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Sample records for potential mitochondria-targeted antioxidants

  1. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Oyewole, Anne O; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    Redox homeostasis is maintained by the antioxidant defense system, which is responsible for eliminating a wide range of oxidants, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxides, and metals. Mitochondria-localized antioxidants are widely studied because the mitochondria, the major producers of intracellular ROS, have been linked to the cause of aging and other chronic diseases. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants have shown great potential because they cross the mitochondrial phospholipid bilayer and eliminate ROS at the heart of the source. Growing evidence has identified mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, such as MitoQ and tiron, as potentially effective antioxidant therapies against the damage caused by enhanced ROS generation. This literature review summarizes the current knowledge on mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and their contribution to the body's antioxidant defense system. In addition to addressing the concerns surrounding current antioxidant strategies, including difficulties in targeting antioxidant treatment to sites of pathologic oxidative damage, we discuss promising therapeutic agents and new strategic approaches.

  2. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SS-31 is a Potential Novel Ophthalmic Medication for Neuroprotection in Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Wang, Chao; Yu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of irreversible blindness and a neurodegenerative disease with a complex pathogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have crucial roles in most neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma. The conventional clinical treatment for glaucoma is lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP). Some patients have normal IOP, whereas other patients appear to obtain adequate control of IOP after filtration surgery or medication. However, these patients still experience progressive visual field loss. Vision field loss in glaucoma is attributed to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis. Many recent researches demonstrated that the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress was a major cause of RGCs apoptosis. How oxidative stress leads to RGCs apoptosis in glaucoma is unclear but may involve the neurotoxic effects of oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and/or damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Investigations are needed concerning the mitochondria as effective targets for potential therapeutic interventions to maintain mitochondrial function and reduce oxidative stress, and thereby delay or stop RGC loss and prolong visual function. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Szeto-Schiller (SS) peptide is a candidate molecule. Szeto-Schiller-31 (H-D-Arg-Dmt-Lys-Phe-NH2) is an attractive mitochondria-targeted antioxidant that can protect the mitochondria and RGCs against oxidative damage. Therefore, we suggest SS-31 as a novel neuroprotective ophthalmic drug for protecting RGCs in glaucoma.

  3. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SS-31 is a Potential Novel Ophthalmic Medication for Neuroprotection in Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Wang, Chao; Yu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of irreversible blindness and a neurodegenerative disease with a complex pathogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have crucial roles in most neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma. The conventional clinical treatment for glaucoma is lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP). Some patients have normal IOP, whereas other patients appear to obtain adequate control of IOP after filtration surgery or medication. However, these patients still experience progressive visual field loss. Vision field loss in glaucoma is attributed to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis. Many recent researches demonstrated that the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress was a major cause of RGCs apoptosis. How oxidative stress leads to RGCs apoptosis in glaucoma is unclear but may involve the neurotoxic effects of oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and/or damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Investigations are needed concerning the mitochondria as effective targets for potential therapeutic interventions to maintain mitochondrial function and reduce oxidative stress, and thereby delay or stop RGC loss and prolong visual function. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Szeto-Schiller (SS) peptide is a candidate molecule. Szeto-Schiller-31 (H-D-Arg-Dmt-Lys-Phe-NH2) is an attractive mitochondria-targeted antioxidant that can protect the mitochondria and RGCs against oxidative damage. Therefore, we suggest SS-31 as a novel neuroprotective ophthalmic drug for protecting RGCs in glaucoma. PMID:27350953

  4. Rational discovery and development of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant based on cinnamic acid scaffold.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, José; Soares, Pedro; Benfeito, Sofia; Gaspar, Alexandra; Garrido, Jorge; Murphy, Michael P; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-05-01

    A novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (TPP-OH) was synthesized by attaching the natural hydrophilic antioxidant caffeic acid to an aliphatic lipophilic carbon chain containing a triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation. This compound has similar antioxidant activity to caffeic acid as demonstrated by measurement of DPPH/ABTS radical quenching and redox potentials, but is significantly more hydrophobic than its precursor as indicated by the relative partition coefficients. The antioxidant activity of both compounds was intrinsic related to the ortho-catechol system, as the methoxylation of the phenolic functions, namely in TPP-OCH(3) and dimethoxycinnamic acid, gave compounds with negligible antioxidant action. The incorporation of the lipophilic TPP cation to form TTP-OH and TPP-OCH(3) allowed the cinnamic derivatives to accumulate within mitochondria in a process driven by the membrane potential. However, only TPP-OH was an effective antioxidant: TPP-OH protected cells against H(2)O(2) and linoleic acid hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress. As mitochondrial oxidative damage is associated with a number of clinical disorders, TPP-OH may be a useful lead that could be added to the family of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants that can decrease mitochondrial oxidative damage.

  5. Synthesis of triphenylphosphonium vitamin E derivatives as mitochondria-targeted antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Victoria J.A.; Cochemé, Helena M.; Logan, Angela; Hanton, Lyall R.; Smith, Robin A.J.; Murphy, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    A series of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants comprising a lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation attached to the antioxidant chroman moiety of vitamin E by an alkyl linker have been prepared. The synthesis of a series of mitochondria-targeted vitamin E derivatives with a range of alkyl linkers gave compounds of different hydrophobicities. This work will enable the dependence of antioxidant defence on hydrophobicity to be determined in vivo. PMID:26549895

  6. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Prevents Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Tafazzin Gene Knockdown in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    He, Quan; Harris, Nicole; Ren, Jun; Han, Xianlin

    2014-01-01

    Tafazzin, a mitochondrial acyltransferase, plays an important role in cardiolipin side chain remodeling. Previous studies have shown that dysfunction of tafazzin reduces cardiolipin content, impairs mitochondrial function, and causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy and are also the obligated byproducts of mitochondria. We hypothesized that tafazzin knockdown increases ROS production from mitochondria, and a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents tafazzin knockdown induced mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction. We employed cardiac myocytes transduced with an adenovirus containing tafazzin shRNA as a model to investigate the effects of the mitochondrial antioxidant, mito-Tempo. Knocking down tafazzin decreased steady state levels of cardiolipin and increased mitochondrial ROS. Treatment of cardiac myocytes with mito-Tempo normalized tafazzin knockdown enhanced mitochondrial ROS production and cellular ATP decline. Mito-Tempo also significantly abrogated tafazzin knockdown induced cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, and cell death. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents cardiac dysfunction induced by tafazzin gene knockdown in cardiac myocytes and suggest mito-Tempo as a potential therapeutic for Barth syndrome and other dilated cardiomyopathies resulting from mitochondrial oxidative stress. PMID:25247053

  7. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SS31 Prevents Amyloid Beta-Induced Mitochondrial Abnormalities and Synaptic Degeneration in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Marcus J; Manczak, Maria; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2012-01-01

    In neuronal systems, the health and activity of mitochondria and synapses are tightly coupled. For this reason, it has been postulated that mitochondrial abnormalities may, at least in part, drive neurodegeneration in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mounting evidence from multiple Alzheimer's disease cell and mouse models and postmortem brains suggest that loss of mitochondrial integrity may be a key factor that mediates synaptic loss. Therefore, the prevention or rescue of mitochondrial dysfunction may help delay or altogether prevent AD-associated neurodegeneration. Since mitochondrial health is heavily dependent on antioxidant defenses, researchers have begun to explore the use of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants as therapeutic tools to prevent neurodegenerative diseases. This review will highlight advances made using a model mitochondria-targeted antioxidant peptide, SS31, as a potential treatment for AD. PMID:23226091

  8. Protective Effects of Melatonin and Mitochondria-targeted Antioxidants Against Oxidative Stress: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ramis, M R; Esteban, S; Miralles, A; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, R J

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative damage is related to aging and a wide range of human disorders. Mitochondria are in large part responsible for free radical production and they are also main targets of the attack of these toxic molecules. The resulting deleterious effects of the damage to mitochondria can be prevented by antioxidants. Melatonin is an endogenously-produced indoleamine that modulates numerous functions, including mitochondria-related functions; this result from its capacity to penetrate all morphophysiological barriers and to enter all subcellular compartments due to its amphiphilic nature. Furthermore, this indoleamine and its metabolites are powerful antioxidants and scavengers of free radicals, protecting cellular membranes, the electron transport chain and mitochondrial DNA from oxidative damage. These properties may make melatonin a potent protector against a variety of free radical-related diseases. By comparison, other conventional antioxidants have less efficacy due to their limited access to the mitochondria. In recent years, research has focused on the advancement of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, such as MitoQ (composed by the lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation conjugated to the endogenous antioxidant coenzyme Q10) and MitoE (composed by the triphenylphosphonium cation attached to the antioxidant α-tocopherol). Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants accumulate in several hundred-fold greater concentrations within mitochondria and protect these critical organelles from oxidative damage. Melatonin also seems to be a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and has similar protective actions as the synthetic antioxidants. Further work is required to determine the therapeutic properties of these antioxidants in ameliorating diseases related to mitochondrial dysfunction.

  9. Mitochondria-targeted peptide SS-31 attenuates renal injury via an antioxidant effect in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanjuan; Li, Shuangcheng; Wu, Ming; Wei, Jinying; Ren, Yunzhuo; Du, Chunyang; Wu, Haijiang; Han, Caili; Duan, Huijun; Shi, Yonghong

    2016-03-15

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney injury. SS-31 is a mitochondria-targeted tetrapeptide that can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we investigated the effect and molecular mechanism of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant peptide SS-31 on injuries in diabetic kidneys and mouse mesangial cells (MMCs) exposed to high-glucose (HG) ambience. CD-1 mice underwent uninephrectomy and streptozotocin treatment prior to receiving daily intraperitoneal injection of SS-31 for 8 wk. The diabetic mice treated with SS-31 had alleviated proteinuria, urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine level, glomerular hypertrophy, and accumulation of renal fibronectin and collagen IV. SS-31 attenuated renal cell apoptosis and expression of Bax and reversed the expression of Bcl-2 in diabetic mice kidneys. Furthermore, SS-31 inhibited expression of transforming-growth factor (TGF)-β1, Nox4, and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), as well as activation of p38 MAPK and CREB and NADPH oxidase activity in diabetic kidneys. In vitro experiments using MMCs revealed that SS-31 inhibited HG-mediated ROS generation, apoptosis, expression of cleaved caspase-3, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and cytochrome c (cyt c) release from mitochondria. SS-31 normalized mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm) and ATP alterations, and inhibited the expression of TGF-β1, Nox4, and TXNIP, as well as activation of p38 MAPK and CREB and NADPH oxidase activity in MMCs under HG conditions. SS-31 treatment also could reverse the reduction of thioredoxin (TRX) biologic activity and upregulate expression of thioredoxin 2 (TRX2) in MMCs under HG conditions. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a protective effect of SS-31 against HG-induced renal injury via an antioxidant mechanism in diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Demethyleneberberine, a natural mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, inhibits mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and steatosis in alcoholic liver disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengcheng; Qiang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Miao; Ma, Dongshen; Zhao, Zheng; Zhou, Cuisong; Liu, Xie; Li, Ruiyan; Chen, Huan; Zhang, Yubin

    2015-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption induces oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in the liver. Mitochondria have long been recognized as the key target for alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Recently, the artificial mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ has been used to treat ALD effectively in mice. Here, we introduce the natural mitochondria-targeted antioxidant demethyleneberberine (DMB), which has been found in Chinese herb Cortex Phellodendri chinensis. The protective effect of DMB on ALD was evaluated with HepG2 cells and acutely/chronically ethanol-fed mice, mimicking two common patterns of drinking in human. The results showed that DMB, which is composed of a potential antioxidant structure, could penetrate the membrane of mitochondria and accumulate in mitochondria either in vitro or in vivo. Consequently, the acute drinking-caused oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were significantly ameliorated by DMB. Moreover, we also found that DMB suppressed CYP2E1, hypoxia inducible factor α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which contributed to oxidative stress and restored sirtuin 1/AMP-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α pathway-associated fatty acid oxidation in chronic ethanol-fed mice, which in turn ameliorated lipid peroxidation and macrosteatosis in the liver. Taking these findings together, DMB could serve as a novel and potential therapy for ALD in human beings.

  11. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ attenuates liver fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Hasibur; Liu, Qinlong; Krishnasamy, Yasodha; Shi, Zengdun; Ramshesh, Venkat K; Haque, Khujista; Schnellmann, Rick G; Murphy, Michael P; Lemasters, John J; Rockey, Don C; Zhong, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an essential role in liver fibrosis. This study investigated whether MitoQ, an orally active mitochondrial antioxidant, decreases liver fibrosis. Mice were injected with corn oil or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 1:3 dilution in corn oil; 1 µl/g, ip) once every 3 days for up to 6 weeks. 4-Hydroxynonenal adducts increased markedly after CCl4 treatment, indicating oxidative stress. MitoQ attenuated oxidative stress after CCl4. Collagen 1α1 mRNA and hydroxyproline increased markedly after CCl4 treatment, indicating increased collagen formation and deposition. CCl4 caused overt pericentral fibrosis as revealed by both the sirius red staining and second harmonic generation microscopy. MitoQ blunted fibrosis after CCl4. Profibrotic transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) mRNA and expression of smooth muscle α-actin, an indicator of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, increased markedly after CCl4 treatment. Smad 2/3, the major mediator of TGF-β fibrogenic effects, was also activated after CCl4 treatment. MitoQ blunted HSC activation, TGF-β expression, and Smad2/3 activation after CCl4 treatment. MitoQ also decreased necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation after CCl4 treatment. In cultured HSCs, MitoQ decreased oxidative stress, inhibited HSC activation, TGF-β1 expression, Smad2/3 activation, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase activation. Taken together, these data indicate that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species play an important role in liver fibrosis and that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are promising potential therapies for prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:27186319

  12. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ attenuates liver fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Hasibur; Liu, Qinlong; Krishnasamy, Yasodha; Shi, Zengdun; Ramshesh, Venkat K; Haque, Khujista; Schnellmann, Rick G; Murphy, Michael P; Lemasters, John J; Rockey, Don C; Zhong, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an essential role in liver fibrosis. This study investigated whether MitoQ, an orally active mitochondrial antioxidant, decreases liver fibrosis. Mice were injected with corn oil or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 1:3 dilution in corn oil; 1 µl/g, ip) once every 3 days for up to 6 weeks. 4-Hydroxynonenal adducts increased markedly after CCl4 treatment, indicating oxidative stress. MitoQ attenuated oxidative stress after CCl4. Collagen 1α1 mRNA and hydroxyproline increased markedly after CCl4 treatment, indicating increased collagen formation and deposition. CCl4 caused overt pericentral fibrosis as revealed by both the sirius red staining and second harmonic generation microscopy. MitoQ blunted fibrosis after CCl4. Profibrotic transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) mRNA and expression of smooth muscle α-actin, an indicator of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, increased markedly after CCl4 treatment. Smad 2/3, the major mediator of TGF-β fibrogenic effects, was also activated after CCl4 treatment. MitoQ blunted HSC activation, TGF-β expression, and Smad2/3 activation after CCl4 treatment. MitoQ also decreased necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation after CCl4 treatment. In cultured HSCs, MitoQ decreased oxidative stress, inhibited HSC activation, TGF-β1 expression, Smad2/3 activation, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase activation. Taken together, these data indicate that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species play an important role in liver fibrosis and that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are promising potential therapies for prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:27186319

  13. Brain aging and mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone antioxidants of SkQ-type.

    PubMed

    Isaev, N K; Stelmashook, E V; Stelmashook, N N; Sharonova, I N; Skrebitsky, V G

    2013-03-01

    Normal brain aging leads to decrease in cognitive functions, shrink in brain volume, loss of nerve fibers and degenerating myelin, reduction in length and branching of dendrites, partial loss of synapses, and reduction in expression of genes that play central roles in synaptic plasticity, vesicular transport, and mitochondrial functioning. Impaired mitochondrial functions and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species can contribute to the damage of these genes in aging cerebral cortex. This review discusses the possibility of using mitochondria-targeted antioxidants to slow the processes of brain aging. PMID:23586724

  14. [Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQR1 selectively protects MDR-negative cells against ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Fetisova, E K; Antoshina, M M; Cherepanynets, V D; Izumov, D S; Kireev, I I; Kireev, R I; Lyamzaev, K G; Riabchenko, N I; Chernyak, B V; Skulachev, V P

    2014-01-01

    Radioprotection appeared to be an important problem of today due to atom energetic development and utilization of radiation material in the industry, science and medicine. It has been shown that mitochondrial targeted antioxidant SkQR1 could attenuate radiation injury of human erythroleukemia K562 cells. Pretreatment with SkQR1 before irradiation decreased DNA double strand breaks formation, diminished the number of chromosomal aberrations and suppressed delayed ROS production. Prevention of oxidative stress and normalization of mitochondrial function by mitochondria-targeted antioxidants may be a potential therapeutic strategy not only against immediate consequences of radiation, but, either against its late consequences such as genomic instability. SkQR1 did not protect against radiation-induced damage the K562 subline with high level of multidrug resistance (MDR) due to SkQR1 extrusion with Pgp 170 MDR pump. We suggest that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants might be used for selective protection of normal cells against radiation-induced damage without interference with radiotherapy of MDR-positive tumors. PMID:25929130

  15. [Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQR1 selectively protects MDR-negative cells against ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Fetisova, E K; Antoshina, M M; Cherepanynets, V D; Izumov, D S; Kireev, I I; Kireev, R I; Lyamzaev, K G; Riabchenko, N I; Chernyak, B V; Skulachev, V P

    2014-01-01

    Radioprotection appeared to be an important problem of today due to atom energetic development and utilization of radiation material in the industry, science and medicine. It has been shown that mitochondrial targeted antioxidant SkQR1 could attenuate radiation injury of human erythroleukemia K562 cells. Pretreatment with SkQR1 before irradiation decreased DNA double strand breaks formation, diminished the number of chromosomal aberrations and suppressed delayed ROS production. Prevention of oxidative stress and normalization of mitochondrial function by mitochondria-targeted antioxidants may be a potential therapeutic strategy not only against immediate consequences of radiation, but, either against its late consequences such as genomic instability. SkQR1 did not protect against radiation-induced damage the K562 subline with high level of multidrug resistance (MDR) due to SkQR1 extrusion with Pgp 170 MDR pump. We suggest that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants might be used for selective protection of normal cells against radiation-induced damage without interference with radiotherapy of MDR-positive tumors.

  16. In search of novel highly active mitochondria-targeted antioxidants: thymoquinone and its cationic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Severina, Inna I; Severin, Fedor F; Korshunova, Galina A; Sumbatyan, Natalya V; Ilyasova, Tatyana M; Simonyan, Ruben A; Rogov, Anton G; Trendeleva, Tatyana A; Zvyagilskaya, Renata A; Dugina, Vera B; Domnina, Lidia V; Fetisova, Elena K; Lyamzaev, Konstantin G; Vyssokikh, Mikhail Yu; Chernyak, Boris V; Skulachev, Maxim V; Skulachev, Vladimir P; Sadovnichii, Viktor A

    2013-06-27

    Since the times of the Bible, an extract of black cumin seeds was used as a medicine to treat many human pathologies. Thymoquinone (2-demethylplastoquinone derivative) was identified as an active antioxidant component of this extract. Recently, it was shown that conjugates of plastoquinone and penetrating cations are potent mitochondria-targeted antioxidants effective in treating a large number of age-related pathologies. This review summarizes new data on the antioxidant and some other properties of membrane-penetrating cationic compounds where 2-demethylplastoquinone substitutes for plastoquinone. It was found that such a substitution significantly increases a window between anti- and prooxidant concentrations of the conjugates. Like the original plastoquinone derivatives, the novel compounds are easily reduced by the respiratory chain, penetrate through model and natural membranes, specifically accumulate in mitochondria in an electrophoretic fashion, and strongly inhibit H2O2-induced apoptosis at pico- and nanomolar concentrations in cell cultures. At present, cationic demethylplastoquinone derivatives appear to be the most promising mitochondria-targeted drugs of the quinone series. PMID:23665033

  17. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitotempo protects mitochondrial function against amyloid beta toxicity in primary cultured mouse neurons.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongtao; Li, Mo

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial defects including excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and compromised ATP generation are featured pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid beta (Aβ)-mediated mitochondrial ROS overproduction disrupts intra-neuronal Redox balance, in turn exacerbating mitochondrial dysfunction leading to neuronal injury. Previous studies have found the beneficial effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants in preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal injury in AD animal and cell models, suggesting that mitochondrial ROS scavengers hold promise for the treatment of this neurological disorder. In this study, we have determined that mitotempo, a novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant protects mitochondrial function from the toxicity of Aβ in primary cultured neurons. Our results showed that Aβ-promoted mitochondrial superoxide production and neuronal lipid oxidation were significantly suppressed by the application of mitotempo. Moreover, mitotempo also demonstrated protective effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics evidenced by preserved mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c oxidase activity as well as ATP production. In addition, the Aβ-induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion and decreased expression levels of mtDNA replication-related DNA polymerase gamma (DNA pol γ) and Twinkle were substantially mitigated by mitotempo. Therefore, our study suggests that elimination of excess mitochondrial ROS rescues mitochondrial function in Aβ-insulted neruons; and mitotempo has the potential to be a promising therapeutic agent to protect mitochondrial and neuronal function in AD.

  18. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitotempo protects mitochondrial function against amyloid beta toxicity in primary cultured mouse neurons.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongtao; Li, Mo

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial defects including excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and compromised ATP generation are featured pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid beta (Aβ)-mediated mitochondrial ROS overproduction disrupts intra-neuronal Redox balance, in turn exacerbating mitochondrial dysfunction leading to neuronal injury. Previous studies have found the beneficial effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants in preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal injury in AD animal and cell models, suggesting that mitochondrial ROS scavengers hold promise for the treatment of this neurological disorder. In this study, we have determined that mitotempo, a novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant protects mitochondrial function from the toxicity of Aβ in primary cultured neurons. Our results showed that Aβ-promoted mitochondrial superoxide production and neuronal lipid oxidation were significantly suppressed by the application of mitotempo. Moreover, mitotempo also demonstrated protective effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics evidenced by preserved mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c oxidase activity as well as ATP production. In addition, the Aβ-induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion and decreased expression levels of mtDNA replication-related DNA polymerase gamma (DNA pol γ) and Twinkle were substantially mitigated by mitotempo. Therefore, our study suggests that elimination of excess mitochondrial ROS rescues mitochondrial function in Aβ-insulted neruons; and mitotempo has the potential to be a promising therapeutic agent to protect mitochondrial and neuronal function in AD. PMID:27444386

  19. The Analgesic Effect of the Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant SkQ1 in Pancreatic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Weniger, Maximilian; Reinelt, Leonard; Neumann, Jens; Holdt, Lesca; Ilmer, Matthias; Renz, Bernhard; Hartwig, Werner; Werner, Jens; Bazhin, Alexandr V.; D'Haese, Jan G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic pancreatitis is one of the main risk factors for pancreatic cancer. In acute and chronic pancreatitis, oxidative stress is thought to play a key role. In this respect, the recently described mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 effectively scavenges reactive oxygen species at nanomolar concentrations. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the influence of SkQ1 on tissue injury and pain in acute and chronic pancreatitis. Methods. Both acute and chronic pancreatitis were induced in C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal cerulein injections and treatment with SkQ1 was carried out by peroral applications. Hyperalgesia was assessed by behavioral observation and measurement of abdominal mechanical sensitivity. Blood serum and pancreatic tissue were harvested for analysis of lipase and histology. Results. SkQ1 did not influence pain, serological, or histological parameters of tissue injury in acute pancreatitis. In chronic pancreatitis, a highly significant reduction of pain-related behavior (p < 0.0001) was evident, but histological grading revealed increased tissue injury in SkQ1-treated animals (p = 0.03). Conclusion. After SkQ1 treatment, tissue injury is not ameliorated in acute pancreatitis and increased in chronic pancreatitis. However, we show an analgesic effect in chronic pancreatitis. Further studies will need to elucidate the risks and benefits of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants as an analgesic. PMID:27274778

  20. Protective effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ in aqueous and lipid membrane environments.

    PubMed

    Antonenko, Y N; Roginsky, V A; Pashkovskaya, A A; Rokitskaya, T I; Kotova, E A; Zaspa, A A; Chernyak, B V; Skulachev, V P

    2008-04-01

    The antioxidant activity of mitochondria-targeted small molecules, SkQ1 and MitoQ (conjugates of a lipophilic decyltriphenylphosphonium cation with an antioxidant moiety of a plastoquinone and ubiquinone, respectively), was studied in aqueous solution and in a lipid environment, i.e., micelles, liposomes and planar bilayer lipid membranes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated by azo initiators or ferrous ions with or without tert-butyl-hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). Chemiluminescence, fluorescence, oxygen consumption and inactivation of gramicidin peptide channels were measured to detect antioxidant activity. In all of the systems studied, SkQ1 was shown to effectively scavenge ROS. The scavenging was inherent to the reduced form of the quinone (SkQ1H(2)). In the majority of the above model systems, SkQ1 exhibited higher antioxidant activity than MitoQ. It is concluded that SkQ1H(2) operates as a ROS scavenger in both aqueous and lipid environments, being effective at preventing ROS-induced damage to membrane lipids as well as membrane-embedded peptides. PMID:18493812

  1. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants: Future Perspectives in Kidney Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kezic, Aleksandra; Spasojevic, Ivan; Lezaic, Visnja; Bajcetic, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury emerges in various clinical settings as a great problem complicating the course and outcome. Ischemia/reperfusion injury is still an unsolved puzzle with a great diversity of investigational approaches, putting the focus on oxidative stress and mitochondria. Mitochondria are both sources and targets of ROS. They participate in initiation and progression of kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury linking oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death. The dependence of kidney proximal tubule cells on oxidative mitochondrial metabolism makes them particularly prone to harmful effects of mitochondrial damage. The administration of antioxidants has been used as a way to prevent and treat kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury for a long time. Recently a new method based on mitochondria-targeted antioxidants has become the focus of interest. Here we review the current status of results achieved in numerous studies investigating these novel compounds in ischemia/reperfusion injury which specifically target mitochondria such as MitoQ, Szeto-Schiller (SS) peptides (Bendavia), SkQ1 and SkQR1, and superoxide dismutase mimics. Based on the favorable results obtained in the studies that have examined myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, ongoing clinical trials investigate the efficacy of some novel therapeutics in preventing myocardial infarct. This also implies future strategies in preventing kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27313826

  2. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants: Future Perspectives in Kidney Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Kezic, Aleksandra; Spasojevic, Ivan; Lezaic, Visnja; Bajcetic, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury emerges in various clinical settings as a great problem complicating the course and outcome. Ischemia/reperfusion injury is still an unsolved puzzle with a great diversity of investigational approaches, putting the focus on oxidative stress and mitochondria. Mitochondria are both sources and targets of ROS. They participate in initiation and progression of kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury linking oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death. The dependence of kidney proximal tubule cells on oxidative mitochondrial metabolism makes them particularly prone to harmful effects of mitochondrial damage. The administration of antioxidants has been used as a way to prevent and treat kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury for a long time. Recently a new method based on mitochondria-targeted antioxidants has become the focus of interest. Here we review the current status of results achieved in numerous studies investigating these novel compounds in ischemia/reperfusion injury which specifically target mitochondria such as MitoQ, Szeto-Schiller (SS) peptides (Bendavia), SkQ1 and SkQR1, and superoxide dismutase mimics. Based on the favorable results obtained in the studies that have examined myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, ongoing clinical trials investigate the efficacy of some novel therapeutics in preventing myocardial infarct. This also implies future strategies in preventing kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27313826

  3. Effects of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 on lifespan of rodents

    PubMed Central

    Anisimov, Vladimir N.; Egorov, Maxim V.; Krasilshchikova, Marina S.; Lyamzaev, Konstantin G.; Manskikh, Vasily N.; Moshkin, Mikhail P.; Novikov, Evgeny A.; Popovich, Irina G.; Rogovin, Konstantin A.; Shabalina, Irina G.; Shekarova, Olga N.; Skulachev, Maxim V.; Titova, Tatiana V.; Vygodin, Vladimir A.; Vyssokikh, Mikhail Yu.; Yurova, Maria N.; Zabezhinsky, Mark A.; Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the mitochondria-targeted, plastoquinone-containing antioxidant SkQ1 on the lifespan of outbred mice and of three strains of inbred mice was studied. To this end, low pathogen (LP) or specific pathogen free (SPF) vivaria in St. Petersburg, Moscow, and Stockholm were used. For comparison, we also studied mole-voles and dwarf hamsters, two wild species of small rodents kept under simulated natural conditions. It was found that substitution of a LP vivarium for a conventional (non-LP) one doubled the lifespan of female outbred mice, just as SkQ1 did in a non-LP vivarium. SkQ1 prevented age-dependent disappearance of estrous cycles of outbred mice in both LP and non-LP vivaria. In the SPF vivarium in Moscow, male BALB/c mice had shorter lifespan than females, and SkQ1 increased their lifespan to the values of the females. In the females, SkQ1 retarded development of such trait of aging as heart mass increase. Male C57Bl/6 mice housed individually in the SPF vivarium in Stockholm lived as long as females. SkQ1 increased the male lifespan, the longevity of the females being unchanged. SkQ1 did not change food intake by these mice. Dwarf hamsters and mole-voles kept in outdoor cages or under simulated natural conditions lived longer if treated with SkQ1. The effect of SkQ1 on longevity of females is assumed to mainly be due to retardation of the age-linked decline of the immune system. For males under LP or SPF conditions, SkQ1 increased the lifespan, affecting also some other system(s) responsible for aging. PMID:22166671

  4. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant preserves contractile properties and mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Javadov, Sabzali; Jang, Sehwan; Rodriguez-Reyes, Natividad; Rodriguez-Zayas, Ana E.; Hernandez, Jessica Soto; Krainz, Tanja; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia associated with a loss of mass and activity of skeletal muscle. In addition to energy deprivation, increased mitochondrial ROS damage proteins and lipids in aged skeletal muscle. Therefore, prevention of mitochondrial ROS is important for potential therapeutic strategies to delay sarcopenia. This study elucidates the pharmacological efficiency of the new developed mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, XJB-5-131 (XJB) to restore muscle contractility and mitochondrial function in aged skeletal muscle. Male adult (5-month old) and aged (29-month old) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were treated with XJB for four weeks and contractile properties of single skeletal muscle fibres and activity of mitochondrial ETC complexes were determined at the end of the treatment period. XJB-treated old rats showed higher muscle contractility associated with prevention of protein oxidation in both muscle homogenate and mitochondria compared with untreated counterparts. XJB-treated animals demonstrated a high activity of the respiratory complexes I, III, and IV with no changes in citrate synthase activity. These data demonstrate that mitochondrial ROS play a causal role in muscle weakness, and that a ROS scavenger specifically targeted to mitochondria can reverse age-related alterations of mitochondrial function and improve contractile properties in skeletal muscle. PMID:26415224

  5. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant preserves contractile properties and mitochondrial function of skeletal muscle in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Javadov, Sabzali; Jang, Sehwan; Rodriguez-Reyes, Natividad; Rodriguez-Zayas, Ana E; Soto Hernandez, Jessica; Krainz, Tanja; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter

    2015-11-24

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia associated with a loss of mass and activity of skeletal muscle. In addition to energy deprivation, increased mitochondrial ROS damage proteins and lipids in aged skeletal muscle. Therefore, prevention of mitochondrial ROS is important for potential therapeutic strategies to delay sarcopenia. This study elucidates the pharmacological efficiency of the new developed mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, XJB-5-131 (XJB) to restore muscle contractility and mitochondrial function in aged skeletal muscle. Male adult (5-month old) and aged (29-month old) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were treated with XJB for four weeks and contractile properties of single skeletal muscle fibres and activity of mitochondrial ETC complexes were determined at the end of the treatment period. XJB-treated old rats showed higher muscle contractility associated with prevention of protein oxidation in both muscle homogenate and mitochondria compared with untreated counterparts. XJB-treated animals demonstrated a high activity of the respiratory complexes I, III, and IV with no changes in citrate synthase activity. These data demonstrate that mitochondrial ROS play a causal role in muscle weakness, and that a ROS scavenger specifically targeted to mitochondria can reverse age-related alterations of mitochondrial function and improve contractile properties in skeletal muscle.

  6. A mitochondria-targeted antioxidant can inhibit peroxidase activity of cytochrome c by detachment of the protein from liposomes.

    PubMed

    Firsov, Alexander M; Kotova, Elena A; Orlov, Viktor N; Antonenko, Yuri N; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2016-09-01

    Interaction of cytochrome c with cardiolipin converts this respiratory chain electron-transfer protein into a peroxidase, supposedly involved in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis initiation. Liposome membrane permeabilization provoked by peroxidase activity of the cytochrome c/cardiolipin complex has been previously shown to be suppressed by conventional antioxidants. Here, the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 (plastoquinonyl-decyl-triphenylphosphonium) was found to strongly inhibit both cytochrome c/cardiolipin peroxidase activity and the permeabilization of liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin. A number of binding assays revealed a significant inhibiting effect of SkQ1 on cytochrome c binding to liposomes, thus suggesting that SkQ1-mediated protection of liposomes from the cytochrome c/H2 O2 -induced permeabilization involved distortion of the cytochrome c-membrane binding. It is suggested that antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of alkyltriphenylphosphonium cations can be related to the prevention of cytochrome c/cardiolipin interaction.

  7. Antiproliferative effects of mitochondria-targeted cationic antioxidants and analogs: Role of mitochondrial bioenergetics and energy-sensing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gang; Zielonka, Jacek; McAllister, Donna; Hardy, Micael; Ouari, Olivier; Joseph, Joy; Dwinell, Michael B; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2015-08-28

    One of the proposed mechanisms for tumor proliferation involves redox signaling mediated by reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generated at moderate levels. Thus, the antiproliferative and anti-tumor effects of certain antioxidants were attributed to their ability to mitigate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent reports support a role for mitochondrial ROS in stimulating tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we compared the antiproliferative effects and the effects on mitochondrial bioenergetic functions of a mitochondria-targeted cationic carboxyproxyl nitroxide (Mito-CP), exhibiting superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and a synthetic cationic acetamide analog (Mito-CP-Ac) lacking the nitroxide moiety responsible for the SOD activity. Results indicate that both Mito-CP and Mito-CP-Ac potently inhibited tumor cell proliferation. Both compounds altered mitochondrial and glycolytic functions, and intracellular citrate levels. Both Mito-CP and Mito-CP-Ac synergized with 2-deoxy-glucose (2-DG) to deplete intracellular ATP, inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted cationic agents inhibit tumor proliferation via modification of mitochondrial bioenergetics pathways rather than by dismutating and detoxifying mitochondrial superoxide.

  8. Antiproliferative effects of mitochondria-targeted cationic antioxidants and analogs: Role of mitochondrial bioenergetics and energy-sensing mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gang; Zielonka, Jacek; McAllister, Donna; Hardy, Micael; Ouari, Olivier; Joseph, Joy; Dwinell, Michael B.; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2015-01-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms for tumor proliferation involves redox signaling mediated by reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generated at moderate levels. Thus, the antiproliferative and anti-tumor effects of certain antioxidants were attributed to their ability to mitigate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent reports support a role for mitochondrial ROS in stimulating tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we compared the antiproliferative effects and the effects on mitochondrial bioenergetic functions of a mitochondria-targeted cationic carboxyproxyl nitroxide (Mito-CP), exhibiting superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and a synthetic cationic acetamide analog (Mito-CP-Ac) lacking the nitroxide moiety responsible for the SOD activity. Results indicate that both Mito-CP and Mito-CP-Ac potently inhibited tumor cell proliferation. Both compounds altered mitochondrial and glycolytic functions, and intracellular citrate levels. Both Mito-CP and Mito-CP-Ac synergized with 2-deoxy-glucose (2-DG) to deplete intracellular ATP, inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted cationic agents inhibit tumor proliferation via modification of mitochondrial bioenergetics pathways rather than by dismutating and detoxifying mitochondrial superoxide. PMID:26004344

  9. Neuroprotective effects of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ in a model of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Ernesto; Cassina, Adriana; Martínez-Palma, Laura; Souza, José M; Bolatto, Carmen; Rodríguez-Bottero, Sebastián; Logan, Angela; Smith, Robin A J; Murphy, Michael P; Barbeito, Luis; Radi, Rafael; Cassina, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor neuron degeneration that ultimately results in progressive paralysis and death. Growing evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to motor neuron degeneration in ALS. To further explore the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction and nitroxidative stress contribute to disease pathogenesis at the in vivo level, we assessed whether the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant [10-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cyclohexadien-1-yl)decyl]triphenylphosphonium methane sulfonate (MitoQ) can modify disease progression in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS. To do this, we administered MitoQ (500 µM) in the drinking water of SOD1(G93A) mice from a time when early symptoms of neurodegeneration become evident at 90 days of age until death. This regime is a clinically plausible scenario and could be more easily translated to patients as this corresponds to initiating treatment of patients after they are first diagnosed with ALS. MitoQ was detected in all tested tissues by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after 20 days of administration. MitoQ treatment slowed the decline of mitochondrial function, in both the spinal cord and the quadriceps muscle, as measured by high-resolution respirometry. Importantly, nitroxidative markers and pathological signs in the spinal cord of MitoQ-treated animals were markedly reduced and neuromuscular junctions were recovered associated with a significant increase in hindlimb strength. Finally, MitoQ treatment significantly prolonged the life span of SOD1(G93A) mice. Our results support a role for mitochondrial nitroxidative damage and dysfunction in the pathogenesis of ALS and suggest that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants may be of pharmacological use for ALS treatment.

  10. Reactive Oxygen Species and the Aging Eye: Specific Role of Metabolically Active Mitochondria in Maintaining Lens Function and in the Initiation of the Oxidation-Induced Maturity Onset Cataract--A Novel Platform of Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants With Broad Therapeutic Potential for Redox Regulation and Detoxification of Oxidants in Eye Diseases.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2016-01-01

    The aging eye appears to be at considerable risk from oxidative stress. A great deal of research indicates that dysfunctional mitochondria are the primary site of reactive oxygen species (ROS). More than 95% of O2 produced during normal metabolism is generated by the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are also the major target of ROS. Cataract formation, the opacification of the eye lens, is one of the leading causes of human blindness worldwide, accounting for 47.8% of all causes of blindness. Cataracts result from the deposition of aggregated proteins in the eye lens and lens fiber cell plasma membrane damage, which causes clouding of the lens, light scattering, and obstruction of vision. ROS-induced damage in the lens cell may consist of oxidation of proteins, DNA damage, and/or lipid peroxidation, all of which have been implicated in cataractogenesis. This article is an attempt to integrate how mitochondrial ROS are altered in the aging eye along with those protective and repair therapeutic systems believed to regulate ROS levels in ocular tissues and how damage to these systems contributes to age-onset eye disease and cataract formation. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants might be used to effectively prevent ROS-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane in vivo. As a result of the combination of weak metal chelating, OH and lipid peroxyl radicals scavenging, reducing activities to liberated fatty acid, and phospholipid hydroperoxides, carnosine and carcinine appear to be physiological antioxidants able to efficiently protect the lipid phase of biologic membranes and aqueous environments and act as the antiapoptotic natural drug compounds The authors developed and patented the new ophthalmic compositions, including N-acetylcarnosine, acting as a prodrug of naturally targeted to mitochondria L-carnosine endowed with pluripotent antioxidant activities combined with mitochondria-targeted

  11. Inactivation of renal mitochondrial respiratory complexes and manganese superoxide dismutase during sepsis: mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitigates injury.

    PubMed

    Patil, Naeem K; Parajuli, Nirmala; MacMillan-Crow, Lee Ann; Mayeux, Philip R

    2014-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication of sepsis and leads to a high mortality rate. Human and animal studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure; however, the specific mitochondrial targets damaged during sepsis remain elusive. We used a clinically relevant cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) murine model of sepsis and assessed renal mitochondrial function using high-resolution respirometry, renal microcirculation using intravital microscopy, and renal function. CLP caused a time-dependent decrease in mitochondrial complex I and II/III respiration and reduced ATP. By 4 h after CLP, activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was decreased by 50% and inhibition was sustained through 36 h. These events were associated with increased mitochondrial superoxide generation. We then evaluated whether the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mito-TEMPO could reverse renal mitochondrial dysfunction and attenuate sepsis-induced AKI. Mito-TEMPO (10 mg/kg) given at 6 h post-CLP decreased mitochondrial superoxide levels, protected complex I and II/III respiration, and restored MnSOD activity by 18 h. Mito-TEMPO also improved renal microcirculation and glomerular filtration rate. Importantly, even delayed therapy with a single dose of Mito-TEMPO significantly increased 96-h survival rate from 40% in untreated septic mice to 80%. Thus, sepsis causes sustained inactivation of three mitochondrial targets that can lead to increased mitochondrial superoxide. Importantly, even delayed therapy with Mito-TEMPO alleviated kidney injury, suggesting that it may be a promising approach to treat septic AKI.

  12. Inactivation of renal mitochondrial respiratory complexes and manganese superoxide dismutase during sepsis: mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitigates injury.

    PubMed

    Patil, Naeem K; Parajuli, Nirmala; MacMillan-Crow, Lee Ann; Mayeux, Philip R

    2014-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication of sepsis and leads to a high mortality rate. Human and animal studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure; however, the specific mitochondrial targets damaged during sepsis remain elusive. We used a clinically relevant cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) murine model of sepsis and assessed renal mitochondrial function using high-resolution respirometry, renal microcirculation using intravital microscopy, and renal function. CLP caused a time-dependent decrease in mitochondrial complex I and II/III respiration and reduced ATP. By 4 h after CLP, activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was decreased by 50% and inhibition was sustained through 36 h. These events were associated with increased mitochondrial superoxide generation. We then evaluated whether the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mito-TEMPO could reverse renal mitochondrial dysfunction and attenuate sepsis-induced AKI. Mito-TEMPO (10 mg/kg) given at 6 h post-CLP decreased mitochondrial superoxide levels, protected complex I and II/III respiration, and restored MnSOD activity by 18 h. Mito-TEMPO also improved renal microcirculation and glomerular filtration rate. Importantly, even delayed therapy with a single dose of Mito-TEMPO significantly increased 96-h survival rate from 40% in untreated septic mice to 80%. Thus, sepsis causes sustained inactivation of three mitochondrial targets that can lead to increased mitochondrial superoxide. Importantly, even delayed therapy with Mito-TEMPO alleviated kidney injury, suggesting that it may be a promising approach to treat septic AKI. PMID:24500690

  13. Mitochondrial impairments contribute to Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 progression and can be ameliorated by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ.

    PubMed

    Stucki, David M; Ruegsegger, Céline; Steiner, Silvio; Radecke, Julika; Murphy, Michael P; Zuber, Benoît; Saxena, Smita

    2016-08-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), due to an unstable polyglutamine expansion within the ubiquitously expressed Ataxin-1 protein, leads to the premature degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs), decreasing motor coordination and causing death within 10-15 years of diagnosis. Currently, there are no therapies available to slow down disease progression. As secondary cellular impairments contributing to SCA1 progression are poorly understood, here, we focused on identifying those processes by performing a PC specific proteome profiling of Sca1(154Q/2Q) mice at a symptomatic stage. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed prominent alterations in mitochondrial proteins. Immunohistochemical and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed that PCs underwent age-dependent alterations in mitochondrial morphology. Moreover, colorimetric assays demonstrated impairment of the electron transport chain complexes (ETC) and decrease in ATPase activity. Subsequently, we examined whether the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ could restore mitochondrial dysfunction and prevent SCA1-associated pathology in Sca1(154Q/2Q) mice. MitoQ treatment both presymptomatically and when symptoms were evident ameliorated mitochondrial morphology and restored the activities of the ETC complexes. Notably, MitoQ slowed down the appearance of SCA1-linked neuropathology such as lack of motor coordination as well as prevented oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and PC loss. Our work identifies a central role for mitochondria in PC degeneration in SCA1 and provides evidence for the supportive use of mitochondria-targeted therapeutics in slowing down disease progression. PMID:27394174

  14. Mitochondrial impairments contribute to Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 progression and can be ameliorated by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ.

    PubMed

    Stucki, David M; Ruegsegger, Céline; Steiner, Silvio; Radecke, Julika; Murphy, Michael P; Zuber, Benoît; Saxena, Smita

    2016-08-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), due to an unstable polyglutamine expansion within the ubiquitously expressed Ataxin-1 protein, leads to the premature degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs), decreasing motor coordination and causing death within 10-15 years of diagnosis. Currently, there are no therapies available to slow down disease progression. As secondary cellular impairments contributing to SCA1 progression are poorly understood, here, we focused on identifying those processes by performing a PC specific proteome profiling of Sca1(154Q/2Q) mice at a symptomatic stage. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed prominent alterations in mitochondrial proteins. Immunohistochemical and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed that PCs underwent age-dependent alterations in mitochondrial morphology. Moreover, colorimetric assays demonstrated impairment of the electron transport chain complexes (ETC) and decrease in ATPase activity. Subsequently, we examined whether the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ could restore mitochondrial dysfunction and prevent SCA1-associated pathology in Sca1(154Q/2Q) mice. MitoQ treatment both presymptomatically and when symptoms were evident ameliorated mitochondrial morphology and restored the activities of the ETC complexes. Notably, MitoQ slowed down the appearance of SCA1-linked neuropathology such as lack of motor coordination as well as prevented oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and PC loss. Our work identifies a central role for mitochondria in PC degeneration in SCA1 and provides evidence for the supportive use of mitochondria-targeted therapeutics in slowing down disease progression.

  15. Long-term administration of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone mesylate fails to attenuate age-related oxidative damage or rescue the loss of muscle mass and function associated with aging of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sakellariou, Giorgos K.; Pearson, Timothy; Lightfoot, Adam P.; Nye, Gareth A.; Wells, Nicola; Giakoumaki, Ifigeneia I.; Griffiths, Richard D.; McArdle, Anne; Jackson, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related skeletal muscle dysfunction is the underlying cause of morbidity that affects up to half the population aged 80 and over. Considerable evidence indicates that oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the sarcopenic phenotype that occurs with aging. To examine this, we administered the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoquinone mesylate {[10-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cyclohexadien-1-yl)decyl] triphenylphosphonium; 100 μM} to wild-type C57BL/6 mice for 15 wk (from 24 to 28 mo of age) and investigated the effects on age-related loss of muscle mass and function, changes in redox homeostasis, and mitochondrial organelle integrity and function. We found that mitoquinone mesylate treatment failed to prevent age-dependent loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with myofiber atrophy or alter a variety of in situ and ex vivo muscle function analyses, including maximum isometric tetanic force, decline in force after a tetanic fatiguing protocol, and single-fiber-specific force. We also found evidence that long-term mitoquinone mesylate administration did not reduce mitochondrial reactive oxygen species or induce significant changes in muscle redox homeostasis, as assessed by changes in 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, protein carbonyl content, protein nitration, and DNA damage determined by the content of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Mitochondrial membrane potential, abundance, and respiration assessed in permeabilized myofibers were not significantly altered in response to mitoquinone mesylate treatment. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that long-term mitochondria-targeted mitoquinone mesylate administration failed to attenuate age-related oxidative damage in skeletal muscle of old mice or provide any protective effect in the context of muscle aging.—Sakellariou, G. K., Pearson, T., Lightfoot, A. P., Nye, G. A., Wells, N., Giakoumaki, I. I., Griffiths, R. D., McArdle, A., Jackson, M. J. Long-term administration of the

  16. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 inhibits age-dependent involution of the thymus in normal and senescence-prone rats

    PubMed Central

    Obukhova, Lidia A.; Skulachev, Vladimir P.; Kolosova, Natalia G.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most striking changes during mammal aging is a progressive involution of the thymus, associated with an increase in susceptibility to infections, autoimmune diseases and cancer. In order to delay age-related processes, we have developed mitochondria-targeted antioxidant plastoquinonyl decyltriphenyl phosphonium (SkQ1). Here we report that, at low doses, SkQ1 (250 nmol/kg per day) inhibited age-dependent involution of the thymus in normal (Wistar) and senescence-prone (OXYS) rats. SkQ1 preserved total weight and volume of the organ, the volume of thymic cortex and medulla, the thymic cellularity, and the number of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cells in the thymus. Moreover, SkQ1 was especially effective in senescence-prone rats.   Thus SkQ1 slows down age-linked decline of the immune system, explaining prevention by this compound of infection-caused death in rodents, previously described in our group. PMID:20195490

  17. A mitochondria-targeted derivative of ascorbate: MitoC

    PubMed Central

    Finichiu, Peter G.; Larsen, David S.; Evans, Cameron; Larsen, Lesley; Bright, Thomas P.; Robb, Ellen L.; Trnka, Jan; Prime, Tracy A.; James, Andrew M.; Smith, Robin A.J.; Murphy, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative damage contributes to a wide range of pathologies. One therapeutic strategy to treat these disorders is targeting antioxidants to mitochondria by conjugation to the lipophilic triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation. To date only hydrophobic antioxidants have been targeted to mitochondria; however, extending this approach to hydrophilic antioxidants offers new therapeutic and research opportunities. Here we report the development and characterization of MitoC, a mitochondria-targeted version of the hydrophilic antioxidant ascorbate. We show that MitoC can be taken up by mitochondria, despite the polarity and acidity of ascorbate, by using a sufficiently hydrophobic link to the TPP moiety. MitoC reacts with a range of reactive species, and within mitochondria is rapidly recycled back to the active ascorbate moiety by the glutathione and thioredoxin systems. Because of this accumulation and recycling MitoC is an effective antioxidant against mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and also decreases aconitase inactivation by superoxide. These findings show that the incorporation of TPP function can be used to target polar and acidic compounds to mitochondria, opening up the delivery of a wide range of bioactive compounds. Furthermore, MitoC has therapeutic potential as a new mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, and is a useful tool to explore the role(s) of ascorbate within mitochondria. PMID:26453920

  18. Mitochondria-targeted esculetin alleviates mitochondrial dysfunction by AMPK-mediated nitric oxide and SIRT3 regulation in endothelial cells: potential implications in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Karnewar, Santosh; Vasamsetti, Sathish Babu; Gopoju, Raja; Kanugula, Anantha Koteswararao; Ganji, Sai Krishna; Prabhakar, Sripadi; Rangaraj, Nandini; Tupperwar, Nitin; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria-targeted compounds are emerging as a new class of drugs that can potentially alter the pathophysiology of those diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role. We have synthesized a novel mitochondria-targeted esculetin (Mito-Esc) with an aim to investigate its effect during oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell death and angiotensin (Ang)-II-induced atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice. Mito-Esc but not natural esculetin treatment significantly inhibited H2O2- and Ang-II-induced cell death in human aortic endothelial cells by enhancing NO production via AMPK-mediated eNOS phosphorylation. While L-NAME (NOS inhibitor) significantly abrogated Mito-Esc-mediated protective effects, Compound c (inhibitor of AMPK) significantly decreased Mito-Esc-mediated increase in NO production. Notably, Mito-Esc promoted mitochondrial biogenesis by enhancing SIRT3 expression through AMPK activation; and restored H2O2-induced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. siSIRT3 treatment not only completely reversed Mito-Esc-mediated mitochondrial biogenetic marker expressions but also caused endothelial cell death. Furthermore, Mito-Esc administration to ApoE−/− mice greatly alleviated Ang-II-induced atheromatous plaque formation, monocyte infiltration and serum pro-inflammatory cytokines levels. We conclude that Mito-Esc is preferentially taken up by the mitochondria and preserves endothelial cell survival during oxidative stress by modulating NO generation via AMPK. Also, Mito-Esc-induced SIRT3 plays a pivotal role in mediating mitochondrial biogenesis and perhaps contributes to its anti-atherogenic effects. PMID:27063143

  19. DQAsomes as the prototype of mitochondria-targeted pharmaceutical nanocarriers: preparation, characterization, and use.

    PubMed

    Weissig, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    DQAsomes (dequalinium-based liposome-like vesicles) are the prototype for all mitochondria-targeted vesicular pharmaceutical nanocarrier systems. First described in 1998, they have been successfully explored for the delivery of DNA and low-molecular weight molecules to mitochondria within living mammalian cells. Potential areas of application involve mitochondrial gene therapy, antioxidant therapy as well as apoptosis-based anticancer chemotherapy. Here, detailed protocols for the preparation, characterization, and application of DQAsomes are given. PMID:25634263

  20. Mitochondria-targeting particles

    PubMed Central

    Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Geary, Sean M; Joiner, Mei-ling A; Anderson, Mark E; Salem, Aliasger K

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are a promising therapeutic target for the detection, prevention and treatment of various human diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, ischemia-reperfusion injury, diabetes and obesity. To reach mitochondria, therapeutic molecules need to not only gain access to specific organs, but also to overcome multiple barriers such as the cell membrane and the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. Cellular and mitochondrial barriers can be potentially overcome through the design of mitochondriotropic particulate carriers capable of transporting drug molecules selectively to mitochondria. These particulate carriers or vectors can be made from lipids (liposomes), biodegradable polymers, or metals, protecting the drug cargo from rapid elimination and degradation in vivo. Many formulations can be tailored to target mitochondria by the incorporation of mitochondriotropic agents onto the surface and can be manufactured to desired sizes and molecular charge. Here, we summarize recently reported strategies for delivering therapeutic molecules to mitochondria using various particle-based formulations. PMID:25490424

  1. The novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 modulates angiogenesis and inflammatory micromilieu in a murine orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Bazhin, Alexandr V; Yang, Yuhui; D'Haese, Jan G; Werner, Jens; Philippov, Pavel P; Karakhanova, Svetlana

    2016-07-01

    Our understanding in the last few years about reactive oxygen species (ROS) has changed from being harmful substances to crucial intra- and extracellular messengers as well as important regulators controlling a wide spectrum of signaling pathways, including those in cancer immunology. Therefore, these multiple essential roles of ROS and especially of mitochondria-derived ROS in malignant transformation and cancer progression make them a promising target for anticancer therapy. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers in the world. A link between ROS, antioxidants and the PDAC development and progression has been recently established. Therefore, usage of specific highly efficient antioxidants could bring an option for treatment and/or prevention of PDAC. 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) is a new antioxidant with the highest mitochondrion membrane penetrating ability and potent antioxidant capability. In this work, we investigated an impact of SkQ1 on tumor angiogenesis, immune micromilieu, and oncological parameters in the orthotopic Panc02 murine model of PDAC. We showed that in this model SkQ1 treatment leads to the elevation of pro-angiogenic factors and to building of mainly an anti-inflammatory cytokine milieu. On the cellular level we showed an increase in a percentage of memory T cells and a decrease in frequency on natural killer T (NKT) cells. At the same time, SkQ1 was ineffective in the improvement of oncological parameters of PDAC-bearing mice. New studies are needed to clarify the absence of therapeutic and/or prophylactic benefits of the antioxidant.

  2. The novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 modulates angiogenesis and inflammatory micromilieu in a murine orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Bazhin, Alexandr V; Yang, Yuhui; D'Haese, Jan G; Werner, Jens; Philippov, Pavel P; Karakhanova, Svetlana

    2016-07-01

    Our understanding in the last few years about reactive oxygen species (ROS) has changed from being harmful substances to crucial intra- and extracellular messengers as well as important regulators controlling a wide spectrum of signaling pathways, including those in cancer immunology. Therefore, these multiple essential roles of ROS and especially of mitochondria-derived ROS in malignant transformation and cancer progression make them a promising target for anticancer therapy. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers in the world. A link between ROS, antioxidants and the PDAC development and progression has been recently established. Therefore, usage of specific highly efficient antioxidants could bring an option for treatment and/or prevention of PDAC. 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) is a new antioxidant with the highest mitochondrion membrane penetrating ability and potent antioxidant capability. In this work, we investigated an impact of SkQ1 on tumor angiogenesis, immune micromilieu, and oncological parameters in the orthotopic Panc02 murine model of PDAC. We showed that in this model SkQ1 treatment leads to the elevation of pro-angiogenic factors and to building of mainly an anti-inflammatory cytokine milieu. On the cellular level we showed an increase in a percentage of memory T cells and a decrease in frequency on natural killer T (NKT) cells. At the same time, SkQ1 was ineffective in the improvement of oncological parameters of PDAC-bearing mice. New studies are needed to clarify the absence of therapeutic and/or prophylactic benefits of the antioxidant. PMID:26914404

  3. Effects of mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivative antioxidant (SkQ1) on demography of free-breeding Campbell dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) kept in outdoor conditions. reproduction and lifespan: explanation in the framework of ultimate loads.

    PubMed

    Rogovin, K A; Khrushcheva, A M; Shekarova, O N; Ushakova, M V; Manskikh, V N; Sokolova, O V; Vasilieva, N Yu

    2014-10-01

    We studied demographic effects of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 on free-breeding Campbell dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli, Thomas, 1905, Rodentia, Cricetidae) in an outdoor vivarium with seasonally varying day length and temperatures. The animals were kept in pairs from their young age. We removed litters from parental cages at their age of 25 days. Experimental hamsters received daily 50 nmol/kg SkQ1 with water by oral dosing, whereas control animals received water. SkQ1 had no effect on the lifespan of either males or females in reproductive pairs. Mortality among females was higher than among males irrespective of SkQ1 treatment, this being related to higher costs of reproduction in females. However, SkQ1 accelerated breeding in pairs in the first half of the reproductive period of a year. Although there were no statistical differences in body mass of males and females between experimental and control animals during most of their life, SkQ1-receiving males had higher body mass at the end of their life. The opposite tendency was characteristic for old females. One-year-old males and females of the experimental and control groups showed no difference in intensity of immune response to sheep red blood cells. The dermal hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin (test for T-cell immunity) was significantly higher in SkQ1-treated 1- and 1.5-year-old males. This was not true for females. There was a tendency toward increased density of the neutrophil population in blood in 1-year-old SkQ1-treated males. However, experimental males showed no difference from control males in the activity of the "peroxidase-endogenous hydrogen peroxide system" of neutrophils. The background level of stress estimated by the concentration of cortisol in blood serum was significantly lower in the SkQ1-treated males during autumn adaptive adjustment of the organism. A similar trend was also observed during the January frosts, when the background level of stress was

  4. Effects of mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivative antioxidant (SkQ1) on demography of free-breeding Campbell dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) kept in outdoor conditions. reproduction and lifespan: explanation in the framework of ultimate loads.

    PubMed

    Rogovin, K A; Khrushcheva, A M; Shekarova, O N; Ushakova, M V; Manskikh, V N; Sokolova, O V; Vasilieva, N Yu

    2014-10-01

    We studied demographic effects of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 on free-breeding Campbell dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli, Thomas, 1905, Rodentia, Cricetidae) in an outdoor vivarium with seasonally varying day length and temperatures. The animals were kept in pairs from their young age. We removed litters from parental cages at their age of 25 days. Experimental hamsters received daily 50 nmol/kg SkQ1 with water by oral dosing, whereas control animals received water. SkQ1 had no effect on the lifespan of either males or females in reproductive pairs. Mortality among females was higher than among males irrespective of SkQ1 treatment, this being related to higher costs of reproduction in females. However, SkQ1 accelerated breeding in pairs in the first half of the reproductive period of a year. Although there were no statistical differences in body mass of males and females between experimental and control animals during most of their life, SkQ1-receiving males had higher body mass at the end of their life. The opposite tendency was characteristic for old females. One-year-old males and females of the experimental and control groups showed no difference in intensity of immune response to sheep red blood cells. The dermal hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin (test for T-cell immunity) was significantly higher in SkQ1-treated 1- and 1.5-year-old males. This was not true for females. There was a tendency toward increased density of the neutrophil population in blood in 1-year-old SkQ1-treated males. However, experimental males showed no difference from control males in the activity of the "peroxidase-endogenous hydrogen peroxide system" of neutrophils. The background level of stress estimated by the concentration of cortisol in blood serum was significantly lower in the SkQ1-treated males during autumn adaptive adjustment of the organism. A similar trend was also observed during the January frosts, when the background level of stress was

  5. Mitochondria-Targeted Protective Compounds in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Moriano, Carlos; González-Burgos, Elena; Gómez-Serranillos, M. Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are cytoplasmic organelles that regulate both metabolic and apoptotic signaling pathways; their most highlighted functions include cellular energy generation in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), regulation of cellular calcium homeostasis, balance between ROS production and detoxification, mediation of apoptosis cell death, and synthesis and metabolism of various key molecules. Consistent evidence suggests that mitochondrial failure is associated with early events in the pathogenesis of ageing-related neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Mitochondria-targeted protective compounds that prevent or minimize mitochondrial dysfunction constitute potential therapeutic strategies in the prevention and treatment of these central nervous system diseases. This paper provides an overview of the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, with particular attention to in vitro and in vivo studies on promising endogenous and exogenous mitochondria-targeted protective compounds. PMID:26064418

  6. Proteome-scale identification and characterization of mitochondria targeting proteins of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis: Potential virulence factors modulating host mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Rana, Aarti; Kumar, Devender; Rub, Abdur; Akhter, Yusuf

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the etiological agent of Johne's Disease among ruminants. During the course of infection, it expresses a number of proteins for its successful persistence inside the host that cause variety of physiological abnormalities in the host. Mitochondrion is one of the attractive targets for pathogenic bacteria. Employing a proteome-wide sequence and structural signature based approach we have identified 46 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis proteins as potential targets for the host mitochondrial targeting. These may act as virulence factors modulating mitochondrial physiology for bacterial survival and immune evasion inside the host cells.

  7. Generation of reactive oxygen species in the anterior eye segment. Synergistic codrugs of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops and mitochondria-targeted antioxidant act as a powerful therapeutic platform for the treatment of cataracts and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Senile cataract is a clouding of the lens in the aging eye leading to a decrease in vision. Symptoms may include faded colors, blurry vision, halos around light, trouble with bright lights, and trouble seeing at night. This may result in trouble driving, reading, or recognizing faces. Cataracts are the cause of half of blindness and 33% of visual impairment worldwide. Cataracts result from the deposition of aggregated proteins in the eye lens and lens fiber cells plasma membrane damage which causes clouding of the lens, light scattering, and obstruction of vision. ROS induced damage in the lens cell may consist of oxidation of proteins, DNA damage and/or lipid peroxidation, all of which have been implicated in cataractogenesis. The inner eye pressure (also called intraocular pressure or IOP) rises because the correct amount of fluid can't drain out of the eye. With primary open-angle glaucoma, the entrances to the drainage canals are clear and should be working correctly. The clogging problem occurs further inside the drainage canals, similar to a clogged pipe below the drain in a sink. The excessive oxidative damage is a major factor of the ocular diseases because the mitochondrial respiratory chain in mitochondria of the vital cells is a significant source of the damaging reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. However, despite the clinical importance of mitochondrial oxidative damage, antioxidants have been of limited therapeutic success. This may be because the antioxidants are not selectively taken up by mitochondria, but instead are dispersed throughout the body, ocular tissues and fluids' moieties. This work is an attempt to integrate how mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are altered in the aging eye, along with those protective and repair therapeutic systems believed to regulate ROS levels in ocular tissues and how damage to these systems contributes to age-onset eye disease and cataract formation. Mitochondria-targeted

  8. Generation of reactive oxygen species in the anterior eye segment. Synergistic codrugs of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops and mitochondria-targeted antioxidant act as a powerful therapeutic platform for the treatment of cataracts and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Senile cataract is a clouding of the lens in the aging eye leading to a decrease in vision. Symptoms may include faded colors, blurry vision, halos around light, trouble with bright lights, and trouble seeing at night. This may result in trouble driving, reading, or recognizing faces. Cataracts are the cause of half of blindness and 33% of visual impairment worldwide. Cataracts result from the deposition of aggregated proteins in the eye lens and lens fiber cells plasma membrane damage which causes clouding of the lens, light scattering, and obstruction of vision. ROS induced damage in the lens cell may consist of oxidation of proteins, DNA damage and/or lipid peroxidation, all of which have been implicated in cataractogenesis. The inner eye pressure (also called intraocular pressure or IOP) rises because the correct amount of fluid can't drain out of the eye. With primary open-angle glaucoma, the entrances to the drainage canals are clear and should be working correctly. The clogging problem occurs further inside the drainage canals, similar to a clogged pipe below the drain in a sink. The excessive oxidative damage is a major factor of the ocular diseases because the mitochondrial respiratory chain in mitochondria of the vital cells is a significant source of the damaging reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. However, despite the clinical importance of mitochondrial oxidative damage, antioxidants have been of limited therapeutic success. This may be because the antioxidants are not selectively taken up by mitochondria, but instead are dispersed throughout the body, ocular tissues and fluids' moieties. This work is an attempt to integrate how mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are altered in the aging eye, along with those protective and repair therapeutic systems believed to regulate ROS levels in ocular tissues and how damage to these systems contributes to age-onset eye disease and cataract formation. Mitochondria-targeted

  9. Mitochondria-targeted heme oxygenase-1 decreases oxidative stress in renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bolisetty, Subhashini; Traylor, Amie; Zarjou, Abolfazl; Johnson, Michelle S; Benavides, Gloria A; Ricart, Karina; Boddu, Ravindra; Moore, Ray D; Landar, Aimee; Barnes, Stephen; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Agarwal, Anupam

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondria are both a source and target of the actions of reactive oxygen species and possess a complex system of inter-related antioxidants that control redox signaling and protect against oxidative stress. Interestingly, the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is not present in the mitochondria despite the fact that the organelle is the site of heme synthesis and contains multiple heme proteins. Detoxification of heme is an important protective mechanism since the reaction of heme with hydrogen peroxide generates pro-oxidant ferryl species capable of propagating oxidative stress and ultimately cell death. We therefore hypothesized that a mitochondrially localized HO-1 would be cytoprotective. To test this, we generated a mitochondria-targeted HO-1 cell line by transfecting HEK293 cells with a plasmid construct containing the manganese superoxide dismutase mitochondria leader sequence fused to HO-1 cDNA (Mito-HO-1). Nontargeted HO-1-overexpressing cells were generated by transfecting HO-1 cDNA (HO-1) or empty vector (Vector). Mitochondrial localization of HO-1 with increased HO activity in the mitochondrial fraction of Mito-HO-1 cells was observed, but a significant decrease in the expression of heme-containing proteins occurred in these cells. Both cytosolic HO-1- and Mito-HO-1-expressing cells were protected against hypoxia-dependent cell death and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, but these effects were more pronounced with Mito-HO-1. Furthermore, decrement in production of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates following hypoxia was significantly mitigated in Mito-HO-1 cells. These data suggest that specific mitochondrially targeted HO-1 under acute pathological conditions may have beneficial effects, but the selective advantage of long-term expression is constrained by a negative impact on the synthesis of heme-containing mitochondrial proteins.

  10. A Mitochondria-Targeted Photosensitizer Showing Improved Photodynamic Therapy Effects Under Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wen; Zhang, Zhang; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Yang, Huiran; Liu, Shujuan; Xu, Aqiang; Guo, Song; Zhao, Qiang; Huang, Wei

    2016-08-16

    Organelle-targeted photosensitizers have been reported to be effective photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents. In this work, we designed and synthesized two iridium(III) complexes that specifically stain the mitochondria and lysosomes of living cells, respectively. Both complexes exhibited long-lived phosphorescence, which is sensitive to oxygen quenching. The photocytotoxicity of the complexes was evaluated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The results showed that HeLa cells treated with the mitochondria-targeted complex maintained a slower respiration rate, leading to a higher intracellular oxygen level under hypoxia. As a result, this complex exhibited an improved PDT effect compared to the lysosome-targeted complex, especially under hypoxia conditions, suggestive of a higher practicable potential of mitochondria-targeted PDT agents in cancer therapy. PMID:27381490

  11. Antioxidant potential of Lactuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Garg, Munish; Garg, Chanchal; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Suresh, B

    2004-07-01

    The present study is based on the evaluation of antioxidant potential of a well known plant Lactuca sativa. Methanolic leaf extract was investigated for in vitro inhibition of oxidative damage induced by UV-radiations to the salmonella typhi bacteria and in vivo effect on the production of body enzymes i.e. catalase and superoxide dismutase. The lipid peroxidation masurement was also done in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood and brain of male albino wistar rats. The plant extract has shown significant antioxidant potential both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22557144

  12. PK11195-chitosan-graft-polyethylenimine-modified SPION as a mitochondria-targeting gene carrier.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Kyoung; Zhang, Mei; Lu, Jin-Jian; Xu, Fengguo; Chen, Bao-An; Xing, Lei; Jiang, Hu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) holds great potential as a gene delivery system due to its unique properties, such as good biocompatibility and non-invasive targeting ability. In this study, we modified SPION with chitosan-graft-PEI (CHI-g-PEI) and PK11195, to fabricate a mitochondria-targeting gene carrier, PK-CP-SPION. PK-CP-SPION manifested prominent physicochemical properties for magnetic guided gene delivery, and it could effectively condense and protect DNA at proper weight ratios. The in vitro cytotoxicity of PK-CP-SPIONs was mild. Under an external magnetic field, the transfection efficiency of PK-CP-SPIONs was comparable to PEI 25 K with shorter transfection time. PK11195 facilitated the specific accumulation of PK-CP-SPIONs in mitochondria, leading to the leakage of cytochrome c, the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequently the activation of mitochondria apoptosis pathway. These results indicated that with further development, PK-CP-SPIONs could serve as a multifunctional nanoplatform for magnetic targeting gene delivery and mitochondria-targeting therapy, leading enhanced therapeutic effect towards tumor cells. PMID:26390926

  13. Probiotics as potential antioxidants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vijendra; Shah, Chandni; Mokashe, Narendra; Chavan, Rupesh; Yadav, Hariom; Prajapati, Jashbhai

    2015-04-15

    Probiotics are known for their health beneficial effects and are established as dietary adjuncts. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects. In this view, there is interest to find the potential probiotic strains that can exhibit antioxidant properties along with health benefits. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that probiotics exhibit antioxidant potential. In this view, consumption of probiotics alone or foods supplemented with probiotics may reduce oxidative damage, free radical scavenging rate, and modification in activity of crucial antioxidative enzymes in human cells. Incorporation of probiotics in foods can provide a good strategy to supply dietary antioxidants, but more studies are needed to standardize methods and evaluate antioxidant properties of probiotics before they can be recommended for antioxidant potential. In this paper, the literature related to known antioxidant potential of probiotics and proposing future perspectives to conduct such studies has been reviewed. PMID:25808285

  14. Pathophysiological and pharmacological implications of mitochondria-targeted reactive oxygen species generation in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Jou, Mei-Jie

    2008-01-01

    Astrocytes, in addition to passively supporting neurons, have recently been shown to be actively involved in synaptic transmission and neurovascular coupling in the central nervous system (CNS). This review summarizes briefly our previous observations using fluorescent probes coupled with laser scanning digital imaging microscopy to visualize spatio-temporal alteration of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) generation in intact astrocytes. mROS formation is enhanced by exogenous oxidants exposure, Ca2+ stress and endogenous pathological defect of mitochondrial respiratory complexes. In addition, mROS formation can be specifically stimulated by visible light or visible laser irradiation and can be augmented further by photodynamic coupling with photosensitizers, particularly with mitochondria-targeted photosensitizers. "Severe" oxidative insult often results in massive and homogeneous augmentation of mROS formation which causes cessation of mitochondrial movement, pathological fission and irreversible swelling of mitochondria and eventually apoptosis or necrosis of cells. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and protectors such as MitoQ, melatonin and nanoparticle C(60) effectively prevent "severe" mROS generation. Intriguingly, "minor" oxidative insults enhance heterogeneity of mROS and mitochondrial dynamics. "Minor" mROS formation-induced fission and fusion of mitochondria relocates mitochondrial network to form a mitochondria free gap, i.e., "firewall", which may play a crucial role in mROS-mediated protective "preconditioning" by preventing propagation of mROS during oxidative insults. These mROS-targeted strategies for either enhancement or prevention of mitochondrial oxidative stress in astrocytes may provide new insights for future development of therapeutic interventions in the treatment of cancer such as astrocytomas and gliomas and astrocyte-associated neurodegeneration, mitochondrial diseases and aging. PMID:18692534

  15. The Use of Mitochondria-Targeted Endonucleases to Manipulate mtDNA

    PubMed Central

    Bacman, Sandra R.; Williams, Sion L.; Pinto, Milena; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, mitochondria-targeted nucleases have been used to promote double-strand breaks in the mitochondrial genome. This was done in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) homoplasmic systems, where all mtDNA molecules can be affected, to create models of mitochondrial deficiencies. Alternatively, they were also used in a heteroplasmic model, where only a subset of the mtDNA molecules were substrates for cleavage. The latter approach showed that mitochondrial-targeted nucleases can reduce mtDNA haplotype loads in affected tissues, with clear implications for the treatment of patients with mitochondrial diseases. In the last few years, designer nucleases, such as ZFN and TALEN, have been adapted to cleave mtDNA, greatly expanding the potential therapeutic use. This chapter describes the techniques and approaches used to test these designer enzymes. PMID:25416366

  16. Antioxidants as potential therapeutics for neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Chirayu D; Howell, Kristy R; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression etc. Both genetic and non-genetic factors have been found to cause increased cellular levels of reactive oxygen species beyond the capacity of antioxidant defense mechanism in patients of psychiatric disorders. These factors trigger oxidative cellular damage to lipids, proteins and DNA, leading to abnormal neural growth and differentiation. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies such as supplementation with antioxidants can be effective for long-term treatment management of neuropsychiatric disorders. The use of antioxidants and PUFAs as supplements in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders has provided some promising results. At the same time, one should be cautious with the use of antioxidants since excessive antioxidants could dangerously interfere with some of the protective functions of reactive oxygen species. The present article will give an overview of the potential strategies and outcomes of using antioxidants as therapeutics in psychiatric disorders. PMID:23123357

  17. Methodology for use of mitochondria-targeted cations in the field of oxidative stress-related research.

    PubMed

    Vyssokikh, Mikhail Y; Antonenko, Yury N; Lyamzaev, Konstantin G; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2015-01-01

    For many pathological conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in mitochondria are considered to have a role as a trigger. When mitochondrial ROS (mROS) are formed in the inner mitochondrial membrane, they initiate free radical-mediated chain reactions of lipid peroxidation and are thus especially damaging. The consequences of membrane damage are decreased electrical resistance of the membrane, oxidative damage to cardiolipin (a mitochondria specific lipid essential for functioning of respiratory chain proteins and H(+)-ATP synthase), and damage to mitochondrial DNA localized in close vicinity to the inner membrane, with consequent mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of apoptotic cascade and cell death. To target the starting point of such undesirable events, antioxidants conjugated with mitochondria-targeted, membrane-penetrating cations can be used to scavenge ROS inside mitochondria. The most demonstrative indications favoring this conclusion originate from recent discoveries of the in vivo effects of such cations belonging to the MitoQ and SkQ groups. Here we describe some essential methodological aspects of the application of mitochondria-targeted cations promising in treating oxidative stress-related pathologies.

  18. Mitochondria targeted therapeutic approaches in Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Beal, M Flint

    2013-07-01

    Substantial evidence from both genetic and toxin induced animal and cellular models and postmortem human brain tissue indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in pathophysiology of the neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). This review discusses the emerging understanding of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction including bioenergetics defects, mitochondrial DNA mutations, familial nuclear DNA mutations, altered mitochondrial fusion/fission and morphology, mitochondrial transport/trafficking, altered transcription and increased interaction of pathogenic proteins with mitochondria in the pathogenesis of PD and HD. This review recapitulates some of the key therapeutic strategies applied to surmount mitochondrial dysfunction in these debilitating disorders. We discuss the therapeutic role of mitochondrial bioenergetic agents such as creatine, Coenzyme-Q10, mitochondrial targeted antioxidants and peptides, the SIRT1 activator resveratrol, and the pan-PPAR agonist bezafibrate in toxin and genetic cellular and animal models of PD and HD. We also summarize the phase II-III clinical trials conducted using some of these agents. Lastly, we discuss PGC-1α, TORC and Sirtuins as potential therapeutic targets for mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Mitochondrial function and dysfunction in neurodegeneration'.

  19. A mitochondria targeting Mn nanoassembly of BODIPY for LDH-A, mitochondria modulated therapy and bimodal imaging of cancer.

    PubMed

    Boison, Daniel; Lu, Wen-Long; Xu, Qin-Mei; Yang, Huang; Huang, Tao; Chen, Qiu-Yun; Gao, Jing; Zhao, Yao

    2016-11-01

    HIF-1α and LDH-A are important targets for hypoxia-driven drug resistance. Mitochondria targeted fluorescent manganese(II)-complexes can be used as potential fluorescence imaging agents, MRI contrast agents and HIF-1α and LDH-A involved anticancer complexes. In this study, a fluorescent manganese(II) nanoparticle, labeled as (PEG-Mn-BDA), was synthesized and used as both fluorescent and MRI imaging agents in cancer cells. In vitro bioassay results indicate that PEG-Mn-BDA was able to inhibit LDH-A activity and depolarize mitochondrial membrane potential with the generation of intracellular ROS, which contributed to the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the pro-apoptotic protein, caspase 3 was highly expressed. In vivo, PEG-Mn-BDA could also exert inhibition on a mouse hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft. These results suggest that mitochondria targeted PEG-Mn-BDA was able to simultaneously induce selective inhibition on cancer cells and a mouse carcinoma xenograft, label cancer cells with fluorescence and enhance MRI contrast. Therefore, PEG-Mn-BDA is a good candidate for cancer treatment and imaging. PMID:27559997

  20. Mitochondria-targeted spin traps: synthesis, superoxide spin trapping, and mitochondrial uptake.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Micael; Poulhés, Florent; Rizzato, Egon; Rockenbauer, Antal; Banaszak, Karol; Karoui, Hakim; Lopez, Marcos; Zielonka, Jacek; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Sethumadhavan, Savitha; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Tordo, Paul; Ouari, Olivier

    2014-07-21

    Development of reliable methods and site-specific detection of free radicals is an active area of research. Here, we describe the synthesis and radical-trapping properties of new derivatives of DEPMPO and DIPPMPO, bearing a mitochondria-targeting triphenylphosphonium cationic moiety or guanidinium cationic group. All of the spin traps prepared have been observed to efficiently trap superoxide radical anions in a cell-free system. The superoxide spin adducts exhibited similar spectral properties, indicating no significant differences in the geometry of the cyclic nitroxide moieties of the spin adducts. The superoxide adduct stability was measured and observed to be highest (t1/2 = 73 min) for DIPPMPO nitrone linked to triphenylphosphonium moiety via a short carbon chain (Mito-DIPPMPO). The experimental results and DFT quantum chemical calculations indicate that the cationic property of the triphenylphosphonium group may be responsible for increased superoxide trapping efficiency and adduct stability of Mito-DIPPMPO, as compared to the DIPPMPO spin trap. The studies of uptake of the synthesized traps into isolated mitochondria indicated the importance of both cationic and lipophilic properties, with the DEPMPO nitrone linked to the triphenylphosphonium moiety via a long carbon chain (Mito10-DEPMPO) exhibiting the highest mitochondrial uptake. We conclude that, of the synthesized traps, Mito-DIPPMPO and Mito10-DEPMPO are the best candidates for potential mitochondria-specific spin traps for use in biologically relevant systems. PMID:24890552

  1. Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of Melanthera scandens.

    PubMed

    Adesegun, Sunday Adeleke; Alabi, Sukurat Olasumbo; Olabanji, Patricia Taiwo; Coker, Herbert Alexander Babatunde

    2010-12-01

    A methanol extract of dried leaves of Melanthera scandens was examined for antioxidant activities using a variety of assays, including 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, ferrous chelating, and ferric thiocyanate methods with ascorbic acid and EDTA as positive controls. The extract showed noticeable activities in most of these in vitro tests. The amount of phenolic compounds in the extract expressed in gallic acid equivalent was found to be 52.8 mg/g. The extract demonstrated inhibition of linoleic acid lipid peroxidation, active reducing power, and DPPH radical scavenging activities which were less than that of the positive controls. The extract also showed weaker iron chelating effect when compared with the EDTA positive control. The present results showed that M. scandens leaf extract possessed antioxidant properties and this plant is a potential useful source of natural antioxidants. PMID:21185542

  2. Ex vivo programming of dendritic cells by mitochondria-targeted nanoparticles to produce interferon-gamma for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Marrache, Sean; Tundup, Smanla; Harn, Donald A; Dhar, Shanta

    2013-08-27

    One of the limitations for clinical applications of dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy is the low potency in generating tumor antigen specific T cell responses. We examined the immunotherapeutic potential of a mitochondria-targeted nanoparticle (NP) based on a biodegradable polymer and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) photosensitizer (T-ZnPc-NPs). Here, we report that tumor antigens generated from treatment of breast cancer cells with T-ZnPc-NPs upon light stimulation activate DCs to produce high levels of interferon-gamma, an important cytokine considered as a product of T and natural killer cells. The remarkable ex vivo DC stimulation ability of this tumor cell supernatant is a result of an interleukin (IL)-12/IL-18 autocrine effect. These findings contribute to the understanding of how in situ light activation amplifies the host immune responses when NPs deliver the photosensitizer to the mitochondria and open up the possibility of using mitochondria-targeted-NP-treated, light-activated cancer cell supernatants as possible vaccines.

  3. Enhanced Intracellular Hyperthermia Efficiency by Magnetic Nanoparticles Modified with Nucleus and Mitochondria Targeting Peptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowen; Zhou, Jumei; Chen, Benke; Tang, Zhenghai; Zhang, Jieying; Li, Liya; Tang, Jintian

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate whether cell organelle targeting peptide can transport magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) into specific cell organelle, peptides bearing nuclear localization signal (NLS) or mitochondria targeting sequences were coagulated to MNPs. In vitro cytotoxicity study on the human liver cancer cells (HepG2) was tested by using MTT assay. Sub-cellular location of each peptide modified MNP (PEP-MNPs) was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The uptake of HepG2 cells growing in PEP-MNPs was measured by using ICP-OES. Magnetic induction heating efficacies of PEP-MNPs were analyzed by exposing the PEP-MNPs containing cells in an alternating magnetic field (AMF). It was demonstrated that PEP-MNPs were efficient agents for cancer nanothermotherapy with satisfactory biocompatibility. TEM showed that the fate of MNPs inside the cells depended on the peptide sequence attached to the particle surface. The uptake improvement was observed both in PEP-MNPs bearing NLS peptides and in PEP-MNPs bearing mitochondria targeting sequences. Virus original endocytosis sequence can enhance the uptake. MNP bearing mitochondria targeting sequence exerted a better magnetic induction hyperthermia performance comparing to that of NLS. Our investigation provides a strategy for fabrication cell organelle targeting magnetic nanoparticles. For instance, mitochondria targeting peptide conjugated MNPs for highly-efficiency magnetic nanothermotherapy and nuclear targeting peptides conjugated MNPs for gene magnetofection. PMID:27427753

  4. Enhanced Intracellular Hyperthermia Efficiency by Magnetic Nanoparticles Modified with Nucleus and Mitochondria Targeting Peptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowen; Zhou, Jumei; Chen, Benke; Tang, Zhenghai; Zhang, Jieying; Li, Liya; Tang, Jintian

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate whether cell organelle targeting peptide can transport magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) into specific cell organelle, peptides bearing nuclear localization signal (NLS) or mitochondria targeting sequences were coagulated to MNPs. In vitro cytotoxicity study on the human liver cancer cells (HepG2) was tested by using MTT assay. Sub-cellular location of each peptide modified MNP (PEP-MNPs) was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The uptake of HepG2 cells growing in PEP-MNPs was measured by using ICP-OES. Magnetic induction heating efficacies of PEP-MNPs were analyzed by exposing the PEP-MNPs containing cells in an alternating magnetic field (AMF). It was demonstrated that PEP-MNPs were efficient agents for cancer nanothermotherapy with satisfactory biocompatibility. TEM showed that the fate of MNPs inside the cells depended on the peptide sequence attached to the particle surface. The uptake improvement was observed both in PEP-MNPs bearing NLS peptides and in PEP-MNPs bearing mitochondria targeting sequences. Virus original endocytosis sequence can enhance the uptake. MNP bearing mitochondria targeting sequence exerted a better magnetic induction hyperthermia performance comparing to that of NLS. Our investigation provides a strategy for fabrication cell organelle targeting magnetic nanoparticles. For instance, mitochondria targeting peptide conjugated MNPs for highly-efficiency magnetic nanothermotherapy and nuclear targeting peptides conjugated MNPs for gene magnetofection.

  5. Mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 reduce mutant huntingtin-induced mitochondrial toxicity and synaptic damage in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiangling; Manczak, Maria; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the protective effects of the mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 in striatal neurons that stably express mutant huntingtin (Htt) (STHDhQ111/Q111) in Huntington's disease (HD). We studied mitochondrial and synaptic activities by measuring mRNA and the protein levels of mitochondrial and synaptic genes, mitochondrial function, and ultra-structural changes in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons relative to untreated mutant Htt neurons. We used gene expression analysis, biochemical methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal microscopy methods. In the MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons, fission genes Drp1 and Fis1 were down-regulated, and fusion genes Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1 were up-regulated relative to untreated neurons, suggesting that mitochondria-targeted molecules reduce fission activity. Interestingly, the mitochondrial biogenesis genes PGC1α, PGC1β, Nrf1, Nrf2 and TFAM were up-regulated in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons. The synaptic genes synaptophysin and PSD95 were up-regulated, and mitochondrial function was normal in the MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons. Immunoblotting findings of mitochondrial and synaptic proteins agreed with the mRNA findings. TEM studies revealed decreased numbers of structurally intact mitochondria in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons. These findings suggest that mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 are protective against mutant Htt-induced mitochondrial and synaptic damage in HD neurons, and these mitochondria-targeted molecules are potential therapeutic molecules for the treatment of HD neurons.

  6. Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes as mitochondria-targeted two-photon photodynamic anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangping; Chen, Yu; Li, Guanying; Zhang, Pingyu; Jin, Chengzhi; Zeng, Leli; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Clinical acceptance of photodynamic therapy is currently hindered by poor depth efficacy and inefficient activation of the cell death machinery in cancer cells during treatment. To address these issues, photoactivation using two-photon absorption (TPA) is currently being examined. Mitochondria-targeted therapy represents a promising approach to target tumors selectively and may overcome the resistance in current anticancer therapies. Herein, four ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes (RuL1-RuL4) have been designed and developed to act as mitochondria-targeted two-photon photodynamic anticancer agents. These complexes exhibit very high singlet oxygen quantum yields in methanol (0.74-0.81), significant TPA cross sections (124-198 GM), remarkable mitochondrial accumulation, and deep penetration depth. Thus, RuL1-RuL4 were utilized as one-photon and two-photon absorbing photosensitizers in both monolayer cells and 3D multicellular spheroids (MCSs). These Ru(II) complexes were almost nontoxic towards cells and 3D MCSs in the dark and generate sufficient singlet oxygen under one- and two-photon irradiation to trigger cell death. Remarkably, RuL4 exhibited an IC50 value as low as 9.6 μM in one-photon PDT (λirr = 450 nm, 12 J cm(-2)) and 1.9 μM in two-photon PDT (λirr = 830 nm, 800 J cm(-2)) of 3D MCSs; moreover, RuL4 is an order of magnitude more toxic than cisplatin in the latter test system. The combination of mitochondria-targeting and two-photon activation provides a valuable paradigm to develop ruthenium(II) complexes for PDT applications.

  7. A novel bifunctional mitochondria-targeted anticancer agent with high selectivity for cancer cells.

    PubMed

    He, Huan; Li, Dong-Wei; Yang, Li-Yun; Fu, Li; Zhu, Xun-Jin; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Jiang, Feng-Lei; Liu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria have recently emerged as novel targets for cancer therapy due to its important roles in fundamental cellular function. Discovery of new chemotherapeutic agents that allow for simultaneous treatment and visualization of cancer is urgent. Herein, we demonstrate a novel bifunctional mitochondria-targeted anticancer agent (FPB), exhibiting both imaging capability and anticancer activity. It can selectively accumulate in mitochondria and induce cell apoptosis. Notably, it results in much higher toxicity toward cancer cells owing to much higher uptake by cancer cells. These features make it highly attractive in cancer imaging and treatment. PMID:26337336

  8. A novel bifunctional mitochondria-targeted anticancer agent with high selectivity for cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Huan; Li, Dong-Wei; Yang, Li-Yun; Fu, Li; Zhu, Xun-Jin; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Jiang, Feng-Lei; Liu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria have recently emerged as novel targets for cancer therapy due to its important roles in fundamental cellular function. Discovery of new chemotherapeutic agents that allow for simultaneous treatment and visualization of cancer is urgent. Herein, we demonstrate a novel bifunctional mitochondria-targeted anticancer agent (FPB), exhibiting both imaging capability and anticancer activity. It can selectively accumulate in mitochondria and induce cell apoptosis. Notably, it results in much higher toxicity toward cancer cells owing to much higher uptake by cancer cells. These features make it highly attractive in cancer imaging and treatment. PMID:26337336

  9. Mitochondria-Targeted Antiaging Gene Therapy with Adeno-associated Viral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dejia; Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic expression of catalase in mitochondria using a transgenic strategy extends life span and prevents aging-related pathology in mice. However, transgenic overexpression is not suitable for a clinical application. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is the most promising gene delivery vehicle. Here we outline strategies on the generation of an AAV vector expressing the mitochondria-targeted catalase gene (AV.RSV.MCAT). We also describe methods for evaluating physiological impact of AV.RSV.MCAT on muscle contractility and running performance in mice. PMID:23929105

  10. Treatment Strategies that Enhance the Efficacy and Selectivity of Mitochondria-Targeted Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Modica-Napolitano, Josephine S; Weissig, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    Nearly a century has passed since Otto Warburg first observed high rates of aerobic glycolysis in a variety of tumor cell types and suggested that this phenomenon might be due to an impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity in these cells. Subsequently, much has been written about the role of mitochondria in the initiation and/or progression of various forms of cancer, and the possibility of exploiting differences in mitochondrial structure and function between normal and malignant cells as targets for cancer chemotherapy. A number of mitochondria-targeted compounds have shown efficacy in selective cancer cell killing in pre-clinical and early clinical testing, including those that induce mitochondria permeability transition and apoptosis, metabolic inhibitors, and ROS regulators. To date, however, none has exhibited the standards for high selectivity and efficacy and low toxicity necessary to progress beyond phase III clinical trials and be used as a viable, single modality treatment option for human cancers. This review explores alternative treatment strategies that have been shown to enhance the efficacy and selectivity of mitochondria-targeted anticancer agents in vitro and in vivo, and may yet fulfill the clinical promise of exploiting the mitochondrion as a target for cancer chemotherapy.

  11. Mitochondria-Targeting Magnetic Composite Nanoparticles for Enhanced Phototherapy of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ranran; Peng, Haibao; Tian, Ye; Shen, Shun; Yang, Wuli

    2016-09-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) are promising cancer treatment modalities in current days while the high laser power density demand and low tumor accumulation are key obstacles that have greatly restricted their development. Here, magnetic composite nanoparticles for dual-modal PTT and PDT which have realized enhanced cancer therapeutic effect by mitochondria-targeting are reported. Integrating PTT agent and photosensitizer together, the composite nanoparticles are able to generate heat and reactive oxygen species (ROS) simultaneously upon near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. After surface modification of targeting ligands, the composite nanoparticles can be selectively delivered to the mitochondria, which amplify the cancer cell apoptosis induced by hyperthermia and the cytotoxic ROS. In this way, better photo therapeutic effects and much higher cytotoxicity are achieved by utilizing the composite nanoparticles than that treated with the same nanoparticles missing mitochondrial targeting unit at a low laser power density. Guided by NIR fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging, then these results are confirmed in a humanized orthotropic lung cancer model. The composite nanoparticles demonstrate high tumor accumulation and excellent tumor regression with minimal side effect upon NIR laser exposure. Therefore, the mitochondria-targeting composite nanoparticles are expected to be an effective phototherapeutic platform in oncotherapy.

  12. Mitochondria-Targeted Peptide Reverses Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Cognitive Deficits in Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Zhang, Mingqiang; Hao, Shuangying; Jia, Ming; Ji, Muhuo; Qiu, Lili; Sun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Kuanyu

    2015-08-01

    Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and long-term cognitive impairments. Its pathophysiology remains to be determined and an effective pharmacologic treatment is lacking. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of the mitochondria-targeted peptide SS-31 on mitochondrial function and cognitive deficits in SAE mice. C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into sham, sham + SS-31, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and CLP + SS-31 groups. Peptide SS-31 (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administrated immediately after operation and afterwards once daily for six consecutive days. Surviving mice were subjected to behavioral tests and the hippocampus was collected for biochemical analysis 7 days after operation. The results showed that CLP resulted in high mortality rate and cognitive deficits, representative characteristics of SAE. A physiological mechanistic investigation revealed that mitochondrial function of hippocampus was severely impaired, coupled with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, triggering neuronal apoptosis and inflammation. Notably, administration of peptide SS-31 protected the integrity of mitochondria, reversed the mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibited the apoptosis resulting from the release of cytochrome c, diminished the response of inflammation, and ultimately reversed the behavior deficits in the SAE mice. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that daily treatment with mitochondria-targeted peptide SS-31 reduces mortality rate and ameliorates cognitive deficits, which is possibly through a mechanism of reversing mitochondrial dysfunction and partial inhibition of neuronal apoptosis and inflammation in the hippocampus of the SAE mice.

  13. BODIPY-Appended 2-(2-Pyridyl)benzimidazole Platinum(II) Catecholates for Mitochondria-Targeted Photocytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Koushambi; Gautam, Srishti; Kondaiah, Paturu; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2016-09-01

    Platinum(II) complexes of the type [Pt(L)(cat)] (1 and 2), in which H2 cat is catechol and L represents two 2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazole ligands with 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) pendants, were synthesized to achieve mitochondria-targeted photocytotoxicity. The complexes showed strong absorptions in the range λ=510-540 nm. Complex 1 exhibited intense emission at λ=525 nm in 1 % DMSO/water solution (fluorescence quantum yield of 0.06). Nanosecond transient absorption spectral features indicated an enhanced population of the triplet excited state in di-iodinated complex 2. The generation of singlet oxygen by complex 2 upon exposure to visible light, as evidenced from experiments with 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran, is suitable for photodynamic therapy because of the remarkable photosensitizing ability. The complexes resulted in excellent photocytotoxicity in HaCaT cells (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 ≈3 μm, λ=400-700 nm, light dose=10 J cm(-2) ), but they remained non-toxic in the dark (IC50 >100 μm). Confocal microscopy images of 1 and Pt estimation from isolated mitochondria showed colocalization of the complexes in the mitochondria. Complex 2 displayed generation of reactive oxygen species induced by visible light, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis. PMID:27465792

  14. Mitochondria-targeting nanoplatform with fluorescent carbon dots for long time imaging and magnetic field-enhanced cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Shen, Yajing; Teng, Xiyao; Yan, Manqing; Bi, Hong; Morais, Paulo Cesar

    2015-05-20

    In this study, a biocompatible nanoplatform has been constructed on the basis of magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Fe3O4@mSiO2) via surface modification of triphenylphospine (TPP) and then conjugation with fluorescent carbon dots (CDs). The as-prepared Fe3O4@mSiO2-TPP/CDs nanoplatform shows a very low cytotoxicity and apoptosis rate in various cell lines such as A549, CHO, HeLa, SH-SY5Y, HFF, and HMEC-1. More importantly, this nanoplatform integrates long time cell imaging, mitochondria-targeting, and magnetic field-enhanced cellular uptake functionalities into an all-in-one system. Time-dependent mitochondrial colocalization in all of the cell lines has been proved by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry, while the multicolored fluorescence of the Fe3O4@mSiO2-TPP/CDs could remain bright and stable after coincubation for 24 h. In addition, the cellular uptake efficiency could be enhanced in a short time as a static magnetic field of 0.30 T was applied to the coincubation system of A549 and HFF cell lines. This bionanoplatform may have potential applications in targeted drug delivery for mitochondria diseases as well as early cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential fruit of Ximenia americana L.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria Lucilania Bezerra; Freitas, Wallace Edelky de Souza; de Morais, Patrícia Lígia Dantas; Sarmento, José Dárcio Abrantes; Alves, Ricardo Elesbão

    2016-02-01

    The caatinga ecoregion in northeast Brazil presents a wide variety in plant species. However, the potential of these species as a source of energy, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and bioactive properties beneficial to health is still unknown. Among these species we can find the wild plum (Ximenia americana). Due to its various phytotherapeutic properties and absence of studies on the chemical composition of the fruit this article aimed to evaluate the bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of the X. americana in different stages of maturation. The fruits of X. americana showed considerable amounts of bioactive compounds, as well as antioxidant activity and antioxidant enzymes. The fruits at green maturity stage showed higher content of yellow flavonoids (22.07 mg/100g), anthocyanins (1.92 mg/100 g), polyphenols (3051.62 mg/100 g), starch (4.22%), antioxidant activity (489.40 g fruit/g DPPH and 198.77 μmol Trolox/g) and activity of antioxidant enzymes; the antioxidant activity allocated to the fruit was shown to be related to the contents of extractable polyphenols, yellow flavonoids, total anthocyanins and antioxidant enzymes.

  16. Antitumour and antioxidant potential of some selected Pakistani honeys.

    PubMed

    Noor, Nadia; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Ali, Shaukat; Shahid, Muhammad

    2014-01-15

    Antitumour potential of honey is attributed to its excellent antioxidant activity which in turn depends on the geographical origin. The present study focuses on exploration of antioxidant and antitumour potential as well as total phenolic contents (TPC) of 58 Pakistani honeys involving spectrochemical techniques and potato disk assay. Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to induce tumours in potato disks. All analysed honey samples exhibited 1.33±0.00-155.16±0.98mg/100g of TPC, 50% 2,2-diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition, ⩾7.36±0.43-39.86±2.34mg/100g qurecitin equivalent antioxidant contents, ⩾13.69±0.91-65.50±1.37mg/100g ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant contents, 64.65±0.43-1780.74±11.79mM ferric reducing antioxidant power and 60% peroxide inhibition. Antitumour activity observed for 43 natural and 10 commercial samples was ⩾20%. Two samples from Faisalabad region showed 87.50±5.50% and 79.00±5.56% antitumour activity which were reference standard. It was concluded that Pakistani honeys possessed excellent antioxidant and antitumour potential overall.

  17. Antioxidant potential of spices and their active constituents.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K

    2014-01-01

    Excessive free radical generation overbalancing the rate of their removal leads to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and other chronic diseases. Antioxidants are compounds that hinder the oxidative processes and thereby delay or suppress oxidative stress. There is a growing interest in natural antioxidants found in plants. Herbs and spices are most important targets to search for natural antioxidants from the point of view of safety. A wide variety of phenolic compounds present in spices that are extensively used as food adjuncts possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and cancer preventive activities. This paper reviews a host of spice compounds as exogenous antioxidants that are experimentally evidenced to control cellular oxidative stress, both in vitro and in vivo, and their beneficial role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative-stress-mediated diseases, from atherosclerosis to diabetes to cataract to cancer. The antioxidative effects of turmeric/curcumin, clove/eugenol, red pepper/capsaicin, black pepper/piperine, ginger/gingerol, garlic, onion, and fenugreek, which have been extensively studied and evidenced as potential antioxidants, are specifically reviewed in this treatise.

  18. Designing inhibitors of cytochrome c/cardiolipin peroxidase complexes: mitochondria-targeted imidazole-substituted fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianfei; Bakan, Ahmet; Kapralov, Alexandr A; Silva, K Ishara; Huang, Zhentai; Amoscato, Andrew A; Peterson, James; Garapati, Venkata Krishna; Saxena, Sunil; Bayir, Hülya; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Bahar, Ivet; Kagan, Valerian E

    2014-06-01

    Mitochondria have emerged as the major regulatory platform responsible for the coordination of numerous metabolic reactions as well as cell death processes, whereby the execution of intrinsic apoptosis includes the production of reactive oxygen species fueling oxidation of cardiolipin (CL) catalyzed by cytochrome (Cyt) c. As this oxidation occurs within the peroxidase complex of Cyt c with CL, the latter represents a promising target for the discovery and design of drugs with antiapoptotic mechanisms of action. In this work, we designed and synthesized a new group of mitochondria-targeted imidazole-substituted analogs of stearic acid TPP-n-ISAs with various positions of the attached imidazole group on the fatty acid (n = 6, 8, 10, 13, and 14). By using a combination of absorption spectroscopy and EPR protocols (continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance and electron spin echo envelope modulation) we demonstrated that TPP-n-ISAs indeed were able to potently suppress CL-induced structural rearrangements in Cyt c, paving the way to its peroxidase competence. TPP-n-ISA analogs preserved the low-spin hexa-coordinated heme-iron state in Cyt c/CL complexes whereby TPP-6-ISA displayed a significantly more effective preservation pattern than TPP-14-ISA. Elucidation of these intermolecular stabilization mechanisms of Cyt c identified TPP-6-ISA as an effective inhibitor of the peroxidase function of Cyt c/CL complexes with a significant antiapoptotic potential realized in mouse embryonic cells exposed to ionizing irradiation. These experimental findings were detailed and supported by all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Based on the experimental data and computation predictions, we identified TPP-6-ISA as a candidate drug with optimized antiapoptotic potency.

  19. Designing Inhibitors of Cytochrome c/Cardiolipin Peroxidase Complexes: Mitochondria-Targeted Imidazole-Substituted Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jianfei; Bakan, Ahmet; Kapralov, Alexandr A.; Silva, K. Ishara; Huang, Zhentai; Amoscato, Andrew A.; Peterson, James; Garapati, Venkata Krishna; Saxena, Sunil; Bayir, Hülya; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Bahar, Ivet; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria have emerged as the major regulatory platform responsible for coordination of numerous metabolic reactions as well as cell death processes, whereby the execution of intrinsic apoptosis includes the production of reactive oxygen species fueling oxidation of cardiolipin (CL) catalyzed by cytochrome (cyt) c. As this oxidation occurs within the peroxidase complex of cyt c with CL, the latter represents a promising target for the discovery and design of drugs with anti-apoptotic mechanism of action. In this work, we designed and synthesized a new group of mitochondria-targeted imidazole-substituted analogues of stearic acid TPP-n-ISA with different positions of the attached imidazole group on the fatty acid (n=6, 8, 10, 13 and 14). By using a combination of absorption spectroscopy and EPR protocols (continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance, and electron spin echo envelope modulation) we demonstrated that TPP-n-ISA indeed were able to potently suppress CL induced structural re-arrangements in cyt c paving the way to its peroxidase competence. TPP-n-ISA analogues preserved the low spin hexa-coordinated heme iron state in cyt c/CL complexes whereby TPP-6-ISA displayed a significantly more effective preservation pattern than TPP-14-ISA. Elucidation of these intermolecular stabilization mechanisms of cyt c identified TPP-6-ISA as an effective inhibitor of the peroxidase function of cyt c/CL complexes with a significant anti-apoptotic potential realized in mouse embryonic cells exposed to ionizing irradiation. These experimental findings were detailed and supported by all atom molecular dynamics simulations. Based on the experimental data and computations predictions, we identified TPP-6-ISA as a candidate drug with optimized anti-apoptotic potency. PMID:24631490

  20. Mitochondria-Targeted Vitamin E Protects Skin from UVB-Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Serk; Kim, Ikyon; Kim, Wang-Kyun; Choi, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Doo Yeong; Moon, Sung-Guk; Min, Hyung-Keun; Song, Min-Kyu; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria-targeted vitamin E (MVE) is designed to accumulate within mitochondria and is applied to decrease mitochondrial oxidative damage. However, the protective effects of MVE in skin cells have not been identified. We investigated the protective effect of MVE against UVB in dermal fibroblasts and immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). In addition, we studied the wound-healing effect of MVE in animal models. We found that MVE increased the proliferation and survival of fibroblasts at low concentration (i.e., nM ranges). In addition, MVE increased collagen production and downregulated matrix metalloproteinase1. MVE also increased the proliferation and survival of HaCaT cells. UVB increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in fibroblasts and HaCaT cells, while MVE decreased ROS production at low concentration. In an animal experiment, MVE accelerated wound healing from laser-induced skin damage. These results collectively suggest that low dose MVE protects skin from UVB irradiation. Therefore, MVE can be developed as a cosmetic raw material. PMID:26869457

  1. A mitochondria-targeted mass spectrometry probe to detect glyoxals: implications for diabetes☆

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Logan, Angela; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Chacko, Balu; Johnson, Michelle S.; Huang, Guang W.; Rogatti, Sebastian; Prime, Tracy A.; Methner, Carmen; Krieg, Thomas; Fearnley, Ian M.; Larsen, Lesley; Larsen, David S.; Menger, Katja E.; Collins, Yvonne; James, Andrew M.; Kumar, G.D. Kishore; Hartley, Richard C.; Smith, Robin A.J.; Murphy, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    The glycation of protein and nucleic acids that occurs as a consequence of hyperglycemia disrupts cell function and contributes to many pathologies, including those associated with diabetes and aging. Intracellular glycation occurs after the generation of the reactive 1,2-dicarbonyls methylglyoxal and glyoxal, and disruption of mitochondrial function is associated with hyperglycemia. However, the contribution of these reactive dicarbonyls to mitochondrial damage in pathology is unclear owing to uncertainties about their levels within mitochondria in cells and in vivo. To address this we have developed a mitochondria-targeted reagent (MitoG) designed to assess the levels of mitochondrial dicarbonyls within cells. MitoG comprises a lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cationic function, which directs the molecules to mitochondria within cells, and an o-phenylenediamine moiety that reacts with dicarbonyls to give distinctive and stable products. The extent of accumulation of these diagnostic heterocyclic products can be readily and sensitively quantified by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, enabling changes to be determined. Using the MitoG-based analysis we assessed the formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal in response to hyperglycemia in cells in culture and in the Akita mouse model of diabetes in vivo. These findings indicated that the levels of methylglyoxal and glyoxal within mitochondria increase during hyperglycemia both in cells and in vivo, suggesting that they can contribute to the pathological mitochondrial dysfunction that occurs in diabetes and aging. PMID:24316194

  2. Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Cordia retusa

    PubMed Central

    Amudha, Murugesan; Rani, Shanmugam

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant potential, total flavonoid and phenolic content in extracts of aerial parts of Cordia retua (Vahl.) Masam. The samples such as ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were tested using six in vitro models such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical, iron chelating, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of C. retusa by spectrophotometrically. Total flavonoid and phenolic content in samples were estimated using aluminum chloride colorimetric and Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were analyzed statistically by the regression method. Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the ethanol extract was found to be 596 μg/ml for DPPH, 597 μg/ml for nitric oxide radical, 554 μg/ml for iron chelating, 580 μg/ml for hydroxyl radical, 562 μg/ml for superoxide radical and 566 μg/ml for total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, the total flavonoid content and total phenolic content of the ethanol extract were found to be 2.71 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract and 1.86 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of extract, respectively. In all the testing, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the extract and percentage inhibition of free radicals. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrated that C. retusa possess potent antioxidant activity, high flavonoid and phenolic content. The antioxidant property may be related to the polyphenols and flavonoids present in the extract. These results clearly indicated that C. retusa is effective against free radical mediated diseases as a natural antioxidant. PMID:27168685

  3. Natural Antioxidants and Hypertension: Promise and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kizhakekuttu, Tinoy J.; Widlansky, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension reigns as a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) has emerged as a central common pathway by which disparate influences may induce and exacerbate hypertension. Potential sources of excessive ROS in hypertension include NADPH oxidase, mitochondria, xanthine oxidase, endothelium-derived NO synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenase 1 and 2, cytochrome P450 epoxygenase and transition metals. While a significant body of epidemiological and clinical data suggests that antioxidant rich diets reduce blood pressure and cardiovascular risk, randomized trials and population studies using natural antioxidants have yielded disappointing results. The reasons behind this lack of efficacy are not completely clear, but likely include a combination of 1) ineffective dosing regimens 2) the potential pro-oxidant capacity of some of these agents 3) selection of subjects less likely to benefit from antioxidant therapy (too healthy or too sick), 4) inefficiency of non-specific quenching of prevalent ROS versus prevention of excessive ROS production. Commonly used antioxidants include Vitamins A, C and E, L-arginine, flavanoids, and mitochondria targeted agents, Coenzyme Q10, acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid. Various reasons, including incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms of action of these agents, lack of target specificity, and potential inter-individual differences in therapeutic efficacy preclude us from recommending any specific natural antioxidant for antihypertensive therapy at this time. This review focuses on recent literature regarding above mentioned issues evaluating naturally occurring antioxidants with respect to their impact on hypertension. PMID:20370791

  4. A Mitochondria-Targeted Nitroxide/Hemigramicidin S Conjugate Protects Mouse Embryonic Cells Against Gamma Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Jianfei; Belikova, Natalia A.; Hoye, Adam T.; Zhao Qing; Epperly, Michael W.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Wipf, Peter; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the in vitro radioprotective effect of the mitochondria-targeted hemigramicidin S-conjugated 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-N-oxyl (hemi-GS-TEMPO) 5-125 in {gamma}-irradiated mouse embryonic cells and adenovirus-12 SV40 hybrid virus transformed human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B and explore the mechanisms involved in its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Cells were incubated with 5-125 before (10 minutes) or after (1 hour) {gamma}-irradiation. Superoxide generation was determined by using dihydroethidium assay, and lipid oxidation was quantitated by using a fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography-based Amplex Red assay. Apoptosis was characterized by evaluating the accumulation of cytochrome c in the cytosol and externalization of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface. Cell survival was measured by means of a clonogenic assay. Results: Treatment (before and after irradiation) of cells with 5-125 at low concentrations (5, 10, and 20 {mu}M) effectively suppressed {gamma}-irradiation-induced superoxide generation, cardiolipin oxidation, and delayed irradiation-induced apoptosis, evaluated by using cytochrome c release and phosphatidylserine externalization. Importantly, treatment with 5-125 increased the clonogenic survival rate of {gamma}-irradiated cells. In addition, 5-125 enhanced and prolonged {gamma}-irradiation-induced G{sub 2}/M phase arrest. Conclusions: Radioprotection/mitigation by hemi-GS-TEMPO likely is caused by its ability to act as an electron scavenger and prevent superoxide generation, attenuate cardiolipin oxidation in mitochondria, and hence prevent the release of proapoptotic factors from mitochondria. Other mechanisms, including cell-cycle arrest at the G{sub 2}/M phase, may contribute to the protection.

  5. Reduction of early reperfusion injury with the mitochondria-targeting peptide Bendavia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David A.; Hale, Sharon L.; Baines, Christopher P.; del Rio, Carlos L.; Hamlin, Robert L.; Yueyama, Yukie; Kijtawornrat, Anusak; Yeh, Steve T.; Frasier, Chad R.; Stewart, Luke M.; Moukdar, Fatiha; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H.; Neufer, P. Darrell; Kloner, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that Bendavia, a novel mitochondria-targeting peptide, reduced infarction and no-reflow across several experimental models. The purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic timing and mechanism of action that underlie Bendavia’s cytoprotective property. In rabbits exposed to in vivo ischemia/reperfusion (30/180 min), Bendavia administered 20 min prior to reperfusion (0.05mg/kg/hr, i.v.) reduced myocardial infarct size by ~50% when administered for either 1 or 3 hours of reperfusion. However, when Bendavia perfusion began just 10 min after the onset of reperfusion, the protection against infarction and no–reflow was completely lost, indicating that the mechanism of protection is occurring early in reperfusion. Experiments in isolated mouse liver mitochondria found no discernible effect of Bendavia on blocking the permeability transition pore, and studies in isolated heart mitochondria showed no effect of Bendavia on respiratory rates. As Bendavia significantly lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in isolated heart mitochondria, the ROS-scavenging capacity of Bendavia was compared to well-known ROS scavengers using in vitro (cell-free) systems that enzymatically generate ROS. Across doses ranging from 1nM to 1mM, Bendavia showed no discernible ROS-scavenging properties, clearly differentiating itself from prototypical scavengers. In conclusion, Bendavia is a promising candidate to reduce cardiac injury when present at onset of reperfusion, but not after reperfusion has already commenced. Given that both infarction and no-reflow are related to increased cellular ROS, Bendavia’s protective mechanism of action likely involves reduced ROS generation (as opposed to augmented scavenging) by endothelial and myocyte mitochondria. PMID:24288396

  6. A high-resolution mitochondria-targeting ratiometric fluorescent probe for detection of the endogenous hypochlorous acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liyi; Lu, Dan-Qing; Wang, Qianqian; Hu, Shunqin; Wang, Haifei; Sun, Hongyan; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2016-09-01

    Hypochlorite anion, one of the biologically important reactive oxygen species, plays an essential role in diverse normal biochemical functions and abnormal pathological processes. Herein, an efficient high-resolution mitochondria-targeting ratiometric fluorescent probe for hypochlorous acid detection has been designed, synthesized and characterized. It is easily synthesized by the condensation reaction (Cdbnd C) of a 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl) quinazolin-4(3H)-one fluorophore and a cyanine group (mitochondria-targeting), which made the whole molecular a large Stokes shift (210 nm) and the two well-resolved emission peaks separated by 140 nm. As a result, it is considered as a good candidate for high resolution hypochlorous acid imaging in live cells. The ratiometric fluorescent probe exhibited outstanding features of high sensitivity, high selectivity, rapid response time (within 50 s), and excellent mitochondria-targeting ability. Moreover, the probe can also be successfully applied to imaging endogenously hypochlorous acid in the mitochondria of living cells with low cytotoxicity, and high resolution.

  7. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential of coconut water in experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Preetha, P P; Devi, V Girija; Rajamohan, T

    2012-07-01

    Coconut water is a natural nutritious beverage that contains several biologically active compounds. The present study aims to evaluate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of mature coconut water (MCW) on alloxan-induced diabetes in experimental rats. The experimental animals were divided into four groups - normal control, normal rats treated with MCW, diabetic control and diabetic rats treated with MCW. The blood glucose, plasma insulin, hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, activities of the various antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and lipid peroxidation markers (malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes) were evaluated in all the groups. The results indicate that the diabetic animals treated with MCW had decreased blood glucose levels and reduced oxidative stress induced by alloxan, which was evident from the increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the decreased levels of the lipid peroxidation products. The overall results indicate that MCW significantly attenuated hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, indicating the therapeutic potential of MCW.

  8. Potential applications of ferrocene as a structural feature in antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zai-Qun

    2011-04-01

    Comparing with the wide usage of ferrocene in novel materials, ferrocene was unusually applied to be a structural feature in designing drugs even though some researchers pointed out that ferrocene and its derivatives possessed potential pharmacological applications. This was due to that low polarity limited bioavailability of ferrocene in vivo. Since ferrocene was inert to the oxidation at atmosphere, it was deduced that synthetic derivatives of ferrocene may be a novel kind of antioxidant, in which other organic groups may enhance the bioavailability of ferrocene, or large conjugated system formed among ferrocenyl and other organic groups may increase the antioxidant effectiveness. Thus, synthetic derivatives of ferrocene were divided into nonconjugated and conjugated ones in this review. For nonconjugated ferrocenyl derivatives, carbon chain or simple group attached one or two cyclopentadienyl rings in ferrocene to form a novel molecule with ferrocenyl group. The aim of synthesis of nonconjugated ferrocenyl compounds was to increase the bioavailability of ferrocene in vivo. On the other hand, the conjugated ferrocenyl derivatives referred to introduce other group to form a conjugated system with the cyclopentadienyl ring in ferrocene. The large conjugated system was beneficial for the single electron to dispense among the whole molecule while forming radicals, and enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the whole molecule. This review summarized the potential usage of ferrocene in antioxidants.

  9. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    PubMed

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients. PMID:27208744

  10. Vernonia kotschyana roots: therapeutic potential via antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Vasincu, Alexandru; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Vasincu, Ioana; Aprotosoaie, Ana C; Bild, Veronica; Charalambous, Christiana; Constantinou, Andreas I; Miron, Anca; Gavrilescu, Cristina M

    2014-11-19

    The roots of Vernonia kotschyana Sch. Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae) are used in Malian traditional medicine in the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastritis. Since oxidative stress is involved in gastric ulceration, the aim of this study was to screen the root extracts for their in vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic content. The roots were extracted successively with chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. The antioxidant activity of root extracts was evaluated in both cell-free and cell-based assays. Their chemical characterization was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) whereas the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest phenolic content and was found to be the most active in the free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays; it also showed a high antioxidant activity in MCF-12F cells. This study suggests a potential use of the ethyl acetate extract of Vernonia kotschyana not only as an antioxidant agent in gastroduodenal ulcers and gastritis, but also in other disorders characterized by high levels of oxidative stress.

  11. Investigation of the Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potential of Hypericum mysorense

    PubMed Central

    Hariharapura, Raghu C.; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Ashok, Godavarthi; Dongre, Santoshkumar H.; Jagani, Hitesh V.; Vijayan, Pottekkad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypericum is a well-known plant genus in herbal medicine. Hypericum mysorense (Family: Hypericaceae), a plant belonging to the same genus, is well known in folklore medicine for its varied therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the different parts of the plant for antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Materials and Methods: The methanol extracts of Hypericum mysorense prepared from various parts of the plant were tested in vitro for their free radical scavenging activity against ABTS• (diammonium salt), DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), NO•, O2•− and •OH radicals, using standard systems of assays. The total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the extracts were analyzed. Further, the leaf and flowering top extracts were tested for their in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities on Wistar rats using a carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury model. Results: The leaf and flowering top extract showed potent antioxidant activity and also possessed highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic and flavonoid content present in these extracts showed a good correlation. The leaf and flowering top extracts at 200 mg/kg restored aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), alanine amino transferase (ALAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin and protein levels significantly in CCl4-intoxicated rats. The tested extracts also showed a significant (p < 0.001) reduction in 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels with an increase in SOD and CAT levels. The histopathology of liver did not show any toxicity after the treatment with the extracts. The active extracts were standardized using two marker compounds, hyperoside and rutin, which were isolated from the plant by HPLC. HPLC studies revealed that the maximum concentration of hyperoside and rutin is present in the flowering top extract. PMID

  12. Pharmacological applications of antioxidants: lights and shadows.

    PubMed

    Saso, Luciano; Firuzi, Omidreza

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is linked with many pathologies ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative disorders and antioxidants have presumably therapeutic value in such diseases. In this review, we categorize different direct and indirect mechanisms by which antioxidants exert their action. These include scavenging and metal chelating effects, mimicking the antioxidant enzymes or upregulation of their expression, activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), increasing the activity of sirtuins and inhibition of pro-oxidant enzymes among others. Recent findings on the most frequently investigated antioxidants including polyphenolics, thiolics, spin trapping agents, SOD mimetics, inducers of heme oxygenase-1 and nitric oxide synthase, activators of Nrf2, NADPH oxidase inhibitors and herbal supplements are summarized. Furthermore, the antioxidant effects of drugs that are clinically used for other pharmacological purposes including ACE inhibitors and statins are discussed. Cost-effectiveness and adverse effects of antioxidants are also evaluated. Since antioxidant therapy has failed in many instances, we have classified the reasons that may explain these shortcomings in different categories. Novel approaches to antioxidant therapy, that include mitochondria-targeting drugs, antioxidant gene therapy and approaches for improvement of cell uptake and alteration of subcellular compartment localization are also described. In the end, "shadows" that are shortcomings of antioxidant therapy as well as "lights" that include positive outcomes are addressed. It is concluded that if we learn from failures, invest on agents with higher potential and take advantage of novel emerging approaches, antioxidants could be an asset for the management of certain carefully chosen oxidative stress-related diseases.

  13. Antioxidant and DNA damage protection potentials of selected phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Sevgi, Kemal; Tepe, Bektas; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz

    2015-03-01

    In this study, ten different phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, cinnamic, ferulic, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, rosmarinic, syringic, and vanillic acids) were evaluated for their antioxidant and DNA damage protection potentials. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using four different test systems named as β-carotene bleaching, DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power and chelating effect. In all test systems, rosmarinic acid showed the maximum activity potential, while protocatechuic acid was determined as the weakest antioxidant in β-carotene bleaching, DPPH free radical scavenging, and chelating effect assays. Phenolic acids were also screened for their protective effects on pBR322 plasmid DNA against the mutagenic and toxic effects of UV and H2O2. Ferulic acid was found as the most active phytochemical among the others. Even at the lowest concentration value (0.002 mg/ml), ferulic acid protected all of the bands in the presence of H2O2 and UV. It is followed by caffeic, rosmarinic, and vanillic acids. On the other hand, cinnamic acid (at 0.002 mg/ml), gallic acid (at 0.002 mg/ml), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (at 0.002 and 0.004 mg/ml), and protocatechuic acid (at 0.002 and 0.004 mg/ml) could not protect plasmid DNA. PMID:25542528

  14. The antioxidant potential of the New Zealand surf clams.

    PubMed

    Odeleye, Tinu; Li, Yan; White, William Lindsey; Nie, Shaoping; Chen, Shuping; Wang, Junqiao; Lu, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The antioxidant action of three New Zealand surf clams was evaluated for the first time. Aqueous (cd) and ethanolic extracts from Diamond shell - Crassula aequilatera, Storm shell - Mactra murchisoni, and Tua tua - Paphies donacina were studied for their antioxidant potentials using two in vitro assays. The ethanolic extracts were further fractioned into four parts; petroleum ether (pe), ethyl acetate (ea), n-butanol (nb), and the final aqueous fraction (w). Comparing among all fractions tested, the ea fraction of P. donacina showed the strongest free radical scavenging power, with a radical scavenging activity of 76.14% at 20μg/mL. The ea fraction of C. aequilatera had the highest copper reducing activity with an absorbance of 1.596 at 20μg/mL. Results from this study suggest that some bioactive compounds with significant antioxidant effects may exist in the New Zealand surf clams, and could potentially reduce oxidative stress to deliver health benefits or to produce functional foods. PMID:26988487

  15. Fulleropeptide esters as potential self-assembled antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Kop, Tatjana J; Đorđević, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Summary The potential use of amphiphilic fullerene derivatives as a bionanomaterial was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the ferrous ion oxidation–xylenol orange (FOX) method. Despite the disrupted delocalization of the π-electronic system over the C60 sphere, its antioxidant capacity remained high for all twelve derivatives. The compounds expressed up to two-fold and 5–12-fold better peroxide quenching capacity as compared to pristine C60 and standard antioxidant vitamin C, respectively. During precipitation and slow evaporation of the solvent, all compounds underwent spontaneous self-assembly giving ordered structures. The size and morphology of the resulting particles depend primarily on the sample concentration, and somewhat on the side chain structure. PMID:26171283

  16. Popular naturally occurring antioxidants as potential anticoagulant drugs.

    PubMed

    Bijak, Michal; Saluk, Joanna; Szelenberger, Rafal; Nowak, Pawel

    2016-09-25

    Blood coagulation is a physiological process whose main task is prevention of blood loss from injured vessels. This process consists of a series of zymogens proteolytic activation leading to the generation of the main coagulation enzyme - thrombin. Besides its important role in blood coagulation process, thrombin is involved in many cardiovascular diseases, which are responsible for almost half of fatalities in economically developed countries. The evidence for the increased generation and in vivo activity of thrombin was observed in the plasma of individuals at high risk for clinically significant venous and arterial thromboembolic complications. Antioxidants activity of plants extracts has been well known for many years and was confirmed by many publications. However, during the last decade many research centers presented results suggesting anticoagulant potential of various plant extracts. Many researchers have also provided evidence that polyphenol compounds are able to inhibit the activity of many enzymes, including serine proteases. All research described in this review clearly indicate that polyphenols and polyphenol-rich extracts possess not only antioxidative but also anticoagulant properties and may be useful in creation of new therapeutic agents or dietary supplements. Based on described properties polyphenols would be very helpful with both prevention and treatment of thromboembolic complications associated with multiple failures of haemostasis, because the available therapeutic agents do not offer such double-effects (antioxidant and anticoagulant). PMID:27475864

  17. Antioxidant Potential and Oil Composition of Callistemon viminalis Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Muhammad; Hassan, Sadia; Rizwan, Komal; Rasool, Nasir; Riaz, Muhammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, M.; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant potential and oil composition of Callistemon viminalis leaves. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract revealed the presence of 40 compounds. Leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (0.27–0.85 GAE mg/g) and total flavonoid contents (2.25–7.96 CE mg/g). DPPH radical scavenging IC50 and % inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation were found to be in the ranges of 28.4–56.2 μg/ml and 40.1–70.2%, respectively. The haemolytic effect of the plant leaves was found in the range of 1.79–4.95%. The antioxidant activity of extracts was also studied using sunflower oil as an oxidative substrate and found that it stabilized the oil. The correlation between the results of different antioxidant assays and oxidation parameters of oil indicated that leaves' methanolic extract, exhibiting higher TPC and TFC and scavenging power, was also more potent for enhancing the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. PMID:23818824

  18. Antioxidants as a Potential Preventive and Therapeutic Strategy for Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Borowska, Sylwia; Tomczyk, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide a growing number of evidences that chronic exposure to relatively low levels of cadmium (Cd), nowadays taking place in industrialized countries, may cause health hazard. Thus, growing interest has been focused on effective ways of protection from adverse effects of exposure to this heavy metal. Because numerous effects to Cd's toxic action result from its prooxidative properties, it seems reasonable that special attention should be directed to agents that can prevent or reduce this metal-induced oxidative stress and its consequences in tissues, organs and systems at risk of toxicity, including liver, kidneys, testes, ears, eyes, cardiovascular system and nervous system as well as bone tissue. This review discusses a wide range of natural (plant and animal origin) and synthetic antioxidants together with many plant extracts (e.g. black and green tea, Aronia melanocarpa, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Ocimum sanctum, Phoenix dactylifera, Physalis peruviana, Zingiber officinale) that have been shown to prevent from Cd toxicity. Moreover, some attention has been focused on the fact that substances not possessing antioxidative potential may also prevent Cd-induced oxidative stress and its consequences. So far, most of the data on the protective effects of the natural and synthetic antioxidants and plant extracts come from studies in animals' models; however, numerous of them seem to be promising preventive/therapeutic strategies for Cd toxicity in humans. Further investigation of prophylactic and therapeutic use of antioxidants in populations exposed to Cd environmentally and occupationally is warranted, given that therapeutically effective chelation therapy for this toxic metal is currently lacking. PMID:25944010

  19. Antioxidants as a Potential Preventive and Therapeutic Strategy for Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Borowska, Sylwia; Tomczyk, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide a growing number of evidences that chronic exposure to relatively low levels of cadmium (Cd), nowadays taking place in industrialized countries, may cause health hazard. Thus, growing interest has been focused on effective ways of protection from adverse effects of exposure to this heavy metal. Because numerous effects to Cd's toxic action result from its prooxidative properties, it seems reasonable that special attention should be directed to agents that can prevent or reduce this metal-induced oxidative stress and its consequences in tissues, organs and systems at risk of toxicity, including liver, kidneys, testes, ears, eyes, cardiovascular system and nervous system as well as bone tissue. This review discusses a wide range of natural (plant and animal origin) and synthetic antioxidants together with many plant extracts (e.g. black and green tea, Aronia melanocarpa, Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Ocimum sanctum, Phoenix dactylifera, Physalis peruviana, Zingiber officinale) that have been shown to prevent from Cd toxicity. Moreover, some attention has been focused on the fact that substances not possessing antioxidative potential may also prevent Cd-induced oxidative stress and its consequences. So far, most of the data on the protective effects of the natural and synthetic antioxidants and plant extracts come from studies in animals' models; however, numerous of them seem to be promising preventive/therapeutic strategies for Cd toxicity in humans. Further investigation of prophylactic and therapeutic use of antioxidants in populations exposed to Cd environmentally and occupationally is warranted, given that therapeutically effective chelation therapy for this toxic metal is currently lacking.

  20. Maillard reaction, mitochondria and oxidative stress: potential role of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Edeas, M; Attaf, D; Mailfert, A-S; Nasu, M; Joubet, R

    2010-06-01

    Glycation and oxidative stress are two important processes known to play a key role in complications of many disease processes. Oxidative stress, either via increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS), or by depleting the antioxidants may modulate the genesis of early glycated proteins in vivo. Maillard Reactions, occur in vivo as well as in vitro and are associated with the chronic complications of diabetes, aging and age-related diseases. Hyperglycaemia causes the autoxidation of glucose, glycation of proteins, and the activation of polyol metabolism. These changes facilitate the generation of reactive oxygen species and decrease the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, resulting in a remarkable increase of oxidative stress. A large body of evidence indicates that mitochondria alteration is involved and plays a central role in various oxidative stress-related diseases. The damaged mitochondria produce more ROS (increase oxidative stress) and less ATP (cellular energy) than normal mitochondria. As they are damaged, they cannot burn or use glucose or lipid and cannot provide cell with ATP. Further, glucose, amino acids and lipid will not be correctly used and will accumulate outside the mitochondria; they will undergo more glycation (as observed in diabetes, obesity, HIV infection and lipodystrophia). The objective of this paper is to discuss how to stop the vicious circle established between oxidative stress, Maillard Reaction and mitochondria. The potential application of some antioxidants to reduce glycation phenomenon and to increase the antioxidant defence system by targeting mitochondria will be discussed. Food and pharmaceutical companies share the same challenge, they must act now, urgently and energetically. PMID:20031340

  1. A mitochondria-targeted ratiometric fluorescent probe for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of biological SO2 derivatives in living cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junchao; Pan, Jian; Jiang, Xiaoming; Qin, Caiqin; Zeng, Lintao; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Jun Feng

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we report a ratiometric fluorescent probe (CZBI) for sulfur dioxide (SO2) derivatives based on the conjugate of carbazole and benzo[e]indolium, which displays colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescence dual response to HSO3(-). The probe can quantitatively detect HSO3(-) with high specificity, fast response (within 40s) as well as low detection limit (10nM). A 1,4-nucleophilic addition reaction was proposed for the sensing mechanism of this probe, which was confirmed by (1)H NMR and HR-MS spectra. Fluorescence co-localization studies demonstrated that CZBI was a specific mitochondria-targeted fluorescent probe for SO2 derivatives with excellent cell membrane permeability. Furthermore, fluorescence imaging of HeLa cells indicated that CZBI could be used for monitoring the intrinsically generated intracellular SO2 derivatives in living cells by ratiometric fluorescence imaging. Thus, CZBI has a great potential application for exploring the role played by SO2 derivatives in biology.

  2. Manipulation of mtDNA heteroplasmy in all striated muscles of newborn mice by AAV9-mediated delivery of a mitochondria-targeted restriction endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Bacman, S R; Williams, S L; Duan, D; Moraes, C T

    2012-11-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are frequently caused by heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. As these mutations express themselves only at high relative ratios, any approach able to manipulate mtDNA heteroplasmy can potentially be curative. In this study, we developed a system to manipulate mtDNA heteroplasmy in all skeletal muscles from neonate mice. We selected muscle because it is one of the most clinically affected tissues in mitochondrial disorders. A mitochondria-targeted restriction endonuclease (mito-ApaLI) expressed from AAV9 particles was delivered either by intraperitoneal or intravenous injection in neonate mice harboring two mtDNA haplotypes, only one of which was susceptible to ApaLI digestion. A single injection was able to elicit a predictable and marked change in mtDNA heteroplasmy in all striated muscles analyzed, including heart. No health problems or reduction in mtDNA levels were observed in treated mice, suggesting that this approach could have clinical applications for mitochondrial myopathies.

  3. Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of pomegranate peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Shalini; Arvind; Jha, Alok; Hettiarachchy, Navam

    2014-12-01

    Pomegranate peels of Ganesh variety were subjected to extraction using different solvents viz. water, methanol and ethanol either alone or in combination with water. The extraction yield, antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS inhibition) and total phenolic contents were evaluated. Highest yield was obtained from 50 % ethanol: 50 % water (16.3 ± 1.99 %). The DPPH and ABTS inhibition activity was found to be the highest for methanol and 70 % ethanol: 30 % water extract (79.5 ± 6.5; 94.6 ± 6.10), respectively. The phenolic content was the highest in the aqueous extract (438.3 ± 14.15). The antibacterial activity of peel extracts was tested against four bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the extracts demonstrated remarkable antibacterial activities against all the tested bacterial strains. The 70 % ethanol: 30 % water and 100 % water extract had a higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content and has the potential for nutraceutical application. PMID:25477693

  4. Identification of functionally important amino acid residues in the mitochondria targeting sequence of Hepatitis B virus X protein

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sai Kam; Ho, Sai Fan; Tsui, Kwok Wing; Fung, Kwok Pui; Waye, M.Y. Mary

    2008-11-10

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been strongly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the X protein (HBx) is thought to mediate the cellular changes associated with carcinogenesis. Recently, isolation of the hepatitis B virus integrants from HCC tissue by others have established the fact that the X gene is often truncated at its C-terminus. Expression of the GFP fusion proteins of HBx and its truncation mutants with a GFP tag in human liver cell-lines in this study revealed that the C-terminus of HBx is indispensable for its specific localization in the mitochondria. A crucial region of seven amino acids at the C-terminus has been mapped out in which the cysteine residue at position 115 serves as the most important residue for the subcellular localization. When cysteine 115 of HBx is mutated to alanine the mitochondria targeting property of HBx is abrogated.

  5. Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction across Broad-Ranging Pathologies: Toward Mitochondria-Targeted Clinical Strategies

    PubMed Central

    d'Ischia, Marco; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Pallardó, Federico V.; Petrović, Sandra; Tiano, Luca; Zatterale, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the disorders recognized as mitochondrial diseases, abnormalities in function and/or ultrastructure of mitochondria have been reported in several unrelated pathologies. These encompass ageing, malformations, and a number of genetic or acquired diseases, as diabetes and cardiologic, haematologic, organ-specific (e.g., eye or liver), neurologic and psychiatric, autoimmune, and dermatologic disorders. The mechanistic grounds for mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) along with the occurrence of oxidative stress (OS) have been investigated within the pathogenesis of individual disorders or in groups of interrelated disorders. We attempt to review broad-ranging pathologies that involve mitochondrial-specific deficiencies or rely on cytosol-derived prooxidant states or on autoimmune-induced mitochondrial damage. The established knowledge in these subjects warrants studies aimed at elucidating several open questions that are highlighted in the present review. The relevance of OS and MDF in different pathologies may establish the grounds for chemoprevention trials aimed at compensating OS/MDF by means of antioxidants and mitochondrial nutrients. PMID:24876913

  6. Antioxidative potential of folate producing probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus CD6.

    PubMed

    Ahire, Jayesh Jagannath; Mokashe, Narendra Uttamrao; Patil, Hemant Jagatrao; Chaudhari, Bhushan Liladhar

    2013-02-01

    Folate producing Lactobacillus sp. CD6 isolated from fermented milk showed 98% similarity with Lactobacillus helveticus based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It was found to produce a folic acid derivative 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF). The intracellular cell-free extract of strain demonstrated antioxidative activity with the inhibition rate of ascorbate autoxidation in the range of 27.5% ± 3.7%. It showed highest metal ion chelation ability for Fe(2+) (0.26 ± 0.06 ppm) as compared to Cu(2+). The DPPH (α,α-Diphenyl-β-Picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity for intact cells were found to be 24.7% ± 10.9% proved its antioxidative potential. Furthermore, it demonstrated 14.89% inhibition of epinephrine autoxidation, 20.9 ± 1.8 μg cysteine equivalent reducing activity and 20.8% ± 0.9% hydroxyl radical scavenging effect. The strain was evaluated for probiotic properties as per WHO and FAO guidelines. It showed 90.61% survival at highly acidic condition (pH 2.0), 90.66% viability in presence of synthetic gastric juice and 68% survivability at 0.5% bile concentration for 24 h. It was susceptible to many antibiotics which reduces the prospect to offer resistance determinants to other organisms if administered in the form of probiotic preparations. It showed in vitro mucus binding and antimicrobial activity against enteric pathogens like Salmonella typhimurium (NCIM 2501), Streptococcus pyogenes (NCIM 2608), and Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 5021) and moreover it showed non- hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar. PMID:24425884

  7. Characterization of Indian beers: chemical composition and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Pai, Tapasya V; Sawant, Siddhi Y; Ghatak, Arindam A; Chaturvedi, Palak A; Gupte, Arpita M; Desai, Neetin S

    2015-03-01

    Chemical composition, antioxidant potential and corresponding lipid preoxidation of Indian commercial beers were evaluated. The presence of polyphenolic compounds such as tannic acid, gallic acid, catechol, vanillin, caffeic acid, quercetin, p-coumaric acid and rutin was quantified using LC-MS while the organic acids including tartaric, malic, acetic, citric and succinic acids were analysed using HPLC. Beer sample B8 had the greatest concentration of phenolic and flavonoid components (0.620 ± 0.084 mg/mL and 0.379 ± 0.020 mg/mL respectively) among the beer samples studied. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed in the range of 68.34 ± 0.85 % to 89.90 ± 0.71 % and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity was in the range of 59.75 ± 0.20 % to 76.22 ± 0.50 %. Percent protection in lipid peroxidation was quantified to be maximum (54.45 ± 3.39 %) in sample B5. Total phenolic content positively correlates with antioxidant assays, DPPH and ABTS (r = 0.35 and r = 0.58 respectively) with p < 0.001 and also with lipid peroxidation (r = 0.04) with p < 0.001. Negative correlation was observed between total flavonoid content with ABTS and lipid peroxidation (r = -0.1 and r = -0.05) respectively. The process of brewing warrants additional research to determine how the concentration of selected phenolic compounds can be increased. PMID:25745209

  8. A water-soluble and fast-response mitochondria-targeted fluorescent probe for colorimetric and ratiometric sensing of endogenously generated SO2 derivatives in living cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Li, Kun; Xie, Ke-Xin; Li, Ling-Ling; Yu, Kang-Kang; Wang, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2016-02-25

    A novel water-soluble mitochondria-targeted ratiometric fluorescent probe (Cl-2) is presented. Cl-2 can respond selectively to SO2 derivatives within 1 min. Notably, Cl-2 can be used to monitor successfully the concentration change of endogenously generated SO2 derivatives in living cells.

  9. Preparation of a mitochondria-targeted and NO-releasing nanoplatform and its enhanced pro-apoptotic effect on cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiangsheng; Zeng, Fang; Wu, Hao; Hu, Caiping; Yu, Changmin; Wu, Shuizhu

    2014-09-24

    The therapeutic applications of exogenous nitric oxide are usually limited by its short half-life and its vulnerability to many biological substances, thus straightforward and precise spatiotemporal control of NO delivery may be critical to its therapeutic effects. Herein, the mitochondria-targeted and photoresponsive NO-releasing nanosystem is demonstrated as a new approach for cancer treatment. The nanosystem is fabricated by covalently incorporating a NO photo-donor and a mitochondria targeting ligand onto carbon-dots; accordingly, multi-functionalities (mitochondria-targeting, light-enhanced efficient NO-releasing, and cell imaging) are achieved. The in vitro NO release profiles for the nanosystem show that the duration of NO release from the present C-dot-based nanosystem containing immobilized SNO can be extended up to 8 hours or more. Upon cellular internalization, the nanosystem can target mitochondria and release NO. The action of the nanosystem on three cancer cell lines is evaluated; it is found that the targeted NO-releasing system can cause high cytotoxicity towards the cancer cells by specifically damaging their mitochondria. Additionally, light irradiation can amplify the cell apoptosis by enhancing NO release. These observations demonstrate that incorporating mitochondria-targeting ligand onto a NO-releasing system can enhance its pro-apoptosis action, thereby providing new insights for exploiting NO in cancer therapy.

  10. Antioxidants

    MedlinePlus

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  11. Significance of Antioxidant Potential of Plants and its Relevance to Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kasote, Deepak M.; Katyare, Surendra S.; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V.; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been identified as the root cause of the development and progression of several diseases. Supplementation of exogenous antioxidants or boosting endogenous antioxidant defenses of the body is a promising way of combating the undesirable effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative damage. Plants have an innate ability to biosynthesize a wide range of non-enzymatic antioxidants capable of attenuating ROS- induced oxidative damage. Several in vitro methods have been used to screen plants for their antioxidant potential, and in most of these assays they revealed potent antioxidant activity. However, prior to confirming their in vivo therapeutic efficacy, plant antioxidants have to pass through several physiopharmacological processes. Consequently, the findings of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential assessment studies are not always the same. Nevertheless, the results of in vitro assays have been irrelevantly extrapolated to the therapeutic application of plant antioxidants without undertaking sufficient in vivo studies. Therefore, we have briefly reviewed the physiology and redox biology of both plants and humans to improve our understanding of plant antioxidants as therapeutic entities. The applications and limitations of antioxidant activity measurement assays were also highlighted to identify the precise path to be followed for future research in the area of plant antioxidants. PMID:26157352

  12. Significance of antioxidant potential of plants and its relevance to therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Kasote, Deepak M; Katyare, Surendra S; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been identified as the root cause of the development and progression of several diseases. Supplementation of exogenous antioxidants or boosting endogenous antioxidant defenses of the body is a promising way of combating the undesirable effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative damage. Plants have an innate ability to biosynthesize a wide range of non-enzymatic antioxidants capable of attenuating ROS- induced oxidative damage. Several in vitro methods have been used to screen plants for their antioxidant potential, and in most of these assays they revealed potent antioxidant activity. However, prior to confirming their in vivo therapeutic efficacy, plant antioxidants have to pass through several physiopharmacological processes. Consequently, the findings of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential assessment studies are not always the same. Nevertheless, the results of in vitro assays have been irrelevantly extrapolated to the therapeutic application of plant antioxidants without undertaking sufficient in vivo studies. Therefore, we have briefly reviewed the physiology and redox biology of both plants and humans to improve our understanding of plant antioxidants as therapeutic entities. The applications and limitations of antioxidant activity measurement assays were also highlighted to identify the precise path to be followed for future research in the area of plant antioxidants.

  13. Antioxidant potential of orientin: A combined experimental and DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.; Deepha, V.; Sivakumar, Raman

    2014-03-01

    The antioxidant activity of the bioactive fractions obtained from the leaves of Rhynchosia capitata is evaluated for its capacity to reduce ferric ions. In vitro antihemolytic analysis for the separated erythrocytes of Wistar rat blood cells exhibits maximum inhibition value for ethyl acetate (1202.55 ± 9.46) than ethanol fraction (424.57 ± 12.04). Gas and solvent phase studies of structural and molecular characteristics of C-glycosyl flavonoid, orientin present in the bioactive fraction of R. capitata is investigated through hydrogen atom transfer mechanism (HAT) using DFT/B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. Interestingly, the intramolecular hydrogen bonding formed between 3‧-O and 4‧-H makes 3‧-OH as the active site which is supported by its bond dissociation energy values. The computed values of the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index indicate that orientin possess good radical scavenging activity. In this study, role of molecular electrostatic potential and electron density distribution map in predicting the importance of B-ring are analyzed and reported. Spin density distribution analysis for the radicals is formed by summing of spin on rings A, B and C. The most active system able to transfer a hydrogen atom is orientin compared to vitexin and the bond dissociation enthalpy follows the order benzene > ethyl acetate > water.

  14. Antioxidant Potential of White Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus florida (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Pardhi, Priya; Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Jain, Nikhil; Rai, Gopal; Jain, Alok Pal

    2015-01-01

    The present work was focused to evaluate in vitro antioxidant of Pleurotus florida. The hydroethanolic extract was prepared by macerating basidiocarp with water:ethanol (1:1). The antioxidant potential was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, chelating effects on ferrous ions, total antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. Further total flavonoid and phenolic content was also estimated. The comparison between different antioxidant assays was done by correlation coefficient. The results from the antioxidant assays showed that hydroethanolic extract (HEE) might act as radical scavenger to a certain extent. The distinct scavenging activities of HEE can be due to the diverse phytochemical constituents. Being a rich source of antioxidants, P. florida can be used as an accessible source of natural antioxidants with consequential health benefits. PMID:26082988

  15. Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Blomhoff, Rune; Carlsen, Monica H; Andersen, Lene Frost; Jacobs, David R

    2006-11-01

    A diet rich in fruits, vegetables and minimally refined cereals is associated with lower risk for chronic degenerative diseases. Since oxidative stress is common in chronic degenerative disease, it has been assumed that dietary antioxidants may explain this protective effect. Every dietary plant contains numerous types of antioxidants with different properties. Many of these antioxidants cooperate in oxidative stress reduction in plants, and we hypothesize that many different antioxidants may also be needed for the proper protection of animal cells. To test this hypothesis, it is useful to identify dietary plants with high total antioxidant content. Several nuts are among the dietary plants with the highest content of total antioxidants. Of the tree nuts, walnuts, pecans and chestnuts have the highest contents of antioxidants. Walnuts contain more than 20 mmol antioxidants per 100 g, mostly in the walnut pellicles. Peanuts (a legume) also contribute significantly to dietary intake of antioxidants. These data are in accordance with our present extended analysis of an earlier report on nut intake and death attributed to various diseases in the Iowa Women's Health Study. We observed that the hazard ratio for total death rates showed a U-shaped association with nut/peanut butter consumption. Hazard ratio was 0.89 (CI = 0.81-0.97) and 0.81 (CI = 0.75-0.88) for nut/peanut butter intake once per week and 1-4 times per week, respectively. Death attributed to cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases showed strong and consistent reductions with increasing nut/peanut butter consumption. Further studies are needed to clarify whether antioxidants contribute to this apparent beneficial health effect of nuts. PMID:17125534

  16. Commonly used antioxidant botanicals: active constituents and their potential role in cardiovascular illness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Mehendale, Sangeeta R; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the US. Recent studies found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been incriminated in the pathogenesis of both acute and chronic heart disease. Many botanicals possess antioxidant properties, and these herbal antioxidants may protect against cardiovascular diseases by contributing to the total antioxidant defense system of the human body. In this article, we reviewed the antioxidant components and properties of four putative antioxidant botanicals (i.e., grape seeds, green tea, Scutellaria baicalensis, and American ginseng), and their potential role in treating cardiovascular illness. The antioxidant activities of the herbal active constituents, and the relationship between their chemical structures and biological functions were also discussed. Further investigations are needed on the mechanisms of action of these botanicals as they affect salient cellular and molecular pathways involved in major diseases. Data obtained from future studies will have the potential for translation into practical benefits for human health.

  17. Commonly used antioxidant botanicals: active constituents and their potential role in cardiovascular illness.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Mehendale, Sangeeta R; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the US. Recent studies found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been incriminated in the pathogenesis of both acute and chronic heart disease. Many botanicals possess antioxidant properties, and these herbal antioxidants may protect against cardiovascular diseases by contributing to the total antioxidant defense system of the human body. In this article, we reviewed the antioxidant components and properties of four putative antioxidant botanicals (i.e., grape seeds, green tea, Scutellaria baicalensis, and American ginseng), and their potential role in treating cardiovascular illness. The antioxidant activities of the herbal active constituents, and the relationship between their chemical structures and biological functions were also discussed. Further investigations are needed on the mechanisms of action of these botanicals as they affect salient cellular and molecular pathways involved in major diseases. Data obtained from future studies will have the potential for translation into practical benefits for human health. PMID:17708622

  18. An in vitro model to test relative antioxidant potential: Ultraviolet-induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Pelle, E.; Maes, D.; Padulo, G.A.; Kim, E.K.; Smith, W.P. )

    1990-12-01

    Since antioxidants have been shown to play a major role in preventing some of the effects of aging and photoaging in skin, it is important to study this phenomenon in a controlled manner. This was accomplished by developing a simple and reliable in vitro technique to assay antioxidant efficacy. Inhibition of peroxidation by antioxidants was used as a measure of relative antioxidant potential. Liposomes, high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were dispersed in buffer and irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Irradiated liposomes exhibited a significantly higher amount of hydroperoxides than liposomes containing antioxidants in a dose- and concentration-dependent manner. Lipid peroxidation was determined spectrophotometrically by an increase in thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. To further substantiate the production of lipid peroxides, gas chromatography was used to measure a decrease in PUFA substrate. In order of decreasing antioxidant effectiveness, the following results were found among lipophilic antioxidants: BHA greater than catechin greater than BHT greater than alpha-tocopherol greater than chlorogenic acid. Among hydrophilic antioxidants, ascorbic acid and dithiothreitol were effective while glutathione was ineffective. In addition, ascorbic acid was observed to act synergistically with alpha-tocopherol, which is in agreement with other published reports on the interaction of these two antioxidants. Although peroxyl radical scavengers seem to be at a selective advantage in this liposomal/UV system, these results demonstrate the validity of this technique as an assay for measuring an antioxidant's potential to inhibit UV-induced peroxidation.

  19. Mitochondria-targeted DsRed2 protein expression during the early stage of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryo development.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo-Jin; Min, Sung-Hun; Choi, Hoonsung; Park, Junghyung; Kim, Sun-Uk; Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kong, Il-Keun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2016-09-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been widely used as an efficient tool in biomedical research for the generation of transgenic animals from somatic cells with genetic modifications. Although remarkable advances in SCNT techniques have been reported in a variety of mammals, the cloning efficiency in domestic animals is still low due to the developmental defects of SCNT embryos. In particular, recent evidence has revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction is detected during the early development of SCNT embryos. However, there have been relatively few or no studies regarding the development of a system for evaluating mitochondrial behavior or dynamics. For the first time, in mitochondria of bovine SCNT embryos, we developed a method for the visualization of mitochondria and expression of fluorescence proteins. To express red fluorescence in mitochondria of cloned embryos, bovine ear skin fibroblasts, nuclear donor, were stably transfected with a vector carrying mitochondria-targeting DsRed2 gene tagged with V5 epitope (mito-DsRed2-V5 tag) using lentivirus-mediated gene transfer because of its ability to integrate in the cell genome and the potential for long-term transgene expression in the transduced cells and their dividing cells. From western blotting analysis of V5 tag protein using mitochondrial fraction and confocal microscopy of red fluorescence using SCNT embryos, we found that the mitochondrial expression of the mito-DsRed2 protein was detected until the blastocyst stage. In addition, according to image analysis, it may be suggested possible use of the system for visualization of mitochondrial localization and evaluation of mitochondrial behaviors or dynamics in early development of bovine SCNT embryos. PMID:27287919

  20. Contribution of SO2 to antioxidant potential of white wine.

    PubMed

    Abramovič, Helena; Košmerl, Tatjana; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Cigić, Blaž

    2015-05-01

    The reactivity of SO2 with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and in Folin Ciocalteu (FC) assays was analysed under different experimental conditions. There was significantly higher reactivity between SO2 and DPPH in buffered methanol than in methanol alone. When DPPH and FC assays were performed in a mixture of caftaric acid and SO2, there were synergistic effects that were more pronounced with the FC assay. Phenolics are an important parameter of wine quality, and their accurate characterisation in wine is essential. Analysis of white wines with DPPH and FC assays overestimates the contribution of phenolics to the antioxidant potential (AOP). SO2 contributes (from 20% to 45%) to the AOP of the white wines analysed. As SO2 reactivity depends highly on buffer composition, pH, time of incubation and other compounds, e.g. phenolics and aldehydes, different experimental protocols can produce large variations in AOPs, and therefore control of experimental conditions is extremely important.

  1. Potential antioxidant response to coffee — A matter of genotype?

    PubMed Central

    Hassmann, Ute; Haupt, Larisa M.; Smith, Robert A.; Winkler, Swantje; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Griffiths, Lyn R.; Marko, Doris

    2014-01-01

    In a human intervention study, coffee combining natural green coffee bean constituents and dark roast products was identified as a genotype-dependent inducer of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, significantly affecting Nrf2 gene expression and downstream GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription. The observed transcriptional changes correlated with the presence of specific Nrf2 genotypes suggesting their influence on both Nrf2 and subsequent ARE-dependent GST1A1 and UGT1A1 transcription. While the presence of the − 653 SNP seems to be advantageous, resulting in higher Nrf2, GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription following coffee consumption, in contrast, the presence of the − 651 SNP significantly down-regulated the response to the study coffee. Furthermore, the presence of the B/B genotype in GST1A1 along with the frequency of the [TA]6/6 and [TA]7/7 polymorphisms in UGT1A1 appeared to significantly increase sensitivity toward coffee-induced gene transcription. This data suggests that when examining the role of the Nrf2/ARE pathway in the regulation of antioxidative and chemopreventive phase II efficacy, individual genotypes should be included when considering the potency of bioactive food/food constituents and their therapeutic potential. PMID:25606436

  2. Potential antioxidant response to coffee - A matter of genotype?

    PubMed

    Hassmann, Ute; Haupt, Larisa M; Smith, Robert A; Winkler, Swantje; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Griffiths, Lyn R; Marko, Doris

    2014-12-01

    In a human intervention study, coffee combining natural green coffee bean constituents and dark roast products was identified as a genotype-dependent inducer of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, significantly affecting Nrf2 gene expression and downstream GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription. The observed transcriptional changes correlated with the presence of specific Nrf2 genotypes suggesting their influence on both Nrf2 and subsequent ARE-dependent GST1A1 and UGT1A1 transcription. While the presence of the - 653 SNP seems to be advantageous, resulting in higher Nrf2, GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription following coffee consumption, in contrast, the presence of the - 651 SNP significantly down-regulated the response to the study coffee. Furthermore, the presence of the B/B genotype in GST1A1 along with the frequency of the [TA]6/6 and [TA]7/7 polymorphisms in UGT1A1 appeared to significantly increase sensitivity toward coffee-induced gene transcription. This data suggests that when examining the role of the Nrf2/ARE pathway in the regulation of antioxidative and chemopreventive phase II efficacy, individual genotypes should be included when considering the potency of bioactive food/food constituents and their therapeutic potential. PMID:25606436

  3. Potential antioxidant response to coffee - A matter of genotype?

    PubMed

    Hassmann, Ute; Haupt, Larisa M; Smith, Robert A; Winkler, Swantje; Bytof, Gerhard; Lantz, Ingo; Griffiths, Lyn R; Marko, Doris

    2014-12-01

    In a human intervention study, coffee combining natural green coffee bean constituents and dark roast products was identified as a genotype-dependent inducer of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, significantly affecting Nrf2 gene expression and downstream GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription. The observed transcriptional changes correlated with the presence of specific Nrf2 genotypes suggesting their influence on both Nrf2 and subsequent ARE-dependent GST1A1 and UGT1A1 transcription. While the presence of the - 653 SNP seems to be advantageous, resulting in higher Nrf2, GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription following coffee consumption, in contrast, the presence of the - 651 SNP significantly down-regulated the response to the study coffee. Furthermore, the presence of the B/B genotype in GST1A1 along with the frequency of the [TA]6/6 and [TA]7/7 polymorphisms in UGT1A1 appeared to significantly increase sensitivity toward coffee-induced gene transcription. This data suggests that when examining the role of the Nrf2/ARE pathway in the regulation of antioxidative and chemopreventive phase II efficacy, individual genotypes should be included when considering the potency of bioactive food/food constituents and their therapeutic potential.

  4. Evaluation of respiration of mitochondria in cancer cells exposed to mitochondria-targeted agents.

    PubMed

    Kluckova, Katarina; Dong, Lan-Feng; Bajzikova, Martina; Rohlena, Jakub; Neuzil, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Respiration is one of the major functions of mitochondria, whereby these vital organelles use oxygen to produce energy. Many agents that may be of potential clinical relevance act by targeting mitochondria, where they may suppress mitochondrial respiration. It is therefore important to evaluate this process and understand how this is modulated by small molecules. Here, we describe the general methodology to assess respiration in cultured cells, followed by the evaluation of the effect of one anticancer agent targeted to mitochondria on this process, and also how to assess this in tumor tissue.

  5. Comparison of phenolic acids profile and antioxidant potential of six varieties of spelt (Triticum spelta L.).

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz

    2012-05-01

    Phenolic acids profile and antioxidant activity of six diverse varieties of spelt are reported. Antioxidant activity was assessed using eight methods based on different mechanism of action. Phenolic acids composition of spelt differed significantly between varieties and ranged from 506.6 to 1257.4 μg/g DW. Ferulic and sinapinic acids were the predominant phenolic acids found in spelt. Total ferulic acid content ranged from 144.2 to 691.5 μg/g DW. All analyzed spelt varieties possessed high antioxidant potential. In spite of the fact that bound phenolic acids possessed higher antioxidant activities, analysis of antioxidant potential and their relationship with phenolic acid content showed that free phenolics were more effective. Eight antioxidant methods were integrated to obtain a total antioxidant capacity index that may be used for comparison of total antioxidant capacity of spelt varieties. Total antioxidant potential of spelt cultivars were ordered as follows: Ceralio > Spelt INZ ≈ Ostro > Oberkulmer Rotkorn > Schwabenspelz > Schwabenkorn.

  6. Centauries as underestimated food additives: antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Siler, Branislav; Zivković, Suzana; Banjanac, Tijana; Cvetković, Jelena; Nestorović Živković, Jasmina; Cirić, Ana; Soković, Marina; Mišić, Danijela

    2014-03-15

    Methanol extracts of aerial parts and roots of five centaury species (Centaurium erythraea, C. tenuiflorum, C. littorale ssp. uliginosum, C. pulchellum, and Schenkia spicata) were analysed for their main secondary metabolites: secoiridoid glycosides, a group of monoterpenoid compounds, and phenolics (xanthones and flavonoids), and further investigated for antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity. The results of ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays showed that above ground parts generally displayed up to 13 times higher antioxidant activity compared to roots, which should be related to higher phenolics content, especially flavonoids, in green plant organs. Secoiridoid glycosides showed no antioxidant activity. All the tested extracts demonstrated appreciative antibacterial (0.05-0.5 mg ml(-1)) and strong antifungal activity (0.1-0.6 mg ml(-1)). Our results imply that above ground parts of all centaury species studied, could be recommended for human usage as a rich source of natural antioxidants and also in food industry as strong antimicrobial agents for food preservation.

  7. AN ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF HYDROMETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF URTICA PARVIFLORA ROXB.

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Savita; Sah, Sangeeta Pilkhwal; Sah, Mukesh Lal; Mishra, Devendra

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of hydromethanolic extract of Urtica parviflora Roxb. (family Urticaceae) was investigated by different in vitro methods, namely, nitric oxide scavenging, DPPH scavenging, and reducing power assay. In the present study, plant extract exhibited dose dependent free radical scavenging and reducing activity. The antioxidant activity of the hydromethanolic extract of Urtica parviflora Roxb. was compared with ascorbic acid as standard. In addition, phytochemical screening of hydromethanolic extract of the plant was undertaken to identify the phytochemicals present in the extract. Phytochemical examination revealed the presence of alkaloids, polysaccharides, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, glycosides and tannins. It was concluded that the extract contains important phytoconstituents responsible for antioxidant effect. The study indicated that Urtica parviflora could protect the cell injury caused by the reactive oxygen species and might be a valuable source of antioxidant both for medicine and food industry PMID:24825987

  8. Facilitation of Electron Transfer in the Presence of Mitochondria-Targeting Molecule SS31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosach, Tetiana; Ebrahim, Mark; Ren, Yuhang; Darrah, Shaun; Szeto, Hazel

    2010-03-01

    Electron transfer (ET) processes in mitochondria are very important for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the common source of the chemical energy. The inability to transfer electrons efficiently in mitochondrial ET chain plays a major role in age associated diseases, including diabetes and cancer. In this work, we used the time dependent absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy to study the electron transfer kinetics along the ET chain of mitochondria. Our spectroscopic results suggest that SS31, a small peptide molecule targeting to the mitochondrial inner membrane, can facilitate electron transfer and increase ATP production. We show that SS31 targets cytochrome c to both increase the availability of state and also potentially reduce the energy barrier required to reduce cytochrome c.

  9. Heterologous expression of mitochondria-targeted microbial nitrilase enzymes increases cyanide tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Molojwane, E; Adams, N; Sweetlove, L J; Ingle, R A

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in cyanide (CN) contamination of both soil and water in many areas of the globe. While plants possess a detoxification pathway that serves to degrade endogenously generated CN, this system is readily overwhelmed, limiting the use of plants in bioremediation. Genetic engineering of additional CN degradation pathways in plants is one potential strategy to increase their tolerance to CN. Here we show that heterologous expression of microbial nitrilase enzymes targeted to the mitochondria increases CN tolerance in Arabidopsis. Root length in seedlings expressing either a CN dihydratase from Bacillus pumilis or a CN hydratase from Neurospora crassa was increased by 45% relative in wild-type plants in the presence of 50 μm KCN. We also demonstrate that in contrast to its strong inhibitory effects on seedling establishment, seed germination of the Col-0 ecotype of Arabidopsis is unaffected by CN.

  10. A graphene oxide based smart drug delivery system for tumor mitochondria-targeting photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yanchun; Zhou, Feifan; Zhang, Da; Chen, Qun; Xing, Da

    2016-02-01

    Subcellular organelles play critical roles in cell survival. In this work, a novel photodynamic therapy (PDT) drug delivery and phototoxicity on/off nano-system based on graphene oxide (NGO) as the carrier is developed to implement subcellular targeting and attacking. To construct the nanodrug (PPa-NGO-mAb), NGO is modified with the integrin αvβ3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) for tumor targeting. Pyropheophorbide-a (PPa) conjugated with polyethylene-glycol is used to cover the surface of the NGO to induce phototoxicity. Polyethylene-glycol phospholipid is loaded to enhance water solubility. The results show that the phototoxicity of PPa on NGO can be switched on and off in organic and aqueous environments, respectively. The PPa-NGO-mAb assembly is able to effectively target the αvβ3-positive tumor cells with surface ligand and receptor recognition; once endocytosized by the cells, they are observed escaping from lysosomes and subsequently transferring to the mitochondria. In the mitochondria, the `on' state PPa-NGO-mAb performs its effective phototoxicity to kill cells. The biological and physical dual selections and on/off control of PPa-NGO-mAb significantly enhance mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of PDT. This smart system offers a potential alternative to drug delivery systems for cancer therapy.Subcellular organelles play critical roles in cell survival. In this work, a novel photodynamic therapy (PDT) drug delivery and phototoxicity on/off nano-system based on graphene oxide (NGO) as the carrier is developed to implement subcellular targeting and attacking. To construct the nanodrug (PPa-NGO-mAb), NGO is modified with the integrin αvβ3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) for tumor targeting. Pyropheophorbide-a (PPa) conjugated with polyethylene-glycol is used to cover the surface of the NGO to induce phototoxicity. Polyethylene-glycol phospholipid is loaded to enhance water solubility. The results show that the phototoxicity of PPa on NGO can be switched on and off in

  11. The potential role of antioxidants in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gregório, Bianca Martins; De Souza, Diogo Benchimol; de Morais Nascimento, Fernanda Amorim; Pereira, Leonardo Matta; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of risk factors that raise the risk for heart disease and other health problems, such as obesity. The clustering of metabolic abnormality is closely related to oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as the progression of atherosclerosis. Antioxidants are reducing agents which inhibit the oxidation of other molecules and can be used not only to prevent but also to treat health complications of MS and atherosclerosis. They can be ingested in the normal diet, since they are found in many food sources, or in supplement formulations. Herein, we aim to review the literature concerning the effect of antioxidants on MS. We focus on antioxidants with some evidence of action on this condition, like flavonoids, arginine, vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, resveratrol and selenium. Experimental and clinical studies show that most of the above-mentioned antioxidants exhibit a wide range of effects in protecting the human body, especially in MS patients. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated for most of these compounds. Also, some of them should be used with caution because their excess can be toxic to the body. In general, antioxidants (especially those present in foods) can be used by MS individuals because of their direct effect on oxidative stress. Additionally, they should be encouraged as part of a nutritional lifestyle change, since this is part of the therapy for all diseases involved in metabolic disorders.

  12. Antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract.

    PubMed

    Deepa, B; Anuradha, C V

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of C. sativum are used as a traditional drug for the treatment of diabetes. The antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of seeds in vitro was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Incorporation of seed powder in the diet led to marked lowering of blood glucose and a rise in the levels of insulin in diabetic rats. A parallel beneficial effect was observed on oxidant -antioxidant balance in the kidney. Addition of coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of peroxidative damage but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels in diabetic rats. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while total flavanoid content was found to be 12.6 quercetin equivalents/g. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum free radical-scavenging action and free radical reducing power of coriander seed extract was observed at a concentration of 50 microg GAE. Islet histology structures showed degeneration of pancreatic islets in diabetic rats which was also reduced in diabetic rats treated with seed powder. These results show that C. sativum seeds not only possess antihyperglycemic properties but antioxidative properties also. Increased dietary intake of coriander seeds decrease the oxidative burden in diabetes mellitus.

  13. Ferulic Acid: Therapeutic Potential Through Its Antioxidant Property

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Marimuthu; Sudheer, Adluri R.; Menon, Venugopal P.

    2007-01-01

    There has been considerable public and scientific interest in the use of phytochemicals derived from dietary components to combat human diseases. They are naturally occurring substances found in plants. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phytochemical commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, sweet corn and rice bran. It arises from metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine by Shikimate pathway in plants. It exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects against various diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative. A wide spectrum of beneficial activity for human health has been advocated for this phenolic compound, at least in part, because of its strong antioxidant activity. FA, a phenolic compound is a strong membrane antioxidant and known to positively affect human health. FA is an effective scavenger of free radicals and it has been approved in certain countries as food additive to prevent lipid peroxidation. It effectively scavenges superoxide anion radical and inhibits the lipid peroxidation. It possesses antioxidant property by virtue of its phenolic hydroxyl group in its structure. The hydroxy and phenoxy groups of FA donate electrons to quench the free radicals. The phenolic radical in turn forms a quinone methide intermediate, which is excreted via the bile. The past few decades have been devoted to intense research on antioxidant property of FA. So, the present review deals with the mechanism of antioxidant property of FA and its possible role in therapeutic usage against various diseases. PMID:18188410

  14. Oxidative stress in psoriasis and potential therapeutic use of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiran; Huang, Tian

    2016-06-01

    The pathophysiology of psoriasis is complex and dynamic. Recently, the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of psoriasis has been proposed. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, leading to a disruption of redox signaling and control and/or molecular damage. In this article, the published studies on the role of oxidative stress in psoriasis pathogenesis are reviewed, focusing on the impacts of oxidative stress on dendritic cells, T lymphocytes, and keratinocytes, on angiogenesis and on inflammatory signaling (mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-κB, and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription). As there is compelling evidence that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, the possibility of using this information to develop novel strategies for treatment of patients with psoriasis is of considerable interest. In this article, we also review the published studies on treating psoriasis with antioxidants and drugs with antioxidant activity. PMID:27098416

  15. Mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger improves post-ischemic recovery of cardiac function and attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Escobales, Nelson; Nuñez, Rebeca E; Jang, Sehwan; Parodi-Rullan, Rebecca; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; Sacher, Joshua R; Skoda, Erin M; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter; Javadov, Sabzali

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of aging and age-associated diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of XJB-5-131 (XJB), a mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, on cardiac resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced oxidative stress in aged rats. Male adult (5-month old, n=17) and aged (29-month old, n=19) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: adult (A), adult+XJB (AX), aged (O), and aged+XJB (OX). XJB was administered 3 times per week (3mg/kg body weight, IP) for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, cardiac function was continuously monitored in excised hearts using the Langendorff technique for 30 min, followed by 20 min of global ischemia, and 60-min reperfusion. XJB improved post-ischemic recovery of aged hearts, as evidenced by greater left ventricular developed-pressures and rate-pressure products than the untreated, aged-matched group. The state 3 respiration rates at complexes I, II and IV of mitochondria isolated from XJB-treated aged hearts were 57% (P<0.05), 25% (P<0.05) and 28% (P<0.05), respectively, higher than controls. Ca(2+)-induced swelling, an indicator of permeability transition pore opening, was reduced in the mitochondria of XJB-treated aged rats. In addition, XJB significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane as well as the total and mitochondrial ROS levels in cultured cardiomyocytes. This study underlines the importance of mitochondrial ROS in aging-induced cardiac dysfunction and suggests that targeting mitochondrial ROS may be an effective therapeutic approach to protect the aged heart against IR injury.

  16. Antioxidants: potential antiviral agents for Japanese encephalitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zehua; Chen, Huan; Chen, Zongtao; Tian, Yanping

    2014-07-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is prevalent throughout eastern and southern Asia and the Pacific Rim. It is caused by the JE virus (JEV), which belongs to the family Flaviviridae. Despite the importance of JE, little is known about its pathogenesis. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of viral infections has led to increased interest in its role in JEV infections. This review focuses mainly on the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of JEV infection and the antiviral effect of antioxidant agents in inhibiting JEV production. First, this review summarizes the pathogenesis of JE. The pathological changes include neuronal death, astrocyte activation, and microglial proliferation. Second, the relationship between oxidative stress and JEV infection is explored. JEV infection induces the generation of oxidants and exhausts the supply of antioxidants, which activates specific signaling pathways. Finally, the therapeutic efficacy of a variety of antioxidants as antiviral agents, including minocycline, arctigenin, fenofibrate, and curcumin, was studied. In conclusion, antioxidants are likely to be developed into antiviral agents for the treatment of JE. PMID:24780919

  17. Antioxidant Potential of Plumieride against CCl4-Induced Peroxidative Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharmendra; Arya, Priya Vrat; Sharma, Ashutosh; Aggarwal, Ved Prakash; Dobhal, Mahabeer Prasad; Gupta, Radhey Shyam

    2014-01-01

    In search of a new potent as an antioxidant from natural sources, plumieride—an iridoid isolated from the methanol extract of the bark of Plumeria bicolor (family Apocynaceae) was evaluated for its antioxidant potential against CCl4-induced peroxidative damage in liver of rats. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by using hepatic tissue for SOD (superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase), GSH (reduced glutathione), GPx (glutathione peroxidase), GR (glutathione reductase) and LPO (lipid peroxidation) alongwith the concomitant blood serum for AST & ALT (aspartate and alanine transaminases), GGT (gamma glutamyl transpeptidase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), total bilirubin and total protein contents. All the biochemical parameters were significantly (p ≤ 0.001) altered by CCl4 (0.3 mL/kg body weight/twice a week, intra-peritoneally for 30 days). Simultaneously, oral treatment with plumieride (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days), restored all the parameters towards a normal level, remarkably. The histological findings of liver sections further corroborated the antioxidant potential of plumieride compared with standard drug-silymarin. In conclusion, plumieride consists of sugar molecules, which have alcoholic groups. Therefore, the alcoholic groups of sugar increase its antioxidant potential through intermolecular hydrogen bonding along with the thiol(SH) group of non-protein thiols and enzymes resulting in the restoration of the antioxidant system. Therefore, it might be considered a natural antioxidant against peroxidative damage in rats. PMID:26785241

  18. Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Potential of Six Thymus Species

    PubMed Central

    Kindl, Marija; Blažeković, Biljana; Bucar, Franz; Vladimir-Knežević, Sanda

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities of the ethanolic extracts of six selected Thymus species growing in Croatia (T. longicaulis, T. praecox subsp. polytrichus, T. pulegioides, T. serpyllum subsp. serpyllum, T. striatus, and T. vulgaris). Antioxidant effectiveness was assessed using six different assays, in comparison with rosmarinic acid, luteolin, and reference antioxidants. All tested Thymus extracts possessed DPPH (IC50 = 3–6 μg/mL) and nitric oxide (IC50 = 70–177 μg/mL) free radical scavenging activities, strong reducing properties (IC50 = 11–15 μg/mL), ferrous ion chelating activity (IC50 = 126–389 μg/mL), ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 34–80 μg/mL), and high total antioxidant capacities (238–294 mg AAE/g). AChE inhibitory activity was examined using Ellman's colorimetric method and all tested extracts showed anti-AChE activity in a dose dependent manner. The values of 10–28%, 23–39%, and 64–86% were obtained for tested concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL, respectively. Additionally, the contents of total hydroxycinnamic derivatives, flavonoids, and tannins in dried plant samples were determined spectrophotometrically. Our results highlighted Thymus species as a rich source of natural antioxidants and AChE inhibitors that could be useful in preventing and treating Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26351513

  19. Molecular Strategies for Targeting Antioxidants to Mitochondria: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondrial function and specifically its implication in cellular redox/oxidative balance is fundamental in controlling the life and death of cells, and has been implicated in a wide range of human pathologies. In this context, mitochondrial therapeutics, particularly those involving mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, have attracted increasing interest as potentially effective therapies for several human diseases. For the past 10 years, great progress has been made in the development and functional testing of molecules that specifically target mitochondria, and there has been special focus on compounds with antioxidant properties. In this review, we will discuss several such strategies, including molecules conjugated with lipophilic cations (e.g., triphenylphosphonium) or rhodamine, conjugates of plant alkaloids, amino-acid- and peptide-based compounds, and liposomes. This area has several major challenges that need to be confronted. Apart from antioxidants and other redox active molecules, current research aims at developing compounds that are capable of modulating other mitochondria-controlled processes, such as apoptosis and autophagy. Multiple chemically different molecular strategies have been developed as delivery tools that offer broad opportunities for mitochondrial manipulation. Additional studies, and particularly in vivo approaches under physiologically relevant conditions, are necessary to confirm the clinical usefulness of these molecules. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 686–729. PMID:25546574

  20. Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the Bifurcaria bifurcata epiphytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Horta, André; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Fino, Nádia; Silva, Joana; Fernandez, Sara; Rodrigues, Américo; Pedrosa, Rui

    2014-03-24

    Surface-associated marine bacteria are an interesting source of new secondary metabolites. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of epiphytic bacteria from the marine brown alga, Bifurcaria bifurcata, and the evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of bacteria extracts. The identification of epiphytic bacteria was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacteria extracts were obtained with methanol and dichloromethane (1:1) extraction. The antioxidant activity of extracts was performed by quantification of total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Antimicrobial activities were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. A total of 39 Bifurcaria bifurcata-associated bacteria were isolated and 33 were identified as Vibrio sp. (48.72%), Alteromonas sp. (12.82%), Shewanella sp. (12.26%), Serratia sp. (2.56%), Citricoccus sp. (2.56%), Cellulophaga sp. (2.56%), Ruegeria sp. (2.56%) and Staphylococcus sp. (2.56%). Six (15.38%) of the 39 bacteria Bifurcaria bifurcata-associated bacteria presented less than a 90% Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) match, and some of those could be new. The highest antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity (against B. subtilis) was exhibited by strain 16 (Shewanella sp.). Several strains also presented high antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, mainly belonging to Alteromonas sp. and Vibrio sp. There were no positive results against fungi and Gram-negative bacteria. Bifurcaria bifurcata epiphytic bacteria were revealed to be excellent sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  1. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of the Bifurcaria bifurcata Epiphytic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Horta, André; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Fino, Nádia; Silva, Joana; Fernandez, Sara; Rodrigues, Américo; Pedrosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Surface-associated marine bacteria are an interesting source of new secondary metabolites. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of epiphytic bacteria from the marine brown alga, Bifurcaria bifurcata, and the evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of bacteria extracts. The identification of epiphytic bacteria was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacteria extracts were obtained with methanol and dichloromethane (1:1) extraction. The antioxidant activity of extracts was performed by quantification of total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Antimicrobial activities were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. A total of 39 Bifurcaria bifurcata-associated bacteria were isolated and 33 were identified as Vibrio sp. (48.72%), Alteromonas sp. (12.82%), Shewanella sp. (12.26%), Serratia sp. (2.56%), Citricoccus sp. (2.56%), Cellulophaga sp. (2.56%), Ruegeria sp. (2.56%) and Staphylococcus sp. (2.56%). Six (15.38%) of the 39 bacteria Bifurcaria bifurcata-associated bacteria presented less than a 90% Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) match, and some of those could be new. The highest antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity (against B. subtilis) was exhibited by strain 16 (Shewanella sp.). Several strains also presented high antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, mainly belonging to Alteromonas sp. and Vibrio sp. There were no positive results against fungi and Gram-negative bacteria. Bifurcaria bifurcata epiphytic bacteria were revealed to be excellent sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds. PMID:24663118

  2. Potential efficiency of antioxidants to prevent pressure ulcers. A neglected hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bonne, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Pressure ulcers are necrotic lesions mainly due to capillary hypoperfusion. It is well known that hypoxia and also subsequent oxygenation at reperfusion provoke the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsible for cell death. The hypothesis of their participation in the pathogenesis of pressure ulcers has already been tested; several antioxidants have the capacity to inhibit skin necrosis in animal models but their efficiency in preventing bedsores has never been demonstrated in patients. The failure of clinical trials to show the protective activity of some antioxidants does not rule out the involvement of ROS in ischemic ulcers and the potential efficacy of other antioxidants in preventing their formation remains possible. PMID:27142137

  3. Antioxidant potential of green and black tea determined using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay.

    PubMed

    Langley-Evans, S C

    2000-05-01

    Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and is rich in polyphenolic compounds collectively known as the tea flavonoids. Tea flavonoids possess antioxidant properties in vitro and have been proposed as key protective dietary components, reducing risk of coronary heart disease and some cancers. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of different preparation methods on the antioxidant properties of green and black tea. Antioxidant potentials of tea infusates were assessed using an assay based upon the reduction of ferric chloride linked to a chromophore. Green tea, black leaf tea and black tea in tea bags were infused with water at 90 degrees C for time periods ranging from 0.25 to 15 min. Green tea infusates possessed approximately 2.5-fold greater antioxidant capacity than both types of black tea infusates. Both green and black teas released significant levels of antioxidants into the hot water within 2 min of infusion. Preparation of teas across a range of temperatures between 20 and 90 degrees C revealed that although antioxidants were liberated from the leaves into the water in cooler infusions, increasing the temperature could increase antioxidant potential by 4 to 9.5-fold. Black tea prepared using tea bags had significantly lower antioxidant capacity than black leaf tea at temperatures between 20 and 70 degrees C, suggesting that tea bag materials may prevent some extraction of flavonoids into the tea solution. The addition of milk appeared to diminish the antioxidant potential of black tea preparations. This effect was greatest where whole cow's milk was used and appeared to be primarily related to the fat content of the added milk. These experiments have considered the effects of commonly used domestic methods of preparation on the in vitro antioxidant potential of tea. It is concluded that maximum antioxidant capacity and hence maximal health benefit may be derived from green tea or from black leaf tea prepared by

  4. Dropwort (Filipendula hexapetala Gilib.): potential role as antioxidant and antimicrobial agent

    PubMed Central

    Katanic, Jelena; Mihailovic, Vladimir; Stankovic, Nevena; Boroja, Tatjana; Mladenovic, Milan; Solujic, Slavica; Stankovic, Milan S.; Vrvic, Miroslav M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of Filipendula hexapetala Gilib. aerial parts (FHA) and roots (FHR) and their potential in different model systems, as well as antimicrobial activity. According to this, a number of assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of F. hexapetala extracts. In addition, the antioxidant activity assays in different model systems were carried out, as well as pH, thermal and gastrointestinal stability studies. The phenolic compounds contents in FHA and FHR were also determined. The results showed that F. hexapetala extracts had considerable antioxidant activity in vitro and a great stability in different conditions. The extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against most of the tested bacterial and fungal species. Also, the extracts contain high level of phenolic compounds, especially aerial parts extract. PMID:26417349

  5. Exercise and oxidative stress: potential effects of antioxidant dietary strategies in sports.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, Alessandro; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Mastorci, Francesca; Quinones, Alfredo; Iervasi, Giorgio; Vassalle, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals are produced during aerobic cellular metabolism and have key roles as regulatory mediators in signaling processes. Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species and an adequate antioxidant defense. This adverse condition may lead to cellular and tissue damage of components, and is involved in different physiopathological states, including aging, exercise, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In particular, the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress is extremely complex, depending on the mode, intensity, and duration of exercise. Regular moderate training appears beneficial for oxidative stress and health. Conversely, acute exercise leads to increased oxidative stress, although this same stimulus is necessary to allow an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses (hormesis). Supporting endogenous defenses with additional oral antioxidant supplementation may represent a suitable noninvasive tool for preventing or reducing oxidative stress during training. However, excess of exogenous antioxidants may have detrimental effects on health and performance. Whole foods, rather than capsules, contain antioxidants in natural ratios and proportions, which may act in synergy to optimize the antioxidant effect. Thus, an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals through a varied and balanced diet remains the best approach to maintain an optimal antioxidant status. Antioxidant supplementation may be warranted in particular conditions, when athletes are exposed to high oxidative stress or fail to meet dietary antioxidant requirements. Aim of this review is to discuss the evidence on the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress, and the potential effects of dietary strategies in athletes. The differences between diet and exogenous supplementation as well as available tools to estimate effectiveness of antioxidant intake are also reported. Finally, we advocate the need

  6. Exercise and oxidative stress: potential effects of antioxidant dietary strategies in sports.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, Alessandro; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Mastorci, Francesca; Quinones, Alfredo; Iervasi, Giorgio; Vassalle, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals are produced during aerobic cellular metabolism and have key roles as regulatory mediators in signaling processes. Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species and an adequate antioxidant defense. This adverse condition may lead to cellular and tissue damage of components, and is involved in different physiopathological states, including aging, exercise, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In particular, the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress is extremely complex, depending on the mode, intensity, and duration of exercise. Regular moderate training appears beneficial for oxidative stress and health. Conversely, acute exercise leads to increased oxidative stress, although this same stimulus is necessary to allow an up-regulation in endogenous antioxidant defenses (hormesis). Supporting endogenous defenses with additional oral antioxidant supplementation may represent a suitable noninvasive tool for preventing or reducing oxidative stress during training. However, excess of exogenous antioxidants may have detrimental effects on health and performance. Whole foods, rather than capsules, contain antioxidants in natural ratios and proportions, which may act in synergy to optimize the antioxidant effect. Thus, an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals through a varied and balanced diet remains the best approach to maintain an optimal antioxidant status. Antioxidant supplementation may be warranted in particular conditions, when athletes are exposed to high oxidative stress or fail to meet dietary antioxidant requirements. Aim of this review is to discuss the evidence on the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress, and the potential effects of dietary strategies in athletes. The differences between diet and exogenous supplementation as well as available tools to estimate effectiveness of antioxidant intake are also reported. Finally, we advocate the need

  7. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts. PMID:26803763

  8. Antioxidant Potential of the Polyherbal Formulation "ImmuPlus": A Nutritional Supplement for Horses.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Stefano; Paciolla, Mariateresa; Caputo, Anna Rocchina; Bavoso, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    In order to counteract harmful effects of oxidative stress due to pathological conditions or physical exercise, horses are often administered dietary supplements having supposed high antioxidant activities. The aim of the present study was to identify the in vitro antioxidant potential of "ImmuPlus", a polyherbal formulation (Global Herbs LTD, Chichester, West Sussex, Great Britain), containing three medicinal plants (Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, and Emblica officinalis), known in Ayurveda for their use in human disease treatment. Extracts obtained by different solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, and hexane) were tested for total antioxidant capacity, total reducing power, scavenging activity against DPPH radical, and total polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Our results showed that, except as regards hexane, all the used solvents are able to extract compounds having high antioxidant activity, even when compared to ascorbic acid. Regression analysis showed significant correlations between antioxidant properties and polyphenol/flavonoid contents, indicating the latter, known for their beneficial effects on health of human and animal beings, as major components responsible for the strong antioxidant capacities. Moreover, obtained results suggest the effective role of the polyherbal mixture as good source of antioxidants in horses. PMID:24876991

  9. Pomegranate juice is potentially better than apple juice in improving antioxidant function in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changjiang; Wei, Jingyu; Yang, Jijun; Xu, Jing; Pang, Wei; Jiang, Yugang

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, 26 elderly subjects were recruited and randomly divided into 2 groups, that is, apple (low in antioxidant capacity) and pomegranate (high in antioxidant capacity) groups, and 250 mL of juice was consumed daily for 4 weeks. Changes in plasma antioxidant capacity, activity of antioxidant enzymes, contents of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, oxidized low-density lipoprotein and carbonyls, and the degree of DNA damage in mononuclear blood cells were measured. Urine samples were collected for determination of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine content. Increased plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased plasma carbonyl content were demonstrated after daily consumption of pomegranate juice. In comparison, apple juice consumption presented a less significant effect on antioxidant function in elderly subjects. It is concluded that daily consumption of pomegranate juices is potentially better than apple juice in improving antioxidant function in the elderly. Because the plasma ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione contents did not differ significantly between the 2 groups in this study, the phenolics may be the functional components contained in pomegranate juice that accounted for the observations.

  10. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts.

  11. Antioxidant Potential of Fagonia arabica against the Chemical Ischemia-Induced in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Satpute, Ravindra; Bhattacharya, Rahul; S Kashyap, Rajpal; J Purohit, Hemant; Y Deopujari, Jayant; M Taori, Girdhar; F Daginawala, Hatim

    2012-01-01

    The imbalance between pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants leads to generation of oxygen/nitrogen free radicals which are implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases. Fagonia arabica is an ethno-pharmacologically important Ayurvedic herb known to have many medicinal properties like anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects. However, its antioxidant potential has not been investigated so far. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant potential of F. arabica and its neuroprotective effect on chemical ischemia induced in PC12 cells. Chemical ischemia was induced through exposing the cells to uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation sodium azide (5.0 mM) and competitive inhibitor of glycolysis 2-deoxy-glucose (2.0 mM) for 2 h followed by 24 h reperfusion with normal culture medium. Total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant potential of the herb was measured using DPPH and ABTS•+ scavenging and ferric ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assays; its effect on neuroprotection and energy metabolism was also studied. The ischemic injury was characterized by impaired energy status as indicated by decreased ATP levels in the cells, accompanied by increased lactic acid content. Both the changes favourably responded to F. arabica and offered considerable neuroprotection from ischemia and helped to maintain the cellular viability and mitochondrial integrity of the cells. F. arabica showed considerable amount of TPC and antioxidant activity. This study reveals the antioxidant potential of F. arabica and its protective efficacy against ischemia/reperfusion mediated cell death. F. arabica thus can be considered for further studies for the development of the prophylactic or therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic stroke. PMID:24250453

  12. Antioxidant Potential of Fagonia arabica against the Chemical Ischemia-Induced in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Satpute, Ravindra; Bhattacharya, Rahul; S Kashyap, Rajpal; J Purohit, Hemant; Y Deopujari, Jayant; M Taori, Girdhar; F. Daginawala, Hatim

    2012-01-01

    The imbalance between pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants leads to generation of oxygen/nitrogen free radicals which are implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases. Fagonia arabica is an ethno-pharmacologically important Ayurvedic herb known to have many medicinal properties like anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects. However, its antioxidant potential has not been investigated so far. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant potential of F. arabica and its neuroprotective effect on chemical ischemia induced in PC12 cells. Chemical ischemia was induced through exposing the cells to uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation sodium azide (5.0 mM) and competitive inhibitor of glycolysis 2-deoxy-glucose (2.0 mM) for 2 h followed by 24 h reperfusion with normal culture medium. Total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant potential of the herb was measured using DPPH and ABTS•+ scavenging and ferric ion reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assays; its effect on neuroprotection and energy metabolism was also studied. The ischemic injury was characterized by impaired energy status as indicated by decreased ATP levels in the cells, accompanied by increased lactic acid content. Both the changes favourably responded to F. arabica and offered considerable neuroprotection from ischemia and helped to maintain the cellular viability and mitochondrial integrity of the cells. F. arabica showed considerable amount of TPC and antioxidant activity. This study reveals the antioxidant potential of F. arabica and its protective efficacy against ischemia/reperfusion mediated cell death. F. arabica thus can be considered for further studies for the development of the prophylactic or therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic stroke. PMID:24250453

  13. ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF Sida retusa, Urena lobata AND Triumfetta rhomboidea.

    PubMed

    Lissy, K P; Simon, Thara K; Lathab, M S

    2006-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Sida retusa Linn.(Malvaceae),Urena lobata Linn.(Malvaceae)and Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.(Teliaceae) roots were found to inhibit lipid peroxidation, scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The quantity of S.retusa root extract required for 50% inhibition of lipid peroxidation, scavenging hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical was 1130.24 ug/ml respectively. IC 50 of root extract of U.lobata was 470.60 ug/ml, 1627.35ug/ml and 1109.24 ug/ml for superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation respectively. T.rhomboidea root extract required for IC 50 was 336.65 ug/ml, 1346.03 ug/ml and 1004.22 ug/ml for superoxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation respectively. The present investigation indicated that S. retusa, U.lobata and T.rhomboidea possessed significant antioxidant activity.

  14. In vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials of ethanolic extract from Tecomella undulata

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study was undergone to evaluate the in-vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of leaves of Tecomella undulata Seem. on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin, 15 minutes after the i.p administration of 110 mg/kg body weight of nicotinamide. The extract has shown significant blood glucose lowering effect in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The blood glucose level, cholesterol, glycogen contents, glycosylated hemoglobin, and antioxidant parameters (Malondialdehyde and Glutathione level) were estimated from the blood plasma by using standard kits to demonstrate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect in treated animals. The data showed that the extract have significant influence on the above biochemical parameters. Thus ethanolic fraction of the plant Tecomella undulata can be used as new candidate for antihyperglycemic and antioxidant. PMID:22769229

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant activity, sugar composition, and flow packaging potential for california dried and fresh figs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential sensory perception and antioxidant capacity varied among these 20 cultivars tested that included dry and fresh traditional and recently introduced potentially dry or fresh varieties. Fructose, sweetness power and total phenolics levels were similar between the new introductions varieties a...

  16. Effect of antioxidant oxidation potential in the oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) assay.

    PubMed

    Bisby, Roger H; Brooke, Rachel; Navaratnam, Suppiah

    2008-06-01

    The "oxygen radical absorption capacity" (ORAC) assay (Ou, B., Hampsch-Woodill, M., Prior, R.L. (2001). Development and validation of an improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49, 4619-4626) is widely employed to determine antioxidant content of foods and uses fluorescein as a probe for oxidation by peroxyl radicals. Kinetic modeling of the ORAC assay suggests that the lag phase for loss of fluorescence results from equilibrium between antioxidant and fluorescein radicals and the value of the equilibrium constant determines the shape of the lag phase. For an efficient antioxidant this constitutes a "repair" reaction for fluoresceinyl radicals and produces a well defined lag phase. The lag phase becomes less marked with increasing oxidation potential of the antioxidant. Pulse radiolysis confirms that fluoresceinyl radicals are rapidly (k∼10(9)dm(3)mol(-1)s(-1)) reduced by Trolox C, a water soluble vitamin E analogue. ORAC assays of phenols with varying oxidation potentials suggest that it might be employed to obtain an estimate of the redox potential of antioxidants within food materials.

  17. Assay of Antioxidant Potential of Two Filamentous Fungi Isolated from the Indonesian Fermented Dried Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity and antioxidant constituents of two filamentous fungi (Acremonium charticola and Rhizopus oryzae) isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava (gathot) were evaluated in the present study. The antioxidant capacity of the fungal crude extracts was assessed based on the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzthiazolin-6-sulfonicacid) (ABTS) method. Total phenolics were determined based on the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoids content in the fungal extracts was determined by the spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride. Total tannins were estimated by the Folin-Denis method. The ABTS+ radical scavenging activity was higher (p < 0.01) in A. charticola compared to that in R. oryzae and ascorbic acid (as a control). A higher (p < 0.01) content of total phenolics was detected in A. charticola than that in R. oryzae. Total flavonoids were higher (p < 0.01) in R. oryzae as compared with that in A. charticola. The fungus A. charticola had a higher (p < 0.01) level of total tannins than R. oryzae. In conclusion, both filamentous fungi isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava exhibited antioxidant potentials as indicated by their capabilities to scavenge ABTS+. A. charticola had a higher antioxidant capacity than R. oryzae. The antioxidant capacity of A. charticola was attributed mainly to its phenolics and tannins contents. PMID:26848695

  18. Antioxidant potential and radical scavenging effects of various extracts from Abutilon indicum and Abutilon muticum.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Sammia; Kashmiri, Muhammad Akram; Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mohy-ud-Din, Ayesha

    2010-03-01

    Abutilon indicum L. (Malvaceae) and Abutilon muticum DC. (Malvaceae) are traditional medicinal herbs used for analgesic, anthelmintic, hepatoprotective, and hypoglycemic properties. These effects may be correlated with the presence of antioxidant compounds. Extracts in organic solvents from the aerial parts and roots of both species were prepared and evaluated for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of all the extracts of both plants was found, employing ABTS and FRAP assays. TEAC values ranged from 3.019 to 10.5 muM for n-hexane and butanol fractions of Abutilon indicum and from 2.247 to 14.208 muM for n-hexane and butanol fractions of Abutilon muticum, respectively, using the ABTS assay. The FRAP assay showed reducing powers of the fractions in the order of butanol > ethyl acetate > chloroform > n-hexane and butanol > chloroform > hexane > ethyl acetate for Abutilon indicum and Abutilon muticum, respectively. EC(50) and T(EC50) values for the extracts of both plants were determined using the DPPH free radical assay. The reaction kinetics with this free radical indicated the presence of both slow reacting and fast reacting antioxidant components in the extracts of both plants. The antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity of the extracts was found to be a dose-dependent activity. The results obtained in the present study indicate that both Abutilon species are potential sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:20645814

  19. Assay of Antioxidant Potential of Two Filamentous Fungi Isolated from the Indonesian Fermented Dried Cassava.

    PubMed

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Yudiarti, Turrini; Isroli, Isroli

    2016-02-02

    The antioxidant capacity and antioxidant constituents of two filamentous fungi (Acremonium charticola and Rhizopus oryzae) isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava (gathot) were evaluated in the present study. The antioxidant capacity of the fungal crude extracts was assessed based on the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzthiazolin-6-sulfonicacid) (ABTS) method. Total phenolics were determined based on the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoids content in the fungal extracts was determined by the spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride. Total tannins were estimated by the Folin-Denis method. The ABTS⁺ radical scavenging activity was higher (p < 0.01) in A. charticola compared to that in R. oryzae and ascorbic acid (as a control). A higher (p < 0.01) content of total phenolics was detected in A. charticola than that in R. oryzae. Total flavonoids were higher (p < 0.01) in R. oryzae as compared with that in A. charticola. The fungus A. charticola had a higher (p < 0.01) level of total tannins than R. oryzae. In conclusion, both filamentous fungi isolated from the Indonesian fermented dried cassava exhibited antioxidant potentials as indicated by their capabilities to scavenge ABTS⁺. A. charticola had a higher antioxidant capacity than R. oryzae. The antioxidant capacity of A. charticola was attributed mainly to its phenolics and tannins contents.

  20. Oxidative and nitrosative stress in ADHD: possible causes and the potential of antioxidant-targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Lopresti, Adrian L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a complex aetiology although theories associated with disturbances in dopaminergic and noradrenergic activity are most commonly cited. The importance of these catecholamines in ADHD is supported by its effective treatment utilising stimulant and non-stimulant medications that modify their activity. Recently, there has been interest in oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) in ADHD and its potential to contribute to this condition. In this article, research investigating O&NS in ADHD is reviewed and its impact on catecholaminergic activity and neurological structure is discussed. Lifestyle, environmental, psychological and nutritional influences on O&NS in people with ADHD are reviewed, and evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of antioxidant-related therapies is assessed. A selection of interventions with antioxidant mechanisms is presented as potential options for the treatment of ADHD. However, further research is required to help elucidate the role of O&NS and antioxidants for the prevention and management of ADHD.

  1. [ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF MELIPONA BEECHEII HONEY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO HEALTH: A REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Cauich Kumul, Roger; Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Ortíz Vázquez, Elizabeth; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2015-10-01

    The present article provides a literature review about the biological potential of Melipona beecheii. The objective is to project some tendecies in research about nutraceutical aspects related to the bioactive compounds presents in the honey of this stingless bee species, known for its medicinal properties traditional, in the Yucatan Peninsula. Currently, there is strong evidence that M. beecheii honey has bioactive compounds such as proteins, flavonoids and polyphenols with high antioxidant activity. The scientific evidence allows to propose to the honey of stingless bee species as a potential alternative for the obtention of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity in the Yucatan Peninsula and natural food being proposed to reduce some diseases associated with stress oxidative physiological human cells. However, there is still information that explains such antioxidant activity, therefore, according to the literature reviewed, sees the need to address nutraceuticals and functional aspects correlated with the bioactive compounds present in this honey bee.

  2. Potentiating effects of honey on antioxidant properties of lemon-flavoured black tea.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-03-01

    Health benefits including antioxidant potential of black tea (Camellia sinensis), lemon (Citrus limon) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been extensively reported. Nevertheless, nothing is reported about the effects of their concomitant use. Herein, those effects were evaluated in infusions of lemon-flavoured black tea with three different kinds of honey (light amber, amber and dark amber) from Lavandula stoechas, Erica sp. pl. and other indigenous floral species from north-east Portugal, a region with high amounts of this food product. Data obtained showed that the use of honey (dark amber>amber>light amber) potentiates the antioxidant activity of lemon-flavoured black tea, increasing the reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties, as also the antioxidant contents such as phenolics, flavonoids and organic acids including ascorbic acid.

  3. In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Caspers, P. J.; van der Pol, A.; Richter, H.; Patzelt, A.; Zastrow, L.; Darvin, M.; Sterry, W.; Fluhr, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of the carotenoids as a marker for the complete antioxidative potential in human skin was investigated before and after the topical application of carotenoids by in vivo Raman spectroscopy with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. The carotenoid profile was assessed after a short term topical application in 4 healthy volunteers. In the untreated skin, the highest concentration of natural carotenoids was detected in different layers of the stratum corneum (SC) close to the skin surface. After topical application of carotenoids, an increase in the antioxidative potential in the skin could be observed. Topically applied carotenoids penetrate deep into the epidermis down to approximately 24 μm. This study supports the hypothesis that antioxidative substances are secreted via eccrine sweat glands and/or sebaceous glands to the skin surface. Subsequently they penetrate into the different layers of the SC.

  4. Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fractions of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kita, Eiji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Okada, Masatoshi; Furutani, Azusa; Murono, Yuka; Shibata, Mitsuru; Nishii, Yasue; Kayano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Dried fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) are a traditional food in Japan and contain large quantities of tannins. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of non-extractable fractions from dried persimmons. Hydrolysed non-extractable fractions showed the highest antioxidant activities in vitro. In subsequent experiments, the plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values in rats supplemented with a 5% non-extractable fraction were approximately 1.5times higher than those in control rats after 1week in vivo. Furthermore, using an in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract, the ORAC values of the non-extractable fraction were significantly increased with colonic fermentation in the large bowel stage. These data indicate that non-extractable fractions may possess significant antioxidant potential in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26920271

  5. Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fractions of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kita, Eiji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Okada, Masatoshi; Furutani, Azusa; Murono, Yuka; Shibata, Mitsuru; Nishii, Yasue; Kayano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Dried fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) are a traditional food in Japan and contain large quantities of tannins. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of non-extractable fractions from dried persimmons. Hydrolysed non-extractable fractions showed the highest antioxidant activities in vitro. In subsequent experiments, the plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values in rats supplemented with a 5% non-extractable fraction were approximately 1.5times higher than those in control rats after 1week in vivo. Furthermore, using an in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract, the ORAC values of the non-extractable fraction were significantly increased with colonic fermentation in the large bowel stage. These data indicate that non-extractable fractions may possess significant antioxidant potential in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of the total phenolic content, total tannin content, and antioxidant capacity of grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  7. In vitro lipid peroxidation of intestinal bile salt-based nanoemulsions: potential role of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Courraud, J; Charnay, C; Cristol, J P; Berger, J; Avallone, S

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decades, oxidative stress has been described as a deleterious phenomenon contributing to numerous noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancers. As many authors ascribed the healthy effect of fruit and vegetable consumption mainly to their antioxidant contents, it has been hypothesized that their protection could occur from the gut. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an original and physiological model of nanoemulsions to study lipid peroxidation within the intestine and to assess the properties of potential antioxidants in this setting. Several nanoemulsions were compared in terms of physical characteristics and reactivity to 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidation. Formulations included different types of lipids, a detergent (a conjugated bile salt or sodium dodecyl sulfate) and, finally, lipophilic antioxidants. Hemin and myoglobin were also tested as relevant potential oxidants. Fatty acid (FA) peroxidation was monitored by gas chromatography while malondialdehyde and antioxidant contents were measured by HPLC. Investigated nanoemulsions were composed of spherical or cylindrical mixed micelles, the latter being the least resistant to oxidation. In the experimental conditions, AAPH was the only efficient oxidant. Alpha-tocopherol and lutein significantly slowed FA degradation from 4 to 1 μM, respectively. On the contrary, beta-carotene did not show any protective capacity at 4 μM. In conclusion, the tested nanoemulsions were appropriate to assess antioxidant capacity during the intestinal phase of digestion.

  8. Antioxidant potential of a polyherbal antimalarial as an indicator of its therapeutic value.

    PubMed

    Arrey Tarkang, Protus; Nwachiban Atchan, Achille Parfait; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Okalebo, Faith Apoelot; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Agbor, Gabriel Agbor

    2013-01-01

    Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf), Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves), used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500 mg kg(-1)) activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P < 0.05) and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang. PMID:24454347

  9. Aqueous Extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has Potential Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects.

    PubMed

    Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi; Khodadadi, Iraj; Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill). In the in vivo and in vitro experiments, antioxidant properties, blood glucose, and AGEs formation were determined. Dill extract was given orally to healthy and diabetic rats. Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill extract (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml) have potential antiradical and antioxidant activity. Aqueous extract of dill significantly reduced AGEs formation and fructosamine levels, protein carbonyl and also thiol group's oxidation, amyloid cross-β and fragmentation. After 2 months, blood glucose levels (P=0.006) and AGEs formation (P=0.003) significantly reduced in dill treated group compared with untreated diabetic animals. In conclusion, dill can be recommended as herbal medicine for the control and prevention of diabetic complications. PMID:27365555

  10. Chemical, Bioactive, and Antioxidant Potential of Twenty Wild Culinary Mushroom Species

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S. K.; Gautam, N.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical, bioactive, and antioxidant potential of twenty wild culinary mushroom species being consumed by the people of northern Himalayan regions has been evaluated for the first time in the present study. Nutrients analyzed include protein, crude fat, fibres, carbohydrates, and monosaccharides. Besides, preliminary study on the detection of toxic compounds was done on these species. Bioactive compounds evaluated are fatty acids, amino acids, tocopherol content, carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene), flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanidins. Fruitbodies extract of all the species was tested for different types of antioxidant assays. Although differences were observed in the net values of individual species all the species were found to be rich in protein, and carbohydrates and low in fat. Glucose was found to be the major monosaccharide. Predominance of UFA (65–70%) over SFA (30–35%) was observed in all the species with considerable amounts of other bioactive compounds. All the species showed higher effectiveness for antioxidant capacities. PMID:26199938

  11. Synthesis, antioxidant and cytoprotective evaluation of potential antiatherogenic phenolic hydrazones. A structure-activity relationship insight.

    PubMed

    Vanucci-Bacqué, Corinne; Carayon, Chantal; Bernis, Corinne; Camare, Caroline; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Bedos-Belval, Florence; Baltas, Michel

    2014-08-01

    A novel series of hydrazones derived from substituted benzaldehydes have been synthesized as potential antiatherogenic agents. Several methods were used for exploring their antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, such as their scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, the inhibition of superoxide anion (O₂(·-)) generation and the measurement of cell-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation (monitored by the formation of TBARS). The cytoprotective efficacy was also evaluated by measuring the cell viability (monitored by the MTT assay) in the presence of cytotoxic oxidized LDL. In this report, we discuss the relationship between the chemical structure of phenolic hydrazones and their antioxidant and cytoprotective activities, for subsequent application as antiatherogenic agents. This SAR study confirms that the phenolic frame is not the only prerequisite for antioxidant activity and N-methylbenzothiazole hydrazone moiety magnifies the dual required properties in two most interesting derivatives. PMID:24924425

  12. Aqueous Extract of Anethum Graveolens L. has Potential Antioxidant and Antiglycation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi; Khodadadi, Iraj; Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antiglycation and antioxidant properties of aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens (dill). In the in vivo and in vitro experiments, antioxidant properties, blood glucose, and AGEs formation were determined. Dill extract was given orally to healthy and diabetic rats. Our results illustrated that different concentrations of dill extract (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/ml) have potential antiradical and antioxidant activity. Aqueous extract of dill significantly reduced AGEs formation and fructosamine levels, protein carbonyl and also thiol group’s oxidation, amyloid cross-β and fragmentation. After 2 months, blood glucose levels (P=0.006) and AGEs formation (P=0.003) significantly reduced in dill treated group compared with untreated diabetic animals. In conclusion, dill can be recommended as herbal medicine for the control and prevention of diabetic complications. PMID:27365555

  13. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising.

  14. Antioxidant action and potential antidiabetic properties of an isoflavonoid-containing soyabean phytochemical extract (SPE).

    PubMed

    Vedavanam, K; Srijayanta, S; O'Reilly, J; Raman, A; Wiseman, H

    1999-11-01

    The potential role of oestrogenic agents, antioxidants and intestinal glucose-uptake inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes is briefly reviewed. Reports in the literature suggest that oestrogen replacement therapy may favourably modulate glucose homeostasis. A soya phytochemical extract (SPE) containing the isoflavone phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein (mostly in their glycone forms as genistin and daidzin) was investigated as an antioxidant and modulator of intestinal glucose-transport. In the present study, SPE was found to protect against glucose-induced oxidation of human low density lipoproteins (LDL) in vitro. Equol (a gut bacterial metabolite of daidzein) was a more effective antioxidant than daidzein or genistein in this system and was of similar antioxidant potency to the dietary flavonols quercetin and kaempferol and to the endogenous antioxidant 17beta-oestradiol. SPE was found to be an inhibitor of glucose uptake into rabbit intestinal brush border membrane vesicles in vitro, though of weaker potency than the classical sodium dependent glucose transporter (SGLT) inhibitor, phlorizin. Thus SPE displays a range of properties which may be of benefit in diabetes, namely as an oestrogenic agent, an inhibitor of intestinal glucose-uptake and a preventive agent for glucose-induced lipid peroxidation. PMID:10548755

  15. Antioxidant potential of tea reduces arsenite induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D; Roy, S; Roy, M

    2010-04-01

    Environmental arsenic (As) is a potent human carcinogen and groundwater As contamination is a major health concern in West Bengal, India. Oxidative stress has been one of the prime factors in As-induced carcinogenicity. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), beyond the body's endogenous antioxidant balance cause a severe imbalance of the cellular antioxidant defence mechanism. Tea, a popular beverage has excellent chemopreventive and antioxidant properties. In this study it was investigated whether these flavonoids could ameliorate the arsenite (As III) induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Bio-monitoring with comet assay elicited that the increase in genotoxicity caused by As III was counteracted by both black tea and green tea. Elevated levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyl by As III were effectively reduced with green as well as black tea. They also exhibited protective action against the As III induced depletion of antioxidants like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) in mice liver tissue. Thus the tea polyphenols by virtue of their antioxidant potential may be used as an effective agent to reduce the As III induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

  16. Antioxidative potential, nutritional value and sensory profiles of confectionery fortified with green and yellow tea leaves (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Kmiecik, Dominik; Korczak, Józef; Helak, Barbara; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta

    2016-11-15

    This paper presents a study on development of functional food products containing green and yellow tea leaves. The results indicated that green and yellow tea are significant tools in the creation of the nutritional value, antioxidative potential and stability of the lipid fraction of cookies. Tea-fortified cookies showed considerably higher contents of dietary fiber, especially hemicellulose and insoluble fractions, and were characterized by significantly higher antioxidant potential associated with their phenolics content. Results of ABTS, DPPH, ORACFL and PCL assay showed significantly higher antioxidant potential of tea cookies, highest for yellow tea. The antioxidative potential of applied teas was significant in terms of the inhibition of hydroperoxide content, while formation of secondary lipid oxidation products was less spectacular. It is concluded that tea leaves could be widely used as a source of polyphenols with high antioxidative potential, as well as fiber; thus introducing numerous health benefits for the consumer.

  17. Antioxidative potential, nutritional value and sensory profiles of confectionery fortified with green and yellow tea leaves (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Kmiecik, Dominik; Korczak, Józef; Helak, Barbara; Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta

    2016-11-15

    This paper presents a study on development of functional food products containing green and yellow tea leaves. The results indicated that green and yellow tea are significant tools in the creation of the nutritional value, antioxidative potential and stability of the lipid fraction of cookies. Tea-fortified cookies showed considerably higher contents of dietary fiber, especially hemicellulose and insoluble fractions, and were characterized by significantly higher antioxidant potential associated with their phenolics content. Results of ABTS, DPPH, ORACFL and PCL assay showed significantly higher antioxidant potential of tea cookies, highest for yellow tea. The antioxidative potential of applied teas was significant in terms of the inhibition of hydroperoxide content, while formation of secondary lipid oxidation products was less spectacular. It is concluded that tea leaves could be widely used as a source of polyphenols with high antioxidative potential, as well as fiber; thus introducing numerous health benefits for the consumer. PMID:27283654

  18. Cycloartane glycosides from Astragalus plumosus var. krugianus and evaluation of their antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Denizli, Nilüfer; Horo, Ibrahim; Gülcemal, Derya; Masullo, Milena; Festa, Michela; Capasso, Anna; Koz, Ömer; Piacente, Sonia; Alankuş-Çalışkan, Özgen

    2014-01-01

    The methanol extracts of Astragalus plumosus var. krugianus Chamb. & Matthews afforded sixteen cycloartane glycosides among which krugianoside A, was never reported before. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity in human skin fibroblast WS1 cells. For compounds exhibiting no significant effect on WS1 viability, the antioxidant potential was examined. Compounds 1 and 8 prevented elevation of ROS induced by t-BOOH, suggesting the potential activity of these compounds to protect fibroblasts from oxidative stress.

  19. Antioxidant and antifungal potential of Pleurotus ostreatus and Agrocybe cylindracea basidiocarps and mycelia.

    PubMed

    Ćilerdžić, Jasmina; Stajić, Mirjana; Vukojević, Jelena; Milovanović, Ivan; Muzgonja, Nikolina

    2015-01-01

    Basidiocarps of Pleurotus ostreatus and Agrocybe cylindracea are characterized by high nutritional value and numerous medicinal activities, though bioactivities of their mycelia have not been sufficiently studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant and antifungal potentials of P. ostreatus and A. cylindracea basidiocarp extracts, as well as those obtained from mycelia cultivated in common synthetic medium and media enriched with various agro-industrial residues. The free radical scavenging activity of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically, based on DPPH• reduction while antifungal potential was studied by a microdilution method. The highest level of DPPH• scavenging ability was obtained by an extract of P. ostreatus mycelium cultivated in wheat bran-enriched medium, while control medium favoured the antioxidant potential of A. cylindracea mycelium. Phenol compounds were the main carriers of antioxidant activity that was demonstrated by high coefficients for correlations between total phenol contents in extracts and level of DPPH• scavenging (0.94 for P. ostreatus extracts and 0.91 for A. cylindracea extracts). Only the extracts of A. cylindracea basidiocarp and control mycelium, at a concentration of 1.33 mg/mL, inhibited the growth of Microsporum gypseum and Aspergillus flavus, while basidiocarp extract at 1.67 mg/mL also had fungicidal effect against M. gypseum. These results revealed a considerable antioxidant potential of submergedly-cultivated mycelium which showed higher antioxidant activity than basidiocarp extracts. This is very important because significant amounts of mycelium biomass could be obtained more easily, cheaper and in a more controllable way than basidiocarps cultivation.

  20. Antioxidant assays - consistent findings from FRAP and ORAC reveal a negative impact of organic cultivation on antioxidant potential in spinach but not watercress or rocket leaves.

    PubMed

    Payne, Adrienne C; Mazzer, Alice; Clarkson, Graham J J; Taylor, Gail

    2013-11-01

    Watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum), wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) are commercial crops reported to have high concentrations of antioxidants, possibly contributing to disease prevention following human consumption. Following analysis of supermarket-purchased salad leaves, we report the antioxidant content potential of these species using two comparable techniques assessing the consistency between the assays - by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The leaves were harvested from both conventionally and organically managed crops, to investigate whether organic agriculture results in improved crop quality. Watercress had the highest FRAP and ability to scavenge free radicals, followed by spinach and rocket. For watercress and rocket, there was no significant effect of organic agriculture on FRAP and ORAC, but for spinach, the antioxidant potential was reduced and this was significant at the 5% level of probability for FRAP but not ORAC, although the trend was clear in both tests. We conclude that there is variation in salad crop antioxidant potential and that FRAP and ORAC are useful techniques for measuring antioxidants in these salad crops with similar ranking for each salad crop studied.

  1. An ab initio molecular dynamics analysis of lignin as a potential antioxidant for hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tongyan; Cheng, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Lignins are complex phenolic polymers with limited industrial uses. To identify new applications of lignins, this study aims to evaluate the conifer alcohol lignin as a potential antioxidant for hydrocarbons, using the petroleum asphalt as an example. Using the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) method, the evaluation is accomplished by tracking the generation of critical species in a lignin-asphalt mixture under a simulated oxidative condition. The generation of new species was detected using nuclear magnetic resonance and four analytical methods including density of states analysis, highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital analyses, bonding and energy level analysis, and electrostatic potential energy analysis. Results of the analyses show that the chemical radicals of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur generated in the oxidation process could enhance the agglomeration and/or decomposition tendency of asphalt. The effectiveness of lignins as an antioxidant depends on their chemical compositions. Lignins with a HOMO-LUMO gap larger than the HOMO-LUMO gap of the hydrocarbon system to be protected, such as the conifer alcohol lignin to protect petroleum asphalt as was studied in this work, do not demonstrate beneficial anti-oxidation capacity. Lignins, however, may be effective oxidants for hydrocarbon systems with a larger HOMO-LUMO gap. In addition, lignins may contain more polar sites than the hydrocarbons to be protected; thus the lignins' hydrophobicity and compatibility with the host hydrocarbons need to be well evaluated. The developed AIMD model provides a useful tool for developing antioxidants for generic hydrocarbons. PMID:26562413

  2. Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potential of Stem Bark Extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn)

    PubMed Central

    Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O.; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Uzunuigbe, Olohirere E.; Oyedemi, Sunday O.; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the polyphenolic contents and antioxidant potential of the aqueous, ethanol and methanol stem bark extracts of Jatropha curcas. The total phenol, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidin contents of the extracts were evaluated to determine their effect on the antioxidant property of this plant, using standard phytochemical methods. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of the plant were also assessed against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, (O2−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using spectroscopic methods and results were compared with that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid as standards. The concentrations of different classes of phenolic compounds were higher in methanol and ethanol extracts compared to aqueous extracts. There was correlation between total phenol, total flavonoids, total flavonol and total proanthocyanidins (r = 0.996, 0.978, 0.908, and 0.985) respectively. There was correlations between the amount of phenolic compounds and percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals scavenging activity of the extract (r = 0.98). Findings from the present study indicated that J. curcas is a potential source of natural antioxidants and may be a good candidate for pharmaceutical plant based products. PMID:21686161

  3. The matrix effect of blueberry, oat meal and milk on polyphenols, antioxidant activity and potential bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Cebeci, Fatma; Şahin-Yeşilçubuk, Neşe

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, ready-to eat breakfast cereals prepared with fruit ingredients have gained particular attention due to their polyphenolic contents and health promoting effects. In this study, the matrix effect of blueberry, oat meal, whole milk or skimmed milk on polyphenols, antioxidative potential as well as their potential bioavailability were investigated. The phenolic properties of whole milk, skimmed milk, blueberry and oat meal were investigated and the changes in combinations of the ingredients were determined. Milk addition decreased the total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin content of samples statistically and had negative effect on antioxidant activity showing differences among different methods. According to HPLC results, it was not possible to detect catechin in mixtures due to milk addition. In vitro digestion method was used to determine potential bioavailability of phenolic compounds. According to in vitro digestion procedure results, whole or skimmed milk did not affect the total phenolic content of the proportion passing to the blood from intestine.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant potential of vanadium encapsulated guar gum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Soumya, R S; Reshmi, R; Jomon, S; Antu, K A; Riya, M P; Raghu, K G

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the antioxidant potential of guar gum macroparticles (GGMs), vanadium oxide sulphate (VS) encapsulated guar gum macroparticles (GVMs), guar gum nanoparticles (GGNs), VS encapsulated guar gum nanoparticles (GVNs) and VS. GGNs and GVNs prepared by nanoprecipitation were characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and particle size analysis to confirm the nanostructure of the particles. Particle size analysis revealed that GVNs possess a size of 239 nm, about 148 nm larger than that of GGNs. TEM imaging and EDAX data also confirmed the formation of fine spherical nanoparticles with vanadium incorporation. In addition the larger size of GVNs also confirmed the vanadium incorporation. MTT assay showed that concentrations up to 100 nM of GVNs for 24 h exposure did not induce significant toxicity when VS was toxic (16%) at 100 nM. Various in vitro antioxidant assays (total reducing power, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays) revealed significantly high antioxidant potential of GVNs compared to GGNs, VS, GGMs and GVMs. The IC50 of GVNs was 23.21 ± 2.1 μg mL(-1), 33.0 ± 2.93 μg mL(-1), 21 ± 1.98 μg mL(-1) and 22.79 ± 2.12 μg mL(-1) for DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide anion scavenging activity assays respectively. The cell line based assay also proved that the GVN was more effective in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging than VS against tertiary butyl hydrogen peroxide (TBHP) induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cell lines. The overall results indicated that vanadium in combination with nano guar gum exhibits significantly high antioxidant potential.

  5. Petals of Crocus sativus L. as a potential source of the antioxidants crocin and kaempferol.

    PubMed

    Zeka, Keti; Ruparelia, Ketan C; Continenza, Maria A; Stagos, Dimitrios; Vegliò, Francesco; Arroo, Randolph R J

    2015-12-01

    Saffron from the province of L'Aquila, in the Abruzzo region of Italy, is highly prized and has been awarded a formal recognition by the European Union with EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. Despite this, the saffron regions are abandoned by the younger generations because the traditional cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is labour intensive and yields only one crop of valuable saffron stamens per year. Petals of the saffron Crocus have had additional uses in traditional medicine and may add value to the crops for local farmers. This is especially important because the plant only flowers between October and November, and farmers will need to make the best use of the flowers harvested in this period. Recently, the petals of C. sativus L., which are considered a waste material in the production of saffron spice, were identified as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The antioxidants crocin and kaempferol were purified by flash column chromatography, and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC-DAD, infrared (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H &(13)C NMR) spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity was determined with the ABTS and DPPH tests. The antioxidant activities are mainly attributed to carotenoid and flavonoid compounds, notably glycosides of crocin and kaempferol. We found in dried petals 0.6% (w/w) and 12.6 (w/w) of crocin and kaempferol, respectively. Petals of C. sativus L. have commercial potential as a source for kaempferol and crocetin glycosides, natural compounds with antioxidant activity that are considered to be the active ingredients in saffron-based herbal medicine.

  6. Production, Characterization and Antioxidant Potential of Protease from Streptomyces sp. MAB18 Using Poultry Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Poultry waste is an abundant renewable source for the recovery of several value-added metabolites with potential industrial applications. This study describes the production of protease on poultry waste, with the subsequent use of the same poultry waste for the extraction of antioxidants. An extracellular protease-producing strain was isolated from Cuddalore coast, India, and identified as Streptomyces sp. MAB18. Its protease was purified 17.13-fold with 21.62% yield with a specific activity of 2398.36 U/mg and the molecular weight was estimated as 43 kDa. The enzyme was optimally active at pH 8–10 and temperature 50–60°C and it was most stable up to pH 12 and 6–12% of NaCl concentration. The enzyme activity was reduced when treated with Hg2+, Pb2+, and SDS and stimulated by Fe2+, Mg2+, Triton X-100, DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide), sodium sulphite, and β-mercaptoethanol. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of protease were evaluated using in vitro antioxidant assays, such as DPPH radical-scavenging activity, O2 scavenging activity, NO scavenging activity, Fe2+ chelating activity, and reducing power. The enzyme showed important antioxidant potential with an IC50 value of 78 ± 0.28 mg/mL. Results of the present study indicate that the poultry waste-derived protease may be useful as supplementary protein and antioxidant in the animal feed formulations. PMID:23991418

  7. A comparative study on the in vitro antioxidant potentials of three edible fruits: cornelian cherry, Japanese persimmon and cherry laurel.

    PubMed

    Celep, Engin; Aydın, Ahmet; Yesilada, Erdem

    2012-09-01

    This study was designed in order to investigate in vitro antioxidant potentials of 80% methanolic extracts prepared from three edible fruits, Cornus mas L., Diospyros kaki L., Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. For this purpose, 8 different tests were performed including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenging tests, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), metal-chelating capacity, determination of total antioxidant capacity, β-carotene bleaching test in a linoleic acid emulsion system and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. In addition, for evaluating the phenolic profile, total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents were measured spectrophotometrically. Among the three fruits analyzed, Diospyros kaki L. showed the highest activity in all tests, except β-carotene bleaching test. Whereas, neither of three fruits showed metal-chelating activity. Also, a good correlation was found between the phenolic content and antioxidant parameters. PMID:22713712

  8. Enhancing Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potentials of Antidesma thwaitesianum by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction.

    PubMed

    Poontawee, Warut; Natakankitkul, Surapol; Wongmekiat, Orawan

    2015-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has increasingly gained attention as an alternative technique for extraction of natural products without leaving toxic residues in extracts. Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg. (Phyllanthaceae), or ma mao, has been reported to exhibit antioxidant health benefits due to its phenolic constituents. To determine whether SFE technique could impact on phenolic contents and associated antioxidant potentials, ripe fruits of Antidesma thwaitesianum (Phyllanthaceae) were extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and conventional solvents (ethanol, water). The results showed that the SC-CO2 extract contained significantly higher yield, total phenolic, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents than those obtained from ethanol and water. It also demonstrated the greatest antioxidant activities as assessed by ABTS radical cation decolorization, DPPH radical scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Further analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD/MSD) revealed the presence of catechin as a major phenolic compound of Antidesma thwaitesianum (Phyllanthaceae), with the maximum amount detected in the SC-CO2 extract. These data indicate that SFE technology improves both quantity and quality of Antidesma thwaitesianum fruit extract. The findings added more reliability of using this technique to produce high added value products from this medicinal plant.

  9. Assessment of Antioxidant Potential and Acute Toxicity Studies of Whole Plant Extract of Pergularia Daemia (Forsk)

    PubMed Central

    Vaithiyanathan, Veluchamy; Mirunalini, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pergularia daemia (Asclepiadacea) is a fetid- smelling perennial herb growing well along the river bang and road sides of India. Naturally the plant has powerful antioxidants including polyphenols, flavanoids, steroids and terpenoids. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential and to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of crude ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pergularia daemia. The plant Pergularia daemia possess effective scavenging activity against 2, 2' azino bis (3 ethylbenzothiazoline 6 sulfonic acid (ABTS), nitric oxide and reducing power radicals at different concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 & 500 µg/mL) of both extracts. Results: From the above in vitro assay we have exposed that the methanolic extract exert higher antioxidant activity at 400 µg/mL than ethyl acetate extract. Acute toxicity study revealed that the extracts showed no signs of toxicity upto a dose level of 2500 mg/kg b.wt. Conclusion: Thus our findings provide that both extracts of Pergularia daemia possess a strong antioxidant capacity and are relatively has high margin of safety. PMID:26862261

  10. Enhancing Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potentials of Antidesma thwaitesianum by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Poontawee, Warut; Natakankitkul, Surapol; Wongmekiat, Orawan

    2015-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has increasingly gained attention as an alternative technique for extraction of natural products without leaving toxic residues in extracts. Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg. (Phyllanthaceae), or ma mao, has been reported to exhibit antioxidant health benefits due to its phenolic constituents. To determine whether SFE technique could impact on phenolic contents and associated antioxidant potentials, ripe fruits of Antidesma thwaitesianum (Phyllanthaceae) were extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and conventional solvents (ethanol, water). The results showed that the SC-CO2 extract contained significantly higher yield, total phenolic, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents than those obtained from ethanol and water. It also demonstrated the greatest antioxidant activities as assessed by ABTS radical cation decolorization, DPPH radical scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Further analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD/MSD) revealed the presence of catechin as a major phenolic compound of Antidesma thwaitesianum (Phyllanthaceae), with the maximum amount detected in the SC-CO2 extract. These data indicate that SFE technology improves both quantity and quality of Antidesma thwaitesianum fruit extract. The findings added more reliability of using this technique to produce high added value products from this medicinal plant. PMID:25977832

  11. Nicotine alkaloids as antioxidant and potential protective agents against in vitro oxidative haemolysis.

    PubMed

    Malczewska-Jaskóła, Karolina; Jasiewicz, Beata; Mrówczyńska, Lucyna

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of eleven nicotine alkaloids to reduce oxidative stress was investigated. In order to provide a structure-activity relationships analysis, new nicotine derivatives with a substituent introduced into the pyrrolidine ring were synthesized and investigated together with nicotine and its known analogs. All newly synthesized compounds were characterized by (1)H, (13)C NMR and EI-MS technique. The antioxidant properties of nicotine, its known analogs and newly produced derivatives, were evaluated by various antioxidant assays such 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH(•)) scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe(2+)) chelating activity and total reducing ability determination by Fe(3+) → Fe(2+) transformation assay. The protective effects of all compounds tested against 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH)-induced oxidative haemolysis and morphological injury of human erythrocytes, were estimated in vitro. The results showed that nicotine alkaloids exhibited various antiradical efficacy and antioxidant activity in a structure- and a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the capacity of nicotine alkaloids to protect erythrocytes from AAPH- and t-BuOOH-induced oxidative haemolysis, was dependent on its incubation time with cells. Our findings showed that chemical and biological investigations conducted simultaneously can provide comprehensive knowledge concerning the antioxidant potential of nicotine alkaloids. This knowledge can be helpful in better understanding the properties of nicotine alkaloids under oxidative stress conditions.

  12. Possible Potentiation by Certain Antioxidants of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Diclofenac in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Samah S.; Schaalan, Mona F.; Bahgat, Ashraf K.; El-Denshary, Ezzeddin S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential beneficial impact of the addition of antioxidant supplements to diclofenac regimen in a model of carrageenan-induced paw. Rats were treated daily with antioxidants, that is, a-lipoic acid (50 mg/kg), selenium (2.5 mg/kg), vitamin C (1 g/kg), vitamin E (300 mg/kg), or zinc (25 mg/kg) on seven successive days and then received a single treatment with diclofenac or saline before carrageenan was injected to induce paw inflammation. The results indicated that these combinations did not significantly affect the percentage inhibition of paw edema caused by diclofenac alone; however, some combination treatments ameliorated signs of concomitant oxidative stress (such as alterations in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, hemolysate reduced glutathione levels, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase enzyme activities) imparted by diclofenac alone. In some cases, few tested antioxidants in combination with diclofenac resulted in increased plasma levels of interleukin- (IL-) 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP). In conclusion, the results of these studies suggested to us that the added presence of natural antioxidants could be beneficial as standard anti-inflammatory therapeutics for a patient under diclofenac treatment, albeit that these effects do not appear to significantly build upon those that could be obtained from this common anti-inflammatory agent per se. PMID:24715817

  13. Antioxidant potential of chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) and almond (Prunus dulcis L.) by-products.

    PubMed

    Barreira, J C M; Ferreira, I C F R; Oliveira, M B P P; Pereira, J A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant properties of almond green husks (Cvs. Duro Italiano, Ferraduel, Ferranhês, Ferrastar and Orelha de Mula), chestnut skins and chestnut leaves (Cvs. Aveleira, Boa Ventura, Judia and Longal) were evaluated through several chemical and biochemical assays in order to provide a novel strategy to stimulate the application of waste products as new suppliers of useful bioactive compounds, namely antioxidants. All the assayed by-products revealed good antioxidant properties, with very low EC(50) values (lower than 380 μg/mL), particularly for lipid peroxidation inhibition (lower than 140 μg/mL). The total phenols and flavonoids contents were also determined. The correlation between these bioactive compounds and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in pig brain tissue through formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also obtained. Although, all the assayed by-products proved to have a high potential of application in new antioxidants formulations, chestnut skins and leaves demonstrated better results.

  14. Possible potentiation by certain antioxidants of the anti-inflammatory effects of diclofenac in rats.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Samah S; Schaalan, Mona F; Bahgat, Ashraf K; El-Denshary, Ezzeddin S

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential beneficial impact of the addition of antioxidant supplements to diclofenac regimen in a model of carrageenan-induced paw. Rats were treated daily with antioxidants, that is, a-lipoic acid (50 mg/kg), selenium (2.5 mg/kg), vitamin C (1 g/kg), vitamin E (300 mg/kg), or zinc (25 mg/kg) on seven successive days and then received a single treatment with diclofenac or saline before carrageenan was injected to induce paw inflammation. The results indicated that these combinations did not significantly affect the percentage inhibition of paw edema caused by diclofenac alone; however, some combination treatments ameliorated signs of concomitant oxidative stress (such as alterations in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, hemolysate reduced glutathione levels, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase enzyme activities) imparted by diclofenac alone. In some cases, few tested antioxidants in combination with diclofenac resulted in increased plasma levels of interleukin- (IL-) 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP). In conclusion, the results of these studies suggested to us that the added presence of natural antioxidants could be beneficial as standard anti-inflammatory therapeutics for a patient under diclofenac treatment, albeit that these effects do not appear to significantly build upon those that could be obtained from this common anti-inflammatory agent per se.

  15. Wild Mushrooms in Nepal: Some Potential Candidates as Antioxidant and ACE-Inhibition Sources

    PubMed Central

    Hai Bang, Tran; Suhara, Hiroto; Doi, Katsumi; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Fukami, Katsuya; Parajuli, Gopal Prasad; Katakura, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Kazuo; Adhikari, Mahesh Kumar; Manandhar, Hira Kaji; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-nine mushrooms collected in the mountainous areas of Nepal were analyzed for antioxidant activity by different methods, including Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH assays. Intracellular H2O2-scavenging activity was also performed on HaCaT cells. The results showed that phenolic compounds are the main antioxidant of the mushrooms. Among studied samples, Inonotus andersonii, and Phellinus gilvus exhibited very high antioxidant activity with the phenolic contents up to 310.8 and 258.7 mg GAE/g extracts, respectively. The H2O2-scavenging assay on cells also revealed the potential of these mushrooms in the prevention of oxidative stress. In term of ACE-inhibition, results showed that Phlebia tremellosa would be a novel and promising candidate for antihypertensive studies. This mushroom exhibited even higher in vitro ACE-inhibition activity than Ganoderma lingzhi, with the IC50 values of the two mushrooms being 32 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first time biological activities of mushrooms collected in Nepal were reported. Information from this study should be a valuable reference for future studies on antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of mushrooms. PMID:24672576

  16. No correlation is found for vegetables between antioxidant capacity and potential benefits in improving antioxidant function in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, Linlin; Gao, Weina; Wei, Jingyu; Wu, Jianquan; Yang, Jijun; Meng, Bin; Guo, Changjiang

    2014-05-01

    Vegetables vary greatly in antioxidant capacity in vitro. This study was to investigate the actions of three vegetables different remarkably in antioxidant capacity in vitro on antioxidant function in aged rats. Sixty female aged Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the control, lotus root, rape and cucumber (high, moderate and low in antioxidant capacity, respectively) treated groups. After 6 weeks of feeding, there were no significant differences in plasma FRAP value and contents of vitamin C, vitamin E, uric acid and total phenolics among different groups, whereas the content of reduced glutathione was significantly higher in the rape and cucumber groups. Plasma superoxide dismutase activity also was significantly increased in the rape and cucumber groups. Plasma contents of malondialdehyde, carbonyls and hemolysis were decreased significantly in 3 vegetable-treated groups. Meanwhile, urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion was lower significantly in the rape group and the ratio of comet tail length to total length of blood mononuclear cells was decreased significantly in 3 vegetables treated groups. These results suggest that 3 vegetables tested are effective in improving antioxidant function to some extent in aged rats and no correlation is found between antioxidant capacity in vitro and improvements of antioxidant function. The benefits observed in this study may come from additive or synergistic combinations of antioxidants contained in vegetables.

  17. Antioxidant and antiacetylcholine esterase potential of aerial parts of Conocarpus erectus, Ficus variegata and Ficus maclellandii.

    PubMed

    Raza, Muhammad Asam; Anwar, Farwa; Shahwar, Durre; Majeed, Abdul; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Danish, Muhammad; Nazar, Muhammad Faizan; Perveen, Irum; Khan, Salah Ud-Din

    2016-03-01

    The current study was designed to check the antioxidant and enzyme inhibition potential of various extracts/ fractions of three selected plants. The aerial parts of Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae), Ficus variegata (Moraceae) and Ficus maclellandii (Moraceae) were extracted with ethanol (95%) and the resulting crude extracts were partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol successively. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to calculate the total phenolic contents, flavonoids contents were calculated with aluminum chloride while antioxidant and enzyme studies were carried out through standard protocols. All extracts/fractions contained reasonable amount of phenolic compounds ranging from 0.58-58.23 mg CE/g of DW and 0.43-30.56 mg GAE/g of DW. Total flavonoids were determined using rutin and quercetin standards, ranging from 2.65-18.2 mg rutin equivalent/g of dry weight and 0.92-5.41 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dry weight. Antioxidant studies such as DPPH inhibition FRAP and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was checked. The crude ethanolic extract of C. erectus showed maximum antiradical scavenging power (90.43%; IC50=7 μg) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (16.5 μM eq.FeSO4.7H2O), respectively while leave extract of F. variegata (chloroform) was the most active (0.6577) in TAC among other extracts of the selected medicinal plants. Butanolic leave extract of C. erectus exhibited maximum enzyme inhibition activity (91.62% with IC50 40 μg/ml) while other extracts showed significant activity. It was observed from results that all extracts/fractions of under consideration plants, exhibited significant bioactivities especially ethanolic and butanolic fractions, which may be the richest source of such type of activities. PMID:27087094

  18. Antioxidant and antiacetylcholine esterase potential of aerial parts of Conocarpus erectus, Ficus variegata and Ficus maclellandii.

    PubMed

    Raza, Muhammad Asam; Anwar, Farwa; Shahwar, Durre; Majeed, Abdul; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Danish, Muhammad; Nazar, Muhammad Faizan; Perveen, Irum; Khan, Salah Ud-Din

    2016-03-01

    The current study was designed to check the antioxidant and enzyme inhibition potential of various extracts/ fractions of three selected plants. The aerial parts of Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae), Ficus variegata (Moraceae) and Ficus maclellandii (Moraceae) were extracted with ethanol (95%) and the resulting crude extracts were partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol successively. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to calculate the total phenolic contents, flavonoids contents were calculated with aluminum chloride while antioxidant and enzyme studies were carried out through standard protocols. All extracts/fractions contained reasonable amount of phenolic compounds ranging from 0.58-58.23 mg CE/g of DW and 0.43-30.56 mg GAE/g of DW. Total flavonoids were determined using rutin and quercetin standards, ranging from 2.65-18.2 mg rutin equivalent/g of dry weight and 0.92-5.41 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dry weight. Antioxidant studies such as DPPH inhibition FRAP and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was checked. The crude ethanolic extract of C. erectus showed maximum antiradical scavenging power (90.43%; IC50=7 μg) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (16.5 μM eq.FeSO4.7H2O), respectively while leave extract of F. variegata (chloroform) was the most active (0.6577) in TAC among other extracts of the selected medicinal plants. Butanolic leave extract of C. erectus exhibited maximum enzyme inhibition activity (91.62% with IC50 40 μg/ml) while other extracts showed significant activity. It was observed from results that all extracts/fractions of under consideration plants, exhibited significant bioactivities especially ethanolic and butanolic fractions, which may be the richest source of such type of activities.

  19. Oxidative and nitrosative stress in ADHD: possible causes and the potential of antioxidant-targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Lopresti, Adrian L

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a complex aetiology although theories associated with disturbances in dopaminergic and noradrenergic activity are most commonly cited. The importance of these catecholamines in ADHD is supported by its effective treatment utilising stimulant and non-stimulant medications that modify their activity. Recently, there has been interest in oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) in ADHD and its potential to contribute to this condition. In this article, research investigating O&NS in ADHD is reviewed and its impact on catecholaminergic activity and neurological structure is discussed. Lifestyle, environmental, psychological and nutritional influences on O&NS in people with ADHD are reviewed, and evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of antioxidant-related therapies is assessed. A selection of interventions with antioxidant mechanisms is presented as potential options for the treatment of ADHD. However, further research is required to help elucidate the role of O&NS and antioxidants for the prevention and management of ADHD. PMID:25894292

  20. Investigation of Antioxidative and Anticancer Potentials of Streptomyces sp. MUM256 Isolated from Malaysia Mangrove Soil

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2015-01-01

    A Streptomyces strain, MUM256 was isolated from Tanjung Lumpur mangrove soil in Malaysia. Characterization of the strain showed that it has properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. In order to explore the potential bioactivities, extract of the fermented broth culture of MUM256 was prepared with organic solvent extraction method. DPPH and SOD activity were utilized to examine the antioxidant capacity and the results have revealed the potency of MUM256 in superoxide anion scavenging activity in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxicity of MUM256 extract was determined using cell viability assay against 8 different panels of human cancer cell lines. Among all the tested cancer cells, HCT116 was the most sensitive toward the extract treatment. At the highest concentration of tested extract, the result showed 2.3-, 2.0-, and 1.8-folds higher inhibitory effect against HCT116, HT29, and Caco-2 respectively when compared to normal cell line. This result has demonstrated that MUM256 extract was selectively cytotoxic toward colon cancer cell lines. In order to determine the constituents responsible for its bioactivities, the extract was then subjected to chemical analysis using GC-MS. The analysis resulted in the identification of chemical constituents including phenolic and pyrrolopyrazine compounds which may responsible for antioxidant and anticancer activities observed. Based on the findings of this study, the presence of bioactive constituents in MUM256 extract could be a potential source for the development of antioxidative and chemopreventive agents. PMID:26635777

  1. Quality control and in vitro antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mhaveer; Tamboli, E. T.; Kamal, Y. T.; Ahmad, Wasim; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coriandrum sativum Linn., commonly known as coriander, is a well-known spice and drug in India. It has various health-related benefits and used in various Unani formulations. In this present study, quality assessment of coriander fruits was carried out by studying anatomical characters, physicochemical tests, and chemoprofiling using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) along with in vitro antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines. Estimation of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins was carried out to ascertain the presence of any contaminant in the sample. Chemoprofiling was achieved by thin layer chromatography (TLC) by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The most of the pharmacological activities of coriander are based on volatile oil constituents. Hence, GC-MS profiling was also carried out using hexane-soluble fraction of hydro-alcoholic extract. The total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy were determined using previously established methods. Results: The quality control and anatomical studies were very valuable for the identification whereas good antioxidant potential was observed when compared to ascorbic acid. The drug was found free of contaminant when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins whereas heavy metals were found under reported limits. Conclusion: The work embodied in this present research can be utilized for the identification and the quality control of the coriander fruit. PMID:26681883

  2. Antioxidant potential of indigenous cyanobacterial strains in relation with their phenolic and flavonoid contents.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, Saadia; Hasnain, Shahida

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant activities of eight indigenous cyanobacterial strains belonging to the genera Oscillatoria, Chroococcidiopsis, Leptolyngbya, Calothrix, Nostoc and Phormidium were studied in relation with their phenolic and flavonoid contents, ranging 3.9-12.6 mg GAE g(-1) and 1.7-3.44 mg RE g(-1). The highest activities were shown by Leptolyngbya sp. SI-SM (EC50 = 63.45 and 67.49 μg mL(-1)) and Calothrix sp. SI-SV (EC50 = 65.79 and 69.38 μg mL(-1)) calculated with ABTS and DPPH assays. Significant negative correlations were seen between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activities in terms of EC50 values. Furthermore, HPLC detected 15 phenolic compounds with total concentrations ranging from 277.3 to 829.7 μg g(-1). The prevalent compounds in most of the strains were rutin, tannic acid, orcinol, phloroglucinol and protocatechuic acid. Cyanobacterial strains showed high potential as a good source of phenolic compounds with potent antioxidative potential which could be beneficial for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  3. Systematic evaluation of the antioxidant potential of different parts of Foeniculumvulgare Mill. from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Heleno, Sandrina A; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2009-10-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is a widespread perennial umbeliferous (Apiaceae) herb, traditionally used for medicinal purposes and human consumption. It is highly recommended for diabetes, bronchitis and chronic coughs, and for the treatment of kidney stones; some of those chronic diseases are related to the production of radical species involved in the oxidative stress. Therefore, the antioxidant potential of this herb might explain some of their empirical uses in folk medicine. This is the first time that a systematic study on different parts of fennel is performed, in order to understand differences in the antioxidant potential of shoots, leaves, steams, and inflorescences, particularly related to their composition in antioxidant compounds such as vitamins (ascorbic acid and tocopherols) and phenolics. The shoots seems to have the highest radical-scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (EC(50) values<1.4 mg/ml), which is in agreement with the highest content in phenolics (65.85+/-0.74 mg/g) and ascorbic acid (570.89+/-0.01 microg/g) found in this part. The shoots also revealed high concentration of tocopherols (34.54+/-1.28 microg/g) and were the only part with flavonoids. PMID:19596397

  4. Antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial potential of Zakhm-e-hayat rhizomes crude extract and fractions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Madiha; Phul, Abdul Rehman; Haq, Ihsan-ul; Bibi, Gulnaz; Mazhar, Kehkashan; Rehman, Tofeequr; Zia, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-05-01

    Bergenia ciliata (locally known as Zakhm-e-hayat; wound healer) is commonly employed for wound healing, curing diarrhea and vomiting, fever, cough and pulmonary affections. Local community uses this plant as tea decoction with table salt. B. ciliata crude extract and its fractions were subjected to antibacterial, antioxidant effects as well as determination of total flavonoids and phenolics, DNA damage and anticancerous activities following standard protocols. Increased percentage inhibition of free radical in DPPH assay as well as elevated phenolic and flavonoid contents revealed antioxidant potential of this potent herb. Ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts showed IC(50) of 0.7 and 0.3 mg/ml respectively, against H157 cell line. Antibacterial analysis showed MIC 0.4-10mg/ml for crude extract and fractions. The results obtained conclude that extracts of B. ciliata contain remedial latent and can be used as possible source for drug development by pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Potential of Paeonia emodi Royle against High-Fat Diet Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Bilal A.; Masoodi, Mubashir H.; Ahmed, Bahar; Ganie, Showkat A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was intended to evaluate the effects of Paeonia emodi rhizome extracts on serum triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), atherogenic index (AI), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The plant was extensively examined for its in vitro antioxidant activity, and the preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocols. Male Wistar rats were induced with hyperlipidemia using high-fat diet and were treated orally with hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at the dose of 200 mg/kg bw for 30 days. TGs, TC, LDL-c, and AI were significantly reduced while HDL-c, SOD, and GPx levels rose to a considerable extent. After subjecting to acute toxicity testing, the extracts were found to be safe. The observations suggest antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potential of P. emodi in high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemic/oxidative stressed rats. PMID:24734192

  6. Antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial potential of Zakhm-e-hayat rhizomes crude extract and fractions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Madiha; Phul, Abdul Rehman; Haq, Ihsan-ul; Bibi, Gulnaz; Mazhar, Kehkashan; Rehman, Tofeequr; Zia, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-05-01

    Bergenia ciliata (locally known as Zakhm-e-hayat; wound healer) is commonly employed for wound healing, curing diarrhea and vomiting, fever, cough and pulmonary affections. Local community uses this plant as tea decoction with table salt. B. ciliata crude extract and its fractions were subjected to antibacterial, antioxidant effects as well as determination of total flavonoids and phenolics, DNA damage and anticancerous activities following standard protocols. Increased percentage inhibition of free radical in DPPH assay as well as elevated phenolic and flavonoid contents revealed antioxidant potential of this potent herb. Ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts showed IC(50) of 0.7 and 0.3 mg/ml respectively, against H157 cell line. Antibacterial analysis showed MIC 0.4-10mg/ml for crude extract and fractions. The results obtained conclude that extracts of B. ciliata contain remedial latent and can be used as possible source for drug development by pharmaceutical industries. PMID:27166554

  7. An antioxidant nanozyme that uncovers the cytoprotective potential of vanadia nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernekar, Amit A.; Sinha, Devanjan; Srivastava, Shubhi; Paramasivam, Prasath U.; D'Silva, Patrick; Mugesh, Govindasamy

    2014-11-01

    Nanomaterials with enzyme-like properties has attracted significant interest, although limited information is available on their biological activities in cells. Here we show that V2O5 nanowires (Vn) functionally mimic the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase by using cellular glutathione. Although bulk V2O5 is known to be toxic to the cells, the property is altered when converted into a nanomaterial form. The Vn nanozymes readily internalize into mammalian cells of multiple origin (kidney, neuronal, prostate, cervical) and exhibit robust enzyme-like activity by scavenging the reactive oxygen species when challenged against intrinsic and extrinsic oxidative stress. The Vn nanozymes fully restore the redox balance without perturbing the cellular antioxidant defense, thus providing an important cytoprotection for biomolecules against harmful oxidative damage. Based on our findings, we envision that biocompatible Vn nanowires can provide future therapeutic potential to prevent ageing, cardiac disorders and several neurological conditions, including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease.

  8. Antioxidant Potential of Vespa affinis L., a Traditional Edible Insect Species of North East India

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Prachurjya; Dey, Tapan; Manna, Prasenjit; Kalita, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elevated oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of health disorders, like arthritis. Traditionally, Vespa affinis L., a common edible insect among many tribes in North-East India, is believed to have a beneficial role in extenuating health disorders, such as arthritis. The present study investigated the molecular mechanism underlying medicinal benefit of the Aqueous Extract of Vespa affinis L. (AEVA) against oxidative stress pathophysiology. Methods The free radical scavenging activities of AEVA were examined against DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals and the effect on the activities of antioxidant enzyme (GST and CAT) was determined using both recombinant proteins and human plasma. The antioxidant potential of AEVA was again investigated using THP-1 monocytes. Results AEVA possesses a significant free radical scavenging activity as evident from the DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Incubation of AEVA (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 μg/μL) with the recombinant antioxidant enzymes, rGST and rCAT significantly increased the enzyme activities compared to those observed in corresponding enzyme alone or AEVA itself. AEVA supplementation (5, 7.5, and 10 μg/μL) also stimulates the activities of GST and CAT when incubated with human plasma. A cell culture study also confirmed the beneficial role of AEVA (0.8 and 1.2 μg/μL) which enhances the activities of GST and CAT, and also reduces the intercellular ROS production in monocytes treated with or without H2O2 and the effects are at par with what is observed in N-acetyl cysteine-treated cells. Conclusion The antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract of Vespa affinis L. may mediate its therapeutic activities in oxidative stress-associated health disorders. PMID:27195807

  9. Effect of Long-Term Treatment with Antioxidant SkQ1 Added to Drinking Water on Cytochromes P450 Level in Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Myasoedova, K N; Silachev, D N

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondria-targeted cationic antioxidant plastoquinonyl decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) added to drinking water in therapeutic doses (250 nmol/kg per day) for a long time (up to 24 months) does not induce cytochromes P450 in rat liver.

  10. Antifungal and antioxidative potential of oil and extracts derived from leaves of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum tamala.

    PubMed

    Pandey, A K; Mishra, A K; Mishra, A

    2012-01-01

    Plant—based antimicrobials and antioxidants represent a vast untapped source for medicines and food supplements and hence have enormous therapeutic potential. Present work reports the fungicidal potential of Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm (Lauraceae) leaf oil against five food spoilage and pathogenic fungi. In addition antioxidant efficacy of seven different solvent extracts derived from leaf was also evaluated using in vitro models. The oil demonstrated potent antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Candida albicans, Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium spp. in agar diffusion assay. Zone of inhibition ranged from 17-25 mm. The MFC values of oil against all the test fungi were found to be 230μg/ml. Phytochemicals present in C. tamala leaf were extracted in several solvents for assessing their effect in oxidative defense. The extracts exhibited appreciable antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay and reducing power assay. The antioxidative activities of extracts were compared with the activities of standard antioxidant compounds BHA and ascorbic acid. Petroleum ether, ethanol, acetone and chloroform extracts exhibited about 30-67% antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay. Aqueous and ethanol extracts exhibited better reducing power which increased gradually with increasing amount of the extract concentration showing dose dependent response. Results indicated that natural phytochemicals present in C. tamala leaf extracts have potential to prevent growth of food spoilage/pathogenic fungi. In addition they also have capability to mitigate the oxidative stress by antioxidant response. PMID:23273204

  11. Total phenols, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity of walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husks.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Bento, Albino; Estevinho, Letícia; Pereira, José Alberto

    2008-07-01

    The total phenols content and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were studied in walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husks aqueous extracts of five different cultivars (Franquette, Mayette, Marbot, Mellanaise and Parisienne). Total phenols content was determined by colorimetric assay and their amount ranged from 32.61 mg/g of GAE (cv. Mellanaise) to 74.08 mg/g of GAE t (cv. Franquette). The antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts was assessed through reducing power assay, scavenging effects on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and beta-carotene linoleate model system. A concentration-dependent antioxidative capacity was verified in reducing power and DPPH assays, with EC50 values lower than 1 mg/mL for all the tested extracts. The antimicrobial capacity was screened against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and fungi. All the extracts inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria, being Staphylococcus aureus the most susceptible one with MIC of 0.1 mg/mL for all the extracts. The results obtained indicate that walnut green husks may become important in the obtainment of a noticeable source of compounds with health protective potential and antimicrobial activity.

  12. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts.

  13. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts.

  14. Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of methanolic bark extract of Madhuca indica (koenig) Gmelin

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Anu; Bhandari, Anil; Pandurangan, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 μg/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC50 value of rutin was found to be 161.7 μg/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC50 values of 38.1 and 5.84 μg/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH- radical generated from Fe2+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 μg equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this. PMID:23284220

  15. Comparison of fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential of extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds.

    PubMed

    Plastina, Pierluigi; Fazio, Alessia; Gabriele, Bartolo

    2012-01-01

    The extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds have been compared regarding fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential. Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) was found to contain the highest oil amount (34%), while the Poncirus trifoliata cultivars contained the highest percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (84-87%). In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts from defatted seeds have been evaluated by measuring their radical scavenging activity against 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The highest antioxidant activities were observed in the case of the acetone extract of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle (76% and 75%, respectively), at a concentration of 0.17 mg mL(-1). Moreover, the total phenolic content of the extracts, determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, was found to be correlated with the radical scavenging activity results. The acetone extracts of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle exhibited the highest phenolic content [112.3 and 103.4 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry sample weight, respectively]. PMID:22236049

  16. Copper complexes bearing 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives as potential antioxidant: Synthesis, characterization.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J; Janaki, G Boomadevi

    2016-09-01

    Novel copper complexes of Schiff base ligands of 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives were synthesized by the condensation of Knoevenagel condensate of acetoacetanilide (obtained from substituted benzaldehydes and acetoacetanilide) and 2-aminobenzothiazole. They were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis., molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements and electrochemical studies. Based on the magnetic moment and electronic spectral data, square planar geometry has been suggested for all the complexes. Antibacterial and antifungal screening of the ligands and their complexes reveal that all the complexes show higher activities than the ligands. The binding behaviour of the complexes with calf thymus DNA has been investigated by electronic absorption spectra, viscosity measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The DNA binding constants reveal that all these complexes interact with DNA through intercalation binding mode. Superoxide dismutase and antioxidant activities of the copper complexes have also been studied. The antioxidant activities of the complexes showed higher activities. Thermal denaturation studies suggested the nature binding affinity of copper complexes with CT-DNA. All complexes exhibit suitable Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox potential to act as antioxidant enzymes mimic. Further, the copper complexes also showed catalase activity. It is hope that copper complexes were capable of decrease ROS levels or reduce oxidative stress in Alzheimer's patients. PMID:27344637

  17. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts. PMID:26687747

  18. Capillary electrophoresis fingerprinting and spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant potential for classification of Mentha products.

    PubMed

    Roblová, Vendula; Bittová, Miroslava; Kubáň, Petr; Kubáň, Vlastimil

    2016-07-01

    In this work aqueous infusions from ten Mentha herbal samples (four different Mentha species and six hybrids of Mentha x piperita) and 20 different peppermint teas were screened by capillary electrophoresis with UV detection. The fingerprint separation was accomplished in a 25 mM borate background electrolyte with 10% methanol at pH 9.3. The total polyphenolic content in the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically at 765 nm by a Folin-Ciocalteu phenol assay. Total antioxidant activity was determined by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical at 515 nm. The peak areas of 12 dominant peaks from CE analysis, present in all samples, and the value of total polyphenolic content and total antioxidant activity obtained by spectrophotometry was combined into a single data matrix and principal component analysis was applied. The obtained principal component analysis model resulted in distinct clusters of Mentha and peppermint tea samples distinguishing the samples according to their potential protective antioxidant effect. Principal component analysis, using a non-targeted approach with no need for compound identification, was found as a new promising tool for the screening of herbal tea products. PMID:27306863

  19. Capillary electrophoresis fingerprinting and spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant potential for classification of Mentha products.

    PubMed

    Roblová, Vendula; Bittová, Miroslava; Kubáň, Petr; Kubáň, Vlastimil

    2016-07-01

    In this work aqueous infusions from ten Mentha herbal samples (four different Mentha species and six hybrids of Mentha x piperita) and 20 different peppermint teas were screened by capillary electrophoresis with UV detection. The fingerprint separation was accomplished in a 25 mM borate background electrolyte with 10% methanol at pH 9.3. The total polyphenolic content in the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically at 765 nm by a Folin-Ciocalteu phenol assay. Total antioxidant activity was determined by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical at 515 nm. The peak areas of 12 dominant peaks from CE analysis, present in all samples, and the value of total polyphenolic content and total antioxidant activity obtained by spectrophotometry was combined into a single data matrix and principal component analysis was applied. The obtained principal component analysis model resulted in distinct clusters of Mentha and peppermint tea samples distinguishing the samples according to their potential protective antioxidant effect. Principal component analysis, using a non-targeted approach with no need for compound identification, was found as a new promising tool for the screening of herbal tea products.

  20. Potential role of antioxidant food supplements, preservatives and colorants in the pathogenesis of allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Zaknun, Daniela; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Kurz, Katharina; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    A significant increase in the incidence of allergy and asthma has been observed during the past decades. The background of this phenomenon has not been well explained, but changes in lifestyle and habits are heavily discussed as contributing factors. Among these is a too clean environment, which may predispose individuals to increased sensitivity to allergic responses. Also the increase in dietary supplements including preservatives and colorants may contribute to this. In vitro, we and others have shown in freshly isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells that antioxidant compounds like vitamins C and E as well as food preservatives and colorants exert significant suppressive effects on the Th1 immune activation cascade. The effects observed may be based on the interaction of antioxidant compounds with proinflammatory cascades involving important signal transduction elements such as nuclear factor-κB. Although only obtained in vitro, these results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity. This review article discusses the potential role of increased use of antioxidant food supplements as well as preservatives and colorants in the increase in allergy and asthma in the Western world.

  1. Characterization of substituted aryl meroterpenoids from red seaweed Hypnea musciformis as potential antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu; Joy, Minju; Raola, Vamshi Krishna

    2016-12-01

    The ethyl acetate fraction of red seaweed Hypnea musciformis was purified to yield three substituted aryl meroterpenoids, namely, 2-(tetrahydro-5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-pentylfuran-3-yl)-ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (1), 2-2-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-oxy]-ethyl-4-methoxy-4-2-[(4-methylpentyl)oxy]-3,4-dihydro-2H-6-pyranylbutanoic acid (2) and 3-((5-butyl-3-methyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-methyl)-4-methoxy-4-oxobutyl benzoate (3). The structures of these compounds, as well as their relative stereochemistries, were confirmed by exhaustive NMR spectroscopic data analyses. Compound 1 exhibited similar 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical inhibiting and Fe(2+) ion chelating activities (IC50 25.05 and 350.7μM, respectively) as that of commercial antioxidant gallic acid (IC50 32.3 and 646.6μM, respectively), followed by 3 (IC50 231.2 and 667.9μM, respectively), and 2 (IC50 322.4 and 5115.3μM, respectively), in descending order of activities. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that the antioxidant activities of these compounds were directly proportional to the steric and hydrophobic parameters. The seaweed derived aryl meroterpenoids might serve as potential lead antioxidative molecules for use in pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27374595

  2. A potential biomarker for fatigue: Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Sanae; Nojima, Junzo; Motoki, Yukari; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Okawa, Naoko; Fujiwara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kuratsune, Hirohiko

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine whether oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity could act as biomarkers that discriminate patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) from healthy volunteers at acute and sub-acute fatigue and resting conditions. We calculated the oxidative stress index (OSI) from reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) and the biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We determined changes in d-ROMs, BAP, and OSI in acute and sub-acute fatigue in two healthy groups, and compared their values at rest between patients with CFS (diagnosed by Fukuda 1994 criteria) and another group of healthy controls. Following acute fatigue in healthy controls, d-ROMs and OSI increased, and BAP decreased. Although d-ROMs and OSI were significantly higher after sub-acute fatigue, BAP did not decrease. Resting condition yielded higher d-ROMs, higher OSI, and lower BAP in patients with CFS than in healthy volunteers, but lower d-ROMs and OSI when compared with sub-acute controls. BAP values did not significantly differ between patients with CFS and controls in the sub-acute condition. However, values were significantly higher than in the resting condition for controls. Thus, measured of oxidative stress (d-ROMS) and anti-oxidative activity (BAP) might be useful for discriminating acute, sub-acute, and resting fatigue in healthy people from patients with CFS, or for evaluating fatigue levels in healthy people.

  3. A potential link among antioxidant enzymes, histopathology and trace elements in canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Carolina C; Barreto, Tatiane de O; da Silva, Sydnei M; Pinto, Aldair W J; Figueiredo, Maria M; Ferreira Rocha, Olguita G; Cangussú, Silvia D; Tafuri, Wagner L

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL. PMID:24766461

  4. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts. PMID:26433888

  5. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Trapa natans L. fruits.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Neelesh; Jain, Sanjay; Jain, Avnish; Jain, Sourabh; Gurjar, Rajenda

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the in vitro antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Trapa natans L. fruits rind was investigated. The extract was found to contain a large amount of polyphenols and also exhibited an immense reducing ability. The total content of phenolic, flavonoid and tannin compounds was estimated as 63.81 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of dry material, 21.34 mg of rutin equivalents/g of dry material and 17.11 mg of total tannin equivalent /g of dry material, respectively. IC50 values for different antioxidant model were calculated as 128.86 microg/mL for DPPH radicals, 97.65 microg/mL for O2*-, 148.32 microg/mL for H2O2 and 123.01 microg/mL for NO, respectively. Reducing power and inhibition of *OH radical-induced BSA oxidation were also determined. The data obtained in the present study suggest that the aqueous extract of Trapa natans L. fruit rind have significant antioxidant activity against free radicals.

  6. A potential biomarker for fatigue: Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Sanae; Nojima, Junzo; Motoki, Yukari; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Okawa, Naoko; Fujiwara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kuratsune, Hirohiko

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine whether oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity could act as biomarkers that discriminate patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) from healthy volunteers at acute and sub-acute fatigue and resting conditions. We calculated the oxidative stress index (OSI) from reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) and the biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We determined changes in d-ROMs, BAP, and OSI in acute and sub-acute fatigue in two healthy groups, and compared their values at rest between patients with CFS (diagnosed by Fukuda 1994 criteria) and another group of healthy controls. Following acute fatigue in healthy controls, d-ROMs and OSI increased, and BAP decreased. Although d-ROMs and OSI were significantly higher after sub-acute fatigue, BAP did not decrease. Resting condition yielded higher d-ROMs, higher OSI, and lower BAP in patients with CFS than in healthy volunteers, but lower d-ROMs and OSI when compared with sub-acute controls. BAP values did not significantly differ between patients with CFS and controls in the sub-acute condition. However, values were significantly higher than in the resting condition for controls. Thus, measured of oxidative stress (d-ROMS) and anti-oxidative activity (BAP) might be useful for discriminating acute, sub-acute, and resting fatigue in healthy people from patients with CFS, or for evaluating fatigue levels in healthy people. PMID:27224647

  7. Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. 4. Age-related eye disease. SkQ1 returns vision to blind animals.

    PubMed

    Neroev, V V; Archipova, M M; Bakeeva, L E; Fursova, A Zh; Grigorian, E N; Grishanova, A Yu; Iomdina, E N; Ivashchenko, Zh N; Katargina, L A; Khoroshilova-Maslova, I P; Kilina, O V; Kolosova, N G; Kopenkin, E P; Korshunov, S S; Kovaleva, N A; Novikova, Yu P; Philippov, P P; Pilipenko, D I; Robustova, O V; Saprunova, V B; Senin, I I; Skulachev, M V; Sotnikova, L F; Stefanova, N A; Tikhomirova, N K; Tsapenko, I V; Shchipanova, A I; Zinovkin, R A; Skulachev, V P

    2008-12-01

    Mitochondria-targeted cationic plastoquinone derivative SkQ1 (10-(6'-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium) has been investigated as a potential tool for treating a number of ROS-related ocular diseases. In OXYS rats suffering from a ROS-induced progeria, very small amounts of SkQ1 (50 nmol/kg per day) added to food were found to prevent development of age-induced cataract and retinopathies of the eye, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in skeletal muscles, as well as a decrease in bone mineralization. Instillation of drops of 250 nM SkQ1 reversed cataract and retinopathies in 3-12-month-old (but not in 24-month-old) OXYS rats. In rabbits, experimental uveitis and glaucoma were induced by immunization with arrestin and injections of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose to the eye anterior sector, respectively. Uveitis was found to be prevented or reversed by instillation of 250 nM SkQ1 drops (four drops per day). Development of glaucoma was retarded by drops of 5 microM SkQ1 (one drop daily). SkQ1 was tested in veterinarian practice. A totally of 271 animals (dogs, cats, and horses) suffering from retinopathies, uveitis, conjunctivitis, and cornea diseases were treated with drops of 250 nM SkQ1. In 242 cases, positive therapeutic effect was obvious. Among animals suffering from retinopathies, 89 were blind. In 67 cases, vision returned after SkQ1 treatment. In ex vivo studies of cultivated posterior retina sector, it was found that 20 nM SkQ1 strongly decreased macrophagal transformation of the retinal pigmented epithelial cells, an effect which might explain some of the above SkQ1 activities. It is concluded that low concentrations of SkQ1 are promising in treating retinopathies, cataract, uveitis, glaucoma, and some other ocular diseases.

  8. Potential Antioxidant Activity of New Tetracyclic and Pentacyclic Nonlinear Phenothiazine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Engwa, Godwill Azeh; Ayuk, Eugene Lekem; Igbojekwe, Benardeth Ujunwa; Unaegbu, Marcellus

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in oxidative stress related diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases caused by overwhelming level of free radicals in the body has encouraged the search for new antioxidant agents. Based on the ability of newly synthesized phenothiazine derivatives (6-chloro-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one and 6-[4-bromophenyl]-10-methyl-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one) to oxidize H2O2, a known free radical to sulfoxide, this study assessed the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. The synthesized phenothiazine derivatives exhibited reducing power potential to convert Fe3+ to Fe2+ and high ability to scavenge H2O2 free radical in vitro. These activities were comparable to ascorbic acid, a standard antioxidant. The catalase activity significantly increased (p < 0.05) in groups 1 and 2 animals that received the phenothiazine derivatives compared to the controls (groups 3 and 4) suggesting the ability of the phenothiazine derivatives to scavenge H2O2 in vivo. The malondialdehyde level in groups 1 and 2 animals was lower than that in group 3 that received the reference compound (ascorbic acid) and group 4 that received the solvent suggesting the ability of the phenothiazine derivatives to prevent lipid membrane damage. AST and bilirubin levels were higher in group 2 animals which received 6-[4-bromophenyl]-10-methyl-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one compared to group 3, the positive control. The results suggest that phenothiazine derivatives, especially 6-chloro-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one, possess antioxidant activity though 6-[4-bromophenyl]-10-methyl-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one was slightly toxic. This activity may be due to the presence of electron donors such as sulfur as well as the richness of hydrogen in the additional benzene rings for substitution. Further study is needed to identify tolerable doses for possible therapeutic purposes. PMID:27127652

  9. Antioxidant potential, cytotoxic activity and total phenolic content of Alpinia pahangensis rhizomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    effect against KB, Ca Ski and HCT 116 cell lines with IC50 of 5.8 ± 0.1 and 9.1 ± 2.0 ug/ml, respectively. The major components of hexane fraction analysed by GC-MS analysis were mostly methyl esters. Conclusions The current study suggests that the methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of A. pahangensis is a potential source of natural antioxidant for protective as well as prevention of life-threatening diseases. The hexane fraction of A. pahangensis may have the potential to be developed into therapeutic option for treating cancer. PMID:24083445

  10. In Vitro Study on the Antioxidant Potentials of the Leaves and Fruits of Nauclea latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Ayeleso, Ademola O.; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.; Brooks, Nicole L.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the in vitro antioxidant potentials of the leaves and fruits of Nauclea latifolia, a straggling shrub or small tree, native to tropical Africa and Asia. Hot water extracts of the leaves and fruits of Nauclea latifolia were assessed for their total polyphenolic, flavanol, and flavonol contents as well as 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. The aqueous extract of the leaves was found to contain higher level of total polyphenols (11.63 ± 0.023 mg GAE/g), flavanol (1.45 ± 0.10 mg CE/g), and flavonol (2.22 ± 0.37 mg QE/g) than the extract of the fruits with values of 1.75 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g (total polyphenol), 0.15 ± 0.01 mg CE/g (flavanol), and 1.00 ± 0.13 mg QE/g (flavonol). Similarly, the aqueous extract of the leaves also exhibited higher DPPH (IC50 20.64 mg/mL), FRAP (86.10 ± 3.46 μmol AAE/g), TEAC (94.83 ± 3.57 μmol TE/g), and ORAC (196.55 ± 0.073 μmol TE/g) than the extract of the fruits with DPPH (IC50 120.33 mg/mL), FRAP (12.23 ± 0.40 μmol AAE/g), TEAC (12.48 ± 0.21 μmol TE/g), and ORAC (58.88 ± 0.073 μmol TE/g). The present study showed that Nauclea latifolia has strong antioxidant potentials with the leaves demonstrating higher in vitro antioxidant activities than the fruits. PMID:25013856

  11. A novel class of mitochondria-targeted soft electrophiles modifies mitochondrial proteins and inhibits mitochondrial metabolism in breast cancer cells through redox mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Vayalil, Praveen K; Oh, Joo-Yeun; Zhou, Fen; Diers, Anne R; Smith, M Ryan; Golzarian, Hafez; Oliver, Patsy G; Smith, Robin A J; Murphy, Michael P; Velu, Sadanandan E; Landar, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in screening and treatment over the past several years, breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States. A major goal in breast cancer treatment is to develop safe and clinically useful therapeutic agents that will prevent the recurrence of breast cancers after front-line therapeutics have failed. Ideally, these agents would have relatively low toxicity against normal cells, and will specifically inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. Our group and others have previously demonstrated that breast cancer cells exhibit increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption compared with non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. This suggests that it may be possible to deliver redox active compounds to the mitochondria to selectively inhibit cancer cell metabolism. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, a series of mitochondria-targeted soft electrophiles (MTSEs) has been designed which selectively accumulate within the mitochondria of highly energetic breast cancer cells and modify mitochondrial proteins. A prototype MTSE, IBTP, significantly inhibits mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in decreased breast cancer cell proliferation, cell attachment, and migration in vitro. These results suggest MTSEs may represent a novel class of anti-cancer agents that prevent cancer cell growth by modification of specific mitochondrial proteins.

  12. Potential toxicological problems associated with antioxidants in plastics and rubber consumables.

    PubMed

    Scott, G

    1988-01-01

    Antioxidants and stabilisers are of critical importance in the manufacture and use of polymer artifacts. Most conventional additives are readily leached from plastics or rubbers by foodstuffs or body fluids with consequent danger associated with the potential toxicity in the body. Strategy for the development of biologically "safe" stabilisation systems for polymers are discussed and it is concluded that the attachment of the appropriate reactive functional group to the polymer backbone by "reactive processing" provides the best means of immobilising the functional group to leaching fluids without sacrificing its protective action. PMID:3069614

  13. Anti-atherogenic potential of jujube, saffron and barberry: anti-diabetic and antioxidant actions.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Mina; Zohoori, Elham; Mehrpour, Omid; Karamian, Mehdi; Asghari, Somaye; Zarban, Asghar; Nasouti, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia, characterized by an increased level of lipoprotein (a) and a decreased level of adiponectin, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in diabetic patients. To reduce cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients, use of agents with antidiabetic and anti-atherogenic potential is required. Using an animal model of diabetes, we investigated the antiatherogenic potential of extracts of three medicinal plants: jujube, barberry, and saffron. For this, serum level of fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, adiponectin and lipoprotein (a) in diabetic control and extract treated groups were measured. Statistical analysis of measurements showed that serum levels of fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, and VLDL decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in all treated groups. Treatment with all extracts reduced lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant capacity of the experimental diabetic groups. Serum adiponectin levels increased in all treated groups, whereas lipoprotein (a) levels decreased, most markedly when treated with jujube extract. Jujube, saffron, and barberry extracts are beneficial in ameliorating oxidative stress and atherogenic risk of diabetic rats. This highlights the benefits of further investigating the cardio-protective potential of medicinal plant extracts and evaluating their usefulness as cardio protective agents in clinical practice. PMID:26600752

  14. Anti-atherogenic potential of jujube, saffron and barberry: anti-diabetic and antioxidant actions

    PubMed Central

    Hemmati, Mina; Zohoori, Elham; Mehrpour, Omid; Karamian, Mehdi; Asghari, Somaye; Zarban, Asghar; Nasouti, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia, characterized by an increased level of lipoprotein (a) and a decreased level of adiponectin, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in diabetic patients. To reduce cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients, use of agents with antidiabetic and anti-atherogenic potential is required. Using an animal model of diabetes, we investigated the antiatherogenic potential of extracts of three medicinal plants: jujube, barberry, and saffron. For this, serum level of fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, adiponectin and lipoprotein (a) in diabetic control and extract treated groups were measured. Statistical analysis of measurements showed that serum levels of fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, and VLDL decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in all treated groups. Treatment with all extracts reduced lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant capacity of the experimental diabetic groups. Serum adiponectin levels increased in all treated groups, whereas lipoprotein (a) levels decreased, most markedly when treated with jujube extract. Jujube, saffron, and barberry extracts are beneficial in ameliorating oxidative stress and atherogenic risk of diabetic rats. This highlights the benefits of further investigating the cardio-protective potential of medicinal plant extracts and evaluating their usefulness as cardio protective agents in clinical practice. PMID:26600752

  15. Phenolic profile and antioxidant potential of wild watercress (Nasturtium officinale L.).

    PubMed

    Zeb, Alam

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic profile, antioxidant potential and pigment contents of wild watercress (Nasturtium officinale L.) were studied to assess the potential for future studies and its applications in neutraceuticals and bioactive functional ingredients. Different extracts of watercress (roots, stem and leaves) were analysed for pigment composition, total phenolic contents, and radical scavenging activity. The phenolic profile of the leaves and roots was studied using reversed phase HPLC-DAD. Results showed that total phenolic compounds in all samples were higher in the methanolic extracts than its corresponding aqueous extracts. The RSA of methanolic extracts was higher than aqueous extracts. Fourteen phenolic compounds were identified in the leaves, where coumaric acid and its derivatives, caftaric acid and quercetin derivatives were present in higher amounts. In roots, a total of 20 compounds was tentatively identified, with coumaric acid and its derivatives, sinapic acid, caftaric acid and quercetin derivatives were the major phenolic compounds. In conclusion, watercress has significant antioxidant activity and contains important phenolic compounds, which could be of potential biological interest.

  16. Dichloroacetate, a selective mitochondria-targeting drug for oral squamous cell carcinoma: a metabolic perspective of treatment.

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Vitalba; Agriesti, Francesca; Scrima, Rosella; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Perrone, Donatella; Tataranni, Tiziana; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Piccoli, Claudia

    2015-01-20

    Reprogramming of metabolism is a well-established property of cancer cells that is receiving growing attention as potential therapeutic target. Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are aggressive and drugs-resistant human tumours displaying wide metabolic heterogeneity depending on their malignant genotype and stage of development. Dichloroacetate (DCA) is a specific inhibitor of the PDH-regulator PDK proved to foster mitochondrial oxidation of pyruvate. In this study we tested comparatively the effects of DCA on three different OSCC-derived cell lines, HSC-2, HSC-3, PE15. Characterization of the three cell lines unveiled for HSC-2 and HSC-3 a glycolysis-reliant metabolism whereas PE15 accomplished an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. DCA treatment of the three OSCC cell lines, at pharmacological concentrations, resulted in stimulation of the respiratory activity and caused a remarkably distinctive pro-apoptotic/cytostatic effect on HSC-2 and HSC-3. This was accompanied with a large remodeling of the mitochondrial network, never documented before, leading to organelle fragmentation and with enhanced production of reactive oxygen species. The data here presented indicate that the therapeutic efficacy of DCA may depend on the specific metabolic profile adopted by the cancer cells with those exhibiting a deficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation resulting more sensitive to the drug treatment.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial, and antidiabetic potential of two traditional medicinal plants of India: Swertia cordata and Swertia chirayita

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Priyanka; Abdulsalam, Fatima I.; Pandey, D. K.; Bhattacharjee, Aniruddha; Eruvaram, Naveen Reddy; Malik, Tabarak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Swertia cordata and Swertia chirayita are temperate Himalayan medicinal plants used as potent herbal drugs in Indian traditional systems of medicine (Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha). Objective: Assessment of Antioxidant, antibacterial, and antidiabetic potential of Swertia cordata and Swertia chirayita. Materials and Methods: Phytochemicals of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the two Swertia species were analyzed. The antioxidant potential of all the extracts was assessed by measuring total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and free radical scavenging potential was assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, antibacterial activity was assessed against various pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria in vitro by Kirby-Bauer agar well diffusion method and antidiabetic activity was assessed by α-amylase inhibition. Results: Methanolic leaf extracts of both the species of Swertia contain significant antibacterial as well as anti-diabetic potential, whereas methanolic root extracts of both species were found to have potential antioxidant activity. However, Swertia chirayita showed better activities than Swertia cordata although both species have good reputation in traditional Indian medicine. Conclusion: Both the species are having high medicinal potential in terms of their antioxidant, antibacterial and antidiabetic activities. Studies are required to further elucidate antioxidant, anti-diabetic and antibacterial potentials using various in-vitro, in-vivo biochemical and molecular biology techniques. PMID:26109789

  18. Antioxidant Potential of the Giant Mushroom, Macrocybe gigantea (Agaricomycetes), from India in Different Drying Methods.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Tanvi; Rao, P B

    2016-01-01

    Free radicals are responsible for several diseases like cancer, atherosclerosis, gastric ulcers, and several others. Studies have shown that mushrooms possess antioxidant activity and Macrocybe gigantea was recently added to the list of mushrooms under cultivation in India. The methanolic extracts were prepared from lyophilized and oven-dried samples of MA1 and MA2 strains of M. gigantea and their antioxidant properties were studied. MA2 showed comparatively higher total antioxidant activity (111.88 µg/mg) than MA1 (97.00 µg/mg). The scavenging activity on 2,2'-diphenyl picryl hydrazyl free radical (74.41%), ferrous chelating (83.74%), reducing power (0.371), and superoxide anion radical (72.05%) was significantly higher in freeze-dried MA2 than MA1 at 200 µg/mL. Correspondingly, the EC50 values were lower in freeze-dried states (96.03 µg/mL, 95.00 µg/mL, and 68.12 µg/mL in MA2 and 105.12 µg/mL, 109.8 µg/mL, and 74.60 µg/mL in MA1) than in oven-dried states (97.97 µg/mL, 120.2 µg/mL, and 125.33 µg/mL in MA2 and 108.3 µg/mL, 131.2 µg/mL, and 147.5 µg/mL in MA1, respectively). In addition, total phenolic, total flavonoid, and ortho-dihydroxy phenol content was examined and their values were comparatively higher in freeze-dried MA2 (18.00 mg/g of gallic acid equivalents, 1.67 mg/g of quercetin equivalents, and 1.10 mg/g of catechol equivalents, respectively) than in MA1 and oven-dried states in both strains. Further, MA2 showed lower EC50 values in freeze-dried samples than MA1 and oven-dried states in both strains. These results suggested that MA2 contains higher antioxidant potential than MA1 and freeze-drying by lyophilization retains higher antioxidants than heat drying by a hot air oven in both the strains; thus, they can be a good source of nutraceuticals. PMID:27279535

  19. Preparation, characterization and in vitro antioxidative potential of synbiotic fermented dairy products.

    PubMed

    Shah, C; Mokashe, N; Mishra, V

    2016-04-01

    The present study, evaluates the antioxidative potential of two synbiotic dairy products viz. synbiotic lassi with honey and whey based synbiotic drink with inulin and orange juice, along with their physicochemical and microbiological activity during storage period. Antioxidative potential of raw ingredients and probiotic cultures used to prepare synbiotic products was also evaluated. Synbiotic lassi with honey was prepared using Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5460 (MD2) and Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 (V3) as probiotics and honey as prebiotic. For preparation of whey based synbiotic drink, Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 and inulin were used as probiotic and prebiotic, respectively and orange juice was also incorporated. Titratable acidity and pH of both synbiotic products followed a similar pattern of increase or decrease during storage. Furthermore, no major changes were observed in viability of probiotic cultures under storage conditions adapted. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of synbiotic lassi with honey was found to significantly decrease from 107.76 to 79.41 % at the end of storage whereas, the activity of whey based synbiotic drink was 100.32 % which declined sharply to 79.21 % on 7th day but further increased to 102.59 % on 14th day. The DPPH (α, α-Diphenyl-β-Picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity of freshly prepared synbiotic lassi with honey was 28.43 % which decreased to 23.03 % on 7th day while for whey based synbiotic drink decreased from 26.85 % (0 day) to 17.12 % (7th day) and continued to decline. Moreover, probiotic strains used for synbiotic preparation also demonstrated good antioxidative activity. PMID:27413225

  20. Exploring the antioxidant potential of lignin isolated from black liquor of oil palm waste.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Khalil, H P S A; Karim, A A

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential antioxidant activity of lignin obtained from black liquor, a hazardous waste product generated during the extraction of palm oil. Antioxidant potential of the extracted lignin was evaluated by dissolving the extracted samples in 2 different solvent systems, namely, 2-methoxy ethanol and DMSO. Results revealed high percent inhibition of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in the lignin sample dissolved in 2-methoxy ethanol over DMSO (concentration range of 1-100 microg/ml). Lignin extracted in 2-methoxy ethanol exhibited higher inhibition percentage (at 50 microg/ml, 84.2%), whereas a concentration of 100 microg/ml was found to be effective in the case of the DMSO solvent (69.8%). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry revealed that the functional groups from the extracted lignin and commercial lignin were highly similar, indicating the purity of the lignin extracted from black liquor. These results provide a strong basis for further applications of lignin in the food industry and also illustrate an eco-friendly approach to utilize oil palm black liquor.

  1. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity potential of Manihot multifida (L.) Crantz (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Fabri, Rodrigo L; De Sá, Daniel S; Pereira, Ana Patrícia O; Scio, Elita; Pimenta, Daniel S; Chedier, Luciana M

    2015-03-01

    Manihot multifida (L.) Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) is widely used in popular medicine for the treatment of infected wounds. This study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of this species against strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi, known to cause infections in humans. The extracts showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) varying from 39 to 2500 µg/mL for antimicrobial activity. The methanolic extract of fruits, aqueous and hexane extracts of leaves showed a very strong activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 18804) with MIC of 39 µg/mL. Furthermore, the methanolic extract of M. multifida leaves exhibited DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging potential with inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 46.9 μg/mL, followed by hexane extract of leaves with IC50 values of 59.2 μg/mL. The cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp was stronger for the methanolic extract of leaves (lethal concentration - LC50 of 15.6 µg/mL). These results suggest that M. multifida has interesting antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Moreover, these results corroborate the popular use of this specie in treating fungal infections since it demonstrates significant activity against C. albicans.

  2. Antioxidant Potential of the Extracts, Fractions and Oils Derived from Oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaque, Shagufta; Khan, Nasir; Siddiqui, Muhammad A; Siddiqi, Rahmanullah; Naz, Shahina

    2013-10-15

    The polyphenolic extracts and oils were obtained from ajwain, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds. The extracts were partitioned into acidic and neutral polyphenolic fractions and following estimation of total phenolics in the crude extract, acidic and neutral fractions and oil, all were analyzed for their DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging potential, ferric reducing ability and chelating power. The highest amount of polyphenols was found in ajwain (8330 ± 107), then in mustard seeds (2844 ± 56.00) and in fenugreek (1130 ± 29.00), and least in poppy seeds (937 ± 18.52). The higher amounts of polyphenols were estimated in neutral fraction compared to acidic (p < 0.05). % Inhibition of DPPH by the crude extract and fractions of all oilseeds was quite significant, being higher for acidic than neutral. The highest % DPPH inhibition was shown by ajwain extract than mustard > fenugreek and least by poppy seed extracts (p < 0.05). The reducing power and the chelating effect of the oilseeds followed the same order as DPPH, but higher % chelation was shown by neutral than acidic fraction (p < 0.05). Though low in polyphenols, the oil fractions were as strong antioxidants as the acidic one. Though oilseeds are used in very small quantity in food, they are potential sources of natural antioxidants and may replace synthetic ones.

  3. Influence of carbohydrate ingestion on oxidative stress and plasma antioxidant potential following a 3 h run.

    PubMed

    McAnulty, Steven R; McAnulty, Lisa S; Nieman, David C; Morrow, Jason D; Utter, Alan C; Henson, Dru A; Dumke, Charles L; Vinci, Debra M

    2003-08-01

    Concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase during exercise secondary to increased oxygen uptake, xanthine oxidase activity, and immune system activation. Carbohydrate compared to placebo beverage ingestion is associated with an attenuated cortisol and catecholamine response. Catecholamines can undergo autooxidation to form ROS. We hypothesized that during intense exercise, ingestion of carbohydrate compared to placebo would diminish oxidative stress. Sixteen experienced marathoners ran on treadmills for 3 h at approximately 70% VO2(max) on two occasions while receiving carbohydrate or placebo beverages (11/h, double-blinded) in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after exercise, snap frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at -80 degrees C until analysis. Plasma samples were analyzed for F2-isoprostanes (FIP) and lipid hydroperoxides (ROOH) as measures for lipid peroxidation, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of plasma antioxidant potential and for cortisol. The pattern of change in cortisol was significantly different between carbohydrate and placebo conditions (P = 0.024), with post-exercise levels higher in the placebo condition. Under both carbohydrate and placebo conditions, significant increases in FIP, ROOH, and FRAP were measured, but the pattern of increase was not different (FIP, interaction effect, P = 0.472; ROOH, P = 0.572; FRAP, P = 0.668). Despite an attenuation in the cortisol response, carbohydrate compared to placebo ingestion does not counter the increase in oxidative stress or modulate plasma antioxidant potential in athletes running 3 h at 70% VO2(max). PMID:14567443

  4. Copper phytoremediation potential of Calandula officinalis L. and the role of antioxidant enzymes in metal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Sunayana; Das, Suchismita

    2016-04-01

    Cu phytoremediation potential of an ornamental plant, Calandula officinalis, was explored in terms of growth responses, photosynthetic activities and antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GPX. The results showed that this plant had high Cu tolerance of up to 400 mg/kg, which is far above the phytotoxic range for non hyperaccumulators. It grew normally in soils at all the doses (150-400 mg/kg) without showing external signs of phytotoxicity. At 150 mg/kg, flowering was augmented; root and shoot biomass, root lengths and leaf soluble protein contents remained same as that of the control. However, chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment contents declined significantly along with significant elevations in lipid peroxidation, at all the doses. Elevations of antioxidant enzymes reflected stress as well as probable mitigation of reactive oxygen species due to Cu stress. Except for the highest conc. (400 mg/kg), leaf accumulation of Cu was higher than root accumulations. The Cu accumulation peaked at 300 mg/kg Cu in soil, with leaf and root accumulations to be respectively, 4675 and 3995 µg/g dry wt., far more than the minimum of 1000 µg/g dry wt. for a Cu hyperaccumulator. The plant root at all the doses tolerated Cu, with the tolerance index ranging from 94-62.7. The soil to plant metal uptake capacity, indicated by extraction coefficient and the root to shoot translocation, indicated by translocation factor, at all the doses of Cu were >1, pointed towards efficient phytoremediation potential. PMID:26773830

  5. Antioxidant potential and its relationship with polyphenol content and degree of polymerization in Opuntia elatior Mill. fruits

    PubMed Central

    Itankar, Prakash R.; Sontakke, Varsha A.; Tauqeer, Mohd.; Charde, Sonal S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Opuntia elatior Mill. (Nagaphani) fruits are traditionally recommended as an expectorant, remedy for whooping cough, asthma, gonorrhea, ulcers, tumors, in the treatment of diarrhea and syphilis. Many of these diseases are allied with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Thus, current research is directed towards finding naturally-occurring antioxidants of plant origin. Aim: To evaluate antioxidant potential of hydro-alcoholic extract of the O. elatior fruits (HAOE) and its fractions. Materials and Methods: Using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, total polyphenolic, flavonoid (FA), flavanone (FO) contents and degree of polymerization in relation with its antioxidant activity were examined. Results: The experimental data indicated that the HAOE, ethyl acetate (EAOE) and butanol (BFOE) soluble fractions have shown significant antioxidant activity. The highest polyphenolic, FA, FO contents and degree of polymerization were found in EAOE. The scavenging potential was in the order of Ascorbic Acid > EAOE > BFOE > HAOE > BIOE, where ascorbic acid was used as a positive control. The increased antioxidant potential of EAOE and BFOE fractions over HAOE extract may be attributed to the purification achieved by fractionation of the extract which in turn resulted in an increase in the degree of polymerization and segregation of secondary metabolites. Conclusion: The fruit of O. elatior can be used as the best alternative for synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26195906

  6. Antioxidant potential of different grape cultivars against Fenton-like reagent-induced liver damage ex-vivo.

    PubMed

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar

    2014-10-01

    The phytochemicals present in the grapes are responsible for nutraceutical and health benfits due to their antioxidant properties. These phytochemicals, however, vary greatly among different cultivars. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potential and protective role of four different Indian grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars extracts, namely Flame seedless (Black grapes), Kishmish chorni (Black with reddish brown), Red globe (Red) and Thompson seedless mutant (Sonaka, Green) against the Fenton-like reagent (200 μmole H2O2, 2 mmole ascorbate, 25 μmole FeSO4)-induced liver damage. Non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were highest in the grape seed, followed by skin and pulp. Among edible parts of different cultivars, skin of Flame seedless (Black) cultivar showed highest antioxidant potential, while the Thompson seedless the least potential. These antioxidants were found to be significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with the levels of total phenol, flavonoids and ascorbic acid. Fenton-like reagent treatment significantly (P < 0.001) decreased GSH content by 39.1% and activities of catalase (CAT) by 43.2% and glutathione reductase (GR) by 60%, while increasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide levels by 2.13-fold and 0.64-fold, respectively and GST activity by 0.81-fold. Pre-treatment with grape seed extracts showed the best hepatoprotective action against Fenton-like reagent-induced damage, followed by the extracts of skin and pulp of any cultivar. Thus, our study showed the significant amounts of antioxidants were in grape seed, followed by its skin and pulp, which varied among the cultivars and was associated with the protective action of grape extracts against Fenton-like reagent-induced liver damage ex-vivo. PMID:25630107

  7. Phenolic Profile and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Selected Cotoneaster Medik. Species.

    PubMed

    Kicel, Agnieszka; Michel, Piotr; Owczarek, Aleksandra; Marchelak, Anna; Żyżelewicz, Dorota; Budryn, Grażyna; Oracz, Joanna; Olszewska, Monika Anna

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant efficiency of 70% aqueous methanolic extracts from the leaves of twelve selected Cotoneaster Medik. species was evaluated using four complementary in vitro tests based on SET- (single electron transfer) and HAT-type (hydrogen atom transfer) mechanisms (DPPH, FRAP, O₂(•-) and H₂O₂ scavenging assays). The samples exhibited the dose-dependent responses in all assays with activity parameters of EC50 = 18.5-34.5 µg/mL for DPPH; 0.9-3.8 mmol Fe(2+)/g for FRAP; SC50 = 27.7-74.8 µg/mL for O₂(•-); and SC50 = 29.0-91.3 µg/mL for H₂O₂. Significant linear correlations (|r| = 0.76-0.97, p < 0.01) between activity parameters and total contents of phenolics (5.2%-15.4% GAE) and proanthocyanidins (2.1%-15.0% CYE), with weak or no effects for chlorogenic acid isomers (0.69%-2.93%) and total flavonoids (0.28%-1.40%) suggested that among the listed polyphenols, proanthocyanidins are the most important determinants of the tested activity. UHPLC-PDA-ESI-QTOF-MS analyses led to detection of 34 polyphenols, of which 10 B-type procyanidins, 5 caffeoylquinic acids and 14 flavonoids were identified. After cluster analysis of the data matrix, the leaves of Cotoneaster zabelii, C. splendens, C. bullatus, C. divaricatus, C. hjelmqvistii and C. lucidus were selected as the most promising sources of natural antioxidants, exhibiting the highest phenolic levels and antioxidant capacities, and therefore the greatest potential for pharmaceutical applications. PMID:27240329

  8. Antioxidant Potential, DNA Protection, and HPLC-DAD Analysis of Neglected Medicinal Jurinea dolomiaea Roots

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Naz, Kiran; Khan, Mubarak Ali

    2014-01-01

    Jurinea dolomiaea Boiss., family Compositae, is a medicinally important plant of alpine region. Its tuberous roots are used in various ailments in folk medicine. This study was undertaken to estimate total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) and to determine anti-free radical potential by diverse in vitro antioxidant assays. Crude methanol extract (JDME) was fractionated into n-hexane (JDHE), chloroform (JDCE), ethyl acetate (JDEE), n-butanol (JDBE), and aqueous (JDAE) fractions. The results indicated that JDEE and JDCE constituted the highest amount of TFC (807 ± 7.2 mg rutin equivalent/g sample) and TPC (757 ± 9.4 mg gallic acid equivalent/g sample), respectively. Significant correlation of TFC with IC50 values was recorded for •OH (R2 = 0.91), H2O2 (R2 = 0.82), and ABTS (R2 = 0.82) assay. It could be made clear that JDEE was the most potent in antioxidant activity as compared to others, with generally lower IC50 values for DPPH (41.1 ± 1.0 μg/mL), ABTS (46.7 ± 0.6 μg/mL), H2O2 (42.2 ± 0.9 μg/mL), •OH (61.1 ± 1.1 μg/mL), O2− (152 ± 1.1 μg/mL), and antilipid peroxidation (54.3 ± 1.6 μg/mL). HPLC chromatogram of JDEE revealed the presence of catechin, caffeic acid, and rutin. The results indicated the antioxidant activities of J. dolomiaea roots and merit further investigations for their use in oxidative stress related disorders. PMID:24982907

  9. Appraisal of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity potential of cornelian cherry leaves.

    PubMed

    Celep, Engin; Aydın, Ahmet; Kırmızıbekmez, Hasan; Yesilada, Erdem

    2013-12-01

    The antioxidant activity of the 80% methanolic extract of Cornus mas L. leaves (CMM) was evaluated by various methods both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro screening tests indicated that CMM had high antioxidant activity in terms of free radical scavenging and metal reducing activity. In vivo antioxidant activity studies in normal healthy rats demonstrated that the total antioxidant capacity of liver homogenates were increased, although no changes were observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase or in the level of lipid peroxidation. Studies on CCl4-treated rats also showed that CMM restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes, lowered the level of lipid peroxidation and elevated the total antioxidant capacities of both the total blood and liver homogenates of the animals. Further activity-guided fractionation studies led to the isolation of gallic acid, a well-known antioxidant, as one of the active components. PMID:24035707

  10. Development of a mitochondria-based centrifugal ultrafiltration/liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for screening mitochondria-targeted bioactive constituents from complex matrixes: Herbal medicines as a case study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing-Xin; Xu, Feng; Wang, Dan; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Tan, Huan-Ran; Shang, Ming-Ying; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2015-09-25

    Mitochondria are an important intracellular pharmacological target because damage to this organelle results in a variety of human disorders and because mitochondria are involved in complex processes such as energy generation, apoptosis and lipid metabolism. To expedite the search for natural bioactive compounds targeting mitochondria, we initially developed an efficient mitochondria-based screening method by combining centrifugal ultrafiltration (CU) with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), which is called screening method for mitochondria-targeted bioactive constituents (SM-MBC) and is compatible with the search of mitochondria-targeted compounds from complex matrixes such as herbal medicines extracts. Functionally active, structurally intact and pure mitochondria were obtained from rat myocardium using an optimized protocol for mitochondrial isolation comprising organelle release followed by differential and Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. After evaluating the reliability of the method using thiabendazole (TZ), rotenone (RN), amiodarone (AR) and trimetazidine (TD) as positive controls, this method was successfully applied to screen bioactive constituents from extracts of Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix (PCRR) and Scutellariae Radix (SR). Nineteen active compounds were detected and identified by LC/MS, of which 17 were new mitochondria-targeted compounds. The activity of 9 of the 19 hit compounds was confirmed by in vitro pharmacological trials. These results demonstrate that SM-MBC can be used for the efficient screening of mitochondria-targeted constituents in complex preparations used to treat mitochondrial disorders, such as PCRR and SR. The results may be meaningful for an in-depth understanding of drug mechanism of action and drug discovery from medicinal herbs.

  11. Fluorescence spectroscopy and principal component analysis of soy protein hydrolysate fractions and the potential to assess their antioxidant capacity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ranamukhaarachchi, Sahan A; Peiris, Ramila H; Moresoli, Christine

    2017-02-15

    The potential of intrinsic fluorescence and principal component analysis (PCA) to characterize the antioxidant capacity of soy protein hydrolysates (SPH) during sequential ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) was evaluated. SPH was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soy protein isolate. Antioxidant capacity was measured by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Folin Ciocalteau Reagent (FCR) assays together with fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM). PCA of the fluorescence EEMs revealed two principal components (PC1-tryptophan, PC2-tyrosine) that captured significant variance in the fluorescence spectra. Regression models between antioxidant capacity and PC1 and PC2 displayed strong linear correlations for NF fractions and a weak linear correlation for UF fractions. Clustering of UF and NF fractions according to ORACFPCA and FCRFPCA was observed. The ability of this method to extract information on contributions by tryptophan and tyrosine amino acid residues to the antioxidant capacity of SPH fractions was demonstrated. PMID:27664660

  12. Comparative effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Kaluska, Iwona; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-10-01

    Chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) are widely consumed all over the world, and have been recently studied for their antioxidant potential. The present study reports the effect of e-beam and gamma radiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 1 and 3 kGy) on the antioxidant potential of Portuguese chestnuts. Irradiation might be an alternative preservation method, since Methyl Bromide, a widely used fumigant, was banished by the European Union in 2010 due to its toxicity. The antioxidant activity was evaluated through 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay, reducing power by the Ferricyanide/Prussian blue assay, and lipid peroxidation inhibition by β-carotene/linoleate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays. The analysis of total phenolics and flavonoids was performed by spectrophotometric assays. Irradiated samples preserved total phenolics content (but not flavonoids) and revealed higher antioxidant activity (lower EC50 values) than the control samples. The most indicated doses to maintain antioxidants content, and to increase antioxidant activity were 1 and 3 kGy for electron beam and gamma radiation, respectively.

  13. The Antioxidant Potential of Azadirachta indica Ameliorates Cardioprotection Following Diabetic Mellitus-Induced Microangiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Naveen Kumar; Srivastva, Nidhi; Bubber, Parvesh; Puri, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    /kg body weight) post-STZ treatment significantly reversed the adverse effects witnessed by normalized blood glucose levels, improvement in reduced body weight and stabilized lipid profilesFurther, ALE treatment also significantly reduced the LPO indices, improvement in GSH content and restoration of antioxidant enzyme activities, suggesting antioxidatant potential of ALEThe microangiopathic changes in the heart tissue consequent to induction of diabetes and oxidative stress by STZ as reiterated through light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were found to be reversed by ALE treatment. These observations pointed toward cardiopreventive effects of ALE following microangiopathic changes as seen following induction of diabetes mellitus. Abbreviations used: AI: Azadirachta indica, ALE: Azadirachta indica Leaves Extract. STZ: Streptozotocin, LPO Lipid per oxidation, GSH: Glutathione, GSSG: Glutathione disulphide, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, GP: Glutathione peroxidase, GR: Glutathione reductase. PMID:27563227

  14. Encapsulation of catechin and epicatechin on BSA NPS improved their stability and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ramdhan; Kumar, Dharmesh; Kumari, Avnesh; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Nanoencapsulation of antioxidant molecules on protein nanoparticles (NPs) could be an advanced approach for providing stable, better food nutraceuticals and anticancer drugs. The bioavailability and stability of catechin (CAT) and epicatechin (ECAT) were very poor. In the present study, the CAT and ECAT were loaded on bovine serum albumin (BSA) NPs following desolvation method. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) recorded size of CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs were 45 ± 5 nm and 48 ± 5 nm respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of CAT and ECAT on BSA NPs was found to be 60.5 and 54.5 % respectively. CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs show slow and sustained in vitro release. The CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs were stable in solution at various temperatures 37 °C, 47 °C and 57 °C. DPPH assay revealed that CAT and ECAT maintained their functional activity even after encapsulation on BSA NPs. Furthermore, the efficacy of CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs determined against A549 cell lines was found to be improved. CAT and ECAT aptly encapsulated in BSA NPs, showed satisfactory sustained release, maintained antioxidant potential and found improved efficacy. This has thus suggested their more effective use in food and nutraceuticals as well as in medical field.

  15. Phytochemical screening, antioxidants and antimicrobial potential of Lantana camara in different solvents

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidant activity, hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, and antimicrobial and antifungal activities of methanol, ethanol and water extracts of leaves of Lantana camara (L. camara). Methods Methanol, ethanol and water extracts were evaluated against four Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis) and two fungal strains (Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus). Methanol extract at different concentrations was tested for antioxidant potential and phytochemicals were determined by using spectrophotometric method. Results The total phenolic content was (40.859±0.017) mg gallic acid/g in the leaves of L. camara, while the total flavonoids was (53.112±0.199) mg/g dry weight. Methanol leaf extract of L. camara showed maximum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and was also effective against other bacterial strains as compared to ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaves. The methanol leaf extract of L. camara exhibited significant inhibition (71%) and (66%) against Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus respectively. Conclusions The methanol extract of the L. camara leaves is effective against selected bacterial and fungal strains. Its phytochemical contents have broad antimicrobial properties and the plant might be a novel source of antimicrobial drug.

  16. Encapsulation of catechin and epicatechin on BSA NPS improved their stability and antioxidant potential

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ramdhan; Kumar, Dharmesh; Kumari, Avnesh; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Nanoencapsulation of antioxidant molecules on protein nanoparticles (NPs) could be an advanced approach for providing stable, better food nutraceuticals and anticancer drugs. The bioavailability and stability of catechin (CAT) and epicatechin (ECAT) were very poor. In the present study, the CAT and ECAT were loaded on bovine serum albumin (BSA) NPs following desolvation method. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) recorded size of CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs were 45 ± 5 nm and 48 ± 5 nm respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of CAT and ECAT on BSA NPs was found to be 60.5 and 54.5 % respectively. CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs show slow and sustained in vitro release. The CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs were stable in solution at various temperatures 37 °C, 47 °C and 57 °C. DPPH assay revealed that CAT and ECAT maintained their functional activity even after encapsulation on BSA NPs. Furthermore, the efficacy of CAT-BSA NPs and ECAT-BSA NPs determined against A549 cell lines was found to be improved. CAT and ECAT aptly encapsulated in BSA NPs, showed satisfactory sustained release, maintained antioxidant potential and found improved efficacy. This has thus suggested their more effective use in food and nutraceuticals as well as in medical field. PMID:26417264

  17. Oxidative DNA damage protective activity, antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing potentials of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahma N; Singh, B R; Singh, R L; Prakash, D; Dhakarey, R; Upadhyay, G; Singh, H B

    2009-06-01

    The aqueous extract of leaf (LE), fruit (FE) and seed (SE) of Moringa oleifera was assessed to examine the ability to inhibit the oxidative DNA damage, antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing (QS) potentials. It was found that these extracts could significantly inhibit the OH-dependent damage of pUC18 plasmid DNA and also inhibit synergistically with trolox, with an activity sequence of LE > FE > SE. HPLC and MS/MS analysis was carried out, which showed the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and vanillin. The LE was with comparatively higher total phenolics content (105.04 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g), total flavonoids content (31.28 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g), and ascorbic acid content (106.95 mg/100 g) and showed better antioxidant activity (85.77%), anti-radical power (74.3), reducing power (1.1 ascorbic acid equivalents (ASE)/ml), inhibition of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, OH-induced deoxyribose degradation, and scavenging power of superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals than did the FE, SE and standard alpha-tocopherol. Eventually, LE and FE were found to inhibit violacein production, a QS-regulated behavior in Chromobacterium violaceum 12472.

  18. Potential of Excipient Emulsions for Improving Quercetin Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity: An in Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Zou, Liqiang; Liu, Wei; McClements, David Julian

    2016-05-11

    The potential for excipient emulsions to enhance the bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of quercetin was determined in this study. Oil-in-water excipient emulsions containing two levels (4 or 10%) of small lipid droplets (d < 250 nm) were prepared from a long-chain triglyceride (corn oil). The solubilization of quercetin by the excipient emulsions was faster than by bulk corn oil or bulk water, and the solubilization rate was higher at 100 °C than at 30 °C. The bioaccessibility of quercetin samples was determined using an in vitro gastrointestinal model, and the bioactivity of quercetin was determined using a rat feeding study. The excipient emulsions were more effective at enhancing quercetin bioaccessibility and rat plasma antioxidant activity than either bulk oil or bulk water. This effect was attributed to the rapid digestion of the long chain triglycerides when they were in an emulsified form, which led to the rapid production of mixed micelles capable of solubilizing, protecting, and transporting quercetin.

  19. Assessment of Antioxidant Potential, Total Phenolics and Flavonoids of Different Solvent Fractions of Monotheca Buxifolia Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shumaila; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Rashid, Umbreen; Bokhari, Jasia

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of methanol extract and its derived fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and aqueous) of fruits of Monotheca buxifolia (Falc.) Dc., a locally used fruit in Pakistan. Methods Dried powder of the fruit of M. buxifolia was extracted with methanol and the resultant was fractionated with solvents having escalating polarity; n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and the residual soluble aqueous fraction. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were estimated for the methanol and various fractions. These fractions were also subjected to various in vitro assays to estimate the scavenging activity for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), superoxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide and reductive ability for ferric ions and phosphomolybdate assay. Results The n-butanol, aqueous and methanol fractions possessed high amount of phenolics and flavonoids compared with other fractions, and subsequently showed a pronounced scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, superoxide, hydroxyl and hydrogen peroxide radicals and had a potent reductive ability on ferric ion and phosphomolybdate assay. There was a found significant correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and EC50 of DPPH, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide radical and phosphomolybdate assays, whereas a nonsignificant correlation was found with the hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical assay. Conclusion M. buxifolia fruit can be used as natural antioxidant source to prevent damage associated with free radicals. PMID:24298440

  20. Evaluation of Chenopodium ambrosioides oil as a potential source of antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Dubey, N K; Tripathi, Y B

    2007-04-10

    Essential oil extracted from the leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn. (Chenopodiaceae) was tested against the aflatoxigenic strain of test fungus Aspergillus flavus Link. The oil completely inhibited the mycelial growth at 100 microg/ml. The oil exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Helminthosporium oryzae and Pythium debaryanum at 100 microg/ml. The oil showed significant efficacy in inhibiting the aflatoxin B1 production by the aflatoxigenic strain of A. flavus. During in vivo investigation it protected stored wheat from different storage fungi for one year. Chenopodium oil also exhibited potent antioxidant activity when tested by ABTS method. All these observations suggest the possible exploitation of the Chenopodium oil as potential botanical fungitoxicant in ecofriendly control of post harvest biodeterioration of food commodities from storage fungi.

  1. [Studies of several analytical methods for antioxidant potential evaluation in food].

    PubMed

    Marc, Françoise; Davin, André; Deglène-Benbrahim, Laurence; Ferrand, Carine; Baccaunaud, Michel; Fritsch, Pierre

    2004-04-01

    Oxidation control is necessary to manage the evolution of complex biological system, particularly in food whose degradation could have consequences on food security. After description of context and oxidation mechanisms, several analytical methods to evaluate the additive antioxidant potential are presented. This evaluation is performed either by quantification of products (in particular hydroperoxydes) using direct or indirect photometric techniques and chemical titration with suitable reactants or on the effectiveness to trap free radicals with modelized systems that can generate them. Methods based on the comparison of radical trapping ability between an additive and Trolox (particularly Trolox(R) equivalent antioxydant capacity, TEAC) can be applied to many products whatever the hydrophily or the hydrophobia of the medium.

  2. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory potential and chemical constituents of Origanum dubium Boiss., growing wild in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Karioti, Anastasia; Milošević-Ifantis, Tanja; Pachopos, Nikitas; Niryiannaki, Niki; Hadjipavlou-Litina, Dimitra; Skaltsa, Helen

    2015-02-01

    Origanum dubium Boiss. is a flavouring herb widely used in Cyprus. In this study, both lipophilic and polar extracts of the aerial parts of O. dubium were investigated for their chemical contents and their antioxidant potential. Overall, 20 constituents were isolated and identified, belonging mainly to three significant classes of compounds: terpenes, phenolic derivatives, such as hydroquinone glycosides and flavonoids and alicyclic derivatives. None of them was previously reported as constituent of O. dubium The inhibitory potencies of all total extracts and the isolated compounds on lipid peroxidation and their interaction with 1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity is discussed. The polar extract showed strong interaction with DPPH stable radical and significant inhibition of lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation.

  3. Phenolic content, antioxidant potential and Aedes aegyptii ecological friend larvicidal activity of some selected Egyptian plants.

    PubMed

    El-Hela, Atef A; Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; Dawoud, Gouda T M; Hamed, Abdo M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols constitute a distinct group of natural compounds of medicinal importance exhibiting wide range of physiological activities as antioxidant, immunestimulant, antitumor and antiparasitic. Yellow fever and dengue fever are mosquito-borne infectious diseases transmitted by Aedes aegyptii, the presence of yellow fever in Sudan and dengue fever in Saudi Arabia are threats to Egypt with the reemerging of Ae. aegyptii in Southern Egypt, larvae control is feasible than flying adults. This work was conducted targeting estimation of the relative levels of total phenolic content, antioxidant potential and larvicidal activity of 110 selected Egyptian plants. The highest total phenolic contents were estimated in aqueous extracts of Coronilla scorpioides L., Forsskaolea tenacissima L., Crataegus sinaica Boiss., Pistacia khinjuk Boiss. and Loranthus acacia Benth.; they were 916.70 +/- 4.80, 813.70 +/- 4.16, 744.90 +/- 4.93, 549.00 +/- 3.93& 460.80 +/- 4.02 mg% while those of methanol extracts were estimated in Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Loranthus acacia and Pistacia khinjuk, they were 915.60-4.86, 664.60 +/- 4.16, 659.30 +/- 4.80, 590.80 +/- 4.49 & 588.00 +/- 3.85 mg% respectively. Investigation of the antioxidant potentials revealed that the most potent plants were Co-ronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia with calculated values of 454.80 +/- 4.83, 418.4 +/- 4.16, 399.10 +/- 4.90, 342.5 +/- 2.72 & 239.7 +/- 2.91% for aqueous extracts and 452.9 +/- 4.94, 389.6 +/- 4.6, 378.48 +/- 3.84, 352.3 +/- 3.06 & 346.5 +/- 2.98% for methanol extracts respectively while screening of larvicidal activity proved that Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia exhibited highest potency calculated as 22.53 +/- 2.01, 23.85 +/- 2.07, 28.17 +/- 2.06, 31.60 +/- 2.93 & 39.73 +/- 4.58 mg% aqueous extracts and 18.53 +/- 1.95, 18

  4. Neuroprotective potential of Laurus nobilis antioxidant polyphenol-enriched leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Pacifico, Severina; Gallicchio, Marialuisa; Lorenz, Peter; Duckstein, Sarina M; Potenza, Nicoletta; Galasso, Silvia; Marciano, Sabina; Fiorentino, Antonio; Stintzing, Florian C; Monaco, Pietro

    2014-04-21

    Oxidative stress has been proposed to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), playing a central role in amyloid β-protein (Aβ) generation and neuronal apoptosis. Oxidative damage directly correlates with the presence of Aβ deposits. Aβ and oxidative stress jointly induce neuronal death, Aβ deposits, gliosis, and memory impairment in AD. In order to counteract AD neurodegeneration, the inhibition of the vicious cycle of Aβ generation and oxidation is an attractive therapeutic strategy, and antiamyloidogenic and antioxidant herbal drugs could represent an alternative and valid approach. In this context, an alcoholic extract from Laurus nobilis leaves (LnM) and seven fractions obtained therefrom were of interest. All extracts prepared through extractive and chromatographic techniques were phytochemically studied by chromatographic techniques including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)). The potential antioxidant efficacy of the obtained fractions was screened by DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) assays, as well as specific assay media characterized from the presence of highly reactive ROS and RNS species (ROO(•), OH(•), O2(•-), and NO). In order to evaluate the preparation of safe and nontoxic extracts, MTT, SRB, and LDH assays toward SH-5YSY and SK-N-BE(2)-C human neuronal cell lines, as well as on C6 mouse glial cell line, were performed. The apoptosis-inducing properties by spectroscopic evaluation of the extracts' ability to activate caspase-3 and by a DNA fragmentation assay were also investigated. Data thus obtained allowed us to state the absence of toxic effects induced by phenolic-rich fractions (LnM, LnM-1, LnM-1a, LnM-1b, and LnM-2c), which at the same time exerted significant cytoprotective and antioxidant responses in hydrogen peroxide and Aβ(25-35)-fragment-oxidized cell systems. The potential antiamyloidogenic efficacy of Laurus nobilis leaf polar

  5. Studies on the antioxidant potential of flavones of Allium vineale isolated from its water-soluble fraction.

    PubMed

    Demirtas, Ibrahim; Erenler, Ramazan; Elmastas, Mahfuz; Goktasoglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the chemical constituents and antioxidant potential of water-soluble fractions from the commonly consumed vegetable, Allium vineale. The water-soluble fraction, containing phenolic compounds, was extracted with ethyl acetate to obtain flavonoids which were separated and purified by repeated column chromatography over Sephadex LH-20, RP C18 and silica gel. The isolated compounds were identified according to their physicochemical properties and spectral data (UV, HPLC-TOF/MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and 2D NMR). Three flavonoids were isolated and identified as chrysoeriol-7-O-[2″-O-E-feruloyl]-β-d-glucoside (1), chrysoeriol (2), and isorhamnetin-3-β-d-glucoside (3). Antioxidant studies of the aqueous extract and three isolated compounds, 1, 2, 3, were undertaken and they were found to have significant antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activities were evaluated for total antioxidant activity by the ferric thiocyanate method, ferric ion (Fe(3+)) reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) metal chelating activity, and DPPH free radical-scavenging activity. The water-soluble ethyl acetate and methanol extraction methods were also compared using HPLC-TOF/MS. PMID:23017389

  6. Antioxidative and radioprotective potential of rutin and quercetin in Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shrikant L.; Mallaiah, Somashekarappa Hiriyur; Patil, Rajashekar K.

    2013-01-01

    The radioprotective potential of bioflavonoid, rutin (RUT) and quercetin (QRT) was investigated in Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. The radioprotective potential of RUT and QRT was assessed in pre-treatment group of mice followed on radiation-induced changes in glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also analyzed. Elevation in the GSH, GST, SOD, CAT, and decreased LPO levels were observed in RUT and QRT pretreated group when compared to the irradiated animals. Furthermore, it was observed that RUT and QRT treatment was found to inhibit various free radicals generated in vitro, viz., 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH), O2, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS)+, and OH in a concentration-dependent manner. This study clearly demonstrates the free radical scavenging action of RUT and QRT, indicating that it may have its potential as a radioprotective agent. Furthermore, the presence of a phenolic group in RUT and QRT is known to contribute to scavenging the radiation-induced free radicals and inhibition of oxidative stress. Present findings demonstrate the potential of RUT and QRT in mitigating radiation-induced oxidative stress, which may be attributed to the inhibition of radiation-induced decline in the endogenous antioxidant levels and scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals. PMID:23776312

  7. Compositional variation among black tea across geographies and their potential influence on endothelial nitric oxide and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Dias, Paul Mark; Changarath, Jayashree; Damodaran, Anita; Joshi, Manoj Kumar

    2014-07-16

    Black tea (C. sinensis) consumption is well associated with enhanced endothelial function (EF) and reduced cardiovascular (CV) risk. This clinical end benefit is endorsed to flavonoids in tea. The black tea flavonoid composition varies across geographies and may impact its health benefits. Moreover, the underlying functional species and a precise working mechanism responsible for the observed health benefit also remain to be investigated. In this Article, we investigated the effect of black teas from various geographies (WoBTs) on different working mechanisms (antioxidant potential and endothelial function) proposed to influence certain risk factors of CVH, in vitro. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the antioxidant benefits are fairly influenced by majority of tea actives such as catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, and phenolic acids, while NO potentiating effects are mainly regulated by catechins in black tea. The data also suggest that the net vascular function benefit of black tea is majorly influenced by NO enhancement, while mildly contributed by its antioxidant benefit.

  8. Improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in mice consuming sour cherry juice (Prunus Cerasus cv. Maraska).

    PubMed

    Sarić, Ana; Sobocanec, Sandra; Balog, Tihomir; Kusić, Borka; Sverko, Visnja; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Levaj, Branka; Cosić, Zrinka; Macak Safranko, Zeljka; Marotti, Tatjana

    2009-12-01

    The present investigation tested the in vivo antioxidant efficacy (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase; Gpx), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and anti-inflammatory properties (cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2) of sour cherry juices obtained from an autochthonous cultivar (Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska) that is grown in coastal parts of Croatia. Antioxidant potential was tested in mouse tissue (blood, liver, and brain), LPO (liver, brain) and anti-inflammatory properties in glycogen elicited macrophages. Additionally, the concentration of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-rutinoside and total anthocyanins present in Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice was determined. Mice were randomly divided into a control group (fed with commercial food pellets) and 2 experimental groups (fed with commercial food pellets with 10% or 50% of cherry juice added). Among the anthocyanins, the cyanidin-3-glucoside was present in the highest concentration. These results show antioxidant action of cherry juice through increased SOD (liver, blood) and Gpx (liver) activity and decreased LPO concentration. The study highlights cherry juice as a potent COX-2 inhibitor and antioxidant in the liver and blood of mice, but not in the brain. Thus, according to our study, Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice might potentially be used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory product with beneficial health-promoting properties. PMID:19763832

  9. Chemical composition and antioxidant-prooxidant potential of a polyphenolic extract and a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction of apple skin.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Wilson, Ana María; Castro-Arredondo, Sergio Ivan; Espinosa-Plascencia, Angélica; Robles-Burgueño, María Del Refugio; Balandrán-Quintana, René Renato; Bermúdez-Almada, María Del Carmen

    2016-02-01

    The apple is a food rich in diverse classes of polyphenols (PP), among which the proanthocyanidins (PCs), which are primarily concentrated in the skin, are one of the most abundant. These compounds are of considerable interest for their possible positive health effects because of their antioxidant properties. However, depending on the classes of PP present (chemical composition) and their relative concentrations in the apple skin, their antioxidant effects vary and some of their components can even generate prooxidant effects. This work determined the chemical composition and antioxidant-prooxidant potential of a polyphenolic extract (PPE) and a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (PRF) of apple skin, along with the contribution of their most abundant individual compounds, based on their copper chelating ability, ease in reducing peroxidase-generated free radicals and TEAC (Trolox-Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assay. For this purpose, chromatographic and colorimetric methods were used. The majority compounds identified in PPE were flavan-3-ols (44.58%), flavonols (42.89%) and dihydrochalcones (11.60%). In PRF, we detected monomers and oligomers from dimers to heptamers, which were composed of 97% (-)-epicatechin and 3% (+)-catechin. The antioxidant potential was notably higher in PRF than in PPE. The (-)-epicatechin monomer and the procyanidin B2 dimer showed more ease in reducing peroxidase-generated free radicals compared to other compounds of the apple skin, whereas phloridzin dihydrochalcone produced prooxidant effects. PMID:27441252

  10. Cumulative role of bioinoculants on growth, antioxidant potential and artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. under organic field conditions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rupali; Singh, Akanksha; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia annua L. is mostly known for a bioactive metabolite, artemisinin, an effective sesquiterpene lactone used against malaria without any reputed cases of resistance. In this experiment, bioinoculants viz., Streptomyces sp. MTN14, Bacillus megaterium MTN2RP and Trichoderma harzianum Thu were applied as growth promoting substances to exploit full genetic potential of crops in terms of growth, yield, nutrient uptake and particularly artemisinin content. Further, multi-use of the bioinoculants singly and in combinations for the enhancement of antioxidant potential and therapeutic value was also undertaken which to our knowledge has never been investigated in context with microbial application. The results demonstrated that a significant (P < 0.05) increase in growth, nutrient uptake, total phenolic, flavonoid, free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity were observed in the A. annua treated with a combination of bioinoculants in comparison to control. Most importantly, an increase in artemisinin content and yield by 34 and 72 % respectively in the treatment having all the three microbes was observed. These results were further authenticated by the PCA analysis which showed positive correlation between plant macronutrients and antioxidant content with plant growth and artemisinin yield of A. annua. The present study thus highlights a possible new application of compatible bioinoculants for enhancing the growth along with antioxidant and therapeutic value of A. annua. PMID:27565777

  11. General unknown screening, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl.

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Nimisha Pulikkal; Yadav, R. Hiranmai

    2016-01-01

    Context: D. macrostachyum is an epiphytic orchid abundant in Southern India and is reported for pain relief in folklore. Aims: The objective of the present study was to determine in vitro free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity of D. macrostachyum and to perform LCMS based metabolic profiling of the plant. Settings and Design: Sequential stem and leaf extracts were assessed for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro methods. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity determined by assays based on the decolourization of the radical monocation of DPPH, ABTS and reducing power. Total amount of phenolics for quantitative analysis of antioxidative components was estimated. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using protein denaturation assay, membrane stabilization assay and proteinase inhibitory activity. Methanolic extract of plant was subjected to LCMS. Results: The stem ethanolic extracts exhibited significant IC50 value of 10.21, 31.54 and 142.97 μg/ml respectively for DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power activity. The ethanol and water extract was highly effective as albumin denaturation inhibitors (IC50 = 114.13 and 135.818 μg/ml respectively) and proteinase inhibitors (IC50 = 72.49 and 129.681 μg/ml respectively). Membrane stabilization was also noticeably inhibited by the stem ethanolic extract among other extracts (IC50 = 89.33 μg/ml) but comparatively lower to aspirin standard (IC50 = 83.926 μg/ml). The highest total phenol content was exhibited by ethanolic stem and leaf extracts respectively at 20 and 16 mg of gallic acid equivalents of dry extract. On LCMS analysis 20 constituents were identified and it included chemotaxonomic marker for Dendrobium species. Conclusions: The results showed a relatively high concentration of phenolics, high scavenger activity and high anti-inflammatory activity of the stem extract compared to the leaf extract. The results indicate that the plant can be a

  12. [New biochemical methods for evaluation of the oxidative-antioxidative potential of low-density lipoproteins].

    PubMed

    Ragino, Iu I; Voevoda, M I; Kashtanova, E V; Ivanova, M V; Nikitin, Iu P

    2005-04-01

    Today one of the leading theories in the concept of atherogenesis underlines the key role of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL). This paper describes new original and easy-to-use biochemical methods for evaluating the oxidative-antioxidative potential (LDL resistance to oxidation in vitro and the LDL level of alpha-tocopherol and retinol), as well as the results of their development and testing in 2 groups (62 patients with coronary atherosclerosis and 95 healthy individuals). LDL were isolated from their sera via precipitation with heparin and MnCl2. The precipitated LDL were washed in 0.9% NaCl solution and dissolved in 1 M NaCl solution. For evaluation of the resistance of LDL to oxidation in vitro, the precipitated LDL were incubated at 37 degrees C with 50 microM of copper ions; before and 0.5 h, 1.0 h, and 2.0 h after LDL incubation, TBARS products were determined by the fluorimetric technique after Schun J. et al. (1978). For evaluation of the antioxidative potntial of LDL, the concentrations of alpha-tocopheral and retinol in the precipitated LDL were measured by using the fluorimetric technique described by Taylor S. L. et al. (1976). The new methods were found to be highly reproducible. There was a high positive correlation (r = +0.98 +/- 0.04, p < 0.001) between the oxidative resistance of the LDL isolated from sera by ultracentrifugation and that of the precipitated LDL. There was also a high positive correlation (r = +0.79 +/- 0.09, p < 0.01) between the alpha-tocopherol and retinol levels determined by the fluorimetric technique and the LDL levels measured by the authors' method. The new methods were clinically tested with success. The significantly elevated baseline level of lipid perioxidation products in the precipitated LDL, the low oxidative resistance of the precipitated LDL in vitro, and reduced concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and retinol in the precipitated LDL were recorded in the patients with coronary atherosclerosis as compared to

  13. General unknown screening, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl.

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Nimisha Pulikkal; Yadav, R. Hiranmai

    2016-01-01

    Context: D. macrostachyum is an epiphytic orchid abundant in Southern India and is reported for pain relief in folklore. Aims: The objective of the present study was to determine in vitro free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity of D. macrostachyum and to perform LCMS based metabolic profiling of the plant. Settings and Design: Sequential stem and leaf extracts were assessed for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro methods. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity determined by assays based on the decolourization of the radical monocation of DPPH, ABTS and reducing power. Total amount of phenolics for quantitative analysis of antioxidative components was estimated. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using protein denaturation assay, membrane stabilization assay and proteinase inhibitory activity. Methanolic extract of plant was subjected to LCMS. Results: The stem ethanolic extracts exhibited significant IC50 value of 10.21, 31.54 and 142.97 μg/ml respectively for DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power activity. The ethanol and water extract was highly effective as albumin denaturation inhibitors (IC50 = 114.13 and 135.818 μg/ml respectively) and proteinase inhibitors (IC50 = 72.49 and 129.681 μg/ml respectively). Membrane stabilization was also noticeably inhibited by the stem ethanolic extract among other extracts (IC50 = 89.33 μg/ml) but comparatively lower to aspirin standard (IC50 = 83.926 μg/ml). The highest total phenol content was exhibited by ethanolic stem and leaf extracts respectively at 20 and 16 mg of gallic acid equivalents of dry extract. On LCMS analysis 20 constituents were identified and it included chemotaxonomic marker for Dendrobium species. Conclusions: The results showed a relatively high concentration of phenolics, high scavenger activity and high anti-inflammatory activity of the stem extract compared to the leaf extract. The results indicate that the plant can be a

  14. In vivo evidence for antioxidant potential of estrogen in microvessels of female spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Ana Paula V; Tostes, Rita C A; Fortes, Zuleica B; Costa, Sonia G; Nigro, Dorothy; Carvalho, Maria Helena C

    2002-02-01

    In studies conducted in vitro, it has been demonstrated that estrogen has an antioxidant potential that may contribute to its protective effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the antioxidant effect of estrogen in vivo has not been demonstrated. To address this issue, in this study the effects of estrogen on oxidative stress were evaluated in microvessels studied in vivo. Oxidative stress was evaluated by using intravital microscopy in mesenteric arterioles from female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in physiological estrous (OE), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX treated with estradiol (E(2)), or estradiol + progesterone (E/P). The mesenteries were superfused with hydroethidine, a reduced and nonfluorescent precursor of ethidium bromide (EB). In the presence of reactive oxygen species, hydroethidine is transformed intracellularly in EB, which binds to DNA and can be detected by its red fluorescence. The percentage of EB-positive nuclei along the arteriolar wall in OVX (28.4 +/- 4.3) was significantly increased compared with OE (14.2 +/- 3.9; P<0.05). The OVX overproduction of oxyradicals was attenuated by E(2) (15.7 +/- 2.2) and E/P (14.8 +/- 0.8). Treatment with the superoxide dismutase mimetic MnTMPyP attenuated by 75% the oxidation of hydroethidine in both OE and OVX. Conversely, mannitol, that decomposes hydroxyl radical, and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, had no significant effects on hydroethidine oxidation. No differences on hydrogen peroxide plasma concentration were observed among the groups, suggesting that superoxide anion is the most likely oxyradical involved in the increased oxidative stress observed in OVX. The treatment of mesenteries with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase inhibitor, but not with oxypurinol, a xanthine-oxidase inhibitor, produced a significant reduction of oxyradical generation in OVX microvessels and a slight decrease in those from OE. Chronic treatment of

  15. Protective Potential of Antioxidant Enzymes as Vaccines for Schistosomiasis in a Non-Human Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Queiroz, Claudia; Nyakundi, Ruth; Ogongo, Paul; Rikoi, Hitler; Egilmez, Nejat K.; Farah, Idle O.; Kariuki, Thomas M.; LoVerde, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    produced high levels of cytokines and chemokines in response to crude and recombinant antigens compared with controls. All together, these data demonstrate the potential of antioxidants as a vaccine in a non-human primate model. PMID:26082781

  16. Antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of some food grain powder in meat model system.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K; Jha, S N; Ahmad, Tanbir

    2014-11-01

    In-vitro antioxidant activity of some food grains [sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata), mung bean, sprouted chana (Cicer arietinum), chana, corn (Zea mays), methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and rajma (Phaseolus vulgaris)] powder extracts (FGE) was estimated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity (SA) method. Total phenolics and reducing power were also estimated in these extracts. The antioxidant potential of these extracts was also estimated in a meat model system. Total phenolics in FGE ranged from 66.9 ± 3.4 to 248.6 ± 11.1 mg TAE/gdw respectively which differed significantly (P < 0.01) among various groups. These extracts also showed remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activity (43.9 ± 1.1 % to 69.9 ± 2.9 %). The reducing powerOD700 was observed maximum (P < 0.01) in sprouted mung bean extract as compared to corn powder extract. The correlation between DPPH free radical SA v/s total phenolics was significant (P < 0.01) with R = 0.775. correlation between DPPH free radical SA v/s reducing power and total phenolics v/s reducing power was also significant (P < 0.01) with R value 0.907 and 0.682 respectively. FGE treated raw chicken breast meat showed better (P < 0.01) oxidative stability than control groups. PMID:26396344

  17. Antioxidant potential of commercially available cumin (Cuminum cyminuml inn) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, S Birjees; Iqbal, Shahid; Bhanger, M I

    2009-05-01

    Owing to increased safety concerns about synthetic antioxidants, exploitation of safer antioxidants based on natural origin is the focus of research nowadays. Cumin is a common spice and is used as a routine supportive cooking agent. Extracts of cumin were prepared in methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane and hexane by employing Soxhlet extraction apparatus. Determination of the total phenolic content, chelating activity, reducing power and free radical scavenging activity were taken as parameters for the assessment of antioxidant properties. The findings of this study suggest cumin to be a potent source of antioxidants. Results from the different parameters were in agreement with one another.

  18. Potential antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of Morus indica and Asystasia gangetica in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R Pradeep; Sujatha, D; Saleem, TS Mohamed; Chetty, C Madhusudhana; Ranganayakulu, D

    2010-01-01

    Herbal drugs are frequently considered to be less toxic and also free from side effects, than synthetic ones. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate one such combination of herbal drugs, Asystasia gangetica and Morus indica for their antidiabetic and antioxidant potential against alloxan-induced diabetes in albino rats. The effect of both individual and a combination of Asystasia gangetica and Morus indica on blood glucose and liver glycogen were studied in the diabetic rats. The study also assessed for the effect of selected plant extracts for their effect on Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the homogenates of the pancreas. The results of the present study attests significant antidiabetic and antioxidant potential for the selected plants individually and also in combination as a prominent decrease in blood glucose and liver glycogen was observed in the rats treated with the extracts of the selected plants. Similarly, the levels of the protective antioxidant enzymes like SOD, CAT and GSH were increased along with decrease in the LPO levels. The present study provides a scientific evidence for antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Asystasia gangetica and Morus indica. Further studies to isolate bioactive compounds will pave the way to identify potential lead compounds for developing safe and efficacious antidiabetic agents. PMID:27186088

  19. Method with high-throughput screening potential for antioxidative substances using Escherichia coli biosensor katG'::lux.

    PubMed

    Tienaho, Jenni; Sarjala, Tytti; Franzén, Robert; Karp, Matti

    2015-11-01

    A new method is described for the rapid real-time screening of antioxidative properties using a recombinant Escherichia coli DPD2511 biosensor. This microplate technique, without time-consuming pre-incubations and handling, has potential for a high-throughput search of bioactive compounds. Special emphasis was given to obtaining highly reliable and repeatable results.

  20. UV-visible spectroscopy method for screening the chemical stability of potential antioxidants for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banham, Dustin; Ye, Siyu; Knights, Shanna; Stewart, S. Michael; Wilson, Mahlon; Garzon, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    A novel method based on UV-visible spectroscopy is reported for screening the chemical stability of potential antioxidant additives for proton exchange membrane fuel cells, and the chemical stabilities of three CeOx samples of varying crystallite sizes (6, 13, or 25 nm) are examined. The chemical stabilities predicted by this new screening method are compared to in-situ membrane electrode assembly (MEA) accelerated stress testing, with the results confirming that this rapid and inexpensive method can be used to accurately predict performance impacts of antioxidants.

  1. Investigation into the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Moringa stenopetala: identification of the active principles.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-03-01

    The fresh leaves of Moringa stenopetala (family, Moringaceae) are commonly eaten as cabbage while dried leaves are used as nutritional supplement and for treating a variety of disease conditions including diabetes. The present investigation into the therapeutic potential of the leaves and seeds of the plant revealed no inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme up to the concentration of 200 μg/mL but the leaves extract displayed potent DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect (IC50, 59.5 ± 4.1 μg/mL). An activity directed fractionation and isolation procedure resulted in the identification of the major antioxidant compound as rutin and minor active component, neochlorogenic acid. Both the crude extract (0.8-200 μg/mL) and rutin (0.8-200 μM) but not neochlorogenic acid displayed a concentration-dependent protection of human pancreatic β-cells (1.4E7 cells) from oxidant-induced cell death. The identification of these compounds along with their potential role in the nutritional and medicinal significance of the plant is discussed. PMID:25924532

  2. Investigation into the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Moringa stenopetala: identification of the active principles.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-03-01

    The fresh leaves of Moringa stenopetala (family, Moringaceae) are commonly eaten as cabbage while dried leaves are used as nutritional supplement and for treating a variety of disease conditions including diabetes. The present investigation into the therapeutic potential of the leaves and seeds of the plant revealed no inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme up to the concentration of 200 μg/mL but the leaves extract displayed potent DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect (IC50, 59.5 ± 4.1 μg/mL). An activity directed fractionation and isolation procedure resulted in the identification of the major antioxidant compound as rutin and minor active component, neochlorogenic acid. Both the crude extract (0.8-200 μg/mL) and rutin (0.8-200 μM) but not neochlorogenic acid displayed a concentration-dependent protection of human pancreatic β-cells (1.4E7 cells) from oxidant-induced cell death. The identification of these compounds along with their potential role in the nutritional and medicinal significance of the plant is discussed.

  3. Reverse osmosis as a potential technique to improve antioxidant properties of fruit juices used for functional beverages.

    PubMed

    Gunathilake, K D P P; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) as a potential technique to improve the antioxidant properties of cranberry, blueberry and apple juices was evaluated for the formulation of a functional beverage. The effects of temperature (20-40 °C) and trans-membrane pressure (25-35 bars) on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of fruit juices were evaluated to optimize the operating parameters for each fruit juice. There was no significant effect on any quality parameters of fruit juices under studied operating parameters of RO. However, total soluble solid, total acidity and colour (a(∗)) of the concentrated juices increased in proportion to their volumetric concentrations. Antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of concentrated apple, blueberry and cranberry juice was increased by 40%, 34%, and 30%, respectively. LDL oxidation inhibition by concentrated blueberry and cranberry juice was increased up to 41% and 45%, respectively. The results suggest that RO can be used for enhancing the health promoting properties of fruit juices.

  4. Schizandrin ameliorates ovariectomy-induced memory impairment, potentiates neurotransmission and exhibits antioxidant properties

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhong-Jiao; Wang, Chun-Yang; Xie, Xun; Yang, Jing-Fang; Huang, Jun-Ni; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Xiao, Peng; Li, Chu-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Schizandrin (SCH) has been reported to prevent or reduce learning and memory defects. However, it is not known whether SCH ameliorates cognitive impairments induced by oestrogen deficiency. In the present study, we investigated the effect of SCH on memory in ovariectomized (OVX) and non-OVX rats. Experimental Approach A passive avoidance test was used to evaluate the effect of SCH on memory. Field EPSPs were recorded in hippocampal slices using an electrophysiological method. In OVX rats, biochemical parameters in the bilateral hippocampus were measured; these included superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and AChE. Also, the number of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) positive neurons was counted by NADPH-d histochemistry staining technique. Key Results Oral SCH improved the memory and facilitated the induction of long-term potentiation in non-OVX and OVX rats; this effect was more obvious in OVX rats. Similarly, SCH perfusion enhanced synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices from both non-OVX and OVX rats. However, SCH perfusion reduced the ratio of paired-pulse facilitation only in OVX but not in non-OVX rats. In addition, SCH decreased AChE activity and MDA level and increased SOD activity and the number of NADPH-d-positive neurons in OVX rats. Conclusions and Implications SCH improves memory in OVX rats and its potential mechanisms may include a reduction in the loss of hippocampal NADPH-d positive neurons, an increase of antioxidant properties and a potentiation of synaptic transmission that possibly involves to enhance cholinergic function. Overall, our findings indicate that SCH has potential as a therapeutic strategy for the cognitive dysfunctions associated with the menopause. PMID:25573619

  5. Presence of Maillard products in Spanish muffins and evaluation of colour and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    González-Mateo, S; González-Sanjosé, M L; Muñiz, P

    2009-11-01

    Spanish muffins are bakery products widely consumed in Spain. During their elaboration process MRPs are formed, being partially responsible for muffin characteristics including their antioxidant capacity. The main aim of the study was evaluating the amount, colour and antioxidant capacity of different fractions of MRPs (low and high molecular weight) isolated from commercial muffins. The fraction of high molecular weight (melanoidins) showed to have a higher antioxidant capacity, measured by ABTS and FRAP, than LMW ones. Significant and relatively close correlations between colour parameters and antioxidant capacity were observed for global MRPs, but only occasionally when isolated fractions of melanoidins and LMW were studied. As summary, it can be said that global MRPs present in muffins, apart from contributing to colour and flavour, can also contribute significantly to muffin conservation, due to their appreciable antioxidant capacity, which seems to be directly correlated with of their colour, although this fact is not extrapolated to isolated fractions of melanoidins and LMW MRPs.

  6. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-06-17

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.

  7. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders. PMID:27322226

  8. The antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole potentiates the toxic effects of propylparaben in cultured mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Pérez Martín, José Manuel; Fernández Freire, Paloma; Daimiel, Lidia; Martínez-Botas, Javier; Sánchez, Covadonga Martín; Lasunción, Miguel Ángel; Peropadre, Ana; Hazen, María José

    2014-10-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole and propylparaben are phenolic preservatives commonly used in food, pharmaceutical and personal care products. Both chemicals have been subjected to extensive toxicological studies, due to the growing concern regarding their possible impacts on environmental and human health. However, the cytotoxicity and underlying mechanisms of co-exposure to these compounds have not been explored. In this study, a set of relevant cytotoxicity endpoints including cell viability and proliferation, oxidative stress, DNA damage and gene expression changes were analyzed to assess whether the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole could prevent the pro-oxidant effects caused by propylparaben in Vero cells. We demonstrated that binary mixtures of both chemicals induce greater cytotoxic effects than those reported after single exposureto each compound. Simultaneous treatment with butylated hydroxyanisole and propylparaben caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest as a result of enhanced generation of oxidative stress and DNA double strand breaks. DNA microarray analysis revealed that a cross-talk between transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) pathways regulates the response of Vero cells to the tested compounds in binary mixture. Our findings indicate that butylated hydroxyanisole potentiates the pro-oxidant effects of propylparaben in cultured mammalian cells and provide useful information for their safety assessment.

  9. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Antiulcer Potential of Manuka Honey against Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Almasaudi, Saad B.; El-Shitany, Nagla A.; Abbas, Aymn T.; Abdel-dayem, Umama A.; Ali, Soad S.; Al Jaouni, Soad K.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcers are among the most common diseases affecting humans. This study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effects of manuka honey against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. The mechanism by which honey exerts its antiulcer potential was elucidated. Four groups of rats were used: control, ethanol (ulcer), omeprazole, and manuka honey. Stomachs were examined macroscopically for hemorrhagic lesions in the glandular mucosa, histopathological changes, and glycoprotein detection. The effects of oxidative stress were investigated using the following indicators: gastric mucosal nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxide (MDA, measured as malondialdehyde) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase. Plasma tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and IL-6 were also measured. Manuka honey significantly decreased the ulcer index, completely protected the mucosa from lesions, and preserved gastric mucosal glycoprotein. It significantly increased gastric mucosal levels of NO, GSH, GPx, and SOD. Manuka honey also decreased gastric mucosal MDA and plasma TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 concentrations. In conclusion, manuka honey likely exerted its antiulcer, effect by keeping enzymatic (GPx and SOD) and nonenzymatic (GSH and NO) antioxidants as well as inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in a reduced form, inhibited lipid peroxidation (MDA), and preserved mucous glycoproteins levels. PMID:26770649

  10. Molecular Insights into the Potential Toxicological Interaction of 2-Mercaptothiazoline with the Antioxidant Enzyme—Catalase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhenxing; Huang, Ming; Mi, Chenyu; Wang, Tao; Chen, Dong; Teng, Yue

    2016-01-01

    2-mercaptothiazoline (2-MT) is widely used in many industrial fields, but its residue is potentially harmful to the environment. In this study, to evaluate the biological toxicity of 2-MT at protein level, the interaction between 2-MT and the pivotal antioxidant enzyme—catalase (CAT) was investigated using multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. The results indicated that the CAT fluorescence quenching caused by 2-MT should be dominated by a static quenching mechanism through formation of a 2-MT/CAT complex. Furthermore, the identifications of the binding constant, binding forces, and the number of binding sites demonstrated that 2-MT could spontaneously interact with CAT at one binding site mainly via Van der Waals’ forces and hydrogen bonding. Based on the molecular docking simulation and conformation dynamic characterization, it was found that 2-MT could bind into the junctional region of CAT subdomains and that the binding site was close to enzyme active sites, which induced secondary structural and micro-environmental changes in CAT. The experiments on 2-MT toxicity verified that 2-MT significantly inhibited CAT activity via its molecular interaction, where 2-MT concentration and exposure time both affected the inhibitory action. Therefore, the present investigation provides useful information for understanding the toxicological mechanism of 2-MT at the molecular level. PMID:27537873

  11. Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Antiulcer Potential of Manuka Honey against Gastric Ulcer in Rats.

    PubMed

    Almasaudi, Saad B; El-Shitany, Nagla A; Abbas, Aymn T; Abdel-dayem, Umama A; Ali, Soad S; Al Jaouni, Soad K; Harakeh, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcers are among the most common diseases affecting humans. This study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effects of manuka honey against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. The mechanism by which honey exerts its antiulcer potential was elucidated. Four groups of rats were used: control, ethanol (ulcer), omeprazole, and manuka honey. Stomachs were examined macroscopically for hemorrhagic lesions in the glandular mucosa, histopathological changes, and glycoprotein detection. The effects of oxidative stress were investigated using the following indicators: gastric mucosal nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxide (MDA, measured as malondialdehyde) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase. Plasma tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and IL-6 were also measured. Manuka honey significantly decreased the ulcer index, completely protected the mucosa from lesions, and preserved gastric mucosal glycoprotein. It significantly increased gastric mucosal levels of NO, GSH, GPx, and SOD. Manuka honey also decreased gastric mucosal MDA and plasma TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 concentrations. In conclusion, manuka honey likely exerted its antiulcer, effect by keeping enzymatic (GPx and SOD) and nonenzymatic (GSH and NO) antioxidants as well as inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in a reduced form, inhibited lipid peroxidation (MDA), and preserved mucous glycoproteins levels.

  12. Total reactive antioxidant potential and DNA fragmentation index as fertility sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Miciński, Piotr; Pawlicki, Krzysztof; Wielgus, Ewa; Bochenek, Michał; Gogol, Piotr; Ficek, Beata

    2011-07-01

    There is a growing evidence that oxidative stress play a major role in the etiology of defective sperm function including impaired morphology, motility, metabolism and fertility. The aim of the present study was to examine: 1/ total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) in seminal plasma; 2/ sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI), 3/ sperm morphology and motility and 4/ cellular membrane integrity (hypoosmotic swelling test: HOS test) in patients attending in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmatic sperm injection ( IVF/ICSI) program. According to the DFI value, the men were divided into: group 1 with DFI ≤15% (n=38) and group 2 with DFI ≥15% (n=37). Significant differences between the two groups were found in TRAP, sperm motility, morphology and concentration as well as HOS test scores. In group 1, DFI was negatively correlated with sperm motility and HOS test scores (p<0.05). The sperm morphology was positively correlated with sperm motility and HOS test scores in both groups. There was no correlation between TRAP and sperm chromatin fragmentation. Our results suggest that seminal plasma TRAP level may be a DFI independent parameter of sperm fertility. PMID:21804634

  13. Molecular Insights into the Potential Toxicological Interaction of 2-Mercaptothiazoline with the Antioxidant Enzyme-Catalase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenxing; Huang, Ming; Mi, Chenyu; Wang, Tao; Chen, Dong; Teng, Yue

    2016-01-01

    2-mercaptothiazoline (2-MT) is widely used in many industrial fields, but its residue is potentially harmful to the environment. In this study, to evaluate the biological toxicity of 2-MT at protein level, the interaction between 2-MT and the pivotal antioxidant enzyme-catalase (CAT) was investigated using multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling. The results indicated that the CAT fluorescence quenching caused by 2-MT should be dominated by a static quenching mechanism through formation of a 2-MT/CAT complex. Furthermore, the identifications of the binding constant, binding forces, and the number of binding sites demonstrated that 2-MT could spontaneously interact with CAT at one binding site mainly via Van der Waals' forces and hydrogen bonding. Based on the molecular docking simulation and conformation dynamic characterization, it was found that 2-MT could bind into the junctional region of CAT subdomains and that the binding site was close to enzyme active sites, which induced secondary structural and micro-environmental changes in CAT. The experiments on 2-MT toxicity verified that 2-MT significantly inhibited CAT activity via its molecular interaction, where 2-MT concentration and exposure time both affected the inhibitory action. Therefore, the present investigation provides useful information for understanding the toxicological mechanism of 2-MT at the molecular level. PMID:27537873

  14. The potential of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), an Israeli native, as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Vaknin, Yiftach; Hadas, Rivka; Schafferman, Dan; Murkhovsky, Leonid; Bashan, Neta

    2008-06-01

    The potential of wild plants in Israel as sources of edible sprouts has not been investigated until now. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world; its young fleshy stems are traditionally eaten by the local Arab sector in Israel, and its sprouts are rich in antioxidants and have been used as a traditional medicine for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. The active extract of milk thistle, silymarin, is a mixture of flavonolignans and is a strong antioxidant that has been proved to promote liver cell regeneration, to reduce blood cholesterol and to help prevent cancer. The present objective was to investigate the potential of milk thistle as a source of edible sprouts rich in antioxidants. We found that seed germination within 3-4 days was high (96%, except for striated seeds). Exposure to light significantly reduced sprout growth and significantly increased the polyphenol content and antioxidative capacity. The polyphenol content was 30% higher in seeds originating from purple inflorescences than in those from white ones. We thus found milk thistle to be a good candidate source of healthy edible sprouts.

  15. Attenuation of DMBA/croton oil induced mouse skin papilloma by Apodytes dimidiata mediated by its antioxidant and antimutagenic potential.

    PubMed

    Divya, Menon K; Salini, Sasidharan; Meera, Nair; Lincy, Lawrence; Seema, Menon; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C; Babu, Thekkekara D

    2016-09-01

    Context Considering the role of cellular oxidative stress in mutations and subsequent transformation, phytochemicals with antioxidant potential has become a primary choice as chemopreventives. Apodytes dimidiata E. Mey. Ex. Arn (Icacinaceae), a widely used plant in Zulu traditional medicine, is reported to possess antioxidant activity. Objective To investigate the chemopreventive efficacy of methanol extract of A. dimidiata leaf (AMF). Materials and methods Antimutagenic potential of AMF (25, 50 and 75 μg/plate) was evaluated by the Ames test. The ability of AMF (100 and 250 mg/kg orally) on restoration of depleted antioxidant status by sodium fluoride (NaF) was analysed on BALB/c mice. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/croton oil induced mouse skin papilloma model was studied up to 20 weeks to analyse the anticarcinogenic effect of AMF (1%, 3% and 5% topically, twice weekly for 6 weeks). Phytochemicals of AMF were characterized by GC-MS. Results AMF (75 μg/plate) reverted 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPDA) induced mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains, TA 98, 100 and 102 by 74.8%, 72.5% and 69.3%, respectively. Against sodium azide, the percentage reversion was 80.4, 71.3 and 71.3. In mice, AMF (250 mg/kg for 4 days) increased the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities by 48.71% and 30.3% against the NaF-induced drop. GSH level was improved by 48.59% with a concomitant decrease in TBARS (57.67%). The skin papilloma reduction was 79.32% for 5% AMF. Squalene, dodecanoic, tetradecanoic and hexadecanoic acids are the known antioxidant and chemopreventive molecules identified by GC-MS. Discussion and conclusion Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of AMF might have contributed to its anticarcinogenic potential.

  16. Attenuation of DMBA/croton oil induced mouse skin papilloma by Apodytes dimidiata mediated by its antioxidant and antimutagenic potential.

    PubMed

    Divya, Menon K; Salini, Sasidharan; Meera, Nair; Lincy, Lawrence; Seema, Menon; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C; Babu, Thekkekara D

    2016-09-01

    Context Considering the role of cellular oxidative stress in mutations and subsequent transformation, phytochemicals with antioxidant potential has become a primary choice as chemopreventives. Apodytes dimidiata E. Mey. Ex. Arn (Icacinaceae), a widely used plant in Zulu traditional medicine, is reported to possess antioxidant activity. Objective To investigate the chemopreventive efficacy of methanol extract of A. dimidiata leaf (AMF). Materials and methods Antimutagenic potential of AMF (25, 50 and 75 μg/plate) was evaluated by the Ames test. The ability of AMF (100 and 250 mg/kg orally) on restoration of depleted antioxidant status by sodium fluoride (NaF) was analysed on BALB/c mice. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/croton oil induced mouse skin papilloma model was studied up to 20 weeks to analyse the anticarcinogenic effect of AMF (1%, 3% and 5% topically, twice weekly for 6 weeks). Phytochemicals of AMF were characterized by GC-MS. Results AMF (75 μg/plate) reverted 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPDA) induced mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains, TA 98, 100 and 102 by 74.8%, 72.5% and 69.3%, respectively. Against sodium azide, the percentage reversion was 80.4, 71.3 and 71.3. In mice, AMF (250 mg/kg for 4 days) increased the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities by 48.71% and 30.3% against the NaF-induced drop. GSH level was improved by 48.59% with a concomitant decrease in TBARS (57.67%). The skin papilloma reduction was 79.32% for 5% AMF. Squalene, dodecanoic, tetradecanoic and hexadecanoic acids are the known antioxidant and chemopreventive molecules identified by GC-MS. Discussion and conclusion Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of AMF might have contributed to its anticarcinogenic potential. PMID:26878464

  17. Bioactive phenolics and antioxidant propensity of flavedo extracts of Mauritian citrus fruits: potential prophylactic ingredients for functional foods application.

    PubMed

    Ramful, Deena; Bahorun, Theeshan; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Tarnus, Evelyne; Aruoma, Okezie I

    2010-11-28

    The flavedo extracts of twenty-one varieties of citrus fruits (oranges, satsumah, clementine, mandarins, tangor, bergamot, lemon, tangelos, kumquat, calamondin and pamplemousses) grown in Mauritius were examined for their total phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C contents and antioxidant activities. Total phenolics correlated strongly with the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging activity assays (r > 0.85). Based on their antioxidant activities in these three assays nine citrus fruits namely, one orange, clementine, tangor and pamplemousse variety, two tangelo varieties and three mandarin varieties, were further characterized for their flavanone, flavonol and flavone levels by HPLC and their antioxidant activities were assessed by the copper-phenanthroline and iron chelation assays. The flavanone, hesperidin, was present at the highest concentrations in all flavedo extracts except for pamplemousses where it was not detected. Contents in hesperidin ranged from 83 ± 0.06 to 234 ± 1.73 mg/g FW. Poncirin, didymin, diosmin, isorhoifolin and narirutin were also present in all extracts whereas naringin was present only in one mandarin variety. The nine flavedo extracts exhibited good DNA protecting ability in the cuphen assay with IC₅₀ values ranging from 6.3 ± 0.46 to 23.0 ± 0.48 mg FW/mL. Essentially the flavedos were able to chelate metal ions however, tangor was most effective with an IC₅₀ value of 9.1 ± 0.08 mg FW/mL. The flavedo extracts of citrus fruits represent a significant source of phenolic antioxidants with potential prophylactic properties for the development of functional foods.

  18. Antioxidant Therapies for Ulcerative Dermatitis: A Potential Model for Skin Picking Disorder.

    PubMed

    George, Nneka M; Whitaker, Julia; Vieira, Giovana; Geronimo, Jerome T; Bellinger, Dwight A; Fletcher, Craig A; Garner, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Skin Picking Disorder affects 4% of the general population, with serious quality of life impacts, and potentially life threatening complications. Standard psychoactive medications do not help most patients. Similarly, Mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis (skin lesions caused by excessive abnormal grooming behavior) is very common in widely used inbred strains of mice, and represents a serious animal welfare issue and cause of mortality. Treatment options for Ulcerative Dermatitis are largely palliative and ineffective. We have proposed mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model for human Skin Picking Disorder based on similar epidemiology, behavior, and its comorbidity and mechanistic overlap with hair pulling (trichotillomania). We predicted that mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis would be treated by N-Acetylcysteine, as this compound is highly effective in treating both Skin Picking Disorder and Trichotillomania. Furthermore, we hypothesized that N-Acetylcysteine's mode of action is as a precursor to the production of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione in the brain, and therefore intranasal glutathione would also treat Ulcerative Dermatitis. Accordingly, we show in a heterogenous prospective trial, the significant reduction in Ulcerative Dermatitis lesion severity in mice receiving either N-acetylcysteine (oral administration) or glutathione (intranasal). The majority of mice treated with N-acetylcysteine improved slowly throughout the course of the study. Roughly half of the mice treated with glutathione showed complete resolution of lesion within 2-4 weeks, while the remainder did not respond. These findings are the first to show that the use of N-acetylcysteine and Glutathione can be curative for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis. These findings lend additional support for mouse Ulcerative Dermatitis as a model of Skin Picking Disorder and also support oxidative stress and glutathione synthesis as the mechanism of action for these compounds. As N-Acetylcysteine is poorly tolerated

  19. Antioxidant activity via DPPH, gram-positive and gram-negative antimicrobial potential in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Mahmood, Fazal; Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2014-10-01

    Edible mushrooms (EMs) are nutritionally rich source of proteins and essential amino acids. In the present study, the antioxidant activity via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and antimicrobial potential in EMs (Pleurotus ostreatus, Morchella esculenta, P. ostreatus (Black), P. ostreatus (Yellow) and Pleurotus sajor-caju) were investigated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity revealed that the significantly higher activity (66.47%) was observed in Morchella esculenta at a maximum concentration. Similarly, the dose-dependent concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 µg) were also used for other four EMs. Pleurotus ostreatus exhibited 36.13% activity, P. ostreatus (Black (B)) exhibited 30.64%, P. ostreatus (Yellow (Y)) exhibited 40.75% and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibited 47.39% activity at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential were investigated for its toxicity against gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumifaciens), gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus and Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal strain (Candida albicans) in comparison with standard antibiotics. Antimicrobial screening revealed that the ethanol extract of P. ostreatus was active against all microorganism tested except E. coli. Maximum zone of inhibition (13 mm) was observed against fungus and A. tumifaciens. P. sajor-caju showed best activities (12.5 mm) against B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus and K. pneumonia. P. ostreatus (Y) showed best activities against P. aeroginosa (21.83 mm), B. atrophaeus (20 mm) and C. albicans (21 mm). P. ostreatus (B) exhibited best activities against C. albicans (16 mm) and slightly lower activities against all other microbes except S. typhi. M. esculenta possess maximum activities in terms of inhibition zone against all microorganisms tested except S. typhi.

  20. The Effect of Convolvulus arvensis Dried Extract as a Potential Antioxidant in Food Models

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Azman, Nurul Aini; Gallego, Maria Gabriela; Juliá, Luis; Fajari, Lluis; Almajano, MaríaPilar

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity of the Convolvulus arvensis Linn (CA) ethanol extract has been evaluated by different ways. The antioxidant activity of the extract assessed by 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was 1.62 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, 1.71 mmol TE/g DW and 2.11 mmol TE/g DW, respectively. CA ethanol extract exhibited scavenging activity against the methoxy radical initiated by the Fenton reaction and measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The antioxidant effects of lyophilised CA measured in beef patties containing 0.1% and 0.3% (w/w) CA stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (80% O2 and 20% CO2) was determined. A preliminary study of gelatine based film containing CA showed a strong antioxidant effect in preventing the degradation of lipid in muscle food. Thus, the present results indicate that CA extract can be used as a natural food antioxidant. PMID:26785344

  1. Antioxidant Potential in Different Parts and Callus of Gynura procumbens and Different Parts of Gynura bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vijendren; Ahmad, Syahida; Mahmood, Maziah

    2015-01-01

    Plants from Gynura family was used in this study, namely, Gynura procumbens and Gynura bicolor. Gynura procumbens is well known for its various medicinal properties such as antihyperglycaemic, antihyperlipidaemic, and antiulcerogenic; meanwhile, G. bicolor remains unexploited. Several nonenzymatic antioxidants methods were utilized to study the antioxidant capacity, which include ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, and ascorbic acid content determination. DPPH assay reveals G. procumbens shoot as the lowest (66.885%) and G. procumbens root as the highest (93.499%) DPPH radical inhibitor. In FRAP assay, reducing power was not detected in G. procumbens leaf callus (0.000 TEAC mg/g FW) whereby G. procumbens root exhibits the highest (1.103 TEAC mg/g FW) ferric reducing power. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content exhibited similar trend for both the intact plants analysed. In all antioxidant assays, G. procumbens callus culture exhibits very low antioxidant activity. However, G. procumbens root exhibited highest phenolic content, flavonoid content, and ascorbic acid content with 4.957 TEAC mg/g FW, 543.529 QE µg/g FW, and 54.723 µg/g FW, respectively. This study reveals that G. procumbens root extract is a good source of natural antioxidant. PMID:26491654

  2. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans. PMID:25179942

  3. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  4. First report of the nutritional profile and antioxidant potential of Holothuria arguinensis, a new resource for aquaculture in Europe.

    PubMed

    Roggatz, Christina C; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Pereira, Hugo; Rodrigues, Maria João; da Silva, Manuela Moreira; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João; Custódio, Luísa

    2016-09-01

    This work reports for the first time the nutritional profile and antioxidant potential of the edible sea cucumber Holothuria arguinensis from the North-eastern Atlantic. H. arguinensis has high levels of protein, with the amino acids profile dominated by alanine, glycine and proline and low lysine/arginine ratios. Its carbohydrate and energetic contents are also low as well as the total lipid levels, although its lipid profile is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. In addition, H. arguinensis has high levels of calcium. The water and ethanol extracts show ability to scavenge free radicals and to chelate copper and iron ions. Our results indicate that H. arguinensis has a balanced nutritional quality suitable for human consumption. In addition, it contains compounds with antioxidant potential; thus its intake can contribute for a healthy and well-balanced diet.

  5. A novel in vitro whole plant system for analysis of polyphenolics and their antioxidant potential in cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Cahill, David M; Conlan, Xavier A; Adholeya, Alok

    2014-10-15

    Plants are an important source for medicinal compounds. Chemical screening and selection is critical for identification of compounds of interest. Ocimum basilicum (Basil) is a rich source of polyphenolics and exhibits high diversity, therefore bioprospecting of a suitable cultivar is a necessity. This study reports on the development of a true to type novel "in vitro system" and its comparison with a conventional system for screening and selection of cultivars for high total phenolics, individual polyphenolics, and antioxidant content. We have shown for the first time using online acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence that extracts from Ocimum basilicum showed antioxidant potential. The current study identified the cultivar specific composition of polyphenolics and their antioxidant properties. Further, a distinct relationship between plant morphotype and polyphenolic content was also found. Of the 15 cultivars examined, "Holy Green", "Red Rubin", and "Basil Genovese" were identified as high polyphenolic producing cultivars while "Subja" was determined to be a low producer. The "in vitro system" enabled differentiation of the cultivars in their morphology, polyphenolic content, and antioxidant activity and is a cheap and efficient method for bioprospecting studies.

  6. Effect of ionising radiation on polyphenolic content and antioxidant potential of parathion-treated sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Issam; Fekih, Sana; Sghaier, Haitham; Bousselmi, Mehrez; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Fattouch, Sami

    2013-11-15

    The γ-irradiation effects on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of parathion-pretreated leaves of Salvia officinalis plant were investigated. The analysis of phenolic extracts of sage without parathion showed that irradiation decreased polyphenolic content significantly (p<0.05) by 30% and 45% at 2 and 4kGy, respectively, compared to non-irradiated samples. The same trend was observed for the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), as assessed by the anionic DPPH and cationic ABTS radical-scavenging assays. The antioxidant potential decreased significantly (p<0.01) at 2 and 4kGy, by 11-20% and 40-44%, respectively. The results obtained with a pure chlorogenic acid solution confirmed the degradation of phenols; however, its TEAC was significantly (p<0.01) increased following irradiation. Degradation products of parathion formed by irradiation seem to protect against a decline of antioxidant capacity and reduce polyphenolic loss. Ionising radiation was found to be useful in breaking down pesticide residues without inducing significant losses in polyphenols.

  7. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Cytotoxic, and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of the Leaves of Solanum lycocarpum A. St. Hil. (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Guilherme Augusto Ferreira; Morais, Melissa Grazielle; Saldanha, Aline Aparecida; Assis Silva, Izabela Caputo; Aleixo, Álan Alex; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; Soares, Adriana Cristina; Duarte-Almeida, Joaquim Maurício; Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol extract and fractions obtained from leaves of Solanum lycocarpum were examined in order to determine their phenolic composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic potential. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with DAD analysis indicated that the flavonoids apigenin and kaempferol were the main phenolic compounds present in dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions, respectively. The antioxidant activity was significantly more pronounced for dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and hydroethanol fractions than that of the commercial antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. The hexane and dichloromethane fractions were more active against the tested bacteria. The hydroethanol fraction exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity at the dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg in the later phase of inflammation. However, the antiedematogenic effect of the higher dose of the ethyl acetate fraction (150 mg/kg) was more pronounced. The ethyl acetate fraction also presented a less cytotoxic effect than the ethanol extract and other fractions. These activities found in S. lycocarpum leaves can be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of phenolic constituents such as flavonoids. This work provided the knowledge of phenolic composition in the extract and fractions and the antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities of leaves of S. lycocarpum. PMID:26064159

  8. A novel in vitro whole plant system for analysis of polyphenolics and their antioxidant potential in cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Cahill, David M; Conlan, Xavier A; Adholeya, Alok

    2014-10-15

    Plants are an important source for medicinal compounds. Chemical screening and selection is critical for identification of compounds of interest. Ocimum basilicum (Basil) is a rich source of polyphenolics and exhibits high diversity, therefore bioprospecting of a suitable cultivar is a necessity. This study reports on the development of a true to type novel "in vitro system" and its comparison with a conventional system for screening and selection of cultivars for high total phenolics, individual polyphenolics, and antioxidant content. We have shown for the first time using online acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence that extracts from Ocimum basilicum showed antioxidant potential. The current study identified the cultivar specific composition of polyphenolics and their antioxidant properties. Further, a distinct relationship between plant morphotype and polyphenolic content was also found. Of the 15 cultivars examined, "Holy Green", "Red Rubin", and "Basil Genovese" were identified as high polyphenolic producing cultivars while "Subja" was determined to be a low producer. The "in vitro system" enabled differentiation of the cultivars in their morphology, polyphenolic content, and antioxidant activity and is a cheap and efficient method for bioprospecting studies. PMID:25275827

  9. Surface-active properties of lipophilic antioxidants tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters: a potential explanation for the nonlinear hypothesis of the antioxidant activity in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Ricardo; Comelles, Francisco; Alcántara, David; Maldonado, Olivia S; Curcuroze, Melanie; Parra, Jose L; Morales, Juan C

    2010-07-14

    Our group has recently observed a nonlinear tendency in antioxidant capacity of different hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters in fish oil-in-water emulsions, where a maximum of antioxidant efficiency appeared for hydroxytyrosol octanoate. These results appear to disagree with the antioxidant polar paradox. Because the physical location of the antioxidants in an oil-water interface has been postulated as an important factor in explaining this behavior, we have prepared a series of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters with different chain length and studied their surface-active properties in water, because these physicochemical parameters could be directly related to the preferential placement at the interface. We have found that tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters are relevant surfactants when the right hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) is attained and, in some cases, as efficient as emulsifiers commonly used in industry, such as Brij 30 or Tween 20. Moreover, a nonlinear dependency of surfactant effectiveness is observed with the increase in chain length of the lipophilic antioxidants. This tendency seems to fit quite well with the reported antioxidant activity in emulsions, and the best antioxidant of the series (hydroxytyrosol octanoate) is also a very effective surfactant. This potential explanation of the nonlinear hypothesis will help in the rational design of antioxidants used in oil-in-water emulsions.

  10. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of Nigella sativa L. Suspension Cultures under Elicitation.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Hera; Fatima, Nida; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae) is an annual herb of immense medicinal properties because of its major active components (i.e., thymoquinone (TQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ), and thymol (THY)). Plant tissue culture techniques like elicitation, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, hairy root culture, and so on, are applied for substantial metabolite production. This study enumerates the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of N. sativa epicotyl suspension cultures under biotic and abiotic elicitation along with concentration optimization of the elicitors for enhanced TQ and THY production. Cultures under different concentrations of pectin and manganese chloride (MnCl2) elicitation (i.e., 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 15 mg/L) showed that the control, MnCl2 10 mg/L, and pectin 15 mg/L suspension extracts greatly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus (MIC against E. coli, i.e., 2.35 ± 0.8, 2.4 ± 0.2, and 2.46 ± 0.5, resp.). Elicitation decreased SOD enzyme activity whereas CAT enzyme activity increased remarkably under MnCl2 elicitation. MnCl2 10 mg/L and pectin 15 mg/L elicitation enhanced the DPPH radical inhibition ability, but ferric scavenging activity was comparable to the control. TQ and THY were quantified by LC-MS/MS in the cultures with high bioactive properties revealing maximum content under MnCl2 10 mg/L elicitation. Therefore, MnCl2 elicitation can be undertaken on large scale for sustainable metabolite production.

  11. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of Nigella sativa L. Suspension Cultures under Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Hera; Fatima, Nida; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae) is an annual herb of immense medicinal properties because of its major active components (i.e., thymoquinone (TQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ), and thymol (THY)). Plant tissue culture techniques like elicitation, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, hairy root culture, and so on, are applied for substantial metabolite production. This study enumerates the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of N. sativa epicotyl suspension cultures under biotic and abiotic elicitation along with concentration optimization of the elicitors for enhanced TQ and THY production. Cultures under different concentrations of pectin and manganese chloride (MnCl2) elicitation (i.e., 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 15 mg/L) showed that the control, MnCl2 10 mg/L, and pectin 15 mg/L suspension extracts greatly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus (MIC against E. coli, i.e., 2.35 ± 0.8, 2.4 ± 0.2, and 2.46 ± 0.5, resp.). Elicitation decreased SOD enzyme activity whereas CAT enzyme activity increased remarkably under MnCl2 elicitation. MnCl2 10 mg/L and pectin 15 mg/L elicitation enhanced the DPPH radical inhibition ability, but ferric scavenging activity was comparable to the control. TQ and THY were quantified by LC-MS/MS in the cultures with high bioactive properties revealing maximum content under MnCl2 10 mg/L elicitation. Therefore, MnCl2 elicitation can be undertaken on large scale for sustainable metabolite production. PMID:26347883

  12. Biochemical Constituents and in Vitro Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Potential of Seeds from Native Korean Persimmon Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Saqib; Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the functional and biochemical potential of the seeds of four persimmon cultivars (PC1, PC2, PC3 and PC4) and their role against oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition were evaluated. In terms of biochemical compositions, free amino acids, fatty acids and organic acids analysis was performed. The free amino acids ranged from 2617.31 (PC2) to 3773.01 μg∙g(-1) dry weight (PC4). Oleic acid and linoleic acid were the principal fatty acids, which were significantly higher in PC4 and PC1, respectively. PC4 presented the highest amount of organic acid content (4212 mg∙kg(-1)), whereas PC2 presented the lowest (2498 mg∙kg(-1)). PC2 contained higher total phenolic content and flavonoid content, whereas PC3 had the lowest amount as compared to other cultivars. The in vitro DPPH, ABTS and superoxide anion radicals scavenging activity increased in a dose-dependent manner, whereas PC2 showed significantly higher scavenging activities as compared to PC1, PC2 and PC4 types. In the case of AChE inhibition, PC4 showed a moderate activity (67.34% ± 1.8%). In conclusion, the current findings reveal that the studied persimmon seeds cultivars are a source of bioactive natural antioxidants and AChE inhibitors. Such natural products could be employed in pharmaceutical and food industries, whilst can also be considered for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. PMID:27399664

  13. Physicochemical characteristics, polyphenol compositions and antioxidant potential of pomegranate juices from 10 Chinese cultivars and the environmental factors analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Wasila, Humaira; Liu, Linwei; Yuan, Tian; Gao, Zhongmei; Zhao, Beita; Ahmad, Imran

    2015-05-15

    Various pomegranate cultivars are grown in several regions of China, but comparative study of their juice polyphenols, antioxidant potentials, and health benefits are few. In the present study, physicochemical characteristics, polyphenol compositions, and antioxidant potentials of pomegranate aril juices from 10 cultivars in 4 Chinese regions were investigated. The results showed that the soluble solid content, reducing sugar content, titratable acid content of them were 13.97-16.30°Brix, 62.82-110.70 g/L, 2.657-36.62 g/L, respectively. The total polyphenols, flavonoids, tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were 3.15-7.43 mg GaE/mL, 0.045-0.335 mg QuE/mL, 0.540-2.531 mg TaE/mL, and 0.004-0.160 mg CyE/mL, respectively. Sugar acid ratio, titratable acid content, total flavonoid concentration, and DPPH scavenging capacity were affected mainly by sweet and sour cultivar type, while soluble solid content and total anthocyanin concentration were affected by environment. Temperature in maturity period and latitude of growing region significantly effected on polyphenol and antioxidant potential levels of pomegranate juice. PMID:25577122

  14. Physicochemical characteristics, polyphenol compositions and antioxidant potential of pomegranate juices from 10 Chinese cultivars and the environmental factors analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Wasila, Humaira; Liu, Linwei; Yuan, Tian; Gao, Zhongmei; Zhao, Beita; Ahmad, Imran

    2015-05-15

    Various pomegranate cultivars are grown in several regions of China, but comparative study of their juice polyphenols, antioxidant potentials, and health benefits are few. In the present study, physicochemical characteristics, polyphenol compositions, and antioxidant potentials of pomegranate aril juices from 10 cultivars in 4 Chinese regions were investigated. The results showed that the soluble solid content, reducing sugar content, titratable acid content of them were 13.97-16.30°Brix, 62.82-110.70 g/L, 2.657-36.62 g/L, respectively. The total polyphenols, flavonoids, tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were 3.15-7.43 mg GaE/mL, 0.045-0.335 mg QuE/mL, 0.540-2.531 mg TaE/mL, and 0.004-0.160 mg CyE/mL, respectively. Sugar acid ratio, titratable acid content, total flavonoid concentration, and DPPH scavenging capacity were affected mainly by sweet and sour cultivar type, while soluble solid content and total anthocyanin concentration were affected by environment. Temperature in maturity period and latitude of growing region significantly effected on polyphenol and antioxidant potential levels of pomegranate juice.

  15. Coumarins as Potential Antioxidant Agents Complemented with Suggested Mechanisms and Approved by Molecular Modeling Studies.

    PubMed

    Al-Majedy, Yasameen K; Al-Duhaidahawi, Dunya L; Al-Azawi, Khalida F; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Syntheses of coumarins, which are a structurally interesting antioxidant activity, was done in this article. The modification of 7-hydroxycoumarin by different reaction steps was done to yield target compounds. Molecular structures were characterized by different spectroscopical techniques (Fourier transformation infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance). Antioxidant activities were performed by using various in vitro spectrophometric assays against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). All compounds exhibited high efficiency as antioxidants compared to ascorbic acid. The highest efficiency scavenging activity was found for compound 3 (91.0 ± 5.0), followed by compounds 2 and 4 (88.0 ± 2.00; and 87.0 ± 3.00). Ascorbic acid C was used as a standard drug with a percentage inhibition of 91.00 ± 1.5. The mechanism of the synthesized compounds as antioxidants was also studied. Hartree-Fock-based quantum chemical studies have been carried out with the basis set to 3-21G, in order to obtain information about the three-dimensional (3D) geometries, electronic structure, molecular modeling, and electronic levels, namely HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital), to understand the antioxidant activity for the synthesized compounds. PMID:26805811

  16. Evaluation of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Aframomum melegueta Methanolic Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Onoja, Samuel Okwudili; Omeh, Yusuf Ndukaku; Ezeja, Maxwell Ikechukwu; Chukwu, Martins Ndubuisi

    2014-01-01

    Aframomum melegueta Schum (Zingiberaceae) is a perennial herb widely cultivated for its valuable seeds in the tropical region of Africa. The present study evaluated the antioxidant effects of methanolic seed extract of A. melegueta. The antioxidant effects were evaluated using in vitro, 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay and in vivo serum catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay method. The extract (25–400 μg/mL concentration) produced concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity in 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay. The extract (400 mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum catalase and superoxide dismutase activity when compared with the control group. The extract (400 mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the serum level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance when compared with the control group. These findings suggest that the seed of A. melegueta has potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported pharmacological activities and can be used as antioxidant supplement. PMID:24955096

  17. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Pouteria campechiana on acetaminophen-induced hepatic toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sivasudha, T; Sasikumar, J M; Christabel, P Hephzibah; Jeyadevi, R; Ananth, D Arul

    2014-03-01

    Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni. is used as a remedy for coronary trouble, liver disorders, epilepsy, skin disease, and ulcer. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of polyphenolic-rich P. campechiana fruit extract against acetaminophen-intoxicated rats. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of egg fruit were estimated followed by the determination of antioxidant activities. Treatment with P. campechiana fruit extract effectively scavenged the free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner within the range of the given concentrations in all antioxidant models. The presence of polyphenolic compounds were confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The animals were treated with acetaminophen (250 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) thrice at the interval of every 5 days after the administration of P. campechiana aqueous extract and silymarin (50 mg/kg). Acetaminophen treatment was found to trigger an oxidative stress in liver, leading to an increase of serum marker enzymes. However, treatment with P. campechiana fruit extract significantly reduced the elevated liver marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase) and increased the antioxidant enzymes (viz., superoxide dismutase and catalase) and glutathione indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. These results strongly suggest that P. campechiana fruit extract has strong antioxidant and significant hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.

  18. Pro- and antioxidant effects and cytoprotective potentials of nine edible vegetables in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwalewa, E O; Adewunmi, C O; Omisore, N O A; Adebanji, O A; Azike, C K; Adigun, A O; Adesina, O A; Olowoyo, O G

    2005-01-01

    Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of boiled, cold, and methanolic extracts of nine edible vegetables in Southwest Nigeria were evaluated in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay and hemagglutination assay in bovine erythrocytes, respectively. Crassocephalum rubens showed the highest antioxidant activity (56.5%), Solanum americanum and Vernonia amygdalina exhibited moderate antioxidant activity (26.0-37.5% and 14.8-36.2%, respectively), Solanum macrocarpon, Telfaria occidentalis, Amaranthus hybridus, and Jatropha tanjorensis produced weak activity (1.6-15.8%, 1.6-7.7%, 2.8-6.62%, and 10.7-12.1%, respectively), while Celosia argentea and Talinum triangulare were pro-oxidants. It was also shown that extracts from all the vegetables are pro-oxidants at high concentrations of either 1 or 5 mg/mL or both. On the other hand, the studies on the cytoprotective effect showed that all the plant extracts demonstrated a very low hemagglutination titer value between 0.32 and 5.56 except S. americanum methanolic extract, which had a titer of 50.0. These results indicated correlation between the antioxidant properties and the hemagglutination values of these plant extracts; however, the membrane stabilizing capacity of the extracts supports the plants' antioxidant activity. PMID:16379569

  19. Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-08-01

    Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are used frequently to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Mentha spicata (spearmint). Herbs were prepared using traditional methods, and the effects after different periods of storage, up to 120 days, were also evaluated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the β-carotene - linoleate system and the TBARS assay. Known antioxidant compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars were also determined. Spearmint was found to be present in the herb mixtures with the greatest antioxidant activity and these also had the highest flavonoid content. The most potent antioxidant activity was found in combinations of different herbs, suggesting synergistic effects.

  20. Use of red blood cell membranes to evaluate the antioxidant potential of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Gabriella; Dachà, Marina; Potenza, Lucia; Ranieri, Annamaria; Scattino, Claudia; Castagna, Antonella; Bergamini, Ettore

    2014-06-01

    Antioxidant phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables of a vegetarian diet may account for the reduced risk of aging and stress oxidative associated diseases. In this study, a simple, rapid and accurate new bioassay for the determination of the antioxidant activity of purified or crude plant extracts and thier interactions is described, based on the fluorimetric determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) released by UV-B radiated red blood cell (RBC) ghosts. Pure resveratrol, white and red wine and pomegranate juice (PJ) were used as antioxidant source to test the biological method. TBARS production is a function of radiation time, the number of RBC ghosts in the radiated sample and the loaded antioxidant. The antioxidant activity of resveratrol was detected at a submicromolar concentration range [0.02 μg/mL-0.1 μmol/L]. The activity of red wine was almost 10 times higher than that of white wine, and PJ juice had the highest activity. Submaximal protective effects of PJ and red wine were additive. PMID:24682659

  1. Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-08-01

    Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are used frequently to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Mentha spicata (spearmint). Herbs were prepared using traditional methods, and the effects after different periods of storage, up to 120 days, were also evaluated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the β-carotene - linoleate system and the TBARS assay. Known antioxidant compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars were also determined. Spearmint was found to be present in the herb mixtures with the greatest antioxidant activity and these also had the highest flavonoid content. The most potent antioxidant activity was found in combinations of different herbs, suggesting synergistic effects. PMID:21308820

  2. Comparing antioxidant capacity of purine alkaloids: a new, efficient trio for screening and discovering potential antioxidants in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Bun; Yi, Ruo-Nan; Cao, Ling-Fang; Li, Shan-Bing; Tan, Rui-Rong; Chen, Min; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Chen; Li, Yi-Fang; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2015-06-01

    The most commonly applied strategies for the evaluation of antioxidant capacity are the chemical- or cell-based approaches. However, the results obtained from these methods might not reflect the antioxidant ability of test samples within organisms. In this study, we propose a combination of experiments, including oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity assay (CAA), and the chick embryo model, as an efficient trio to evaluate antioxidant capacity of food components. Taking purine alkaloids as example, results demonstrate that chemical and cellular method might misinterpret their true ability on antioxidation. In chick embryo model, caffeine and theacrine can significantly improve vessel density on chorioallantoic membrane and myocardial apoptosis. The mechanism can be involving multiple targets within the organism. We believe that the trio proposed can be widely utilized in screening massive number of antioxidant in a cost-effective way. It will also help discovering new antioxidants that are easily being omitted due to their relatively poor in vitro activities.

  3. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of some new fluorine containing hydroxypyrazolines as potential anticancer and antioxidant agents.

    PubMed

    Dinesha; Viveka, Shivapura; Priya, Bolli Keerthi; Pai, K Sreedhara Ranganath; Naveen, Shivalingegowda; Lokanath, Neratur K; Nagaraja, Gundibasappa Karikannar

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is probably the most prevalent cancer in women. The development of resistance to therapeutic agents and lack of targeted therapy for breast cancer cells provide motivation to identify new compounds for the treatment. With this objective in mind, a new series of 3-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl group based 1,3,5-trisubstituted aryl-5-hydroxypyrazoline analogues 4a-l was synthesized through multi-step reaction sequence. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, LC-MS and elemental analysis. They were screened for their in vitro anticancer and in vitro antioxidant activities. Among the tested compounds 4h, 4c and particularly 4i displayed promising cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cell lines. The compounds were also found to possess antioxidant activity when tested against DPPH free radical. Overall, this work has contributed to the development of promising leads for anticancer and antioxidant activities.

  4. Potential of medicinal plants as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents in food industry: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ramirez, Luis Alberto; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Leyva, Juan Manuel; Cruz-Valenzuela, Manuel Reynaldo; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda Adriana; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Siddiqui, Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, Jesus Fernando

    2014-02-01

    Many food preservation strategies can be used for the control of microbial spoilage and oxidation; however, these quality problems are not yet controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobial and antioxidant agents are approved in many countries, the use of natural safe and effective preservatives is a demand of food consumers and producers. This paper proposes medicinal plants, traditionally used to treat health disorders and prevent diseases, as a source of bioactive compounds having food additive properties. Medicinal plants are rich in terpenes and phenolic compounds that present antimicrobial and antioxidant properties; in addition, the literature revealed that these bioactive compounds extracted from other plants have been effective in food systems. In this context, the present hypothesis paper states that bioactive molecules extracted from medicinal plants can be used as antimicrobial and antioxidant additives in the food industry.

  5. Lotus seed epicarp extract as potential antioxidant and anti-obesity additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

    PubMed

    Qi, Suijian; Zhou, Delong

    2013-02-01

    The antioxidative activities of a lotus seed epicarp extract in different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μg.mL(-1)) in pork homogenates representative of Chinese Cantonese Sausage were evaluated using three methods: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, peroxide values (POVs) and acid values (AVs). Also the cytotoxic and anti-obesity effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were evaluated using an in vitro 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model. Results showed that the lotus seed epicarp extracts were non-toxic and effective in inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation. Supplementation of pork homogenate with lotus seed epicarp extracts was effective in retarding lipid oxidation. Moreover, the antioxidative and preadipocyte differentiation inhibition effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were dose-dependent. Thus, the lotus seed epicarp extract might be a good candidate as an antioxidant and anti-obesity natural additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant Producing Potential of Halophilic Bacterial Bionts from Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Velho-Pereira, Sheryanne; Parvatkar, P.; Furtado, Irene J.

    2015-01-01

    Marine invertebrates exposed to high levels of reactive oxygen species in the oceans have been reported to produce antioxidants as a major defense against free radical mediated toxicity; protecting their tissues from the damage associated with the oxidative stress. In view of this, the present study was carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of 100 bacterial bionts isolated from marine sponges, corals and a single bivalve. Methanol extract of biont GUVFCFM-3 produced 67.83% scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals and 65.87% scavenging of superoxide free radicals. Preliminary tests leading to the identification of the extracellular antioxidant factor produced by GUVFCFM-3 revealed that it is a peptide. We report that the genera Chromohalobacter sp. primarily known for its unique salt tolerating abilities by virtue of the production of osmolytes is an excellent scavenger of free radicals. PMID:26009651

  7. Acetamide derivatives with antioxidant activity and potential anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Autore, Giuseppina; Caruso, Anna; Marzocco, Stefania; Nicolaus, Barbara; Palladino, Chiara; Pinto, Aldo; Popolo, Ada; Sinicropi, Maria S; Tommonaro, Giuseppina; Saturnino, Carmela

    2010-03-01

    This study reports the synthesis and antioxidant activity of some new acetamide derivatives. The compounds' structures were elucidated by NMR analysis and their melting points were measured. The in vitro antioxidant activity of these compounds was tested by evaluating the amount of scavenged ABTS radical and estimating ROS and NO production in tBOH- or LPS-stimulated J774.A1 macrophages. All compounds were tested for their effect on cell viability by an MTT assay and by a Brine Shrimp Test. PMID:20336030

  8. Effect of Selenium Enrichment of Lenzites betulinus and Trametes hirsuta Mycelia on Antioxidant, Antifungal and Cytostatics Potential.

    PubMed

    Milovanovic, Ivan N; Stanojkovic, Tatjana P; Stajic, Mirjana M; Brceskic, Ilija D; Knezevic, Aleksandar Z; Cilerdzic, Jasmina Lj; Vukojevic, Jelena B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was an assessment of the antioxidant, antifungal and cytotoxic potentials of L. betulinus and T. hirsuta mycelia extracts and the effect of selenium on these activities. Extracts of L. betulinus were twice as efficient in DPPH• scavenging as those of T. hirsuta. The phenol content in Se-enriched L. betulinus extracts was higher than in non-enriched extracts, in contrast to the effect of Se-enrichment on T. hirsuta extracts, and a direct correlation between the amount and DPPH• scavenging effect was observed. Ethanol extracts exhibited fungistatic but not fungicidal activity against a range of micromycetes, and mycelium enrichment with selenium inhibited this effect. Although the extracts showed low cytotoxic activity against HeLa and LS174 cells, T. hirsuta extracts, especially those enriched with selenium, had better potential. L. betulinuss extracts showed better antioxidant and antifungal activity than T. hirsuta extracts which were more active cytotoxic agents. The presence of selenium stimulated antioxidant and cytotoxic, and inhibited antifungal activity in L. betulinus, while in T. hirsuta its effect was slight.

  9. Systematic comparison of nutraceuticals and antioxidant potential of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial Melissa officinalis samples.

    PubMed

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-06-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) infusions are used worldwide for digestive, analgesic and other pharmaceutical applications. Herein, the nutraceuticals production and antioxidant potential in garden cultivated, in vitro cultured and two commercial samples (bags and granulated) of lemon balm was compared. The profile of in vitro cultured lemon balm is closer of garden cultivated sample than of both commercial samples (bag or granulate). It presented the highest levels of proteins and ash, and the lowest energetic value. The most favorable n6/n3 ration, as also the highest PUFA (mostly α-linolenic acid), tocopherols (including α-, γ- and δ-isoforms) and ascorbic acid contents were also observed in this sample. Nevertheless, it was the commercial bag lemon balm that gave the highest antioxidant activity and the highest levels of phenolics and flavonoids. As far as we kwon, this is the first comparison of nutraceuticals and antioxidant potential of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial lemon balm samples. Moreover, it proved that in vitro culture might be used to stimulate vitamins production. PMID:22445737

  10. Rye and Wheat Bran Extracts Isolated with Pressurized Solvents Increase Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Potential of Beef Meat Hamburgers.

    PubMed

    Šulniūtė, Vaida; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2016-02-01

    Rye and wheat bran extracts containing phenolic compounds and demonstrating high DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(•+) (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacities (ORAC) were tested in beef hamburgers as possible functional ingredients. Bran extracts significantly increased the indicators of antioxidant potential of meat products and their global antioxidant response (GAR) during physiological in vitro digestion. The extracts also inhibited the formation of oxidation products, hexanal and malondialdehyde, of hamburgers during their storage; however, they did not have significant effect on the growth of microorganisms. Hamburgers with 0.8% wheat bran extract demonstrated the highest antioxidant potential. Some effects of bran extracts on other quality characteristics such as pH, color, formation of metmyoglobin were also observed, however, these effects did not have negative influence on the overall sensory evaluation score of hamburgers. Consequently, the use of bran extracts in meat products may be considered as promising means of increasing oxidative product stability and enriching with functional ingredients which might possess health benefits. PMID:26753797

  11. Systematic comparison of nutraceuticals and antioxidant potential of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial Melissa officinalis samples.

    PubMed

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-06-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) infusions are used worldwide for digestive, analgesic and other pharmaceutical applications. Herein, the nutraceuticals production and antioxidant potential in garden cultivated, in vitro cultured and two commercial samples (bags and granulated) of lemon balm was compared. The profile of in vitro cultured lemon balm is closer of garden cultivated sample than of both commercial samples (bag or granulate). It presented the highest levels of proteins and ash, and the lowest energetic value. The most favorable n6/n3 ration, as also the highest PUFA (mostly α-linolenic acid), tocopherols (including α-, γ- and δ-isoforms) and ascorbic acid contents were also observed in this sample. Nevertheless, it was the commercial bag lemon balm that gave the highest antioxidant activity and the highest levels of phenolics and flavonoids. As far as we kwon, this is the first comparison of nutraceuticals and antioxidant potential of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial lemon balm samples. Moreover, it proved that in vitro culture might be used to stimulate vitamins production.

  12. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of curcumin accelerated the cutaneous wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kant, Vinay; Gopal, Anu; Pathak, Nitya N; Kumar, Pawan; Tandan, Surendra K; Kumar, Dinesh

    2014-06-01

    Prolonged inflammation and increased oxidative stress impairs healing in diabetics and application of curcumin, a well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, could be an important strategy in improving impaired healing in diabetics. So, the present study was conducted to evaluate the cutaneous wound healing potential of topically applied curcumin in diabetic rats. Open excision skin wound was created in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and wounded rats were divided into three groups; i) control, ii) gel-treated and iii) curcumin-treated. Pluronic F-127 gel (25%) and curcumin (0.3%) in pluronic gel were topically applied in the gel- and curcumin-treated groups, respectively, once daily for 19 days. Curcumin application increased the wound contraction and decreased the expressions of inflammatory cytokines/enzymes i.e. tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Curcumin also increased the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine i.e. IL-10 and antioxidant enzymes i.e. superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Histopathologically, the curcumin-treated wounds showed better granulation tissue dominated by marked fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition, and wounds were covered by thick regenerated epithelial layer. These findings reveal that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of curcumin caused faster and better wound healing in diabetic rats and curcumin could be an additional novel therapeutic agent in the management of impaired wound healing in diabetics.

  13. Type 2 diabetes diminishes the benefits of dietary antioxidants: Evidence from the different free radical scavenging potential.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Xie, Yixi; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2015-11-01

    The development of food fortified with polyphenols and polyphenol-rich foods represents a novel approach for preventing or managing type 2 diabetes. Herein, taking advantage of several radical scavenging, the impact of plasma proteins in diabetes on the benefits of dietary polyphenols was investigated. It illustrated that plasma proteins masked the dietary polyphenols, thus reducing their radical scavenging potential. The plasma proteins from type 2 diabetics bind and protect (i.e., mask) the polyphenol antioxidants less effectively than the non-glycosylated ones in healthy blood do. In the blood of diabetics the less-protected (non-masked) antioxidants react with free radicals before being delivered to the tissues that need them. We should pay more attention to in vivo benefits of dietary polyphenols for type 2 diabetics.

  14. Antioxidant Potential and DNA Damage Protection by the Slate Grey Saddle Mushroom, Helvella lacunosa (Ascomycetes), from Kashmir Himalaya (India).

    PubMed

    Shameem, Nowsheen; Kamili, Azra N; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masoodi, F A; Parray, Javid A

    2016-01-01

    This study pertains to the radical scavenging potential of and DNA protection by Helvella lacunosa, an edible mushroom from Kashmir Himalaya (India). Different solvents, on the basis of their polarities, were used to extract all solvent-soluble bioactive compounds. Seven different antioxidant methods were also used to determine extensive radical scavenging activity. The mushroom ethanol extract and butanol extract showed effective scavenging activity of radicals at 95% and 89%, respectively. At 800 µg/mg, the ethanol extract was potent enough to protect DNA from degradation by hydroxyl radicals. It is evident from these findings that the presence of antioxidant substances signifies the use of H. lacunosa as food in the mountainous valleys of the Himalayan region. PMID:27649731

  15. Antioxidant Potential and DNA Damage Protection by the Slate Grey Saddle Mushroom, Helvella lacunosa (Ascomycetes), from Kashmir Himalaya (India).

    PubMed

    Shameem, Nowsheen; Kamili, Azra N; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Masoodi, F A; Parray, Javid A

    2016-01-01

    This study pertains to the radical scavenging potential of and DNA protection by Helvella lacunosa, an edible mushroom from Kashmir Himalaya (India). Different solvents, on the basis of their polarities, were used to extract all solvent-soluble bioactive compounds. Seven different antioxidant methods were also used to determine extensive radical scavenging activity. The mushroom ethanol extract and butanol extract showed effective scavenging activity of radicals at 95% and 89%, respectively. At 800 µg/mg, the ethanol extract was potent enough to protect DNA from degradation by hydroxyl radicals. It is evident from these findings that the presence of antioxidant substances signifies the use of H. lacunosa as food in the mountainous valleys of the Himalayan region.

  16. Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Potential of Aged Garlic Extract and Its Constituent, S-Allyl Cysteine, in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Asdaq, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin

    2015-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is one of the unique preparations standardized with 100% bioavailable active ingredients found in the bloodstream. The current research was aimed at exploring the role of AGE and its chief active constituent, s-allyl cysteine (SAC) as antioxidant and hypolipidemic agent in rats. At the end of treatment of AGE and SAC, separated serum and freshly prepared liver tissue homogenate were analyzed for biochemical enzymes and biomarkers to evaluate and compare potencies of investigational agents. Both AGE and SAC significantly declined elevated levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, ALP, AST, ALT, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity, total glutathione and oxidised glutathione in serum and inclined superoxide dismutase, catalase, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and total sulfhydryl values in liver tissue with reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive species. The protective effects were superior with AGE compared with SAC indicating potential implication of other active constituents apart from SAC in AGE for combating hyperlipidemic stress. PMID:25918544

  17. Antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of aged garlic extract and its constituent, s-allyl cysteine, in rats.

    PubMed

    Asdaq, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin

    2015-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is one of the unique preparations standardized with 100% bioavailable active ingredients found in the bloodstream. The current research was aimed at exploring the role of AGE and its chief active constituent, s-allyl cysteine (SAC) as antioxidant and hypolipidemic agent in rats. At the end of treatment of AGE and SAC, separated serum and freshly prepared liver tissue homogenate were analyzed for biochemical enzymes and biomarkers to evaluate and compare potencies of investigational agents. Both AGE and SAC significantly declined elevated levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, ALP, AST, ALT, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity, total glutathione and oxidised glutathione in serum and inclined superoxide dismutase, catalase, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and total sulfhydryl values in liver tissue with reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive species. The protective effects were superior with AGE compared with SAC indicating potential implication of other active constituents apart from SAC in AGE for combating hyperlipidemic stress. PMID:25918544

  18. In vitro cell-based assays for evaluation of antioxidant potential of plant-derived products.

    PubMed

    Nascimento da Silva, Luís Cláudio; Bezerra Filho, Clovis Macêdo; Paula, Raiana Apolinário de; Silva E Silva, Cristiane Santos; Oliveira de Souza, Larissa Isabela; Silva, Márcia Vanusa da; Correia, Maria Tereza Dos Santos; Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz de

    2016-08-01

    Several plant-derived compounds have been screened by antioxidant assays, but many of these results are questionable, since they do not evaluate the pharmacologic parameters. In fact, the development of better antioxidants stills a great challenge. In vitro cell-based assays have been employed to assess the antioxidant effect of various compounds at subcellular level. Cell-based assays can also reveal compounds able to enhance the antioxidant pathways, but without direct radical scavenging action (which could not be detected by traditional assays). These methodologies are general of easy implementation and reproducible making them suitable for the early stages of drug discovery. Hydrogen peroxide, a nonradical derivative of oxygen, can be employed as an oxidative agent in these assays due its biochemical properties (presence of all biological systems, solubility) and capacity to induce cell death. Truthfully, if their limitations are understood (such as difference on cell metabolism when in in vitro conditions), these cell-based assays can provide useful information about the pathways involved in the protective effects of phytochemicals against cell death induced by oxidative stress, which can be exploited to develop new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27216086

  19. Antioxidative and cytotoxic potential of some Chenopodium L. species growing in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Renata; Szewczyk, Katarzyna; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Rzymowska, Jolanta; Komsta, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of lipophilic compounds extracted from different parts of four Chenopodium L. (Chenopodium album, Chenopodium hybridum, Chenopodium rubrum and Chenopodium urbicum) species were evaluated. The highest phenolic content was found in herb and seeds of all examined plants. Large amounts of free polyphenols were observed in herb extracts of C. album (3.36 mg/g DW), seeds of C. urbicum (3.87 mg/g DW) and roots of C. urbicum (1.52 mg/g DW). The cytotoxic activities of the extracts were assessed against human lung carcinoma A-549 and ovarian carcinoma TOV-112D and normal human fibroblast cell lines. Our study demonstrated that the extracts from the herb of C. rubrum and C. urbicum had the best antioxidant effect of all the extracts analyzed. Most of the extracts tested exhibited low cytotoxicity. However, the extracts from herb and seeds of C. album and C. hybridum showed the significant antiproliferative effect on the TOV-112 cell line. It can be concluded that antioxidant activity and phenolic composition differ mainly between plant parts and are quite similar between the plants, when the same plant part is analyzed. Thus, the Chenopodium extracts could be used as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants, and may be used in the pharmaceutical industry and for food supplements production. PMID:26858534

  20. Antioxidative effects of cinnamomi cortex: A potential role of iNOS and COX-II

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin-Won; Kim, Jeong-Jun; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cinnamomi cortex has wide varieties of pharmacological actions such as anti-inflammatory action, anti-platelet aggregation, and improving blood circulation. In this study, we tested to determine whether the Cinnamomi cortex extract has antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Antioxidative actions were explored by measuring free radical scavenging activity, NO levels, and reducing power. The mechanism of antioxidative action of Cinnamomi cortex was determined by measuring iNOS and COX-II expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated Raw cells. Results: Seventy percent methanolic extract of Cinnamomi cortex exerted significant 1,1-diphenyl--2--picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and NO scavenging activities in a dose-dependent manner. More strikingly, the Cinnamomi cortex extract exerted dramatic reducing power activity (13-fold over control). Production of iNOS induced by LPS was significantly inhibited by the Cinnamomi cortex extract, suggesting that it inhibits NO production by suppressing iNOS expression. Additionally, COX-2 induced by LPS was dramatically inhibited by the Cinnamomi cortex extract. Conclusion: These results suggest that 70% methanolic extract of Cinnamomi cortex exerts significant antioxidant activity via inhibiting iNOS and COX-II induction. PMID:22262934

  1. Antiproliferative and antioxidant potential of hesperetin against benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Barua, Chandana C; Karnam, Kalyani Chowdary; Dahiya, Vicky; Ellutla, Maheswara

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is the foremost cause of cancer mortality and is a growing economic burden worldwide. Chemoprevention, employing the use of natural, dietary or synthetic agents has become an appealing strategy to combat the increasing cases of cancers worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanism-based chemopreventive nature of hesperetin (HSP) against B[a]P induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. We analyzed the chemopreventive potential of HSP by estimating the status of lipid peroxidation (LPO), enzymic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GST), nonenzymic antioxidants (GSH, Vit C and Vit E), proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α), western blotting (CYP1A1, PCNA, Nrf2 and NF-κB expression) and histopathology of lung tissues of control and experimental mice. Administration of B[a]P (50 mg/kg, p.o.) resulted in an increase in lung weight, LPO with concomitant decrease in body weight, enzymic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GST) and non-enzymic (GSH, Vit C and Vit E) antioxidants. Histological examination of lungs revealed severe alveolar and bronchiolar damages in B[a]P-induced mice. Further, elevated levels of TNF-α along with activated expression of NF-κB, PCNA and CYP1A1, and downregulation of Nrf2 was observed in B[a]P intoxicated animals. Pre- and post-treatment with HSP effectively suppressed B[a]P induced lung carcinoma and the associated preneoplastic lesions by alleviating LPO, modulating antioxidants and decreasing the expression of NF-κB, PCNA and CYP1A1. These findings demonstrate that HSP possesses a potential chemopreventive activity against B[a]P induced lung cancer and this is attributed to its free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties.

  2. Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil and its hepatoprotective potential

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Natural antioxidant products are increasingly being used to treat various pathological liver conditions considering the role of oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Rosemary essential oil has already being used as a preservative in food industry due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, but it was shown to possess additional health benefits. The aim of our study was to evaluate the protective effect of rosemary essential oil on carbon tetrachloride - induced liver injury in rats and to explore whether its mechanism of action is associated with modulation of hepatic oxidative status. Methods Chemical composition of isolated rosemary essential oil was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity was determined in vitro using DPPH assay. Activities of enzyme markers of hepatocellular damage in serum and antioxidant enzymes in the liver homogenates were measured using the kinetic spectrophotometric methods. Results In this research, we identified 29 chemical compounds of the studied rosemary essential oil, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (43.77%), camphor (12.53%), and α-pinene (11.51%). Investigated essential oil was found to exert hepatoprotective effects in the doses of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg by diminishing AST and ALT activities up to 2-fold in serum of rats with carbon tetrachloride - induced acute liver damage. Rosemary essential oil prevented carbon tetrachloride - induced increase of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates. Furthermore, pre-treatment with studied essential oil during 7 days significantly reversed the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver homogenates, especially in the dose of 10 mg/kg. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil, beside exhibiting free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH assay, mediates its hepatoprotective effects also through activation of

  3. Antioxidant and antiulcer potential of aqueous leaf extract of Kigelia africana against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Matheus M; Olaleye, Mary T; Ineu, Rafael P; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Barbosa, Nilda Bv; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Ethnobotanical claims regarding Kigelia africana reported antiulcer properties as part of its medicinal application. In this work, aqueous leaf extract from K. africana was investigated for its phytochemical constituents and antiulcer potential against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. The participation of oxidative stress on ethanol-induced ulcer and the potential protective antioxidant activity of K. africana extracts were investigated by determining vitamin C and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) contents in the gastric mucosa of rats. The HPLC analysis showed the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and also the flavonoids rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in the aqueous plant extract. Oral treatment with K. africana extract (1.75; 3.5; 7 and 14 mg/kg) one hour after ulcer induction with ethanol decreased in a dose dependent manner the ulcer index. Ethanol increased significantly stomachal TBARS levels and decreased vitamin C content when compared to the control animals. K. africana blunted the ethanol-induced oxidative stress and restored vitamin C content to the control levels. The present results indicate that the aqueous leaf extract from K. africana possesses antiulcer potential. The presence of flavonoids in plant extract suggests that its antiulcerogenic potential is associated with antioxidant activity. Of particular therapeutic potential, K. africana was effective against ethanol even after the induction of ulcer, indicating that it can have protective and curative effects against gastric lesion.

  4. Potential assessment of Rumex vesicarius L. as a source of natural antioxidants and bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Beddou, Fawzia; Bekhechi, Chahrazed; Ksouri, Riadh; Chabane Sari, Daoudi; Atik Bekkara, Fawzia

    2015-06-01

    The present work is designed to evaluate the antioxidant activities of hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) and its fractions (viz., hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (AF), n-butanol (BF) and water (WF)) obtained from aerial part of Rumex vesicarius L. by using different in vitro antioxidant assays. The content in pigments (carotenoids and chlorophylls), total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Qualitative analyses of major phenolics by TLC analysis were also evaluated. Experimental results obtained show that R. vesicarius is a rich source of β-carotene (116.83 ± 1.60 μg/g DW), lycopene (156.40 ± 1.59 μg/g DW) and chlorophyll a (271.45 ± 3.46 μg/g DW). The greatest antioxidant activity was found in AF (IC50.DPPH = 0.07 ± 0.00 mg/ml) followed by BF and CF (0.15 ± 0.00 and 0.16 ± 0.00 mg/ml, respectively). These fractions were also better in their effect on reducing the oxidation of β-carotene. Reducing power of crude methanol extract/fractions increased with increasing concentration of the extract. The amount of total phenolics varied from 0.37 ± 0.01 to 43.28 ± 0.28 mg GAE/g of dry weight, HAE had the higher content (43.28 ± 0.28 mg GAE/g of DW). A negative correlation was found between phenolic compounds and the antioxidant efficiencies of the crude extract/fractions, suggesting that phenolic compounds are not the only contributors to the antioxidant activities of Rumex vesicarius. The present findings suggest that Rumex vesicarius L. can be used as natural antioxidant source to prevent damage associated with free radicals. PMID:26028737

  5. Proximate Composition and Antioxidant Potential of Leaves from Three Varieties of Mulberry (Morus sp.): A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Sirajuddin; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarfraz, Raja Adil; Uddin, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    In this study, leaves of three indigenous varieties of Mulberry namely, Morus alba L., Morus nigra L. and Morus rubra L. were investigated for their antioxidant potential and their proximate composition was determined. The yields of 80% methanolic extracts ranged between 8.28–13.89%. The contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and ascorbic acid (AA) ranged between 16.21–24.37 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, 26.41–31.28 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g and 0.97–1.49 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavenging actity, 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+) radical cation scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing power and values ranged between 1.89–2.12, 6.12–9.89 and 0.56–0.97 mM Trolox equivalent/g of dried leaves, respectively. The investigated features reveal good nutritive and antioxidant attributes of all the varieties with mutually significant differences. PMID:22837655

  6. Stability, cutaneous delivery, and antioxidant potential of a lipoic acid and α-tocopherol codrug incorporated in microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Siji; Vieira, Camila S; Hass, Martha A; Lopes, Luciana B

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the skin penetration, stability, and antioxidant effects of a α-tocopherol-lipoic acid codrug. To enhance penetration, we evaluated three microemulsions varying in water content and composition of the oil phase (isopropyl myristate with either monocaprylin or oleic acid). The codrug was incorporated at 1% (w/w). Codrug hydrolysis in the microemulsion increased with increases in time (up to 48 h) and formulation water content (10%-30%, w/w). Microemulsions increased the codrug delivery into viable layers of porcine ear skin by 2.9-7.8-fold compared with a control formulation (20% monocaprylin in isopropyl myristate) after 24 h. Penetration enhancement was influenced by the oil phase, with the formulation containing monocaprylin displaying the most pronounced effect. Antioxidant activity, assessed in skin bioequivalents using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay, demonstrated that TBARS levels decreased by 39% after treatment with the codrug-containing microemulsion compared with the unloaded formulation. In addition to the codrug, tocopherol (8.2 ± 0.6 μg/cm(2)) was detected in the viable bioequivalent tissues, suggesting that the codrug was partly hydrolyzed after 12 h. Taken together, these results support the potential of nanodispersed formulations containing a tocopherol-lipoic acid codrug to improve skin antioxidant activity.

  7. Effect of Chromium on Antioxidant Potential of Catharanthus roseus Varieties and Production of Their Anticancer Alkaloids: Vincristine and Vinblastine

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Pramod Kumar; Khatoon, Sayyada

    2014-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, a medicinal plant, has a very important place in the traditional as well as modern pharmaceutical industry. Two common varieties of this plant rosea and alba are named so because of pink and white coloured flowers, respectively. This plant comprises of about 130 terpenoid indole alkaloids and two of them, vincristine and vinblastine, are common anticancer drugs. The effect of chromium (Cr) on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant components and on secondary metabolites vincristine and vinblastine was studied under pot culture conditions of both varieties of C. roseus. Antioxidant responses of these varieties were analyzed under 0, 10, 50, and 100 μM chromium (Cr) level in order to investigate the plant's protective mechanisms against Cr induced oxidative stress. The results indicated that Cr affects all the studied parameters and decreases growth performance. However, vincristine and vinblastine contents were increased under Cr stress. Results are quite encouraging, as this plant shows good antioxidant potential and increased the level of active constituents under Cr stress. PMID:24734252

  8. Potential of Hydrocotyle vulgaris for phytoremediation of a textile dye: Inducing antioxidant response in roots and leaves.

    PubMed

    Vafaei, F; Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R; Zarei, M; Salehi Lisar, S Y

    2013-07-01

    The potential of Hydrocotyle vulgaris as an aquatic plant species was evaluated for phytoremediation of C.I. Basic Red 46 (BR46) from nutrient solution. Under the optimized experimental conditions, BR46 was removed up to 95% from incubation medium by H. vulgaris. The ability of the plant in consecutive removal under long term repetitive experiments confirmed the biodegradation process. Accordingly, a number of produced intermediate compounds were identified. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the biodegradation efficiency. A predictive performance (R(2)=0.974) was obtained based on the network results. Interestingly, dye stress enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase in H. vulgaris roots and leaves. Enzymatic responses found to be highly depended on the plant organ and dye concentration in the liquid medium. Overall, the increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes was much higher in the roots than in the leaves. Nevertheless, no significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was detected in both roots and leaves which reflects the high efficiency of antioxidant system in the elimination of reactive oxygen species.

  9. Phytochemical profile of a blend of black chokeberry and lemon juice with cholinesterase inhibitory effect and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2012-10-15

    In this study, black chokeberry concentrate was added (5% w/v) to lemon juice, since previous reports suggested potential health benefits of this blend. The phytochemical composition, antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, and hypochlorous acid), and inhibitory activity against cholinesterase of the new blend were determined and compared with those of lemon juice and chokeberry in citric acid (5%). The chokeberry concentrate, rich in cyanidin-glycosides, quercetin derivatives, and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and lemon juice, possessing flavones, flavanones, quercetin derivates, and hydroxycinnamic acids, were characterised. The new drink showed a higher antioxidant effect than the chokeberry or lemon controls for all the tested methods, except for hypochlorous acid, in which lemon juice displayed higher activity. Both the lemon juice and chokeberry controls inhibited acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, and this effect was increased in the new mixtures. The results of the different radical scavenging assays indicate that the lemon-black chokeberry (5% w/v) mixture was more antioxidative than the respective controls separately. Moreover, their inhibition of cholinesterase is of interest regarding neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or senile dementia.

  10. Evaluation of synergistic antioxidant potential of complex mixtures using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

    PubMed

    Parker, Tory L; Miller, Samantha A; Myers, Lauren E; Miguez, Fernando E; Engeseth, Nicki J

    2010-01-13

    Previous research has demonstrated that certain combinations of compounds result in a decrease in toxic or pro-oxidative effects, previously noted when compounds were administered singly. Thus, there is a need to study many complex interactions further. Two in vitro techniques [electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays] were used in this study to assess pro- and antioxidant capacity and synergistic potential of various compounds. Rutin, p-coumaric acid, abscisic acid, ascorbic acid, and a sugar solution were evaluated individually at various concentrations and in all 26 possible combinations at concentrations found in certain foods (honey or papaya), both before and after simulated digestion. EPR results indicated sugar-containing combinations provided significantly higher antioxidant capacity; those combinations containing sugars and ascorbic acid demonstrated synergistic potential. The ORAC assay suggested additive effects, with some combinations having synergistic potential, although fewer combinations were significantly synergistic after digestion. Finally, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, and urate were evaluated at serum-achievable levels. EPR analysis did not demonstrate additive or synergistic potential, although ORAC analysis did, principally in combinations containing ascorbic acid.

  11. Evaluation of synergistic antioxidant potential of complex mixtures using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

    PubMed

    Parker, Tory L; Miller, Samantha A; Myers, Lauren E; Miguez, Fernando E; Engeseth, Nicki J

    2010-01-13

    Previous research has demonstrated that certain combinations of compounds result in a decrease in toxic or pro-oxidative effects, previously noted when compounds were administered singly. Thus, there is a need to study many complex interactions further. Two in vitro techniques [electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays] were used in this study to assess pro- and antioxidant capacity and synergistic potential of various compounds. Rutin, p-coumaric acid, abscisic acid, ascorbic acid, and a sugar solution were evaluated individually at various concentrations and in all 26 possible combinations at concentrations found in certain foods (honey or papaya), both before and after simulated digestion. EPR results indicated sugar-containing combinations provided significantly higher antioxidant capacity; those combinations containing sugars and ascorbic acid demonstrated synergistic potential. The ORAC assay suggested additive effects, with some combinations having synergistic potential, although fewer combinations were significantly synergistic after digestion. Finally, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, and urate were evaluated at serum-achievable levels. EPR analysis did not demonstrate additive or synergistic potential, although ORAC analysis did, principally in combinations containing ascorbic acid. PMID:19957934

  12. Antioxidant potential and protection of pancreatic β- cells by Calotropis gigantea in streptozocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Naveen Kumar; Sharma, Swapnil; Jha, A K; Karchuli, Manvendra Singh; Dwivedi, Jaya

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the antioxidant defense by chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea on streptozotocin-(40mg/kg, intraperitonial, single-injection) induced diabetes in wistar albino rats. The extract significantly (P < .05) decreased the pancreatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels and significantly (P < .05) increased the superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione levels as compared to above levels in pancreatic tissue of pathogenic diabetic rats. The results of test drug were comparable to Glibenclamide (5mg/kg, daily), a standard antihyperglycemic agent. The study concludes that Calotropis gigantea enhances the antioxidant defense against reactive oxygen species produced under hyperglycemic condition and this protects β-cells against loss, and exhibit antidiabetic property.

  13. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. methanolic fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Dinesh; Manjusha; Saroha, Kamal; Singh, Nidhan; Vashishta, Bhoodev

    2008-06-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used as an abortifacient and to treat constipation, oedema, bacterial infections, cancer and diabetes. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant showed the presence of large amounts of phenolics and flavonoids. Subsequent quantification showed the presence of 0.74% (m/m) phenolics (calculated as gallic acid) and 0.13% (m/m) flavonoids calculated as catechin equivalents per 100 g of fresh mass. The presence of phenolic compounds prompted us to evaluate its antioxidant activity. In the present study, methanolic fruit extract of C. colocynthis was screened to evaluate its free radical scavenging effect. The highest antioxidant and free radical scavenging ability of the fruit extract was observed at a concentration of 2500 microg mL(-1).

  14. Emerging potential of citrus flavanones as an antioxidant in diabetes and its complications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Malvika; Akhtar, Nadeem; Sambhav, Kumar; Shete, Ganesh; Bansal, Arvind K; Sharma, Shyam S

    2015-01-01

    A proper balance between oxidants and antioxidants is necessary in maintaining health and longevity. Alterations in this balance may result in oxidative stress causing functional disorders and diseases. Oxidative stress is considered to play a vital role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Flavanones and flavanones-rich botanical extracts have been a subject of great interest for scientific research. Citrus flavanones like naringin and hesperidin exert a variety of biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, anti-apoptotic etc. Naringin and hesperidin along with their respective aglycones, naringenin and hesperetin have been shown to attenuate diabetes and its related complications. This review discusses the role of flavanones as a possible emerging treatment for diabetes and its complications along with the possible mechanistic explanations.

  15. Antioxidant, Antityrosinase and Antitumor Activity Comparison: The Potential Utilization of Fibrous Root Part of Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb.f.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanfen; Chen, Yitao; Jin, Bo; Chen, Nipi; Ding, Zhishan; Ding, Xinghong

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the utilization probability of the fibrous root part (FRP) of Bletilla striata, which was usually discarded and harvesting pseudobulb part (PSP). The chemical composition, total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, Ferric-reducing antioxidant power and tyrosinase inhibition activity were compared between FRP and PSP. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant effect as well as antitumor effect of the extract of FRP and PSP were analyzed by in vitro cell system as well. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the chemical compositions in the two parts were similar, but the content in FRP was much higher than PSP. Meanwhile, the FRP extracts showed higher phenolic content, stronger DPPH scavenging activity, Ferric-reducing antioxidant capacity and tyrosinase inhibition activity. Sub-fraction analysis revealed that the distribution characteristic of phenolic components and other active constituents in FRP and PSP were consistent, and mainly deposited in chloroform and acetoacetate fractions. Especially, the chloroform sub-fraction (sch) of FRP showed extraordinary DPPH scavenging activity and tyrosinase inhibition activity, with IC50 0.848 mg/L and 4.3 mg/L, respectively. Besides, tyrosinase inhibition activity was even stronger than the positive compound arbutin (31.8 mg/L). Moreover, In vitro cell system analysis confirmed that FRP extract exerts comparable activity with PSP, especially, the sub-fraction sch of FRP showed better antioxidant activity at low dosage and stronger per-oxidant activity at high dosage, and both sch of FRP and PSP can dose-dependent induce HepG2 cells apoptosis, which implied tumor therapeutic effect. Considering that an additional 0.3 kg FRP would be obtained when producing 1.0 kg PSP, our work demonstrated that FRP is very potential to be used together with PSP. PMID:23469127

  16. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves: phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity and antioxidant potential of different cultivars.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, Anabela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ferreres, Federico; Bento, Albino; Seabra, Rosa; Estevinho, Letícia

    2007-11-01

    Different cultivars of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves (Cv. Lara, Franquette, Mayette, Marbot, Mellanaise and Parisienne) grown in Portugal, were investigated in what concerns phenolic compounds and antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Phenolics analysis was performed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD and 10 compounds were identified and quantified: 3- and 5-caffeoylquinic acids, 3- and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acids, p-coumaric acid, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-pentoside derivative, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-xyloside and quercetin 3-rhamnoside. The antimicrobial capacity was screened against Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans). Walnut leaves selectively inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria, being B. cereus the most susceptible one (MIC 0.1mg/mL). Gram negative bacteria and fungi were resistant to the extracts at 100mg/mL. Lara walnut leaves were also submitted to antibacterial assays using 18 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus sp. Antioxidant activity was accessed by the reducing power assay, the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and beta-carotene linoleate model system. In a general way, all of the studied walnut leaves cultivars presented high antioxidant activity (EC(50) values lower than 1mg/mL), being Cv. Lara the most effective one.

  17. Dextran: Influence of Molecular Weight in Antioxidant Properties and Immunomodulatory Potential

    PubMed Central

    Soeiro, Vinicius C.; Melo, Karoline R. T.; Alves, Monique G. C. F.; Medeiros, Mayara J. C.; Grilo, Maria L. P. M.; Almeida-Lima, Jailma; Pontes, Daniel L.; Costa, Leandro S.; Rocha, Hugo A. O.

    2016-01-01

    Dextrans (α-d-glucans) extracted from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, with molecular weights (MW) of 10 (D10), 40 (D40) and 147 (D147) kDa, were evaluated as antioxidant, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory drugs for the first time. None presented anticoagulant activity. As for the antioxidant and immunomodulatory tests, a specific test showed an increase in the dextran activity that was proportional to the increase in molecular weight. In a different assay, however, activity decreased or showed no correlation to the MW. As an example, the reducing power assay showed that D147 was twice as potent as other dextrans. On the other hand, all three samples showed similar activity (50%) when it came to scavenging the OH radical, whereas only the D10 sample showed sharp activity (50%) when it came to scavenging the superoxide ion. D40 was the single dextran that presented with immunomodulatory features since it stimulated the proliferation (~50%) of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and decreased the release of nitric oxide (~40%) by the cells, both in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In addition, D40 showed a greater scavenging activity (50%) for the hydrogen peroxide, which caused it to also be the more potent dextran when it came to inhibiting lipid peroxidation (70%). These points toward dextrans with a 40 kDa weight as being ideal for antioxidant and immunomodulatory use. However, future studies with the D40 and other similarly 40 kDa dextrans are underway to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27548151

  18. Dextran: Influence of Molecular Weight in Antioxidant Properties and Immunomodulatory Potential.

    PubMed

    Soeiro, Vinicius C; Melo, Karoline R T; Alves, Monique G C F; Medeiros, Mayara J C; Grilo, Maria L P M; Almeida-Lima, Jailma; Pontes, Daniel L; Costa, Leandro S; Rocha, Hugo A O

    2016-01-01

    Dextrans (α-d-glucans) extracted from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, with molecular weights (MW) of 10 (D10), 40 (D40) and 147 (D147) kDa, were evaluated as antioxidant, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory drugs for the first time. None presented anticoagulant activity. As for the antioxidant and immunomodulatory tests, a specific test showed an increase in the dextran activity that was proportional to the increase in molecular weight. In a different assay, however, activity decreased or showed no correlation to the MW. As an example, the reducing power assay showed that D147 was twice as potent as other dextrans. On the other hand, all three samples showed similar activity (50%) when it came to scavenging the OH radical, whereas only the D10 sample showed sharp activity (50%) when it came to scavenging the superoxide ion. D40 was the single dextran that presented with immunomodulatory features since it stimulated the proliferation (~50%) of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and decreased the release of nitric oxide (~40%) by the cells, both in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In addition, D40 showed a greater scavenging activity (50%) for the hydrogen peroxide, which caused it to also be the more potent dextran when it came to inhibiting lipid peroxidation (70%). These points toward dextrans with a 40 kDa weight as being ideal for antioxidant and immunomodulatory use. However, future studies with the D40 and other similarly 40 kDa dextrans are underway to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27548151

  19. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant potential of phosvitin-resveratrol complexes in emulsion system.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiang; Li, Mei; Ma, Huijie; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Liu, Xuebo

    2016-09-01

    Egg yolk phosvitin is the most highly phosphorylated protein found in the nature. The physicochemical properties of phosvitin-resveratrol complexes and their synergistic antioxidant activities in microemulsions were investigated. The particle diameters of microemulsions containing 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% phosvitin were 2.660, 0.501 and 0.414μm, respectively. The emulsifying activity index increased largely from 3.72 to 21.5m(2)/g with increasing phosvitin concentration from 0.5% to 2.0%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal analyses indicated that the microemulsions underwent a conformational change during homogenization. Antioxidant assays showed that phosvitin-resveratrol microemulsions exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than that of phosvitin-resveratrol primary emulsions. The MTT assay indicated that HepG2 cell viability remained higher than 80% at phosvitin concentration below 1.0mg/ml. This suggested that phosvitin, when coupled with polyphenol, can effectively inhibit lipid oxidation in food emulsions, which provided valuable insights into deep processing and application of egg proteins in food industry. PMID:27041304

  20. Screening for antibiofilm and antioxidant potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Sumreen; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2016-07-01

    The antibiofilm and antioxidant activities associated with turmeric were the main focus of the study. Antibacterial activity was explored against bacteria isolated from dental plaques and dental unit water lines exhibiting resistance against antibiotics and biocides respectively. This study provides a comparison of the natural plant extract against synthetic mouthwash, chemicals and commonly prescribed antibiotics. Methanol extract was more effective as compared to other extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 2.5-10mg/ml. Time based killing kinetic assay showed a significant reduction of bacterial load with increasing concentration of turmeric. Micro titer plate assay indicated significant inhibition of biofilm formation in cells treated with turmeric extract. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts showed the presence of vital secondary metabolites. Flavonoid content and total phenolic content varied among extracts, phenolic content for methanolic extract was 61.669 mg GAE/ gm dry extract and flavonoid content was 3.119mg quercitin/gm dry extract. The values of ferric reducing power were in the range of 5.55- 15.55 mmol of FeSO4 equivalent/ liter of the extract. Antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of the turmeric extracts had significant positive correlation. On the basis of these results turmeric may confidently be recommended as natural antibiofilm and antioxidant agent.

  1. Phenolic profile, antioxidant potential and DNA damage protecting activity of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Syed Rizwan; Sabir, Syed Mubashar; Ahmad, Syed Dilnawaz; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2014-03-15

    The present study investigated the antioxidant and phenolic composition of sugarcane. The leaves and juices of thirteen varieties of sugarcane were studied for their antioxidant activity and protective effect on DNA damage. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay was used to determine the radical scavenging activities in leaves and juices. Different varieties of sugarcane showed good antioxidant properties, IC50 values ranged from 20.82 to 27.47 μg/ml for leaves and from 63.95 to higher than 200 μg/ml for juice. The leaves and juice possess strong ability to protect against DNA damage induced by hydroxyl radical generated in Fenton reaction. The major phenolic acids, some flavonoid aglycone and glycosides were identified in leaves by high performance liquid chromatography. Ferulic acid (14.63 ± 0.03 mg/g), cumaric acid (11.65 ± 0.03 mg/g), quercetrin (10.96 ± 0.02 mg/g), caffeic acid (9.16 ± 0.01 mg/g) and ellagic acid (9.03 ± 0.02 mg/g) were prédominant in infusion of sugarcane.

  2. Erythorbyl laurate as a potential food additive with multi-functionalities: Interfacial characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Min Joo; Jo, Su-Kyung; Choi, Seung Jun; Lee, JaeHwan; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2017-01-15

    The interfacial characteristics and antioxidant activities of erythorbyl laurate were investigated to provide information on practical applications as a multi-functional food additive. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of erythorbyl laurate was 0.101mM and its foam stability was three times (half-life 24.33±0.94h) higher than that of Tween 20 (8.00±1.63h). In free radical scavenging assay, the negligible decrease in EC50 of erythorbyl laurate compared to erythorbic acid manifested that C-5 selective esterification of erythorbic acid with an acyl group (lauric acid) did not reduce the inherent antioxidant activity of the donor (erythorbic acid). Erythorbyl laurate formed lipid peroxides slower (i.e. retarded oxidation) in an emulsion system than did erythorbic acid. The localization of erythorbyl laurate as an emulsifier allowed the antioxidant molecules to be concentrated at the oil-water interface where oxidation is prevalent, which led to more effective retardation of lipid oxidation. PMID:27542455

  3. Screening for antibiofilm and antioxidant potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Sumreen; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2016-07-01

    The antibiofilm and antioxidant activities associated with turmeric were the main focus of the study. Antibacterial activity was explored against bacteria isolated from dental plaques and dental unit water lines exhibiting resistance against antibiotics and biocides respectively. This study provides a comparison of the natural plant extract against synthetic mouthwash, chemicals and commonly prescribed antibiotics. Methanol extract was more effective as compared to other extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 2.5-10mg/ml. Time based killing kinetic assay showed a significant reduction of bacterial load with increasing concentration of turmeric. Micro titer plate assay indicated significant inhibition of biofilm formation in cells treated with turmeric extract. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts showed the presence of vital secondary metabolites. Flavonoid content and total phenolic content varied among extracts, phenolic content for methanolic extract was 61.669 mg GAE/ gm dry extract and flavonoid content was 3.119mg quercitin/gm dry extract. The values of ferric reducing power were in the range of 5.55- 15.55 mmol of FeSO4 equivalent/ liter of the extract. Antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of the turmeric extracts had significant positive correlation. On the basis of these results turmeric may confidently be recommended as natural antibiofilm and antioxidant agent. PMID:27393429

  4. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves: phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity and antioxidant potential of different cultivars.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, Ivo; Sousa, Anabela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ferreres, Federico; Bento, Albino; Seabra, Rosa; Estevinho, Letícia

    2007-11-01

    Different cultivars of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves (Cv. Lara, Franquette, Mayette, Marbot, Mellanaise and Parisienne) grown in Portugal, were investigated in what concerns phenolic compounds and antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Phenolics analysis was performed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD and 10 compounds were identified and quantified: 3- and 5-caffeoylquinic acids, 3- and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acids, p-coumaric acid, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-pentoside derivative, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-xyloside and quercetin 3-rhamnoside. The antimicrobial capacity was screened against Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans). Walnut leaves selectively inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria, being B. cereus the most susceptible one (MIC 0.1mg/mL). Gram negative bacteria and fungi were resistant to the extracts at 100mg/mL. Lara walnut leaves were also submitted to antibacterial assays using 18 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus sp. Antioxidant activity was accessed by the reducing power assay, the scavenging effect on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals and beta-carotene linoleate model system. In a general way, all of the studied walnut leaves cultivars presented high antioxidant activity (EC(50) values lower than 1mg/mL), being Cv. Lara the most effective one. PMID:17637491

  5. Erythorbyl laurate as a potential food additive with multi-functionalities: Interfacial characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Min Joo; Jo, Su-Kyung; Choi, Seung Jun; Lee, JaeHwan; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2017-01-15

    The interfacial characteristics and antioxidant activities of erythorbyl laurate were investigated to provide information on practical applications as a multi-functional food additive. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of erythorbyl laurate was 0.101mM and its foam stability was three times (half-life 24.33±0.94h) higher than that of Tween 20 (8.00±1.63h). In free radical scavenging assay, the negligible decrease in EC50 of erythorbyl laurate compared to erythorbic acid manifested that C-5 selective esterification of erythorbic acid with an acyl group (lauric acid) did not reduce the inherent antioxidant activity of the donor (erythorbic acid). Erythorbyl laurate formed lipid peroxides slower (i.e. retarded oxidation) in an emulsion system than did erythorbic acid. The localization of erythorbyl laurate as an emulsifier allowed the antioxidant molecules to be concentrated at the oil-water interface where oxidation is prevalent, which led to more effective retardation of lipid oxidation.

  6. Glucitol-core containing gallotannins inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products mediated by their antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hang; Liu, Weixi; Frost, Leslie; Kirschenbaum, Louis J; Dain, Joel A; Seeram, Navindra P

    2016-05-18

    Glucitol-core containing gallotannins (GCGs) are polyphenols containing galloyl groups attached to a 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol core, which is uncommon among naturally occurring plant gallotannins. GCGs have only been isolated from maple (Acer) species, including the red maple (Acer rubrum), a medicinal plant which along with the sugar maple (Acer saccharum), are the major sources of the natural sweetener, maple syrup. GCGs are reported to show antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory, and antidiabetic effects, but their antiglycating potential is unknown. Herein, the inhibitory effects of five GCGs (containing 1-4 galloyls) on the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) were evaluated by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy, and BSA-fructose, and G.K. peptide-ribose assays. The GCGs showed superior activities compared to the synthetic antiglycating agent, aminoguanidine (IC50 15.8-151.3 vs. >300 μM) at the early, middle, and late stages of glycation. Circular dichroism data revealed that the GCGs were able to protect the secondary structure of BSA protein from glycation. The GCGs did not inhibit AGE formation by the trapping of reactive carbonyl species, namely, methylglyoxal, but showed free radical scavenging activities in the DPPH assay. The free radical quenching properties of the GCGs were further confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using ginnalin A (contains 2 galloyls) as a representative GCG. In addition, this GCG chelated ferrous iron, an oxidative catalyst of AGE formation, supported a potential antioxidant mechanism of antiglycating activity for these polyphenols. Therefore, GCGs should be further investigated for their antidiabetic potential given their antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory, and antiglycating properties. PMID:27101975

  7. Variety-based variation in the antimutagenic potential of various vegetables and lack of its correlation with their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Nilantana; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2013-08-01

    As mutation causes many life-threatening diseases including cancer, a diet enriched with specific vegetables having potential to reduce mutagenesis possesses immense significance. In this study, 41 commonly used vegetables from diverse botanical taxa were evaluated and compared for their relative antimutagenic potential using standard assays [Escherichia coli RNA polymerase β (rpoB)-based Rif(S) → Rif(R) assay and Ames test] against known mutagens (UV, gamma radiation, 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide and ethylmethanesulphonate). Significant differences in antimutagenicity were observed even among the cultivars within the same species, as well as at other phylogenetic levels such as genus or family. The effect of cooking in terms of boiling (aquathermal treatment), on the antimutagenicity of these vegetables, was also investigated. In majority of the cases, aquathermal treatment did not affect the antimutagenic potential. The antimutagenicity of these vegetables was not found to correlate well with their antioxidant properties.

  8. Evaluation of Phenolic Content Variability along with Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants from India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit K.; Leo, Vincent V.; Mishra, Vineet K.; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Singh, Bhim P.; Kumar, Brijesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Vijai K.; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Nachimuthu, Senthil K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 μg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 μg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 μg/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health. PMID:27066046

  9. In vitro potential of Ascophyllum nodosum phenolic antioxidant-mediated alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Apostolidis, E; Lee, C M

    2010-04-01

    Ascophyllum nodosum is a brown seaweed that grows abundantly in the Northeast coastal region. In this study, the potential of A. nodosum for type 2 diabetes management through antioxidant-mediated alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibition was investigated. After the initial screening of 4 locally harvested seaweeds, A. nodosum was chosen for its highest phenolic content and was subjected to water extraction. Among extraction ratios of 50 g to 100 to 1000 mL at room temperature, 50 g/400 mL yielded the highest phenolic content of 4.5 mg/g wet weight. For evaluation of extraction temperature ranging from 20 to 80 degrees C, 50 g/400 mL was chosen as a minimum amount of extractant. Among temperatures studied, extraction at 80 degrees C resulted in the highest total phenolic contents (4.2 mg/g wet weight). All extracts had similar levels of antioxidant activity in the range of 60% to 70% in terms of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity. The 80 degrees C extract had the highest alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activity with IC(50) of 0.24 and 1.34 microg phenolics, respectively, compared to the IC(50) of acarbose, reference inhibitor, being 0.37 and 0.68 microg. The results show that fresh A. nodosum has strong alpha-glucosidase and mild alpha-amylase inhibitory activities that correlated with phenolic contents. This study suggests a nutraceutical potential of A. nodosum based on phytochemical antioxidant and antihyperglycemia activities.

  10. Evaluation of Phenolic Content Variability along with Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants from India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit K; Leo, Vincent V; Mishra, Vineet K; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Singh, Bhim P; Kumar, Brijesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Vijai K; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Nachimuthu, Senthil K

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 μg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 μg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 μg/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health. PMID:27066046

  11. In vitro potential of Ascophyllum nodosum phenolic antioxidant-mediated alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Apostolidis, E; Lee, C M

    2010-04-01

    Ascophyllum nodosum is a brown seaweed that grows abundantly in the Northeast coastal region. In this study, the potential of A. nodosum for type 2 diabetes management through antioxidant-mediated alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibition was investigated. After the initial screening of 4 locally harvested seaweeds, A. nodosum was chosen for its highest phenolic content and was subjected to water extraction. Among extraction ratios of 50 g to 100 to 1000 mL at room temperature, 50 g/400 mL yielded the highest phenolic content of 4.5 mg/g wet weight. For evaluation of extraction temperature ranging from 20 to 80 degrees C, 50 g/400 mL was chosen as a minimum amount of extractant. Among temperatures studied, extraction at 80 degrees C resulted in the highest total phenolic contents (4.2 mg/g wet weight). All extracts had similar levels of antioxidant activity in the range of 60% to 70% in terms of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity. The 80 degrees C extract had the highest alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activity with IC(50) of 0.24 and 1.34 microg phenolics, respectively, compared to the IC(50) of acarbose, reference inhibitor, being 0.37 and 0.68 microg. The results show that fresh A. nodosum has strong alpha-glucosidase and mild alpha-amylase inhibitory activities that correlated with phenolic contents. This study suggests a nutraceutical potential of A. nodosum based on phytochemical antioxidant and antihyperglycemia activities. PMID:20492300

  12. Evaluation of Phenolic Content Variability along with Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants from India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit K; Leo, Vincent V; Mishra, Vineet K; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Singh, Bhim P; Kumar, Brijesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Vijai K; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Nachimuthu, Senthil K

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 μg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 μg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 μg/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health.

  13. Isatin based thiosemicarbazone derivatives as potential bioactive agents: Anti-oxidant and molecular docking studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haribabu, J.; Subhashree, G. R.; Saranya, S.; Gomathi, K.; Karvembu, R.; Gayathri, D.

    2016-04-01

    A new series of isatin based thiosemicarbazones has been synthesized from benzylisatin and unsubstituted/substituted thiosemicarbazides (1-5). The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, and UV-Visible, FT-IR, 1H &13C NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques. Three dimensional molecular structure of three compounds (1, 3 and 4) was determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Anti-oxidant activity of the thiosemicarbazone derivatives showed their excellent scavenging effect against free radicals. In addition, all the compounds showed good anti-haemolytic activity. In silico molecular docking studies were performed to screen the anti-inflammatory and anti-tuberculosis properties of thiosemicarbazone derivatives.

  14. Melatonin mitigates cadmium phytotoxicity through modulation of phytochelatins biosynthesis, vacuolar sequestration, and antioxidant potential in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Kamrul; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Yin, Lingling; Shi, Kai; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is a ubiquitous signal molecule, playing crucial roles in plant growth and stress tolerance. Recently, toxic metal cadmium (Cd) has been reported to regulate melatonin content in rice; however, the function of melatonin under Cd stress, particularly in higher plants, still remains elusive. Here, we show that optimal dose of melatonin could effectively ameliorate Cd-induced phytotoxicity in tomato. The contents of Cd and melatonin were gradually increased over time under Cd stress. However, such increase in endogenous melatonin was incapable to reverse detrimental effects of Cd. Meanwhile, supplementation with melatonin conferred Cd tolerance as evident by plant biomass and photosynthesis. In addition to notable increase in antioxidant enzymes activity, melatonin-induced Cd stress mitigation was closely associated with enhanced H(+)-ATPase activity and the contents of glutathione and phytochelatins. Although exogenous melatonin had no effect on root Cd content, it significantly reduced leaf Cd content, indicating its role in Cd transport. Analysis of Cd in different subcellular compartments revealed that melatonin increased cell wall and vacuolar fractions of Cd. Our results suggest that melatonin-induced enhancements in antioxidant potential, phytochelatins biosynthesis and subsequent Cd sequestration might play a critical role in plant tolerance to Cd. Such a mechanism may have potential implication in safe food production. PMID:26322055

  15. Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)μgL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure. PMID:24762415

  16. Melatonin mitigates cadmium phytotoxicity through modulation of phytochelatins biosynthesis, vacuolar sequestration, and antioxidant potential in Solanum lycopersicum L

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Yin, Lingling; Shi, Kai; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is a ubiquitous signal molecule, playing crucial roles in plant growth and stress tolerance. Recently, toxic metal cadmium (Cd) has been reported to regulate melatonin content in rice; however, the function of melatonin under Cd stress, particularly in higher plants, still remains elusive. Here, we show that optimal dose of melatonin could effectively ameliorate Cd-induced phytotoxicity in tomato. The contents of Cd and melatonin were gradually increased over time under Cd stress. However, such increase in endogenous melatonin was incapable to reverse detrimental effects of Cd. Meanwhile, supplementation with melatonin conferred Cd tolerance as evident by plant biomass and photosynthesis. In addition to notable increase in antioxidant enzymes activity, melatonin-induced Cd stress mitigation was closely associated with enhanced H+-ATPase activity and the contents of glutathione and phytochelatins. Although exogenous melatonin had no effect on root Cd content, it significantly reduced leaf Cd content, indicating its role in Cd transport. Analysis of Cd in different subcellular compartments revealed that melatonin increased cell wall and vacuolar fractions of Cd. Our results suggest that melatonin-induced enhancements in antioxidant potential, phytochelatins biosynthesis and subsequent Cd sequestration might play a critical role in plant tolerance to Cd. Such a mechanism may have potential implication in safe food production. PMID:26322055

  17. Antioxidant potential of a unique LAB culture isolated from Harbin dry sausage: In vitro and in a sausage model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Kong, Baohua; Sun, Qinxiu; Dong, Fujia; Liu, Qian

    2015-12-01

    The lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus fermentum isolated from Harbin dry sausage were evaluated for their potential antioxidant activity. The in vitro results showed that P. pentosaceus had the strongest H2O2 resistance, radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (P<0.05). Additionally, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in P. pentosaceus were higher than those observed in three other strains (P<0.05). The inoculation of P. pentosaceus in dry sausage significantly decreased the quantities of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and carbonyl formation, while it also reduced the sulfhydryl loss in sausages (P<0.05). Furthermore, the lower content of volatile compounds that are related to lipid-oxidation, such as aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons, was observed in the P. pentosaceus inoculated sausage (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that P. pentosaceus has the potential to be employed as an antioxidant starter culture in fermented meat products.

  18. Melatonin mitigates cadmium phytotoxicity through modulation of phytochelatins biosynthesis, vacuolar sequestration, and antioxidant potential in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Kamrul; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Yin, Lingling; Shi, Kai; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is a ubiquitous signal molecule, playing crucial roles in plant growth and stress tolerance. Recently, toxic metal cadmium (Cd) has been reported to regulate melatonin content in rice; however, the function of melatonin under Cd stress, particularly in higher plants, still remains elusive. Here, we show that optimal dose of melatonin could effectively ameliorate Cd-induced phytotoxicity in tomato. The contents of Cd and melatonin were gradually increased over time under Cd stress. However, such increase in endogenous melatonin was incapable to reverse detrimental effects of Cd. Meanwhile, supplementation with melatonin conferred Cd tolerance as evident by plant biomass and photosynthesis. In addition to notable increase in antioxidant enzymes activity, melatonin-induced Cd stress mitigation was closely associated with enhanced H(+)-ATPase activity and the contents of glutathione and phytochelatins. Although exogenous melatonin had no effect on root Cd content, it significantly reduced leaf Cd content, indicating its role in Cd transport. Analysis of Cd in different subcellular compartments revealed that melatonin increased cell wall and vacuolar fractions of Cd. Our results suggest that melatonin-induced enhancements in antioxidant potential, phytochelatins biosynthesis and subsequent Cd sequestration might play a critical role in plant tolerance to Cd. Such a mechanism may have potential implication in safe food production.

  19. Potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on cellular microstructure, mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Feng; Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of trifloxystrobin that one strobilurin used widely in the world as an effective fungicidal agent to control Asian soybean rust on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. We determined the potential toxic effect of trifloxystrobin on C. vulgaris, and found median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) value 255.58 (95% confidence interval, 207.81-330.29)μgL(-1). In addition, the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk at different concentrations by electron microscopy. In the study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL, and one energy gene, ATPs. The results showed that trifloxystrobin reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes and enhanced expression of ATPs after 48 and 96 h. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to trifloxystrobin exposure were 58%, 79% and 60% of those of the control, respectively. For the potential toxic influences, trifloxystrobin could decrease the soluble protein and total antioxidant contents (T-AOC), and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity with a gradual concentration-response relationship. Overall, the present study demonstrated that trifloxystrobin could affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts photosynthesis in C. vulgaris, and damage cellular structure.

  20. In-vitro evaluation of bioactive compounds, anti-oxidant, lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase inhibitory potential of Citrus karna L. peel extract.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagdeep; Sood, Shailja; Muthuraman, Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    Many medicinal plants have been studied for their antioxidant and their pharmacological activity. Citrus species were well documented as potential antioxidant based therapy for cancer, inflammation, heart disease. Citrus seeds and peels have been shown to possess high antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study to explore the antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action of Citrus karna peel extracts were undertaken. Extraction was performed with different solvents of increasing polarity and yield was calculated. Peel extracts were also analyzed for the presence of phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, and carotenoids. Then the Citrus karna peel extracts were evaluated for the antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action In-Vitro. In further, the quantification of hesperidin and naringin was carried out by HPLC-DAD method. The results indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, carotenoids, hesperidin and naringin in Citrus karna peel extracts with maximum yield of (3.91% w/w). Citrus karna peel extracts were also found to have potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action. Therefore, Citrus karna peel extracts could be used for the future therapeutic medicine due to presence of potential bioactive compounds. PMID:24426049

  1. Potentially useful polyolester lubricant additives an overview of antioxidants, antiwear and antiseize compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1996-11-01

    Reliable service lubrication of compressors with polyolesters that do not contain additives is the optimal goal for hermetic compressor use. Chlorine derived from CFC and HCFC refrigerants is reported to have effective antiwear properties and negates the widespread use of additives in mineral oil lubricated systems. The use of antioxidants for mineral oil and polyolesters have been reported; antioxidant additive activity seems essential for polyolesters.- Antiwear and antiseize additives seem to be a short term goal for use with polyolesters. High silicone aluminum to steel wear seems to be a primary target for additive use. The interaction of specific heteroatom organic compounds with highly polar surface active synthetic polyolester lubricants is complex. Results of an extensive literature search describe results from a service base determined at ambient conditions. Known lubricant additives used in the hermetic compressor industry, the. mode of action of several types of additives and some lubricant additive chemistry that demonstrates selective thermal stability in conjunction with the chemical structure are examined.

  2. Wound healing, anti-microbial and antioxidant potential of Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f) Ettingsh.

    PubMed

    Pattanayak, S P; Sunita, P

    2008-11-20

    Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f) Ettingsh (Loranthaceae) of the order Santalales, is used ethnomedicinally for treating ulcers, asthma, impotence, paralysis, skin diseases, and wounds. In this context, validations of the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in wound healing activity was studied, besides anti-microbial activity and antioxidant activity were performed to understand the mechanism of wound healing potency. The ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Dendrophthoe falcata ethanolic extract (DFEE) was investigated for the evaluation of its healing efficiency on excision and incision wound models in rats. The results showed that Dendrophthoe falcata extract has potent wound healing capacity as evident from the wound contraction and increased tensile strength. Hydroxyproline and hexosamine expressions were also well correlative with the healing pattern observed. Three of the fractions A-C (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol, respectively) obtained from the extract exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against the organisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Serratia marcescens, and five fungi Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis: dimorphic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger: systemic fungi, and some infectious bacteria Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. The results also indicated that DFEE possesses potent antioxidant activity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase levels and increased the catalase activity.

  3. Chelating, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potential of Muscari comosum (L.) Mill. bulb extracts.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Federica; Pugliese, Alessandro; Bonesi, Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The metal chelating activity, antioxidant properties and the effect on carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibition of Muscari comosum extracts have been investigated. M. comosum bulbs contain a total amount of the phenols with a value of 56.6 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent per gram of extract and a flavonoid content of 23.4 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of extract. In order to evaluate the non-polar constituents, n-hexane extract was obtained. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of fatty acids and ethyl esters as major constituents, with different aldehydes and alkanes as minor components. Ethanolic extract had the highest ferric-reducing ability power (66.7 μM Fe(II)/g) and DPPH scavenging activity with a concentration giving 50% inhibition (IC₅₀) value of 40.9 μg/ml. Moreover, this extract exhibited a good hypoglycaemic activity with IC₅₀ values of 81.3 and 112.8 μg/ml for α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. In conclusion, M. comosum bulbs show promising antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activity via the inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. These activities may be of interest from a functional point of view and for the revalorization of this ancient non-cultivated vegetable of Mediterranean traditional gastronomy.

  4. Rind of the rambutan, Nephelium lappaceum, a potential source of natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Uma; Cheng, Hwee Ming; Masilamani, Theanmalar; Subramaniam, Thavamanithevi; Ling, Lai Teng; Radhakrishnan, Ammu K

    2008-07-01

    The rind of rambutan, which is normally discarded was found to contain extremely high antioxidant activity when assessed using several methods. Although having a yield of only 18%, the ethanolic rambutan rind extract had a total phenolic content of 762±10mg GAE/g extract, which is comparable to that of a commercial preparation of grape seed extract. Comparing the extract's pro-oxidant capabilities with vitamin C, α-tocopherol, grape seed and green tea, the rind had the lowest pro-oxidant capacity. In addition, the extract at 100μg/ml was seen to limit oxidant-induced cell death (DPPH at 50μM) by apoptosis to an extent similar to that of grape seed. The extracts were not cytotoxic to normal mouse fibroblast cells or splenocytes while the powderised rind was seen to have heavy metals contents far below the permissible levels for nutraceuticals. Our study for the first time reveals the high phenolic content, low pro-oxidant capacity and strong antioxidant activity of the extract from rind of Nephelium lappaceum. This extract, either alone or in combination with other active principles, can be used in cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:26054264

  5. Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of Hammada scoparia against ethanol-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Bourogaa, Ezzeddine; Nciri, Riadh; Mezghani-Jarraya, Raoudha; Racaud-Sultan, Claire; Damak, Mohamed; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2013-06-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the antioxidative activity and hepatoprotective effects of methanolic extract (ME) of Hammada scoparia leaves against ethanol-induced liver injury in male rats. The animals were treated daily with 35 % ethanol solution (4 g kg(-1) day(-1)) during 4 weeks. This treatment led to an increase in the lipid peroxidation, a decrease in antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase) in liver, and a considerable increase in the serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phospahatase. However, treatment with ME protects efficiently the hepatic function of alcoholic rats by the considerable decrease in aminotransferase contents in serum of ethanol-treated rats. The glycogen synthase kinase-3 β was inhibited after ME administration, which leads to an enhancement of glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver and a decrease in lipid peroxidation rate by 76 %. These biochemical changes were consistent with histopathological observations, suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of ME. These results strongly suggest that treatment with methanolic extract normalizes various biochemical parameters and protects the liver against ethanol induced oxidative damage in rats. PMID:22893526

  6. Mcy protein, a potential antidiabetic agent: evaluation of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Marella, Saritha; Maddirela, Dilip Rajasekhar; Kumar, E G T V; Tilak, Thandaiah Krishna; Badri, Kameswara Rao; Chippada, Apparao

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study is to elucidate the long-term effects of anti-hyperglycemic active principle, Mcy protein (MCP), isolated from the fruits of Momordica cymbalaria on carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress in experimental diabetic rats. We used streptozotocin induced diabetic rats for the current studies. Our studies showed that MCP (2.5mg/kg.b.w) treatment significantly normalized the deranged activities of critical carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase. In addition MCP showed inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase and aldose reductase enzymes in in vitro assays. Further MCP treatment improved the antioxidant defensive mechanism by preventing deleterious oxidative products of cellular metabolism, which initiates the lipid peroxidation and by normalizing the antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) activities. Additional structural studies using circular dichroism spectroscopy indicate that MCP contains majorly α-helix. Our findings suggest MCP regulates blood glucose and better manage diabetes mellitus associated complications by regulating carbohydrate metabolism and by protecting from the deleterious effects of oxidative stress. PMID:26826289

  7. Potential nutraceutical food beverage with antioxidant properties from banana plant bio-waste (pseudostem and rhizome).

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Kandasamy; Aradhya, Somaradhya Mallikarjuna

    2011-10-01

    Banana plant biomass waste, viz. pseudostem (BPS) and rhizome (BR), contribute 30.81 and 12.67 per cent respectively. A negligible percentage of these were used for fresh consumption, otherwise they are waste and incinerated. In order to utilize these bio-wastes in a bioactive perspective, nutritional and nutraceutical components were studied from the juices and its Ready-To-Serve (RTS) beverage. When compared to BPS juice, BR juice showed higher total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of 341.44 mgGAE and 87.60 mgCE/200 μL, respectively, and concomitantly exhibited high antioxidant activity (AOA) in all the assays tested, viz. DPPH radical scavenging activity (82.93%), superoxide radical scavenging activity (49.45%), metal chelation activity (48.32%) total reducing power (0.846 OD at 700 nm) and total antioxidant capacity (928 mmol ascorbic acid equivalents). High quantity of polyphenols present in BR juice resulted high AOA. Strong positive correlations were observed between TPC and TFC of BPS and BR juice with AOA assays. Among the different concentrations of RTS beverages prepared, 25% BPS juice and 20% BR juice with 15°brix TSS and 0.3% acidity were adjudged as best by sensory panelists. Thus, BPS and BR juice can be effectively used to produce new generation functional beverages.

  8. Potential of antioxidant enzymes in depicting drought tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Devi, Rachana; Kaur, Narinder; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2012-08-01

    In an effort to determine the biochemical markers for identifying genotypes before sowing for drought tolerance, changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined in the seedlings of five drought-tolerant and five drought-sensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes, each with different genetic background growing under normal and water deficit conditions induced by 6% mannitol. In comparison with non-stressed seedlings, the catalase (CAT) activity was upregulated by more than 50% in the roots of water-stressed seedlings in drought-tolerant genotypes. Water deficit stress also led to the upregulation of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the endosperms and glutathione reductase (GR), CAT and peroxidase (POD) in the shoots of stressed seedlings in drought-tolerant genotypes. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was very low in roots and shoots and showed non-significant increase under water-stress in tolerant genotypes. Out of five specified enzyme activities (CAT in roots and shoots, APX in endosperms, GR and POD in shoots), if any three are upregulated in the specified tissues under water deficit conditions, the genotype is likely to be drought-tolerant. Wheat seedlings with low GR and APX activities and high POD activity in shoots with a low ratio of GR activity of shoot to root of non-stressed seedlings are likely to perform better under rainfed conditions. The observed data showed that status of antioxidant enzymes could provide a meaningful tool for depicting drought tolerance of a wheat genotype.

  9. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs) using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20-140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93-21.08 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (10.32-24.84 mm inhibition zones). ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%), nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%), ABTS scavenging (29.42%), and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16%) could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a potential low-cost green method of synthesizing ANPs from food waste materials. Significant biopotentials of synthesized ANPs could make it a potential

  10. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs) using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20-140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93-21.08 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (10.32-24.84 mm inhibition zones). ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%), nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%), ABTS scavenging (29.42%), and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16%) could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a potential low-cost green method of synthesizing ANPs from food waste materials. Significant biopotentials of synthesized ANPs could make it a potential

  11. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs) using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20–140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93–21.08 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (10.32–24.84 mm inhibition zones). ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%), nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%), ABTS scavenging (29.42%), and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16%) could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a potential low-cost green method of synthesizing ANPs from food waste materials. Significant biopotentials of synthesized ANPs could make it a potential

  12. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Commiphora ornifolia showed good antioxidant potential at low concentrations (more than 80% at 50 μg/ml). Conclusion Our results show once again that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with potential anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity. The results will guide the selection of some plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations. PMID:19320966

  13. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant potentials of Chlorella vulgaris grown in effluent of a confectionery industry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Ranjith; Rao, P Hanumantha; Subramanian, V V; Sivasubramanian, V

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant potentials of Chlorella vulgaris have gained considerable importance in recent decades. C. vulgaris strain highly tolerant to extreme pH variations was isolated and mass-cultivated in the wastewater from a confectionery industry. C.vulgaris showed better growth in wastewater than in improvised CFTRI medium. The microalgal biomass was then screened for the following antioxidants: peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, glutathione peroxidase, chlorophyll a, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and reduced glutathione. The total polyphenol content of the strain was also studied. The strain showed a high degree of enzymatic antioxidant activity (0.195 × 10(-5) ± 0.0072 units/cell peroxidase, 0.04125 × 10(-5) ± 0.001 units/cell superoxide dismutase, 0.2625 × 10(-5) ± 0.003 units/cell polyphenol oxidase and 0.025 × 10(-5) ± 0.003 glutathione peroxidase). The microalgal biomass also showed, per milligram weight, 0.2182 ± 0.005 μg of ascorbic acid, 0.00264 ± 0.001 μg of α-tocopherol and 0.07916 ± 0.004 μg of reduced glutathione. These results represent the possibility of using C. vulgaris grown in confectionery industry wastewater as a source of nutritious supplement, which is highly promising in terms of both economic and nutritional point of view.

  14. Effect of hydrothermal processing on total polyphenolics and antioxidant potential of underutilized leafy vegetables, Boerhaavia diffusa and Portulaca oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Nagarani, Gunasekaran; Abirami, Arumugam; Nikitha, Prasad; Siddhuraju, Perumal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of different processing methods on antioxidant properties of acetone extract of aerial parts from Boerhaavia diffusa and Portulaca oleracea. Methods The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride method, respectively. FRAP, metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activities, carotene/linoleic acid bleaching activity were used for the determination of antioxidant capacity. Results The total phenolics in Boerhaavia diffusa (82.79-162.80 mg GAE/g extract) were found to be higher when compared to that of Portulaca oleracea (22.94-10.02 mg GAE/g extract). Hydrothermal processing enhanced the level of inhibition on synthetic radicals such as DPPH (3 439-309 549 mmol TE/g extract) and ABTS (17 808-53 818 mmol TE/g extract) as well as biologically relevant radicals such as superoxide anion (70%-90%) and nitric oxide (49%-57%). In addition, boiling of the vegetables were found to be maximum capacity of FRAP (6 404.95 mmol Fe (II)/g extract) and metal chelating activity (1.53 mg EDTA/g extract) than the respective raw samples. Conclusions The present investigation suggests that the processing enhance the functionality and improves the availability of bioactive substances of these vegetables. In addition, they also exhibited more potent antioxidant activity. Therefore these natural weeds from the crop land ecosystem could be suggested as cost effective indigenous green vegetables for human diet and potential feed resources for animals. Further extensive studies on role and importance of those weeds in sustaining the agro biodiversity are also needed. PMID:25183131

  15. Bauhinia forficata prevents vacuous chewing movements induced by haloperidol in rats and has antioxidant potential in vitro.

    PubMed

    Peroza, Luis Ricardo; Busanello, Alcindo; Leal, Caroline Queiroz; Röpke, Jivago; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Meinerz, Daiane; Libardoni, Milena; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Fachinetto, Roselei

    2013-04-01

    Classical antipsychotics can produce motor disturbances like tardive dyskinesia in humans and orofacial dyskinesia in rodents. These motor side effects have been associated with oxidative stress production in specific brain areas. Thus, some studies have proposed the use of natural compounds with antioxidant properties against involuntary movements induced by antipsychotics. Here, we examined the possible antioxidant activity of Bauhinia forficata (B. forficata), a plant used in folk medicine as a hypoglycemic, on brain lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidants. B. forficata prevented the formation of lipid peroxidation induced by both pro-oxidants tested. However, it was effective against lipid peroxidation induced by sodium nitroprusside (IC50 = 12.08 μg/mL) and Fe(2+)/EDTA (IC50 = 41.19 μg/mL). Moreover, the effects of B. forficata were analyzed on an animal model of orofacial dyskinesia induced by long-term treatment with haloperidol, where rats received haloperidol each 28 days (38 mg/kg) and/or B. forficata decoction daily (2.5 g/L) for 16 weeks. Vacuous chewing movements (VCMs), locomotor and exploratory activities were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment induced VCMs, and co-treatment with B. forficata partially prevented this effect. Haloperidol reduced the locomotor and exploratory activities of animals in the open field test, which was not modified by B. forficata treatment. Our present data showed that B. forficata has antioxidant potential and partially protects against VCMs induced by haloperidol in rats. Taken together, our data suggest the protection by natural compounds against VCMs induced by haloperidol in rats.

  16. Behavioral and antioxidant activity of a tosylbenz[g]indolamine derivative. A proposed better profile for a potential antipsychotic agent

    PubMed Central

    Zika, Chara A; Nicolaou, Ioannis; Gavalas, Antonis; Rekatas, George V; Tani, Ekaterini; Demopoulos, Vassilis J

    2004-01-01

    Background Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a major limitation of older antipsychotics. Newer antipsychotics have various other side effects such as weight gain, hyperglycemia, etc. In a previous study we have shown that an indolamine molecule expresses a moderate binding affinity at the dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in in vitro competition binding assays. In the present work, we tested its p-toluenesulfonyl derivative (TPBIA) for behavioral effects in rats, related to interactions with central dopamine receptors and its antioxidant activity. Methods Adult male Fischer-344 rats grouped as: i) Untreated rats: TPBIA was administered i.p. in various doses ii) Apomorphine-treated rats: were treated with apomorphine (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) 10 min after the administration of TPBIA. Afterwards the rats were placed individually in the activity cage and their motor behaviour was recorded for the next 30 min The antioxidant potential of TPBIA was investigated in the model of in vitro non enzymatic lipid peroxidation. Results i) In non-pretreated rats, TPBIA reduces the activity by 39 and 82% respectively, ii) In apomorphine pretreated rats, TPBIA reverses the hyperactivity and stereotype behaviour induced by apomorphine. Also TPBIA completely inhibits the peroxidation of rat liver microsome preparations at concentrations of 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1 mM. Conclusion TPBIA exerts dopamine antagonistic activity in the central nervous system. In addition, its antioxidant effect is a desirable property, since TD has been partially attributed, to oxidative stress. Further research is needed to test whether TPBIA may be used as an antipsychotic agent. PMID:14711381

  17. Strategy to reduce free radical species in Alzheimer's disease: an update of selected antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, Fabio; Barone, Eugenio; Perluigi, Marzia; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by progressive loss of memory, language, reasoning and other cognitive functions, including dementia, is characterized pathologically by the presence of senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and synapse loss. Increased oxidative/nitrosative stress, decreased antioxidants, mitochondrial damage and other factors play major roles in the development and progression of AD. Strategies to reduce pro-oxidant species to ameliorate AD pathology have been proposed with mixed results. In this review, we focus on the most recent in vitro and in vivo antioxidant approaches for removing oxidant species with relevance to AD, including N-acetyl-l-cysteine, vitamin D, vitamin E, ferulic acid, tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate, selenium and melatonin as therapeutic stratagems in AD management. In addition, we reviewed the most effective mitochondria targeted antioxidants such as coenzyme Q10 and lipoic acid. We suggest the use of multitargeted approaches by formulas containing one or more antioxidant compounds may be more promising than single-agent approaches.

  18. Influence of Silica Nanoparticles on Antioxidant Potential of Bacillus subtilis IMV B-7023

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorochod, Iryna O.; Roy, Alla O.; Kurdish, Ivan K.

    2016-03-01

    It was found that if introduced into a nutrient medium of 0.05-1 g/L nano-SiO2, the oxidant activity (OA) of the culture medium (CM) of bacilli increased by 43.2-60.1 % and the antioxidant activity (AA) decreased by 4.5-11.8 %. SiO2 nanoparticles had different effects on antiradical activity (ARA) of the CM of Bacillus subtilis IMV B-7023. In particular, nano-SiO2 had no significant effect on the ability of the CM of bacilli to inactivate the 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) free radical. However, for the content of the nanomaterial of 0.01-1 g/L decreased hydroxyl radical scavenging in the CM of B. subtilis IMV B-7023 on 7.2-17.6 % compared with a control. Low doses of silica nanoparticles stimulated the reducing power of the CM of bacteria and then highly suppressed it.

  19. Cyclophilin D as a potential target for antioxidants in neurodegeneration: the X-ALD case.

    PubMed

    López-Erauskin, Jone; Ferrer, Isidre; Galea, Elena; Pujol, Aurora

    2013-05-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a severe inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adrenal insufficiency and graded damage in the nervous system. Loss of function of the peroxisomal ABCD1 fatty-acid transporter, resulting in the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids in organs and plasma, is the genetic cause. Treatment with a combination of antioxidants halts the axonal degeneration and locomotor impairment displayed by the animal model of X-ALD, and is a proof of concept that oxidative stress contributes to axonal damage. New evidence demonstrates that metabolic failure and the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore orchestrated by cyclophilin D underlies oxidative stress-induced axonal degeneration. Thus, cyclophilin D could serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of X-ALD and cyclophilin D-dependent neurodegenerative and non-neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Antioxidant potential and cytotoxic activity of two red seaweed species, Amansia multifida and Meristiella echinocarpa, from the coast of Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Daniel B de; Silva, Suzete R da; Pires-Cavalcante, Kelma M S; Lima, Rebeca L de; Pereira Júnior, Francisco N; Sousa, Márcia B de; Viana, Francisco A; Nagano, Celso S; Nascimento, Kyria S do; Cavada, Benildo S; Sampaio, Alexandre H; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana

    2014-03-01

    Natural antioxidants found in marine macroalgae are bioactive compounds known to play an important role in the prevention of diseases associated with aging cells protecting them against the oxidative damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extracts of two species of red seaweeds, Amansia multifida and Meristiella echinocarpa. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay, β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay and total phenolic content (TPC) quantification. Cytotoxicity was evaluated with the brine shrimp Artemia sp. lethality test. The TPC values observed in the present study indicated that both species A. multifida and M. echinocarpa are rich in phenolic compounds, reaching values of 45.40 and 28.46 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g-1 of ethanolic extract, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging and ferrous ion chelating showed values of 60% and 17%, respectively. Both seaweed extracts inhibited β-carotene oxidation by approximately 40%. None of the algal extracts were potentially cytotoxic. The results have showed that extracts of both species of marine red algae exhibit antioxidant potential and low toxicity. They are sources of natural antioxidant compounds. PMID:24676166

  1. Mitochondria-targeted drugs enhance Nlrp3 inflammasome-dependent IL-1β secretion in association with alterations on cellular redox and energy status

    PubMed Central

    Jabaut, Joshua; Ather, Jennifer L.; Taracanova, Alexandra; Poynter, Matthew E.; Ckless, Karina

    2013-01-01

    The Nlrp3 inflammasome is activated in response to an array of environmental and endogenous molecules leading to caspase-1-dependent IL-1β processing and secretion by myeloid cells. Several identified Nlrp3 inflammasome activators also trigger reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the initial concept that NADPH oxidases are the primary source of ROS production during inflammasome activation is becoming less accepted. Therefore, the importance of mitochondrial-derived ROS has been recently explored. In this study, we explore the impact of mitochondria dysfunction and ROS production on Nlrp3 inflammasome stimulation and IL-1β secretion induced by serum amyloid A (SAA) in primary mouse peritoneal macrophages. To induce mitochondrial dysfunction, we utilized antimycin A, which blocks electron flow at complex III, and carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), a mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler. We also utilized a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic, MnTBAP, which targets the mitochondria, as well as the broad spectrum antioxidants DPI (diphenyleneiodonium chloride) and ebselen. Our findings demonstrate that SAA alone induces mitochondrial ROS in a time-dependent manner. We observed that MnTBAP and ebselen blocked IL-1β secretion caused by SAA only when added prior to stimulation, and DPI augmented IL-1β secretion. Surprisingly, these effects were not directly related to intracellular or mitochondrial ROS levels. We also found that mitochondrial-targeted drugs increased IL-1β secretion regardless of their impact on mitochondrial function and ROS levels, suggesting that mitochondrial ROS-dependent and -independent mechanisms play a role in the Nlrp3 inflammasome - IL-1β secretion axis in SAA-stimulated cells. Finally, we found that FCCP significantly sustained the association of the Nlrp3 inflammasome complex, which could explain the most robust effect among the drugs tested in enhancing IL-1β secretion in SAA

  2. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture

    PubMed Central

    Shirzadegan, K.; Falahpour, P.

    2014-01-01

    A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15). A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male) broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05). Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC) and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05). Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05). According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at week 6 (P<0.05), but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels. PMID:26623342

  3. Antioxidant potential of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster on cyclophosphamide induced changes in sperm characteristics and testicular oxidative damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sangita; Lata, Swarn; Tiwari, Kavindra Nath

    2015-10-01

    Cyclophasphamide (CPA) is used to treat various types of cancer. It is a cytotoxic alkylating agent widely used in chemotherapeutic regimen. However, the clinical efficacy of CPA is marred by its side effects. In clinical applications of CPA, it becomes necessary to prevent the oxidative stress and reproductive toxicity induced thereby in normal cells. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus fraternus (AEPF) on CPA (200 mg/kg body wt., i.p.) induced changes in sperm characteristics and testicular oxidative damage in male mice. The CPA treated group showed significant decrease in gonadosomatic index (GSI), epididymal sperm count, sperm motility and sperm viability compared to control group, while the CPA + AEPF treated group had significant increase with respect to these variables compared to the CPA-treated group. The elevated levels of lipid peroxidation by CPA were effectively reduced with AEPF. It also exhibited protective action against the CPA induced depletion of antioxidants like catalase and superoxide dismutase. DNA damage was measured by comet assay, biomonitoring with comet assay elicited significant increase in genotoxicity. Genotoxicity caused by CPA was counteracted by aqueous extract of Phyllanthus fraternus. Administration of the plant extract along with CPA restored the histopathological architecture of testis. Thus, the aqueous extract of P. fraternus by virtue of its antioxidant potential can be used as an effective agent to reduce CPA-induced oxidative stress in male mice. PMID:26665295

  4. Evaluation of post-germinative lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidant potential in lead absorbing oat (Avena sativa) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Pal, Ajay; Kumar, Satish; Rajesh; Singh, Archana

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the impact of lead (Pb) on growth, metal uptake and antioxidative potential of oat seeds under metal stress. To achieve these objectives, few experiments were conducted to assess the effect of this particular metal on various anti-oxidative enzymes, during initial metabolism after germination, in presence of lead. Pb is not an oxido-reducing metal, the oxidative stress induced by Pb in growing oat seedlings appears to be an indirect effect of Pb toxicity, leading to production of ROS with simultaneous decrease in tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Content of free radical like superoxide anion and metabolite such as H2O2 were found to be more in plumule as compared to radical and endosperm of oat seedling. In response to various concentrations of lead ranging from 25-400 ppm, activities of peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase were induced in plumule, radical and cotyledon on the 3rd, 6th and 9th days after germination. Growth parameters like length, fresh weight and dry weight were substantially affected in addition to reduced germination upto 49% only. The results indicated that even at the lowest concentration tested, a low inhibition of growth was obtained. PMID:26536805

  5. Evaluation on Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, Antitumor, and Antioxidant Potential of Total Saponins from Nigella glandulifera Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Xu, Fang; Huang, Hua; Gu, Zhengyi; Wang, Linlin; Tan, Wei; He, Jinhua; Chen, Yan; Li, Chenyang

    2013-01-01

    Nigella glandulifera seeds are used as a spice or remedy for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to investigate analgesic (writhing test), anti-inflammatory (ear-induced edema, vascular permeability test), antioxidant, and antitumor activities of total saponins from this plant (TSN). TSN (6, 12, and 24 mg/kg) were exhibited analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). In D-galactose-induced ageing model, TSN significantly increased the plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities (P < 0.05) and decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level compared to control group (P < 0.05). DPPH radical scavenging effect of TSN was also found. Moreover, TSN (20 mg/mL) showed 86.75% and 88.26% inhibition of the growth on Bel-7402 and Hela cells, respectively. Five compounds were further isolated and identified from TSN as Nigella A, B, C, D, and nigeglanoside, of which the content of Nigella A was 60.36 ± 1.25 g/100 g TSN by HPLC-ELSD method. Altogether, these results suggest that TSN could be considered as a potential analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant agent. PMID:23533525

  6. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture.

    PubMed

    Shirzadegan, K; Falahpour, P

    2014-01-01

    A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15). A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male) broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05). Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC) and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05). Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05). According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at week 6 (P<0.05), but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels.

  7. Evaluation of post-germinative lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidant potential in lead absorbing oat (Avena sativa) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Pal, Ajay; Kumar, Satish; Rajesh; Singh, Archana

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the impact of lead (Pb) on growth, metal uptake and antioxidative potential of oat seeds under metal stress. To achieve these objectives, few experiments were conducted to assess the effect of this particular metal on various anti-oxidative enzymes, during initial metabolism after germination, in presence of lead. Pb is not an oxido-reducing metal, the oxidative stress induced by Pb in growing oat seedlings appears to be an indirect effect of Pb toxicity, leading to production of ROS with simultaneous decrease in tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Content of free radical like superoxide anion and metabolite such as H2O2 were found to be more in plumule as compared to radical and endosperm of oat seedling. In response to various concentrations of lead ranging from 25-400 ppm, activities of peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase were induced in plumule, radical and cotyledon on the 3rd, 6th and 9th days after germination. Growth parameters like length, fresh weight and dry weight were substantially affected in addition to reduced germination upto 49% only. The results indicated that even at the lowest concentration tested, a low inhibition of growth was obtained.

  8. Brassinosteroid Ameliorates Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles-Induced Oxidative Stress by Improving Antioxidant Potential and Redox Homeostasis in Tomato Seedling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mengqi; Ahammed, Golam J.; Li, Caixia; Bao, Xiao; Yu, Jingquan; Huang, Chunlei; Yin, Hanqin; Zhou, Jie

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades use of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) has been increased significantly that eventually contaminating agricultural land and limiting crop production worldwide. Moreover, contamination of food chain with MNPs has appeared as a matter of public concern due to risk of potential health hazard. Brassinosteroid has been shown to play a critical role in alleviating heavy metal stress; however, its function in relieving zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs)-induced phytotoxicity remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential role of 24-epibrassinolide (BR) in mitigating ZnO NPs-induced toxicity in tomato seedlings. Seedling growth, biomass production, and root activity gradually decreased, but Zn accumulation increased with increasing ZnO NPs concentration (10–100 mg/L) in growth media (½ MS). The augmentation of BR (5 nM) in media significantly ameliorated 50 mg/L ZnO NPs-induced growth inhibition. Visualization of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and quantification of H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) in tomato roots confirmed that ZnO NPs induced an oxidative stress. However, combined treatment with BR and ZnO NPs remarkably reduced concentration of H2O2 and MDA as compared with ZnO NPs only treatment, indicating that BR supplementation substantially reduced oxidative stress. Furthermore, the activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase were increased by combined treatment of BR and ZnO NPs compared with ZnO NPs only treatment. BR also increased reduced glutathione (GSH), but decreased oxidized glutathione (GSSG)] and thus improved cellular redox homeostasis by increasing GSH:GSSG ratio. The changes in relative transcript abundance of corresponding antioxidant genes such as Cu/Zn SOD, CAT1, GSH1, and GR1 were in accordance with the changes in those antioxidants under different treatments. More importantly, combined application of BR and ZnO NPs

  9. Upregulation of uncoupling protein-3 in skeletal muscle during exercise: a potential antioxidant function.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Guizhong; Bo, Hai; Qu, Jinting; Ma, Guodong; Cao, Dongning; Wen, Li; Liu, Shusen; Ji, Li Li; Zhang, Yong

    2009-01-15

    Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression has been shown to increase dramatically in response to muscular contraction, but the physiological significance of UCP3 upregulation is still elusive. In this study, UCP3 mRNA and protein expression were investigated along with mitochondrial respiratory function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and antioxidant defense in rat skeletal muscle during and after an acute bout of prolonged exercise. UCP3 mRNA expression was elevated sharply at 45 min of exercise, reaching 7- to 8-fold above resting level at 150 min. The increase in UCP3 protein content showed a latent response but was elevated approximately 1.9-fold at 120 min of exercise. Both UCP3 mRNA and UCP3 protein gradually returned to resting levels 24 h postexercise. Mitochondrial ROS production was progressively increased during exercise. However, ROS showed a dramatic drop at 150 min although their levels remained severalfold higher during the recovery. Mitochondrial State 4 respiration rate was increased by 46 and 58% (p < 0.05) at 90 and 120 min, respectively, but returned to resting rate at 150 min, when State 3 respiration and respiratory control index (RCI) were suppressed. ADP-to-oxygen consumption (P/O) ratio and ATP synthase activity were lowered at 3 h postexercise, whereas proton motive force and mitochondrial malondialdehyde content were unchanged. Manganese superoxide dismutase gene expression was not affected by exercise except for an increase in mRNA abundance at 3 h postexercise. These data demonstrate that UCP3 expression in rat skeletal muscle can be rapidly upregulated during prolonged exercise, possibly owing to increased ROS generation. Increased UCP3 may partially alleviate the proton gradient across the inner membrane, thereby reducing further ROS production by the electron transport chain. However, prolonged exercise caused a decrease in energy coupling efficiency in muscle mitochondria revealed by an increased respiration rate due to

  10. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) byproducts as a potential source of health-promoting antioxidant phenolics.

    PubMed

    Llorach, Rafael; Espín, Juan Carlos; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Ferreres, Federico

    2002-06-01

    The present study reports a fast, economical, and feasible way to extract antioxidant phenolics from artichoke byproducts: raw artichoke (RA), blanched (thermally treated) artichoke (BA), and artichoke blanching waters (ABW). These byproducts represent a huge amount of discarded material in some industries. Two protocols, with possible industrial applicability, based on both methanol and water extractions were used. Phenolic contents (expressed as caffeic acid derivatives) (grams per 100 g of dry extract) were 15.4 and 9.9 for RA when extracted with methanol and water, respectively; 24.3 and 10.3 for BA when extracted with methanol and water, respectively; and finally, 11.3 g of phenolics/100 mL of ABW. Therefore, methanol extracts yielded more phenolics than water extracts, especially when BA byproducts were used. The higher amount of phenolics in BA could be due to the inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) at the industrial scale (due to blanching process), avoiding PPO-catalyzed oxidation of these phenolics, a phenomenon that could occur in RA byproducts. Artichoke extracts from industrial byproducts showed a high free radical scavenging activity (versus both DPPH* and ABTS*+ radicals) as well as capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation (ferric thiocyanate method). According to these results, the use of artichoke extracts from industrial byproducts as possible ingredients to functionalize foodstuffs (to decrease lipid peroxidation and to increase health-promoting properties) is suggested.

  11. Antioxidant and DNA damage protecting potentials of polysaccharide extracted from Phellinus baumii using a delignification method.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qun-Li; Zhang, Zuo-Fa; Lv, Guo-Ying; Cai, Wei-Ming; Cheng, Jun-Wen; Wang, Jian-Gong; Fan, Lei-Fa

    2016-11-01

    A delignification method was employed to extract the polysaccharide from the fruiting body of Phellinus baumii. The three parameters, processing temperature, ratio of water to raw material and amount of acetic acid every time were optimized using the Box-Behnken design. As a result, the optimal extraction conditions were: processing temperature 70.3°C, ratio of water to raw material of 34.7mL/g and amount of acetic acid of 0.32mL every time. Under these conditions, the highest yield of polysaccharide (10.28%) was obtained. The main fraction (PPB-2) purified from PPB was composed of fucose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and mannose, while glucose was the predominant monosaccharide. PPB-2 exhibited noticeable antioxidant activity and strong protection against oxidative DNA damage. These findings implied that acid-chlorite delignification was a superior method to extract the polysaccharide from P. baumii and PPB-2 may be useful for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:27516306

  12. Determination of antibacterial and antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants from saurashtra region, India.

    PubMed

    Kaneria, M; Baravalia, Y; Vaghasiya, Y; Chanda, S

    2009-07-01

    Many plants used in Saurashtra folk medicine have been reported to exhibit high antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In the present study, some parts of five plants, Guazuma ulmifolia L., Manilkara zapota L., Melia azedarach L., Syzygium cumini L. and Wrightia tomentosa R.& S., were evaluated for their antibacterial activity, total phenol content, flavonoid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity and phytochemical analysis, using successive extraction by cold percolation method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. In vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated against five bacterial strains viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Enterobacter aerogenes by agar well diffusion method. Among the plants screened, W. tomentosa leaf and fruit showed the best antibacterial activity. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria. Methanol extract of M. zapota showed the best 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity. Highest total phenol content was shown by M. zapota and S. cumini in methanol extract, while highest flavonoid content was shown by W. tomentosa stem in petroleum ether extract and ethyl acetate extract. In all the plants, cardiac glycosides and triterpenes were more as compared to other phytoconstituents. PMID:20502546

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and antioxidant potential of processed samples of the wild mushroom Macrolepiota procera.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-04-15

    It was previously demonstrated that gamma irradiation was the processing technology with the highest capacity to maintain the chemical profile of fresh Macrolepiota procera wild mushroom, when compared to freeze-dried or oven-dried samples. Herein, it was aimed to evaluate gamma irradiation effects on processed samples. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of irradiated (0.5 and 1 kGy) fresh, frozen and dried samples were determined by chromatographic techniques and in vitro assays, respectively. M. procera irradiation attenuated the effects caused by oven-drying or freezing; combining freeze treatment with 0.5 kGy dose preserved total tocopherols. Rather than a conservation methodology, gamma irradiation might act as a useful adjuvant to other conservation techniques (e.g., freezing or oven-drying).

  14. The stability of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests on stored horse blood.

    PubMed

    Celi, P; Sullivan, M; Evans, D

    2010-02-01

    Increasing interest in the role of oxidative stress (OS) in equine medicine has highlighted the need to develop reliable methods to quantify it. In this study we describe the effect of refrigeration (at 4 degrees C) on the stability of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests carried out on 15 healthy horses. Blood samples, collected from the jugular vein, were immediately placed on ice and analysed using both the d-ROMs and BAP tests. Samples were also refrigerated at 4 degrees C and tested after 3, 7 and 24 h. The average results were similar for up to 24 h and minimal variations were found for each horse. The findings suggest that refrigeration is suitable for preserving equine blood samples for these assays and this approach will provide veterinarians with a technically simple, reliable test to measure OS under field conditions.

  15. Luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside strengthen antioxidative potential through the modulation of Nrf2/MAPK mediated HO-1 signaling cascade in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Sun; Park, Chung Mu

    2014-03-01

    It has been understood that glycosidic forms of flavonoids were hydrolyzed by gut bacteria and absorbed as aglycones. However, several reports suggested that glycosides were partly absorbed without hydrolysis and remained biologically active. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidative potential of luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside, glycosidic form of luteolin, against the oxidative damage and compared their antioxidative mechanisms in RAW 264.7 cells. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), one of the phase II enzymes showing an antioxidative activity, was potently induced by luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside treatment, which was in accordance with the translocated nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) into nucleus. Moreover, luteolin and the luteolin-7-O-glucoside activated HO-1 expression by p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) regulation. In order to identify the antioxidation potential by HO-1, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage was applied and ameliorated by luteolin and the luteolin-7-O-glucoside treatment in a dose dependent manner, which was confirmed by HO-1 selective inhibitor and inducer, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) and cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), respectively. Consequently, luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside potently strengthen the HO-1-mediated antioxidative potential through the modulation of the Nrf2/MAPK signaling pathways.

  16. Luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside strengthen antioxidative potential through the modulation of Nrf2/MAPK mediated HO-1 signaling cascade in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Sun; Park, Chung Mu

    2014-03-01

    It has been understood that glycosidic forms of flavonoids were hydrolyzed by gut bacteria and absorbed as aglycones. However, several reports suggested that glycosides were partly absorbed without hydrolysis and remained biologically active. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidative potential of luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside, glycosidic form of luteolin, against the oxidative damage and compared their antioxidative mechanisms in RAW 264.7 cells. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), one of the phase II enzymes showing an antioxidative activity, was potently induced by luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside treatment, which was in accordance with the translocated nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) into nucleus. Moreover, luteolin and the luteolin-7-O-glucoside activated HO-1 expression by p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) regulation. In order to identify the antioxidation potential by HO-1, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage was applied and ameliorated by luteolin and the luteolin-7-O-glucoside treatment in a dose dependent manner, which was confirmed by HO-1 selective inhibitor and inducer, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) and cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), respectively. Consequently, luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside potently strengthen the HO-1-mediated antioxidative potential through the modulation of the Nrf2/MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:24361407

  17. Characterisation of Fasciola hepatica cytochrome c peroxidase as an enzyme with potential antioxidant activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Campos, E G; Hermes-Lima, M; Smith, J M; Prichard, R K

    1999-05-01

    Cytochrome c peroxidase oxidises hydrogen peroxide using cytochrome c as the electron donor. This enzyme is found in yeast and bacteria and has been also described in the trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma mansoni. Using partially purified cytochrome c peroxidase samples from Fasciola hepatica we evaluated its role as an antioxidant enzyme via the investigation of its ability to protect against oxidative damage to deoxyribose in vitro. A system containing FeIII-EDTA plus ascorbate was used to generate reactive oxygen species superoxide radical, H2O2 as well as the hydroxyl radical. Fasciola hepatica cytochrome c peroxidase effectively protected deoxyribose against oxidative damage in the presence of its substrate cytochrome c. This protection was proportional to the amount of enzyme added and occurred only in the presence of cytochrome c. Due to the low specific activity of the final partially purified sample the effects of ascorbate and calcium chloride on cytochrome c peroxidase were investigated. The activity of the partially purified enzyme was found to increase between 10 and 37% upon reduction with ascorbate. However, incubation of the partially purified enzyme with 1 mM calcium chloride did not have any effect on enzyme activity. Our results showed that Fasciola hepatica CcP can protect deoxyribose from oxidative damage in vitro by blocking the formation of the highly toxic hydroxyl radical (.OH). We suggest that the capacity of CcP to inhibit .OH-formation, by efficiently removing H2O2 from the in vitro oxidative system, may extend the biological role of CcP in response to oxidative stress in Fasciola hepatica. PMID:10404259

  18. Plantain peel - a potential source of antioxidant dietary fibre for developing functional cookies.

    PubMed

    Arun, K B; Persia, Florence; Aswathy, P S; Chandran, Janu; Sajeev, M S; Jayamurthy, P; Nisha, P

    2015-10-01

    Plantain cultivar Nendran is popular as a staple food in many parts of India and deep fried chips made from raw matured Nendran are one of the popular snack items in India. This study aims to utilize peel from Nendran variety- the main byproduct of banana chips industry- to develop high fibre cookies with enhanced bioactive content. Proximate analysis indicated that peels are rich in total dietary fibre (64.33 g/100 g), vitamins (Folic acid- 33.12 mg/100 g) and minerals (Potassium- 35.61 mg/100 g). Nendran Peel Flour (NPF) was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Phenolic and flavonoid content was high for ethyl acetate extract (15.21 and 9.39 mg QE/g dry weight). Methanol extract was more potent in reducing Copper ion (2.36 μM TR/g dry weight) and scavenging NO (IC50-381.71 μg/mL). Ethyl acetate extract was capable of scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical. HPLC profiling showed presence of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, rutin hydrate and quercetin in ethyl acetate extract and gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and vanillic acid in methanol extract. Cookies prepared with NPF possess higher total dietary fibre content. There was a decrease in spread ratio, breaking strength and browning index of cookies as the percentage of NPF increased. NPF incorporation gradually increased the phenolic content from 4.36 to 5.28 mg GAE, compared to control cookie (3.21 mg GAE). DPPH scavenging activity also increased with increase in NPF. Hence NPF is a very good source of antioxidant dietary fibre and acceptable cookies can be produced by replacing wheat flour with 10 % NPF. PMID:26396380

  19. Plantain peel - a potential source of antioxidant dietary fibre for developing functional cookies.

    PubMed

    Arun, K B; Persia, Florence; Aswathy, P S; Chandran, Janu; Sajeev, M S; Jayamurthy, P; Nisha, P

    2015-10-01

    Plantain cultivar Nendran is popular as a staple food in many parts of India and deep fried chips made from raw matured Nendran are one of the popular snack items in India. This study aims to utilize peel from Nendran variety- the main byproduct of banana chips industry- to develop high fibre cookies with enhanced bioactive content. Proximate analysis indicated that peels are rich in total dietary fibre (64.33 g/100 g), vitamins (Folic acid- 33.12 mg/100 g) and minerals (Potassium- 35.61 mg/100 g). Nendran Peel Flour (NPF) was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Phenolic and flavonoid content was high for ethyl acetate extract (15.21 and 9.39 mg QE/g dry weight). Methanol extract was more potent in reducing Copper ion (2.36 μM TR/g dry weight) and scavenging NO (IC50-381.71 μg/mL). Ethyl acetate extract was capable of scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical. HPLC profiling showed presence of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, rutin hydrate and quercetin in ethyl acetate extract and gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and vanillic acid in methanol extract. Cookies prepared with NPF possess higher total dietary fibre content. There was a decrease in spread ratio, breaking strength and browning index of cookies as the percentage of NPF increased. NPF incorporation gradually increased the phenolic content from 4.36 to 5.28 mg GAE, compared to control cookie (3.21 mg GAE). DPPH scavenging activity also increased with increase in NPF. Hence NPF is a very good source of antioxidant dietary fibre and acceptable cookies can be produced by replacing wheat flour with 10 % NPF.

  20. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation. PMID:27148243

  1. Identification of potential antioxidant compounds in the essential oil of thyme by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and multivariate calibration techniques.

    PubMed

    Masoum, Saeed; Mehran, Mehdi; Ghaheri, Salehe

    2015-02-01

    Thyme species are used in traditional medicine throughout the world and are known for their antiseptic, antispasmodic, and antitussive properties. Also, antioxidant activity is one of the interesting properties of thyme essential oil. In this research, we aim to identify peaks potentially responsible for the antioxidant activity of thyme oil from chromatographic fingerprints. Therefore, the chemical compositions of hydrodistilled essential oil of thyme species from different regions were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and antioxidant activities of essential oils were measured by a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging test. Several linear multivariate calibration techniques with different preprocessing methods were applied to the chromatograms of thyme essential oils to indicate the peaks responsible for the antioxidant activity. These techniques were applied on data both before and after alignment of chromatograms with correlation optimized warping. In this study, orthogonal projection to latent structures model was found to be a good technique to indicate the potential antioxidant active compounds in the thyme oil due to its simplicity and repeatability.

  2. Antioxidant properties of MitoTEMPOL and its hydroxylamine

    PubMed Central

    Trnka, Jan; Blaikie, Frances H.; Logan, Angela; Smith, Robin A. J.; Murphy, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Piperidine nitroxides such as TEMPOL have been widely used as antioxidants in vitro and in vivo. MitoTEMPOL is a mitochondria-targeted derivative of TEMPOL designed to protect mitochondria from the oxidative damage that they accumulate, but once there is rapidly reduced to its hydroxylamine, MitoTEMPOL-H. As little is known about the antioxidant efficacy of hydroxylamines, this study has assessed the antioxidant activity of both MitoTEMPOL and MitoTEMPOL-H. The hydroxylamine was more effective at preventing lipid-peroxidation than MitoTEMPOL and decreased oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA caused by menadione. In contrast to MitoTEMPOL, MitoTEMPOL-H has no superoxide dismutase activity and its antioxidant actions are likely to be mediated by hydrogen atom donation. Therefore, even though MitoTEMPOL is rapidly reduced to MitoTEMPOL-H in cells, it remains an effective antioxidant. Furthermore, as TEMPOL is also reduced to a hydroxylamine in vivo, many of its antioxidant effects may also be mediated by its hydroxylamine. PMID:19058062

  3. The potential effects of antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of corn naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on antioxidant systems in the intestinal mucosa, plasma, and liver in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Van Le Thanh, Bich; Lemay, Michel; Bastien, Alexandre; Lapointe, Jérôme; Lessard, Martin; Chorfi, Younès; Guay, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Seventy-two piglets (6.0 kg BW) were randomly distributed within six different dietary treatments to evaluate the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) and the potential of four antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of DON on growth performances and oxidative status. Dietary treatments were as follows: control diet 0.8 mg/kg DON; contaminated diet (DON-contaminated diet) 3.1 mg/kg DON; and four contaminated diets, each supplemented with a different antioxidant feed additive, DON + vitamins, DON + organic selenium (Se)/glutathione (GSH), DON + quercetin, and DON + COMB (vitamins + Se/GSH + quercetin from the other treatments). Although DON was the main mycotoxin in the contaminated diet, this diet also contained 1.8 mg/kg of zearalenone (ZEN). The "mycotoxin" effects therefore included the combined effect of these two mycotoxins, DON, and ZEN. The DON-ZEN ingestion did not affect growth performances, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed efficiency (G:F ratio), but partially induced oxidative stress in weaned pigs as shown by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the plasma and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver (P < 0.05). However, no change in the activity of other antioxidant enzymes or GSH concentrations was observed in plasma and liver of piglets fed the DON-contaminated diet (P > 0.05). Supplementation with individual antioxidant feed additive had a limited effect in weaned pigs fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Combination of antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E, quercetin, and organic Se/GSH) reduced plasma and liver MDA content and SOD activity in liver (P < 0.05) of piglets fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Furthermore, this combination also reduced MDA content in the ileum (P < 0.05), although activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx), SOD or catalase (CAT) in the ileum was not affected by DON-ZEN contamination or antioxidant supplements. In conclusion, DON-ZEN contamination induced

  4. Streptomyces antioxidans sp. nov., a Novel Mangrove Soil Actinobacterium with Antioxidative and Neuroprotective Potentials.

    PubMed

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Palanisamy, Uma D; Abd Malek, Sri N; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    A novel strain, Streptomyces antioxidans MUSC 164(T) was recovered from mangrove forest soil located at Tanjung Lumpur, Malaysia. The Gram-positive bacterium forms yellowish-white aerial and brilliant greenish yellow substrate mycelium on ISP 2 agar. A polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomy status of strain MUSC 164(T). The strain showed a spectrum of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall peptidoglycan was determined to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), while the identified polar lipids consisted of aminolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol, glycolipid, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and lipid. The cell wall sugars consist of galactose, glucose and ribose. The predominant cellular fatty acids (>10.0%) were identified as iso-C15: 0 (34.8%) and anteiso-C15: 0(14.0%). Phylogenetic analysis identified that closely related strains for MUSC 164(T) as Streptomyces javensis NBRC 100777(T) (99.6% sequence similarity), Streptomyces yogyakartensis NBRC 100779(T) (99.6%) and Streptomyces violaceusniger NBRC 13459(T) (99.6%). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between MUSC 164(T) and closely related type strains ranged from 23.8 ± 0.3% to 53.1 ± 4.3%. BOX-PCR fingerprints comparison showed that MUSC 164(T) exhibits a unique DNA profile, with DNA G + C content determined to be 71.6 mol%. Based on the polyphasic study of MUSC 164(T), it is concluded that this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces antioxidans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSC 164(T) (=DSM 101523(T) = MCCC 1K01590(T)). The extract of MUSC 164(T) showed potent antioxidative and neuroprotective activities against hydrogen peroxide. The chemical analysis of the extract revealed that the strain produces pyrazines and phenolic

  5. Streptomyces antioxidans sp. nov., a Novel Mangrove Soil Actinobacterium with Antioxidative and Neuroprotective Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Palanisamy, Uma D.; Abd Malek, Sri N.; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    A novel strain, Streptomyces antioxidans MUSC 164T was recovered from mangrove forest soil located at Tanjung Lumpur, Malaysia. The Gram-positive bacterium forms yellowish-white aerial and brilliant greenish yellow substrate mycelium on ISP 2 agar. A polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomy status of strain MUSC 164T. The strain showed a spectrum of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the members of the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall peptidoglycan was determined to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), while the identified polar lipids consisted of aminolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol, glycolipid, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and lipid. The cell wall sugars consist of galactose, glucose and ribose. The predominant cellular fatty acids (>10.0%) were identified as iso-C15:0 (34.8%) and anteiso-C15:0(14.0%). Phylogenetic analysis identified that closely related strains for MUSC 164T as Streptomyces javensis NBRC 100777T (99.6% sequence similarity), Streptomyces yogyakartensis NBRC 100779T (99.6%) and Streptomyces violaceusniger NBRC 13459T (99.6%). The DNA–DNA relatedness values between MUSC 164T and closely related type strains ranged from 23.8 ± 0.3% to 53.1 ± 4.3%. BOX-PCR fingerprints comparison showed that MUSC 164T exhibits a unique DNA profile, with DNA G + C content determined to be 71.6 mol%. Based on the polyphasic study of MUSC 164T, it is concluded that this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces antioxidans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MUSC 164T (=DSM 101523T = MCCC 1K01590T). The extract of MUSC 164T showed potent antioxidative and neuroprotective activities against hydrogen peroxide. The chemical analysis of the extract revealed that the strain produces pyrazines and phenolic-related compounds that could explain

  6. Distribution of Phenolic Contents, Antidiabetic Potentials, Antihypertensive Properties, and Antioxidative Effects of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Fruit Parts In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Adefegha, Stephen A; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2015-01-01

    Soursop fruit has been used in folklore for the management of type-2 diabetes and hypertension with limited information on the scientific backing. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts (1 : 100 w/v) of Soursop fruit part (pericarp, pulp, and seed) on key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension [angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)]. Radicals scavenging and Fe(2+) chelation abilities and reducing property as well as phenolic contents of the extracts were also determined. Our data revealed that the extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase and ACE activities dose-dependently. The effective concentration of the extract causing 50% antioxidant activity (EC50) revealed that pericarp extract had the highest α-amylase (0.46 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (0.37 mg/mL), and ACE (0.03 mg/mL) inhibitory activities while the seed extract had the least [α-amylase (0.76 mg/mL); α-glucosidase (0.73 mg/mL); and ACE (0.20 mg/mL)]. Furthermore, the extracts scavenged radicals, reduced Fe(3+) to Fe(2+), and chelated Fe(2+). The phenolic contents in the extracts ranged from 85.65 to 560.21 mg/100 g. The enzymes inhibitory and antioxidants potentials of the extracts could be attributed to their phenolic distributions which could be among the scientific basis for their use in the management of diabetes and hypertension. However, the pericarp appeared to be most promising.

  7. Distribution of Phenolic Contents, Antidiabetic Potentials, Antihypertensive Properties, and Antioxidative Effects of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Fruit Parts In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Adefegha, Stephen A; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2015-01-01

    Soursop fruit has been used in folklore for the management of type-2 diabetes and hypertension with limited information on the scientific backing. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts (1 : 100 w/v) of Soursop fruit part (pericarp, pulp, and seed) on key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension [angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)]. Radicals scavenging and Fe(2+) chelation abilities and reducing property as well as phenolic contents of the extracts were also determined. Our data revealed that the extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase and ACE activities dose-dependently. The effective concentration of the extract causing 50% antioxidant activity (EC50) revealed that pericarp extract had the highest α-amylase (0.46 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (0.37 mg/mL), and ACE (0.03 mg/mL) inhibitory activities while the seed extract had the least [α-amylase (0.76 mg/mL); α-glucosidase (0.73 mg/mL); and ACE (0.20 mg/mL)]. Furthermore, the extracts scavenged radicals, reduced Fe(3+) to Fe(2+), and chelated Fe(2+). The phenolic contents in the extracts ranged from 85.65 to 560.21 mg/100 g. The enzymes inhibitory and antioxidants potentials of the extracts could be attributed to their phenolic distributions which could be among the scientific basis for their use in the management of diabetes and hypertension. However, the pericarp appeared to be most promising. PMID:26788368

  8. Distribution of Phenolic Contents, Antidiabetic Potentials, Antihypertensive Properties, and Antioxidative Effects of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Fruit Parts In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Adefegha, Stephen A.; Oyeleye, Sunday I.; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2015-01-01

    Soursop fruit has been used in folklore for the management of type-2 diabetes and hypertension with limited information on the scientific backing. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts (1 : 100 w/v) of Soursop fruit part (pericarp, pulp, and seed) on key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension [angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)]. Radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelation abilities and reducing property as well as phenolic contents of the extracts were also determined. Our data revealed that the extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase and ACE activities dose-dependently. The effective concentration of the extract causing 50% antioxidant activity (EC50) revealed that pericarp extract had the highest α-amylase (0.46 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (0.37 mg/mL), and ACE (0.03 mg/mL) inhibitory activities while the seed extract had the least [α-amylase (0.76 mg/mL); α-glucosidase (0.73 mg/mL); and ACE (0.20 mg/mL)]. Furthermore, the extracts scavenged radicals, reduced Fe3+ to Fe2+, and chelated Fe2+. The phenolic contents in the extracts ranged from 85.65 to 560.21 mg/100 g. The enzymes inhibitory and antioxidants potentials of the extracts could be attributed to their phenolic distributions which could be among the scientific basis for their use in the management of diabetes and hypertension. However, the pericarp appeared to be most promising. PMID:26788368

  9. In vitro antioxidant, anti-diabetic and antilipemic potentials of quercetagetin extracted from marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) inflorescence residues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiyou; Xu, Honggao; Chen, Hua; Tai, Kedong; Liu, Fuguo; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-06-01

    Quercetagetin, the major flavonoid in marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) inflorescence residues was extracted and purified. The content of quercetagetin after the purification was 89.91 ± 0.26 %. The in vitro antioxidant activity of quercetagetin and its potential in controlling diabetes mellitus and obesity were investigated and compared to quercetin and rutin. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of quercetagetin on scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl radicals were 27.12 ± 1.31 μmol/L, 12.16 ± 0.56 μmol/L and 1833.97 ± 6.66 μmol/L, respectively. The IC50 values of quercetagetin on α-glucosidase, α-amylase and pancreatic lipase were 180.11 ± 3.68 μmol/L, 137.71 ± 3.55 μmol/L and 2327.58 ± 12.37 μmol/L, respectively. These results indicated that quercetagetin exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant, anti-diabetic and antilipemic activities. Lineweaver-Burk plots analysis elucidated that quercetagetin inhibited α-glucosidase and α-amylase non-competitively, while its inhibition against pancreatic lipase was involved in a mixed-type pattern. Moreover, strong correlations were found between ABTS(·+)/DPPH(·) scavenging activities and lipase inhibitory activity (R (2) > 0.90), as well as ·OH scavenging activity and α-amylase inhibitory activity (R (2) = 0.8967).

  10. In vitro antioxidant, anti-diabetic and antilipemic potentials of quercetagetin extracted from marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) inflorescence residues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiyou; Xu, Honggao; Chen, Hua; Tai, Kedong; Liu, Fuguo; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-06-01

    Quercetagetin, the major flavonoid in marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) inflorescence residues was extracted and purified. The content of quercetagetin after the purification was 89.91 ± 0.26 %. The in vitro antioxidant activity of quercetagetin and its potential in controlling diabetes mellitus and obesity were investigated and compared to quercetin and rutin. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of quercetagetin on scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl radicals were 27.12 ± 1.31 μmol/L, 12.16 ± 0.56 μmol/L and 1833.97 ± 6.66 μmol/L, respectively. The IC50 values of quercetagetin on α-glucosidase, α-amylase and pancreatic lipase were 180.11 ± 3.68 μmol/L, 137.71 ± 3.55 μmol/L and 2327.58 ± 12.37 μmol/L, respectively. These results indicated that quercetagetin exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant, anti-diabetic and antilipemic activities. Lineweaver-Burk plots analysis elucidated that quercetagetin inhibited α-glucosidase and α-amylase non-competitively, while its inhibition against pancreatic lipase was involved in a mixed-type pattern. Moreover, strong correlations were found between ABTS(·+)/DPPH(·) scavenging activities and lipase inhibitory activity (R (2) > 0.90), as well as ·OH scavenging activity and α-amylase inhibitory activity (R (2) = 0.8967). PMID:27478217

  11. Hypoglycemic activities of lyophilized powder of Gynura divaricata by improving antioxidant potential and insulin signaling in type 2 diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bing-Qing; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a serious disease affecting about 5% of people worldwide. Although several studies have indicated hypoglycemic activities of Gynura divaricata (GD), the mechanisms by which GD improves the symptoms of diabetes remain unclear. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the potential hypoglycemic effects of GD. Design The leaves and stems of GD were prepared and lyophilized into a powder, which was added to the diet of mice with type 2 diabetes induced by a high-fat diet in combination with streptozotocin for 4 weeks. During this period, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and body weight of mice were measured. In addition, at the end of the experiment, a series of assays was performed. Results GD administration effectively alleviates insulin resistance and induces a decrease in FBG by 59.54% in 1.2% (L) GD-treated diabetic group and 56.13% in 4.8% (H) GD-treated diabetic group after 4 weeks, respectively, relative to diabetic model mice. The antioxidant capacity was improved by increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) by 64.87% and 53.42% in treatment group H, compared to diabetic model mice, while GD treatment induced a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) level by 50% in treatment group L, compared to the level in diabetic model mice. Furthermore, glucose metabolism was ameliorated by the increased glycogen synthesis in the livers of diabetic mice. In addition, we also demonstrated that the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of AKT, PI3K and PDK-1, which are involved in insulin signaling, were significantly increased. Conclusions Oral administration of the GD-lyophilized powder has been effectively hypoglycemic, which is done by activating insulin signaling and improving antioxidant capacity in mice with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26715102

  12. Overcoming drug-resistant lung cancer by paclitaxel loaded dual-functional liposomes with mitochondria targeting and pH-response.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Li, Li; He, Xiaodan; Yi, Qiangying; He, Bin; Cao, Jun; Pan, Weisan; Gu, Zhongwei

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrion-orientated transportation of smart liposomes has been developed as a promising strategy to deliver anticancer drugs directly to tumor sites, and these have a tremendous potential for killing cancer cells, especially those with multidrug resistance (MDR). Herein we report a novel dual-functional liposome system possessing both extracellular pH response and mitochondrial targeting properties to enhance drug accumulation in mitochondria and trigger apoptosis of drug-resistant cancer cells. Briefly, peptide D[KLAKLAK]2 (KLA) was modified with 2, 3-dimethylmaleic anhydride (DMA) and combined with 1, 2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DSPE) to yield a DSPE-KLA-DMA (DKD) lipid. This dual-functional DKD was then mixed with other commercially available lipids to fabricate liposomes. In vitro anticancer efficacy of this liposome system was evaluated in human lung cancer A549 cells and drug-resistant lung cancer A549/Taxol cells. At tumor extracellular pH (∼6.8), liposomes could reverse their surface charge (negative to positive), facilitating liposome internalization. After cellular uptake, KLA peptide directed delivery-enabled selective accumulation of these liposomes into mitochondria and favored release of their cargo paclitaxel (PTX) into desired sites. Specifically, enhanced apoptosis of MDR cancer cells through mitochondrial signaling pathways was evidenced by release of cytochrome c and increased activity of caspase-9 and -3. These dual-functional liposomes had the greatest efficacy for treating A549 cells and A549/Taxol cells in vitro, and in treating drug-resistant lung cancer A549/Taxol cells xenografted onto nude mice (tumor growth inhibition 86.7%). In conclusion, dual-functional liposomes provide a novel and versatile approach for overcoming MDR in cancer treatment.

  13. Dextran-functionalized magnetic fluid mediating magnetohyperthermia combined with preventive antioxidant pequi-oil supplementation: potential use against cancer.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Peixoto, Raphael Cândido Apolinário; Longo, Joāo Paulo Figueiró; Silva e Cintra, Débora de Oliveira; Portilho, Flávia Arruda; Miranda, Kely Lopes Caiado; Sartoratto, Patrícia Pommé Confessori; Báo, Sônia Nair; de Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes; Lacava, Zulmira Guerrero Marques

    2013-07-01

    This work aimed to test a dextran-functionalized magnetic fluid (DexMF) sample in mediating magnetohyperthermia to treat an advanced clinical Ehrlich-solid-tumor, to verify the effects of oral antioxidant administration of pequi-oil on this treatment and to investigate the potential of these treatments for future use as an adjuvant in cancer therapy. Animals received the treatments: (a) filtered water (control); (b) tumor implantation and no treatment (tumor group); (c) tumor implantation followed by intratumoral injection of DexMF and alternating current magnetic field exposure (MHT group) for three consecutive days; (d) oral pequi-oil supplementation followed by tumor implantation and the same treatment as group MHT (PMHT group). Analyses took place 1 and 2 weeks after tumor implantation. Both treatments were effective in increasing the tumor necrosis process and controlling tumor growth, besides keeping lymphocyte-dependent immunity. Although the MHT treatment was more efficient after the first week in reducing DNA damage to blood peripheral leucocytes, PMHT therapy appeared to be more effective with the advance of the carcinogenesis process after the second week. Our findings evidence the potential use of DexMF mediating magnetohyperthermia in cancer treatment and also suggest that the preventive pequi oil administration could increase the efficiency of this process. PMID:23909142

  14. Experimental Assessment of Moringa oleifera Leaf and Fruit for Its Antistress, Antioxidant, and Scavenging Potential Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

    PubMed Central

    Luqman, Suaib; Srivastava, Suchita; Kumar, Ritesh; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Chanda, Debabrata

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and fruit extracts on markers of oxidative stress, its toxicity evaluation, and correlation with antioxidant properties using in vitro and in vitro assays. The aqueous extract of leaf was able to increase the GSH and reduce MDA level in a concentration-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of fruit showed highest phenolic content, strong reducing power and free radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract of both fruit and leaf was higher in the in vitro assay compared to aqueous extract which showed higher potential in vivo. Safety evaluation studies showed no toxicity of the extracts up to a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Our results support the potent antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera which adds one more positive attribute to its known pharmacological importance. PMID:22216055

  15. Experimental Assessment of Moringa oleifera Leaf and Fruit for Its Antistress, Antioxidant, and Scavenging Potential Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays.

    PubMed

    Luqman, Suaib; Srivastava, Suchita; Kumar, Ritesh; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Chanda, Debabrata

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and fruit extracts on markers of oxidative stress, its toxicity evaluation, and correlation with antioxidant properties using in vitro and in vitro assays. The aqueous extract of leaf was able to increase the GSH and reduce MDA level in a concentration-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of fruit showed highest phenolic content, strong reducing power and free radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract of both fruit and leaf was higher in the in vitro assay compared to aqueous extract which showed higher potential in vivo. Safety evaluation studies showed no toxicity of the extracts up to a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Our results support the potent antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera which adds one more positive attribute to its known pharmacological importance. PMID:22216055

  16. Brewery waste as a potential source of phenolic compounds: optimisation of the extraction process and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Pereira, Letricia; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Vilches, Patxi; Angulo, Inmaculada; LLuis, Jaume; Fité, Benet; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto; Cruz, José Manuel

    2014-02-15

    This paper reports the development of an extraction process that allows selective recovery of polyphenols from a brewery waste stream. The antioxidant activity of this extract (EC50 = 0.23-0.3g/L) was very high, similar to that of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and higher than that of other synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Crude extracts exhibited a high level of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, when applied at concentrations of 1% and 3% (w/v). The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities can probably be attributed to the major phenolic compounds, such as protocatechuic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids and catechin. With this procedure, the waste polyphenols could be used as cheap source of natural compounds, with potential applications in the food and health sectors. Substitution of synthetic additives with safe and effective natural additives may be of further benefit to the food industry. PMID:24128467

  17. The migration of Irganox 1010 antioxidant from high-density polyethylene and polypropylene into a series of potential fatty-food simulants.

    PubMed

    Lickly, T D; Bell, C D; Lehr, K M

    1990-01-01

    Alternatives to highly-volatile ethanol or analytically complex cooking oil were examined as potential fatty-food simulants which would undergo high-temperature exposures to food-packaging polymers in food-packaging evaluation studies. The alternatives consisted of alcohols containing four to eight carbons. As test cases, the migration of Irganox 1010 antioxidant from high-density polyethylene and polypropylene into the higher alcohols was compared to the migration of Irganox 1010 into aqueous ethanol solutions and cooking oil, the US Food and Drug Administration's currently recommended fatty-food simulants. The data obtained showed slightly greater migration of the antioxidant into 95% ethanol than into cooking oil, and slightly less migration into 50% ethanol than into cooking oil. The migration of the antioxidant into the alcohols consisting of four or more carbons was much greater than the migration observed in cooking oil. In many experiments the polymers became depleted of the antioxidant prior to the end of the short, high-temperature exposure period (i.e. 2 h at 250 degrees F) to the higher alcohols. Also, for all experiments run under the same time/temperature/simulant conditions, migration of the antioxidant was greater from polypropylene than from high-density polyethylene. Diffusion coefficients generated for 95% ethanol and corn oil from these data compare closely with data from the literature.

  18. The fortification of tea with sweeteners and milk and its effect on in vitro antioxidant potential of tea product and glutathione levels in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Korir, M W; Wachira, F N; Wanyoko, J K; Ngure, R M; Khalid, R

    2014-02-15

    Several studies have demonstrated that tea flavonoids protect cells and tissues against free radicals which have been implicated in the etiology of oxidative stress-related disease disorders. However, black tea is commonly consumed with additives that could otherwise affect the bioavailability of the active tea molecules. In this study, the biochemical parameters of Kenyan teas were determined and the effect of added milk and sweeteners on the antioxidant activity of Kenyan teas was investigated. The effect of tea antioxidants on glutathione (GSH) was also evaluated in vivo in a time series study using Swiss mice. Green teas had the highest levels of total polyphenols, total and individual catechins, while black teas had high levels of total thearubigins, total theaflavins and theaflavin fractions. The antioxidant activity was high in green teas though some of the black teas were as efficacious as the green teas. The addition of milk, sugar and honey significantly (p<0.05) decreased the antioxidant activity of tea in a concentration-dependent manner. Addition of the sweetener, stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni), showed no significant (p>0.05) influence on the antioxidant activity of tea and therefore can be recommended as a preferred sweetener for tea. Significantly (p<0.001) higher levels of GSH were observed in plasma than in other tissues. GSH levels were generally highest 2h after tea consumption, which indicates the need to repeatedly take tea every 2h to maximise its potential health benefits.

  19. Curcuminoids and ω-3 fatty acids with anti-oxidants potentiate cytotoxicity of natural killer cells against pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells and inhibit interferon γ production.

    PubMed

    Halder, Ramesh C; Almasi, Anasheh; Sagong, Bien; Leung, Jessica; Jewett, Anahid; Fiala, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis attributed in part to immune suppression and deactivation of natural killer (NK) cells. Curcuminoids have a potential for improving the therapy of pancreatic cancer given promising results in cancer models and a clinical trial, but their oral absorption is limited. Our objective in this study is to show curcuminoid anti-oncogenic effects alone and together with human NK cells. We tested curcuminoids in an emulsion of ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants ("Smartfish") regarding their direct cytocidal effect and enhancement of the cytocidal activity of NK cells in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells (Mia Paca 2 and L3.6). Curcuminoids (at ≥10 μM) with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants or with the lipidic mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) (26 nM) induced high caspase-3 activity in PDAC cells. Importantly, curcuminoids with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants or with RvD1 significantly potentiated NK cell cytocidal function and protected them against degradation. In a co-culture of cancer cells with NK cells, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production by NK cells was not altered by ω-3 fatty acids with anti-oxidants or by RvD1 but was inhibited by curcuminoids. The inhibition was not eliminated by ω-3 fatty acids or RvD1 but was relieved by removing curcuminoids after adding NK cells. In conclusion, curcuminoids with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants or with RvD1 have increased cytotoxic activity on PDAC cells alone and with NK cells. The effects of curcuminoids with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants on pancreatic cancer will be investigated in a mouse model with humanized immune system.

  20. Curcuminoids and ω-3 fatty acids with anti-oxidants potentiate cytotoxicity of natural killer cells against pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells and inhibit interferon γ production

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ramesh C.; Almasi, Anasheh; Sagong, Bien; Leung, Jessica; Jewett, Anahid; Fiala, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis attributed in part to immune suppression and deactivation of natural killer (NK) cells. Curcuminoids have a potential for improving the therapy of pancreatic cancer given promising results in cancer models and a clinical trial, but their oral absorption is limited. Our objective in this study is to show curcuminoid anti-oncogenic effects alone and together with human NK cells. We tested curcuminoids in an emulsion of ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants (“Smartfish”) regarding their direct cytocidal effect and enhancement of the cytocidal activity of NK cells in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells (Mia Paca 2 and L3.6). Curcuminoids (at ≥10 μM) with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants or with the lipidic mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) (26 nM) induced high caspase-3 activity in PDAC cells. Importantly, curcuminoids with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants or with RvD1 significantly potentiated NK cell cytocidal function and protected them against degradation. In a co-culture of cancer cells with NK cells, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production by NK cells was not altered by ω-3 fatty acids with anti-oxidants or by RvD1 but was inhibited by curcuminoids. The inhibition was not eliminated by ω-3 fatty acids or RvD1 but was relieved by removing curcuminoids after adding NK cells. In conclusion, curcuminoids with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants or with RvD1 have increased cytotoxic activity on PDAC cells alone and with NK cells. The effects of curcuminoids with ω-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants on pancreatic cancer will be investigated in a mouse model with humanized immune system. PMID:26052286

  1. Antioxidant and Tumor Cell Suppression Potential of Premna Serratifolia Linn Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Selvam, Thamizh N.; Venkatakrishnan, V.; Damodar, Kumar S.; Elumalai, Preetham

    2012-01-01

    Herbal and natural products have been used in folk medicine for centuries throughout the world. There has been renewed interest in screening higher plants for novel biologically active compounds, particularly those that effectively intervene in human ailments in the field of chronic diseases. The present study has been taken up to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and tumor cell suppression potential of Premna serratifolia leaf in various in vitro model systems. The methanolic extract of P. serratifolia leaf was obtained by soxhlet extraction method. The superoxide radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical and ABTS radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation were determined. The tumor cell suppression cell potential was determined in three different cancer cell lines MCF7 (breast cancer), HepG2 (liver cancer) and A549 (lung cancer) by SRB assay. The study showed that the methanolic extract of P. serratifolia was having free radical scavenging activity against superoxide radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical, ABTS radical and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The IC50 value showed the efficacy was dose dependent. The test extract showed cytotoxic activity against MCF7, HepG2 and A549 cells. The GI50, TGI and LC50 values were determined against each cell line and compared with standard drug Adriamycin. The present study proved the free radical scavenging activity and tumor cell suppression potential of P. serratifolia leaf in the selective in vitro model systems. The further study has to be carried out in the aspects of isolation of functional molecules of the extract. PMID:22736900

  2. Reactions of copper macrocycles with antioxidants and HOCl: potential for biological redox sensing.

    PubMed

    Sowden, Rebecca J; Trotter, Katherine D; Dunbar, Lynsey; Craig, Gemma; Erdemli, Omer; Spickett, Corinne M; Reglinski, John

    2013-02-01

    A series of simple copper N(2)S(2) macrocycles were examined for their potential as biological redox sensors, following previous characterization of their redox potentials and crystal structures. The divalent species were reduced by glutathione or ascorbate at a biologically relevant pH in aqueous buffer. A less efficient reduction was also achieved by vitamin E in DMSO. Oxidation of the corresponding univalent copper species by sodium hypochlorite resulted in only partial (~65 %) recovery of the divalent form. This was concluded to be due to competition between metal oxidation and ligand oxidation, which is believed to contribute to macrocycle demetallation. Electrospray mass spectrometry confirmed that ligand oxidation had occurred. Moreover, the macrocyclic complexes could be demetallated by incubation with EDTA and bovine serum albumin, demonstrating that they would be inappropriate for use in biological systems. The susceptibility to oxidation and demetallation was hypothesized to be due to oxidation of the secondary amines. Consequently these were modified to incorporate additional oxygen donor atoms. This modification led to greater resistance to demetallation and ligand oxidation, providing a better platform for further development of copper macrocycles as redox sensors for use in biological systems.

  3. Novel enterobactin analogues as potential therapeutic chelating agents: Synthesis, thermodynamic and antioxidant studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingchun; Jin, Bo; Shi, Zhaotao; Wang, Xiaofang; Liu, Qiangqiang; Lei, Shan; Peng, Rufang

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel hexadentate enterobactin analogues, which contain three catechol chelating moieties attached to different molecular scaffolds with flexible alkyl chain lengths, were prepared. The solution thermodynamic stabilities of the complexes with uranyl, ferric(III), and zinc(II) ions were then investigated. The hexadentate ligands demonstrate effective binding ability to uranyl ion, and the average uranyl affinities are two orders of magnitude higher than 2,3-dihydroxy-N1,N4-bis[(1,2-hydroxypyridinone-6-carboxamide)ethyl]terephthalamide [TMA(2Li-1,2-HOPO)2] ligand with similar denticity. The high affinity of hexadentate ligands could be due to the presence of the flexible scaffold, which favors the geometric agreement between the ligand and the uranyl coordination preference. The hexadentate ligands also exhibit higher antiradical efficiency than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). These results provide a basis for further studies on the potential applications of hexadentate ligands as therapeutic chelating agents. PMID:27671769

  4. Protein-binding and antioxidant potential of phenolics of mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana).

    PubMed

    Naczk, M; Towsend, M; Zadernowski, R; Shahidi, F

    2011-09-15

    Phenolics were extracted from mangosteen fruit parts with 70% (v/v) aqueous acetone. The yield of crude extracts of phenolics (CP) ranged from 5.8% to 7.9%. The total phenolics (TPH) content ranged from 9.3mg to over 250mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of extract in the edible aril and skin, respectively. The formation of phenolic-protein complexes was assayed by both the dye-labelled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the fluorescence quenching methods. Phenolics from peel and rind displayed a strong protein-precipitating potential. On the other hand, phenolics from edible aril exhibited greater affinity for BSA, as determined by the fluorescence quenching assay. The static quenching was the dominant mode of quenching of BSA fluorescence by mangosteen fruit phenolics. Mangosteen phenolics occupied two binding sites on BSA molecules located most likely in or near both tryptophan residues in the BSA molecule acting as an intrinsic fluorescence probe.

  5. Novel enterobactin analogues as potential therapeutic chelating agents: Synthesis, thermodynamic and antioxidant studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingchun; Jin, Bo; Shi, Zhaotao; Wang, Xiaofang; Liu, Qiangqiang; Lei, Shan; Peng, Rufang

    2016-09-01

    A series of novel hexadentate enterobactin analogues, which contain three catechol chelating moieties attached to different molecular scaffolds with flexible alkyl chain lengths, were prepared. The solution thermodynamic stabilities of the complexes with uranyl, ferric(III), and zinc(II) ions were then investigated. The hexadentate ligands demonstrate effective binding ability to uranyl ion, and the average uranyl affinities are two orders of magnitude higher than 2,3-dihydroxy-N1,N4-bis[(1,2-hydroxypyridinone-6-carboxamide)ethyl]terephthalamide [TMA(2Li-1,2-HOPO)2] ligand with similar denticity. The high affinity of hexadentate ligands could be due to the presence of the flexible scaffold, which favors the geometric agreement between the ligand and the uranyl coordination preference. The hexadentate ligands also exhibit higher antiradical efficiency than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). These results provide a basis for further studies on the potential applications of hexadentate ligands as therapeutic chelating agents.

  6. Potential role of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant genes in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Huan, Chen; Jiang, Li; An, Xiujuan; Yu, Mingliang; Xu, Yin; Ma, Ruijuan; Yu, Zhifang

    2016-07-01

    The roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as both toxic by-products and as signaling molecules have been reported in fruit development and ripening. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) play important roles in balancing the induction and removal of ROS in plants, and are respectively encoded by families of closely homologous genes. In the present study, we investigated the roles of ROS and the above-mentioned antioxidant genes during the development and ripening of peach fruit. The experimental results indicated that O2(-) and H2O2 acted as potential signaling molecules in the middle stage of fruit development, and only H2O2 might function as a main toxic molecule to stimulate lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the late stage of fruit ripening. PpaCu/Zn-SODs were the most abundant members in the PpaSOD gene family and they expressed steadily in peach fruit development and ripening. Low temperature (4 °C) postponed and suppressed the climacteric peaks of respiration and ethylene, significantly enhanced the activities of CAT and GPX, and up-regulated the expression of PpaCAT1 and PpaGPX6 in the late stage of fruit ripening. PpaCAT1 and PpaGPX6 were two key genes in alleviating oxidative stress in the late stage of fruit ripening. PMID:27208820

  7. Human Anti-Oxidation Protein A1M--A Potential Kidney Protection Agent in Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ahlstedt, Jonas; Tran, Thuy A; Strand, Sven-Erik; Gram, Magnus; Åkerström, Bo

    2015-12-18

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has been in clinical use for 15 years to treat metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. PRRT is limited by reabsorption and retention of the administered radiolabeled somatostatin analogues in the proximal tubule. Consequently, it is essential to develop and employ methods to protect the kidneys during PRRT. Today, infusion of positively charged amino acids is the standard method of kidney protection. Other methods, such as administration of amifostine, are still under evaluation and show promising results. α₁-microglobulin (A1M) is a reductase and radical scavenging protein ubiquitously present in plasma and extravascular tissue. Human A1M has antioxidation properties and has been shown to prevent radiation-induced in vitro cell damage and protect non-irradiated surrounding cells. It has recently been shown in mice that exogenously infused A1M and the somatostatin analogue octreotide are co-localized in proximal tubules of the kidney after intravenous infusion. In this review we describe the current situation of kidney protection during PRRT, discuss the necessity and implications of more precise dosimetry and present A1M as a new, potential candidate for renal protection during PRRT and related targeted radionuclide therapies.

  8. Antioxidant Potential of Spirulina platensis Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Reprotoxicity Induced by Sodium Arsenite in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bashandy, Samir A. E.; El Awdan, Sally A.; Ebaid, Hossam; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the protective role of Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) against arsenic-induced testicular oxidative damage in rats. Arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2 at a dose of 6.3 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks) caused a significant accumulation of arsenic in testicular tissues as well as a decrease in the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione, and zinc. Moreover, it significantly decreased plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) levels and reduced sperm motility and sperm count. Arsenic (AS) led to a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and sperm abnormalities. S. platensis at a dose of 300 mg/kg was found to attenuate As-induced oxidative stress, testicular damage, and sperm abnormalities by its potent antioxidant activity. S. platensis may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from arsenic intoxication. PMID:26881036

  9. Antioxidant Potential of Spirulina platensis Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Reprotoxicity Induced by Sodium Arsenite in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Bashandy, Samir A E; El Awdan, Sally A; Ebaid, Hossam; Alhazza, Ibrahim M

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the protective role of Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) against arsenic-induced testicular oxidative damage in rats. Arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2 at a dose of 6.3 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks) caused a significant accumulation of arsenic in testicular tissues as well as a decrease in the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione, and zinc. Moreover, it significantly decreased plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) levels and reduced sperm motility and sperm count. Arsenic (AS) led to a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and sperm abnormalities. S. platensis at a dose of 300 mg/kg was found to attenuate As-induced oxidative stress, testicular damage, and sperm abnormalities by its potent antioxidant activity. S. platensis may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from arsenic intoxication. PMID:26881036

  10. Inhibitory potential of some Romanian medicinal plants against enzymes linked to neurodegenerative diseases and their antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Paun, Gabriela; Neagu, Elena; Albu, Camelia; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2015-01-01

    Context: Eryngium planum, Geum urbanum and Cnicus benedictus plants are an endemic botanical from the Romanian used in folk medicine. Objective: The extracts from three Romanian medicinal plants were investigated for their possible neuroprotective potential. Materials and Methods: Within this study, in vitro neuroprotective activity of the extracts of E. planum, G. urbanum, and C. benedictus plants were investigated via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and tyrosinase (TYR). Total content of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins, high-performance liquid chromatography profile of the main phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were also determined. Results: Among the tested extracts, the best inhibition of AChE (88.76 ± 5.2%) and TYR (88.5 ± 5.2%) was caused by C. benedictus ethanol (EtOH) extract. The G. urbanum extracts exerted remarkable scavenging effect against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (IC50, 7.8 ± 0.5 μg/mL aqueous extract, and IC50, 1.3 ± 0.1 μg/mL EtOH extract, respectively) and reducing power, whereas the EtOH extract of C. benedictus showed high scavenging activity (IC50, 0.609 ± 0.04 mg/mL), also. Conclusion: According to our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates in vitro neuroprotective effects of E. planum, G. urbanum and C. benedictus. PMID:26109755

  11. Tolerability in the elderly population of high-dose alpha lipoic acid: a potential antioxidant therapy for the eye

    PubMed Central

    Sarezky, Daniel; Raquib, Aaishah R; Dunaief, Joshua L; Kim, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is an antioxidant and iron-chelating supplement that has potential benefits for geographic atrophy in dry age-related macular degeneration as well as other eye diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the tolerability of ALA in the elderly population. Patients and methods Fifteen subjects, age ≥65 years, took sequential ALA doses of 600, 800, and 1,200 mg. Each dose was taken once daily with a meal for 5 days. After each dose was taken by the subjects for 5 days, the subjects were contacted by phone, a review of systems was performed, and they were asked if they thought they could tolerate taking that dose of ALA for an extended period of time. Results The 600 mg dose was well tolerated. At the 800 mg dose, one subject had an intolerable flushing sensation. At the 1,200 mg dose, two subjects had intolerable upper gastrointestinal side effects and one subject had an intolerable flushing sensation. Subjects taking gastrointestinal prophylaxis medications had no upper gastrointestinal side effects. Conclusion High-dose ALA is not completely tolerated by the elderly. These preliminary data suggest that gastrointestinal prophylaxis may improve tolerability. (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02613572). PMID:27729766

  12. Intervarietal variations in various oxidative stress markers and antioxidant potential of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) subjected to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Bartwal, Arti; Pande, Anjali; Sharma, Priyadarshini; Arora, Sandeep

    2016-07-01

    Drought is a major form of abiotic stress leading to lower crop productivity. Experiment was carried out for selecting the most tolerant genotype among six different genotypes of finger millet under drought stress. Seeds of six finger millet genotypes were sown in pots and grown for 35 days. After this period, drought was induced by withholding watering for stressed plants while control plants were watered regularly for comparison. Among all six different varieties of finger millet screened (PR202, PES400, PRM6107, VL283, VL328 and VL149) under varying intensities of drought stress,PRM6107 and PR202 showed highest stress tolerance by limiting excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through activation of ROS scavenging antioxidative enzymes. A 200% increase in ascorbate content was recorded in PRM6107 and PR202, while in other varieties limited increase in ascorbate content was observed. Maximum decrease in chlorophyll content was observed in VL328 (83%) while least drop was observed in VL149 (65%). Relative water content indicated that PR202 was able to retain maximum water content under stress, as it recorded least drop in relative water content (55%), contributing to its better survival under stress. In conclusion finger millet genotypes PRM6107 and PR202 possessed maximum drought tolerance potential and thus may be used for allele mining of drought tolerant genes, which can further be employed for the development of more drought stress tolerant staple crops using biotechnological approach.

  13. Antioxidant potential of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed protein hydrolysates and carnosine in food and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Ambigaipalan, Priyatharini; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2015-01-28

    Date seed protein hydrolysates were evaluated for antioxidant activity as well as solubility and water-holding capacity in food and biological model systems. Date seed protein hydrolysates as well as carnosine exhibited >80% of solubility over a pH range of 2-12. The hydrolysates and carnosine at 0.5% (w/w) were also found to be effective in enhancing water-holding capacity and cooking yield in a fish model system, which was nearly similar to sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP; 0.3%, w/w). Incorporation of hydrolysates (200 ppm) in fish model systems resulted in the highest inhibition (30%) of oxidation in comparison to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 9%). In addition, hydrolysates and carnosine inhibited β-carotene oxidation by 75%. The hydrolysates (0.1 mg/mL) inhibited LDL cholesterol oxidation by 60%, whereas carnosine inhibited oxidation by 80% after 12 h of incubation. Additionally, hydrolysates and carnosine effectively inhibited hydroxyl (6 mg/mL) and peroxyl (0.1 mg/mL) radical-induced DNA scission. Therefore, date seed protein hydrolysates could be used as a potential functional food ingredient for health promotion.

  14. Human Anti-Oxidation Protein A1M—A Potential Kidney Protection Agent in Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ahlstedt, Jonas; Tran, Thuy A.; Strand, Sven-Erik; Gram, Magnus; Åkerström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has been in clinical use for 15 years to treat metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. PRRT is limited by reabsorption and retention of the administered radiolabeled somatostatin analogues in the proximal tubule. Consequently, it is essential to develop and employ methods to protect the kidneys during PRRT. Today, infusion of positively charged amino acids is the standard method of kidney protection. Other methods, such as administration of amifostine, are still under evaluation and show promising results. α1-microglobulin (A1M) is a reductase and radical scavenging protein ubiquitously present in plasma and extravascular tissue. Human A1M has antioxidation properties and has been shown to prevent radiation-induced in vitro cell damage and protect non-irradiated surrounding cells. It has recently been shown in mice that exogenously infused A1M and the somatostatin analogue octreotide are co-localized in proximal tubules of the kidney after intravenous infusion. In this review we describe the current situation of kidney protection during PRRT, discuss the necessity and implications of more precise dosimetry and present A1M as a new, potential candidate for renal protection during PRRT and related targeted radionuclide therapies. PMID:26694383

  15. Intervarietal variations in various oxidative stress markers and antioxidant potential of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) subjected to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Bartwal, Arti; Pande, Anjali; Sharma, Priyadarshini; Arora, Sandeep

    2016-07-01

    Drought is a major form of abiotic stress leading to lower crop productivity. Experiment was carried out for selecting the most tolerant genotype among six different genotypes of finger millet under drought stress. Seeds of six finger millet genotypes were sown in pots and grown for 35 days. After this period, drought was induced by withholding watering for stressed plants while control plants were watered regularly for comparison. Among all six different varieties of finger millet screened (PR202, PES400, PRM6107, VL283, VL328 and VL149) under varying intensities of drought stress,PRM6107 and PR202 showed highest stress tolerance by limiting excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through activation of ROS scavenging antioxidative enzymes. A 200% increase in ascorbate content was recorded in PRM6107 and PR202, while in other varieties limited increase in ascorbate content was observed. Maximum decrease in chlorophyll content was observed in VL328 (83%) while least drop was observed in VL149 (65%). Relative water content indicated that PR202 was able to retain maximum water content under stress, as it recorded least drop in relative water content (55%), contributing to its better survival under stress. In conclusion finger millet genotypes PRM6107 and PR202 possessed maximum drought tolerance potential and thus may be used for allele mining of drought tolerant genes, which can further be employed for the development of more drought stress tolerant staple crops using biotechnological approach. PMID:27498495

  16. Seaweed Polysaccharides (Laminarin and Fucoidan) as Functional Ingredients in Pork Meat: An Evaluation of Anti-Oxidative Potential, Thermal Stability and Bioaccessibility

    PubMed Central

    Moroney, Natasha C.; O’Grady, Michael N.; Lordan, Sinéad; Stanton, Catherine; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    The anti-oxidative potential of laminarin (L), fucoidan (F) and an L/F seaweed extract was measured using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, in 25% pork (longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL)) homogenates (TBARS) (3 and 6 mg/mL) and in horse heart oxymyoglobin (OxyMb) (0.1 and 1 mg/mL). The DPPH activity of fresh and cooked minced LTL containing L (100 mg/g; L100), F100 and L/F100,300, and bioaccessibility post in vitro digestion (L/F300), was assessed. Theoretical cellular uptake of antioxidant compounds was measured in a transwell Caco-2 cell model. Laminarin displayed no activity and fucoidan reduced lipid oxidation but catalysed OxyMb oxidation. Fucoidan activity was lowered by cooking while the L/F extract displayed moderate thermal stability. A decrease in DPPH antioxidant activity of 44.15% and 36.63%, after 4 and 20 h respectively, indicated theoretical uptake of L/F antioxidant compounds. Results highlight the potential use of seaweed extracts as functional ingredients in pork. PMID:25903283

  17. Chronic ozone exposure alters the secondary metabolite profile, antioxidant potential, anti-inflammatory property, and quality of red pepper fruit from Capsicum baccatum.

    PubMed

    Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Divan Junior, Armando Molina; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Salvi, Aguisson de Oliveira; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; de Carvalho, Pâmela; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) background concentrations have increased since pre-industrial times, reaching phytotoxic concentrations in many regions globally. However, the effect of high O3 concentrations on quality of fruit and vegetables remains unknown. Here, we evaluated whether O3 pollution alters the quality of Capsicum baccatum peppers by changing the secondary compound profiles and biological activity of the fruit. C. baccatum pepper plants were exposed to ozone for 62 days in an open-top chamber at a mean O3 concentration of 171.6µg/m(3). Capsaicin levels decreased by 50% in the pericarp, but remained unchanged in the seeds. In contrast, the total carotenoid content increased by 52.8% in the pericarp. The content of total phenolic compounds increased by 17% in the pericarp. The total antioxidant potential decreased by 87% in seeds of O3-treated plants. The seeds contributed more than the pericarp to the total radical-trapping antioxidant potential and total antioxidant reactivity. O3 treatment impaired the ferric-reducing antioxidant power of the seeds and reduced NO(•)-scavenging activity in the pericarp. However, O3 treatment increased ferrous ion-chelating activity and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the pericarp. Our results confirm that O3 alters the secondary metabolite profile of C. baccatum pepper fruits and, consequently, their biological activity profile.

  18. Seaweed polysaccharides (laminarin and fucoidan) as functional ingredients in pork meat: an evaluation of anti-oxidative potential, thermal stability and bioaccessibility.

    PubMed

    Moroney, Natasha C; O'Grady, Michael N; Lordan, Sinéad; Stanton, Catherine; Kerry, Joseph P

    2015-04-20

    The anti-oxidative potential of laminarin (L), fucoidan (F) and an L/F seaweed extract was measured using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, in 25% pork (longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL)) homogenates (TBARS) (3 and 6 mg/mL) and in horse heart oxymyoglobin (OxyMb) (0.1 and 1 mg/mL). The DPPH activity of fresh and cooked minced LTL containing L (100 mg/g; L100), F100 and L/F100,300, and bioaccessibility post in vitro digestion (L/F300), was assessed. Theoretical cellular uptake of antioxidant compounds was measured in a transwell Caco-2 cell model. Laminarin displayed no activity and fucoidan reduced lipid oxidation but catalysed OxyMb oxidation. Fucoidan activity was lowered by cooking while the L/F extract displayed moderate thermal stability. A decrease in DPPH antioxidant activity of 44.15% and 36.63%, after 4 and 20 h respectively, indicated theoretical uptake of L/F antioxidant compounds. Results highlight the potential use of seaweed extracts as functional ingredients in pork.

  19. Antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential of aqueous fraction of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata (L.) against 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced chromosome damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramesh, Arabandi

    2009-01-01

    The antigenotoxic potential of an aqueous fraction of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata was evaluated by measuring the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in mice bone marrow, using 4-nitroquinoline-1oxide (NQO) as the reference mutagen. In addition, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant levels were also quantified with liver tissue of the same mice to assess their antioxidant potential. Swiss albino mice of either sex (25-30 g) were orally pretreated with an aqueous fraction (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days. NQO (7.5 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally after 2 hours until the final day (day 5) of treatment with aqueous fraction. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours later by cervical dislocation and processed for micronuclei and bioassays. A significant reduction (about 67%) of NQO-induced MnPCE frequency was observed at the dose of 320 mg/kg. The LPO was also suppressed effectively, with concomitant changes in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. The restoration level was dose dependent in LPO and glutathione-s-transferase, whereas it was dose independent in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and reduced glutathione. The results indicate that the aqueous fraction of M. spicata mediates their antigenotoxic effects by the modulation of LPO and antioxidant enzymes.

  20. Potential of Submergedly Cultivated Mycelia of Ganoderma spp. as Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Ćilerdžić, Jasmina; Stajic, Mirjana; Vukojevic, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the antiradical and antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) potentials of ethanol mycelial extracts of selected Ganoderma species and strains and to define interand intraspecies diversity among Ganoderma species and strains. Ganoderma lucidum strains were good DPPH• scavengers (neutralizing up to 57.12% radicals), contrary to G. applanatum (20.35%) and G. carnosum (17.04%). High correlations between the activities and contents of total phenols in the extracts showed that these compounds were carriers of the activity. Results obtained by both discdiffusion and microdilution methods indicated that the extract of G. lucidum BEOFB 433 was the most potent antibacterial agent that inhibited growth of almost all bacterial species at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. Salmonella typhimurium was the most sensitive species to the mycelium extracts. Extracts of G. lucidum BEOFB 431 and BEOFB 434 showed the best antifungal activity since in concentration of 0.5 mg/mL inhibited the growth of Aspergillus glaucus (BEOFB 431) and the growth of A. glaucus and Trichoderma viride (BEOFB 434). Extracts of G. applanatum and G. lucidum BEOFB 431 had the strongest fungicidal effects, with lethal outcomes for A. glaucus and T. viride, respectively, being noted at a concentration of 1.17 mg/mL. Aspergillus niger was proved as the most resistant species. PMID:26420047

  1. Potential of Submergedly Cultivated Mycelia of Ganoderma spp. as Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Ćilerdžić, Jasmina; Stajic, Mirjana; Vukojevic, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the antiradical and antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) potentials of ethanol mycelial extracts of selected Ganoderma species and strains and to define interand intraspecies diversity among Ganoderma species and strains. Ganoderma lucidum strains were good DPPH• scavengers (neutralizing up to 57.12% radicals), contrary to G. applanatum (20.35%) and G. carnosum (17.04%). High correlations between the activities and contents of total phenols in the extracts showed that these compounds were carriers of the activity. Results obtained by both discdiffusion and microdilution methods indicated that the extract of G. lucidum BEOFB 433 was the most potent antibacterial agent that inhibited growth of almost all bacterial species at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. Salmonella typhimurium was the most sensitive species to the mycelium extracts. Extracts of G. lucidum BEOFB 431 and BEOFB 434 showed the best antifungal activity since in concentration of 0.5 mg/mL inhibited the growth of Aspergillus glaucus (BEOFB 431) and the growth of A. glaucus and Trichoderma viride (BEOFB 434). Extracts of G. applanatum and G. lucidum BEOFB 431 had the strongest fungicidal effects, with lethal outcomes for A. glaucus and T. viride, respectively, being noted at a concentration of 1.17 mg/mL. Aspergillus niger was proved as the most resistant species.

  2. Influence of sub-lethal antioxidant doses, water potential and temperature on growth, sclerotia, aflatoxins and aflD (=nor-1) expression by Aspergillus flavus RCP08108.

    PubMed

    Passone, María Alejandra; Rosso, Laura Cristina; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-09-01

    Effects of interacting conditions of sub-lethal levels of antioxidants, water potential (Ψ) and temperature were evaluated on growth, sclerotial characteristics, aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production and aflD (=nor-1) gene expression by Aspergillus flavus strain RCP08108. These studies were carried out on peanut meal extract agar osmotically modified to -2.8,-7.1, -9.9 and -16.0 MPa and incubated at 28 and 20°C. The food grade antioxidants added were butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at (1+1 mM-M1) and (5+5 mM-M2). To relate the aflD expression after toxigenic A. flavus grew under interacting stress conditions, real-time PCR was used. Antioxidant mixtures caused a higher and significant (p<0.001) reduction in growth rate. The major impact on size and volume sclerotia was produced by Ψ; followed by antioxidant mixtures. High AFB(1) levels were observed in response to the M1 applied at -7.1 MPa. Induction of the aflD gene was observed in response to the M1 treatment at -2.8, -7.1 and -9.9 MPa; but significant decreases of AFB(1) production and aflD transcripts were observed; when the fungus grew in the presence of the M2 treatment. These results showed that it is necessary to apply food-grade antioxidants into the peanut storage system at levels higher than 5 mM. This is an important tool to avoid sub-lethal antioxidant doses that can lead to fungal growth, increase resistance structures, and stimulate aflD gene expression and AFB(1) accumulation in this substrate.

  3. Copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), an antioxidant gene from seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis); molecular cloning, sequence characterization, antioxidant activity and potential peroxidation function of its recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Jehee

    2016-10-01

    Copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) from Hippocampus abdominalis (HaCuZnSOD) is a metalloenzyme which belongs to the ubiquitous family of SODs. Here, we determined the characteristic structural features of HaCuZnSOD, analyzed its evolutionary relationships, and identified its potential immune responses and biological functions in relation to antioxidant defense mechanisms in the seahorse. The gene had a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 67 bp, a coding sequence of 465 bp and a 3' UTR of 313 bp. The putative peptide consists of 154 amino acids. HaCuZnSOD had a predicted molecular mass of 15.94 kDa and a theoretical pI value of 5.73, which is favorable for copper binding activity. In silico analysis revealed that HaCuZnSOD had a prominent Cu-Zn_superoxide_dismutase domain, two Cu/Zn signature sequences, a putative N-glycosylation site, and several active sites including Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) binding sites. The three dimensional structure indicated a β-sheet barrel with 8 β-sheets and two short α-helical regions. Multiple alignment analyses revealed many conserved regions and active sites among its orthologs. The highest amino acid identity to HaCuZnSOD was found in Siniperca chuatsi (87.4%), while Maylandia zebra shared a close relationship in the phylogenetic analysis. Functional assays were performed to assess the antioxidant, biophysical and biochemical properties of overexpressed recombinant (r) HaCuZnSOD. A xanthine/XOD assay gave optimum results at pH 9 and 25 °C indicating these may be the best conditions for its antioxidant action in the seahorse. An MTT assay and flow cytometry confirmed that rHaCuZnSOD showed peroxidase activity in the presence of HCO3(-). In all the functional assays, the level of antioxidant activity of rHaCuZnSOD was concentration dependent; metal ion supplementation also increased its activity. The highest mRNA expressional level of HaCuZnSOD was found in blood. Temporal assessment under pathological stress showed a delay

  4. Copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), an antioxidant gene from seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis); molecular cloning, sequence characterization, antioxidant activity and potential peroxidation function of its recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Jehee

    2016-10-01

    Copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) from Hippocampus abdominalis (HaCuZnSOD) is a metalloenzyme which belongs to the ubiquitous family of SODs. Here, we determined the characteristic structural features of HaCuZnSOD, analyzed its evolutionary relationships, and identified its potential immune responses and biological functions in relation to antioxidant defense mechanisms in the seahorse. The gene had a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 67 bp, a coding sequence of 465 bp and a 3' UTR of 313 bp. The putative peptide consists of 154 amino acids. HaCuZnSOD had a predicted molecular mass of 15.94 kDa and a theoretical pI value of 5.73, which is favorable for copper binding activity. In silico analysis revealed that HaCuZnSOD had a prominent Cu-Zn_superoxide_dismutase domain, two Cu/Zn signature sequences, a putative N-glycosylation site, and several active sites including Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) binding sites. The three dimensional structure indicated a β-sheet barrel with 8 β-sheets and two short α-helical regions. Multiple alignment analyses revealed many conserved regions and active sites among its orthologs. The highest amino acid identity to HaCuZnSOD was found in Siniperca chuatsi (87.4%), while Maylandia zebra shared a close relationship in the phylogenetic analysis. Functional assays were performed to assess the antioxidant, biophysical and biochemical properties of overexpressed recombinant (r) HaCuZnSOD. A xanthine/XOD assay gave optimum results at pH 9 and 25 °C indicating these may be the best conditions for its antioxidant action in the seahorse. An MTT assay and flow cytometry confirmed that rHaCuZnSOD showed peroxidase activity in the presence of HCO3(-). In all the functional assays, the level of antioxidant activity of rHaCuZnSOD was concentration dependent; metal ion supplementation also increased its activity. The highest mRNA expressional level of HaCuZnSOD was found in blood. Temporal assessment under pathological stress showed a delay

  5. Antioxidants from tropical herbs.

    PubMed

    Razab, Rasyidah; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina

    2010-03-01

    Plants that contain high amounts of polyphenolic compounds are potential candidates for natural antioxidant sources. Studies are on going in the search for new sources of antioxidants. Not much data are available on the antioxidant capacity of tropical herbs. With this in mind, 19 commonly consumed Malaysian herbs were analyzed for their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities. A majority of these plants have never been studied before with regards to their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities. The shoots of Anacardium occidentale, the shoots and fruits of Barringtonia racemosa, Pithecellobium jiringa and Parkia speciosa had high polyphenolic contents (> 150 microg gallic acid equivalents/mg dried plant) and antioxidant activities when measured using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (>1.2 mM) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays (>2.4 mM). A strong correlation was observed between the two antioxidant assays (FRAP vs TEAC) implying that the plants could both scavenge free radicals and reduce oxidants. There was also a strong correlation between the antioxidant activities and polyphenolic content suggesting the observed antioxidant activities were contributed mainly by the polyphenolics in the plants. PMID:20420325

  6. Appraisal of Total Phenol, Flavonoid Contents, and Antioxidant Potential of Folkloric Lannea coromandelica Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Tekeshwar; Jain, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impending antioxidant properties of different extracts of crude methanolic extract (CME) of leaves of Lannea coromandelica (L. coromandelica) and its two ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AqF) subfractions by employing various established in vitro systems and estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid content. The results showed that extract and fractions possessed strong antioxidant activity in vitro and among them, EAF had the strongest antioxidant activity. EAF was confirmed for its highest phenolic content, total flavonoid contents, and total antioxidant capacity. The EAF was found to show remarkable scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50 63.9 ± 0.64 µg/mL), superoxide radical (EC50 8.2 ± 0.12 mg/mL), and Fe2+ chelating activity (EC50 6.2 ± 0.09 mg/mL). Based on our in vitro results, EAF was investigated for in vivo antioxidant assay. Intragastric administration of the EAF can significantly increase levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels, and decrease malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver and kidney of CCl4-intoxicated rats. These new evidences show that L. coromandelica bared antioxidant activity. PMID:26457224

  7. In vitro antioxidant activity and potential inhibitory action against α-glucosidase of polysaccharides from fruit peel of tea (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-fei; Wang, Jie; Wu, Jing; Xu, Ping; Wang, Yi-qi; Gao, Jun-jie; Hochstetter, Danielle

    2014-02-01

    The conditions for extracting polysaccharides from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) fruit peel (TFPPs) were studied. Three parameters (temperature, time, and liquid/solid ratio) affecting the extraction of TFPP were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized conditions, the yield of TFPP was predicted to be 4.98%. The physicochemical properties, in vitro antioxidant activities, and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase of fractionated TFPPs (TFPP-0, TFPP-20, TFPP-40, and TFPP-60) were investigated. We found that the TFPPs were all acid protein-bound heteropolysaccharides, although with different chemical compositions. They had not only remarkable scavenging activity on 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and reducing activity, but also excellent inhibitory potential against α-glucosidase in vitro. Our results suggest that tea fruit peel could be treated as a potential bioresource for the development of polysaccharide antioxidants.

  8. In vitro antioxidant activity and potential inhibitory action against α-glucosidase of polysaccharides from fruit peel of tea (Camellia sinensis L.)* #

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-fei; Wang, Jie; Wu, Jing; Xu, Ping; Wang, Yi-qi; Gao, Jun-jie; Hochstetter, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    The conditions for extracting polysaccharides from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) fruit peel (TFPPs) were studied. Three parameters (temperature, time, and liquid/solid ratio) affecting the extraction