, Z N; Baldanova, D R; Khamnueva, T R

    2017-03-28

    The effects of the degree of urbanization on the composition and mean abundance of helminth species and the structure of helminth communities in the Mongolian racerunner were investigated along a rural-urban gradient in the region of Ulan-Ude city (the Republic of Buryatia, Russia) and neighbouring rural districts. Racerunners were obtained from key areas and categorized into three grades based on the degree of urbanization. In this study, a total of 208 lizards were examined. The helminth communities in the Mongolian racerunner were studied at the infracommunity and component community levels. The nematode Spauligodon pseudoeremiasi was a sensitive bioindicator of the degree of urbanization in our study. All parameters of helminth infracommunities in the Mongolian racerunner were significantly reduced with increasing degree of urbanization of the key areas. Two parameters of helminth component communities (the proportion of hosts infected with parasites and the Shannon index) were significantly reduced with increasing degree of urbanization. The decline recorded in parameters of helminth infracommunities and component communities in the Mongolian racerunner were probably connected with the attenuation of the relationships between helminths, having a complex life cycle with intermediate hosts along the rural-urban gradient.

  7. Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.

    PubMed

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne De Melo; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2014-07-30

    Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies. 

  8. The applications of model-based geostatistics in helminth epidemiology and control.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Ricardo J Soares; Clements, Archie C A; Patil, Anand P; Gething, Peter W; Brooker, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Funding agencies are dedicating substantial resources to tackle helminth infections. Reliable maps of the distribution of helminth infection can assist these efforts by targeting control resources to areas of greatest need. The ability to define the distribution of infection at regional, national and subnational levels has been enhanced greatly by the increased availability of good quality survey data and the use of model-based geostatistics (MBG), enabling spatial prediction in unsampled locations. A major advantage of MBG risk mapping approaches is that they provide a flexible statistical platform for handling and representing different sources of uncertainty, providing plausible and robust information on the spatial distribution of infections to inform the design and implementation of control programmes. Focussing on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis, with additional examples for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, we review the progress made to date with the application of MBG tools in large-scale, real-world control programmes and propose a general framework for their application to inform integrative spatial planning of helminth disease control programmes.

  9. Host specificity and the structure of helminth parasite communities of fishes in a Neotropical river in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Novelo-Turcotte, María Teresa; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Vazquez-Hurtado, Gabriela; Quiroz-Martínez, Benjamin; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Favila, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In a tropical locality of Río La Antigua, Veracruz, Mexico, 11 fish species, represented by 244 individual fish from six freshwater fish families living sympatrically and synchronically, were examined for helminth parasites. A total of 36 taxa of helminths were recorded, 24 autogenic and 12 allogenic forms, including 6 monogeneans, 14 trematodes, 1 cestode, and 15 nematodes. Most helminth taxa were recovered for 10/11 of the component communities we analyzed. The results contribute empirical evidence that host specificity is an important force in the development of helminth communities of freshwater fishes. Each fish family has their own set of parasites, host species belonging to the same taxon share parasite species. High component community similarity among related host species was recorded, demonstrated by high prevalence and abundance, as well as dominance, of autogenic specialist species in each component community. Most autogenic helminth species are numerically and reproductively successful in relatively few host species. Autogenic helminths common in one host species are not common in others. Our findings give empirical support to the idea that low levels of sharing of parasites favor animal coexistence and high species richness, because large phylogenetic differences allow potentially competing animals to consume the same resources without being sensitive of another’s parasites. PMID:28004635

  10. A role for IL-22 in the relationship between intestinal helminths, gut microbiota and mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Leung, Jacqueline M; Loke, P'ng

    2013-03-01

    The intestinal tract is home to nematodes as well as commensal bacteria (microbiota), which have coevolved with the mammalian host. The mucosal immune system must balance between an appropriate response to dangerous pathogens and an inappropriate response to commensal microbiota that may breach the epithelial barrier, in order to maintain intestinal homeostasis. IL-22 has been shown to play a critical role in maintaining barrier homeostasis against intestinal pathogens and commensal bacteria. Here we review the advances in our understanding of the role of IL-22 in helminth infections, as well as in response to commensal and pathogenic bacteria of the intestinal tract. We then consider the relationship between intestinal helminths and gut microbiota and hypothesize that this relationship may explain how helminths may improve symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases. We propose that by inducing an immune response that includes IL-22, intestinal helminths may enhance the mucosal barrier function of the intestinal epithelium. This may restore the mucosal microbiota populations from dysbiosis associated with colitis and improve intestinal homeostasis.

  11. Intestinal helminth parasites in flounder Platichthys flesus from the River Thames: an infracommunity analysis.

    PubMed

    Guillen-Hernandez, S; Whitfield, P J

    2004-12-01

    An analysis was undertaken of intestinal helminth communities in flounder Platichthys flesus from two sites on the River Thames. A comparison was made between helminth community richness and diversity from these sites at the component and infracommunity levels. At the component community level, a richer and more diverse parasite community was found in flounder from the Tilbury location (marine influence) than that from the Lots Road location (freshwater influence). At the infracommunity level, more parasite species and parasite individuals per host were found at Lots Road and the percentage of similarity values were low at both locations. Helminth species with high prevalence values in the parasite communities of the flounder are the dominant species in any individual fish, harbouring multi-specific infections. The presence of more invertebrate species, which are intermediate hosts in the helminth life cycle in the Thames, fish vagility and the high prevalence and abundance values of Pomphorhynchus laevis in the flounder, may explain the differences between the two locations.

  12. Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in evolutionary perspective: A critical role for helminths?

    PubMed Central

    Gurven, Michael D.; Trumble, Benjamin C.; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Michalik, David E.; Finch, Caleb E.; Kaplan, Hillard S.

    2016-01-01

    Heart disease and type 2 diabetes are commonly believed to be rare among contemporary subsistence-level human populations, and by extension prehistoric populations. Although some caveats remain, evidence shows these diseases to be unusual among well-studied hunter-gatherers and other subsistence populations with minimal access to healthcare. Here we expand on a relatively new proposal for why these and other populations may not show major signs of these diseases. Chronic infections, especially helminths, may offer protection against heart disease and diabetes through direct and indirect pathways. As part of a strategy to insure their own survival and reproduction, helminths exert multiple cardio-protective effects on their host through their effects on immune function and blood lipid metabolism. Helminths consume blood lipids and glucose, alter lipid metabolism, and modulate immune function towards Th-2 polarization—which combined can lower blood cholesterol, reduce obesity, increase insulin sensitivity, decrease atheroma progression, and reduce likelihood of atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Traditional cardiometabolic risk factors, coupled with the mismatch between our evolved immune systems and modern, hygienic environments may interact in complex ways. In this review, we survey existing studies in the non-human animal and human literature, highlight unresolved questions and suggest future directions to explore the role of helminths in the etiology of cardio-metabolic disease. PMID:27666719

  13. Established and potential risk factors for Clostridum difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Vaishnavi, C

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the aetiological agent for almost all cases of pseudo membranous colitis and 15-25% of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. In recent years, C. difficile associated disease (CDAD) has been increasing in frequency and severity due to the emergence of virulent strains. Severe cases of toxic mega colon may be associated with mortality rates of 24-38%. The prevalence of CDAD is global and the incidence varies considerably from place to place. In the initial stages of its discovery, C. difficile infection was regarded mainly as an outcome of antibiotic intake and not as a life threatening disease. Intervention by man has produced conditions making C. difficile a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The recent outbreak of CDAD in Quebec has sent the alarm bells ringing. Apart from a threefold increase in the incidence of CDAD, clinicians have also reported a higher number of cases involving toxic mega colon, colectomy or death. Among all the risk factors, inclusive of the host and the environmental factors, antibiotics are the most important ones. Surgical patients comprise 55-75% of all patients with CDAD due to the fact that perioperative prophylaxis requires the use of antibiotics. However, other drugs such as immunosuppressants and proton pump inhibitors are also important risk factors. Thus CDAD is a growing nosocomial and public health challenge. Additionally, the recognition of community acquired CDAD signals the presence of several risk factors. In this review, the established and potential risk factors of CDAD, along with the epidemiology, diagnostic modalities, management and preventive measures of the disease have been elaborated.

  14. Bacteriophages as Potential Treatment for Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Sybesma, Wilbert; Zbinden, Reinhard; Chanishvili, Nino; Kutateladze, Mzia; Chkhotua, Archil; Ujmajuridze, Aleksandre; Mehnert, Ulrich; Kessler, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most prevalent microbial diseases and their financial burden on society is substantial. The continuing increase of antibiotic resistance worldwide is alarming so that well-tolerated, highly effective therapeutic alternatives are urgently needed. Objective: To investigate the effect of bacteriophages on Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from the urine of patients suffering from UTIs. Material and methods: Forty-one E. coli and 9 K. pneumoniae strains, isolated from the urine of patients suffering from UTIs, were tested in vitro for their susceptibility toward bacteriophages. The bacteriophages originated from either commercially available bacteriophage cocktails registered in Georgia or from the bacteriophage collection of the George Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage, Microbiology and Virology. In vitro screening of bacterial strains was performed by use of the spot-test method. The experiments were implemented three times by different groups of scientists. Results: The lytic activity of the commercial bacteriophage cocktails on the 41 E. coli strains varied between 66% (Pyo bacteriophage) and 93% (Enko bacteriophage). After bacteriophage adaptation of the Pyo bacteriophage cocktail, its lytic activity was increased from 66 to 93% and only one E. coli strain remained resistant. One bacteriophage of the Eliava collection could lyse all 9 K. pneumoniae strains. Conclusions: Based on the high lytic activity and the potential of resistance optimization by direct adaption of bacteriophages as reported in this study, and in view of the continuing increase of antibiotic resistance worldwide, bacteriophage therapy is a promising treatment option for UTIs highly warranting randomized controlled trials. PMID:27148173

  15. Helminth parasites in pigs: new challenges in pig production and current research highlights.

    PubMed

    Roepstorff, A; Mejer, H; Nejsum, P; Thamsborg, S M

    2011-08-04

    Helminths in pigs have generally received little attention from veterinary parasitologists, despite Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, and Oesophagostomum sp. being common worldwide. The present paper presents challenges and current research highlights connected with these parasites. In Danish swine herds, new indoor production systems may favour helminth transmission and growing knowledge on pasture survival and infectivity of A. suum and T. suis eggs indicates that they may constitute a serious threat to outdoor pig production. Furthermore, it is now evident that A. suum is zoonotic and the same may be true for T. suis. With these 'new' challenges and the economic impact of the infections, further research is warranted. Better understanding of host-parasite relationships and A. suum and T. suis egg ecology may also improve the understanding and control of human A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections. The population dynamics of the three parasites are well documented and may be used to study phenomena, such as predisposition and worm aggregation. Furthermore, better methods to recover larvae have provided tools for quantifying parasite transmission. Thus, an on-going study using helminth naïve tracer pigs has surprisingly demonstrated that soil infectivity with A. suum and T. suis increases during the first 2-3 years after pasture contamination. Though all three helminth species stimulate the Th2 arm of the immune system, Oesophagostomum seems weakly immunogenic, perhaps via specific modulation of the host immune system. A. suum and T. suis potently modulate the host immune response, up-regulating Th2 and down-regulating Th1. As a consequence, A. suum may compromise the efficacy of certain bacterial vaccines, whereas T. suis, which establish only short-term in humans, is a favourite candidate for down-regulating autoimmune Th1-related diseases in man. Some basic research findings have offered new possibilities for future sustainable control measures. For example

  16. Gastrointestinal helminths of Coyotes (Canis latrans) from Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Redman, Whitni K.; Bryant, Jay E.; Ahmad, Gul

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February) of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures. Results: We found that as many as 93.10% of the investigated coyotes were infected with one or more helminth infections. A total of 10 different species of helminth parasites were recovered from the intestines of coyotes under investigation. Among the 10 species of helminths, 5 were identified as cestodes while the remaining 5 were nematodes. A total of 82.75% of the animals were infected with one or more species of nematodes, while 75.86% of them were colonized with one or more species of cestode parasites. The most abundant species in coyotes were Toxascaris leonina (68.95%) closely followed by Taenia hydatigena (58.62%). The prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum and Taenia pisiformis were recorded at 31.03%, followed by those of Toxocara canis and Echinococcus spp. at 24.13%, respectively. Three animals were infected with Trichuris vulpis while three other coyotes each were found to be harboring Uncinaria stenocephala, Dipylidium caninum, or Hymenolepis diminuta. The presence of H. diminuta might have been the result of the ingestion of a rodent by the respective coyotes. Conclusion: From the overall analysis of the present data and comparing it with the previous reports of various scientists over several decades, we can conclude that intestinal helminths are still very much prevalent among the coyote population in the Southeast Nebraska and Iowa area. The relatively high prevalence of the zoonotic parasite species

  17. Occurrence of gastrointestinal and renal helminths in Zenaida auriculata (Des Murs, 1847) trap-captured from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Taroda, Alessandra; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Zulpo, Dauton Luiz; da Cunha, Ivo Alexandre Leme; Paiva, Milaine Cristiane Dantas Custódio; Sammi, Ana Sue; dos Santos, Joeleni Rosa; Yamamura, Milton Hissashi; Vidotto, Odilon; Garcia, João Luis

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal and renal helminths from naturally infected Zenaida auriculata captured in Londrina, Paraná State. Two hundred and one Eared doves were trapped and the gastrointestinal and renal helminths were collected and identified according to morphological structures. One hundred and sixteen (57.71%) doves were parasitized by helminths with specific prevalences for Ornithostrongylus quadriradiatus in 50 doves (24.88%), Ascaridia columbae in 47 (23.38%), Paratanaisia bragai and P. confusa in 34 (16.92%), Tetrameres fissispina in 17 (8.46%), Synhimantus nasuta in 14 (6.47%), Brachylaima mazzantii in 4 (1.99%) and Raillietina allomyodes in 2 doves (1.00%). Seventy four/201 (37.00%) birds were infected with only one species, and 96/201 (48.00%) pigeons were infected with nematodes. The association between different classes of helminths occurred in 40/201 (20.00%) animals. The results showed statistically differences between the presence of nematode (p = 0.00001) and trematode species (p ≤ 0.05) in the doves, and there was an association between the local of capture and the presence of trematodes and A. columbae (p ≤ 0.05). This study is the first to report the infection of Z. auriculata from Brazil with O. quadriradiatus, A. columbae, T. fissispina, S. nasuta, R. allomyodes, P. bragai and P. confusa.

  18. Larval helminths in the invasive American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana throughout its annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Boyko B; Angelov, Aleksandar; Vasileva, Gergana P; Sánchez, Marta I; Hortas, Francisco; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Pankov, Plamen; Green, Andy J

    2014-09-01

    One of the best examples of rapid displacement of native species by an invader is the eradication of native Artemia salina and A. parthenogenetica in the Mediterranean by the introduced American A. franciscana. Previous studies based on sampling from limited time periods suggest that the success of the American species as a competitor may be due partly to different parasite burden, since native Artemia spp. have high cestode infection rates regulating their density. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the helminth infection in A. franciscana in its invasive range is low throughout its annual life cycle. Samples of A. franciscana were collected every second month from La Tapa saltern (Andalusia) during one year. Five helminth species were recorded: cestodes Flamingolepis liguloides, F. flamingo, Gynandrotaenia stammeri (all flamingo parasites), Eurycestus avoceti (a shorebird parasite) and larval spirurids of the Acuariinae (the first record of nematodes in Artemia). The overall infection rate was low, with total prevalence 5.9% and prevalence of individual parasite species between 0.2 and 3.2%. The mean abundance of helminths was 0.005-0.155 (av. 0.068), 5-13 times lower than in native congeners. Waterbird counts indicate that the low infection rates cannot be explained by lack of definitive hosts. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that helminths have no regulating effect on the invasive brine shrimp in the Mediterranean. The replacement of the native populations by the invader can be partially explained by a competition mediated by parasites/predators through a differential impact on host fitness.

  19. Immunity to helminths: resistance, regulation, and susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Grencis, Richard K

    2015-01-01

    Helminth parasites are a highly successful group of pathogens that challenge the immune system in a manner distinct from rapidly replicating infectious agents. Of this group, roundworms (nematodes) that dwell in the intestines of humans and other animals are prevalent worldwide. Currently, more than one billion people are infected by at least one species, often for extended periods of time. Thus, host-protective immunity is rarely complete. The reasons for this are complex, but laboratory investigation of tractable model systems in which protective immunity is effective has provided a mechanistic understanding of resistance that is characterized almost universally by a type 2/T helper 2 response. Greater understanding of the mechanisms of susceptibility has also provided the basis for defining host immunoregulation and parasite-evasion strategies, helping place in context the changing patterns of immunological disease observed worldwide.

  20. Helminth communities of Leptodactylus latrans (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from the Atlantic rainforest, south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Toledo, G M; Morais, D H; Silva, R J; Anjos, L A

    2015-03-01

    The helminth fauna associated with Leptodactylus latrans, a large frog living in a disturbed environment of Atlantic rainforest in south-eastern Brazil, was evaluated. We found eight helminth taxa, including five nematode species, Falcaustra mascula, Oswaldocruzia subauricularis, Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp. and an unidentified cosmocercid, two trematodes, Gorgoderina parvicava and Haematoloechus fuelleborni, and one larval cestode. The overall prevalence of infection was 63.2% with a mean intensity of 11.3 ± 3.8. The cosmocercid nematode and O. subauricularis showed the highest prevalences, although the trematode G. parvicava was the most abundant and dominant parasite species. Host size positively influenced both the intensity of infection and parasite species richness. Our data suggest that the juvenile individuals of L. latrans are more susceptible to parasitic infection than the adults. The comparison of the similarity of this community component with that found in other studies in South America shows that, as well as the characteristics of the host, the sampling area also influences the parasitic fauna. Therefore, the results of this study agree that the helminth communities of frogs have relatively low species richness and dominance of generalist species.

  1. [Potential neurocognitive consequences of infection by human respiratory syncytial virus].

    PubMed

    Flores, Juan Carlos; Bohmwald, Karen; Espinoza, Janyra; Jara, Crlstlna; Peña, Marcela; Hoyos-Bachiloglu, Rodrigo; Iturriaga, Carolina; Kalergis, Alexis M; Borzutzky, Arturo

    2016-10-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection remains as a major cause of morbidity and mortality among pediatric population. Immune response is poor and unable to establish a long term effective protection against this virus. Of particular interest has been the description of extrapulmonary manifestations of RSV infection in liver, kidney, endocrine system, heart and brain, associated to infection of peripheral blood. In the central nervous system (CNS), recent studies in animals have suggested long term neurocognitive impairment due to a direct damage from the virus. This was prevented in rats by a recombinant BCG vaccine expressing a nucleoprotein N of RSV that produces an effective immune response against the virus, not allowing its dissemination to the CNS. These findings in animal models highlight the importance of conducting more specific studies in children affected with severe infection by RSV. Therefore, our group is currently conducting an assessment of the possible long-term cognitive impairment in children under 2 years. The results of this study could be a strong argument to continue looking for an effective method for protecting against RSV infection.

  2. Potential Therapy for Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections With Human Chorionic Gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Rao, C V

    2015-12-01

    The scientific evidence suggests that Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infects human fallopian tubes by molecular mimicry in which pathogens act like a ligand to bind to epithelial cell surface human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)/luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors. The hCG-like molecule has been identified as ribosomal protein L12 in NG coat surface. Human fallopian tube epithelial cells have been shown to contain functional hCG/LH receptors. As previously shown in human fallopian tube organ and cell culture studies, cellular invasion and infection can be prevented by exposing the cells to excess hCG, which would outnumber and outcompete NG for receptor binding. Based on these data, we suggest testing hCG in clinical trials on infected women.

  3. Suppression of colitis by adoptive transfer of helminth antigen-treated dendritic cells requires interleukin-4 receptor-α signaling

    PubMed Central

    Matisz, C. E.; Faz-López, B.; Thomson, E.; Al Rajabi, A.; Lopes, F.; Terrazas, L. I.; Wang, A.; Sharkey, K. A.; McKay, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Infection with helminth parasites has been explored as a treatment for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. As helminth antigens have potent immunomodulation properties capable of inducing regulatory programs in a variety of cell types, transferring cells treated with helminth antigens represents a novel extension to helminth therapy. Previous work determined that transfer of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with a crude extract of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (HD) can suppress colitis in recipient mice. The present study explored the mechanism of disease suppression and the importance of interleukin (IL)-4 signaling. Transfer of HD-DCs suppressed dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis through activation of recipient IL-4 receptor-α. The transferred HD-DCs required IL-4Rα and the capacity to secrete IL-10 to drive IL-4 and IL-10 production and to suppress colitis in recipient mice. Treatment of DCs with IL-4 evokes an alternatively activated phenotype, but adoptive transfer of these cells did not affect the outcome of colitis. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the complexity between IL-4 and IL-10 in donor cells and recipient, and the requirement for parasite- and host-derived factors in this novel form of cell therapy. Thus IL-4Rα signaling is revealed as a pathway that could be exploited for helminth antigen cell-based therapy. PMID:28094779

  4. Helminth parasitism in the Neotropical cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, in southern Brazil: effect of host size, weight, sex, and maturity state.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cassandra M; Amato, José F R; Amato, Suzana B

    2011-09-01

    Forty-seven specimens of Neotropical cormorants, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, from Lago Guaíba, Guaíba, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (30° 00' S, 51°15' W), were examined for helminth parasites between 1999 and 2003. Twenty species of helminth parasites were found: ten digeneans: Austrodiplostomum mordax, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Clinostomum sp., Drepanocephalus olivaceus, Drepanocephalus spathans, Hysteromorpha triloba, Ignavia olivacei, Paryphostomum segregatum, Prosthogonimus ovatus, and Ribeiroia ondatrae; one cestode: Paradilepis caballeroi; eight nematodes: Contracaecum rudolphii, Eucoleus contortus, Eustrongylides sp., Ornithocapillaria appendiculata, Syngamus sp., Syncuaria squamata, Tetrameres (Gynaecophila) sp., and one undetermined capillariid (genus and species); and one acanthocephalan: Andracantha tandemtesticulata. The length and weight of male and female birds, as well as their sexual maturity (juvenile or adult), did not show significant difference regarding the helminth fauna; the standard length did not influence the helminth parasite indices. The prevalence of I. olivacei was higher in larger birds while the intensity of infection by this digenean species was higher in females. The abundance of P. caballeroi was higher in male birds. A. mordax and H. triloba showed higher prevalence and abundance in juvenile hosts, while O. appendiculata was more abundant in juveniles. The remaining species did not have their parasite indices influenced by the host parameters studied. The present work records the richest helminth fauna for any bird of the genus Phalacrocorax and is the first study to evaluate the influence of length, weight, sex, and maturity state on parasitism.

  5. Wound infections in clean and potentially contaminated surgery. Importance of bacterial and non-bacterial factors.

    PubMed

    Bröte, L

    1976-01-01

    Postoperative wound infections in clean--and potentially contaminated surgery were studied with regard to demonstrable wound contamination and the occurrence of non-bacterial wound infection promoting factors. The incidence of demonstrable wound contamination in clean surgery was low, and observed rates of wound infection could not be related to differences in wound contamination, but to the occurrence of non-bacterial wound infection potentiating factors, e.g. implantation of foreign materials (osteosynthesis), cicatrical tissues or a compromized host. Corresponding studies in potentially contaminated surgery revealed a significantly higher incidence of wound contamination compared to clean surgery and a significant correlation between Gram negative wound contamination and rates of postoperative wound infections in certain types of gastrointestinal surgery. Patient factors, such as age or malignancy, did not influence the wound infection frequency when the incidence of wound contamination was taken into consideration.

  6. Epidemiology of polyparasitism with Taenia solium, schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths in the co-endemic village of Malanga, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Madinga, Joule; Polman, Katja; Kanobana, Kirezi; van Lieshout, Lisette; Brienen, Eric; Praet, Nicolas; Kabwe, Constantin; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-03-20

    Helminth co-infections are common in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the distribution and determinants of co-infections with Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis. Building on a previous community-based study on human cysticercosis in Malanga village, we investigated co-infections with Taenia solium, soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and Schistosoma spp and associated risk factors in a random subsample of 330 participants. Real time PCR assays were used to detect DNA of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), T. solium and Schistosoma in stool samples and Schistosoma DNA in urine samples. Serum samples were tested for T. solium cysticercosis using the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were applied to assess associations of single and co-infections with common risk factors (age, sex, area, hygiene) as well as pair wise associations between helminth species. Overall, 240 (72.7%) participants were infected with at least one helminth species; 128 (38.8%) harbored at least two helminth species (16.1% with STHs-Schistosoma, 14.5% with STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis and 8.2% with Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infections). No significant associations were found between Schistosoma-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection and any of the risk factors studied. Males (OR=2 (95%CI=1.1-5), p=0.03) and open defecation behavior (OR=3.8 (95%CI=1.1-6.5), p=0.04) were associated with higher odds of STHs-T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis co-infection. Village districts that were found at high risk of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis were also at high risk of co-infection with STHs and T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis (OR=3.2 (95%CI=1.1-7.8), p=0.03). Significant pair-wise associations were found between T. solium cysticerci and Necator americanus (OR=2.2 (95%CI=1.2-3.8), p<0.01) as well as Strongyloides stercoralis (OR=2.7 (95%CI=1.1-6.5), p=0.02). These findings show that co-infections

  7. Prerequisites for the pharmaceutical industry to develop and commercialise helminths and helminth-derived product therapy.

    PubMed

    Tilp, Cornelia; Kapur, Vishal; Loging, Will; Erb, Klaus J

    2013-03-01

    During the past 10 years, immunologists, epidemiologists and parasitologists have made many new exciting discoveries in the field of helminth-mediated immune regulation. In addition, many animal experiments have shown that certain helminths or products derived from helminths can protect mice from developing allergic or autoimmune disease. Some clinical trials utilising Trichuris suis or Necator americanus for the treatment of allergic disorders and inflammatory bowel disease have been conducted. The outcomes of these trials suggest that they may be used to treat these disorders. However, to date no helminth therapy is routinely being applied to patients and no helminth-derived product therapy has been developed. In order to bring new drugs to the market and shoulder the enormous costs involved in developing such therapies, pharmaceutical companies need to be involved. However, currently the resources from the pharmaceutical industry devoted to this concept are relatively small and there are good reasons why the industry may have been reluctant to invest in developing these types of therapies. In this review article, the hurdles that must be overcome before the pharmaceutical industry might invest in these novel therapies are outlined.

  8. Spatial variation in helminth community structure in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa L.): effects of definitive host density.

    PubMed

    Calvete, C; Blanco-Aguiar, J A; Virgós, E; Cabezas-Díaz, S; Villafuerte, R

    2004-07-01

    Parasite community ecology has recently focused on understanding the forces structuring these communities. There are few surveys, however, designed to study the spatial repeatability and predictability of parasite communities at the local scale in one host. The purpose of our study was to address the relationship between infracommunity and component community richness, and to describe spatial variations on the local