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Sample records for potential rare-earth modified

  1. Alaska's rare earth deposits and resource potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, James C.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Alaska’s known mineral endowment includes some of the largest and highest grade deposits of various metals, including gold, copper and zinc. Recently, Alaska has also been active in the worldwide search for sources of rare earth elements (REE) to replace exports now being limitedby China. Driven by limited supply of the rare earths, combined with their increasing use in new ‘green’ energy, lighting, transportation, and many other technological applications, the rare earth metals neodymium, europium and, in particular, the heavy rare earth elements terbium, dysprosium and yttrium are forecast to soon be in critical short supply (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010).

  2. Potential synergy: the thorium fuel cycle and rare earths processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ault, T.; Wymer, R.; Croff, A.; Krahn, S.

    2013-07-01

    The use of thorium in nuclear power programs has been evaluated on a recurring basis. A concern often raised is the lack of 'thorium infrastructure'; however, for at least a part of a potential thorium fuel cycle, this may less of a problem than previously thought. Thorium is frequently encountered in association with rare earth elements and, since the U.S. last systematically evaluated the large-scale use of thorium (the 1970's,) the use of rare earth elements has increased ten-fold to approximately 200,000 metric tons per year. Integration of thorium extraction with rare earth processing has been previously described and top-level estimates have been done on thorium resource availability; however, since ores and mining operations differ markedly, what is needed is process flowsheet analysis to determine whether a specific mining operation can feasibly produce thorium as a by-product. Also, the collocation of thorium with rare earths means that, even if a thorium product stream is not developed, its presence in mining waste streams needs to be addressed and there are previous instances where this has caused issues. This study analyzes several operational mines, estimates the mines' ability to produce a thorium by-product stream, and discusses some waste management implications of recovering thorium. (authors)

  3. Continental shelves as potential resource of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Pourret, Olivier; Tuduri, Johann

    2017-07-19

    The results of this study allow the reassessment of the rare earth elements (REE) external cycle. Indeed, the river input to the oceans has relatively flat REE patterns without cerium (Ce) anomalies, whereas oceanic REE patterns exhibit strong negative Ce anomalies and heavy REE enrichment. Indeed, the processes at the origin of seawater REE patterns are commonly thought to occur within the ocean masses themselves. However, the results from the present study illustrate that seawater-like REE patterns already occur in the truly dissolved pool of river input. This leads us to favor a partial or complete removal of the colloidal REE pool during estuarine mixing by coagulation, as previously shown for dissolved humic acids and iron. In this latter case, REE fractionation occurs because colloidal and truly dissolved pools have different REE patterns. Thus, the REE patterns of seawater could be the combination of both intra-oceanic and riverine processes. In this study, we show that the Atlantic continental shelves could be considered potential REE traps, suggesting further that shelf sediments could potentially become a resource for REE, similar to metalliferous deep sea sediments.

  4. Cysteine modified rare-earth up-converting nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zuwu; Sun, Lining; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Jin Z; Yang, Huiran; Yang, Yang; Shi, Liyi

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine, as a small organic molecule and amino acid, is a basic building block for proteins and has special physiological functions in vivo. Cysteine has strong affinity for cells, which can be taken advantage for various applications. A new and facile surface modification method has been developed for rare-earth doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNs) using cysteine. Compared with unmodified samples, the water-solubility and biocompatibility of the cysteine modified NaYF4:Yb,Er and NaYF4:Yb,Tm UCNs (termed as UCN-Er-Cys and UCN-Tm-Cys, respectively) have been significantly improved, while their particle size and emission properties did not change substantially. Due to the low cytotoxicity as revealed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, the cysteine modified UCNs were successfully applied to imaging of Hela cells in vitro and nude mouse in vivo. Most significant is that the method offers the advantages of ease of synthesis and handling as well as potentially low cost for biomedical emerging applications.

  5. Rare earth modified silica-aluminas as supports for bifunctional catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Soled, S.L.; McVicker, G.; Miseo, S.

    1996-12-31

    We have explored rare earth oxide-modified amorphous silica-aluminas as {open_quotes}permanent{close_quotes} intermediate strength acids used as supports for bifunctional catalysts. The addition of well dispersed weakly basic rare earth oxides {open_quotes}titrates{close_quotes} the stronger acid sites of amorphous silica-alumina and lowers the acid strength to the level shown by halided aluminas. Physical and chemical probes, as well as model olefin and paraffin isomerization reactions show that acid strength can be adjusted close to that of chlorided and fluorided aluminas. Metal activity is inhibited relative to halided alumina catalysts, which limits the direct metal-catalyzed dehydrocyclization reactions during paraffin reforming but does not interfere with hydroisomerization reactions.

  6. Pt nanoparticles modified by rare earth oxides: Electronic effect and influence to catalytic hydrogenation of 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Mou, Zhigang; Han, Ming; Li, Gang; Du, Yukou; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Hailu; Deng, Zongwu

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The rare earths modified Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by colloidal deposition method. • Modification of Pt by the rare earth enhanced catalytic hydrogenation activity. • The activity improvement is due to electron interaction between Pt and rare earth. • The hydrogenation mechanism of rare earth modified Pt catalyst was proposed. - Abstract: The rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Pr, and Gd) modified Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were prepared by the colloidal deposition and chemical reduction methods, respectively. Pt nanoparticles with average size 3 ± 0.5 nm were uniformly dispersed on the surface of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for the samples prepared by the colloidal deposition method, which exhibited higher activities in the hydrogenation of 3-phenoxybenzadehyde than the corresponding samples prepared by chemical reduction method. Moreover, except Gd, the catalysts modified by rare earth elements showed better catalytic performance than unmodified Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. For Pt–Ce/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, when the weight percent of Pt and Ce was 0.5 and 0.25, respectively, the hydrogenation conversion of 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde was 97.3% after 6 h reaction. This activity improvement is due to the electronic interaction between Pt and rare earth elements, which was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  7. Effect of rare-earth additives on electromechanical properties of modified lead titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Suwannasiri, Thitima; Safari, A. . Dept. of Ceramic Science and Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    The influence of rare-earth additives, such as La, Nd, Sm, and Gd, and poling conditions on the electromechanical properties of (Pb[sub 1[minus]3x/2]Ln[sub x])(Ti[sub 0.98]Mn[sub 0.02])O[sub 3] compositions, x = 0.04--0.12, were investigated. The type and amount of additive were found to affect the lattice anisotropy, dielectric constant, and electromechanical properties. A large electro-mechanical anisotropy (k[sub t]lk[sub p]) could be obtained in 10 mol% Sm-modified and 8 mol% Gd-modified lead titanate ceramics, and seemed to correlate to a low Poisson's ratio.

  8. Rare earths

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayan, S.; Melnyk, A.J.; Singh, R.D.; Nuttall, K.

    1989-01-01

    For conventional applications, there is limited demand for rare earth elements as well as yttrium and scandium. But the emergence of new high technology applications such as supermagnets, lasers, and superconductors should result in significant demand for some of these elements. This article examines the anticipated applications and demands for rare earth elements over the next decade. It also looks at the implications on the use of available resources. In the context of a growing demand, process methods are reviewed for the recovery of rare earth elements from conventional and unconventional resources. And the article also discusses the challenges facing the mining industry in meeting this opportunity.

  9. Rare earths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

  10. Rare Earth Element Yttrium Modified Mg-Al-Zn Alloy: Microstructure, Degradation Properties and Hardness

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yuan, Fulai; Zhao, Mingchun; Gao, Chengde; Feng, Pei; Yang, Youwen; Yang, Sheng; Shuai, Cijun

    2017-01-01

    The overly-fast degradation rates of magnesium-based alloys in the biological environment have limited their applications as biodegradable bone implants. In this study, rare earth element yttrium (Y) was introduced into AZ61 magnesium alloy (Mg-6Al-1Zn wt %) to control the degradation rate by laser rapid melting. The results showed that the degradation rate of AZ61 magnesium alloy was slowed down by adding Y. This was attributed to the reduction of Mg17Al12 phase and the formation of Al2Y phase that has a more active potential, which decreased galvanic corrosion resulting from its coupling with the anodic matrix phase. Meanwhile, the hardness increased as Y contents increased due to the uniform distribution of the Al2Y and Mg17Al12 phases. However, as the Y contents increased further, the formation of excessive Al2Y phase resulted in the increasing of degradation rate and the decreasing of hardness due to its agglomeration. PMID:28772837

  11. Rare Earth Element Yttrium Modified Mg-Al-Zn Alloy: Microstructure, Degradation Properties and Hardness.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Yuan, Fulai; Zhao, Mingchun; Gao, Chengde; Feng, Pei; Yang, Youwen; Yang, Sheng; Shuai, Cijun

    2017-04-28

    The overly-fast degradation rates of magnesium-based alloys in the biological environment have limited their applications as biodegradable bone implants. In this study, rare earth element yttrium (Y) was introduced into AZ61 magnesium alloy (Mg-6Al-1Zn wt %) to control the degradation rate by laser rapid melting. The results showed that the degradation rate of AZ61 magnesium alloy was slowed down by adding Y. This was attributed to the reduction of Mg17Al12 phase and the formation of Al₂Y phase that has a more active potential, which decreased galvanic corrosion resulting from its coupling with the anodic matrix phase. Meanwhile, the hardness increased as Y contents increased due to the uniform distribution of the Al₂Y and Mg17Al12 phases. However, as the Y contents increased further, the formation of excessive Al₂Y phase resulted in the increasing of degradation rate and the decreasing of hardness due to its agglomeration.

  12. Visible light activated photocatalytic behaviour of rare earth modified commercial TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Tobaldi, D.M.; Seabra, M.P.; Labrincha, J.A.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • RE gave more surface hydroxyl groups attached to the photocatalyst's surface. • RE gave the modified and fired samples a high specific surface area. • Photocatalytic activity was assessed in gas–solid phase under visible-light exposure. • Thermal treated RE-TiO{sub 2}s showed a superior visible-light photocatalytic activity. • La-TiO{sub 2} was the best performing photocatalyst. - Abstract: A commercial TiO{sub 2} nanopowder, Degussa P25, was modified with several rare earth (RE) elements in order to extend its photocatalytic activity into the visible range. The mixtures were prepared via solid-state reaction of the precursor oxides, and thermally treated at high temperature (900 and 1000 °C), with the aim of investigating the photocatalytic activity of the thermally treated samples. This thermal treatment was chosen for a prospective application as a surface layer in materials that need to be processed at high temperatures. The photocatalytic activity (PCA) of the samples was assessed in gas–solid phase – monitoring the degradation of isopropanol (IPA) – under visible-light irradiation. Results showed that the addition of the REs lanthanum, europium and yttrium to TiO{sub 2} greatly improved its photocatalytic activity, despite the thermal treatment, because of the presence of more surface hydroxyl groups attached to the photocatalyst's surface, together with a higher specific surface area (SSA) of the modified and thermally treated samples, with regard to the unmodified and thermally treated Degussa P25. The samples doped with La, Eu and Y all had excellent PCA under visible-light irradiation, even higher than the untreated Degussa P25 reference sample, despite their thermal treatment at 900 °C, with lanthanum producing the best results (i.e. the La-, Eu- and Y-TiO{sub 2} samples, thermally treated at 900 °C, had, respectively, a PCA equal to 26, 27 and 18 ppm h{sup −1} – in terms of acetone formation – versus 15 ppm h

  13. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, G. P. A.; Palumbo, A.; Herman, M.; Brown, D.; Hoblit, S.; Dietrich, F. S.

    2015-02-25

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, we have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. In conclusion, these results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.

  14. Complex rare-earth aluminum hydrides: mechanochemical preparation, crystal structure and potential for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Weidenthaler, Claudia; Pommerin, André; Felderhoff, Michael; Sun, Wenhao; Wolverton, Christopher; Bogdanović, Borislav; Schüth, Ferdi

    2009-11-25

    A novel type of complex rare-earth aluminum hydride was prepared by mechanochemical preparation. The crystal structure of the REAlH(6) (with RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd) compounds was calculated by DFT methods and confirmed by preliminary structure refinements. The trigonal crystal structure consists of isolated [AlH(6)](3-) octahedra bridged via [12] coordinated RE cations. The investigation of the rare-earth aluminum hydrides during thermolysis shows a decrease of thermal stability with increasing atomic number of the RE element. Rare-earth hydrides (REH(x)) are formed as primary dehydrogenation products; the final products are RE-aluminum alloys. The calculated decomposition enthalpies of the rare-earth aluminum hydrides are at the lower end for reversible hydrogenation under moderate conditions. Even though these materials may require somewhat higher pressures and/or lower temperatures for rehydrogenation, they are interesting examples of low-temperature metal hydrides for which reversibility might be reached.

  15. Investigation of supramolecular structure of the rare and rare-earth elements nanoparticles carrier when modified using microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysak, I. A.; Lysak, G. V.; Malinovskaya, T. D.; Skvortsova, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an IR and XRD study of the polypropylene fibrous nanoparticles carrier when its surface modified with rare and rare-earth elements nanoparticles using microwave irradiation, by the example of SnO2/TiO2 hetero-nanoparticles. The paper shows that the smectic mesomorph structure of the non-modified polypropylene fibrous carrier transforms into the monoclinic α-crystalline due to microwave irradiation. At the same time, the carrier material remains stereoregular and keeps its helical structure.

  16. Extraction of rare earth oxides using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with Tri-n-butyl phosphate–nitric acid adducts

    DOE PAGES

    Baek, Donna L.; Fox, Robert V.; Case, Mary E.; ...

    2016-06-14

    A new tri-n-butylphosphate–nitric acid (TBP–HNO3) adduct was prepared by combining TBP and fuming (90%) HNO3. The adduct was characterized, and its phase-equilibrium behavior in supercritical carbon dioxide is reported. Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) was modified with this new adduct [TBP(HNO3)5.2(H2O)1.7], and the extraction efficacies of selected rare earth oxides (Y, Ce, Eu, Tb, and Dy) at 338 K and 34.5 MPa were compared with those obtained using an adduct formed from concentrated (70%) HNO3 and TBP [TBP(HNO3)1.7(H2O)0.6]. All rare earth oxides tested with both adduct species could be extracted with the exception of cerium oxide. Furthermore, the water and acidmore » concentrations in the different adducts were found to play a significant role in rare earth oxide extraction efficiency.« less

  17. Towards an optical potential for rare-earths through coupled channels

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, G. P. A.; Herman, M.; Palumbo, A.; Hoblit, S.; Brown, D.; Dietrich, F. S.

    2014-11-11

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations, defined by nuclear deformations. Proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of reaction experimental data. Previous works have applied different models to specific nuclei with the purpose of determining angular-integrated cross sections. In this work, we present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions in a consistent manner for neutron-induced reactions on nuclei in the rare-earth region. This specific subset of the nuclide chart was chosen precisely because of a clear static deformation pattern. We analyze the convergence of the coupled-channel calculations regarding the number of states being explicitly coupled. Inspired by the work done by Dietrich et al., a model for deforming the spherical Koning-Delaroche optical potential as function of quadrupole and hexadecupole deformations is also proposed. We demonstrate that the obtained results of calculations for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as elastic and inelastic angular distributions correspond to a remarkably good agreement with experimental data for scattering energies above around a few MeV.

  18. Marine phosphorites as potential resources for heavy rare earth elements and yttrium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James; Koschinsky, Andrea; Mikesell, Mariah; Mizell, Kira; Glenn, Craig R.; Wood, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Marine phosphorites are known to concentrate rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) during early diagenetic formation. Much of the REY data available are decades old and incomplete, and there has not been a systematic study of REY distributions in marine phosphorite deposits that formed over a range of oceanic environments. Consequently, we initiated this study to determine if marine phosphorite deposits found in the global ocean host REY concentrations of high enough grade to be of economic interest. This paper addresses continental-margin (CM) and open-ocean seamount phosphorites. All 75 samples analyzed are composed predominantly of carbonate fluorapatite and minor detrital and authigenic minerals. CM phosphorites have low total REY contents (mean 161 ppm) and high heavy REY (HREY) complements (mean 49%), while seamount phosphorites have 4–6 times higher individual REY contents (except for Ce, which is subequal; mean ΣREY 727 ppm), and very high HREY complements (mean 60%). The predominant causes of higher concentrations and larger HREY complements in seamount phosphorites compared to CM phosphorites are age, changes in seawater REY concentrations over time, water depth of formation, changes in pH and complexing ligands, and differences in organic carbon content in the depositional environments. Potential ore deposits with high HREY complements, like the marine phosphorites analyzed here, could help supply the HREY needed for high-tech and green-tech applications without creating an oversupply of the LREY.

  19. Crystal growth and spectroscopy of rare-earth orthophosphates as potential diode-pumped laser sources

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrin, R.; Setzler, S.; Giles, N.C.; Halliburton, L.E.

    1995-12-31

    Two types of solid-state lasers have served as key elements in the development of laser fusion: tunable lasers, such as Ti:sapphire, and lasers with discrete emissions based on neodymium. These lasers have been utilized for research, diagnostics, and as oscillators (i.e., ND:YLF) in the first stage. Crystalline phosphates were studied in depth many years ago for laser applications, but these crystals generally fell into disfavor when they could not be easily commercialized, A class of self activated materials, referred to as stoichiometric phosphates, were particularly interesting, since they could operate efficiently at high active ion concentrations without fluorescence quenching. Neodymium pentaphosphate (NdP{sub 5}O{sub 14}) initiated this interest, but the potential for rare-earth orthophosphate (REOP) crystals was not seriously considered at that time. Extrinsic effects observed during some fundamental studies of REOP crystal properties, such as by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), may heighten the interest in using these latter materials for far-ranging laser applications, including laser fusion.

  20. Planktonic foraminiferal rare earth elements as a potential new aeolian dust proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C.; Liu, Y.; Lo, L.; Wei, K.; Shen, C.

    2012-12-01

    Characteristics of rare earth elements (REEs) have widely been used as important tracers in many fields of earth sciences, including lithosphere research, environmental change, ocean circulation and other natural carbonate materials. Foraminiferal test REE signatures have been suggested to reflect ambient seawater conditions and serve as valuable proxies in the fields of paleoceanography and paleoclimate. Here we present a 60-kyr planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white, 250-300 μm) REE record of a sediment core MD05-2925 (9°20.61'S, 151°27.61'E, water depth 1660 m) from the Solomon Sea. The REE diagram shows two dominant sources of local seawater and nearby terrestrial input. The variability of foraminiferal REE/Ca time series is different from Mg/Ca-inferred sea surface temperature and δ18O records during the past 60-kyr. This inconsistency suggests that planktonic foraminiferal REE content cannot result only from changes in ice volume and temperature. Synchroneity between high planktonic foraminiferal REE content and Antarctic ice core dust amount record implies the same dust sources, probably from Australia or mainland China. Our results suggest that foraminiferal REE can potentially be as a new dust proxy and record dry/humid conditions at the source area.

  1. The rare earth element potential of kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, S.; Frimmel, H. E.; Pašava, J.

    2014-12-01

    Four kaolin deposits in the Bohemian Massif were studied in order to assess the potential for the recovery of rare earth elements (REE) as by-products from the residue after extraction and refining of the raw kaolin. The behaviour of REE + Y during kaolinitization was found to be largely a function of pre-alteration mineralogy. In the examples studied, i.e. granite-derived deposits of Kriechbaum (Austria) and Božičany, and arkose-derived deposits of Kaznějov and Podbořany (all Czech Republic), the REE + Y are predominantly hosted by monazite which has remained unaffected by kaolinitization. The overall REE + Y content of the variably kaolinitized rocks is strongly dependent on their genesis. While ion adsorption plays only a minor role in the concentration of REE + Y in the studied kaolinitized rocks, the processing and refining of the raw kaolin leads to residues that are enriched in REE + Y by a factor of up to 40. The use of a magnetic separator and a hydrocyclone in the processing of the raw material can yield REE + Y contents of as much as 0.77 wt%. Although this value compares well with the REE + Y concentration in some potentially economic REE + Y projects elsewhere, the overall tonnage of the (REE + Y)-enriched residue is by far not sufficient to consider economic extraction of REE + Y as by-product. Our results are most probably applicable also to other kaolin deposits derived from the weathering of Hercynian basement granites elsewhere (e.g. in Saxonia and Bavaria, Germany). Overall, the potential for REE + Y production as by-product from kaolin mining has to be regarded as minimal.

  2. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    DOE PAGES

    Nobre, G. P. A.; Palumbo, A.; Herman, M.; ...

    2015-02-25

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, wemore » have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. In conclusion, these results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.« less

  3. Structure of a piperidine-modified calix[4]arene derivative and spectral resolution of its interaction with rare earth metals with chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wang, Xiaoya; Wang, Yanmei

    2013-03-15

    A piperidine-modified calix[4]arene derivative was synthesized and its structure was confirmed with X-ray diffraction data. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to study its molecular recognition of rare earth ions. The results revealed the calix[4]arene derivative could separate tight metal picrate ion pairs by complexation with the rare earth metal ions in tetrahydrofuran. Resolution of the UV-visible spectra with chemometric methods revealed that the derivative and the rare earth ions Eu(3+), Dy(3+), and Tb(3+) formed ML(2) complexes with stability constants of 10(8.26), 10(8.29), and 10(7.41) respectively.

  4. Radical ions in glassy rare-earth phosphates containing various alkali modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Kornienko, L.S.; Denker, B.I.; Osiko, V.V.; Rybal'tovskii, A.O.; Tikhomirov, V.A.

    1985-07-01

    This report studies the use of ESR to investigate the structural features of glassy phosphates of rare-earth elements which are widely used in quantum electronics as active laser materials. The study used alkali lanthanum phosphate glasses that were irradiated with gamma quanta from a Co/sup 60/ source in doses of 10/sup 6/-10/sup 8/ rad at liquid-nitrogen temperature and at room temperature. Under the action of gamma radiation, broad bands of additional optical absorption (BAA) arise in phosphate glass. These bands cover the UV and visible regions of the spectrum. When phosphate glasses and other inorganic compounds containing PO/sub 4/ tetrahedra are irradiated, PO/sup 2 -//sub 4/ and PO/sup 2 -//sub 3/ radicals of the phosphorus-oxygen complexes arise. The formation of either of these radicals is associated with the existence of particular structural groups in which the relationships between them is determined by the structure of the glass network.

  5. Friction and wear of rare earths modified carbon fibers filled PTFE composite under dry sliding condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian-qian, Shangguan; Xian-hua, Cheng

    2007-09-01

    Carbon fibers (CF) were surface treated with air-oxidation and rare earths (RE), respectively. The friction and wear properties of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composites filled with differently surface treated carbon fibers, sliding against GCr15 steel under dry sliding condition, were investigated on a block-on-ring M-2000 tribometer. Experimental results revealed that RE treatment largely reduced the friction and wear of CF reinforced PTFE (CF/PTFE) composites. The RE treated composite exhibited the lowest friction and wear under dry sliding. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation of worn surfaces and transfer films of CF/PTFE composites showed that RE treated CF/PTFE composites had the smoothest worn surface under given load and sliding speed, and a continuous and uniform transfer film formed on the counterface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of carbon fiber surface showed that the oxygen concentration was obviously increased after RE treatment, and more carboxyl groups were introduced onto CF surfaces after RE treatment. The increase in the amount of oxygen-containing groups increased the interfacial adhesion between CF and PTFE matrix, and accordingly increased the tribological properties of the composite.

  6. Rare earth-modified kaolin/NaY-supported Pd-Pt bimetallic catalyst for the catalytic combustion of benzene.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shufeng; Sun, Xuejie; Lv, Ningning; Qi, Chenze

    2014-08-13

    A new type of porous kaolin/NaY composite (KL-NY) with a large specific surface area and large pore sizes was synthesized through a one-step crystallization process, and rare earth-modified KL-NY-supported Pd-Pt catalysts were studied for benzene combustion. The results indicated that the pore volume and specific surface area of KL-NY after calcination and crystallization were 0.298 cm(3)/g and 365 m(2)/g, respectively, exhibiting appropriate pore structure and good thermal stability. Catalysts with rare earth metals greatly enhanced the activity of Pd/KL-NY, and the addition of Pt and Ce into the Pd catalyst improved the catalytic activity as well as the stability. The catalyst with an optimal Ce content and Pt/Pd molar ratio (0.2%Pd-Pt (6:1)/6%Ce/KL-NY) demonstrated the best activity for the complete oxidation of benzene at 230 °C, and the catalyst above maintained the 100% benzene conversion for 960 h.

  7. Microstructure and Properties of HVOF-Sprayed NiCrAlY Coatings Modified by Rare Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. F.; Liu, S. Y.; Wang, Y.; Sun, X. G.; Zou, Z. W.; Li, X. W.; Wang, C. H.

    2014-06-01

    Rare earth (RE)-modified NiCrAlY powders were prepared by ultrasonic gas atomization and deposited on stainless steel substrate by high-velocity oxygen fuel spraying. The effects of the RE on the microstructure, properties, and thermal shock resistance of the NiCrAlY coatings were investigated. The results showed that the NiCrAlY powders were refined and distributed uniformly after adding RE, while the number of unmelted particles in the coatings was reduced. Moreover, the RE-modified coatings showed improved microhardness and distribution uniformity. The microhardness of the coating reached a maximum after adding 0.9 wt.% RE, being 34.4 % higher than that of coatings without RE. The adhesive strength increased and reached a maximum after adding 0.6 wt.% RE, being 18.8 % higher than that of coatings without RE. Excessive RE decreased the adhesive strength. The thermal cycle life of NiCrAlY coatings increased drastically with RE addition. The coating with 0.9 wt.% RE showed optimum thermal shock resistance, being 21.2 % higher than that of coatings without RE.

  8. Neutron scattering characterization of pure and rare-earth modified zirconia catalysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Loong, C.-K.; Ozawa, M.; Richardson, J. W., Jr.; Suzuki, S.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1997-11-18

    The combined application of neutron powder diffraction, small angle neutron scattering and neutron inelastic scattering has led to improved understanding of the crystal phases, defect structure, microstructure and hydroxyl/water dynamics in pure and lanthanide-modified zirconia catalysts. Powder diffraction experiments quantified the degree of stabilization and provided evidence for static, oxygen vacancy-induced atomic displacements in stabilized zirconia. Quantitative assessment of Bragg peak breadths led to measurements of ''grain size'', representing coherency length of long-range ordered atomic arrangements (crystals). Small angle neutron scattering provided a separate measurement of ''grain size'', representing the average size of the primary particles in the aggregates, and the evolution of porosity (micro- versus meso-) and surface roughness caused by RE modification and heat treatment. Finally, the dynamics of hydrogen atoms associated with surface hydroxyls and adsorbed water was investigated by neutron-inelastic scattering, revealing changes in frequency and band breadth of O-H stretch, H-O-H bend, and librational motion of water molecules.

  9. Infrared and Raman investigation of rare-earth phosphate glasses for potential use as radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, S.

    1986-11-10

    This project was designed to investigate the properties of the rare-earth phosphate glasses CeO{sub 2}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} for potential use as radioactive waste glasses. The research involved determination of the glass-forming region, loading capacity, and optimum processing parameters of the glasses. Structural studies of the unloaded host glasses and glasses loaded with simulated waste elements were to be done using Raman, infrared and infrared reflection spectroscopy. Leach testing and spectroscopic studies of the corroded surfaces were also to be performed.

  10. Rare earth elements and critical metal content of extracted landfilled material and potential recovery opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Silvia C.; Coulon, Frédéric; Jiang, Ying; Wagland, Stuart

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Samples from multiple core drills were obtained from 4× landfill sites in the UK. • Each sample analysed for rare earth elements, critical metals and valuable metals. • Two stage microwave digestion method ensuring high yield. • High quantities of copper and aluminium were observed in the soil layers of landfill. • Across 4× landfills aluminium and copper present has a value of around $400 million. - Abstract: Rare earth elements (REEs), Platinum group metals (PGMs) and other critical metals currently attract significant interest due to the high risks of supply shortage and substantial impact on the economy. Their uses in many applications have made them present in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in commercial and industrial waste (C&I), since several industrial processes produce by-products with high content of these metals. With over 4000 landfills in the UK alone, the aim of this study was to assess the existence of these critical metals within landfills. Samples collected from four closed landfills in UK were subjected to a two-step acid digestion to extract 27 metals of interest. Concentrations across the four landfill sites were 58 ± 6 mg kg{sup −1} for REEs comprising 44 ± 8 mg kg{sup −1} for light REEs, 11 ± 2 mg kg{sup −1} for heavy REEs and 3 ± 1 mg kg{sup −1} for Scandium (Sc) and 3 ± 1.0 mg kg{sup −1} of PGMs. Compared to the typical concentration in ores, these concentrations are too low to achieve a commercially viable extraction. However, content of other highly valuable metals (Al and Cu) was found in concentrations equating to a combined value across the four landfills of around $400 million, which increases the economic viability of landfill mining. Presence of critical metals will mainly depend on the type of waste that was buried but the recovery of these metals through landfill mining is possible and is economically feasible only if additional materials (plastics, paper, metallic items and other) are

  11. Rare earth elements and critical metal content of extracted landfilled material and potential recovery opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Silvia C; Coulon, Frédéric; Jiang, Ying; Wagland, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs), Platinum group metals (PGMs) and other critical metals currently attract significant interest due to the high risks of supply shortage and substantial impact on the economy. Their uses in many applications have made them present in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in commercial and industrial waste (C&I), since several industrial processes produce by-products with high content of these metals. With over 4000 landfills in the UK alone, the aim of this study was to assess the existence of these critical metals within landfills. Samples collected from four closed landfills in UK were subjected to a two-step acid digestion to extract 27 metals of interest. Concentrations across the four landfill sites were 58±6mgkg(-1) for REEs comprising 44±8mgkg(-1) for light REEs, 11±2mgkg(-1) for heavy REEs and 3±1mgkg(-1) for Scandium (Sc) and 3±1.0mgkg(-1) of PGMs. Compared to the typical concentration in ores, these concentrations are too low to achieve a commercially viable extraction. However, content of other highly valuable metals (Al and Cu) was found in concentrations equating to a combined value across the four landfills of around $400 million, which increases the economic viability of landfill mining. Presence of critical metals will mainly depend on the type of waste that was buried but the recovery of these metals through landfill mining is possible and is economically feasible only if additional materials (plastics, paper, metallic items and other) are also recovered for reprocessing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The potential of sedimentary foraminiferal rare earth element patterns to trace water masses in the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Anne H.; Hathorne, Ed C.; Schijf, Johan; Plancherel, Yves; Böning, Philipp; Frank, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Dissolved rare earth element (REE) concentration data from intermediate and deep seawater form an array characterized by higher middle-REE enrichments (MREE/MREE*) in the North Atlantic and a progressive increase in heavy-to-light REE ratios (HREE/LREE) as water masses age. The REEs in foraminifera are fractionated toward higher MREE/MREE* and lower HREE/LREE relative to seawater. Calculations based on a scavenging model show that the REE patterns in uncleaned core-top foraminifera resemble those adsorbed onto calcite, particulate organic material, and hydrous ferric oxides but the full extent of the REE fractionation measured in foraminifera was not reproduced by the model. However, differences in the HREE/LREE and MREE/MREE* ratios and the cerium anomaly between ocean basins are preserved and are in agreement with the seawater REE distribution. Under oxic conditions, the HREE/LREE and MREE/MREE* compositions of uncleaned foraminifera at the sediment/seawater boundary are preserved during burial but the cerium anomaly is sensitive to burial depth. In suboxic sedimentary environments, all uncleaned foraminiferal REE concentrations are elevated relative to core-top values indicating addition of REEs from pore waters. The HREE/LREE ratio is highest when sedimentation rates were greatest and when high Fe/Ca ratios in the uncleaned foraminifera indicate that Fe was mobile. In sediments that have not experienced suboxic conditions during burial, uncleaned foraminifera preserve the seawater signal taken up at the sediment/seawater interface and are therefore suggested to be a suitable archive of changes in the REE signal of past bottom waters.

  13. Structural properties of rare earth chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, Ramakant; Bhardwaj, Purvee Singh, Sadhna

    2016-05-06

    The pressure induced NaCl (B1) to CsCl (B2) structural phase transition of rare earth mono-chalcogenide (PuTe) has been investigated in this paper. A modified interaction potential model (MIPM) (including the covalency effect) has been developed. Phase transition pressures are associated with a sudden collapse in volume. The phase transition pressures and associated volume collapses obtained from present potential model show a generally good agreement with available experimental data than others.

  14. Rare Earth Polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Boskovic, Colette

    2017-09-05

    variable-temperature studies have revealed the temperature dependence of the POM-based sensitization, which is relevant for potential applications in phosphor thermometry. Novel RE-POM coordination polymers demonstrate the promise of higher-dimensional materials for catalytic and sensing applications that can make use of either or both rare earth and polyoxometalate capabilities. Finally, structural, electrochemical, and density functional theory studies on a family of modular RE-POMs that incorporate molybdotungstates with amino acid coligands have revealed how closed Mo-oxo loops that are reduced preferentially can act as electron reservoirs in mixed-metal molybdotungstates. This has important implications for mixed-metal polyoxometalates in redox and photoredox catalysis. Notably, these hybrid RE-POMs are stable in solution and maintain the chirality induced by amino acid ligands. The RE-POMs surveyed in this Account provide a glimpse of possible structural features that are accessible with this family of compounds. The studies of the ensuing chemical and physical properties reveal the promise of RE-POMs for diverse and varied applications and lay an excellent foundation for the future development of this new class of functional materials.

  15. Assessing anthropogenic levels, speciation, and potential mobility of rare earth elements (REEs) in ex-tin mining area.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aysha Masood; Yusoff, Ismail; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Bakar, Ahmad Farid Abu; Alias, Yatimah

    2016-12-01

    A study was carried out to determine the level of rare earth elements (REEs) in water and sediment samples from ex-mining lakes and River in Kinta Valley, Perak, Malaysia. Surface water and sediments from an ex-mining lake and Kinta River water samples were analyzed for REEs by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The total concentration of REEs in the ex-mining lake water samples and sediments were found to be 3685 mg/l and 14159 mg/kg, respectively, while the total concentration of REEs in Kinta River water sample was found to be 1224 mg/l. REEs in mining lake water were found to be within 2.42 mg/l (Tb) to 46.50 mg/l (Ce), while for the Kinta River, it was 1.33 mg/l (Ho) to 29.95 mg/l (Ce). Sediment samples were also found with REEs from 9.81 mg/kg (Ho) to 765.84 mg/kg (Ce). Ce showed the highest average concentrations for mining lake (3.88 to 49.08 mg/l) and Kinta River (4.44 to 33.15 mg/l) water samples, while the concentration of La was the highest (11.59 to 771.61 mg/kg) in the mining lake sediment. Lu was shown to have the highest enrichment of REEs in ex-mining lake sediments (107.3). Multivariate statistical analyses such as factor analysis and principal component analysis indicated that REEs were associated and controlled by mixed origin, with similar contributions from anthropogenic and geogenic sources. The speciation study of REEs in ex-tin mining sediments using a modified five-stage sequential extraction procedure indicated that yttrium (Y), gadolinium (Gd), and lanthanum (La) were obtained at higher percentages from the adsorbed/exchanged/carbonate fraction. The average potential mobility of the REEs was arranged in a descending order: Yb > Gd > Y = Dy > Pr > Er > Tm > Eu > Nd > Tb > Sc > Lu > Ce > La, implying that under favorable conditions, these REEs could be released and subsequently pollute the environment.

  16. Rare earth lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    In this brief survey, some of the key spectroscopic properties of rare earths are reviewed that account for their versatility, examine recent research trends and developments, and comment upon future projects for rare earth lasers. For gaseous and liquid lasers, other elements and molecules have thus far demonstrated lasing properties more attractive than those available using rare earths. Therefore, remarks shall be limited to solid state lasers.

  17. Full-potential linear-muffin-tin-orbital calculations of the magnetic properties of rare-earth-transition-metal intermetallics. I. Description of the formalism and application to the series RCo5 (R=rare-earth atom)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummler, K.; Fähnle, M.

    1996-02-01

    For the series RCo5 (R=rare-earth atom) various parameters occurring in the two-sublattice model of rare-earth-transition-metal intermetallics (local magnetic moments, intersublattice exchange fields, crystal field parameters, as well as magnetic hyperfine fields and electric field gradients) are calculated within the framework of the local-spin-density approximation (LSDA) and the full-potential linear-muffin-tin-orbital theory. Special emphasis is given to a determination of the crystal field parameter A02. It is shown that it is absolutely indispensable to include the 5p states at the R site into the valence band and to avoid any spherical approximation for the effective potential. The quantity A02 depends on the orientation of the aspherical 4f charge density, in contrast to a basic assumption of the two-sublattice model. As a result, the experiments in general yield some kind of average effective values which are different for different experiments. Application of the LSDA introduces rather large uncertainties for A02 which cannot be totally removed but at least drastically reduced by physically motivated measures.

  18. Electric field-induced giant strain and photoluminescence-enhancement effect in rare-earth modified lead-free piezoelectric ceramics.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qirong; Wang, Feifei; Xu, Feng; Leung, Chung Ming; Wang, Tao; Tang, Yanxue; Ye, Xiang; Xie, Yiqun; Sun, Dazhi; Shi, Wangzhou

    2015-03-11

    In this work, an electric field-induced giant strain response and excellent photoluminescence-enhancement effect was obtained in a rare-earth ion modified lead-free piezoelectric system. Pr(3+)-modified 0.93(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 ceramics were designed and fabricated by a conventional fabrication process. The ferroelectric, dielectric, piezoelectric, and photoluminescence performances were systematically studied, and a schematic phase diagram was constructed. It was found the Pr(3+) substitution induced a transition from ferroelectric a long-range order structure to a relaxor pseudocubic phase with short-range coherence structure. Around a critical composition of 0.8 mol % Pr(3+), a giant reversible strain of ∼0.43% with a normalized strain Smax/Emax of up to 770 pm/V was obtained at ∼5 kV/mm. Furthermore, the in situ electric field enhanced the photoluminescence intensity by ∼40% in the proposed system. These findings have great potential for actuator and multifunctional device applications, which may also open up a range of new applications.

  19. Photoluminescent properties of novel rare earth organic-inorganic nanocomposite with TiO2 modified silica via double crosslinking units.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Yan, Bing

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel organic/inorganic rare earth (europium, terbium) hybrid materials through the coordination bond and covalent bond are synthesized and form an inorganic Si-O-Si by the sol-gel process. Mercapto-functionalized 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA-Si) is obtained by using MBA and 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TESPIC) as an organic bridge molecule, and then the carboxyl group of the precursor MBA-Si is used to modify the titanium dioxide, so as to sensitize the luminescence of rare earth ions. CdS-TiO(2) is added to observe the influence of photoluminescence. 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) is also used to modify the CdS quantum dot and obtain MPS functionalized MPS-CdS nanocomposite. These multicomponent hybrids with double cross-linking siloxane (MBA-Si) covalently bonding MPS-CdS are characterized. Subsequently, 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) and 2,2,-bipyridyl (Bipy) as the assistant ligands together with water molecules are introduced into the rare earth hybrid system. The FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis, thermogravimetry and especially the photoluminescence properties of them are studied in detail. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  20. Dimeric rare-earth BINOLate complexes: activation of 1,4-benzoquinone through Lewis acid promoted potential shifts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jerome R; Booth, Corwin H; Carroll, Patrick J; Walsh, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J

    2013-05-03

    Reaction of p-benzoquinone (BQ) with a series of rare-earth metal/alkali metal/1,1'-BINOLate (REMB) complexes (RE: La, Ce, Pr, Nd; M: Li) results in the largest recorded shift in reduction potential observed for BQ upon complexation. In the case of cerium, the formation of a 2:1 Ce/BQ complex shifts the two-electron reduction of BQ by greater than or equal to 1.6 V to a more favorable potential. Reactivity investigations were extended to other RE(III) (RE = La, Pr, Nd) complexes where the resulting highly electron-deficient quinone ligands afforded isolation of the first lanthanide quinhydrone-type charge-transfer complexes. The large reduction-potential shift associated with the formation of 2:1 Ce/BQ complexes illustrate the potential of Ce complexes to function both as a Lewis acid and an electron source in redox chemistry and organic-substrate activation.

  1. Rare earth gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-10-31

    A high energy gas laser with light output in the infrared or visible region of the spectrum is described. Laser action is obtained by generating vapors of rare earth halides, particularly neodymium iodide or, to a lesser extent, neodymium bromide, and disposing the rare earth vapor medium in a resonant cavity at elevated temperatures; e.g., approximately 1200/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/K. A particularly preferred gaseous medium is one involving a complex of aluminum chloride and neodymium chloride, which exhibits tremendously enhanced vapor pressure compared to the rare earth halides per se, and provides comparable increases in stored energy densities.

  2. Extraction of rare earth oxides using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with Tri-n-butyl phosphate–nitric acid adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Donna L.; Fox, Robert V.; Case, Mary E.; Sinclair, Laura K.; Schmidt, Alex B.; McIlwain, Patrick R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; Wai, Chien M.

    2016-06-14

    A new tri-n-butylphosphate–nitric acid (TBP–HNO3) adduct was prepared by combining TBP and fuming (90%) HNO3. The adduct was characterized, and its phase-equilibrium behavior in supercritical carbon dioxide is reported. Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) was modified with this new adduct [TBP(HNO3)5.2(H2O)1.7], and the extraction efficacies of selected rare earth oxides (Y, Ce, Eu, Tb, and Dy) at 338 K and 34.5 MPa were compared with those obtained using an adduct formed from concentrated (70%) HNO3 and TBP [TBP(HNO3)1.7(H2O)0.6]. All rare earth oxides tested with both adduct species could be extracted with the exception of cerium oxide. Furthermore, the water and acid concentrations in the different adducts were found to play a significant role in rare earth oxide extraction efficiency.

  3. Application of rare earth modified Zr-based ceria-zirconia solid solution in three-way catalyst for automotive emission control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuyan; Zhao, Bo; Li, Guangfeng; Zhou, Renxian

    2010-05-15

    Automotive exhaust emission is a major cause of air pollution. Three-way catalyst (TWC) which can eliminate CO, HC (hydrocarbons), and NO(x) simultaneously has been used to control exhaust emissions. Ceria-zirconia is a key component in TWC and most researchers pay attention to Ceria-Zirconia (Ce-rich) solid solution. The research presented in this paper is focused on the intrinsic structure of Ceria-Zirconia (Zr-based) solid solution and its application in TWC. A series of Ce(0.2)Zr(0.8)O(2) modified with rare earths (La, Nd, Pr, Sm, and Y) have been prepared by coprecipitation method combined with supercritical drying technique. All samples showed single tetragonal solid solution, indicating that the rare earth ion inserted into the lattice structure completely, and an approximately linearly relationship between lattice parameter a and the ionic radius of doped rare earth was observed. The catalytic performances of corresponding Pd-only catalysts were investigated in simulated exhaust gas. The presence of La, Nd, and Pr was favorable to the catalytic activity and wide air/fuel operation window. The relationship between the intrinsic structure of the Zr-based ceria-zirconia solid solution and catalytic activity was discussed in detail, which has some reference value for catalyst design and application.

  4. Extraction of rare earth oxides using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with Tri-n-butyl phosphate–nitric acid adducts

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Donna L.; Fox, Robert V.; Case, Mary E.; Sinclair, Laura K.; Schmidt, Alex B.; McIlwain, Patrick R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; Wai, Chien M.

    2016-06-14

    A new tri-n-butylphosphate–nitric acid (TBP–HNO3) adduct was prepared by combining TBP and fuming (90%) HNO3. The adduct was characterized, and its phase-equilibrium behavior in supercritical carbon dioxide is reported. Supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) was modified with this new adduct [TBP(HNO3)5.2(H2O)1.7], and the extraction efficacies of selected rare earth oxides (Y, Ce, Eu, Tb, and Dy) at 338 K and 34.5 MPa were compared with those obtained using an adduct formed from concentrated (70%) HNO3 and TBP [TBP(HNO3)1.7(H2O)0.6]. All rare earth oxides tested with both adduct species could be extracted with the exception of cerium oxide. Furthermore, the water and acid concentrations in the different adducts were found to play a significant role in rare earth oxide extraction efficiency.

  5. Soft X-ray appearance potential study of rare earth-manganese compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Chourasia, A. R.; Deshpande, S. D.

    1999-06-10

    Soft X-ray appearance potential spectroscopy (SXAPS) has been employed to study the changes in the electronic structure of RMn{sub 2} compounds (where R=Pr, Sm, Gd and Dy). In this technique the total x-ray emission associated with the thresholds for the excitation of core levels of the atoms in the surface region of the materials is measured. The SXAPS spectra of the Mn L{sub 2,3} levels in these intermetallics are compared with the corresponding elemental manganese spectrum. The normalized spectra exhibit an increasing trend in the unoccupied density of states at the Fermi level as the atomic number of R increases. This has been interpreted as increasing hybridization between the R 5d and Mn 3d bands. The hybridization is found to influence the magnetic properties of these intermetallics. The core levels are also found to display crystal field splitting that seems to disappear for DyMn{sub 2}. This correlates very well with the disappearance of the Mn magnetic moment at Dy in these intermetallics.

  6. Rare-earth metal oxide doped transparent mesoporous silica plates under non-aqueous condition as a potential UV sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Joon; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Sang Hyun; Hong, Sang-Hyun; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2013-11-01

    Transparent mesoporous silica plates doped with rare-earth metal oxide were prepared using solvent-evaporation method based on the self-organization between structure-directing agent and silicate in a non-aqueous solvent. A triblock copolymer, Pluronic (F127 or P123), was used as the structure-directing agent, while tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as a silica source. The pore diameter and the surface area of the mesoporous silica plate prepared with the optimized conditions were ca 40 A and 600 m2 g(-1), respectively, for both structure-directing agent. Rare-earth metal oxides (Eu, Tb, Tm oxide) in mesochannel were formed via one-step synthetic route based on the preparation method of a silica plate. Optical properties of rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates were investigated by UV irradiation and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Under the exitation wavelength of 254 nm, the doped mesoporous silica plates emitted red, green and blue for Eu, Tb and Tm oxides, respectively. Rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates showed enhanced PL intensity compared to that of the bulk rare-earth metal oxide.

  7. Deep-sea mud in the Pacific Ocean as a potential resource for rare-earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yasuhiro; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Nakamura, Kentaro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kitamura, Kenichi; Ohta, Junichiro; Toda, Ryuichi; Nakashima, Takuya; Iwamori, Hikaru

    2011-08-01

    World demand for rare-earth elements and the metal yttrium--which are crucial for novel electronic equipment and green-energy technologies--is increasing rapidly. Several types of seafloor sediment harbour high concentrations of these elements. However, seafloor sediments have not been regarded as a rare-earth element and yttrium resource, because data on the spatial distribution of these deposits are insufficient. Here, we report measurements of the elemental composition of over 2,000 seafloor sediments, sampled at depth intervals of around one metre, at 78 sites that cover a large part of the Pacific Ocean. We show that deep-sea mud contains high concentrations of rare-earth elements and yttrium at numerous sites throughout the eastern South and central North Pacific. We estimate that an area of just one square kilometre, surrounding one of the sampling sites, could provide one-fifth of the current annual world consumption of these elements. Uptake of rare-earth elements and yttrium by mineral phases such as hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxides and phillipsite seems to be responsible for their high concentration. We show that rare-earth elements and yttrium are readily recovered from the mud by simple acid leaching, and suggest that deep-sea mud constitutes a highly promising huge resource for these elements.

  8. Improved separation of the curcuminoids, syntheses of their rare earth complexes, and studies of potential antiosteoporotic activity.

    PubMed

    Mawani, Yasmin; Orvig, Chris

    2014-03-01

    The first reported homogenous rare earth curcumin (HCurc; ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione)) complexes with the formula ML3, where M(3+) is Eu(III), Gd(III) or Lu(III), were synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy and, in the case of the lutetium complex, (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Most importantly an improved separation of the three curcuminoids, HCurc, HDMC ((1E,6E)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione) and HBDMC ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)hepta-1,6-diene-3,5-dione) was realized using a combination of normal-phase column and phosphate-impregnated preparative-thin layer chromatographies. The toxicities of the metal curcumin complexes and ligands were investigated in MG-63 cells, an osteoblast-like cell line, for potential activity as antiosteoporotic agents.

  9. Rare earth thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G.D.

    1997-09-01

    The author reviews the thermoelectric properties of metallic compounds which contain rare-earth atoms. They are the group of metals with the largest value ever reported of the Seebeck coefficient. An increase by 50% of the Seebeck would make these compounds useful for thermoelectric devices. The largest Seebeck coefficient is found for compounds of cerium (e.g., CePd{sub 3}) and ytterbium (e.g., YbAl{sub 3}). Theoretical predictions are in agreement with the maximum observed Seebeck. The author discusses the theoretical model which has been used to calculate the Seebeck coefficient. He is solving this model for other configurations (4f){sup n} of rare-earth ground states.

  10. Ames Lab 101: Rare Earths

    ScienceCinema

    Gschneidner, Karl

    2016-07-12

    "Mr. Rare Earth," Ames Laboratory scientist Karl Gschneidner Jr., explains the importance of rare-earth materials in many of the technologies we use today -- ranging from computers to hybrid cars to wind turbines. Gschneidner is a world renowned rare-earths expert at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory.

  11. Ames Lab 101: Rare Earths

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Karl

    2010-01-01

    "Mr. Rare Earth," Ames Laboratory scientist Karl Gschneidner Jr., explains the importance of rare-earth materials in many of the technologies we use today -- ranging from computers to hybrid cars to wind turbines. Gschneidner is a world renowned rare-earths expert at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory.

  12. A modified parametrization scheme for the complete neglect of differential overlap method with relativistic correction of orbital exponents and energy levels with particular applications to rare earth compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.S.; Ma, H.; Lin, S.H. )

    1992-03-15

    A new unified parametrization scheme for the complete neglect of differential overlap method, applicable to heavy atom systems is formulated. The exponents {zeta}{sub {mu}} and electronegativities {ital X}({mu}) of atomic orbitals are corrected by the relativistic Dirac--Fock expectation values of atomic orbital radii and energy levels. This leads to the possibility of calibrating the {beta}{sup 0} parameters directly by the equilibrium geometric configuration of molecules. The parametrization for hydrogen, halides, and rare earth series, as well as some test calculations for compounds of these elements, have been carried out to show the utility of the scheme. The results demonstrate that the present scheme can give satisfactory MO levels and ionization potentials as well as correct molecular geometry.

  13. Optimization of the heat treatment of ingots of high-strength vessel steel modified by rare-earth metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milyuts, V. G.; Tsukanov, V. V.; Efimov, S. V.; Pavlova, A. G.; Golubtsov, V. A.; Levagin, E. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    A process is developed for the production of high-strength vessel steel. It includes the application of a microcrystalline REM-containing modifier and an improved regime of preliminary heat treatment of ingots. This process ensures high hot deformability of ingots and a substantial decrease in the time of production of high-strength vessel steel. The quality of the produced steel meets the requirements of the existing technical forms and records.

  14. China's rare-earth industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tse, Pui-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction China's dominant position as the producer of over 95 percent of the world output of rare-earth minerals and rapid increases in the consumption of rare earths owing to the emergence of new clean-energy and defense-related technologies, combined with China's decisions to restrict exports of rare earths, have resulted in heightened concerns about the future availability of rare earths. As a result, industrial countries such as Japan, the United States, and countries of the European Union face tighter supplies and higher prices for rare earths. This paper briefly reviews China's rare-earth production, consumption, and reserves and the important policies and regulations regarding the production and trade of rare earths, including recently announced export quotas. The 15 lanthanide elements-lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium (atomic numbers 57-71)-were originally known as the rare earths from their occurrence in oxides mixtures. Recently, some researchers have included two other elements-scandium and yttrium-in their discussion of rare earths. Yttrium (atomic number 39), which lies above lanthanum in transition group III of the periodic table and has a similar 3+ ion with a noble gas core, has both atomic and ionic radii similar in size to those of terbium and dysprosium and is generally found in nature with lanthanides. Scandium (atomic number 21) has a smaller ionic radius than yttrium and the lanthanides, and its chemical behavior is intermediate between that of aluminum and the lanthanides. It is found in nature with the lanthanides and yttrium. Rare earths are used widely in high-technology and clean-energy products because they impart special properties of magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are also used in weapon systems to obtain the same properties.

  15. Rare earth mineral potential in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain from integrated geophysical, geochemical, and geological approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Anjana K.; Bern, Carleton; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Daniels, David L.; Benzel, William M.; Budahn, James R.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Karst, Adam; Davis, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We combined geophysical, geochemical, mineralogical, and geological data to evaluate the regional presence of rare earth element (REE)−bearing minerals in heavy mineral sand deposits of the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain. We also analyzed regional differences in these data to determine probable sedimentary provenance. Analyses of heavy mineral separates covering the region show strong correlations between thorium, monazite, and xenotime, suggesting that radiometric equivalent thorium (eTh) can be used as a geophysical proxy for those REE-bearing minerals. Airborne radiometric data collected during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program cover the southeastern United States with line spacing varying from ∼2 to 10 km. These data show eTh highs over Cretaceous and Tertiary Coastal Plain sediments from the Cape Fear arch in North Carolina to eastern Alabama; these highs decrease with distance from the Piedmont. Quaternary sediments along the modern coasts show weaker eTh anomalies, except near coast-parallel ridges from South Carolina to northern Florida. Prominent eTh anomalies are also observed over large riverbeds and their floodplains, even north of the Cape Fear arch where surrounding areas are relatively low. These variations were verified using ground geophysical measurements and sample analyses, indicating that radiometric methods are a useful exploration tool at varying scales. Further analyses of heavy mineral separates showed regional differences, not only in concentrations of monazite, but also of rutile and staurolite, and in magnetic susceptibility. The combined properties suggest the presence of subregions where heavy mineral sediments are primarily sourced from high-grade metamorphic, low-grade metamorphic, or igneous terrains, or where they represent a mixing of these sources. Comparisons between interpreted sources of heavy mineral sands near the Fall Line and igneous and metamorphic Piedmont and Blue Ridge units showed a strong

  16. Phase stable rare earth garnets

    DOEpatents

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2013-06-11

    A transparent ceramic according to one embodiment includes a rare earth garnet comprising A.sub.hB.sub.iC.sub.jO.sub.12, where h is 3.+-.10%, i is 2.+-.10%, and j is 3.+-.10%. A includes a rare earth element or a mixture of rare earth elements, B includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, and C includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, where A is at a dodecahedral site of the garnet, B is at an octahedral site of the garnet, and C is at a tetrahedral site of the garnet. In one embodiment, the rare earth garment has scintillation properties. A radiation detector in one embodiment includes a transparent ceramic as described above and a photo detector optically coupled to the rare earth garnet.

  17. Rare earth elements and permanent magnets (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, Peter C.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth (RE) magnets have become virtually indispensible in a wide variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, medical, and military. RE elements are essential ingredients in these high performance magnets based on intermetallic compounds RECo5, RE2TM17 (TM: transition metal), and RE2TM14B. Rare earth magnets are known for their superior magnetic properties—high induction, and coercive force. These properties arise due to the extremely high magnetocrystalline anisotropy made possible by unique 3d-4f interactions between transition metals and rare earths. For more than 40 years, these magnets remain the number one choice in applications that require high magnetic fields in extreme operating conditions—high demagnetization forces and high temperature. EEC produces and specializes in RECo5 and RE2TM17 type sintered magnets. Samarium and gadolinium are key RE ingredients in the powder metallurgical magnet production processes which include melting, crushing, jet milling, pressing, sintering, and heat treating. The magnetic properties and applications of these magnets will be discussed. We will also briefly discuss the past, current, and future of the permanent magnet business. Currently, over 95% of all pure rare earth oxides are sourced from China, which currently controls the market. We will provide insights regarding current and potential new magnet technologies and designer choices, which may mitigate rare earth supply chain issues now and into the future.

  18. Rare earth speciality inorganic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review of the rare earth elements which include the Group IIIA elements Sc, Y and the lanthanide elements La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu. It covers their abundances, electronic structure, ionic radii, energy levels, thermodynamic properties, optical applications, separation chemistry, markets and statistics, electronic and magnetic applications, as well as mineral ores that contain rare earths, mixed rare earth chemical, and special uses of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/. 30 references.

  19. Chemically immobilized and physically adsorbed PAN/acetylacetone modified mesoporous silica for the recovery of rare earth elements from the waste water-comparative and optimization study.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Deepika Lakshmi; Repo, Eveliina; Srivastava, Varsha; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-05-01

    This study was aimed at the investigation of Rare Earth Element (REE) recovery from aqueous solution by silica gels with 1-(2-Pyridylazo) 2-naphthol (PAN) and acetyl acetone (Acac) modifications. The two different methods of silica gel chelation, such as chemical immobilization with the help of silane coupling agents (3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) in this study) and direct physical adsorption onto the silica surface, is compared in terms of their REE removal efficiency. A comparative analysis between adsorption of different REEs for different silica gels is performed and the influence of parameters such as pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentration has been reported. The effect of calcined adsorbents on the adsorption process is also investigated. Characterization studies on silica gels by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and zeta potential analysis are performed to better understand the relation between physical/chemical attributes of the adsorbents and their impact on the adsorption process. The experimental results are evaluated and optimal conditions for REE adsorption are identified. Chemically immobilized gels demonstrated immense potential for all the REE under study except Sc, for which, physically loaded gels seemed to be more efficient. The removal of REEs could be achieved at lower pHs by chemically immobilized PAN/Acac gels, making it suitable for many practical applications. The amine functionalized gels before chemical immobilization step were compared with PAN/Acac chemically immobilized gels in single as well as multi element system and the significance of chemical immobilization after amine functionalization is also stated.

  20. The Not-So-Rare Earths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muecke, Gunter K.; Moller, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of rare earth elements. Details the physical chemistry of rare earths. Reviews the history of rare earth chemistry and mineralogy. Discusses the mineralogy and crystallography of the formation of rare earth laden minerals found in the earth's crust. Characterizes the geologic history of rare earth elements. (CW)

  1. The Not-So-Rare Earths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muecke, Gunter K.; Moller, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of rare earth elements. Details the physical chemistry of rare earths. Reviews the history of rare earth chemistry and mineralogy. Discusses the mineralogy and crystallography of the formation of rare earth laden minerals found in the earth's crust. Characterizes the geologic history of rare earth elements. (CW)

  2. Rare-earth oxide nanostructures: rules of rare-earth nitrate thermolysis in octadecylamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingsheng; Wang, Zhongying; Zhao, Peng; Zheng, Wen; Peng, Qing; Liu, Liqin; Chen, Xueyuan; Li, Yadong

    2010-04-01

    The decomposed regularity of rare-earth nitrates in octadecylamine (ODA) is discussed. The experimental results show that these nitrates can be divided into four types. For rare-earth nitrates with larger RE(3+) ions (RE=rare earth, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd), the decomposed products exhibited platelike nanostructures. For those with smaller RE(3+) ions (RE=Y, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb), the decomposed products exhibited beltlike nanostructures. For terbium nitrate with a middle RE(3+) ion, the decomposed product exhibited a rodlike nanostructure. The corresponding rare-earth oxides, with the same morphologies as their precursors, could be obtained when these decomposed products were calcined. For cerium nitrate, which showed the greatest differences, flowerlike cerium oxide could be obtained directly from decomposition of the nitrate without further calcination. This regularity is explained on the basis of the lanthanide contraction. Owing to their differences in electron configuration, ionic radius, and crystal structure, such a nitrate family therefore shows different thermolysis properties. In addition, the potential application of these as-obtained rare-earth oxides as catalysts and luminescent materials was investigated. The advantages of this method for rare-earth oxides includes simplicity, high yield, low cost, and ease of scale-up, which are of great importance for their industrial applications.

  3. Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A rare earth optical temperature sensor is disclosed for measuring high temperatures. Optical temperature sensors exist that channel emissions from a sensor to a detector using a light pipe. The invention uses a rare earth emitter to transform the sensed thermal energy into a narrow band width optical signal that travels to a detector using a light pipe. An optical bandpass filter at the detector removes any noise signal outside of the band width of the signal from the emitter.

  4. Recycling as a strategy against rare earth element criticality: a systemic evaluation of the potential yield of NdFeB magnet recycling.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Jelle H; Kleijn, René; Yang, Yongxiang

    2013-09-17

    End-of-life recycling is promoted by OECD countries as a promising strategy in the current global supply crisis surrounding rare earth elements (REEs) so that dependence on China, the dominant supplier, can be decreased. So far the feasibility and potential yield of REE recycling has not been systematically evaluated. This paper estimates the annual waste flows of neodymium and dysprosium from permanent magnets, the main deployment of these critical REEs, during the 2011-2030 period. The estimates focus on three key permanent magnet waste flows: wind turbines, hybrid and electric vehicles, and hard disk drives (HDDs) in personal computers (PCs). This is a good indication of the end-of-life recycling of neodymium and dysprosium maximum potential yield. Results show that for some time to come, waste flows from permanent magnets will remain small relative to the rapidly growing global REE demand. Policymakers therefore need to be aware that during the next decade recycling is unlikely to substantially contribute to global REE supply security. In the long term, waste flows will increase sharply and will meet a substantial part of the total demand for these metals. Future REE recycling efforts should, therefore, focus on the development of recycling technology and infrastructure.

  5. Upconversion of rare Earth nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ling-Dong; Dong, Hao; Zhang, Pei-Zhi; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth nanomaterials, which feature long-lived intermediate energy levels and intraconfigurational 4f-4f transitions, are promising supporters for photon upconversion. Owing to their unique optical properties, rare earth upconversion nanomaterials have found applications in bioimaging, theranostics, photovoltaic devices, and photochemical reactions. Here, we review recent advances in the photon upconversion processes of these nanomaterials. We start by considering energy transfer models involved in the study of upconversion emissions, as well as well-established synthesis strategies to control the size and shape of rare earth upconversion nanomaterials. Progress in engineering energy transfer pathways, which play a dominant role in determining upconversion emission outputs, is then discussed. Lastly, representative optical applications of these materials are considered. The aim of this review is to provide inspiration for researchers to explore novel upconversion nanomaterials and extended optical applications.

  6. Mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm) changes in single rat hepatocytes: the effect of orthovanadate nanoparticles doped with rare-earth elements.

    PubMed

    Kavok, Nataliya S; Averchenko, Katherine A; Klochkov, Vladimir K; Yefimova, Svetlana L; Malyukin, Yuri V

    2014-12-01

    Rare-earth-based nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used as fluorescent probes for imaging in vitro and in vivo. One of the challenges that restrain NPs applications in biomedical research is their effect on subcellular structures. In this paper, the ability of lanthanide NPs to affect the cellular oxidative balance and alter the mitochondrial function was analyzed. Since size and shape mutually affect the cellular internalization and intracellular distribution of NPs, the investigations were performed with NPs of spherical (GdYVO4:Eu(3+), spindle-(GdVO4: Eu(3+) and rod-like (LaVO4: Eu(3+) shapes. Quantitative microfluorimetry with JC-1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolocarbocyanine iodide) as a mitochondrial probe was used for monitoring of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨ m) in single living cells. Changes in the ratio of the JC-1 probe fluorescence were used to analyze the NPs effect on ΔΨ(m). The fastest suppressive effect (within 1 hour) was found for spherical NPs. Gradual lowering of ΔΨ(m) was observed at the exposure of cells within 24 hours for all types of NPs. Exogenous thiols were required for ΔΨ(m) protection. The protective role of exogenous glutathione (GSH) proves that the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation with depletion of GSH can mediate NPs toxicity. The dynamics of the shape-dependent effect can be explained by the features of NPs transportation into cells.

  7. Rare-Earth-Free Traction Motor: Rare Earth-Free Traction Motor for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Baldor will develop a new type of traction motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs. Unlike today’s large, bulky EV motors which use expensive, imported rare-earth-based magnets, Baldor’s motor could be light, compact, contain no rare earth materials, and have the potential to deliver more torque at a substantially lower cost. Key innovations in this project include the use of a unique motor design, incorporation of an improved cooling system, and the development of advanced materials manufacturing techniques. These innovations could significantly reduce the cost of an electric motor.

  8. Selective Emitter Pumped Rare Earth Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor); Patton, Martin O. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A selective emitter pumped rare earth laser provides an additional type of laser for use in many laser applications. Rare earth doped lasers exist which are pumped with flashtubes or laser diodes. The invention uses a rare earth emitter to transform thermal energy input to a spectral band matching the absorption band of a rare earth in the laser in order to produce lasing.

  9. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional

  10. Photophysical properties of ternary rare earth (Sm3+, Eu3+) centered hybrids with N-heterocyclic modified Si-O bridge and terminal ligands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Long; Yan, Bing; Liu, Jin-Liang

    2011-04-01

    5-Amino-1,10-phenanthroline (Phen-NH(2)) is grafted to 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TESPIC) to achieve the organic precursor Phen-Si, which is coordinated to rare earth ions (Sm(3+) or Eu(3+)) and formed Si-O networks with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) (Phen-Si-RE) after hydrolysis and polycondensation processes to obtain the hybrids Phen-Si-Ln. To investigate the influence of the second ligands to the photophysical properties of the hybrid material Phen-Si-RE, the organic ligand nicotinic acid (NA) and the polymers polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (or PMMA) are further introduced into the above system to assemble the ternary hybrid materials Phen-Si-RE-NA and Phen-Si-RE-PVP (or Phen-Si-RE-PMMA), respectively. These hybrids are amorphous and especially the photophysical properties of them indicate that the introduction of the second ligands is favorable for the luminescence lifetime and quantum efficiency.

  11. Rare Earth Optical Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Wolford, David S.

    2000-01-01

    A new optical temperature sensor suitable for high temperatures (greater than 1700 K) and harsh environments is introduced. The key component of the sensor is the rare earth material contained at the end of a sensor that is in contact with the sample being measured. The measured narrow wavelength band emission from the rare earth is used to deduce the sample temperature. A simplified relation between the temperature and measured radiation was verified experimentally. The upper temperature limit of the sensor is determined by material limits to be approximately 2000 C. The lower limit, determined by the minimum detectable radiation, is found to be approximately 700 K. At high temperatures 1 K resolution is predicted. Also, millisecond response times are calculated.

  12. Rare earth element enrichment using membrane based solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.; Zunita, M.; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical, catalytic, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of rare earth elements are required in broad applications. Rare earth elements have similar physical and chemical properties thus it is difficult to separate one from each other. Rare earth element is relatively abundant in earth's crust but rarely occur in high concentrated deposits. Traditionally, ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques have been developed to separate and purify single rare earth solutions or compounds. Recently, membrane starts to gain attention for rare earth separation by combining membrane and proven technologies such as solvent extraction. Membrane-based process offers selective, reliable, energy efficient and easy to scale up separation. During membrane-based separation process, one phase passes through membrane pores while the other phase is rejected. There is no direct mixing of two phases thus the solvent loss is very low. Membrane can also lower solvent physical properties requirement (viscosity, density) and backmixing, eliminate flooding phenomenon and provide large interfacial area for mass transfer. This paper will summarize research efforts in developing membrane technology for rare earth element separation. Special attention will be given to solvent extraction related process as the commonly used method for rare earth element separation. Furthermore, membrane configuration and its potentials will also be discussed.

  13. Anthropogenic Cycles of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X.; Graedel, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    This research will develop quantitatively resolved anthropogenic cycles and in-use stocks for the rare earth metals specifically cerium, lanthanum and dysprosium in Japan, China, and the U.S. for the year of 2007. Rare earth elements (REE) is a group of 17 scare metals widely used in a growing number of emerging technologies and have been in high demand for emerging technologies as raw materials during past the three decades. New market participants from newly industrializing countries, primarily China, have had strong impacts on the demand of share. Consequently, the importance to sustain a reliable, steady, uninterrupted supply on global market triggered comprehensive research to recognize and understand the life cycles of rare earths. Moreover, because China plays a dominant role in mining production since 1990, it requires the assessment for the countries, which are almost completely dependent on imports from China with respect to rare earth resources. The study aims to analyze the flows and stocks of rare earth elements individually as elemental form in spite of their natural geological co-occurrence and mixed composition in applications. By applying the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) work has been done on evaluating current and historical flows of specific technologically significant materials, for example, copper, zinc, nickel, etc., determining the stocks available in different types of reservoirs (e.g., lithosphere, in-use) and the flows among the reservoirs, developing scenarios of possible futures of metal use, and assessing the environmental and policy implications of the results. Therefore, REE as a new target deserves inclusion because of its potential demand-supply conflict and importance to secure the competitive advantage of technical innovation in future. This work will generate a quantitatively resolved anthropogenic life cycle and in-use stocks for REE for the main target countries for a chosen year, 2007, providing flows and stocks from

  14. Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-17

    production to meet demands), 23 materials were found to represent a potential shortfall. This study included all rare earth elements, except promethium ...retrieving them are challenging. Rare earths are divided into two groups: light rare earths (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium , and

  15. Shells of Mytilus edulis as Bioarchives of the Rare Earth Element and Yttrium Distribution in Seawater and the Potential Impact of pH and Temperature Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnurangam, A.; Bau, M.; Brenner, M.; Koschinsky, A.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of bivalve shells as proxy archives for changes in environmental conditions is increasingly recognized. However, data for trace metal concentrations, specifically rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) in bivalve shells, are quite scarce. The chemistry of these elements in terms of solution speciation and complexation (mostly by carbonate) makes them particularly useful in acting as geochemical proxies of oceanic change due to the impact of temperature and pH on the activity of CO32- in seawater. We approach this issue via an in situ culture experiment using Mytilus edulis from a site in the North Sea. The M.edulis used in our study were cultured offshore with no contact to the ocean floor. We compare the REY distribution in the shells and ambient seawater with the aim of investigating which REY species is incorporated into the shell. The shells show consistent shale-normalized ("SN") REY patterns and display distinct REY features of the North Sea. The REY concentrations obtained from the shells were used to calculate apparent bulk REY partition coefficients between shells and ambient seawater (appDREYshell/seawater) and acquired results were then used in the investigation of the potential effects of pH and temperature on REY partitioning. Further comparison of appDREYshell/seawater patterns to the REY speciation in seawater suggests that the free REY3+ may be the most likely REY species that are actually incorporated from seawater into the M. edulis shell. We then modeled the REYSN patterns of a hypothetical mussel shell at pH 8.2 and 7.6 and at temperatures of 25°C and 5°C assuming that only REY3+ are incorporated into the carbonate's crystal lattice. Our findings provide the basis to further understand how we can use shells of mussels like M. edulis as bioarchives that host geochemical proxies for paleoceanic environmental reconstructions. It appears that M. edulis shells are bioarchives of some REY features of seawater and results suggest that

  16. Novel light-conversion hybrids of SBA-16 functionalized with rare earth (Eu3+, Nd3+, Yb3+) complexes of modified 2-methyl-9-hydroxyphenalenone and 1,10-phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yan-Jing; Yan, Bing; Qiao, Xiao-Fei

    2013-03-01

    Novel rare earth complex-functionalized mesoporous SBA-16-type hybrid materials are synthesized by the co-condensation of modified 2-methyl-9-hydroxyphenalenone (MHPOSi), from modified 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TEPIC), and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the presence of Pluronic F127 as a template. These inorganic-organic mesoporous hybrids are characterized by FT-IR spectra, small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), N2 adsorption-desorption measurements, thermal analysis and spectroscopy. Their photophysical properties, which show novel light conversion properties, are discussed in detail. The Eu3+ hybrid system shows ultraviolet excitation and visible emission, and the Nd+ and Yb3+ hybrids exhibit visible excitation and NIR emission.

  17. Rare earths: An industry review and market outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Major-Sosias, M.A.

    1997-03-01

    A review of the global rare earths industry from production and trade, to the established and new applications that drive this unique market. The industry has been spurred by increased demand during the 1990`s, which is expected to continue into the twenty-first century. The forecast indicates additional growth, as well as the potential for the rare earths market to evolve slowly into one with a more fundamental structure.

  18. Rare earths, the lanthanides, yttrium and scandium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, rare earths were not mined in the United States. The major supplier, Molycorp, continued to maintain a large stockpile of rare-earth concentrates and compounds. Consumption decreased of refined rare-earth products. The United States remained a major importer and exporter of rare earths in 2005. During the same period, yttrium was not mined or refined in the US. Hence, supply of yttrium compounds for refined yttrium products came from China, France and Japan. Scandium was not also mined. World production was primarily in China, Russia and Ukraine. Demand for rare earths in 2006 is expected to be closely tied to economic conditions in the US.

  19. Rare earth garnet selective emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approximately equal to 0.74, ((4)l(sub 15/2)) - ( (4)l(sub13/2)), for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approximately equal to 0.65, ((5)l(sub 7))-((5)l(sub 8)) for Ho-YAG) at excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in the thermophotovoltaics (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. This paper presents normal spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda), measurements of holmium (Ho), and erbium (Er) doped YAG thin film selective emitters at 1500 K, and compares those results with the theoretical spectral emittance.

  20. Scarcity of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    de Boer, M A; Lammertsma, K

    2013-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are important for green and a large variety of high-tech technologies and are, therefore, in high demand. As a result, supply with REEs is likely to be disrupted (the degree of depends on the REE) in the near future. The 17 REEs are divided into heavy and light REEs. Other critical elements besides REEs, identified by the European Commission, are also becoming less easily available. Although there is no deficiency in the earth's crust of rare earth oxides, the economic accessibility is limited. The increased demand for REEs, the decreasing export from China, and geopolitical concerns on availability contributed to the (re)opening of mines in Australia and the USA and other mines are slow to follow. As a result, short supply of particularly terbium, dysprosium, praseodymium, and neodymium is expected to be problematic for at least the short term, also because they cannot be substituted. Recycling REEs from electronic waste would be a solution, but so far there are hardly any established REE recycling methods. Decreasing the dependency on REEs, for example, by identifying possible replacements or increasing their efficient use, represents another possibility.

  1. Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2002-01-01

    Data on rare earth (including yttrium) mines, deposits, and occurrences were compiled as part of an effort by the USGS and the University of Arizona Center for Mineral Resources to summarize current knowledge on the supply and demand outlook and related topics for this group of elements. Economic competition and environmental concerns are increasingly constraining the mining and processing of rare earths from the Mountain Pass mine in California. For many years, the deposit at Mountain Pass was the world's dominant source of rare earth elements and the United States was essentially self-sufficient. Starting approximately 10 years ago, the U.S. has become increasingly dependent (> 90 percent of separated rare earths) upon imports from China, now the dominant source of rare earths. A knowledge of the known economic and noneconomic sources of rare earths is basic to evaluating the outlook for rare earth supply and associated issues.

  2. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Ellis, T.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Hofer, R.J.; Branagan, D.J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g., a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g., a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g., Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B or LaNi{sub 5}) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  3. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William; Ellis, Timothy W.; Dennis, Kevin W.; Hofer, Robert J.; Branagan, Daniel J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g. a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g. a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g. Nd.sub.2 Fe.sub.14 B or LaNi.sub.5) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  4. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  5. Developments in rare earth intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchmayr, H.R.

    1984-09-01

    The magnetic properties of rare earth intermetallics have been the subject of numerous investigations in recent years. However, while the preparation of new intermetallic compounds and the determination of their properties have been the prime concern in former years, more recently the analysis and theoretical explanation of the available data has become most important. Furthermore single crystals have now become available, which permit new experiments. Also many investigations on pseudo-binary systems have permitted the systematic determination of the primary magnetic properties. After a summary of the magnetic properties of intermetallics where the B-moment is zero and nonzero, some examples of pseudobinary systems and especially applications of R-3d multicomponent systems as the basis for advanced permanent magnets are discussed. Finally RE-3d alloys with metalloids and non-metals are discussed with emphasis on the newly developed R-Fe-B permanent magnets.

  6. Near-infrared (1550 nm) in vivo bioimaging based on rare-earth doped ceramic nanophosphors modified with PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate).

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Masao; Kanayama, Naoki; Tokuzen, Kimikazu; Soga, Kohei; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2011-09-01

    A novel poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based block copolymer possessing a 4-vinylbenzylphosphonate repeating unit in another segment (PEG-block-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate)) (PEG-b-PVBP) was designed and successfully synthesized. As a control, an end-functionalized PEG possessing a mono-phosphonate group (PEG-PO(3)H(2)) was also synthesized. The surface of near-infrared (NIR) phosphors (i.e., ytterbium (Yb) and erbium (Er) ion-codoped Y(2)O(3) nanoparticles (YNPs)) were modified with PEG-b-PVBP (PEG-YNP(b)s) and PEG-PO(3)H(2) (PEG-YNP(1)s). The adsorption of PEG-b-PVBP and PEG-PO(3)H(2) was estimated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The physicochemical characteristics of the obtained YNP samples were analyzed by ζ-potential and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The ζ-potentials of YNPs modified by these polymers were close to zero, indicating the effective coverage of the YNP surface by our new PEG derivatives. However, the dispersion stability of the PEGylated YNPs was strongly affected by the structure of the PEG terminus. The average diameter of the PEG-YNP(1)s increased, and aggregates precipitated after less than 1 h in phosphate buffer saline (PBS). In contrast, the size did not change at all in the case of PEG-YNP(b)s and the dispersion in PBS was stable for over 1 week. PEG-YNP(b)s also showed high erosion resistance under acidic conditions. The multiple coordinated PVBP segment of the block copolymer on the YNP surface plays a substantial role in improving such dispersion stability. The excellent dispersion stability and strong NIR luminescence of the obtained PEG-YNP(b)s were also confirmed in fetal bovine serum (FBS) solution over 1 week. Furthermore, in vivo NIR imaging of live mice was performed, and the 1550 nm NIR emission of PEG-YNP(b)s from the organ of live mice was confirmed without dissection.

  7. Rare earths, the lanthanides, yttrium and scandium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, G.; Bleiwas, D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, rare earths were recovered from bastnasite concentrates at the Mountain Pass Mine in California. Consumption of refined rare-earth products decreased in 2011 from 2010. U.S. rare-earth imports originated primarily from China, with lesser amounts from Austria, Estonia, France and Japan. The United States imported all of its demand for yttrium metal and yttrium compounds, with most of it originating from China. Scandium was imported in various forms and processed domestically.

  8. Improved method for preparing rare earth sesquichalcogenides

    DOEpatents

    Takeshita, T.; Beaudry, B.J.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1982-04-14

    An improved method for the preparation of high purity rare earth sesquichalcogenides is described. The rare earth, as one or more pieces of the metal, is sealed under a vacuum with a stoichiometric amount of sulfur or selenium and a small amount of iodine into a quartz reaction vessel. The sealed vessel is then heated to above the vaporization temperature of the chalcogen and below the melting temperature of the rare earth metal and maintained until the product has been formed. The iodine is then vaporized off leaving a pure product. The rare earth sulfides and selenides thus formed are useful as semiconductors and as thermoelectric generators. 3 tables.

  9. Recycling of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Tom; Bertau, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Any development of an effective process for rare earth (RE) recycling has become more and more challenging, especially in recent years. Since 2011, when commodity prices of REs had met their all-time maximum, prices have dropped rapidly by more than 90 %. An economic process able to offset these fluctuations has to take unconventional methods into account beside well-known strategies like acid/basic leaching or solvent extraction. The solid-state chlorination provides such an unconventional method for mobilizing RE elements from waste streams. Instead of hydrochloric acid this kind of chlorination decomposes NH4Cl thermally to release up to 400 °C hot HCl gas. After cooling the resulting solid metal chlorides may be easily dissolved in pH-adjusted water. Without producing strongly acidic wastes and with NH4Cl as cheap source for hydrogen chloride, solid-state chlorination provides various advantages in terms of costs and disposal. In the course of the SepSELSA project this method was examined, adjusted and optimized for RE recycling from fluorescent lamp scraps as well as Fe14Nd2B magnets. Thereby many surprising influences and trends required various analytic methods to examine the reasons and special mechanisms behind them.

  10. Infrared and Raman investigation of rare-earth phosphate glasses for potential use as radioactive waste forms. Historically Black Colleges and Universities Radioactive Waste Management Research Program: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, S.

    1986-11-10

    This project was designed to investigate the properties of the rare-earth phosphate glasses CeO{sub 2}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} for potential use as radioactive waste glasses. The research involved determination of the glass-forming region, loading capacity, and optimum processing parameters of the glasses. Structural studies of the unloaded host glasses and glasses loaded with simulated waste elements were to be done using Raman, infrared and infrared reflection spectroscopy. Leach testing and spectroscopic studies of the corroded surfaces were also to be performed.

  11. Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling

    ScienceCinema

    Ryan Ott

    2016-07-12

    Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

  12. Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Ott

    2012-09-05

    Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

  13. Ternary rare earth-lanthanide sulfides

    DOEpatents

    Takeshita, Takuo; Gschneidner JR., Karl A.; Beaudry, Bernard J.

    1987-01-06

    A new ternary rare earth sulfur compound having the formula: where M is a rare earth element selected from the group europium, samarium and ytterbium and x=0.15 to 0.8. The compound has good high-temperature thermoelectric properties and exhibits long-term structural stability up to 1000.degree. C.

  14. Advances in rare earth spectroscopy and applications.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Y; Zilio, S C

    2014-02-01

    Rare earth (RE) elements are prime constituents in a large amount of innovative materials and several technological advances would not be possible without their contribution. In this review, recent progress in the field of rare earth spectroscopy is highlighted, with a special emphasis on clean energy, sensors and telecommunications, providing a broad view on past and recent developments.

  15. Rare Earth Metals: Resourcefulness and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijie

    2013-10-01

    When we appreciate the digital revolution carried over from the twentieth century with mobile communication and the Internet, and when we enjoy our high-tech lifestyle filled with iDevices, hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells in this new century, we should also appreciate that all of these advanced products depend on rare earth metals to function. Although there are only 136,000 tons of annual worldwide demand, (Cho, Rare Earth Metals, Will We Have Enough?)1 rare earth metals are becoming such hot commodities on international markets, due to not only to their increasing uses, including in most critical military hardware, but also to Chinese growth, which accounts for 95% of global rare earth metal production. Hence, the 2013 technical calendar topic, planned by the TMS/Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy Committee, is particularly relevant, with four articles (including this commentary) contributed to the JOM October Issue discussing rare earth metals' resourcefulness and recovery.

  16. A new N-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid modified core-shell silica phase for chelation ion chromatography of alkaline earth, transition and rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    McGillicuddy, Nicola; Nesterenko, Ekaterina P; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Stack, Elaine M; Omamogho, Jesse O; Glennon, Jeremy D; Paull, Brett

    2013-12-20

    Bare core-shell silica (1.7μm) has been modified with iminodiacetic acid functional groups via standard silane chemistry, forming a new N-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid (HEIDA) functionalised core-shell stationary phase. The column was applied in high-performance chelation ion chromatography and evaluated for the retention of alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal cations. The influence of nitric acid eluent concentration, addition of complexing agent dipicolinic acid, eluent pH and column temperature on the column performance was investigated. The efficiencies obtained for transition and heavy metal cations (and resultant separations) were comparable or better than those previously obtained for alternative fully porous silica based chelation stationary phases, and a similarly modified monolithic silica column, ranging from ∼15 to 56μm HETP. Increasing the ionic strength of the eluent with the addition of KNO3 (0.75M) and increasing the column temperature (70°C) facilitated the isocratic separation of a mixture of 14 lanthanides and yttrium in under 12min, with HETP averaging 18μm (7μm for Ce(III)).

  17. Hybrid materials of SBA-16 functionalized by rare earth (Eu 3+, Tb 3+) complexes of modified β-diketone (TTA and DBM): Covalently bonding assembly and photophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yajuan; Yan, Bing; Li, Ying

    2010-04-01

    Novel mesoporous SBA-16 type of hybrids TTA-S16 and DBM-S16 were synthesized by co-condensation of modified β-diketone (TTA-Si and DBM-Si, DBM=1,3-diphenyl-1,3- propanepione, TTA=2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the presence of Pluronic F127 as template, which were confirmed by FTIR, XRD, 29Si CP-MAS NMR, and N 2 adsorption measurements. Novel organic-inorganic mesoporous luminescent hybrid containing RE3+ (Eu 3+, Tb 3+) complexes covalently attached to the functionalized ordered mesoporous SBA-16 (TTA-S16 and DBM-S16), which were designated as bpy- RE-TTA-S16 and bpy- RE-DBM-S16, were obtained by sol-gel process. The luminescence properties of these resulting materials were characterized in detail, and the results reveal that mesoporous hybrid material bpy-Eu-TTA-S16 present stronger luminescent intensities, longer lifetimes, and higher luminescent quantum efficiencies than the corresponding DBM-containing materials bpy-Eu-DBM-S16, while bpy-Tb-DBM-S16 exhibit the stronger characteristic emission of Tb 3+ and longer lifetime than the corresponding TTA-containing materials bpy-Tb-TTA-S16.

  18. Surface Disturbance Analysis in Rare Earth Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. K.; Yang, L.; Liu, Z. W.

    2017-02-01

    Mining ion-type rare-earth ore made the landscape and ecological environment degraded in mining area, and the tailing produced by rare-earth mining also led large areas land desertification, which resulted in surface temperature variations and significant differences in other types of mining disturbances. In order to analyse surface disturbance of rare-earth mining area, this paper applied the methods based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Temperature different Coefficient (TDC) as the ecological disturbance indicator, compared and validated their applicability in Lingbei rare-earth mining area of Southern China. The results illustrated that, compared to NDVI, the TDC which reflected the characteristic of rare-earth mining technology has better discrimination of disturbance, especially for in-situ leach mining area. The places of tailing and the in-situ leach mining plants were the most dramatic mining disturbance. They had the biggest TDC value, followed by orchards and farmlands, reclamation plants, they had relatively small disturbance. And the last was the plant with the smallest TDC value. TDC in rare-earth mining could better correspond to the level of surface ecological disturbance. Therefore, TDC as the indicator of ecological disturbance factor had better performance than NDVI in rare-earth mining area.

  19. Protecting the environment and public health from rare earth mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiang; Zhang, Guochun; Pan, An; Chen, Fengying; Zheng, Chunli

    2016-11-01

    As increasing demand for green energy and high-tech devices grows, so does the rising prospecting of rare earth metals required for their production. Protecting the environment and public health from rare earth element (REE) mining as well as emerging pollutants is urgently required to achieve sustainable development. This study mapped Earth's hidden REE deposits to identify potential contamination hotspots with the aim of preventing its deleterious effects on the environment. We worry that there would be widespread tailing facilities concomitant with serious pollutions, such as the Bayan Obo tailings site, and argue that a tradeoff between the underground REE exploration and environment conservation should be reached as soon as possible.

  20. Mineral resource of the month: rare earths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, James B.

    2004-01-01

    As if classified as a top-secret project, the rare earths have been shrouded in secrecy. The principal ore mineral of the group, bastnäsite, rarely appears in the leading mineralogy texts. The long names of the rare-earth elements and some unusual arrangements of letters, many Scandinavian in origin, may have intimidated even those skilled in phonics. Somewhat obscurely labeled, the rare earths are neither rare nor earths (the historical term for oxides). They are a relatively abundant group of metallic elements that occur in nature as nonmetallic compounds and have hundreds of commercial applications.

  1. Effect of Rare Earth Ions on the Properties of Composites Composed of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer and Layered Double Hydroxides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Li, Bin; Zhao, Xiaohong; Chen, Chunxia; Cao, Jingjing

    2012-01-01

    Background The study on the rare earth (RE)-doped layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has received considerable attention due to their potential applications in catalysts. However, the use of RE-doped LDHs as polymer halogen-free flame retardants was seldom investigated. Furthermore, the effect of rare earth elements on the hydrophobicity of LDHs materials and the compatibility of LDHs/polymer composite has seldom been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings The stearate sodium surface modified Ni-containing LDHs and RE-doped Ni-containing LDHs were rapidly synthesized by a coprecipitation method coupled with the microwave hydrothermal treatment. The influences of trace amounts of rare earth ions La, Ce and Nd on the amount of water molecules, the crystallinity, the morphology, the hydrophobicity of modified Ni-containing LDHs and the adsorption of modifier in the surface of LDHs were investigated by TGA, XRD, TEM, contact angle and IR, respectively. Moreover, the effects of the rare earth ions on the interfacial compatibility, the flame retardancy and the mechanical properties of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA)/LDHs composites were also explored in detail. Conclusions/Significance S-Ni0.1MgAl-La displayed more uniform dispersion and better interfacial compatibility in EVA matrix compared with other LDHs. Furthermore, the S-Ni0.1MgAl-La/EVA composite showed the best fire retardancy and mechanical properties in all composites. PMID:22693627

  2. Crisp clustering of airborne geophysical data from the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field, northeastern Mozambique, to predict zones of increased rare earth element potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Detlef G.; Daudi, Elias X. F.; Muiuane, Elônio A.; Nyabeze, Peter; Pontavida, Alfredo M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Geology Directorate of Mozambique (DNG) and Maputo-based Eduardo-Mondlane University (UEM) entered a joint venture with the South African Council for Geoscience (CGS) to conduct a case study over the meso-Proterozoic Alto Ligonha pegmatite field in the Zambézia Province of northeastern Mozambique to support the local exploration and mining sectors. Rare-metal minerals, i.e. tantalum and niobium, as well as rare-earth minerals have been mined in the Alto Ligonha pegmatite field since decades, but due to the civil war (1977-1992) production nearly ceased. The Government now strives to promote mining in the region as contribution to poverty alleviation. This study was undertaken to facilitate the extraction of geological information from the high resolution airborne magnetic and radiometric data sets recently acquired through a World Bank funded survey and mapping project. The aim was to generate a value-added map from the airborne geophysical data that is easier to read and use by the exploration and mining industries than mere airborne geophysical grid data or maps. As a first step towards clustering, thorium (Th) and potassium (K) concentrations were determined from the airborne geophysical data as well as apparent magnetic susceptibility and first vertical magnetic gradient data. These four datasets were projected onto a 100 m spaced regular grid to assemble 850,000 four-element (multivariate) sample vectors over the study area. Classification of the sample vectors using crisp clustering based upon the Euclidian distance between sample and class centre provided a (pseudo-) geology map or value-added map, respectively, displaying the spatial distribution of six different classes in the study area. To learn the quality of sample allocation, the degree of membership of each sample vector was determined using a-posterior discriminant analysis. Geophysical ground truth control was essential to allocate geology/geophysical attributes to the six classes

  3. Ternary rare earth-lanthanide sulfides

    DOEpatents

    Takeshita, Takuo; Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Beaudry, Bernard J.

    1987-01-06

    A new ternary rare earth sulfur compound having the formula: La.sub.3-x M.sub.x S.sub.4 where M is a rare earth element selected from the group europium, samarium and ytterbium and x=0.15 to 0.8. The compound has good high-temperature thermoelectric properties and exhibits long-term structural stability up to 1000.degree. C.

  4. Mineral resource of the month: rare earth elements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The article provides information on rare earth elements, which are group of 17 natural metallic elements. The rare earth elements are scandium, yttrium and lanthanides and classified into light rare earth elements (LREE) and heavy rate earth elements (HREE). The principal ores of the rare earth elements are identified. An overview of China's production of 97 percent of the rare earths in the world is provided. Commercial applications of rare earths are described.

  5. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    2017-08-08

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  6. Rare earth element scavenging in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Robert H.; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    1990-10-01

    Examinations of rare earth element (REE) adsorption in seawater, using a variety of surface-types, indicated that, for most surfaces, light rare earth elements (LREEs) are preferentially adsorbed compared to the heavy rare earths (HREEs). Exceptions to this behavior were observed only for silica phases (glass surfaces, acid-cleaned diatomaceous earth, and synthetic SiO 2). The affinity of the rare earths for surfaces can be strongly affected by thin organic coatings. Glass surfaces which acquired an organic coating through immersion in Tampa Bay exhibited adsorptive behavior typical of organic-rich, rather than glass, surfaces. Models of rare earth distributions between seawater and carboxylate-rich surfaces indicate that scavenging processes which involve such surfaces should exhibit a strong dependence on pH and carbonate complexation. Scavenging models involving carboxylate surfaces produce relative REE abundance patterns in good general agreement with observed shale-normalized REE abundances in seawater. Scavenging by carboxylate-rich surfaces should produce HREE enrichments in seawater relative to the LREEs and may produce enrichments of lanthanum relative to its immediate trivalent neighbors. Due to the origin of distribution coefficients as a difference between REE solution complexation (which increases strongly with atomic number) and surface complexation (which apparently also increases with atomic number) the relative solution abundance patterns of the REEs produced by scavenging reactions can be quite complex.

  7. Adjustable rare earth quadrupole drift tube magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.; Tanabe, J.; Halbach, K.; Koehler, G.; Green, M.I.

    1987-03-01

    A prototype permanent-magnet drift tube quadrupole with adjustable field strength has been constructed and tested. The magnet uses iron pole pieces to provide the required field shape along with rare earth permanent-magnet material (samarium cobalt) to energize the magnet. A unique feature of the configuration is the adjustability of the field, accomplished by rotating the outer rings consisting of permanent magnets and iron. In contrast with a previous prototype magnet, this new design uses ball bearings in place of slide bearings to eliminate potential failures. The rotation is now achieved with a bevel gear mechanism. The prototype design also incorporates a new drift tube shell vacuum seal to allow easy disassembly. Tests were made of the magnetic properties and the mechanical performance of this magnet. Field errors are extremely small, and the magnet passed an accelerated ten year lifetime test. It is planned to use this type of magnet to replace 24 of the SuperHILAC prestripper drift tubes.

  8. Rare earth phosphors and phosphor screens

    DOEpatents

    Buchanan, Robert A.; Maple, T. Grant; Sklensky, Alden F.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to rare earth phosphor screens for converting image carrying incident radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation and to the rare earth phosphor materials utilized in such screens. The invention further relates to methods for converting image carrying charged particles to image carrying radiation principally in the blue and near-ultraviolet region of the spectrum and to stabilized rare earth phosphors characterized by having a continuous surface layer of the phosphors of the invention. More particularly, the phosphors of the invention are oxychlorides and oxybromides of yttrium, lanthanum and gadolinium activated with trivalent cerium and the conversion screens are of the type illustratively including x-ray conversion screens, image amplifier tube screens, neutron imaging screens, cathode ray tube screens, high energy gamma ray screens, scintillation detector screens and screens for real-time translation of image carrying high energy radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation.

  9. Preparation and processing of rare earth chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschneidner, K. A.

    1998-10-01

    Rare earth chalcogenides are initially prepared by a direct combination of the pure rare earth metal and the pure chalogen element with or without a catalyst. The use of iodine (10 to 100 mg) as a fluxing agent (catalyst), especially to prepare heavy lanthanide chalcogenides, greatly speeds up the formation of the rare earth chalcogenide. The resultant powders are consolidated by melting, pressure assisted sintering (PAS), or pressure assisted reaction sintering (PARS) to obtain near theoretical density solids. Mechanical alloying is a useful technique for preparing ternary alloys. In addition, mechanical alloying and mechanical milling can be used to form metastable allotropic forms of the yttrium and heavy lanthanide sulfides. Chemical analysis techniques are also described because it is strongly recommended that samples prepared by melting should have their chemical compositions verified because of chalogen losses in the melting step.

  10. Novel Fiber Preforms: Rare Earth Doping.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-21

    measurements were made on a Digilab FTS-15B as KBr While there are many complex multicomponent rare pellets from 3800-4(0cm and as low density poivethvene...earth glasses, phosphates hold special interest as binary pellets t50-500cm ). Spectral resolution was 2 cm- cr rare earth glasses of variable composition...SiO- the glasses have compositions in the range x = 0.009 to 0052. w.hich corresponds to 0.9 to 5.2 molo or up to 23 wt% rare earth oxide as determruned

  11. Intermultiplet transitions in rare-earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Stirling, W.G.; McEwen, K.A.; Loong, C.K.

    1985-01-01

    We report here on direct observations of intermultiplet (IM) transitions in the rare-earth metals, Pr, Nd and Tb, made using the chopper spectrometers at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source of Argonne National Laboratory. Despite hydrogen contamination of the polycrystalline samples, we have observed inelastic peaks at small Q arising from IM transitions in Pr (approx.260 MeV), Nd (approx.242 MeV) and Tb (approx.256 MeV) although the latter has not yet been observed unambiguously. Future work will investigate the energy level structure and dynamical properties of rare-earth ions in stoichiometric metallic systems. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Self-assemblies of luminescent rare earth compounds in capsules and multilayers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renjie; Shang, Juanjuan; Xin, Jing; Xie, Beibei; Li, Ya; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2014-05-01

    This review addresses luminescent rare earth compounds assembled in microcapsules as well as in planar films fabricated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique, the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method and in self-assembled monolayers. Chemical precipitation, electrostatic, van der Waals interactions and covalent bonds are involved in the assembly of these compounds. Self-organized ring patterns of rare earth complexes in Langmuir monolayers and on planar surfaces with stripe patterns, as well as fluorescence enhancement due to donor-acceptor pairs, microcavities, enrichment of rare earth compounds, and shell protection against water are described. Recent information on the tuning of luminescence intensity and multicolors by the excitation wavelength and the ratio of rare earth ions, respectively, are also reviewed. Potential applications of luminescent rare earth complex assemblies serving as biological probes, temperature and gas sensors are pointed out.

  13. Rare earth fluoride nano-/microstructures: hydrothermal synthesis, luminescent properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Xu, Zhenhe; Sun, Yaguang

    2014-02-01

    Rare earth fluoride materials have attracted wide interest and come to the forefront in nanophotonics due to their distinct electrical, optical and magnetic properties as well as their potential applications in diverse fields such as optical telecommunication, lasers, biochemical probes, infrared quantum counters, and medical diagnostics. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the flourishing field of rare earth fluorides materials in the past decade. We summarize the recent research progress on the preparation, morphology, luminescent properties and application of rare earth fluoride-based luminescent materials by hydrothermal systems. Various rare earth fluoride materials are obtained by fine-tuning of experimental conditions, such as capping agents, fluoride source, acidity, temperature and reaction time. The controlled morphology, luminescent properties and application of the rare earth fluorides are briefly discussed with typical examples.

  14. Occupational radiation exposure due to norm in a rare-earth compounds production facility.

    PubMed

    Haridasan, P P; Pillai, P M B; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2008-01-01

    In India, rare-earth compounds are produced from the beach sand mineral monazite. Caustic digestion of the mineral followed by selective acid extraction is the method used to separate composite rare-earth fraction. The composite rare-earth chloride contains low levels of natural radionuclides and is the starting material for individual rare-earth compounds which have wide applications. Activity concentrations in composite rare-earth compounds such as chlorides, fluorides, carbonates and oxides of Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd, etc. are presented in this paper. The external gamma exposure rates and airborne activity due to thorium and thoron progeny in the occupational environment are studied. The activity levels in liquid effluent are presented. The potential individual occupational dose is estimated to be 1.9 mSv per annum.

  15. Troubling toys: rare-Earth magnet ingestion in children causing bowel perforations.

    PubMed

    Mandhan, Parkash; Alsalihi, Muthana; Mammoo, Saleem; Ali, Mansour J

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of foreign bodies in the pediatric population is common and magnet ingestion is known to cause a significant morbidity. Rare-earth magnets are small 3-6 mm diameter spherical powerful magnets that are sold as popular desk toys for adults and were previously found in construction toys in attractive colors for children to play with. We describe 2 young healthy children who ingested rare-earth magnets Buckyballs while playing with these magnetic toys and later presented in emergency with acute abdomen. Abdominal imaging revealed several (26 and 5) pieces of rare-earth magnets in the bowel loops. Emergency surgical exploration revealed multiple gastrointestinal perforations and fistula formation at sites of bowel entrapment in between strong magnets apposed to one another. We highlight the potential dangers of rare-earth magnets in children and suggest increasing public awareness about risks involved in rare-earth magnets ingestion by children to overcome this serious public health issue.

  16. Crystalline rare-earth activated oxyorthosilicate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    McClellan, Kenneth J.; Cooke, D. Wayne

    2004-02-10

    Crystalline, transparent, rare-earth activated lutetium oxyorthosilicate phosphor. The phosphor consists essentially of lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Lu(.sub.2-x-z)Y.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor also consists essentially of lutetium gadolinium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Lu(.sub.2-x-z)Gd.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor also consists essentially of gadolinium yttrium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Gd(.sub.2-x-z)Y.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor may be optically coupled to a photodetector to provide a radiation detector.

  17. Replacing the Rare Earth Intellectual Capital

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl

    2011-04-01

    The rare earth crisis slowly evolved during a 10 to 15 year period beginning in the mid-1980s, when the Chinese began to export mixed rare earth concentrates. In the early 1990s, they started to move up the supply chain and began to export the individual rare earth oxides and metals. By the late 1990s the Chinese exported higher value products, such as magnets, phosphors, polishing compounds, catalysts; and in the 21st century they supplied finished products including electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs), TVs and monitors, mobile phones, iPods and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light bulbs. As they moved to higher value products, the Chinese slowly drove the various industrial producers and commercial enterprises in the US, Europe and Japan out of business by manipulating the rare earth commodity prices. Because of this, the technically trained rare earth engineers and scientists who worked in areas from mining to separations, to processing to production, to manufacturing of semifinished and final products, were laid-off and moved to other fields or they retired. However, in the past year the Chinese have changed their philosophy of the 1970s and 1980s of forming a rare earth cartel to control the rare earth markets to one in which they will no longer supply the rest of the world (ROW) with their precious rare earths, but instead will use them internally to meet the growing demand as the Chinese standard of living increases. To this end, they have implemented and occasionally increased export restrictions and added an export tariff on many of the high demand rare earth elements. Now the ROW is quickly trying to start up rare earth mines, e.g. Molycorp Minerals in the US and Lynas Corp. in Australia, to cover this shortfall in the worldwide market, but it will take about five years for the supply to meet the demand, even as other mines in the ROW become productive. Unfortunately, today there is a serious lack of technically trained

  18. Non-rare earth magnetic nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, Everett E.; Huba, Zachary J.; Carroll, Kyler J.; Farghaly, Ahmed; Khanna, Shiv N.; Qian, Meichun; Bertino, Massimo

    2017-09-26

    Continuous flow synthetic methods are used to make single phase magnetic metal alloy nanoparticles that do not contain rare earth metals. Soft and hard magnets made from the magnetic nanoparticles are used for a variety of purposes, e.g. in electric motors, communication devices, etc.

  19. Rare earth chemical and physical metallurgy

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The current state of the rare earth field is reviewed in the areas of basic research, applied research and technology, and commercial utilization. The role of China and its influence, as viewed by an outsider, is briefly summarized. The final third of the paper deals with one aspect of the author's research interests - the quenching of spin fluctuations in exchange enhanced paramagnets.

  20. Selected rare earth sulfides in thermoelectric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Raag, V.; Borodovsky, Y.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses preliminary results on the preparation and the measurement of thermoelectric properties of various rare earth sulfides of the stoichiometry R/sub 2/S/sub 3/. A preparation method that enables the rapid and predictable preparation of the sulfides has been discussed, along with some preliminary results on the measurement of thermoelectric properties of these sulfides.

  1. What about the rare-earth elements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is insufficient understanding of the nutritional physiology of pecan trees and orchards; thus, affecting nutmeat yield and quality, disease resistance and alternate bearing. An analysis of the rare-earth element composition of pecan and related hickory cousins found that they hyperaccumulate ...

  2. Preparation and Upconversion Emission Modification of Crystalline Colloidal Arrays and Rare Earth Fluoride Microcrystal Composites

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jiayan; Yang, Zhengwen; Sun, Jinbo; Lai, Shenfeng; Shao, Bo; Li, Jun; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo; Yang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, highly ordered crystalline colloidal arrays containing rare earth fluoride microcrystals were fabricated. The upconversion emission property of rare earth fluoride microcrystals in crystalline colloidal arrays was studied and modified. A significant suppression and enhancement of the upconversion emission from the rare earth fluorides can be observed in the regions of the photonic band gap and its band edge, respectively. The suppression or enhancement factor was shown to be related to the ordered degree of the crystalline colloidal arrays and is critical in the preparation of upconversion displays and low-threshold lasers. PMID:25560045

  3. Heterometallic rare earth/group II metal chalcogenolate clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Berardini, M.; Emge, T.; Brennan, J.G. )

    1994-07-27

    Heterometallic Group II/rare earth (RE) thiolates, selenolates, and tellurolates have a broad range of potential applications in the rapidly developing field of RE-doped semiconductor technology . Given the tendency of RE chalcogenolates to form polymetallic species with bridging chalcogenolate ligands, we reasoned that RE complexes of the heavier chalcogenolates could be stabilized by bridging the chalcogenide to a softer Group II metal to form heterometallic compounds. In this paper, we show that such stabilization is significant, and we describe the isolation and structural characterization of the first two examples of a broad class of heterometallic chalcogenolate complexes having the general formula MM[prime](EPh)[sub x](L)[sub y] [M = Zn, Cd, Hg; M[prime] = divalent (x = 4) or trivalent (x = 5) rare earth; E = S, Se, Te; L = THF, pyridine]. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Rare-earth magnet ingestion: a childhood danger reaches adolescence.

    PubMed

    Agha, Beesan Shalabi; Sturm, Jesse J; Costello, Brian E

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of multiple magnets may cause serious gastrointestinal morbidity, such as pressure necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, or intestinal obstruction due to forceful attraction across bowel wall. Although the consequences of multiple magnet ingestion are well documented in young children, the current popularity of small, powerful rare-earth magnets marketed as "desk toys" has heightened this safety concern in all pediatric age groups. A recent US Consumer Product Safety Commission product-wide warning additionally reports the adolescent practice of using toy high-powered, ball-bearing magnets to simulate tongue and lip piercings, a behavior that may increase risk of inadvertent ingestion. We describe 2 cases of older children (male; aged 10 and 13 years, respectively) with unintentional ingestion of multiple rare-earth magnets. Health care providers should be alerted to the potential for misuse of these high-powered, ball-bearing magnets among older children and adolescents.

  5. Rare Earth Elements in Global Aqueous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, C.; Karamalidis, A.; Dzombak, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    We are examining the occurrence and abundance of rare earth elements (REE) associated with produced waters from shale gas development, and factors controlling aqueous REE concentrations in geochemical environments, to provide information for: (1) potential recovery of REE as a valuable byproduct, and (2) utilization of unique REE signatures as a risk assessment tool. REE include the lanthanide series of elements - excluding short-lived, radioactive promethium - and yttrium. These elements are critical to a wide variety of high-tech, energy efficient applications such as phosphors, magnets, and batteries. Escalating costs of REE resulting from divergent supply and demand patterns motivates the first goal. The second goal relates to the search for a reliable, naturally occurring tracer to improve understanding of fluid migration and water-rock interactions during hydraulic fracturing and natural gas recovery. We compiled data from 100 studies of REE occurrence and concentrations in groundwaters, ocean waters, river waters, and lake waters. In the groundwater systems documented, total dissolved REE concentrations ranged over eight orders of magnitude; however the average concentrations across the lanthanides varied by less than two orders of magnitude. This leads to exceptional inter-element correlations, with a median correlation coefficient greater than 0.98, implying potential usefulness of REE ratios for groundwater signatures. Reports describing reactions governing REE solubilization were also investigated. We assembled information about important solution chemistries and performed equilibrium modeling using PHREEQC to examine common hypotheses regarding the factors controlling REE compositions. In particular, effects of pH, Eh, and common complexing ligands were evaluated. Produced and connate waters of the Marcellus shale are well characterized for their major chemical elements. There is a dearth of knowledge, however, regarding the occurrence of REE in

  6. Alternatives to Rare Earth Permanent Magnets for Energy Harvesting Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazdozian, Helena; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Direct-drive permanent magnet generators (DDPMGs) offer increased reliability and efficiency over the more commonly used geared doubly-fed induction generator, yet are only employed in less than 1 percent of utility scale wind turbines in the U.S. One major barrier to increased deployment of DDPMGs in the U.S. wind industry is NdFeB permanent magnets (PMs), which contain critical rare earth elements Nd and Dy. To allow for the use of rare earth free PMs, the magnetic loading, defined as the average magnetic flux density over the rotor surface, must be maintained. Halbach cylinders are employed in 3.5kW Halbach PMGs (HPMGs) of varying slot-to-pole ratio to concentrate the magnetic flux output by a lower energy density PM over the rotor surface. We found that for high pole and slot number, the increase in magnetic loading is sufficient to allow for the use of strontium iron oxide hard ferrite PMs and achieved rated performance. Joule losses in the stator windings were found to increase for the hard ferrite PMs due to increased inductance in the stator windings. However, for scaling of the HPMG designs to 3MW, rated performance and high efficiency were achieved, demonstrating the potential for elimination for rare earth PMs in commercial scale wind turbines. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1069283 and a Barbara and James Palmer Endowment at Iowa State University.

  7. Uncovering the end uses of the rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T E

    2013-09-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging and conventional established technologies. However, quantitative knowledge of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in future availability of the resources. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supply vulnerable to short term disruption. We have drawn upon the published literature and unpublished materials in different languages to derive the first quantitative annual domestic production by end use of individual rare earth elements from 1995 to 2007. The information is illustrated in Sankey diagrams for the years 1995 and 2007. Other years are available in the supporting information. Comparing 1995 and 2007, the production of the rare earth elements in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. The information can provide a solid foundation for industries, academic institutions and governments to make decisions and develop strategies.

  8. SEPARATION OF RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1960-10-11

    A process is given for separating lanthanide rare earths from each other from an aqueous mineral acid solution, e.g., hydrochloric or nitric acid of a concentration of above 3 M, preferably 12 to 16 M, by extraction with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate, such as tributyl phosphate or a mixture of mono-, di- and tributyl phosphate, and fractional back-extraction with mineral acid whereby the lanthanides are taken up by the acid in the order of increasing atomic number.

  9. Systematic variation of rare earths in monazite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murata, K.J.; Rose, H.J.; Carron, M.K.

    1953-01-01

    Ten monazites from widely scattered localities have been analyzed for La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Y and Th by means of a combined chemical and emission spectrographic method. The analytical results, calculated to atomic percent of total rare earths (thorium excluded), show a considerable variation in the proportions of every element except praseodymium, which is relatively constant. The general variation trends of the elements may be calculated by assuming that the monazites represent different stages in a fractional precipitation process, and by assuming that there is a gradational increase in the precipitability of rare earth elements with decreasing ionic radius. Fractional precipitation brings about an increase in lanthanum and cerium, little change in praseodymium, and a decrease in neodymium, samarium, gadolinium, and yttrium. Deviations from the calculated lines of variation consist of a simultaneous, abnormal increase or decrease in the proportions of cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium with antipathetic decrease or increase in the proportions of the other elements. These deviations are ascribed to abnormally high or low temperatures that affect the precipitability of the central trio of elements (Ce, Pr, Nd) relatively more than that of the other elements. The following semiquantitative rules have been found useful in describing the composition of rare earths from monazite: 1. 1. The sum of lanthanum and neodymium is very nearly a constant at 42 ?? 2 atomic percent. 2. 2. Praseodymium is very nearly constant at 5 ?? 1 atomic percent. 3. 3. The sum of Ce, Sm, Gd, and Y is very nearly a constant at 53 ?? 3 atomic percent. No correlation could be established between the content of Th and that of any of the rare earth elements. ?? 1953.

  10. Novel Fiber Preforms: Rare Earth Doping.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-31

    proposed by the group at Southampton, and future experiments with axial laser heating of terbium metal are planned. As noted, much of the effort during...been doped with terbium , in our learning to control the doping concentration, we have observed bands of undesired microcrystailinity in some terbium ...preforms with terbium (not yet pulled into fibers), and rare earth glasses formed by sol-gel tech- niques. Future efforts will be to prepare fibers

  11. Nitrite complexes of the rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Pouessel, Jacky; Thuéry, Pierre; Berthet, Jean-Claude; Cantat, Thibault

    2014-03-21

    The coordination chemistry of the nitrite anion has been investigated with rare earth elements, and the resulting complexes were structurally characterized. Among them, the first homoleptic examples of nitrite complexes of samarium, ytterbium and yttrium are described. The coordination behavior of the nitrite ion is directly controlled by the ionic radius of the metal cation. While the nitrito ligand is stable in the coordination sphere of cerium(iii), it is readily reduced by SmI2.

  12. Bonding nature of rare-earth-containing lead-free solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Ainissa G.; Mavoori, Hareesh; Jin, Sungho

    2002-01-01

    The ability of rare-earth-containing lead-free solders to wet and bond to silica was investigated. Small additions of Lu (0.5-2 wt. %) added to eutectic Sn-Ag or Au-Sn solder render it directly solderable to a silicon oxide surface. The bonding is attributed to the migration of the rare-earth element to the solder-silica interface for chemical reaction and the creation of an interfacial layer that contains a rare-earth oxide. It was found that additions of rare-earth materials did not significantly modify the solidification microstructure or the melting point. Such oxide-bondable solders can be useful for assembly of various optical communication devices.

  13. Charge-separated and molecular heterobimetallic rare earth-rare earth and alkaline earth-rare earth aryloxo complexes featuring intramolecular metal-pi-arene interactions.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Glen B; Junk, Peter C; Moxey, Graeme J; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin; St Prix, Courtney; Zuniga, Maria F

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of a rare earth metal (Ln) and a potential divalent rare earth metal (Ln') or an alkaline earth metal (Ae) with 2,6-diphenylphenol (HOdpp) at elevated temperatures (200-250 degrees C) afforded heterobimetallic aryloxo complexes, which were structurally characterised. A charge-separated species [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)][Ln(Odpp)(4)] was obtained for a range of metals, demonstrating the similarities between the chemistry of the divalent rare earth metals and the alkaline earth metals. The [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)](+) cation in the heterobimetallic structures is unusual in that it consists solely of bridging aryloxide ligands. A molecular heterobimetallic species [AeEu(Odpp)(4)] (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba) was obtained by treating an alkaline earth metal and Eu metal with HOdpp at elevated temperatures. Similarly, [BaSr(Odpp)(4)] was prepared by treating Ba metal and Sr metal with HOdpp. Treatment of [Ba(2)(Odpp)(4)] with [Mg(Odpp)(2)(thf)(2)] in toluene afforded [Ba(2)(Odpp)(3)][Mg(Odpp)(3)(thf)]. Analogous solution-based syntheses were not possible for [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)][Ln(Odpp)(4)] complexes, for which the free-metal route was essential. As a result of the absence of additional donor ligands, the crystal structures of the heterobimetallic complexes feature extensive pi-Ph-metal interactions involving the pendant phenyl groups of the Odpp ligands, thus enabling the large electropositive metal atoms to attain coordination saturation. The charge-separated heterobimetallic species were purified by extraction with toluene/thf mixtures at ambient temperature (Ba-containing compounds) or by extraction with toluene under pressure above the boiling point of the solvent (other products). In donor solvents, heterobimetallic complexes other than those containing barium were found to fragment into homometallic species.

  14. Technical Feasibility of Selectively Separating Rare Earth Elements by Vapor Phase Extraction and Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Katie

    Experiments were performed to evaluate the technical feasibility of selectively separating selected rare earth halides (bromides and chlorides) using a volatilization and condensation technique. Initially, optimum chloridizing and bromidizing roast parameters were secured in studies performed on reagent grade rare earth oxide samples and subsequently confirmed in tests performed on mineral ore and concentrate samples. The volatilization and condensation experiments were performed by placing the subject rare earth halide samples in an argon-purged multiple-zone tube furnace wherein the temperature profile was controlled to establish separate vaporization and condensation regions. Following each experiment, condensate and solid residue samples were analyzed to determine their respective rare earth element contents. The analytical results indicate potential exists for separating the more volatile halide species from those with relatively low vapor pressures; separation of species with intermediate vapor pressures was inconclusive. In most experiments, the rare earth halide vaporization efficiencies were severely limited by the extremely hygroscopic nature of the rare earth halides coupled with their high affinities for oxygen. At elevated temperatures, the hydrates react with halides to produce rare earth oxyhalides and oxides, which are not volatile at the temperatures (up to 1400 °C) considered in this research.

  15. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Schmidt, Frederick A.

    1995-08-01

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  16. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  17. Rare Earth Element Concentration of Wyoming Thermal Waters Update

    DOE Data Explorer

    Quillinan, Scott; Nye, Charles; Neupane, Hari; McLing, Travis

    2017-06-01

    Updated version of data generated from rare earth element investigation of produced waters. These data represent major, minor, trace, isotopes, and rare earth element concentrations in geologic formations and water associated with oil and gas production.

  18. Prospective analysis of the flows of certain rare earths in Europe at the 2020 horizon.

    PubMed

    Rollat, Alain; Guyonnet, Dominique; Planchon, Mariane; Tuduri, Johann

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a forecast of certain rare earth flows in Europe at the 2020 horizon, based on an analysis of trends influencing various actors of the rare earth industry along the value chain. While 2020 is indicated as the forecast horizon, the analysis should be considered as more representative of the next decade. The rare earths considered here are used in applications that are important for a low-carbon energy transition and/or have a significant recycling potential: NdFeB magnets (Pr, Nd, Dy), NiMH batteries (Pr, Nd) and fluorescent lamp phosphors (Eu, Tb, Y). An analysis of major trends affecting the rare earth industry in Europe along the value chain (including extraction, separation, fabrication, manufacture, use and recycling), helps to build a scenario for a material flow analysis of these rare earths in Europe. The scenario assumes in particular that during the next decade, there exists a rare earth mine in production in Europe (with Norra Kärr in Sweden as a most likely candidate) and also that recycling is in line with targets proposed in recent European legislation. Results are presented in the form of Sankey diagrams which help visualize the various flows for the three applications. For example, calculations forecast flows from extraction to separation of Pr, Nd and Dy for magnet applications in Europe, on the order of 310 tons, 980 tons and 80 tons rare earth metal resp., while recycled flows are 35 tons, 110 tons and 30 tons resp. Calculations illustrate how the relative contribution of recycling to supply strongly depends on the situation with respect to demand. Considering the balance between supply and demand, it is not anticipated any significant shortage of rare earth supply in Europe at the 2020 horizon, barring any new geopolitical crisis involving China. For some heavy rare earths, supply will in fact largely outweigh demand, as for example Europium due to the phasing out of fluorescent lights by LEDs.

  19. Rare earth elements in synthetic zircon. 1. synthesis, and rare earth element and phosphorus doping.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchar, J. M.; Finch, R. J.; Hoskin, W. O.; Watson, E. B.; Cherniak, D. J.; Mariano, A. N.; Chemical Engineering; George Washington Univ.; Univ. of Canterbury; Australian National Univ.; Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst.

    2001-05-01

    Sedimentary mineral assemblages commonly contain detrital zircon crystals as part of the heavy-mineral fraction. Age spectra determined by U-Pb isotopic analysis of single zircon crystals within a sample may directly image the age composition--but not the chemical composition--of the source region. Rare earth element (REE) abundances have been measured for zircons from a range of common crustal igneous rock types from different tectonic environments, as well as kimberlite, carbonatite, and high-grade metamorphic rocks, to assess the potential of using zircon REE characteristics to infer the rock types present in sediment source regions. Except for zircon with probable mantle affinities, zircon REE abundances and normalized patterns show little intersample and intrasample variation. To evaluate the actual variation in detrital zircon REE composition in a true sediment of known mixed provenance, zircons from a sandstone sample from the Statfjord Formation (North Sea) were analyzed. Despite a provenance including high-grade metasediment and granitoids and a range in zircon age of 2.82 b.y., the zircon REEs exhibit a narrow abundance range with no systematic differences in pattern shape. These evidences show zircon REE patterns and abundances are generally not useful as indicators of provenance.

  20. Antimony film sensor for sensitive rare earth metal analysis in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Makombe, Martin; van der Horst, Charlton; Silwana, Bongiwe; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Somerset, Vernon

    2016-07-02

    A sensor for the adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of rare earth elements has been developed. The electrochemical procedure is based on the oxidation of the rare earth elements complexed with alizarin complexone at a glassy carbon electrode that was in situ modified with an antimony film, during an anodic scan from -0.2 V to 1.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and deposition potential of -0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The factors influencing the adsorptive stripping capability were optimised, including the complexing agent concentration, plating concentration of antimony and deposition time. The detection of rare earth elements (La, Ce and Pr) were realised in 0.08 M sodium acetate (pH = 5.8) solution as supporting electrolyte, with 2 × 10(-6) M alizarin complexone and 1.0 mg L(-1) antimony solution. Under the optimised conditions, a deposition time of 360 s was obtained and a linear response was observed between 1 and 25 µg L(-1). The reproducibility of the voltammetric measurements was found to be within 5.0% RSD for 12 replicate measurements of cerium(III) concentration of 5 µg L(-1) using the same electrode surface. The detection limits obtained using stripping analysis was 0.06, 0.42 and 0.71 μg L(-1) for Ce(III), La(III) and Pr(III), respectively. The developed sensor has been successfully applied for the determination of cerium, lanthanum and praseodymium in municipal tap water samples.

  1. Enhanced separation of rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, K.; Greenhalgh, M.; Herbst, R. S.; Garn, T.; Welty, A.; Soderstrom, M. D.; Jakovljevic, B.

    2016-09-01

    Industrial rare earth separation processes utilize PC88A, a phosphonic acid ligand, for solvent extraction separations. The separation factors of the individual rare earths, the equipment requirements, and chemical usage for these flowsheets are well characterized. Alternative ligands such as Cyanex® 572 and the associated flowsheets are being investigated at the pilot scale level to determine if significant improvements to the current separation processes can be realized. These improvements are identified as higher separation factors, reduced stage requirements, or reduced chemical consumption. Any of these improvements can significantly affect the costs associated with these challenging separation proccesses. A mid/heavy rare earth element (REE) separations flowsheet was developed and tested for each ligand in a 30 stage mixer-settler circuit to compare the separation performance of PC88A and Cyanex® 572. The ligand-metal complex strength of Cyanex® 572 provides efficient extraction of REE while significantly reducing the strip acid requirements. Reductions in chemical consumption have a significant impact on process economics for REE separations. Partitioning results summarized Table 1 indicate that Cyanex® 572 offers the same separation performance as PC88A while reducing acid consumption by 30% in the strip section for the mid/heavy REE separation. Flowsheet Effluent Compositions PC88A Cyanex® 572 Raffinate Mid REE Heavy REE 99.40% 0.60% 99.40% 0.60% Rich Mid REE Heavy REE 2.20% 97.80% 0.80% 99.20% Liquor Strip Acid Required 3.4 M 2.3 M Table 1 – Flowsheet results comparing separation performance of PC88A and Cyanex® 572 for a mid/heavy REE separation.

  2. Decomposition of Rare Earth Loaded Resin Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Voit, Stewart L; Rawn, Claudia J

    2010-09-01

    resin is made of sulfonic acid functional groups attached to a styrene divinylbenzene copolymer lattice (long chained hydrocarbon). The metal cation binds to the sulfur group, then during thermal decomposition in air the hydrocarbons will form gaseous species leaving behind a spherical metal-oxide particle. Process development for resin applications with radioactive materials is typically performed using surrogates. For americium and curium, a trivalent metal like neodymium can be used. Thermal decomposition of Nd-loaded resin in air has been studied by Hale. Process conditions were established for resin decomposition and the formation of Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. The intermediate product compounds were described using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and wet chemistry. Leskela and Niinisto studied the decomposition of rare earth (RE) elements and found results consistent with Hale. Picart et al. demonstrated the viability of using a resin loading process for the fabrication of uranium-actinide mixed oxide microspheres for transmutation of minor actinides in a fast reactor. For effective transmutation of actinides, it will be desirable to extend the in-reactor burnup and minimize the number of recycles of used actinide materials. Longer burn times increases the chance of Fuel Clad Chemical or Mechanical Interaction (FCCI, FCMI). Sulfur is suspected of contributing to Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) thus it is necessary to maximize the removal of sulfur during decomposition of the resin. The present effort extends the previous work by quantifying the removal of sulfur during the decomposition process. Neodymium was selected as a surrogate for trivalent actinide metal cations. As described above Nd was dissolved in nitric acid solution then contacted with the AG-50W resin column. After washing the column, the Nd-resin particles are removed and dried. The Nd-resin, seen in Figure 1 prior to decomposition, is ready to be converted to Nd oxide microspheres.

  3. Preparation of Rare Earth Doped Laser Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Nt’aval Research Labo;atpry. The host crystals include yttrii1 aluminum garnet (y2A14O1 2 ), yttrium lithium fluorides TYLiFk, and barium yttrium DD...are necessary for test lasers at the Naval Research Laboratory. The host crystals include yttrium aluminum garnet (Y2 Al 40 12), yttrium lithium...fluorides (YLiF4 ), and barium yttrium fluoride (BaY2 F8 ). These hosts were doped with single or multiple rare earth elements for lasing action at wave

  4. Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes

    PubMed Central

    Dejneka, Matthew J.; Streltsov, Alexander; Pal, Santona; Frutos, Anthony G.; Powell, Christy L.; Yost, Kevin; Yuen, Po Ki; Müller, Uwe; Lahiri, Joydeep

    2003-01-01

    The development of ultraminiaturized identification tags has applications in fields ranging from advanced biotechnology to security. This paper describes micrometer-sized glass barcodes containing a pattern of different fluorescent materials that are easily identified by using a UV lamp and an optical microscope. A model DNA hybridization assay using these “microbarcodes” is described. Rare earth-doped glasses were chosen because of their narrow emission bands, high quantum efficiencies, noninterference with common fluorescent labels, and inertness to most organic and aqueous solvents. These properties and the large number (>1 million) of possible combinations of these microbarcodes make them attractive for use in multiplexed bioassays and general encoding. PMID:12515864

  5. Raman Investigations of Rare-Earth Orthovanadates

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, C. C.; Silva, E. N.; Ayala, A. P.; Guedes, I.; Pizani, P. S.; Loong, C. K.; Boatner, Lynn A

    2007-01-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy has been used to obtain the room-temperature phonon spectra of the series of rare earth orthovanadate single crystals: SmVO4, HoVO4, YbVO4 and LuVO4. The observed Raman frequencies follow the overall mode distribution expected for RVO4 compounds with the tetragonal zircon structure. The variation of the mode frequency with atomic number across the lanthanide orthovanadate series was investigated, and the trend exhibited by the internal modes was explained by considering the force constants of VO4 tetrahedron.

  6. Relative sensitivity of rare earth elements in spark-source mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roaldset, E

    1970-07-01

    A method for calculating the relative sensitivity factors for the rare earth elements in geological material is outlined. A close correlation is found between the relative sensitivity factors calculated and isotopic mass and the first ionization potential for the elements. The points are grouped in the vicinity of a regression line, which may be used to determine the relative sensitivity factors for all the rare earth elements.

  7. Mechanism of Rare Earth Incorporation and Crystal Growth of Rare Earth Containing Type-I Clathrates.

    PubMed

    Prokofiev, Andrey; Svagera, Robert; Waas, Monika; Weil, Matthias; Bernardi, Johannes; Paschen, Silke

    2016-01-06

    Type-I clathrates possess extremely low thermal conductivities, a property that makes them promising materials for thermoelectric applications. The incorporation of cerium into one such clathrate has recently been shown to lead to a drastic enhancement of the thermopower, another property determining the thermoelectric efficiency. Here we explore the mechanism of the incorporation of rare earth elements into type-I clathrates. Our investigation of the crystal growth and the composition of the phase Ba8-x RE x TM y Si46-y (RE = rare earth element; TM = Au, Pd, Pt) reveals that the RE content x is mainly governed by two factors, the free cage space and the electron balance.

  8. Characterization of a rare earth oxide obtained from xenotime mineral

    SciTech Connect

    Vernilli, Fernando . E-mail: fernando.vernilli@demar.faenquil.br; Camargo Vernilli, Daniela; Ferreira, Bento; Silva, Gilbert

    2007-01-15

    This paper reports on the characterization of a rare earth oxide obtained by hydrometallurgy of the mineral xenotime, an yttrium phosphate containing other rare earths, and comparison with mixtures of rare earth oxides prepared in different ways. The results indicated that hydrometallurgy from xenotime yielded a solid solution of the rare earth oxides. However, when the pure rare earth oxides were simply mixed physically then heat-treated at 1000 deg. C, a similar solid solution was not obtained. On the other hand, when the mixtures were prepared using a co-precipitation process, subsequent heat treatment did produce oxide solid solutions similar to that produced by hydrometallurgy of xenotime.

  9. Reflectives: Phosphors and lasers - shedding light on rare earths

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    The first powder electroluminescent phosphor was introduced in 1936. Today, phosphors, particularly those made of high-purity rare earths, have found their way into a variety of products: industrial, commercial, and consumer, alike. The fluorescent lamp industry which remains the leading market for the use of high-purity rare earths, lit the way for the future of rare earths in the optical, x-ray, and display screen applications. Light combined with rare earth materials is also a successful recipe for reflectivity needed in filtering applications such as optics, lasers, and conductors. This article discusses the applications and markets for phosphors and rare earths.

  10. Note: Portable rare-earth element analyzer using pyroelectric crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Imashuku, Susumu Fuyuno, Naoto; Hanasaki, Kohei; Kawai, Jun

    2013-12-15

    We report a portable rare-earth element analyzer with a palm-top size chamber including the electron source of a pyroelectric crystal and the sample stage utilizing cathodoluminescence (CL) phenomenon. The portable rare-earth element analyzer utilizing CL phenomenon is the smallest reported so far. The portable rare-earth element analyzer detected the rare-earth elements Dy, Tb, Er, and Sm of ppm order in zircon, which were not detected by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. We also performed an elemental mapping of rare-earth elements by capturing a CL image using CCD camera.

  11. Atomic Transition Probabilities for Rare Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, J. J.; Anderson, Heidi M.; den Hartog, E. A.; Wickliffe, M. E.; Lawler, J. E.

    1996-10-01

    Accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities for selected neutral and singly ionized rare earth elements including Tm, Dy, and Ho are being measured. The increasing use of rare earths in high intensity discharge lamps provides motivation; the data are needed for diagnosing and modeling the lamps. Radiative lifetimes, measured using time resolved laser induced fluorescence (LIF), are combined with branching fractions, measured using a large Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), to determine accurate absolute atomic transition probabilities. More than 15,000 LIF decay curves from Tm and Dy atoms and ions in slow beams have been recorded and analyzed. Radiative lifetimes for 298 levels of TmI and TmII and for 450 levels of DyI and DyII are determined. Branching fractions are extracted from spectra recorded using the 1.0 m FTS at the National Solar Observatory. Branching fractions and absolute transition probabilities for 500 of the strongest TmI and TmII lines are complete. Representative lifetime and branching fraction data will be presented and discussed. Supported by Osram Sylvania Inc. and the NSF.

  12. On the brittle nature of rare earth pnictides

    SciTech Connect

    Shriya, S.; Sapkale, R.; Varshney, Dinesh E-mail: sapkale.raju@rediffmail.com; Singh, N.; Varshney, M.

    2016-05-23

    The high-pressure structural phase transition and pressure as well temperature induced elastic properties in ReY; (Re = La, Sc, Pr; Y = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) pnictides have been performed using effective interionic interaction potential with emphasis on charge transfer interactions and covalent contribution. Estimated values of phase transition pressure and the volume discontinuity in pressure-volume phase diagram indicate the structural phase transition from NaCl to CsCl structure. From the investigations of elastic constants the pressure (temperature) dependent volume collapse/expansion, second order Cauchy discrepancy, anisotropy, hardness and brittle/ductile nature of rare earth pnictides are computed.

  13. Fundamental magnetic studies of iron-rare-earth-metalloid alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjipanayis, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    Objective was to understand strongly magnetic rare earth-transition metal compounds and alloys, with potential use as hard or semi-hard permanent magnet materials. Efforts were focused on three areas: search for Fe-rich new phases and compounds with high magnetization, anisotropy, and Curie temperature; use of rapid solidification (melt-spinning) to produce fine grain and high coercivity; and relation of hard magnetic properties to microstructure and domain structure. Coercivities of up to 10 to 15 kOe have been produced.

  14. Distributions of rare earths and heavy metals in field-grown maize after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingkai; Zhu, Wangzhao; Wang, Zijian; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2002-07-03

    Rare earths are widely applied in Chinese agriculture to improve crop nutrition through the use of fertilizers, yet little is known of their accumulation in field-grown crops. We have studied the distribution of 16 rare earths (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanide elements) in field-grown maize and the concentration of heavy metals in the grains after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer. When maize entered the vigorous vegetation growth stage (e.g. early stem-elongation stage), rare earth-containing fertilizer was applied to the soil with irrigation water. At 10 days after application of the rare earths, significantly dose-dependent accumulative effects of individual rare earth concentrations in the roots and the plant tops of maize were observed, with the exception of Sc and Lu. At the level of 2 kg rare earths ha(-1), accumulative concentrations of most light rare earths (e.g. La, Ce, Pr and Nd) and Gd in the plant tops were much larger than those in the control. Concentrations of individual rare earths in a field-grown maize after application of rare earths decreased in the order of root>leaf>stem>grain. During the maize growth period, selective accumulation of individual rare earths (e.g. La, Ce) in the roots seemed to be in dynamic equilibrium, and the distribution of these elements in the plant tops was variable. At a dosage of less than 10 kg rare earths ha(-1), no apparent accumulative concentrations of individual rare earths appeared in the maize grains. Under the experimental conditions, application of rare earth-containing fertilizer did not induce an increase in the concentrations of heavy metals in the grains. We conclude that the present dosage of rare earths (<0.23 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) currently applied in China can hardly affect the safety of maize grains in arable soil, even over a long period.

  15. A COMPARISON OF FAR INFRARED AND RAMAN SPECTRA OF SOME RARE EARTH GARNET SINGLE CRYSTALS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS, *INFRARED SPECTRA), (*GARNET, RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS), (* RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY, RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS), SINGLE CRYSTALS, ALUMINATES...PHONONS, YTTRIUM COMPOUNDS, YTTERBIUM COMPOUNDS, TERBIUM COMPOUNDS, DYSPROSIUM COMPOUNDS, CANADA

  16. Spectroscopy of rare earth ions in opaque solids

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, B.W.

    1992-12-31

    Up to now, the field of optical spectroscopy of transitions within the well-shielded 4f shell of rare earth ions in solids has had only transparent samples to work with. With recent improvements in sensitivity of our spectrometer, we have been able to observe, in reflection, f {yields} f transitions in opaque materials, including metals. This requires a sensitivity approaching the short noise limit, which is obtained using a photodiode array in conjunction with diffusion of the light to smooth out any spatial structure. In this work, we discuss searches for f {yields} f transitions in various metals containing rare earth ions, and report the first such observation in an intermetallic compound. In addition, a simple theory of reflection lineshapes from opaque materials is developed. This theory is based on a classical electron oscillator model for an f {yields} f transition, which modifies the complex index of refraction of the material near the resonance frequency. On using the Fresnel reflection equations, various lineshapes, including very asymmetric ones, can be produced, depending on the unperturbed index of refraction.

  17. Mussel shells of Mytilus edulis as bioarchives of the rare earth elements and yttrium distribution in seawater and the potential impact of pH and temperature on the partitioning behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnurangam, A.; Bau, M.; Brenner, M.; Koschinsky, A.

    2015-09-01

    Mussel shells are potential bioarchives of proxies for changes of the physico-chemical conditions in the bivalve's habitat. One such proxy is the distribution of the Rare Earths and Yttrium (REY) in seawater, as REY speciation in seawater is sensitive to pH and temperature variations, due to the impact of these parameters on the activity of CO32- in seawater. We present a new protocol for sample preparation and determination of REY concentrations in bivalve shells, that includes sample treatment with NaOCl followed by REY separation and preconcentration. The data obtained was further used to calculate REY partition coefficients between shells of M. edulis and ambient seawater, and acquired results were then used in the investigation of the potential effects of pH and temperature on REY partitioning. Shells of M. edulis mussels from the North Sea show consistent shale-normalized ("SN") REY patterns that increase from the light REY to the middle REY and decrease from the middle REY to the heavy REY. Despite being different to the general seawater REYSN pattern, the shells still display distinct REY features of seawater such as a negative CeSN anomaly and small positive YSN and GdSN anomalies. Apparent partition coefficients for the REY between the shell and seawater (appDREYshell/seawater) are low and decrease strongly from the light REY (4.04 for La) to the heavy REY (0.34 for Lu). However, assuming that only the free REY3+ are incorporated into the shell, appDREY3+shell/seawater values are higher and rather similar for all REY (102.46 for La; 113.44 for Lu), but show a slight maximum at Tb (199.18). Although the impact of vital effects i.e. REY speciation in a mussel's extrapallial fluid from which the carbonate minerals precipitate, cannot be quantified yet, it appears that M. edulis shells are bioarchives of some REY features of seawater. We modelled the REYSN patterns of a hypothetical mussel shell at pH 8.2 and 7.6 and at temperatures of 25 and 5

  18. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and rare earth elements uptake of soybean grown in rare earth mine tailings].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Ren-xin; Zhao, Wen-jing; Fu, Rui-ying; Guo, Jiang-yuan; Zhang, Jun

    2013-05-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus versiforme on the plant growth, nutrient uptake, C: N: P stoichiometric, uptake of heavy metals and rare earth elements by soybean (Glycine max) grown in rare earth mine tailings. The aim was to provide a basis for the revegetation of rare earth mine tailings. The results indicated that soybean had a high mycorrhizal colonization and symbiotic associations were successfully established with G. versiforme, with an average rate of approximately 67%. The colonization of G. versiforme significantly promoted the growth of soybean, increased P, K contents, and decreased C: N: P ratios, supporting the growth rate hypothesis. Inoculation with G. versiforme significantly decreased shoots and roots La, Ce, Pr and Nd concentrations of soybean compared to the control treatment. However, inoculation with G. versiforme had no significant effect on the heavy metal concentrations, except for significantly decreased shoot Fe and Cr concentrations and increased root Cd concentrations. The experiment demonstrates that AM fungi have a potential role for soybean to adapt the composite adversity of rare earth tailings and play a positive role in revegetation of rare earth mine tailings. Further studies on the role of AM fungi under natural conditions should be conducted.

  19. Investigations into Rare Earth Oxide Use and Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryce, Owen

    2010-05-01

    Quinton, 2008), and alternative REO extraction methods was compared using tagged and untagged soils. Extractions were also performed upon REO powders and a certified reference soil to identify which of the commonly used REOs are unsuitable for tracing studies. This paper will also report on investigations into the transport behaviour of REO tracers at different slope gradients, including comparisons between the transport of sediment bound phosphorus and REOs. References: Kimoto, A., Nearing, M., Shipitalo, M., Polyakov, V., 2006. Multi-year tracking of sediment sources in a small agricultural watershed using rare earth elements. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 31, pp.1763-1774. Li, M., Li, Z., Ding, W., Liu, P., Yao, W., 2006. Using rare earth element tracers and neutron activation analysis to study rill erosion processes. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 64, pp.402-408. Polyakov, V., Nearing, M., Shipitalo, M., 2004. Tracking sediment redistribution in a small watershed: Implications for agro-landscape evolution. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 29, pp.1275-1291. Stevens, C., Quinton, J., 2008. Investigating source areas of eroded sediments transported in concentrated overland flow using rare earth element tracers. Catena, 74, pp.31-36. Zhang, X., Friedrich, J., Nearing, M., Norton, L., 2001. Potential use of Rare Earth Oxides as Tracers for Soil Erosion and Aggregation Studies. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65, pp.1508-1515. Zhang, X., Nearing, M., Polyakov, V., Friedrich, J., 2003. Using Rare-Earth Oxide Tracers for Studying Soil Erosion Dynaimcs. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 67, pp.279-288.

  20. Rare earth doped zinc oxide varistors

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, A.D.; Modine, F.A.; Lauf, R.J.; Alim, M.A.; Mahan, G.D.; Bartkowiak, M.

    1998-12-29

    A varistor includes a Bi-free, essentially homogeneous sintered body of a ceramic composition including, expressed as nominal weight %, 0.2--4.0% oxide of at least one rare earth element, 0.5--4.0% Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, 0.05--0.4% K{sub 2}O, 0.05--0.2% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--0.2% CaO, 0.00005--0.01% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--2% MnO, 0--0.05% MgO, 0--0.5% TiO{sub 3}, 0--0.2% SnO{sub 2}, 0--0.02% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, balance ZnO. 4 figs.

  1. BOREHOLE NEUTRON ACTIVATION: THE RARE EARTHS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikesell, J.L.; Senftle, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron-induced borehole gamma-ray spectroscopy has been widely used as a geophysical exploration technique by the petroleum industry, but its use for mineral exploration is not as common. Nuclear methods can be applied to mineral exploration, for determining stratigraphy and bed correlations, for mapping ore deposits, and for studying mineral concentration gradients. High-resolution detectors are essential for mineral exploration, and by using them an analysis of the major element concentrations in a borehole can usually be made. A number of economically important elements can be detected at typical ore-grade concentrations using this method. Because of the application of the rare-earth elements to high-temperature superconductors, these elements are examined in detail as an example of how nuclear techniques can be applied to mineral exploration.

  2. Rare-earth abundances in chondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, N. M.; Hamilton, P. J.; Onions, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen chondrites, including eight carbonaceous chondrites, were analyzed for rare earth element abundances by isotope dilution. Examination of REE for a large number of individual chondrites shows that only a small proportion of the analyses have flat unfractionated REE patterns within experimental error. While some of the remaining analyses are consistent with magmatic fractionation, many patterns, in particular those with positive Ce anomalies, can not be explained by known magmatic processes. Elemental abundance anomalies are found in all major chondrite classes. The persistence of anomalies in chondritic materials relatively removed from direct condensational processes implies that anomalous components are resistant to equilibrium or were introduced at a late stage of chondrite formation. Large-scale segregation of gas and condensate is implied, and bulk variations in REE abundances between planetary bodies is possible.

  3. Structural transition in rare earth oxide clusters.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, D; Masenelli, B; Mélinon, P; Bernstein, E; Dujardin, C; Ledoux, G; Esnouf, C

    2006-11-07

    Size effects, such as structure transition, have been reported in small clusters of alkali halide compounds. We extend the study to rare earth sesquioxide (Gd(2)O(3)) clusters which are as ionic as the alkali halide compounds, but have a more complicated structure. In a clean and controlled environment (ultra high vacuum), such particles are well crystallized, facetted and tend to adopt a rhombic dodecahedron shape. This indicates the major role of highly ionic bonds in preserving the crystal lattice even at small sizes (a few lattice parameter). Based on both cathodo-luminescence and transmission electron microscopy, we report the existence of a structural transition from bcc to monoclinic at small sizes.

  4. Mechanical properties of rare earth stannate pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, J.; Xiao, B.; Qu, Z. X.; Zhou, R.; Pan, W.

    2011-11-01

    The RE2Sn2O7 series compounds (RE = La, Nb, Sm, Gd, Er, Yb) with a pyrochlore structure are prepared by co-precipitation method. The bulk, shear, Young's moduli, B/G, and Poisson's ratios are calculated using density functional theory and also measured by ultrasonic resonance method. The theoretical values of lattice constants and mechanical moduli are smaller than experimental results. The electronic structures of RE2Sn2O7 are analogous to RE2Zr2O7. La2Sn2O7 exhibits stronger ionic bonds than others. The covalent interactions are slightly enhanced in the heavy rare earth stannate pyrochlores. The Vickers harnesses of RE2Sn2O7 are measured experimentally, which are smaller than theoretical predictions.

  5. Thermoelectric properties of rare earth chalcogenides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Raag, V.; Wood, C.

    1985-01-01

    The rare earth chalcogenides are important thermoelectric materials due to their high melting points, self-doping capabilities, and low thermal conductivities. Lanthanum sulfides and lanthanum tellurides have been synthesized in quartz ampules, hot-pressed into samples, and measured. The n-type Seebeck coefficients, electrical resistivities, and power factors generally all increased as the temperature increased from 200 to 1000 C. The figure-of-merit for nonstoichiometric lanthanum telluride was 0.001/deg C at 1000 C, considerably higher than for silicon-germanium. Thermoelectric measurements were made for LaTe(2) and YbS(1.4), and p-type behavior was observed for these compounds from 300 to 1100 C.

  6. Rare-earth abundances in chondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, N. M.; Hamilton, P. J.; Onions, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen chondrites, including eight carbonaceous chondrites, were analyzed for rare earth element abundances by isotope dilution. Examination of REE for a large number of individual chondrites shows that only a small proportion of the analyses have flat unfractionated REE patterns within experimental error. While some of the remaining analyses are consistent with magmatic fractionation, many patterns, in particular those with positive Ce anomalies, can not be explained by known magmatic processes. Elemental abundance anomalies are found in all major chondrite classes. The persistence of anomalies in chondritic materials relatively removed from direct condensational processes implies that anomalous components are resistant to equilibrium or were introduced at a late stage of chondrite formation. Large-scale segregation of gas and condensate is implied, and bulk variations in REE abundances between planetary bodies is possible.

  7. Rare earth doped zinc oxide varistors

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, April D.; Modine, Frank A.; Lauf, Robert J.; Alim, Mohammad A.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Bartkowiak, Miroslaw

    1998-01-01

    A varistor includes a Bi-free, essentially homogeneous sintered body of a ceramic composition including, expressed as nominal weight %, 0.2-4.0% oxide of at least one rare earth element, 0.5-4.0% Co.sub.3 O.sub.4, 0.05-0.4% K.sub.2 O, 0.05-0.2% Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3, 0-0.2% CaO, 0.00005-0.01% Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, 0-2% MnO, 0-0.05% MgO, 0-0.5% TiO.sub.3, 0-0.2% SnO.sub.2, 0-0.02% B.sub.2 O.sub.3, balance ZnO.

  8. Gyroscopic g factor of rare earth metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Y.; Chudo, H.; Ono, M.; Harii, K.; Matsuo, M.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.

    2017-02-01

    We develop the in situ magnetization measurement apparatus for observing the Barnett effect consisting of a fluxgate sensor, a high speed rotor with frequencies of up to 1.5 kHz, and a magnetic shield at room temperature. The effective magnetic field (Barnett field) in a sample arising from rotation magnetizes the sample and is proportional to the rotational frequency. The gyroscopic g factor, g ' , of rare earth metals, in particular, Gd, Tb, and Dy, was estimated to be 2.00 ± 0.08, 1.53 ± 0.17, and 1.15 ± 0.32, respectively, from the slopes of the rotation dependence of the Barnett field. This study provides a technique to determine the g ' factor even in samples where the spectroscopic method may not be available.

  9. Luminescent rare earth nanomaterials for bioprobe applications.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2008-11-14

    Inorganic fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) have initiated an extensive upsurge in biological application research. Just as quantum dots are regarded as a vigorous reinforcement of the organic dye family, rare earth (RE) fluorescent NPs, as another phosphors branch, also possess unique optical characteristics. The advantages of RE NPs in photostability and colorimetric purity make them suitable for bioprobe applications. Since the preparation technologies have been well developed, it is favourable to prompt the research in the interdisciplinary field of biology and material sciences. Herein, we summarize the synthesis and performance, together with bioprobe applications of RE oxide, sulfoxide, vanadate, phosphate, fluoride, and sodium RE fluoride nanomaterials. The prospects of these promising materials as applied in the biological field is described to draw readers' attention and to attract more research interest.

  10. Ferritin protein encapsulated photoluminescent rare earth nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, T.; Yoshimura, H.

    2013-07-01

    Rare earth (yttrium (Y), europium (Eu), and terbium (Tb)) nanoparticles and Eu and Tb doped Y nanoparticles are synthesized in an apoferritin cavity. They exhibit a narrow size distribution and a high stability in an aqueous solution at pH 8.5. Eu and Eu doped Y (Y:Eu) nanoparticles exhibit red photoluminescence (emission peaks: 590 and 614 nm), while Tb and Tb doped Y (Y:Tb) nanoparticles exhibit green photoluminescence (emission peaks: 488, 544, 582, and 618 nm). High-resolution electron microscopy observations reveal that about 5% of the nanoparticles have a lattice structure, while the remaining nanoparticles are amorphous. Electron diffraction of the Y nanoparticles gives lattice spacings corresponding to the cubic structure of yttrium oxide (Y2O3). The most optimal dopant content for luminescence of Y:Eu and Y:Tb nanoparticles in apoferritin cavity are about 60% and 40%, respectively.

  11. Rare earth elements in river waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the input to the oceans of rare earth elements (REE) in the dissolved and the suspended loads of rivers, the REE concentrations were measured in samples of Amazon, Indus, Mississippi, Murray-Darling, and Ohio rivers and in samples of smaller rivers that had more distinct drainage basin lithology and water chemistry. It was found that, in the suspended loads of small rivers, the REE pattern was dependent on drainage basin geology, whereas the suspended loads in major rivers had relatively uniform REE patterns and were heavy-REE depleted relative to the North American Shale composite (NASC). The dissolved loads in the five major rivers had marked relative heavy-REE enrichments, relative to the NASC and the suspended material, with the (La/Yb)N ratio of about 0.4 (as compared with the ratio of about 1.9 in suspended loads).

  12. Parity Violation Experiments with Rare Earth Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budker, Dmitry

    1997-10-01

    Since the first suggestions (V. A. Dzuba, V. V. Flambaum, and I. B. Khriplovich, Z. Phys. D1, 243 (1986).), (A. Gongora and P. G. H. Sandars, J. Phys. B 19, L291 (1986).) to search for parity violation in the rare earth atoms, experiments have been carried out by groups in Novosibirsk, Oxford, Hiroshima and Berkeley with Sm, Yb and Dy. The status of these experiments will be reviewed, with some details given on recent Berkeley Dy results ( A.-T. Nguyen, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, Submitted to Phys. Rev. A.). Progress of the Berkeley Yb experiment ( D. DeMille, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4165 (1995).), ( C.J. Bowers, D. Budker, E.D. Commins, D. DeMille, S.J. Freedman, A.-T. Nguyen, S.-Q. Shang, and M. Zolotorev, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3103-9(1996). ) will be described elsewhere at this meeting by C. J. Bowers et al.

  13. Thermoelectric properties of rare earth chalcogenides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Raag, V.; Wood, C.

    1985-01-01

    The rare earth chalcogenides are important thermoelectric materials due to their high melting points, self-doping capabilities, and low thermal conductivities. Lanthanum sulfides and lanthanum tellurides have been synthesized in quartz ampules, hot-pressed into samples, and measured. The n-type Seebeck coefficients, electrical resistivities, and power factors generally all increased as the temperature increased from 200 to 1000 C. The figure-of-merit for nonstoichiometric lanthanum telluride was 0.001/deg C at 1000 C, considerably higher than for silicon-germanium. Thermoelectric measurements were made for LaTe(2) and YbS(1.4), and p-type behavior was observed for these compounds from 300 to 1100 C.

  14. Borehole neutron activation: The rare earths

    SciTech Connect

    Mikesell, J.L.; Senftle, F.E.

    1988-02-01

    Neutron-induced borehole gamma-ray spectroscopy has been widely used as a geophysical exploration technique by the petroleum industry, but its use for mineral exploration is not as common. Nuclear methods offer the mining geologist techniques for mineral exploration, for determining stratigraphy and bed correlations, for mapping ore deposits, and for studying mineral concentration gradients. High-resolution detectors are essential for mineral exploration, and by using them as analysis of the major element concentrations in a borehole can usually be made. A number of economically important elements can be detected at typical ore-grade concentrations using this method. Because of the new application of the rare-earth elements to high-temperature superconductors, these elements are examined in detail as an example of how nuclear techniques can assist the mining geologist.

  15. Antibacterial, Antifungal and Nematicidal Activities of Rare Earth Ions.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Tokumitsu; Ymamoto, Ayumi; Kazaana, Akira; Nakano, Yuta; Nojiri, Yui; Kashiwazaki, Moeko

    2016-12-01

    Despite the name, rare earth elements are relatively abundant in soil. Therefore, these elements might interact with biosphere during the history of life. In this study, we have examined the effect of rare earth ions on the growth of bacteria, fungi and soil nematode. All rare earth ions, except radioactive promethium that we have not tested, showed antibacterial and antifungal activities comparable to that of copper ions, which is widely used as antibacterial metals in our daily life. Rare earth ions also have nematicidal activities as they strongly perturb the embryonic development of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Interestingly, the nematicidal activity increased with increasing atomic number of lanthanide ions. Since the rare earth ions did not show high toxicity to the human lymphoblastoid cell line or even stimulate the growth of the cultured cells at 1 mM, it raised the possibility that we can substitute rare earth elements for the antibacterial metals usually used because of their safety.

  16. Enhanced pinning in mixed rare earth-123 films

    DOEpatents

    Driscoll, Judith L [Los Alamos, NM; Foltyn, Stephen R [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-06-16

    An superconductive article and method of forming such an article is disclosed, the article including a substrate and a layer of a rare earth barium cuprate film upon the substrate, the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals capable of yielding a superconductive composition where ion size variance between the two or more rare earth metals is characterized as greater than zero and less than about 10.times.10.sup.-4, and the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals is further characterized as having an enhanced critical current density in comparison to a standard YBa.sub.2Cu.sub.3O.sub.y composition under identical testing conditions.

  17. Half-sandwich rare-earth-catalyzed olefin polymerization, carbometalation, and hydroarylation.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Masayoshi; Guo, Fang; Hou, Zhaomin

    2015-08-18

    The search for new catalysts for more efficient, selective chemical transformations and for the synthesis of new functional materials has been a long-standing research subject in both academia and industry. To develop new generations of catalysts that are superior or complementary to the existing ones, exploring the potential of untapped elements is an important strategy. Rare-earth elements, including scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanides (La-Lu), constitute one important frontier in the periodic table. Rare-earth elements possess unique chemical and physical properties that are different from those of main-group and late-transition metals. The development of rare-earth-based catalysts by taking the advantage of these unique properties is of great interest and importance. The most stable oxidation state of rare-earth metals is 3+, which is difficult to change under many reaction conditions. The oxidative addition and reductive elimination processes often observed in catalytic cycles involving late transition metals are generally difficult in the case of rare-earth complexes. The 18-electron rule that is applicable to late-transition-metal complexes does not fit rare-earth complexes, whose structures are mainly governed by the sterics (rather than the electron numbers) of the ligands. In the lanthanide series (La-Lu), the ionic radius gradually decreases with increasing atomic number because of the influence of the 4f electrons, which show poor shielding of nuclear charge. Rare-earth metal ions generally show strong Lewis acidity and oxophilicity. Rare-earth metal alkyl and hydride species are highly reactive, showing both nucleophilicity and basicity. The combination of these features, such as the strong nucleophilicity and moderate basicity of the alkyl and hydride species and the high stability, strong Lewis acidity, and unsaturated C-C bond affinity of the 3+ metal ions, can make rare-earth metals unique candidates for the formation of excellent single

  18. Rare Earth Elements in Alberta Oil Sand Process Streams

    DOE PAGES

    Roth, Elliot; Bank, Tracy; Howard, Bret; ...

    2017-04-05

    The concentrations of rare earth elements in Alberta, Canada oil sands and six oil sand waste streams were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). The results indicate that the rare earth elements (REEs) are largely concentrated in the tailings solvent recovery unit (TSRU) sample compared to the oil sand itself. The concentration of lanthanide elements is ~1100 mg/kg (1100 ppm or 0.11 weight %), which represents a >20× increase in the concentration compared to the oil sand itself and a >7× increase compared to the North American Shale Composite (NASC). The process water, which is used to extractmore » the oil from oil sands, and the water fraction associated with the different waste streams had very low concentrations of REEs that were near or below the detection limits of the instrument, with the highest total concentration of REEs in the water fraction being less than 10 μg/L (ppb). Size and density separations were completed, and the REEs and other potentially interesting and valuable metals, such as Ti and Zr, were concentrated in different fractions. These results give insights into the possibility of recovering REEs from waste streams generated from oil sand processing.« less

  19. Crystal chemistry of hydrothermally grown ternary alkali rare earth fluorides.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Colin D; Comer, Sara; Fulle, Kyle; Sanjeewa, Liurukara D; Kolis, Joseph W

    2015-12-01

    The structural variations of several alkali metal rare earth fluoride single crystals are summarized. Two different stoichiometric formulations are considered, namely those of ARE2F7 and ARE3F10 (A = K, Rb, Cs; RE = Y, La-Lu), over a wide range of ionic radii of both the alkali and rare earth (RE) ions. Previously reported and several new single-crystal structures are considered. The new single crystals are grown using hydrothermal methods and the structures are compared with literature reports of structures grown from both melts and hydrothermal fluids. The data reported here are combined with the literature data to gain a greater understanding of structural subtleties surrounding these systems. The work underscores the importance of the size of the cations to the observed structure type and also introduces synthetic technique as a contributor to the same. New insights based on single-crystal structure analysis in the work introduce a new disordered structure type in the case of ARE2F7, and examine the trends and boundaries of the ARE3F10 stoichiometry. Such fundamental structural information is useful in understanding the potential applications of these compounds as optical materials.

  20. Impurity-sensitized luminescence of rare earth-doped materials

    SciTech Connect

    Smentek, Lidia . E-mail: smentek1@aol.com

    2005-02-15

    The accuracy of the theoretical model of impurity-sensitized luminescence in rare earth-doped materials presented here is adjusted to the demands of precise modern experimental techniques. The description is formulated within the double perturbation theory, and it is based on the assumption that electrostatic interactions between the subsystems that take part in the luminescence process are the most important ones. The amplitude of the energy transfer is determined by the contributions that represent the perturbing influence of the crystal-field potential and also electron correlation effects taken into account within the rare earth ions. In this way, the model is defined beyond the standard free ionic system and single configuration approximations. The new contributions to the energy transfer amplitude are expressed in the terms of effective tensor operators, and they contain the perturbing influence of various excited configurations. In order to maintain the high accuracy of the model, the radial integrals of all effective operators are defined within the so-called perturbed function approach. This means that they are evaluated for the complete radial basis sets of one electron functions of given symmetry, including the continuum.

  1. Bacterial Cell Surface Adsorption of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Y.; Park, D.; Reed, D.; Fujita, Y.; Yung, M.; Anderko, A.; Eslamimanesh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) play a critical role in many emerging clean energy technologies, including high-power magnets, wind turbines, solar panels, hybrid/electric vehicle batteries and lamp phosphors. In order to sustain demand for such technologies given current domestic REE shortages, there is a need to develop new approaches for ore processing/refining and recycling of REE-containing materials. To this end, we have developed a microbially-mediated bioadsorption strategy with application towards enrichment of REE from complex mixtures. Specifically, the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was genetically engineered to display lanthanide binding tags (LBTs), short peptides that possess high affinity and specificity for rare earth elements, on its cell surface S-layer protein. Under optimal conditions, LBT-displayed cells adsorbed greater than 5-fold more REE than control cells lacking LBTs. Competition binding experiments with a selection of REEs demonstrated that our engineered cells could facilitate separation of light- from heavy- REE. Importantly, binding of REE onto our engineered strains was much more favorable compared to non-REE metals. Finally, REE bound to the cell surface could be stripped off using citrate, providing an effective and non-toxic REE recovery method. Together, this data highlights the potential of our approach for selective REE enrichment from REE containing mixtures.

  2. China’s Rare Earth Policies: Economic Statecraft or Interdependence?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Commission PRC People’s Republic of China REE rare earth element SmCo Samarium Cobalt SOE state-owned enterprise xiv...supply of rare earths for defense purposes. Rare earths are used in two types of commercially available permanent magnet materials: samarium cobalt...to be mined. Oxide: An oxide is any compound of oxygen with another element or radical. SmCo: Samarium cobalt permanent magnet. Tailings: The

  3. SALICYLATE PROCESS FOR THORIUM SEPARATION FROM RARE EARTHS

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, G.A.

    1959-08-25

    The separation of thorium from rare earths is accomplished by forming an aqueous solution of salts of thorium and rare earths and sufficient acetate buffer to provide a pH of between 2 and 5, adding an ammonium salicylate to the aqueous buffered solution, contacting the resultant solution with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent mixture of an ether and an ester, and separating the solvent extract phase containing thorium salicylate from the aqueous phase containing the rare earths.

  4. Mechanism of Rare Earth Incorporation and Crystal Growth of Rare Earth Containing Type-I Clathrates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Type-I clathrates possess extremely low thermal conductivities, a property that makes them promising materials for thermoelectric applications. The incorporation of cerium into one such clathrate has recently been shown to lead to a drastic enhancement of the thermopower, another property determining the thermoelectric efficiency. Here we explore the mechanism of the incorporation of rare earth elements into type-I clathrates. Our investigation of the crystal growth and the composition of the phase Ba8–xRExTMySi46–y (RE = rare earth element; TM = Au, Pd, Pt) reveals that the RE content x is mainly governed by two factors, the free cage space and the electron balance. PMID:26823658

  5. Minerals yearbook, 1989: Rare-earth minerals and metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.B.; Templeton, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Domestic consumption of the rare earths was almost double the quantity used in 1988, mine production increased sharply, and the industry performed well amid increased international competition. Traditional markets of the rare earths, such as petroleum catalysts and metallurgical additives, continued a downward trend while new and emerging markets, such as neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets, advanced ceramics, and automotive catalysts, showed strong growth. The television and lamp phosphors market was unchanged, and glass polishing applications increased markedly. Demand for rare earths consumed in high-temperature superconductors was small; however, technologic breakthroughs in 1989 increased the prospects for commercial development of rare-earth superconductors.

  6. The Rare Earth Magnet Industry and Rare Earth Price in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kaihong

    2014-07-01

    In the past four years, the price of rare earth metal fluctuates sharply for many reasons. Currently, it has become more stable and more reasonable. This presentation is focused on the effect about the rare earth metal price. Some motor manufacturers have shifted from rare earth permanent magnet to ferrite magnet. Many motor manufacturers changed the design for the motor cooling system to make the motor function at a lower temperature. Thus the consumption of Dy can be markedly reduced. As for manufacturer of NdFeB magnet, we are also trying to optimize our process to reduce to dependence of HREE such as Dy and Tb. HS process have been introduced to solve the problem. With more and more people focusing and engaging on the REE industry, the price of REE will be more transparent without too many fluctuations. China is considering the problems of balancing the environment, energy sources, and labor sources. The application field about NdFeB such as wind turbine generator, HEV/EV, FA /OA is flourishing.

  7. Rare earth element ore geology of carbonatites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Mariano, Anthony N.; Mariano, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, carbonatites have been the primary source of niobium and rare earth elements (REEs), in particular the light REEs, including La, Ce, Pr, and Nd. Carbonatites are a relatively rare type of igneous rock composed of greater than 50 vol % primary carbonate minerals, primarily calcite and/or dolomite, and contain the highest concentrations of REEs of any igneous rocks. Although there are more than 500 known carbonatites in the world, currently only four are being mined for REEs: the Bayan Obo, Maoniuping, and Dalucao deposits in China, and the Mountain Pass deposit in California, United States. The carbonatite-derived laterite deposit at Mount Weld in Western Australia is also a REE producer. In addition to REEs, carbonatite-related deposits are the primary source of Nb, with the Araxá deposit, a carbonatite-derived laterite in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, being the dominant producer. Other commodities produced from carbonatite-related deposits include phosphates, iron, fluorite, copper, vanadium, titanium, uranium, and calcite.Types of ores include those formed as primary magmatic minerals, from late magmatic hydrothermal fluids, and by supergene enrichment in weathered horizons. Although the principal REE-bearing mineral phases include fluorocarbonates (bastnäsite, parisite, and synchysite), hydrated carbonates (ancylite), and phosphates (monazite and apatite), the dominant mineral exploited at most mines is bastnäsite. Bastnäsite typically is coarse grained and contains approximately 75 wt % RE2O3 (rare earth oxides; REOs). Processes responsible for REE enrichment include fractional crystallization of the carbonatitic magma, enrichment of REEs in orthomagmatic or hydrothermal fluids and subsequent precipitation or subsolidus metasomatic redistribution of REEs, and breakdown of primary carbonatitic mineral phases by chemical weathering and sequestration of REEs in secondary minerals or in association with clays. Carbonatites are primarily

  8. Improved Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M.

    2011-01-01

    An improvement has been made to the design of the hollow cathode geometry that was created for the rare-earth electron emitter described in Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode (NPO-44923), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (March 2010), p. 52. The original interior assembly was made entirely of graphite in order to be compatible with the LaB6 material, which cannot be touched by metals during operation due to boron diffusion causing embrittlement issues in high-temperature refractory materials. Also, the graphite tube was difficult to machine and was subject to vibration-induced fracturing. This innovation replaces the graphite tube with one made out of refractory metal that is relatively easy to manufacture. The cathode support tube is made of molybdenum or molybdenum-rhenium. This material is easily gun-bored to near the tolerances required, and finish machined with steps at each end that capture the orifice plate and the mounting flange. This provides the manufacturability and robustness needed for flight applications, and eliminates the need for expensive e-beam welding used in prior cathodes. The LaB6 insert is protected from direct contact with the refractory metal tube by thin, graphite sleeves in a cup-arrangement around the ends of the insert. The sleeves, insert, and orifice plate are held in place by a ceramic spacer and tungsten spring inserted inside the tube. To heat the cathode, an insulating tube is slipped around the refractory metal hollow tube, which can be made of high-temperature materials like boron nitride or aluminum nitride. A screw-shaped slot, or series of slots, is machined in the outside of the ceramic tube to constrain a refractory metal wire wound inside the slot that is used as the heater. The screw slot can hold a single heater wire that is then connected to the front of the cathode tube by tack-welding to complete the electrical circuit, or it can be a double slot that takes a bifilar wound heater with both leads coming out

  9. Determination of rare earth elements in high purity rare earth oxides by liquid chromatography, thermionic mass spectrometry and combined liquid chromatography/thermionic mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stijfhoorn, D. E.; Stray, H.; Hjelmseth, H.

    1993-03-01

    A high-performance liquid Chromatographie (HPLC) method for the determination of rare earth elements in rocks has been modified and used for the determination of rare earth elements (REE) in high purity rare earth oxides. The detection limit was 1-1.5 ng or 2-3 mg/kg when a solution corresponding to 0.5 mg of the rare earth oxide was injected. The REE determination was also carried out by adding a mixture of selected REE isotopes to the sample and analysing the collected HPLC-fractions by mass spectrometry (MS) using a thermionic source. Since the matrix element was not collected, interference from this element during the mass spectrometric analysis was avoided. Detection limits as low as 0.5 mg/kg could then be obtained. Detection limits as low as 0.05 mg/kg were possible by MS without HPLC-pre-separation, but this approach could only be used for those elements that were not affected by the matrix. Commercial samples of high purity Nd 2O 3, Gd 2O 3 and Dy 2O 3 were analysed in this study, and a comparison of results obtained by HPLC, combined HPLC/MS and direct MS are presented.

  10. Mussel shells of Mytilus edulis as bioarchives of the distribution of rare earth elements and yttrium in seawater and the potential impact of pH and temperature on their partitioning behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponnurangam, A.; Bau, M.; Brenner, M.; Koschinsky, A.

    2016-02-01

    Mussel shells are potential bioarchives of proxies for changes in the physicochemical conditions in the bivalve's habitat. One such proxy is the distribution of rare earths and yttrium (REY) in seawater, as REY speciation in seawater is sensitive to pH and temperature variations, due to the impact of these parameters on the activity of CO32- in seawater. We present a new protocol for sample preparation and determination of ultratrace concentrations of REY in bulk bivalve shells (comprised of calcite and aragonite) that includes sample treatment with NaOCl followed by REY separation and preconcentration. The data obtained were used to calculate REY partition coefficients between bulk bimineralic shells of Mytilus edulis (calcite aragonite mix) and ambient seawater, and the results acquired were then used to investigate the potential effects of pH and temperature on REY partitioning.Shells of Mytilus edulis mussels from the North Sea show consistent shale-normalized (SN) REY patterns that increase from the light REY to the middle REY and decrease from the middle REY to the heavy REY. Despite being different from the general seawater REYSN pattern, the shells still display distinct REY features of seawater, such as a negative CeSN anomaly and small positive YSN and GdSN anomalies. Apparent REY partition coefficients between shells and seawater (appDTot.REYshell/seawater) are low and decrease strongly from the light REY (4.04 for La) to the heavy REY (0.34 for Lu). However, assuming that only the free REY3+ are incorporated into the shell, modDFreeREY3+shell/seawater values are higher and comparatively similar for all REY (102.46 for La; 113.44 for Lu) but show a slight maximum at Tb (199.18). Although the impact of vital effects, such as REY speciation in a mussel's extrapallial fluid from which the carbonate minerals precipitate, cannot be quantified yet, it appears that M. edulis shells are bioarchives of some REY features of seawater.We modeled the REYSN patterns

  11. Rare earths exposure and male infertility: the injury mechanism study of rare earths on male mice and human sperm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Xiao, Heng-Jun; Qi, Tao; Chen, Di-Ling; Long, He-Ming; Liu, Song-Hao

    2015-02-01

    The weight; testis/body coefficient; levels of LDH, SDH, SODH, G-6PD, and testosterone; cell cycle; and cell apoptosis of the male mice were influenced after being treated with 200 mg/[kg/day] of rare earths suspension for 3 weeks. The "Raman fingerprints" of the human sperm DNA exposed to 0.040 mg/ml CeCl3 were very different from those of the untreated; the Raman bands at 789 cm(-1) (backbone phosphodiester), PO4 backbone at 1,094 cm(-1), methylene deformation mode at 1,221 cm(-1), methylene deformation mode at 1,485 cm(-1), and amide II at 1,612 cm(-1), of which intensities and shifts were changed, might be the diagnostic biomarkers or potential therapeutic targets. The injury mechanism might be that the rare earths influence the oxidative stress and blood testosterone barrier, tangle the big biomolecule concurrently, which might cause the testicular cells and vascular system disorder and/or dysfunction, and at the same time change the physical and chemical properties of the sperm directly.

  12. Method for preparing high cure temperature rare earth iron compound magnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yuhong; Wei, Qiang; Zheng, Haixing

    2002-01-01

    Insertion of light elements such as H,C, or N in the R.sub.2 Fe.sub.17 (R=rare earth metal) series has been found to modify the magnetic properties of these compounds, which thus become prospective candidates for high performance permanent magnets. The most spectacular changes are increases of the Curie temperature, T.sub.c, of the magnetization, M.sub.s, and of coercivity, H.sub.c, upon interstitial insertion. A preliminary product having a component R--Fe--C,N phase is produced by a chemical route. Rare earth metal and iron amides are synthesized followed by pyrolysis and sintering in an inert or reduced atmosphere, as a result of which, the R--Fe--C,N phases are formed. Fabrication of sintered rare earth iron nitride and carbonitride bulk magnet is impossible via conventional process due to the limitation of nitridation method.

  13. Precise rare earth analysis of geological materials

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Wogman, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations are very informative in revealing chemical fractionation processs in geological systems. The REE's (La-Lu) behavior is characteristic of various primary and secondary minerals which comprise a rock. The REE's contents and their patterns provide a strong fingerprint in distinguishing among various rock types and in understanding the partial melting and/or fractional crystallization of the source region. The REE contents in geological materials are usually at trace levels. To measure all the REE at such levels, radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) has been used with a REE group separation scheme. To maximize detection sensitivites for individual REE, selective ..gamma..-ray/x-ray measurements have been made using normal Ge(Li) and low-energy photon detectors (LEPD), and Ge(Li)-NaI(Tl) coincidence-noncoincidence spectrometer systems. Using these detection methods an individual REE can be measured at or below the ppB levels; chemical yields of the REE are determined by reactivation.

  14. Chromatographic Techniques for Rare Earth Elements Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Huashan; Jiang, Zucheng; Hu, Bin

    2017-04-01

    The present capability of rare earth element (REE) analysis has been achieved by the development of two instrumental techniques. The efficiency of spectroscopic methods was extraordinarily improved for the detection and determination of REE traces in various materials. On the other hand, the determination of REEs very often depends on the preconcentration and separation of REEs, and chromatographic techniques are very powerful tools for the separation of REEs. By coupling with sensitive detectors, many ambitious analytical tasks can be fulfilled. Liquid chromatography is the most widely used technique. Different combinations of stationary phases and mobile phases could be used in ion exchange chromatography, ion chromatography, ion-pair reverse-phase chromatography and some other techniques. The application of gas chromatography is limited because only volatile compounds of REEs can be separated. Thin-layer and paper chromatography are techniques that cannot be directly coupled with suitable detectors, which limit their applications. For special demands, separations can be performed by capillary electrophoresis, which has very high separation efficiency.

  15. Lateritic, supergene rare earth element (REE) deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cocker, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Intensive lateritic weathering of bedrock under tropical or sub-tropical climatic conditions can form a variety of secondary, supergene-type deposits. These secondary deposits may range in composition from aluminous bauxites to iron and niobium, and include rare earth elements (REE). Over 250 lateritic deposits of REE are currently known and many have been important sources of REE. In southeastern China, lateritic REE deposits, known as ion-adsorption type deposits, have been the world’s largest source of heavy REE (HREE). The lateritized upper parts of carbonatite intrusions are being investigated for REE in South America, Africa, Asia and Australia, with the Mt. Weld deposit in Australia being brought into production in late 2012. Lateritic REE deposits may be derived from a wide range of primary host rocks, but all have similar laterite and enrichment profiles, and are probably formed under similar climatic conditions. The weathering profile commonly consists of a depleted zone, an enriched zone, and a partially weathered zone which overlie the protolith. Lateritic weathering may commonly extend to depths of 30 to 60 m. REE are mobilized from the breakdown of primary REE-bearing minerals and redeposited in the enriched zone deeper in the weathering horizon as secondary minerals, as colloids, or adsorbed on other secondary minerals. Enrichment of REE may range from 3 to 10 times that of the source lithology; in some instances, enrichment may range up to 100 times.

  16. Accumulation of rare earth elements by siderophore-forming Arthrobacter luteolus isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara, India.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, E S Challaraj; Ananthi, T; Anandkumar, B; Maruthamuthu, S

    2012-03-01

    In this study, Arthrobacter luteolus, isolated from rare earth environment of Chavara (Quilon district, Kerala, India), were found to produce catechol-type siderophores. The bacterial strain accumulated rare earth elements such as samarium and scandium. The siderophores may play a role in the accumulation of rare earth elements. Catecholate siderophore and low-molecular-weight organic acids were found to be present in experiments with Arthrobacter luteolus. The influence of siderophore on the accumulation of rare earth elements by bacteria has been extensively discussed.

  17. Acoustic and Thermal Vibrational Behavior of Rare Earth Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Senin, H. B.; Kancono, W.; Sidek, H. A. A.

    2007-05-09

    The ultrasonic wave velocity and the thermal expansion of the rare earth glasses have been measured as functions of temperature and pressure to test predictions of the soft potential model for the acoustic and thermal properties. The longitudinal ultrasonic wave velocities increase under pressure. The hydrostatic pressure derivative of the bulk modulus is positive: these glasses show a normal elastic response as compressed. However, the pressure derivative of the shear modulus is negative and small, indicating weak softening of shear modes under pressure. The results found are used to determine the Gruneisen parameters. This is to obtain the acoustic mode contribution to thermal expansion. After subtraction of the relaxation and anharmonic contributions, the temperature dependence of the shear wave ultrasound velocity follows a linear law as predicted by the Soft Potential Model.

  18. Pressure-induced exotic states in rare earth hexaborides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liling; Wu, Qi

    2016-08-01

    Finding the exotic phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems (SCESs) and understanding the corresponding microphysics have long been the research frontiers of condensed matter physics. The remarkable examples for the intriguing phenomena discovered in past years include unconventional superconductivity, heavy Fermion behaviors, giant magneto-resistance and so on. A fascinating type of rare earth hexaboride RB6 (R  =  Sm, Yb, Eu and Ce) belongs to a strongly correlated electron system (SCES), but shows unusual ambient-pressure and high-pressure behaviors beyond the phenomena mentioned above. Particularly, the recent discovery of the coexistence of an unusual metallic surface state and an insulating bulk state in SmB6, known to be a Kondo insulator decades ago, by theoretical calculations and many experimental measurements creates new interest for the investigation of the RB6. This significant progress encourages people to revisit the RB6 with an attempt to establish a new physics that links the SCES and the unusual metallic surface state which is a common feature of a topological insulator (TI). It is well known that pressure has the capability of tuning the electronic structure and modifying the ground state of solids, or even inducing a quantum phase transition which is one of the kernel issues in studies of SCESs. In this brief review, we will describe the progress in high pressure studies on the RB6 based on our knowledge and research interests, mainly focusing on the pressure-induced phenomena in YbB6 and SmB6, especially on the quantum phase transitions and their connections with the valence state of the rare earth ions. Moreover, some related high-pressure results obtained from CeB6 and EuB6 are also included. Finally, a summary is given in the conclusions and perspectives section.

  19. Pressure-induced exotic states in rare earth hexaborides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liling; Wu, Qi

    2016-08-01

    Finding the exotic phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems (SCESs) and understanding the corresponding microphysics have long been the research frontiers of condensed matter physics. The remarkable examples for the intriguing phenomena discovered in past years include unconventional superconductivity, heavy Fermion behaviors, giant magneto-resistance and so on. A fascinating type of rare earth hexaboride RB6 (R  =  Sm, Yb, Eu and Ce) belongs to a strongly correlated electron system (SCES), but shows unusual ambient-pressure and high-pressure behaviors beyond the phenomena mentioned above. Particularly, the recent discovery of the coexistence of an unusual metallic surface state and an insulating bulk state in SmB6, known to be a Kondo insulator decades ago, by theoretical calculations and many experimental measurements creates new interest for the investigation of the RB6. This significant progress encourages people to revisit the RB6 with an attempt to establish a new physics that links the SCES and the unusual metallic surface state which is a common feature of a topological insulator (TI). It is well known that pressure has the capability of tuning the electronic structure and modifying the ground state of solids, or even inducing a quantum phase transition which is one of the kernel issues in studies of SCESs. In this brief review, we will describe the progress in high pressure studies on the RB6 based on our knowledge and research interests, mainly focusing on the pressure-induced phenomena in YbB6 and SmB6, especially on the quantum phase transitions and their connections with the valence state of the rare earth ions. Moreover, some related high-pressure results obtained from CeB6 and EuB6 are also included. Finally, a summary is given in the conclusions and perspectives section.

  20. Tunable, rare earth-doped solid state lasers

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, John L.; Jacobs, Ralph R.; Krupke, William F.; Weber, Marvin J.

    1980-01-01

    Laser apparatus comprising combinations of an excimer pump laser and a rare earth-doped solid matrix, utilizing the 5d-4f radiative transition in a rare earth ion to produce visible and ultra-violet laser radiation with high overall efficiency in selected cases and relatively long radiative lifetimes.

  1. How PNNL Extracts Rare Earth Elements from Geothermal Brine

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-12

    By looking at a problem at a nanoscale level, PNNL researchers are developing an economic way to extract valuable rare earth elements from geothermal fluids. This novel approach may help meet the high demand for rare earth elements that are used in many clean energy technologies.

  2. CADMIUM-RARE EARTH BORATE GLASS AS REACTOR CONTROL MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Ploetz, G.L.; Ray, W.E.

    1958-11-01

    A reactor control rod fabricated from a cadmiumrare earth-borate glass is presented. The rare earth component of this glass is selected from among those rare earths having large neutron capture cross sections, such as samarium, gadolinium or europium. Partlcles of this glass are then dispersed in a metal matrix by standard powder metallurgy techniques.

  3. Rare-earth occurrences in the Pea Ridge tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Vierrether, C.W.; Cornell, W.I.

    1993-01-01

    Tailings from the Pea Ridge iron mine contain significant amounts of apatite, which has rare-earth element values associated with it. In association with the recovery of rare-earth minerals as a secondary resource, the US Bureau of Mines conducted an investigation on the recoverability of the rare-earth minerals from the tailings. The mill tailings were subjected to a phosphate flotation to separate the apatite from other constituents. More than 70-pct recovery of the rare-earth values was achieved. Based on mineralogical characterization and prior analysis of rare-earth-bearing breccia pipe material at Pea Ridge, it is proposed that processing this phosphate concentrate on a vanner table would yield up to a 95-pct recovery of the rare earths in the concentrate, with the apatite reporting to the tailings. Intensive ore microscopy studies of the original tailings to the flotation products led to the identification of monazite, xenotime, and rare-earth-enriched apatite as the major rare-earth-bearing minerals in the tailings.

  4. [Rare-earth metals as a factor in mutagenicity].

    PubMed

    Solovykh, G N; Golinskaia, L V; Kanunikova, E A

    2012-01-01

    Both the regions of the Orenburg Region area and individual examined streams and reservoirs were shown to be characterized by a varying load index for rare earth elements. The total level of rare earth elements was directly correlated with different types of mutations.

  5. Rare earths and other trace elements in Luna 16 soil.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Haskin, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis has been made of four small samples of material brought to earth by the Luna 16 mission, with the aim to determine rare earths and other trace elements in these samples. The analytical results are tabulated, and the rare earth abundances are compared with the average for chondrites. A comparison is also made with the results of similar analyses of Apollo samples.

  6. Optical Properties of Nd Doped Rare Earth Vanadates (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    common of these is yttrium orthovanadate, other rare earth vanadates such as lutetium vanadate and gadolinium vanadate are being used for their...state laser hosts such as YAG. While the most common of these is yttrium orthovanadate, other rare earth vanadates such as lutetium vanadate and

  7. Effects of Rare Earth Metals on Steel Microstructures.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hao-Long; Su, Yen-Hsun; Kuo, Chia-Liang; Su, Yen-Hao; Chen, Shin-Hau; Lin, Kuan-Ju; Hsieh, Ping-Hung; Hwang, Weng-Sing

    2016-05-27

    Rare earth metals are used in semiconductors, solar cells and catalysts. This review focuses on the background of oxide metallurgy technologies, the chemical and physical properties of rare earth (RE) metals, the background of oxide metallurgy, the functions of RE metals in steelmaking, and the influences of RE metals on steel microstructures. Future prospects for RE metal applications in steelmaking are also presented.

  8. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721.6005 Section 721.6005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721.6005 Section 721.6005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721.6005 Section 721.6005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721.6005 Section 721.6005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6005 - Rare earth phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rare earth phosphate (generic). 721.6005 Section 721.6005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.6005 Rare earth phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...

  13. Alkaline earth imidazolate coordination polymers by solvent free melt synthesis as potential host lattices for rare earth photoluminescence: (x)(∞)[AE(Im)2(ImH)(2-3)], Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, x = 1-2.

    PubMed

    Zurawski, Alexander; Rybak, J-Christoph; Meyer, Larissa V; Matthes, Philipp R; Stepanenko, Vladimir; Dannenbauer, Nicole; Würthner, Frank; Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus

    2012-04-14

    The series of alkaline earth elements magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium yields single crystalline imidazolate coordination polymers by reactions of the metals with a melt of 1H-imidazole: (1)(∞)[Mg(Im)(2)(ImH)(3)] (1), (2)(∞)[AE(Im)(2)(ImH)(2)], AE = Ca (2), Sr (3), and (1)(∞)[Ba(Im)(2)(ImH)(2)] (4). No additional solvents were used for the reactions. Co-doping experiments by addition of the rare earth elements cerium, europium and terbium were carried out. They indicate (2)(∞)[Sr(Im)(2)(ImH)(2)] as a possible host lattice for cerium(III) photoluminescence showing a blue emission and thus a novel blue emitting hybrid material phosphor 3:Ce(3+). Co-doping with europium and terbium is also possible but resulted in formation of (3)(∞)[Sr(Im)(2)]:Ln, Ln = Eu and Tb (5), with both exhibiting green emission of either Eu(2+) or Tb(3+). The other alkaline earth elements do not show acceptance of the rare earth ions investigated and a different structural chemistry. For magnesium and barium one-dimensional strand structures are observed whereas calcium and strontium give two-dimensional network structures. Combined with an increase of the ionic radii of AE(2+) the coordinative demand is also increasing from Mg(2+) to Ba(2+), reflected by four different crystal structures for the four elements Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba in 1-4. Different linkages of the imidazolate ligands result in a change from complete σ-N coordination in 1 to additional η(5)-π coordination in 4. The success of co-doping with different lanthanide ions is based on a match in the chemical behaviour and cationic radii. The use of strontium for host lattices with imidazole is a rare example in coordination chemistry of co-doping with small amounts of luminescence centers and successfully reduces the amount of high price rare earth elements in hybrid materials while maintaining the properties. All compounds are examples of pure N-coordinated coordination polymers of the alkaline earth metals and were

  14. Rare earth element diffusion in natural enstatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, Daniele J.; Liang, Yan

    2007-03-01

    Chemical diffusion coefficients of La, Nd, Eu, Gd, and Yb in natural enstatite have been measured at 850-1250 °C and 1 atm. Anhydrous diffusion experiments were run in Pt capsules in air, or in sealed silica glass capsules under an iron-wüstite (IW) solid buffer. The sources of diffusant were pre-reacted mixtures of synthetic enstatite powder and microcrystalline rare-earth aluminate garnet. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used to measure diffusion profiles. For Gd diffusion in air over the temperature range 1000-1250 °C, the following Arrhenius relation is found for diffusion normal to (210): D=2.55×10-9exp(321±85mol /RT)ms-1. There is no significant difference between Gd diffusion in air and under IW-buffered conditions. Behavior similar to Gd is also noted for Nd. The Arrhenius relationship for Eu diffusion in enstatite, normal to (210) and at 850-1150 °C and IW-buffered conditions, is D=6.93×10-6exp(-384±29mol /RT)ms-1. For Eu diffusion in air over the temperature range 1000-1200 °C for the same orientation, the following Arrhenius relation is found: D=1.70×10-8exp(-350±42mol /RT)ms-1. For Eu diffusion under IW-buffered conditions and for experiments run in air, diffusivities normal to (001) are similar to those for diffusion normal to (210). Eu diffusion under IW-buffered conditions is more than an order of magnitude faster than Eu diffusion in air. It is likely that majority of Eu is in the divalent state for diffusion under IW-buffered conditions, but Eu is in the trivalent state for diffusion in air. In the case of Nd and Gd, where valence state does not change under the investigated fO 2 conditions, diffusivities measured for experiments run both in air and under IW-buffered conditions are comparable to those obtained for trivalent Eu. Further, measurements of La, Nd, Eu +3, Gd, and Yb diffusion suggest that diffusion of trivalent REE in enstatite is not sensitive to ionic size, in contrast to that observed for REE diffusion in

  15. Condensation and fractionation of rare earths in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, A. M.; Grossman, L.

    1979-01-01

    The condensation behavior of the rare earth elements in the solar nebula is calculated on the basis of the most recent thermodynamic data in order to construct a model explaining group II rare earth element patterns in Allende inclusions. Models considered all involve the removal of large fractions of the more refractory heavy rare earth elements in an early condensate, followed by the condensation of the remainder at a lower temperature. It is shown that the model of Boynton (1975) in which one rare earth element component is dissolved nonideally in perovskite according to relative activity coefficients can not reasonably be made to fit the observed group II patterns. A model in which two rare earth components control the patterns and dissolve ideally in perovskite is proposed and shown to be able to account for the 20 patterns by variations of the perovskite removal temperature and the relative proportions of the two components.

  16. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AMERICIUM AND CURIUM FROM RARE EARTH ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Baybarz, R.D.; Lloyd, M.H.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to methods of separating americium and curium values from rare earth values. In accordance with the invention americium, curium, and rare earth values are sorbed on an anion exchange resin. A major portion of the rare earth values are selectively stripped from the resin with a concentrated aqueous solution of lithium chloride, and americium, curium, and a minor portion of rare earth values are then stripped from the resin with a dilute aqueous solution of lithium chloride. The americium and curium values are further purified by increasing the concentration of lithium chloride in the solution to at least 8 molar and selectively extracting rare earth values from the resulting solution with a monoalkylphosphoric acid. (AEC)

  17. Condensation and fractionation of rare earths in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, A. M.; Grossman, L.

    1979-01-01

    The condensation behavior of the rare earth elements in the solar nebula is calculated on the basis of the most recent thermodynamic data in order to construct a model explaining group II rare earth element patterns in Allende inclusions. Models considered all involve the removal of large fractions of the more refractory heavy rare earth elements in an early condensate, followed by the condensation of the remainder at a lower temperature. It is shown that the model of Boynton (1975) in which one rare earth element component is dissolved nonideally in perovskite according to relative activity coefficients can not reasonably be made to fit the observed group II patterns. A model in which two rare earth components control the patterns and dissolve ideally in perovskite is proposed and shown to be able to account for the 20 patterns by variations of the perovskite removal temperature and the relative proportions of the two components.

  18. Rare earth elements in Hamersley BIF minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibert, Chantal

    2016-07-01

    Minerals from the Hamersley banded iron formation, Western Australia, were analyzed for Y and rare earth elements (YREEs) by laser ablation ICP-MS to investigate diagenetic pathways, from precursor phases to BIF minerals. One group of apatites carries the seawater REE signature, giving evidence that P and REEs, thoroughly scavenged from the water column by Si-ferrihydrite particles, were released upon microbial Fe3+ reductive dissolution of Si-ferrihydrite in pore-water and finally sequestered mainly in authigenic apatite. The absence of fractionation between apatite and seawater suggests that REE were first incorporated into an amorphous calcium phosphate as fully hydrated cations, i.e. as outer-sphere complexes. The iron oxides and carbonates carry only a small fraction of the whole-rock REE budget. Their REE patterns are distinctly enriched in Yb and show some M-type tetrad effect consistent with experimental Kd(REE) between solid and saline solution with low carbonate ion concentrations. It is deduced that hematite formed at an incipient stage of Fe2+-catalyzed dissolution of Si-ferrihydrite, via a dissolution-reprecipitation pathway. The REE pattern of greenalite, found as sub-micron particles in quartz in a chert-siderite sample, is consistent with its authigenic origin by precipitation in pore-water after dissolution of a small amount of Si-ferrihydrite. Magnetite carries very low YREEs (ppb-level), has an homogeneous pattern distinctly enriched in the mid-REEs compared to hematite, and includes a late population depleted in light-REEs, Ba and As. Magnetite forming aggregates and massive laminae is tentatively interpreted as reflecting some fluid-aided hematite-magnetite re-equilibration or transformation at low-grade metamorphic temperatures.

  19. Troubling Toys: Rare-Earth Magnet Ingestion in Children Causing Bowel Perforations

    PubMed Central

    Mandhan, Parkash; Alsalihi, Muthana; Mammoo, Saleem; Ali, Mansour J.

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of foreign bodies in the pediatric population is common and magnet ingestion is known to cause a significant morbidity. Rare-earth magnets are small 3–6 mm diameter spherical powerful magnets that are sold as popular desk toys for adults and were previously found in construction toys in attractive colors for children to play with. We describe 2 young healthy children who ingested rare-earth magnets Buckyballs while playing with these magnetic toys and later presented in emergency with acute abdomen. Abdominal imaging revealed several (26 and 5) pieces of rare-earth magnets in the bowel loops. Emergency surgical exploration revealed multiple gastrointestinal perforations and fistula formation at sites of bowel entrapment in between strong magnets apposed to one another. We highlight the potential dangers of rare-earth magnets in children and suggest increasing public awareness about risks involved in rare-earth magnets ingestion by children to overcome this serious public health issue. PMID:24876984

  20. Computational search for rare-earth free hard-magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Livas, José A.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Dewhurst, John Kay; Gross, Eberhard; MagMat Team

    2015-03-01

    It is difficult to over state the importance of hard magnets for human life in modern times; they enter every walk of our life from medical equipments (NMR) to transport (trains, planes, cars, etc) to electronic appliances (for house hold use to computers). All the known hard magnets in use today contain rare-earth elements, extraction of which is expensive and environmentally harmful. Rare-earths are also instrumental in tipping the balance of world economy as most of them are mined in limited specific parts of the world. Hence it would be ideal to have similar characteristics as a hard magnet but without or at least with reduced amount of rare-earths. This is the main goal of our work: search for rare-earth-free magnets. To do so we employ a combination of density functional theory and crystal prediction methods. The quantities which define a hard magnet are magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) and saturation magnetization (Ms), which are the quantities we maximize in search for an ideal magnet. In my talk I will present details of the computation search algorithm together with some potential newly discovered rare-earth free hard magnet. J.A.F.L. acknowledge financial support from EU's 7th Framework Marie-Curie scholarship program within the ``ExMaMa'' Project (329386).

  1. Actinides and Rare Earths Topical Conference (Code AC)

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2009-11-24

    Actinide and the Rare Earth materials exhibit many unique and diverse physical, chemical and magnetic properties, in large part because of the complexity of their f electronic structure. This Topical Conference will focus upon the chemistry, physics and materials science in Lanthanide and Actinide materials, driven by 4f and 5f electronic structure. Particular emphasis will be placed upon 4f/5f magnetic structure, surface science and thin film properties. For the actinides, fundamental actinide science and its role in resolving technical challenges posed by actinide materials will be stressed. Both basic and applied experimental approaches, including synchrotron-radiation-based investigations, as well as theoretical modeling and computational simulations, are planned to be part of the Topical Conference. Of particular importance are the issues related to the potential renaissance in Nuclear Fuels, including synthesis, oxidation, corrosion, intermixing, stability in extreme environments, prediction of properties via benchmarked simulations, separation science, environmental impact and disposal of waste products.

  2. Rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-rare earth alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.F.; Das, S.K.; Raybould, D.

    1987-01-01

    Among the light metal alloys, magnesium is the lightest structural material except for beryllium, and yet magnesium alloys have not seen extensive use because of their poor strength and corrosion resistance. Rapid solidification technology offers a possible solution to these problems. A number of Mg-Al-Zn alloys containing rare earth (RE) elements (e.g. Ce, Pr, Y, and Nd) have been investigated using rapid solidification processing for possible structural applications. The processing consists of planar flow or jet casting into ribbons, pulverization of ribbon to powder, and consolidation of powder into bulk shapes. The mechanical properties of some of these alloys show attractive combinations of strength, ductility and corrosion resistance. The microstructures of these alloys are correlated with their mechanical properties. The rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-RE alloys show great potential for applications in automotive and aerospace industries. 7 references.

  3. Rare-Earth Metal Postmetallocene Catalysts with Chelating Amido Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianshu; Jenter, Jelena; Roesky, Peter W.

    This review deals with the synthesis and the catalytic application of noncyclopentadienyl complexes of the rare-earth elements. The main topics of the review are amido metal complexes with chelating bidentate ligands, which show the most similarities to cyclopentadienyl ligands. Benzamidinates and guanidinates will be reviewed in a separate contribution within this book. Beside the synthesis of the complexes, the broad potential of these compounds in homogeneous catalysis is demonstrated. Most of the reviewed catalytic transformations are either C-C multiple bond transformation such as the hydroamination and hydrosilylation or polymerization reaction of polar and nonpolar monomers. In this area, butadiene and isoprene, ethylene, as well as lactides and lactones were mostly used as monomers.

  4. Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements. PMID:22355662

  5. Rare Earth core/shell nanobarcodes for multiplexed trace biodetection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Li, Xiaomin; Shen, Dengke; Zhou, Lei; Zhu, Dan; Fan, Chunhai; Zhang, Fan

    2015-06-02

    Multiplexed detection technology has been attractive for its simultaneous assay of several analytes, which play significant roles in applications such as screening for combinatorial chemistry, genetic analysis, and clinical diagnostics. This work reports a novel and potentially powerful encoding system based upon dispersible suspension arrays of multilayer rare earth core/shell nanoparticles that are capable of multiplexed, high-sensitivity reporting for biomolecule detection by the Z-contrast imaging. These nanobarcode arrays are encoded by nanostructure design based on different atomic numbers. With the well-resolved high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) decoding technique, many thousands of unique nanobarcodes can be identified by multilayer core/shell nanostructure. Their applications to multiplexed biodetection of DNA demonstrated the highly sensitive (picomole) features of this novel nanobarcode system.

  6. Uncovering the global life cycles of the rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T E

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

  7. Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

    2011-11-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

  8. Targeting heavy rare earth elements in carbonatite complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broom-Fendley, S.; Wall, F.; Gunn, A. G.; Dowman, E.

    2012-04-01

    The world's main sources of the rare earth elements (REE) are concentrated in carbonatite complexes. These have the advantages of high grade and tonnage, combined with low thorium contents, yet they are generally enriched in light rare earths (LREE). The heavy rare earths (HREE, which include Eu-Lu and Y) are more highly sought after because of their role in new and green technologies. HREE are predominantly extracted from ion-adsorption clays in China. These are small, low grade deposits, which are often illegally mined by artisans. Increased government control, environmental legislation and local demand for REE in China have led to high prices and global concerns about the security of supply of the HREE. Alternative sources of the HREE are poorly documented. We present a review of such targets, including: (1) 'abnormal' carbonatites; (2) areas around LREE-rich complexes such as breccia, fenite and latter stage veins; and (3) weathered carbonatites. At Lofdal, Namibia, carbonatite dykes contain xenotime-(Y) together with LREE minerals. The original chemistry of the carbonatite magma, coupled with late-stage magma and fluid evolution, seem to be controlling factors [1, 2]. The Khibina carbonatite, Kola Peninsula, Russia, is an example of where early LREE carbonatites become increasing HREE-enriched as magmas evolve to carbo-hydrothermal fluids [3]. Around carbonatite complexes in Malawi HREE enrichment can be found in breccia and in fenite. Breccia around Songwe shows areas with high Y/La ratios within the matrix caused by narrow zones of xenotime enrichment. Fenite around Kangankunde and Chilwa Island has higher HREE:LREE ratios than the carbonatite [4]. At weathered complexes, such as at Mount Weld in Western Australia, changes in both HREE concentration and LREE:HREE ratios are observed. In currently unworked sections of the deposit, the HREE mineral churchite (YPO4.H2O) has formed concentrations due to groundwater flow [5]. These areas of enrichment are

  9. Effects of spraying rare earths on contents of rare Earth elements and effective components in tea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongfeng; Wang, Changhong; Ye, Sheng; Qi, Hongtao; Zhao, Guiwen

    2003-11-05

    Rare earth (RE) fertilizer is widely applied in China to increase the yield and the quality of crops including tea. However, the effects of spraying RE fertilizer on the contents of rare earth elements (REE) and effective components in tea are unknown. The results from basin and field experiments show that the values of the REE concentrations in new shoots of tea plants and the concentration of REE in the soil (REE/REEs) either from control basins or from treatment basins were smaller than those in other parts of tea plant and similar between control and treatment. The longer the interval between spraying RE fertilizer and picking the shoots of tea plants, the less the effects from spraying. About 80% summation operator REE (the sum of the concentrations of 15 REE) in tea, whether it came from spraying or not, was insoluble in the infusion. About 10% the soluble REE of summation operator REE in tea infusion was bound to polysaccharide, and the amount of REE bound polysaccharide decreased over time. At least a 25 day safety interval is needed between spraying and picking if the microelement fertilizer is used, in order to enhance tea output and to ensure tea safety.

  10. Rare earth element deposits in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xie, Yu-Ling; Hou, Zeng-qian; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    China is the world’s leading rare earth element (REE) producer and hosts a variety of deposit types. Carbonatite- related REE deposits, the most significant deposit type, include two giant deposits presently being mined in China, Bayan Obo and Maoniuping, the first and third largest deposits of this type in the world, respectively. The carbonatite-related deposits host the majority of China’s REE resource and are the primary supplier of the world’s light REE. The REE-bearing clay deposits, or ion adsorption-type deposits, are second in importance and are the main source in China for heavy REE resources. Other REE resources include those within monazite or xenotime placers, beach placers, alkaline granites, pegmatites, and hydrothermal veins, as well as some additional deposit types in which REE are recovered as by-products. Carbonatite-related REE deposits in China occur along craton margins, both in rifts (e.g., Bayan Obo) and in reactivated transpressional margins (e.g., Maoniuping). They comprise those along the northern, eastern, and southern margins of the North China block, and along the western margin of the Yangtze block. Major structural features along the craton margins provide first-order controls for REE-related Proterozoic to Cenozoic carbonatite alkaline complexes; these are emplaced in continental margin rifts or strike-slip faults. The ion adsorption-type REE deposits, mainly situated in the South China block, are genetically linked to the weathering of granite and, less commonly, volcanic rocks and lamprophyres. Indosinian (early Mesozoic) and Yanshanian (late Mesozoic) granites are the most important parent rocks for these REE deposits, although Caledonian (early Paleozoic) granites are also of local importance. The primary REE enrichment is hosted in various mineral phases in the igneous rocks and, during the weathering process, the REE are released and adsorbed by clay minerals in the weathering profile. Currently, these REE-rich clays are

  11. [Content of rare earth elements in wild Hypericum japonicum Thunb].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhen-Lin; Rui, Yu-Kui; Tian, Zhi-Huan

    2009-06-01

    Rare earth elements are important nutritional elements for human health, and today more and more attention has been paid to the effective components in Chinese traditional medicine, especially to rare earth elements. Fifteen rare earth elements in wild hypericum japonicum Thunb were analyzed by the methods of ICP-MS. The results showed that the concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Tm, Lu and Y ranged from 6 ng x g(-1) x DW to 14 522 ng x g(-1) x DW, and among them the concentrations of La, Ce and Nd were higher than 2 000 ng x g(-1) x DW. Compared with the concentration of rare earth elements in rice, corn, wheat and barley, the total concentration of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb was much higher, which could be the mechanism of curative effect of hypericum japonicum Thunb on liverish diseases. The character of elements and the content of rare earth elements in soil should be responsible for the difference, but the distributive mechanism of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb should be further studied.

  12. Bioleaching of rare earth elements from monazite sand.

    PubMed

    Brisson, Vanessa L; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Three fungal strains were found to be capable of bioleaching rare earth elements from monazite, a rare earth phosphate mineral, utilizing the monazite as a phosphate source and releasing rare earth cations into solution. These organisms include one known phosphate solubilizing fungus, Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015, as well as two newly isolated fungi: an Aspergillus terreus strain ML3-1 and a Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F. Although monazite also contains the radioactive element Thorium, bioleaching by these fungi preferentially solubilized rare earth elements over Thorium, leaving the Thorium in the solid residual. Adjustments in growth media composition improved bioleaching performance measured as rare earth release. Cell-free spent medium generated during growth of A. terreus strain ML3-1 and Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F in the presence of monazite leached rare earths to concentrations 1.7-3.8 times those of HCl solutions of comparable pH, indicating that compounds exogenously released by these organisms contribute substantially to leaching. Organic acids released by the organisms included acetic, citric, gluconic, itaconic, oxalic, and succinic acids. Abiotic leaching with laboratory prepared solutions of these acids was not as effective as bioleaching or leaching with cell-free spent medium at releasing rare earths from monazite, indicating that compounds other than the identified organic acids contribute to leaching performance.

  13. Production yield of rare-earth ions implanted into an optical crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kornher, Thomas Xia, Kangwei; Kolesov, Roman; Reuter, Rolf; Villa, Bruno; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Wieck, Andreas D.; Siyushev, Petr; Stöhr, Rainer; Schreck, Matthias; Becker, Hans-Werner

    2016-02-01

    Rare-earth (RE) ions doped into desired locations of optical crystals might enable a range of novel integrated photonic devices for quantum applications. With this aim, we have investigated the production yield of cerium and praseodymium by means of ion implantation. As a measure, the collected fluorescence intensity from both implanted samples and single centers was used. With a tailored annealing procedure for cerium, a yield up to 53% was estimated. Praseodymium yield amounts up to 91%. Such high implantation yield indicates a feasibility of creation of nanopatterned rare-earth doping and suggests strong potential of RE species for on-chip photonic devices.

  14. Density-functional calculations for rare-earth atoms and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstreuter, J.; Steinbeck, L.; Richter, M.; Eschrig, H.

    1997-04-01

    Relativistic local-spin-density (RLSD) and self-interaction-corrected (SIC) RLSD calculations were performed for the whole series of the rare-earth elements. Ionization potentials and radial expectation values with 4f wave functions were calculated. Improvement on nearly all quantities is found for SIC calculations. Comparison with other calculational methods shows that for a description of rare-earth elements SIC-RLSD competes well in accuracy with all of them, including the most accurate quantum-chemical approach. This is important since the SIC calculation has the advantage of being suited for a description of localized f states in solids with a comparatively moderate effort.

  15. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnosis of rare earth doped optical glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Dwivedi, Y.; Thakur, S. N.; Rai, S. B.

    2010-05-01

    In the present work, rare earth (Nd, Eu, Er, Ho) doped oxyfluoroborate glasses were studied using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. It has been observed that rare earth elements other than the doped one also reveal their presence in the spectrum. In addition the spectral lines of elements constituting the glass matrix have also been observed. Different plasma parameters such as plasma temperature and electron density have been estimated. It is concluded that the LIBS is a potential technique to identify simultaneously the light elements (B, O, F) as well as the heavy elements (Fe, Ba, Ca, Eu, Nd, Ho, Er) present in optical glasses.

  16. Phosphate glass core/silica clad fibres with a high concentration of active rare-earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, O. N.; Galagan, B. I.; Denker, B. I.; Sverchkov, S. E.; Semjonov, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    We report a study of silica-clad composite optical fibres having a phosphate glass core doped with active rare-earth elements. The phosphate glass core allows a high concentration of active rare-earth ions to be obtained, and the silica cladding ensures high mechanical strength and facilitates fusion splicing of such fibres to silica fibres. Owing to the high concentration of active rare-earth ions, this type of fibre is potentially attractive for applications where a small cavity length and high lasing efficiency are needed.

  17. Structure and Properties of Rare Earth Aluminosilicate Glasses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohli, Jeffrey Todd

    1991-02-01

    Rare earth aluminosilicate (REAS) glasses have been formed using conventional melting techniques. The glass-forming regions of six different ternary systems have been defined with praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, terbium, erbium, or ytterbium oxides, with alumina and silica. The glass-forming regions systematically decreased in size as the atomic number of the particular rare earth in the ternary systems increased. Glasses, of the molar composition 2R_2O_3 -2Al_2O_3 -6SiO_2, were formed with twelve of the fourteen true rare earth oxides in order to investigate further effects related to the identity of the rare earth ion in the glasses. Several properties of the rare earth aluminosilicate glasses were measured. These properties include: thermal expansion, glass transformation temperature, dilatometric softening point, density, molar volume, index of refraction, Vicker's hardness, magnetic susceptibility and the Faraday rotatory response. The structures of rare earth aluminosilicate glasses were investigated using infrared and Raman spectroscopies as well as magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR). MAS-NMR provided information regarding the local environments of silicon and aluminum ions in yttrium aluminosilicate (YAS) glasses. Since the size and valence of the yttrium ion are similar to the true rare earth ions, and the properties of the REAS and YAS glasses are similar, it is believed that the structures of yttrium aluminosilicate glasses are similar to those of the true rare earth aluminosilicate glasses. Several rare earth aluminogermanate glasses, having the molar formula 2R_2O _3-2Al_2O _3-6GeO_2, were also formed using conventional melting techniques. The properties of these glasses were compared and contrasted with those of the REAS glasses. Finally, a chapter on the study of magnetic susceptibility in common insulator glasses was added to the thesis. Several techniques used to measure magnetic susceptibility are reviewed in this chapter

  18. Minerals yearbook, 1988. Rare-earth minerals and metals

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.B.; Templeton, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Domestic production of rare-earth concentrates decreased in 1988. Foreign sources of processed rare earths obtained a slightly larger share of the U.S. market, while domestic exports saw a marked increase compared to 1987 levels. Rare earths were used in high-technology applications such as laser crystals, high-strength permanent magnets, optical fibers, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners, and high-temperature superconductors. Topics discussed in the report include domestic data coverage, legislation and government programs, environmental issues, domestic production, consumption and uses, stocks, prices, foreign trade, world capacity, world review--Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Egypt, Greenland, Japan, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mozambique, Sri Lanka, Thailand--and technology.

  19. Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Ronald; Goebel, Dan; Hofer, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-current, hollow cathode utilizing a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) thermionic electron emitter has been developed for use with high-power Hall thrusters and ion thrusters. LaB6 cathodes are being investigated due to their long life, high current capabilities, and less stringent xenon purity and handling requirements compared to conventional barium oxide (BaO) dispenser cathodes. The new cathode features a much smaller diameter than previously developed versions that permit it to be mounted on axis of a Hall thruster ( internally mounted ), as opposed to the conventional side-mount position external to the outer magnetic circuit ("externally mounted"). The cathode has also been reconfigured to be capable of surviving vibrational loads during launch and is designed to solve the significant heater and materials compatibility problems associated with the use of this emitter material. This has been accomplished in a compact design with the capability of high-emission current (10 to 60 A). The compact, high-current design has a keeper diameter that allows the cathode to be mounted on the centerline of a 6- kW Hall thruster, inside the iron core of the inner electromagnetic coil. Although designed for electric propulsion thrusters in spacecraft station- keeping, orbit transfer, and interplanetary applications, the LaB6 cathodes are applicable to the plasma processing industry in applications such as optical coatings and semiconductor processing where reactive gases are used. Where current electrical propulsion thrusters with BaO emitters have limited life and need extremely clean propellant feed systems at a significant cost, these LaB6 cathodes can run on the crudest-grade xenon propellant available without impact. Moreover, in a laboratory environment, LaB6 cathodes reduce testing costs because they do not require extended conditioning periods under hard vacuum. Alternative rare earth emitters, such as cerium hexaboride (CeB6) can be used in this

  20. Basic character of rare earth metal alkoxides. Utilization in catalytic C-C bond-forming reactions and catalytic asymmetric nitroaldol reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sasai, H.; Suzuki, T.; Arai, S.

    1992-05-20

    In a recent paper, the authors reported that Zr(O-t-Bu){sub 4} was an efficient and convenient basic reagent in organic synthesis. However, all reactions examined were performed with stoichiometric quantities of the reagent. The authors envisioned that rare earth metal alkoxides would be stronger bases than group 4 metal alkoxides due to the lower ionization potential (ca. 5.4-6.4 eV) and the lower electronegativity (1.1-1.3) of rare earth elements; thus, the catalytic use of rare earth metal alkoxides in organic synthesis was expected. Although a variety of rare earth metal alkoxides have been prepared for the last three decades, to the authors knowledge, there have been few reports concerning the basicity of rare earth metal alkoxides. Herein, the authors report several carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions catalyzed by rare earth metal alkoxides and their application to a catalytic asymmetric nitroaldol reaction.

  1. Multilayer Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Architectures Utilizing Rare Earth Doped YSZ and Rare Earth Pyrochlores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Bhattacharya, Rabi; Zhu, Dongming; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    To allow for increased gas turbine efficiencies, new insulating thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be developed to protect the underlying metallic components from higher operating temperatures. This work focused on using rare earth doped (Yb and Gd) yttria stabilized zirconia (t' Low-k) and Gd2Zr2O7 pyrochlores (GZO) combined with novel nanolayered and thick layered microstructures to enable operation beyond the 1200 C stability limit of current 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) coatings. It was observed that the layered system can reduce the thermal conductivity by approximately 45 percent with respect to YSZ after 20 hr of testing at 1316 C. The erosion rate of GZO is shown to be an order to magnitude higher than YSZ and t' Low-k, but this can be reduced by almost 57 percent when utilizing a nanolayered structure. Lastly, the thermal instability of the layered system is investigated and thought is given to optimization of layer thickness.

  2. Rare Earth Doped High Temperature Ceramic Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Pal, AnnaMarie; Patton, Martin O.; Jenkins, Phillip P.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of their electron structure, rare earth ions in crystals at high temperature emit radiation in several narrow bands rather than in a continuous blackbody manner. This study develops a spectral emittance model for films of rare earth containing materials. Although there are several possible rare earth doped high temperature materials, this study was confined to rare earth aluminum garnets. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical spectral emittances was found for erbium, thulium and erbium-holmium aluminum garnets. Spectral emittances of these films are sensitive to temperature differences across the film. Emitter efficiency is also a sensitive function of temperature. For thulium aluminum garnet the efficiency is 0.38 at 1700 K but only 0.19 at 1262 K.

  3. Rare earths: Market disruption, innovation, and global supply chains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggert, Roderick; Wadia, Cyrus; Anderson, Corby; Bauer, Diana; Fields, Fletcher; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Taylor, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Rare earths, sometimes called the vitamins of modern materials, captured public attention when their prices increased more than ten-fold in 2010 and 2011. As prices fell between 2011 and 2016, rare earths receded from public view—but less visibly they became a major focus of innovative activity in companies, government laboratories and universities. Geoscientists worked to better understand the resource base and improve our knowledge about mineral deposits that will be mines in the future. Process engineers carried out research that is making primary production and recycling more efficient. Materials scientists and engineers searched for substitutes that will require fewer or no rare earths while providing properties comparable or superior to those of existing materials. As a result, even though global supply chains are not significantly different now than they were before the market disruption, the innovative activity motivated by the disruption likely will have far-reaching, if unpredictable, consequences for supply chains of rare earths in the future.

  4. METHOD OF SEPARATING RARE EARTHS BY ION EXCHANGE

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Powell, J.E.

    1960-10-18

    A process is given for separating yttrium and rare earth values having atomic numbers of from 57 through 60 and 68 through 71 from an aqueous solution whose pH value can range from 1 to 9. All rare earths and yttrium are first adsorbed on a cation exchange resin, and they are then eluted with a solution of N-hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) in the order of decreasing atomic number, yttrium behaving like element 61; the effluents are collected in fractions. The HEDTA is recovered by elution with ammonia solution and the resin is regenerated with sulfuric acid. Rare earths are precipitated from the various effluents with oxalic acid, and each supernatant is passed over cation exchange resin for adsorption of HEDTA and nonprecipitated rare earths: the oxalic acid is not retained by the resin.

  5. Growth of rare-earth monolayers on synthetic fluorine mica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, F.; Han, P. D.; Flynn, C. P.

    1993-05-01

    We have grown single-crystal rare-earth films on cleaved faces of synthetic fluorine mica fluorophlogopite by molecular-beam-epitaxy techniques. This has made it possible to measure material properties such as magnetism in monolayer structures.

  6. Magnetoelastic contribution to thermal expansion of rare-earth zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazei, Z. A.; Kolmakova, N. P.; Shishkina, O. A.

    1998-02-01

    Comparative analysis is performed for the magnetoelastic contributions to thermal expansion of two groups of rare-earth zircons: phosphates RPO 4 (R=Y,Tb-Yb) and vanadates RVO 4 (R=Pr, Nd, Gd-Yb). Significant magnetoelastic anomalies of thermal expansion are observed and magnetoelastic contributions are found in regard to the corrections for the changes of the phonon contributions throughout the series of RPO 4 and RVO 4. Magnetoelastic contributions to thermal expansion are demonstrated to be well accounted for by the temperature dependences of the quadrupole moments of rare-earth ions both in phosphates and vanadates. The fully symmetric magnetoelastic coefficients are determined for all the rare-earth compounds under investigation; they are of the same sign and comparable magnitude in vanadates and phosphates, whereas the magnetoelastic contributions are opposite in sign for two isomorphous groups of rare-earth zircons.

  7. Magneto-Optical Experiments on Rare Earth Garnet Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, B. K.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments in which inexpensive or standard laboratory equipment is used to measure several macroscopic magnetic properties of thin rare earth garnet films used in the manufacture of magnetic bubble devices. (Author/CS)

  8. Magneto-Optical Experiments on Rare Earth Garnet Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, B. K.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments in which inexpensive or standard laboratory equipment is used to measure several macroscopic magnetic properties of thin rare earth garnet films used in the manufacture of magnetic bubble devices. (Author/CS)

  9. Preliminary study on using rare earth elements to trace non-point source phosphorous loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The environmental fate of phosphorus (P) is of concern as P is a primary cause of freshwater eutrophication. Rare earth elements (REEs) have been successfully used in the analysis of soil erosion and pollutant sources, as well as in the analysis of mineral genesis. To better understand the potential...

  10. METHOD OF MAKING ALLOYS OF SECOND RARE EARTH SERIES METALS

    DOEpatents

    Baker, R.D.; Hayward, B.R.

    1963-01-01

    >This invention relates to a process for alloying the second rare earth series metals with Mo, Nb, or Zr. A halide of the rare earth metal is mixed with about 1 to 20 at.% of an oxide of Mo, Nb, or Zr. Iodine and an alkali or alkaline earth metal are added, and the resulting mixture is heated in an inert atmosphere to 350 deg C. (AEC)

  11. Effects of Rare Earth Metals on Steel Microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hao-Long; Su, Yen-Hsun; Kuo, Chia-Liang; Su, Yen-Hao; Chen, Shin-Hau; Lin, Kuan-Ju; Hsieh, Ping-Hung; Hwang, Weng-Sing

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth metals are used in semiconductors, solar cells and catalysts. This review focuses on the background of oxide metallurgy technologies, the chemical and physical properties of rare earth (RE) metals, the background of oxide metallurgy, the functions of RE metals in steelmaking, and the influences of RE metals on steel microstructures. Future prospects for RE metal applications in steelmaking are also presented. PMID:28773545

  12. Electrical Relaxation in Rare Earth Doped Cadmium Fluoride.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    RD-A172 412 ELECTRICAL RELAXATION IN RARE EARTH DOPED CNANIUN idpi FLUORIDE (U NAVAL ACADEMY ANNAPOLIS ND DEPT OF PHYSICS J J FONTANELLA ET AL. Gi SEP...Doped Cadmium Fluoride by John J. Fontanella & Mary C. Wintersgill Prepared for Publication in Crystal Lattice Defects and Amorphous Materials U. S...Include Security Classification) Electrical Relaxation in Rare Earth Doped Cadmium Fluoride (Unclassified) 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) John J. Fontanella and

  13. Ferroelectricity of domain walls in rare earth iron garnet films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. I.; Zvezdin, K. A.; Gareeva, Z. V.; Mazhitova, F. A.; Vakhitov, R. M.; Yumaguzin, A. R.; Zvezdin, A. K.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we report on electric polarization arising in a vicinity of Bloch-like domain walls in rare-earth iron garnet films. The domain walls generate an intrinsic magnetic field that breaks an antiferroelectric structure formed in the garnets due to an exchange interaction between rare earth and iron sublattices. We explore 180° domain walls whose formation is energetically preferable in the films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic and electric structures of the 180° quasi-Bloch domain walls have been simulated at various relations between system parameters. Singlet, doublet ground states of rare earth ions and strongly anisotropic rare earth Ising ions have been considered. Our results show that electric polarization appears in rare earth garnet films at Bloch domain walls, and the maximum of magnetic inhomogeneity is not always linked to the maximum of electric polarization. A number of factors including the temperature, the state of the rare earth ion and the type of a wall influence magnetically induced electric polarization. We show that the value of polarization can be enhanced by the shrinking of the Bloch domain wall width, decreasing the temperature, and increasing the deviations of magnetization from the Bloch rotation that are regulated by impacts given by magnetic anisotropies of the films.

  14. An Overview of Rare Earth Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschneidner, Karl, Jr.

    2012-02-01

    Currently rare earth science and technology is robust: this includes all the major branches of science -- biochemistry, chemistry, materials and physics. There are, however, currently some anomalies and distortions especially in the technology and applications sector of the rare earth field, which is caused by the dominance of China on the sales of rare earths and rare earth containing products. For the past 5 to 10 years ˜95% of rare earths utilized in commerce came from China. Although Chinese actions have lead to sudden and large price spikes and export embargoes, the rare earths are still available but at a higher cost. The start up of production in 2011 at mines in the USA and Australia will alleviate this situation in about two years. Basic and applied research on the condensed matter physics/materials science has hardly been impacted by these events, but new research opportunities are opening up especially with regard to the USA's military and energy security. Magnets seems to be the hottest topic, but research on battery materials, phosphors and catalysts are also (or should be) strongly considered.

  15. Current Status on Resource and Recycling Technology for Rare Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Osamu; Okabe, Toru H.

    2014-06-01

    The development of recycling technologies for rare earths is essential for resource security and supply stability because high-quality rare earth mines are concentrated in China and the demand for rare earth metals such as neodymium and dysprosium, used as raw materials in permanent magnets (neodymium magnet), is expected to increase rapidly in the near future. It is also important to establish a recycling-based society from the perspective of the conservation of finite and valuable mineral resources and the reduction of the environmental load associated with mining and smelting. In this article, the current status of rare earth resource as well as that of recycling technology for the magnets is reviewed. The importance of establishing an efficient recycling process for rare earths is discussed from the characteristics of supply chain of rare earths, and the technological bases of the recycling processes for the magnet are introduced. Further, some fundamental researches on the development of new recycling processes based on pyrometallurgical process are introduced, and the features of the recycling processes are evaluated.

  16. Ferroelectricity of domain walls in rare earth iron garnet films.

    PubMed

    Popov, A I; Zvezdin, K A; Gareeva, Z V; Mazhitova, F A; Vakhitov, R M; Yumaguzin, A R; Zvezdin, A K

    2016-11-16

    In this paper, we report on electric polarization arising in a vicinity of Bloch-like domain walls in rare-earth iron garnet films. The domain walls generate an intrinsic magnetic field that breaks an antiferroelectric structure formed in the garnets due to an exchange interaction between rare earth and iron sublattices. We explore 180° domain walls whose formation is energetically preferable in the films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic and electric structures of the 180° quasi-Bloch domain walls have been simulated at various relations between system parameters. Singlet, doublet ground states of rare earth ions and strongly anisotropic rare earth Ising ions have been considered. Our results show that electric polarization appears in rare earth garnet films at Bloch domain walls, and the maximum of magnetic inhomogeneity is not always linked to the maximum of electric polarization. A number of factors including the temperature, the state of the rare earth ion and the type of a wall influence magnetically induced electric polarization. We show that the value of polarization can be enhanced by the shrinking of the Bloch domain wall width, decreasing the temperature, and increasing the deviations of magnetization from the Bloch rotation that are regulated by impacts given by magnetic anisotropies of the films.

  17. Rare-Earth-Free Nanostructure Magnets: Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnets for Electric Vehicle Motors and Wind Turbine Generators: Hexagonal Symmetry Based Materials Systems Mn-Bi and M-type Hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The University of Alabama is developing new iron- and manganese-based composite materials for use in the electric motors of EVs and renewable power generators that will demonstrate magnetic properties superior to today’s best rare-earth-based magnets. Rare earths are difficult and expensive to refine. EVs and renewable power generators typically use rare earths to make their electric motors smaller and more powerful. The University of Alabama has the potential to improve upon the performance of current state-of-the-art rare-earth-based magnets using low-cost and more abundant materials such as manganese and iron. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate improved performance in a full-size prototype magnet at reduced cost.

  18. Separation/Preconcentration Techniques for Rare Earth Elements Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Jiang, Zucheng

    2016-10-01

    The main aim of this chapter exactly characterizes the contribution. The analytical chemistry of the rare earth elements (REEs) very often is highly complicated and the determination of a specific element is impossible without a sample pre-concentration. Sample preparation can be carried out either by separation of the REEs from the matrix or by concentrating the REEs. The separation of REEs from each other is mainly made by chromatography. At the beginning of REE analysis, the method of precipitation/coprecipitation was applied for the treatment of REE mixtures. The method is not applicable for the separation of trace amounts of REEs. The majority of the methods used are based on the distribution of REEs in a two-phase system, a liquid-liquid or a liquid-solid system. Various techniques have been developed for the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), in particular the liquid phase micro-extraction. The extraction is always combined with a pre-concentration of the REEs in a single drop of extractant or in a hollow fiber filled with the extractant. Further modified techniques for special applications and for difficult REE separation have been developed. Compared to the LLE, the solid phase micro-extraction is preferred. The method is robust and easy to handle, in which the solid phase loaded with the REEs can be used directly for subsequent determination methods. At present, very new solid materials, like nanotubes, are developed and tested for solid phase extraction.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance on oriented rare-earth nuclei in rare-earth hosts: Application to /sup 160/Tb

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, W.D.; Roman, P.; Boettcher, M.; Illerhaus, B.; Marshak, H.; Freitag, K.; Herzog, P.

    1988-12-01

    We summarize the application of nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei to rare-earth impurities implanted in ferromagnetic crystals of heavy rare-earth hosts. The experimental aspects are treated in some detail; we present results obtained on /sup 160/TbTb, and give a formal description of the experiments. A discussion of extension to other, similar systems with applications in nuclear, solid-state, and low-temperature physics is given.

  20. Size distribution of rare earth elements in coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Clinton T.; Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Adams, Monique; Holland, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are utilized in various applications that are vital to the automotive, petrochemical, medical, and information technology industries. As world demand for REEs increases, critical shortages are expected. Due to the retention of REEs during coal combustion, coal fly ash is increasingly considered a potential resource. Previous studies have demonstrated that coal fly ash is variably enriched in REEs relative to feed coal (e.g, Seredin and Dai, 2012) and that enrichment increases with decreasing size fractions (Blissett et al., 2014). In order to further explore the REE resource potential of coal ash, and determine the partitioning behavior of REE as a function of grain size, we studied whole coal and fly ash size-fractions collected from three U.S commercial-scale coal-fired generating stations burning Appalachian or Powder River Basin coal. Whole fly ash was separated into , 5 um, to 5 to 10 um and 10 to 100 um particle size fractions by mechanical shaking using trace-metal clean procedures. In these samples REE enrichments in whole fly ash ranges 5.6 to 18.5 times that of feedcoals. Partitioning results for size separates relative to whole coal and whole fly ash will also be reported. 

  1. GeS2–In2S3–CsI Chalcogenide Glasses Doped with Rare Earth Ions for Near- and Mid-IR Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Legang; Bian, Junyi; Jiao, Qing; Liu, Zijun; Dai, Shixun; Lin, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Chalcogenide glass has been considered as a promising host for the potential laser gain and amplifier media operating in near- and mid-IR spectral region. In this work, the IR luminescence spectra of rare earth ions (Tm3+, Er3+, and Dy3+) doped 65GeS2–25In2S3–10CsI chalcogenide glasses were measured under the excitation of an 808 nm laser diode. To the best of our knowledge, it firstly provides the luminescence spectra of a full near- and mid-IR spectral range from 1 to 4 μm in rare earth ions doped chalcogenide glasses. The results of absorption spectra, luminescence spectra, and fluorescence decay curves were obtained in these samples with singly-, co- and triply-doping behaviors of Tm3+, Er3+, and Dy3+ ions. In order to search possible efficient IR emissions, the luminescence behavior was investigated specifically with the variation of doping behaviors and dopant ions, especially in the samples co- and triply-doped active ions. The results suggest that favorable near- and mid-IR luminescence of rare earth ions can be further modified in chalcogenide glasses through an elaborated design of doping behavior and optically active ions. PMID:27869231

  2. GeS2-In2S3-CsI Chalcogenide Glasses Doped with Rare Earth Ions for Near- and Mid-IR Luminescence.

    PubMed

    Li, Legang; Bian, Junyi; Jiao, Qing; Liu, Zijun; Dai, Shixun; Lin, Changgui

    2016-11-21

    Chalcogenide glass has been considered as a promising host for the potential laser gain and amplifier media operating in near- and mid-IR spectral region. In this work, the IR luminescence spectra of rare earth ions (Tm(3+), Er(3+), and Dy(3+)) doped 65GeS2-25In2S3-10CsI chalcogenide glasses were measured under the excitation of an 808 nm laser diode. To the best of our knowledge, it firstly provides the luminescence spectra of a full near- and mid-IR spectral range from 1 to 4 μm in rare earth ions doped chalcogenide glasses. The results of absorption spectra, luminescence spectra, and fluorescence decay curves were obtained in these samples with singly-, co- and triply-doping behaviors of Tm(3+), Er(3+), and Dy(3+) ions. In order to search possible efficient IR emissions, the luminescence behavior was investigated specifically with the variation of doping behaviors and dopant ions, especially in the samples co- and triply-doped active ions. The results suggest that favorable near- and mid-IR luminescence of rare earth ions can be further modified in chalcogenide glasses through an elaborated design of doping behavior and optically active ions.

  3. GeS2–In2S3–CsI Chalcogenide Glasses Doped with Rare Earth Ions for Near- and Mid-IR Luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Legang; Bian, Junyi; Jiao, Qing; Liu, Zijun; Dai, Shixun; Lin, Changgui

    2016-11-01

    Chalcogenide glass has been considered as a promising host for the potential laser gain and amplifier media operating in near- and mid-IR spectral region. In this work, the IR luminescence spectra of rare earth ions (Tm3+, Er3+, and Dy3+) doped 65GeS2–25In2S3–10CsI chalcogenide glasses were measured under the excitation of an 808 nm laser diode. To the best of our knowledge, it firstly provides the luminescence spectra of a full near- and mid-IR spectral range from 1 to 4 μm in rare earth ions doped chalcogenide glasses. The results of absorption spectra, luminescence spectra, and fluorescence decay curves were obtained in these samples with singly-, co- and triply-doping behaviors of Tm3+, Er3+, and Dy3+ ions. In order to search possible efficient IR emissions, the luminescence behavior was investigated specifically with the variation of doping behaviors and dopant ions, especially in the samples co- and triply-doped active ions. The results suggest that favorable near- and mid-IR luminescence of rare earth ions can be further modified in chalcogenide glasses through an elaborated design of doping behavior and optically active ions.

  4. Nanophotonic coherent light-matter interfaces based on rare-earth-doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Tian; Kindem, Jonathan M.; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-09-01

    Quantum light-matter interfaces connecting stationary qubits to photons will enable optical networks for quantum communications, precise global time keeping, photon switching and studies of fundamental physics. Rare-earth-ion-doped crystals are state-of-the-art materials for optical quantum memories and quantum transducers between optical photons, microwave photons and spin waves. Here we demonstrate coupling of an ensemble of neodymium rare-earth-ions to photonic nanocavities fabricated in the yttrium orthosilicate host crystal. Cavity quantum electrodynamics effects including Purcell enhancement (F=42) and dipole-induced transparency are observed on the highly coherent 4I9/2-4F3/2 optical transition. Fluctuations in the cavity transmission due to statistical fine structure of the atomic density are measured, indicating operation at the quantum level. Coherent optical control of cavity-coupled rare-earth ions is performed via photon echoes. Long optical coherence times (T2~100 μs) and small inhomogeneous broadening are measured for the cavity-coupled rare-earth ions, thus demonstrating their potential for on-chip scalable quantum light-matter interfaces.

  5. Nanophotonic coherent light–matter interfaces based on rare-earth-doped crystals

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Tian; Kindem, Jonathan M.; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Quantum light–matter interfaces connecting stationary qubits to photons will enable optical networks for quantum communications, precise global time keeping, photon switching and studies of fundamental physics. Rare-earth-ion-doped crystals are state-of-the-art materials for optical quantum memories and quantum transducers between optical photons, microwave photons and spin waves. Here we demonstrate coupling of an ensemble of neodymium rare-earth-ions to photonic nanocavities fabricated in the yttrium orthosilicate host crystal. Cavity quantum electrodynamics effects including Purcell enhancement (F=42) and dipole-induced transparency are observed on the highly coherent 4I9/2–4F3/2 optical transition. Fluctuations in the cavity transmission due to statistical fine structure of the atomic density are measured, indicating operation at the quantum level. Coherent optical control of cavity-coupled rare-earth ions is performed via photon echoes. Long optical coherence times (T2∼100 μs) and small inhomogeneous broadening are measured for the cavity-coupled rare-earth ions, thus demonstrating their potential for on-chip scalable quantum light–matter interfaces. PMID:26364586

  6. Synthesis and energy transfer within carbon-based fluorescent rare earth nanoparticles and nanocomposites (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yust, Brian G.; Chipara, Mircea; Saenz, Aaron

    2016-03-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in fluorescent and upconverting rare earth-based nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and photodynamic therapy applications. While many of the widely explored upconverting contrast agents are comprised of fluoride or oxide crystal structures, very little work has been done to investigate the up- and downconversion emission in rare earth-doped carbon nanocomposites. Of particular interest, graphene-UCNP nanocomposites and sesquicarbide nanoparticles may offer a wide range of new applications when coupled with the extraordinary optical properties of rare earth-doped systems, such as potential use as nano-transducers. Carbon-based nanocomposites and sesquicarbides doped with rare earth elements were synthesized using the microwave and solvothermal methods with additional brief high temperature heat treatments. They were then characterized by XRD, visible and NIR excitation and emission spectroscopy, as well as Raman spectrsocopy. Tuning of the emission manifold ratios was explored through different compositions and size. Also, energy transfer between the emitting ions and the electronic states of the host structure was explored. Finally, cytotoxicity was tested, and cellular uptake of these nanomaterials was performed with confocal microscopy.

  7. A study on artificial rare earth (RE2O3) based neutron absorber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-O; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2015-11-01

    A new concept of a neutron absorption material (i.e., an artificial rare earth compound) was introduced for criticality control in a spent fuel storage system. In particular, spent nuclear fuels were considered as a potential source of rare earth elements because the nuclear fission of uranium produces a full range of nuclides. It was also found that an artificial rare earth compound (RE2O3) as a High-Level Waste (HLW) was naturally extracted from pyroprocessing technology developed for recovering uranium and transuranic elements (TRU) from spent fuels. In this study, various characteristics (e.g., activity, neutron absorption cross-section) were analyzed for validating the application possibility of this waste compound as a neutron absorption material. As a result, the artificial rare earth compound had a higher neutron absorption probability in the entire energy range, and it can be used for maintaining sub-criticality for more than 40 years on the basis of the neutron absorption capability of Boral™. Therefore, this approach is expected to vastly improve the efficiency of radioactive waste management by simultaneously keeping HLW and spent nuclear fuel in a restricted space.

  8. Behavior of Rare Earth Elements in Fractured Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.

    2003-12-01

    An understanding of the geochemistry of potential host rocks is very important in the site evaluation for construction of an underground geologic repository for radioactive waste. Because of similar valence and ionic radii and high similarity in electronic structure with trivalent actinides (such as Am3+ and Cm3+), the rare earth elements (REEs) have been used to predict the behavior of actinide-series elements in solution. For Am and Cm, which occur only in the trivalent states in most waste-disposal repository environments, the analogy with the REEs is particularly relevant. Krauskopf calculated the retardation factors for radionuclides in various rock materials based on some compiled data. But, in general, because the transuranic actinides do not occur naturally in appreciable quantities, their behaviors in repository environments cannot be predicted from evidence of their movement in geologic environments (mainly in groundwater) over geologic timespans. Predictions about long-term future behavior of transuranic actinides have therefore been made by extrapolation from short-term observations of their chemical properties in laboratory experiments or in field tests, but such extrapolation is fraught with uncertainty. In order to verify the behavior of Eu in various geological environments, we estimated the abundance of rare earth elements in three gneiss bodies originated from different geological environments and volcanic tuff. We also carried out some leaching experiment of fracture-filling calcite precipitated due to changes of geochemical environment in paleo-groundwater. Of the three gneisses, two gneisses are granitic-granodioritic origin and the other is tonaltic-trondjemitic origin. As a result, we could observe that Eu had a close relationship with fracture-filling calcite precipitation due to water-rock interaction. Our results show that Eu is the most variable element of REEs for the hydrogeological environment such as change of oxidation-reduction and

  9. Rare earth elements as a fingerprint of soil components solubilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davranche, M.; Grybos, M.; Gruau, G.; Pédrot, M.; Dia, A.

    2009-04-01

    The retention of rare earth element (REE) in the soil profile are mainly controlled by three factors, (i) the stability of the primary REE-carrying minerals, (ii) the presence of secondary phases as clays and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides and (ii) the concentration of colloidal organic matter (OM). Considering that each soil phases (mineral or organic) displays (ii) various surface properties, such as specific area, surface sites density and nature and (ii) their own REE distribution inherited from the rock weathering, their mobilization through various chemical reactions (dissolution, colloidal release….) may involve the development of various shaped REE patterns in the soil solutions. REE fractionation from the different soil phases may therefore be used to identify the response of the soil system to a particular chemical process such as reductive and/or acidic dissolution. To test this purpose, an organic-rich wetland soil sample was incubated under anaerobic condition at both pH 5 and uncontrolled pH. The REE patterns developed in the soil solution were then compared to the REE patterns obtained through either aerobic at pH 3 and 7 incubations or a chemical reduction experiment (using hydroxylamine). REE patterns in anaerobic and aerobic at pH 7 experiments exhibited the same middle rare earth element (MREE) downward concavity significant of the complexation of REE with soil OM. By contrast, under acidic condition, the REE pattern exhibited a positive Eu anomaly due to the dissolution of soil feldspar. Finally, REE pattern obtained from the chemical reducing experiment showed an intermediary flat shape corresponding to a mixing between the soil organic and mineral phases dissolution. The comparison of the various REE pattern shapes allowed to conclude that (i) biological reduction of wetland soil involved amorphous Fe(III) colloids linked to OM and, (ii) that the REE mobility was controlled by the dynamic of OM in wetland soil. They also evidence the potential of

  10. Rare earth elements in scleractinian cold-water corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddatz, J.; Liebetrau, V.; Hathorne, E. C.; Rüggeberg, A.; Dullo, W.; Frank, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Rare Earth Elements (REE) have a great potential to trace continental input, particle scavenging and the oxidation state of seawater. These REE are recorded in the skeleton of the cosmopolitan cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa. Here we use an online preconcentration ICP-MS method (Hathorne et al. 2012) to measure REE concentrations in seawater and associated cold-water coral carbonates in order to investigate their seawater origin. Scleractinian cold-water corals were collected in-situ and alive and with corresponding seawater samples covering from the European Continental Margin. The seawater REE patterns are characterized by the typical negative cerium anomaly of seawater, but are distinct for the northern Norwegian Margin and the Oslo Fjord, probably related to continental input. Initial results for the corresponding coral samples suggest that these distinct REE patterns of ambient seawater are recorded by the coral skeletons although some fractionation during incorporation into the aragonite occurs. This indicates that scleractinian cold-water corals can serve as a valuable archive for seawater derived REE signatures, as well radiogenic Nd isotope compositions. In a second step we analysed fossil coral samples from various locations, which were oxidatively and reductively cleaned prior to analysis. Initial results reveal that sediment-buried fossil (early Pleistocene to Holocene) coral samples from the Norwegian Margin and the Porcupine Seabight (Challenger Mound, IODP Site 1317) do not show the expected seawater REE patterns. In particular, the fossil coral-derived REE patterns lack a negative cerium anomaly suggesting that fossil coral-REE patterns do not represent ambient seawater. Thus, we suggest that the oxidative-reductive cleaning method widely used for cleaning of marine carbonates such as foraminifera prior to measurements of seawater-derived trace metal and isotope compositions are not sufficient for REE and Nd isotopes in sediment-buried coral

  11. Complex magnetic properties in multilayer rare earth oxypnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiakui; Marcinkova, Andrea; Chen, Chih-Wei; Morosan, Emilia; Morosan Group Team

    2014-03-01

    Intensive research interest on layered transition metal pnictide materials was stimulated by the discovery of high temperature superconductivity in Fe-pnictides a few years ago. To study the relationship between superconductivity, crystal structure and magnetism, and to search for novel superconductors of better application potential, more transition metal pnictides are worth investigating. In this talk, I will discuss physical properties of members of a particular class of layered oxypnictides, with four transition metal pnictogen layers per unit cell. While varying the rare earth ion, we find that one compound is a low temperature superconductor (Tc 1.7 K), and others show diverse magnetic properties, including ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic order, or spin glass behavior. I will show our observation from measurements of DC and AC magnetization, specific heat and resistivity. The understanding of the physical properties of these isostructual compounds may serve as a guide in the search for superconductivity in these systems. This work is supported by MURI-AFOSR and Rice University.

  12. Spin Hall torques generated by rare-earth thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Neal; Jadaun, Priyamvada; Heron, John T.; Jermain, Colin L.; Gibbons, Jonathan; Collette, Robyn; Buhrman, R. A.; Schlom, D. G.; Ralph, D. C.

    2017-02-01

    We report an initial experimental survey of spin Hall torques generated by the rare-earth metals Gd, Dy, Ho, and Lu, along with comparisons to first-principles calculations of their spin Hall conductivities. Using spin torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) measurements and dc-biased ST-FMR, we estimate lower bounds for the spin Hall torque ratio, ξSH, of ≈0.04 for Gd, ≈0.05 for Dy, ≈0.14 for Ho, and ≈0.014 for Lu. The variations among these elements are qualitatively consistent with results from first principles [density-functional theory (DFT) in the local density approximation with a Hubbard-U correction]. The DFT calculations indicate that the spin Hall conductivity is enhanced by the presence of the partially filled f orbitals in Dy and Ho, which suggests a strategy to further strengthen the contribution of the f orbitals to the spin Hall effect by shifting the electron chemical potential.

  13. MICROBIALLY MEDIATED LEACHING OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS FROM RECYCLABLE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D. W.; Fujita, Y.; Daubaras, D. L.; Bruhn, D. F.; Reiss, J. H.; Thompson, V. S.; Jiao, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Bioleaching offers a potential approach for recovery of rare earth elements (REE) from recyclable materials, such as fluorescent lamp phosphors or degraded industrial catalysts. Microorganisms were enriched from REE-containing ores and recyclable materials with the goal of identifying strains capable of extracting REE from solid materials. Over 100 heterotrophic microorganisms were isolated and screened for their ability to produce organic acids capable of leaching REE. The ten most promising isolates were most closely related to Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Talaromyces. Of the acids produced, gluconic acid appeared to be the most effective at leaching REE (yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, europium, and terbium) from retorted phosphor powders (RPP), fluidized cracking catalyst (FCC), and europium-doped yttrium oxide (YOEu). We found that an Acinetobacter isolates, BH1, was the most capable strain and able to leach 33% of the total REE content from the FCC material. These results support the continuing evaluation of gluconic acid-producing microbes for large-scale REE recovery from recyclable materials.

  14. Rare earth doped upconverting particles for different photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Madhab; Gangadharan, Ajith Kumar; Sardar, Dhiraj Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Trivalent rare earth ions especially erbium (Er3+) and ytterbium (Yb3+) co-doped in various host nanoparticles are known for their extraordinary spectroscopic properties. A thorough optical characterization including the absolute upconversion quantum yield (QY) measurement is of critical importance in evaluating their potential for various photonic applications. In this paper, we will be presenting a measured absolute upconversion QYs for Yb3+ and Er3+ doped in La2O2S under 980 and 1550 nm excitation at various power densities. Comparison of absolute QYs for different concentrations of Yb3+ and Er3+ doped in La2O2S will be made for all the upconversion emissions with respect to reported most efficient upconverting phosphor NaYF4 doped with 20% Yb3+ and 2% Er3+. Furthermore, applications of these phosphors in different areas such as bio-imaging, solar cell, security, etc. will be explored depending on the measured absolute upconversion quantum yields. In addition, preliminary results on in vitro imaging using upconverting nanoparticles as a contrast agent will be reported. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Partnerships for Research and Education in Materials (PREM) Grant No. DMR-0934218.

  15. Effects of simulated rare earth recycling wastewaters on biological nitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M.; Anderko, Andrzej; Riman, Richard E.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-07-16

    Current efforts to increase domestic availability of rare-earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing efforts will result in increased generation of associated wastewaters. In some cases disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological wastewater treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50 and 100 ppm), and the REE extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions above 10 ppm inhibited N. europaea activity, even when initially virtually all of the REE was insoluble. The provision of TBP together with Eu increased inhibition of nitrite production by the N. europaea, although TBP alone did not substantially alter nitrifying activity N. winogradskyi was more sensitive to the stimulated wastewaters, with even 10 ppm Eu or Y inducing significant inhibition, and a complete shutdown of nitrifying activity occurred in the presence of the TBP. To analyze the availability of REEs in aqueous solutions, REE solubility has been calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, which is typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but may also be influenced by the formation of a phosphate phase.

  16. Effects of simulated rare earth recycling wastewaters on biological nitrification

    DOE PAGES

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; ...

    2015-07-16

    Current efforts to increase domestic availability of rare-earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing efforts will result in increased generation of associated wastewaters. In some cases disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological wastewater treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50 and 100 ppm), and the REE extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions above 10 ppm inhibited N.more » europaea activity, even when initially virtually all of the REE was insoluble. The provision of TBP together with Eu increased inhibition of nitrite production by the N. europaea, although TBP alone did not substantially alter nitrifying activity N. winogradskyi was more sensitive to the stimulated wastewaters, with even 10 ppm Eu or Y inducing significant inhibition, and a complete shutdown of nitrifying activity occurred in the presence of the TBP. To analyze the availability of REEs in aqueous solutions, REE solubility has been calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, which is typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but may also be influenced by the formation of a phosphate phase.« less

  17. Effects of Simulated Rare Earth Recycling Wastewaters on Biological Nitrification.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M; Anderko, Andrzej; Riman, Richard E; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-08-18

    Increasing rare earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing will result in generation of new wastewaters. In some cases, disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored, but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50, and 100 ppm), and the extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions at 50 and 100 ppm inhibited N. europaea, even when virtually all of the REE was insoluble. Provision of TBP with Eu increased N. europaea inhibition, although TBP alone did not substantially alter activity. For N. winogradskyi cultures, Eu or Y additions at all tested levels induced significant inhibition, and nitrification shut down completely with TBP addition. REE solubility was calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but also likely affected by the formation of unknown phosphate phases, which determined aqueous concentrations experienced by the microorganisms.

  18. Refining and Mutual Separation of Rare Earths Using Biomass Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq

    2013-10-01

    Two different types of adsorption gels were prepared from biomass wastes. The first gel was produced from astringent persimmon peel rich in persimmon tannin, a polyphenol compound, which was prepared by means of simple dehydration condensation reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid for crosslinking. This adsorption gel was intended to be employed for the removal of radioactive elements, uranium (U(VI)) and thorium (Th(IV)), from rare earths. The second gel was prepared from chitosan, a basic polysaccharide, produced from shells of crustaceans such as crabs, shrimps, prawns, and other biomass wastes generated in marine product industry, by immobilizing functional groups of complexanes such as ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid and diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). This gel was developed for the mutual separation of rare earths. Of the two adsorption gels evaluated, the DTPA immobilized chitosan exhibited the most effective mutual separation among light rare earths.

  19. Laminated rare earth structure and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Senor, David J [West Richland, WA; Johnson, Roger N [Richland, WA; Reid, Bruce D [Pasco, WA; Larson, Sandra [Richland, WA

    2002-07-30

    A laminated structure having two or more layers, wherein at least one layer is a metal substrate and at least one other layer is a coating comprising at least one rare earth element. For structures having more than two layers, the coating and metal substrate layers alternate. In one embodiment of the invention, the structure is a two-layer laminate having a rare earth coating electrospark deposited onto a metal substrate. In another embodiment of the invention, the structure is a three-layer laminate having the rare earth coating electrospark deposited onto a first metal substrate and the coating subsequently abonded to a second metal substrate. The bonding of the coating to the second metal substrate may be accomplished by hot pressing, hot rolling, high deformation rate processing, or combinations thereof. The laminated structure may be used in nuclear components where reactivity control or neutron absorption is desired and in non-nuclear applications such as magnetic and superconducting films.

  20. Yttrium and rare earth stabilized fast reactor metal fuel

    DOEpatents

    Guon, Jerold; Grantham, LeRoy F.; Specht, Eugene R.

    1992-01-01

    To increase the operating temperature of a reactor, the melting point and mechanical properties of the fuel must be increased. For an actinide-rich fuel, yttrium, lanthanum and/or rare earth elements can be added, as stabilizers, to uranium and plutonium and/or a mixture of other actinides to raise the melting point of the fuel and improve its mechanical properties. Since only about 1% of the actinide fuel may be yttrium, lanthanum, or a rare earth element, the neutron penalty is low, the reactor core size can be reduced, the fuel can be burned efficiently, reprocessing requirements are reduced, and the nuclear waste disposal volumes reduced. A further advantage occurs when yttrium, lanthanum, and/or other rare earth elements are exposed to radiation in a reactor, they produce only short half life radioisotopes, which reduce nuclear waste disposal problems through much shorter assured-isolation requirements.

  1. Bis(hydroxylaminato)-mono(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) rare-earth metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Ajay; Pape, Tania; Willner, Alexander; Mitzel, Norbert W

    2009-08-07

    Salt metathesis reactions involving the anhydrous rare-earth metal trichlorides MCl(3) (M = Y, Ho, Er and Lu) and the N,N-diethylhydroxylaminato potassium salt, KONEt(2) (1), and KC(5)Me(5) result in formation of rare-earth metal hydroxylaminato complexes of the type [(C(5)Me(5))M(mu-eta(1):eta(2)-ONEt(2))(eta(2)-ONEt(2))](2) (M = Y (2a), Ho (2b), Er (2c) and Lu (2d)). Compound 1 was characterised by elemental analysis, compounds 2a and 2d by NMR spectroscopy and compounds 2a-d by elemental analyses, mass-spectrometry and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 2a-d are isostructural in the solid state. Effective saturation of the coordination sphere of the rare-earth metal atoms by the hydroxylaminato groups is achieved by the formation of three-membered MON rings.

  2. High efficiency rare-earth emitter for thermophotovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sakr, E. S.; Zhou, Z.; Bermel, P.

    2014-09-15

    In this work, we propose a rare-earth-based ceramic thermal emitter design that can boost thermophotovoltaic (TPV) efficiencies significantly without cold-side filters at a temperature of 1573 K (1300 °C). The proposed emitter enhances a naturally occurring rare earth transition using quality-factor matching, with a quarter-wave stack as a highly reflective back mirror, while suppressing parasitic losses via exponential chirping of a multilayer reflector transmitting only at short wavelengths. This allows the emissivity to approach the blackbody limit for wavelengths overlapping with the absorption peak of the rare-earth material, while effectively reducing the losses associated with undesirable long-wavelength emission. We obtain TPV efficiencies of 34% using this layered design, which only requires modest index contrast, making it particularly amenable to fabrication via a wide variety of techniques, including sputtering, spin-coating, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  3. Optical Frequency Comb Spectroscopy of Rare Earth Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiatlowski, Jerlyn; Palm, Christopher; Joshi, Trinity; Montcrieffe, Caitlin; Jackson Kimball, Derek

    2013-05-01

    We discuss progress in our experimental program to employ optical-frequency-comb-based spectroscopy to understand the complex spectra of rare-earth atoms. We plan to carry out systematic measurements of atomic transitions in rare-earth atoms to elucidate the energy level structure and term assignment and determine presently unknown atomic state parameters. This spectroscopic information is important in view of the increasing interest in rare-earth atoms for atomic frequency standards, in astrophysical investigations of chemically peculiar stars, and in tests of fundamental physics (tests of parity and time-reversal invariance, searches for time variation of fundamental constants, etc.). We are presently studying the use of hollow cathode lamps as atomic sources for two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy. Supported by the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-0958749.

  4. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2] or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy. 3 figs.

  5. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a prefused, rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF.sub.2, CaCl.sub.2 or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy.

  6. Fabrication of high aluminium containing rare-earth doped fiber without core-clad interface defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Anirban; Das, Shyamal; Maiti, Himadri Sekhar; Sen, Ranjan

    2010-06-01

    The unwanted core-clad interface defect generation and related scattering loss in rare-earth doped optical fibers containing Al-oxide is up to now an unsolved problem as it cannot be avoided without modifying fiber design or composition. Here a simple technique is proposed to eliminate the problem without affecting fiber parameters. The method comprises addition of fumed silica in appropriate amount under dispersed condition to the soaking solution containing Al and rare-earth salts during the solution impregnation stage. This facilitates the networking between Al 2O 3 and SiO 2 during sintering. The method leads to an improvement in optical properties of the fibers and enables doping of high concentration of Al-oxide even in presence of GeO 2 in the core.

  7. Charge screening and magnetic anisotropy in metallic rare-earth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irkhin, V. Yu.; Irkhin, Yu. P.

    1998-02-01

    The calculation of magnetic anisotropy constants is performed beyond the point-charge model for a continuous charge-density distribution of screening conduction electrons. An important role of the nonuniform electron density, in particular, of the Friedel oscillations, in the formation of crystal field is demonstrated. Such effects can modify strongly the effective ion (impurity) charge and even change its sign. This enables one to justify the anion model, which is often used for discussing experimental data on hydrogen-containing systems. Possible applications to the pure rare-earth metals and RCo5 (R=rare earth) compounds are discussed. The deformation of magnetic structure near the interstitial positive muon owing to the strong local anisotropy, and the corresponding contribution to the dipole field at the muon are considered.

  8. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.; Lincoln, L.P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. 3 figs.

  9. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.; Jones, Lawrence L.; Lincoln, Lanny P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets.

  10. Trace metal and rare earth content of black precipitation events

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Davies, T.D. . School of Environmental Sciences); Tranter, M. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors have used the techniques of non-destructive neutron activation analysis to determine trace metal and rare earth content of black precipitation events occurring in the Cairngorm Mountains in remote areas of Scotland. Thirty-one elements were determined in the particulate matter of snowpack cores that were sliced into sections. An additional analysis was performed for a black acidic snow event. Based on these results and on wind trajectories, increased loadings of many of the heavy metals and rare earth elements appeared to have originated from central Europe. Enrichment factor calculations show anthropogenic emissions for indium, arsenic, zinc, and selenium.

  11. Thermal Expansion and Thermal Conductivity of Rare Earth Silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth silicates are considered promising candidate materials for environmental barrier coatings applications at elevated temperature for ceramic matrix composites. High temperature thermophysical properties are of great importance for coating system design and development. In this study, the thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of hot-pressed rare earth silicate materials were characterized at temperatures up to 1400 C. The effects of specimen porosity, composition and microstructure on the properties were also investigated. The materials processing and testing issues affecting the measurements will also be discussed.

  12. Rare earth metal trifluoromethanesulfonates catalyzed benzyl-etherification.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Atsushi; Yasuda, Kayo; Abe, Hitoshi; Harayama, Takashi

    2002-03-01

    Rare earth metal trifluoromethanesulfonates [rare earth metal triflate, RE(OTf)3] were found to be efficient catalyst for benzyl-etherification. In the presence of a catalytic amount of RE(OTf)3, condensation of benzyl alcohols and aliphatic alcohols proceeded smoothly to afford the benzyl ethers. The condensation between benzyl alcohols and thiols also proceeded, and thio ethers were obtained in good yield. In these reactions, RE(OTf)3 could be recovered easily after the reactions were completed and could be reused without loss of activity.

  13. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1994-08-09

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

  14. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

  15. THE RARE EARTH PEAK: AN OVERLOOKED r-PROCESS DIAGNOSTIC

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpower, Matthew R.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, Rebecca E-mail: gail_mclaughlin@ncsu.edu

    2012-06-20

    The astrophysical site or sites responsible for the r-process of nucleosynthesis still remains an enigma. Since the rare earth region is formed in the latter stages of the r-process, it provides a unique probe of the astrophysical conditions during which the r-process takes place. We use features of a successful rare earth region in the context of a high-entropy r-process (S {approx}> 100k{sub B} ) and discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions.

  16. Electrochemistry of Rare-Earth Diphthalocyanines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    International S.e flce Center SC5383.1 FR Pourbaix -type diagram with pH-potential lines drawn at the conditions corresponding to 50% conversion...difficult to make by electrochemical methods alone . The cyclic voltammograms in HCl, represented by Figure 2, were rather complex and included a large...determined for O/G. r d -. Ol% Rockwell Intemational Science Center SC5383.l FR results, Pourbaix slopes near -180 mY were observed previously for certain

  17. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare... production of rare earth metals and mischmetal by primary rare earth metals facilities......

  18. Magnetic Nanofluid Rare Earth Element Extraction Process Report, Techno Economic Analysis, and Results for Geothermal Fluids

    DOE Data Explorer

    Pete McGrail

    2016-03-14

    This GDR submission is an interim technical report and raw data files from the first year of testing on functionalized nanoparticles for rare earth element extraction from geothermal fluids. The report contains Rare Earth Element uptake results (percent removal, mg Rare Earth Element/gram of sorbent, distribution coefficient) for the elements of Neodymium, Europium, Yttrium, Dysprosium, and Cesium. A detailed techno economic analysis is also presented in the report for a scaled up geothermal rare earth element extraction process. All rare earth element uptake testing was done on simulated geothermal brines with one rare earth element in each brine. The rare earth element uptake testing was conducted at room temperature.

  19. Complex Electronic Structure of Rare Earth Activators in Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Aberg, D.; Yu, S. W.; Zhou, F.

    2015-10-27

    To aid and further the understanding of the microscopic mechanisms behind the scintillator nonproportionality that leads to degradation of the attainable energy resolution, we have developed theoretical and experimental algorithms and procedures to determine the position of the 4f energy levels of rare earth dopants relative to the host band edge states.

  20. Multi-objective optimization of chromatographic rare earth element separation.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Hans-Kristian; Holmqvist, Anders; Nilsson, Bernt

    2015-10-16

    The importance of rare earth elements in modern technological industry grows, and as a result the interest for developing separation processes increases. This work is a part of developing chromatography as a rare earth element processing method. Process optimization is an important step in process development, and there are several competing objectives that need to be considered in a chromatographic separation process. Most studies are limited to evaluating the two competing objectives productivity and yield, and studies of scenarios with tri-objective optimizations are scarce. Tri-objective optimizations are much needed when evaluating the chromatographic separation of rare earth elements due to the importance of product pool concentration along with productivity and yield as process objectives. In this work, a multi-objective optimization strategy considering productivity, yield and pool concentration is proposed. This was carried out in the frame of a model based optimization study on a batch chromatography separation of the rare earth elements samarium, europium and gadolinium. The findings from the multi-objective optimization were used to provide with a general strategy for achieving desirable operation points, resulting in a productivity ranging between 0.61 and 0.75 kgEu/mcolumn(3), h(-1) and a pool concentration between 0.52 and 0.79 kgEu/m(3), while maintaining a purity above 99% and never falling below an 80% yield for the main target component europium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Circular magnetic x-ray dichroism in rare earth compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Jonathan

    1993-09-30

    This report discusses the following topics: Circular magnetic x-ray dichroism at the ER L3 Edge; angular dependence of circular magnetic x-ray dichroism in rare earth compounds: and circular magnetic x-ray dichroism in crystalline and amorphous GDFE2.

  2. Pitfalls of rare earth imaging: conquering the three Ps.

    PubMed

    Lam, R W; Price, S C

    1992-01-01

    Rare earth technology has become the standard in radiographic imaging, but misapplication and insufficient comprehension of the variables of usage create practical problems. Special problem areas are pediatrics, portable radiography and phototimed exposures. These problems, as well as possible solutions, are addressed in this article.

  3. Mass extrapolations in the region of deformed rare Earth nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Borcea, C.; Audi, G.

    1998-12-21

    A procedure based on the regularity property of the mass surface is proposed to make predictions for the masses of neutron rich deformed nuclei in the rare earth region. Tables are given for the estimated masses; they extend up to the presumed limit of the deformation region.

  4. Instability of some divalent rare earth ions and photochromic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egranov, A. V.; Sizova, T. Yu.; Shendrik, R. Yu.; Smirnova, N. A.

    2016-03-01

    It was shown that the divalent rare earth ions (La, Ce, Gd, Tb, Lu, and Y) in cubic sites in alkaline earth fluorides are unstable with respect to electron autodetachment since its d1(eg) ground state is located in the conduction band which is consistent with the general tendency of these ions in various compounds. The localization of doubly degenerate d1(eg) level in the conduction band creates a configuration instability around the divalent rare earth ion that leading to the formation of anion vacancy in the nearest neighborhood, as was reported in the previous paper [A. Egranov, T. Sizova, Configurational instability at the excited impurity ions in alkaline earth fluorites, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 74 (2013) 530-534]. Thus, the formation of the stable divalent ions as La, Ce, Gd, Tb, Lu, and Y (PC+ centers) in CaF2 and SrF2 crystals during x-ray irradiation occurs via the formation of charged anion vacancies near divalent ions (Re2+va), which lower the ground state of the divalent ion relative to the conductivity band. Photochromic effect occurs under thermally or optically stimulated electron transition from the divalent rare earth ion to the neighboring anion vacancy and reverse under ultraviolet light irradiation. It is shown that the optical absorption of the PC+ centers due to d → d and d → f transitions of the divalent rare-earth ion.

  5. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Technology of the Rare Earths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremers, Howard E.

    1985-01-01

    The 17 rare earth elements account for one-fifth of the 83 naturally occurring elements and collectively rank as the 22nd most abundant "element." Properties of these elements (including their chemical similarity), their extraction from the earth, and their uses are discussed. (JN)

  6. Gas-phase modification of rare-earth intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Skomski, R.; Coey, J.M.D. )

    1993-04-01

    Recent work concerning the interstitial modification of permanent magnet alloys based on rare-earth iron intermetallic compounds is reviewed. The crystal structure of the new materials is discussed, then the thermodynamic and statistical aspects of the low-temperature interstitial modification process are considered. Finally, reaction kinetics and thermal stability of the new compounds are discussed and future prospects assessed.

  7. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Technology of the Rare Earths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremers, Howard E.

    1985-01-01

    The 17 rare earth elements account for one-fifth of the 83 naturally occurring elements and collectively rank as the 22nd most abundant "element." Properties of these elements (including their chemical similarity), their extraction from the earth, and their uses are discussed. (JN)

  8. Rare earth transition metal magnesium compounds—An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodewald, Ute Ch.; Chevalier, Bernard; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2007-05-01

    Intermetallic rare earth-transition metal-magnesium compounds play an important role as precipitations in modern light weight alloys and as host materials for hydrogen storage applications. Recent results on the crystal chemistry, the chemical bonding peculiarities, physical properties, and hydrogenation behavior of these materials are reviewed.

  9. Physical and optical properties of rare earth cobalt magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K.

    1980-08-01

    Rare Earth Cobalt (REC) permanent magnets have unique properties that permit solutions to some optical tasks that cannot be accomplished with conventional magnets. A review of design and of performance characteristics of these magnets includes an analytical description of the three dimensional fringe fields of REC quadrupoles.

  10. Thin Films of the Rare-Earth Metals,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A vacuum thermal method of producing thin films (1-10 mu m) of rare earth metals (Sm, Dy, Tn, and Yb) is described and its efficiency is compared with...existing methods (which are briefly reviewed). A very effective method of obtaining the thin films in question is by reducing the corresponding

  11. Weldability of Rare-Earth-Treated Homogeneous Armor Steel Plate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1957-07-31

    Treated Heat 0681 Open hearth charge: 50,000 lbs heavy melting molybdenum scrap 40,000 lbs cold pig iron Flux charge: 5,100 lbs limestone 2,600...Record Rare-Earth-Oxide-Treated Heat 0724 Open hearth charge: 50,000 lbs heavy melting molybdenum scrap 40,000 lbs cold pig iron Flux charge

  12. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; rare-earth oxides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, W.D.; Christiansen, Grey

    1993-01-01

    Bastnaesite, monazite, and xenotime are currently the most important rare-earth minerals. Bastnaesite occurs as a primary mineral in carbonatites. Monazite and xenotime also can be found in primary deposits but are recovered principally from heavy-mineral placers that are mined for titanium or tin. Each of these minerals has a different composition of the 15 rare-earth elements. World resources of economically exploitable rare-earth oxides (REO) are estimated at 93.4 million metric tons in place, composed of 93 percent in primary deposits and 7 percent in placers. The average mineral composition is 83 percent bastnaesite, 13 percent monazite, and 4 percent of 10 other minerals. Annual global production is about 67,000 metric tons of which 41 percent is from placers and 59 percent is from primary deposits; mining methods consist of open pits (94 percent) and dredging (6 percent). This output could be doubled if the operations that do not currently recover rare earths would do so. Resources are more than sufficient to meet the demand for the predictable future. About 52 percent of the world's REO resources are located in China. Ranking of other countries is as follows: Namibia (22 percent), the United States (15 percent), Australia (6 percent), and India (3 percent); the remainder is in several other countries. Conversely, 38 percent of the production is in China, 33 percent in the United States, 12 percent in Australia, and 5 percent each in Malaysia and India. Several other countries, including Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, make up the remainder. Markets for rare earths are mainly in the metallurgical, magnet, ceramic, electronic, chemical, and optical industries. Rare earths improve the physical and rolling properties of iron and steel and add corrosion resistance and strength to structural members at high temperatures. Samarium and neodymium are used in lightweight, powerful magnets for electric motors. Cerium and yttrium increase the

  13. Application of far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials to liquefied petroleum gas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Xu, Anping

    2010-03-01

    Far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials were prepared by the coprecipitation method using tourmaline, cerium acetate, and lanthanum acetate as raw materials. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that tourmaline modified with the rare earths La and Ce has a better far infrared emitting performance. Through XRD analysis, we attribute the improved far infrared emission properties of the tourmaline to the unit cell shrinkage of the tourmaline arising from La enhancing the redox properties of nano-CeO2. The effect of the composite materials on the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied by the flue gas analysis and water boiling test. Based on the results, it was found that the composite materials could accelerate the combustion of LPG, and that the higher the emissivity of the rare earth mineral composite materials, the better the effects on combustion of LPG. In all activation styles, both air and LPG to be activated has a best effect, indicating the activations having a cumulative effect.

  14. Influence of rare-earth ions on SiO₂-Na₂O-RE₂O₃ glass structure.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A; Benmore, C J; Holland, D; Du, J; Beuneu, B; Mekki, A

    2011-02-16

    Praseodymium and europium sodium silicate glasses of nominal composition (SiO(2))(0.70 - x)(Na(2)O)(0.30)(RE(2)O(3))(x), where RE is the rare earth and 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10, were studied by neutron and high-energy x-ray scattering and classical molecular dynamics simulations. The observation of a significant x-ray intensity in doped as compared to un-doped glasses is indicative of RE-RE correlations at a distance of ∼ 3.7-3.9 Å, much shorter than would be expected for a homogeneous distribution, suggesting that clustering of the rare-earth cations occurs in both these glass systems at low concentrations. Above x = 0.075 (nominal), minimal changes in this region indicate that the RE atoms are incorporated much more randomly into the glass structure. The molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the rare-earth ions enter the sodium-rich regions in the sodium silicate glasses and act as modifiers. A cluster analysis performed on the model systems indicates that the tendency for clustering is higher in praseodymium-containing glasses than in the europium glasses.

  15. SUSTAINABLE ALLOY DESIGN: SEARCHING FOR RARE EARTH ELEMENT ALTERNATIVES THROUGH CRYSTAL ENGINEERING

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-26

    necessary if the abstract is to be limited. Standard Form 298 Back (Rev. 8/98) SUSTAINABLE ALLOY DESIGN : SEARCHING FOR RARE EARTH ELEMENT ALTERNATIVES...approach to predict Co and Ti site preference for a quaternary alloy Ni3Al(Co,Ti). 4. Developed new charge optimized many-body (COMB) potentials...Probe correlative microscopy. II. RE free solute design for Ni based superalloys Optimal pathways, which are not captured in the periodic

  16. Novel fabrication process of planar waveguides in rare-earth doped fluoroindate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, R. P., Jr.; da Silva, B. J. P.; Falcão-Filho, E. L.; da Silva, E. F., Jr.; Petrov, D. V.; de Araújo, Cid B.; Messaddeq, Y.; Aegerter, M. A.

    1995-08-01

    We report the successful fabrication of planar waveguides in rare-earth doped fluoroindate glass substrates. A new procedure for waveguide fabrication using a thermally evaporated AgF nonmetallic film was developed. The refractive index changes of more than 0.03, associated to low propagation losses achieved, open new perspectives and show the potentiality of using this glass family toward further developments in fabrication and design of integrated optical devices for optical communication wavelengths.

  17. Bremsstrahlung radiation effects in rare earth permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, H.; Maruyama, X.; Colella, N.; Hobbs, J.; Hornady, R.; Kulke, B.; Palomar, J.

    1988-12-15

    Advances in rare earth permanent magnet (REPM) technology have made possible new applications. Two such applications are the use of permanent magnetic lenses for accelerator and beam transport systems and the expanding use in undulators and wigglers of synchrotron radiation and free electron laser systems. Both applications involve potential exposure of REPM's to high radiation fields. We have investigated the radiation hardness of several different varieties of REPM's up to 2 gigarads of absorbed dose from a mixed electron-photon (bremsstrahlung) field. Sm/sub 2/Co/sub 17/, Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B and an experimental REPM, Pr/sub 15/Fe/sub 79/B/sub 6/, from several different manufacturers have been investigated. Of the samples irradiated, Sm/sub 2/Co/sub 17/ proved to be the most resistant to bremsstrahlung radiation. However, details of manufacturing techniques produced significantly different results. We observed that REPM's of nominally identical stoichiometric composition from different manufacturers did not show the same rate of remanence loss. We present details of our experiment and absorbed dose modeling and a summary of radiation effects measurements of which we are aware. Our study of these radiation damage experiments lead us to the empirical observation that the order of radiation hardness is Sm/sub 2/Co/sub 17/, SmCo/sub 5/ and Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B, regardless of the source of radiation, i.e., gammas, electrons, protons or neutrons. 8 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Advanced Characterization of Rare Earth Elements in Coal Utilization Byproducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verba, C.; Scott, M.; Dieterich, M.; Poston, J.; Collins, K.

    2016-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) in various forms (e.g., crystalline mineral phases; adsorbed/absorbed state on and into organic macerals, neoformed glass from flyash or bottom ash) from domestic feedstocks such as coal deposits to coal utilization byproducts (CUB) have the potential to reduce foreign REE dependence and increase domestic resource security. Characterization is critical for understanding environmental risks related to their fate and transport as well as determining the most practical and economical techniques for concentrating the REE and converting them into chemical stocks for manufacturing. Several complementary electron microscopy (SEM-EDS, EPMA-WDS, FIB-SEM, cathodoluminescence, and XRD) and post image processing techniques were used to understand REE transition from coal to CUB. Sites of interest were identified and imaged and respective elemental x-ray maps acquired and montaged. Pixel classification of SEM imagers was completed using image analysis techniques to quantify the distribution of REE associated features. Quantitative elemental analysis of phases were completed using EMPA-WDS followed by FIB-SEM. The FIB-SEM results were reconstructed into 3D volumes and features of interest (e.g. monazite) were analyzed to determine the structure and volumetric estimation of REEs and thus predict detrital REE phases to ICP-MS results. Trace minerals were identified as pyrite, zircon, REE-phosphates' (monazite, xenotime), and barite within the coal tailings. In CUB, amorphous aluminosilicates, iron oxide cenospheres, and calcium oxides were present; monazite appear to be unaltered and unaffected by the combustion process in these samples. Thermal decomposition may have occurred due to presence of detrital zircon and xenotime and subsequent thin Ca-oxide coating enriched in trace REEs.

  19. Interplay of iron and rare-earth magnetic order in rare-earth iron pnictide superconductors under magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei-Lei, Yang; Da-Yong, Liu; Dong-Meng, Chen; Liang-Jian, Zou

    2016-02-01

    The magnetic properties of iron pnictide superconductors with magnetic rare-earth ions under strong magnetic field are investigated based on the cluster self-consistent field method. Starting from an effective Heisenberg model, we present the evolution of magnetic structures on magnetic field in R/FeAsO (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, and Tb) and R/Fe2As2 (R = Eu) compounds. It is found that spin-flop transition occurs in both rare-earth and iron layers under magnetic field, in good agreement with the experimental results. The interplay between rare-earth and iron spins plays a key role in the magnetic-field-driven magnetic phase transition, which suggests that the rare-earth layers can modulate the magnetic behaviors of iron layers. In addition, the factors that affect the critical magnetic field for spin-flop transition are also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11104274, 11274310, and 11474287) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 27R1310020A).

  20. Rare earth and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with the 2-aminobenzoate anion as organic luminescent sensitizer

    SciTech Connect

    Cursino, Ana Cristina Trindade; Rives, Vicente; Trujillano, Raquel

    2015-10-15

    Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with nitrate anions were synthesized, followed by exchange with 2-aminobenzoate. The UV absorption ability was improved after intercalation/grafting in relation to that shown by the parent material. - Highlights: • Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide were synthesized. • Intercalated nitrate anions were exchanged by 2-aminobenzoate. • In all the 2-aminobenzoate containing compounds, the grafting reaction was detected. • The UV absorption ability was improved after the exchange reactions. • Rare earth hydroxide salts are potential matrixes to produce luminescent materials. - Abstract: Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with nitrate anions were synthesized, followed by exchange with 2-aminobenzoate. The obtained compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) spectroscopies, fluorescence measurements and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The results from FTIR spectroscopy suggest a direct coordination of 2-aminobenzoate to the metal cations of the inorganic layered structure. The organic derivative products from the intercalation reactions absorb a broader range of UV-light in relation to that shown by the parent material; the photoluminescence measurements present a strong violet, blue and green luminescence under UV-light excitation for layered compounds with, Zn, Y and Tb, respectively. Rare earth hydroxide salts (RE-LHS) are potential alternative matrices for the immobilization of organic species to produce luminescent materials.

  1. Prospects for Non-Rare Earth Permanent Magnets for Traction Motors and Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, M. J.; McCallum, R. W.; Anderson, I. A.; Constantinides, S.

    2012-07-01

    With the advent of high-flux density permanent magnets based on rare earth elements such as neodymium (Nd) in the 1980s, permanent magnet-based electric machines had a clear performance and cost advantage over induction machines when weight and size were factors such as in hybrid electric vehicles and wind turbines. However, the advantages of the permanent magnet-based electric machines may be overshadowed by supply constraints and high prices of their key constituents, rare earth elements, which have seen nearly a 10-fold increase in price in the last 5 years and the imposition of export limits by the major producing country, China, since 2010. We outline the challenges, prospects, and pitfalls for several potential alloys that could replace Nd-based permanent magnets with more abundant and less strategically important elements.

  2. Prospects for Non-Rare Earth Permanent Magnets for Traction Motors and Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Matthew; McCallum, Kendall; Anderson, Iver; Constantinides, Steven

    2012-06-29

    With the advent of high-flux density permanent magnets based on rare earth elements such as neodymium (Nd) in the 1980s, permanent magnet-based electric machines had a clear performance and cost advantage over induction machines when weight and size were factors such as in hybrid electric vehicles and wind turbines. However, the advantages of the permanent magnet-based electric machines may be overshadowed by supply constraints and high prices of their key constituents, rare earth elements, which have seen nearly a 10-fold increase in price in the last 5 years and the imposition of export limits by the major producing country, China, since 2010. We outline the challenges, prospects, and pitfalls for several potential alloys that could replace Nd-based permanent magnets with more abundant and less strategically important elements.

  3. (Fundamental studies of strongly magnetic rare earth-transition metal alloys)

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, G.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this research is to deepen our understanding of new strongly magnetic rare earth-transition metal compounds and alloys. Such materials have high potential as hard or semi-hard permanent magnet materials with energy-related and other applications. The phases investigated generally are based on iron or cobalt, often include light rare earths, and often are ternary alloys with anisotropic hexagonal or tetragonal structures. Several types of system are studied including new Fe-rich ternary phases, melt-spun and heat treated alloys containing disorder which are reached by intermediate metastable phases, and sputtered thin films and multilayers. Our aim is to understand these relatively complex materials on the basis of fundamental electronic structure, theories of itinerant magnetism, and the microstructural effects which control the extrinsic properties. To this end a broad range of experiments and calculations are performed.

  4. Progress in rare-earth-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Seddon, Angela B; Tang, Zhuoqi; Furniss, David; Sujecki, Slawomir; Benson, Trevor M

    2010-12-06

    The progress, and current challenges, in fabricating rare-earth-doped chalcogenide-glass fibers for developing mid-infrared (IR) fiber lasers are reviewed. For the first time a coherent explanation is forwarded for the failure to date to develop a gallium-lanthanum-sulfide glass mid-IR fiber laser. For the more covalent chalcogenide glasses, the importance of optimizing the glass host and glass processing routes in order to minimize non-radiative decay and to avoid rare earth ion clustering and glass devitrification is discussed. For the first time a new idea is explored to explain an additional method of non-radiative depopulation of the excited state in the mid-IR that has not been properly recognized before: that of impurity multiphonon relaxation. Practical characterization of candidate selenide glasses is presented. Potential applications of mid-infrared fiber lasers are suggested.

  5. Rare earth-doped nanocrystalline MgF2: Synthesis, luminescence and thermoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsohn, L. G.; Roy, A. L.; McPherson, C. L.; Kucera, C. J.; Oliveira, L. C.; Yukihara, E. G.; Ballato, J.

    2013-10-01

    The radioluminescence (RL) and thermoluminescence (TL) activation of MgF2 through the incorporation of rare earths is investigated in this work. These materials were obtained by ligand-free solution precipitation and calcination at 500 °C in air, and Ce, Eu and Tb were incorporated at the 1 mol% level. RL results of doped and undoped materials seem to indicate that the incorporation of rare earths creates effective luminescence centers, which is accompanied by an increase in the TL signal intensity in comparison with the undoped material. In particular, RL emission of MgF2:Ce is reported to be centered at 325 nm. The traps associated with the TL signal were found to be unstable under exposure to room light, suggesting potential for applications involving optically stimulated luminescence.

  6. Layered rare-earth hydroxide nanocones with facile host composition modification and anion-exchange feature: topotactic transformation into oxide nanocones for upconversion.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yishun; Chen, Gen; Liu, Xiaohe; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Ning; Li, Junhui; Liang, Shuquan; Ma, Renzhi; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2017-06-22

    Conical structures with hollow interiors, namely, nanocones (NCs), may exhibit better carrier transport properties than nanorods or nanotubes, which make them promising candidates for potential applications in optical/display devices, electronics and optoelectronics. Generally, conical structures belong to a metastable state between lamellar and tubular forms due to the extreme curvature causing the increase of internal strain energy. Therefore, it is very difficult to prepare NCs in high yield and purity under mild conditions. Here we firstly demonstrate a general strategy for the synthesis of layered rare-earth hydroxide (LRH) NCs intercalating dodecyl sulfate anions (C12H25SO4(-), DS(-)) using hexamethylenetetramine (C6H12N4, HMT) hydrolysis. The rare-earth cations (RE(3+)) in the host layer can be conveniently modified and/or doped, resulting in a large family of monometallic (Y, Tb, Er), bi- (Y-Tb, Y-Er) and even tri-metallic (Y-Yb-Er) LRH NCs with adjustable ratios. Moreover, the DS(-)-intercalated LRH NCs can be readily modified with various inorganic or organic anions (e.g., NO3(-), Cl(-), and CH3COO(-), etc.) through a conventional anion-exchange procedure, and the original conical morphology can be perfectly maintained. The anion-exchanged product, for example, NO3(-)-intercalated NCs, can be more easily and topotactically transformed into oxide NCs than the original DS(-)-intercalated form, exempt from the formation of rare-earth oxysulfates induced by the combustion of interlayer DS anions. Taking advantage of this protocol, tri-metallic (Y-Yb-Er) LRH NCs were anion-exchanged into the NO3(-)-intercalated form and subsequently calcined into Y2O3:Yb,Er oxide NCs, which showed efficient upconversion photoluminescence properties. The current strategy may become a general method for the designed synthesis of other related hydroxide and oxide NCs for a wide range of potential applications.

  7. Layered rare earth hydroxides (LREHs): synthesis and structure characterization towards multifunctionality.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jianbo; Ma, Renzhi; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2014-07-21

    Layered rare earth hydroxides (LREHs) represent a new family of layered host compounds that integrate attractive physicochemical properties of rare earth elements with the wide tunability of guest anions. The compounds have attracted significant research attention, and potential applications have been found in various fields such as optics, catalysis, bio-medicine and so on. In this perspective, we describe our recent progress in the synthesis, structure characterization, and development of functionalities of the LREH compounds. A unique homogeneous alkalization method, in which RE ions are precipitated from a solution containing RE salt, concentrated target anions and hexamethylenetetramine, has been employed to effectively produce highly crystalline LREH samples. A range of anionic forms including chloride-, nitrate-, sulfate- and organodisulfonate-series, have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Two types of cationic rare earth hydroxide layers, {[RE2(OH)5(H2O)2](+)}∞ for the chloride- and nitrate-series and {[RE(OH)2(H2O)](+)}∞ for the sulfate- and organodisulfonate-series, are classified. Unique dehydration/rehydration behaviors or thermal phase evolution of the LREH compounds have been revealed and discussed in relation to the crystal structures. An outlook for potential applications of LREH compounds as anion exchangers, precursors to unique functional oxides, and optical phosphors is described.

  8. The formation of crystals in glasses containing rare earth oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadzil, Syazwani Mohd; Hrma, Pavel; Crum, Jarrod; Siong, Khoo Kok; Ngatiman, Mohammad Fadzlee; Said, Riduan Mt

    2014-02-01

    Korean spent nuclear fuel will reach the capacity of the available temporary storage by 2016. Pyroprocessing and direct disposal seems to be an alternative way to manage and reuse spent nuclear fuel while avoiding the wet reprocessing technology. Pyroprocessing produces several wastes streams, including metals, salts, and rare earths, which must be converted into stabilized form. A suitable form for rare earth immobilization is borosilicate glass. The borosilicate glass form exhibits excellent durability, allows a high waste loading, and is easy to process. In this work, we combined the rare earths waste of composition (in wt%) 39.2Nd2O3-22.7CeO2-11.7La2O3-10.9PrO2-1.3Eu2O3-1.3Gd2O3-8.1Sm2O3-4.8Y2O3 with a baseline glass of composition 60.2SiO2-16.0B2O3-12.6Na2O-3.8Al2O3-5.7CaO-1.7ZrO2. Crystallization in waste glasses occurs as the waste loading increases. It may produce complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. To study crystal formation, we initially made glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% of La2O3 and then glasses with 5%, 10% and 15% of the complete rare earth mix. Samples were heat-treated for 24 hours at temperatures 800°C to 1150°C in 50°C increments. Quenched samples were analyzed using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Stillwellite (LaBSiO5) and oxyapatite (Ca2La8Si6O26) were found in glasses containing La2O3, while oxyapatite (Ca2La8Si6O26 and NaNd9Si6O26) precipitated in glasses with additions of mixed rare earths. The liquidus temperature (TL) of the glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% La2O3 were 800°C, 959°C and 986°C, respectively; while TL was 825°C, 1059°C and 1267°C for glasses with 5%, 10% and 15% addition of mixed rare earth oxides. The component coefficients TB2O3, TSiO2, TCaO, and TRE2O3 were also evaluated using a recently published study.

  9. Rare earth element mineralogy, geochemistry, and preliminary resource assessment of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, Helmand Province, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Buttleman, Kim P.

    2011-01-01

    There is increased concern about the future availability of rare earth elements (REE) because of China's dominance as the supplier of more than 95 percent of world REE output, their decision to restrict exports of rare earth products, and the rapid increase in world-wide consumption of rare earth product. As a result, countries such as the United States, Japan, and member nations of the European Union face a future of tight supplies and high prices for rare earth products unless other sources of REE are found and developed (Long and others, 2010; U.S. Geological Survey, 2011, p. 128-129, 184-185). We report and describe a significant new deposit of light rare earth elements (LREE), estimated at 1 Mt, within the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of south Afghanistan. The potential resource is located in a remote and rugged part of the igneous complex in a region previously identified by Soviet geologists in the 1970s. This report reviews the geologic setting of LREE deposit, presents new geochemical data documenting the grade of LREE mineralization, briefly describes the mineralogy and mineralogical associations of the deposit, and presents a preliminary estimate of LREE resources based on our current understanding of the geology.

  10. Rare earth element mineralogy, geochemistry, and preliminary resource assessment of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, Helmand Province, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Buttleman, Kim P.

    2011-01-01

    There is increased concern about the future availability of rare earth elements (REE) because of China's dominance as the supplier of more than 95 percent of world REE output, their decision to restrict exports of rare earth products, and the rapid increase in world-wide consumption of rare earth product. As a result, countries such as the United States, Japan, and member nations of the European Union face a future of tight supplies and high prices for rare earth products unless other sources of REE are found and developed (Long and others, 2010; U.S. Geological Survey, 2011, p. 128-129, 184-185). We report and describe a significant new deposit of light rare earth elements (LREE), estimated at 1 Mt, within the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of south Afghanistan. The potential resource is located in a remote and rugged part of the igneous complex in a region previously identified by Soviet geologists in the 1970s. This report reviews the geologic setting of LREE deposit, presents new geochemical data documenting the grade of LREE mineralization, briefly describes the mineralogy and mineralogical associations of the deposit, and presents a preliminary estimate of LREE resources based on our current understanding of the geology.

  11. Rare Earth Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Pal, AnnaMarie T.; Patton, Martin O.; Jenkins, Phillip P.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of their electron structure, rare earth ions in crystals at high temperature emit radiation in several narrow bands rather than in a continuous blackbody manner. This study presents a spectral emittance model for films and cylinders of rare earth doped yttrium aluminum garnets. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical film spectral emittances was found for erbium and holmium aluminum garnets. Spectral emittances of films are sensitive to temperature differences across the film. For operating conditions of interest, the film emitter experiences a linear temperature variation whereas the cylinder emitter has a more advantageous uniform temperature. Emitter efficiency is also a sensitive function of temperature. For holminum aluminum garnet film the efficiency is 0.35 at 1446K but only 0.27 at 1270 K.

  12. Thermochemistry of Rare Earth Silicates for Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, Gustavo; Jacobson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth silicates are promising candidates as environmental protective coatings (EBCs) for silica-forming ceramics and composites in combustion environments since they are predicted to have lower reactivity with the water vapor combustion products. The reactivity of rare earth silicates is assessed by the thermodynamic activity of the silica component which is best measured by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS). Here, we discuss a novel method based on a reducing agent to increase the partial pressure of SiO(g) which is then used to calculate thermodynamic activity of silica in Y2O3-SiO2 and Yb2O3-SiO2 systems. After the KEMS measurements, samples were probed by X-ray diffraction and their phase content was calculated from Rietveld refinement.

  13. Rare Earth Nanoprobes for Functional Biomolecular Imaging and Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Naczynski, Dominik J.; Tan, Mei Chee; Riman, Richard E.; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2014-01-01

    Contrast agents designed to visualize the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer pathogenesis and progression have deepened our understanding of disease complexity and accelerated the development of enhanced drug strategies targeted to specific biochemical pathways. For the next generation probes and imaging systems to be viable, they must exhibit enhanced sensitivity and robust quantitation of morphologic and contrast features, while offering the ability to resolve the disease-specific molecular signatures that may be critical to reconstitute a more comprehensive portrait of pathobiology. This feature article provides an overview on the design and advancements of emerging biomedical optical probes in general and evaluates the promise of rare earth nanoprobes, in particular, for molecular imaging and theranostics. Combined with new breakthroughs in nanoscale probe configurations, and improved dopant compositions, and multimodal infrared optical imaging, rare-earth nanoprobes can be used to address a wide variety of biomedical challenges, including deep tissue imaging, real-time drug delivery tracking and multispectral molecular profiling. PMID:24921049

  14. Electronic and vibrational spectra of some rare earth trifluoromethanesulfonates crystals.

    PubMed

    Paul, P; Ghosh, M; Neogy, D; Mallick, P K

    2011-01-01

    The Raman and infrared spectra of some rare earth (dysprosium and terbium) trifluoromethanesulfonates crystals have been analyzed. Different vibrational frequencies of trifluoromethanesulfonate ions (CF3SO3-) are identified and assigned to different vibrations of the SO3 and CF3 groups. Electronic transitions of R3+ ions (R=Dy, Tb) in these salts have been assigned to transitions from the ground to different energy levels of the ground multiplet. The electronic energy levels of the rare earth ions are also determined theoretically with the help of single electron crystal field theory. They are found to yield results not only in good agreement with the observed spectral data but also in good conformity with those obtained previously from magnetic measurements.

  15. Electronic and vibrational spectra of some rare earth trifluoromethanesulfonates crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, P.; Ghosh, M.; Neogy, D.; Mallick, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    The Raman and infrared spectra of some rare earth (dysprosium and terbium) trifluoromethanesulfonates crystals have been analyzed. Different vibrational frequencies of trifluoromethanesulfonate ions (CF 3SO 3-) are identified and assigned to different vibrations of the SO 3 and CF 3 groups. Electronic transitions of R 3+ ions (R = Dy, Tb) in these salts have been assigned to transitions from the ground to different energy levels of the ground multiplet. The electronic energy levels of the rare earth ions are also determined theoretically with the help of single electron crystal field theory. They are found to yield results not only in good agreement with the observed spectral data but also in good conformity with those obtained previously from magnetic measurements.

  16. A divalent rare earth oxide semiconductor: Yttrium monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminaga, Kenichi; Sei, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Tajiri, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-03-21

    Rare earth oxides are usually widegap insulators like Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} with closed shell trivalent rare earth ions. In this study, solid phase rock salt structure yttrium monoxide, YO, with unusual valence of Y{sup 2+} (4d{sup 1}) was synthesized in a form of epitaxial thin film by pulsed laser deposition method. YO has been recognized as gaseous phase in previous studies. In contrast with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, YO was dark-brown colored and narrow gap semiconductor. The tunable electrical conductivity ranging from 10{sup −1} to 10{sup 3} Ω{sup −1 }cm{sup −1} was attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies serving as electron donor. Weak antilocalization behavior observed in magnetoresistance indicated significant role of spin-orbit coupling as a manifestation of 4d electron carrier.

  17. Rare-Earth Activated Nitride Phosphors: Synthesis, Luminescence and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Rong-Jun; Hirosaki, Naoto; Li, Yuanqiang; Takeda, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Nitridosilicates are structurally built up on three-dimensional SiN4 tetrahedral networks, forming a very interesting class of materials with high thermomechanical properties, hardness, and wide band gap. Traditionally, nitridosilicates are often used as structural materials such as abrasive particles, cutting tools, turbine blade, etc. Recently, the luminescence of rare earth doped nitridosilicates has been extensively studied, and a novel family of luminescent materials has been developed. This paper reviews the synthesis, luminescence and applications of nitridosilicate phosphors, with emphasis on rare earth nitrides in the system of M-Si-Al-O-N (M = Li, Ca, Sr, Ba, La) and their applications in white LEDs. These phosphors exhibit interesting luminescent properties, such as red-shifted excitation and emission, small Stokes shift, small thermal quenching, and high conversion efficiency, enabling them to use as down-conversion luminescent materials in white LEDs with tunable color temperature and high color rendering index.

  18. Pressure and temperature induced elastic properties of rare earth chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shriya, S.; Singh, N.; Sapkale, R.; Varshney, M.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    The pressure and temperature dependent mechanical properties as Young modulus, Thermal expansion coefficient of rare earth REX (RE = La, Pr, Eu; X = O, S, Se, and Te) chalcogenides are studied. The rare earth chalcogenides showed a structural phase transition (B1-B2). Pressure dependence of Young modulus discerns an increase in pressure inferring the hardening or stiffening of the lattice as a consequence of bond compression and bond strengthening. Suppressed Young modulus as functions of temperature infers the weakening of the lattice results in bond weakening in REX. Thermal expansion coefficient demonstrates that REX (RE = La, Pr, Eu; X = O, S, Se, and Te) chalcogenides is mechanically stiffened, and thermally softened on applied pressure and temperature.

  19. The rare earths in modern science and technology. Vol. 3

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, G.J.; Ryhne, J.J.; Silber, H.B.

    1982-01-01

    There is no other source book covering current activity in rare earth research as current or as comprehensive as The Rare Earths in Modern Science and Technology. Volume 3 of this series further expands and updates the excellent coverage of the field established in the previous two volumes. It brings together the investigative work of a significant cross section of the scientific and industrial community, including contributions from specialists in chemistry, physics, and materials science. The contributors represent an international gathering, including the first contributions to the series by scientists from the People's Republic of China. Topics examined include bioinorganic chemistry, organometallic and coordination chemistry, spectroscopy, phase equilibria and thermodynamics, structural and solid state chemistry, magnetic properties, hydrides, purification and analysis, and new applications.

  20. Pressure and temperature induced elastic properties of rare earth chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Shriya, S.; Sapkale, R. Varshney, Dinesh; Singh, N.; Varshney, M.

    2016-05-06

    The pressure and temperature dependent mechanical properties as Young modulus, Thermal expansion coefficient of rare earth REX (RE = La, Pr, Eu; X = O, S, Se, and Te) chalcogenides are studied. The rare earth chalcogenides showed a structural phase transition (B1–B2). Pressure dependence of Young modulus discerns an increase in pressure inferring the hardening or stiffening of the lattice as a consequence of bond compression and bond strengthening. Suppressed Young modulus as functions of temperature infers the weakening of the lattice results in bond weakening in REX. Thermal expansion coefficient demonstrates that REX (RE = La, Pr, Eu; X = O, S, Se, and Te) chalcogenides is mechanically stiffened, and thermally softened on applied pressure and temperature.

  1. Magnetomigration of rare-earth ions in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Franczak, Agnieszka; Binnemans, Koen; Jan Fransaer

    2016-10-05

    The effects of external inhomogenous (gradient) magnetic fields on the movement of the rare-earth ions: Dy(3+), Gd(3+) and Y(3+), in initially homogeneous aqueous solutions have been investigated. Differences in the migration of rare-earth ions in gradient magnetic fields were observed, depending on the magnetic character of the ions: paramagnetic ions of Dy(3+) and Gd(3+) move towards regions of the sample where the magnetic field gradient is the strongest, while diamagnetic ions of Y(3+) move in the opposite direction. It has been showed that the low magnetic field gradients, such the ones generated by permanent magnets, are sufficient to observe the magnetomigration effects of the ions in solution. The present work clearly establishes the behavior of magnetically different ions in initially homogeneous aqueous solutions exposed to magnetic field gradients. To this avail, a methodology for measuring the local concentration differences of metal ions in liquid samples was developed.

  2. A divalent rare earth oxide semiconductor: Yttrium monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminaga, Kenichi; Sei, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Tajiri, Hiroo; Oka, Daichi; Fukumura, Tomoteru; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Rare earth oxides are usually widegap insulators like Y2O3 with closed shell trivalent rare earth ions. In this study, solid phase rock salt structure yttrium monoxide, YO, with unusual valence of Y2+ (4d1) was synthesized in a form of epitaxial thin film by pulsed laser deposition method. YO has been recognized as gaseous phase in previous studies. In contrast with Y2O3, YO was dark-brown colored and narrow gap semiconductor. The tunable electrical conductivity ranging from 10-1 to 103 Ω-1 cm-1 was attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies serving as electron donor. Weak antilocalization behavior observed in magnetoresistance indicated significant role of spin-orbit coupling as a manifestation of 4d electron carrier.

  3. Contamination in the Rare-Earth Element Orthophosphate Reference Samples

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John J.; Hanchar, John M.; Picolli, Phillip M.; Schrier, Marc D.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Jarosewich, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    Several of the fourteen rare-earth element (plus Sc and Y) orthophosphate standards grown at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 1980s and widely distributed by the Smithsonian Institution’s Department of Mineral Sciences, are significantly contaminated by Pb. The origin of this impurity is the Pb2P2O7 flux that is derived from the thermal decomposition of PbHPO4. The lead pyrophosphate flux is used to dissolve the oxide starting materials at elevated temperatures (≈1360 °C) prior to the crystal synthesis. Because these rare-earth element standards are extremely stable under the electron beam and considered homogenous, they have been of enormous value to electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The monoclinic, monazite structure, orthophosphates show a higher degree of Pb incorporation than the tetragonal xenotime structure, orthophosphates. This paper will attempt to describe and rationalize the extent of the Pb contamination in these otherwise excellent materials. PMID:27446762

  4. On the structural phase transition in rare earth elpasolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selgert, P.; Lingner, C.; Lüthi, B.

    1984-09-01

    The structural phase transition in two representatives of the rare earth elpasolite fluorides, Rb2NaHoF6 and Rb2NaTmF6, are studied in detail. The symmetry of the soft mode is determined from Raman spectra, X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data to be Γ{4/+}. From the temperature dependence of the elastic constants of both compounds, estimates of various phase transition parameters are given, e.g. strain soft mode coupling constant and soft mode frequency. The softening of the elastic constants for T>T c is explained by the strain coupling to the fluctuations of the soft mode coordinates. The energy of the soft phonon at the zone boundary is estimated from the data and compared with that of K2ReCl6. The phase transition mechanisms in rare earth elpasolites and hexahalometallates are discussed.

  5. Characterization and Recovery of Rare Earths from Coal and By-Products

    SciTech Connect

    Granite, Evan J.; Roth, Elliot; Alvin, Mary Anne

    2016-03-25

    Coal is a precious resource, both in the United States and around the world. The United States has a 250-year supply of coal, and generates between 30 - 40% of its electricity through coal combustion. Approximately 1 Gt of coal has been mined annually in the US, although the 2015 total will likely be closer to 900 Mt (http://www.eia.gov/coal/production/quarterly/). Most of the coal is burned for power generation, but substantial quantities are also employed in the manufacture of steel, chemicals, and activated carbons. Coal has a positive impact upon many industries, including mining, power, rail transportation, manufacturing, chemical, steel, activated carbon, and fuels. Everything that is in the earth’s crust is also present within coal to some extent, and the challenge is always to utilize abundant domestic coal in clean and environmentally friendly manners. In the case of the rare earths, these valuable and extraordinarily useful elements are present within the abundant coal and coal by-products produced domestically and world-wide. These materials include the coals, as well as the combustion by-products such as ashes, coal preparation wastes, gasification slags, and mining by-products. All of these materials can be viewed as potential sources of rare earth elements. Most of the common inorganic lanthanide compounds, such as the phosphates found in coal, have very high melting, boiling, and thermal decomposition temperatures, allowing them to concentrate in combustion and gasification by-products. Furthermore, rare earths have been found in interesting concentrations in the strata above and below certain coal seams. Much of the recent research on coal utilization in the United States has focused upon the capture of pollutants such as acid gases, particulates, and mercury, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. The possible recovery of rare earth and other critical elements from abundant coal and by-products is an exciting new research area, representing a

  6. Structural and crystal chemical properties of rare-earth titanate pyrochlores

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, James Matthew; Boatner, Lynn A; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Du, Mao-Hua; Lance, Michael J; Rawn, Claudia J.; Bryan, Jeff C.

    2014-01-01

    Rare-earth titanates, RE2Ti2O7 (where RE = a rare-earth) with the pyrochlore structure continue to be investigated for use as potential stable host materials for nuclear and actinide-rich wastes. Accordingly, the present work is directed towards the elucidation of the fundamental structural, physical, and thermochemical properties of this class of compounds. Single-crystals of the rare earth pyrochlores were synthesized using a high-temperature flux technique and were subsequently characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The cubic lattice parameters display an approximately linear correlation with the RE-site cation radius. Theoretical calculations of the lattice constants and bond lengths of the subject materials were carried out using density functional theory, and the results are compared to the experimental values. The Sm and Eu titanates exhibit a covalency increase between the REO8 and TiO6 polyhedra resulting in a deviation from the increasing linear lattice parameter through the transition series. Gd2Ti2O7 with the 4f7 half-filled f-orbital Gd3+ sub-shell exhibits the lowest 48f oxygen positional parameter. The coefficient of thermal expansion for the rare-earth titanate series is approximately linear, and it has a range of 10.1 11.2 x 10-6 C-1. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the ~530 cm-1 peak associated with the Ti-O stretching mode follows a general trend of decreasing frequency with increasing RE reduced mass.

  7. Successful treatment of rare-earth magnet ingestion via minimally invasive techniques: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kosut, Jessica S; Johnson, Sidney M; King, Jeremy L; Garnett, Gwendolyn; Woo, Russell K

    2013-04-01

    Cases of rare-earth magnet ingestions have been increasingly reported in the literature. However, these descriptions have focused on the severity of the injuries, rather than the clinical presentation and/or therapeutic approach. We report a series of eight children, ranging in age from 2 to 10 years, who ingested powerful rare-earth magnets. The rare-earth magnets were marketed in 2009 under the trade name Buckyballs(®) (Maxfield & Oberton, New York, NY). They are about 5 mm in size, spherical, and brightly colored, making them appealing for young children to play with and place in their mouths. Three children presented within hours of ingestion, and the magnets were successfully removed via endoscopy in two, whereas the third child required laparoscopy. No fistulas were found in these children. A fourth child presented 2 days after ingestion with evidence of bowel wall erosion, but without fistula formation; the magnets were removed via laparoscopy. A fifth child ingested nine magnets in a ring formation, which were removed via colonoscopy without evidence of injury or fistula formation. The three remaining children presented late (5-8 days after ingestion) and were found to have associated fistulas. They were treated successfully with a combination of endoscopy and laparoscopy with fluoroscopy. None of the children in our series required an open surgical procedure. All children were discharged home without complications. This case series highlights the potential dangers of rare-earth magnet ingestion in children. Our experience suggests that prompt intervention using minimally invasive approaches can lead to successful outcomes.

  8. Recent developments of rare-earth-free hard-magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da; Pan, DeSheng; Li, ShaoJie; Zhang, ZhiDong

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in rare-earth-free hard-magnetic materials including magnetic bulk, thin films, nanocomposites and nanostructures are introduced. Since the costs of the rare-earth metals boosts up the price of the high-performance rare-earth permanent magnets, there is a much revived interest in various types of hard-magnetic materials based on rare-earth-free compounds. The 3d transition metals and their alloys with large coercivity and high Curie temperatures (working temperatures) are expected to overcome the disadvantages of rare-earth magnets. Making rare-earth-free magnets with a large energy product to meet tomorrow's energy needs is still a challenge.

  9. Optical detection of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal

    PubMed Central

    Kolesov, R.; Xia, K.; Reuter, R.; Stöhr, R.; Zappe, A.; Meijer, J.; Hemmer, P.R.; Wrachtrup, J.

    2012-01-01

    Rare-earth-doped laser materials show strong prospects for quantum information storage and processing, as well as for biological imaging, due to their high-Q 4f↔4f optical transitions. However, the inability to optically detect single rare-earth dopants has prevented these materials from reaching their full potential. Here we detect a single photostable Pr3+ ion in yttrium aluminium garnet nanocrystals with high contrast photon antibunching by using optical upconversion of the excited state population of the 4f↔4f optical transition into ultraviolet fluorescence. We also demonstrate on-demand creation of Pr3+ ions in a bulk yttrium aluminium garnet crystal by patterned ion implantation. Finally, we show generation of local nanophotonic structures and cell death due to photochemical effects caused by upconverted ultraviolet fluorescence of praseodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet in the surrounding environment. Our study demonstrates versatile use of rare-earth atomic-size ultraviolet emitters for nanoengineering and biotechnological applications. PMID:22929786

  10. Evaluating rare earth element availability: a case with revolutionary demand from clean technologies.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Elisa; Sherman, Andrew M; Wallington, Timothy J; Everson, Mark P; Field, Frank R; Roth, Richard; Kirchain, Randolph E

    2012-03-20

    The future availability of rare earth elements (REEs) is of concern due to monopolistic supply conditions, environmentally unsustainable mining practices, and rapid demand growth. We present an evaluation of potential future demand scenarios for REEs with a focus on the issue of comining. Many assumptions were made to simplify the analysis, but the scenarios identify some key variables that could affect future rare earth markets and market behavior. Increased use of wind energy and electric vehicles are key elements of a more sustainable future. However, since present technologies for electric vehicles and wind turbines rely heavily on dysprosium (Dy) and neodymium (Nd), in rare-earth magnets, future adoption of these technologies may result in large and disproportionate increases in the demand for these two elements. For this study, upper and lower bound usage projections for REE in these applications were developed to evaluate the state of future REE supply availability. In the absence of efficient reuse and recycling or the development of technologies which use lower amounts of Dy and Nd, following a path consistent with stabilization of atmospheric CO(2) at 450 ppm may lead to an increase of more than 700% and 2600% for Nd and Dy, respectively, over the next 25 years if the present REE needs in automotive and wind applications are representative of future needs.

  11. Chemical speciation and bioavailability of rare earth elements (REEs) in the ecosystem: a review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aysha Masood; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu; Bakar, Ahmad Farid Abu; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-10-10

    Rare earths (RE), chemically uniform group of elements due to similar physicochemical behavior, are termed as lanthanides. Natural occurrence depends on the geological circumstances and has been of long interest for geologist as tools for further scientific research into the region of ores, rocks, and oceanic water. The review paper mainly focuses to provide scientific literature about rare earth elements (REEs) with potential environmental and health effects in understanding the research. This is the initial review of RE speciation and bioavailability with current initiative toward development needs and research perceptive. In this paper, we have also discussed mineralogy, extraction, geochemistry, analytical methods of rare earth elements. In this study, REEs with their transformation and vertical distribution in different environments such as fresh and seawater, sediments, soil, weathering, transport, and solubility have been reported with most recent literature along key methods of findings. Speciation and bioavailability have been discussed in detail with special emphasis on soil, plant, and aquatic ecosystems and their impacts on the environment. This review shows that REE gained more importance in last few years due to their detrimental effects on living organisms, so their speciation, bioavailability, and composition are much more important to evaluate their health risks and are discussed thoroughly as well.

  12. Texture evolution during thermomechanical processing in rare earth free magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Victoria Mayne

    The use of wrought magnesium alloys is highly desirable for a wide range of applications where low component weight is desirable due to the high specific strength and stiffness the alloys can achieve. However, the implementation of wrought magnesium has been hindered by the limited room temperature formability which typically results from deformation processing. This work identifies opportunities for texture modification during thermomechanical processing of conventional (rare earth free) magnesium alloys via a combination of experimental investigation and polycrystal plasticity simulations. During deformation, it is observed that a homogeneous distribution of coarse intermetallic particles efficiently weakens deformation texture at all strain levels, while a highly inhomogeneous particle distribution is only effective at high strains. The particle deformation effects are complemented by the addition of alkaline earth solute, which modifies the relative deformation mode activity. During recrystallization, grains with basal orientations recrystallize more readily than off-basal grains, despite similar levels of internal misorientation. Dislocation substructure investigations revealed that this is a result of enhanced nucleation in the basal grains due to the dominance of prismatic slip. This dissertation identifies avenues to enhance the potential formability of magnesium alloys during thermomechanical processing by minimizing the evolved texture strength. The following are the identified key aspects of microstructural control: -Maintaining a fine grain size, likely via Zener pinning, to favorably modify deformation mode activity and homogenize deformation. -Developing a coarse, homogeneously distributed population of coarse intermetallic particles to promote a diffuse deformation texture. -Minimizing the activity of prismatic slip to retard the recrystallization of grains with basal orientations, allowing the development of a more diffuse recrystallization texture.

  13. Magnetostatic Effects in the Nucleation of Rare Earth Ferromagnetic Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Durfee, C. S.; Flynn, C. P.

    2001-07-30

    It has been reported that superheating, supercooling, and explosive kinetics coupled to other degrees of freedom occur at the ferromagnetic transitions of Er and Dy, and that metastable phases occur during the transition kinetics of Er. We explain these observations in terms of magnetostatic energy, which requires highly eccentric nuclei in the homogeneous nucleation of magnetic transitions in heavy rare earths. The magnetostatics favor transitions through ferrimagnetic intermediaries. The unusual kinetics derive from effective spin lattice relaxation.

  14. Distribution coefficients of rare earth ions in cubic zirconium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romer, H.; Luther, K.-D.; Assmus, W.

    1994-08-01

    Cubic zirconium dioxide crystals are grown with the skull melting technique. The effective distribution coefficients for Nd(exp 3+), Sm(exp 3+) and Er(sup 3+) as dopants are determined experimentally as a function of the crystal growth velocity. With the Burton-Prim-Slichter theory, the equilibrium distribution coefficients can be calculated. The distribution coefficients of all other trivalent rare earth ions can be estimated by applying the correlation towards the ionic radii.

  15. Process for separation of the rare earths by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Mason, George W.; Lewey, Sonia

    1977-04-05

    Production rates for solvent extraction separation of the rare earths and yttrium from each other can be improved by the substitution of di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid for di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. The di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid does not form an insoluble polymer at approximately 50% saturation as does the former extractant, permitting higher feed solution concentration and thus greater throughput.

  16. Lanthanide contraction and magnetism in the heavy rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Hughes, I D; Däne, M; Ernst, A; Hergert, W; Lüders, M; Poulter, J; Staunton, J B; Svane, A; Szotek, Z; Temmerman, W M

    2007-04-05

    The heavy rare earth elements crystallize into hexagonally close packed (h.c.p.) structures and share a common outer electronic configuration, differing only in the number of 4f electrons they have. These chemically inert 4f electrons set up localized magnetic moments, which are coupled via an indirect exchange interaction involving the conduction electrons. This leads to the formation of a wide variety of magnetic structures, the periodicities of which are often incommensurate with the underlying crystal lattice. Such incommensurate ordering is associated with a 'webbed' topology of the momentum space surface separating the occupied and unoccupied electron states (the Fermi surface). The shape of this surface-and hence the magnetic structure-for the heavy rare earth elements is known to depend on the ratio of the interplanar spacing c and the interatomic, intraplanar spacing a of the h.c.p. lattice. A theoretical understanding of this problem is, however, far from complete. Here, using gadolinium as a prototype for all the heavy rare earth elements, we generate a unified magnetic phase diagram, which unequivocally links the magnetic structures of the heavy rare earths to their lattice parameters. In addition to verifying the importance of the c/a ratio, we find that the atomic unit cell volume plays a separate, distinct role in determining the magnetic properties: we show that the trend from ferromagnetism to incommensurate ordering as atomic number increases is connected to the concomitant decrease in unit cell volume. This volume decrease occurs because of the so-called lanthanide contraction, where the addition of electrons to the poorly shielding 4f orbitals leads to an increase in effective nuclear charge and, correspondingly, a decrease in ionic radii.

  17. High temperature thermodynamic behavior of the rare earth oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a review of work on rare earth (RE) oxide systems. These studies are divided into three parts: a systematic study of the decomposition of RE oxides (M-O systems); some studies of ternary systems (M/sub 1/-M/sub 2/-O); studies of the complex system (M/sub 1/-M/sub 2/-M/sub 3/...M/sub n/-O). Various results and applications of these studies are discussed. 6 figures.

  18. Modulated magnetic phases in rare earth metallic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, T. )

    1994-04-08

    Neutron scattering has played a key role in the microscopic understanding of the static and dynamic properties of magnetic materials. Modulated magnetic structures first discovered in the late fifties can no longer be referred to as exotic; more than a hundred such phases have already been found in a variety of magnetic systems. Neutron and x-ray magnetic scattering have played a complementary role in the recent discovery and understanding of the modulated magnetic phases in rare earth metallic systems.

  19. Anisotropy and Microstructure of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    impurities, particularly calcium, magnesium aluminium, platinum and other refractory metals. Calcium-oxid precipitates are found in rare earth magnets...these compounds naturally not good. Therefore MM-Fe-B magnets might have magnet data at room temperature which are better then that of a ferrite ...different coercivity mechanisms, (e.g. rapidly quenched Nd-Fe-B magnets, Sm2 Co1, based materials but also ferrites ) are therefore in progress. 6

  20. Temperature-dependent Sellmeier equations for rare-earth sesquioxides.

    PubMed

    Zelmon, David E; Northridge, Jessica M; Haynes, Nicholas D; Perlov, Dan; Petermann, Klaus

    2013-06-01

    High-power lasers are making increasing demands on laser hosts especially in the area of thermal management. Traditional hosts, such as YAG, are unsuitable for many high-power applications and therefore, new hosts are being developed including rare-earth sesquioxides. We report new measurements of the refractive indices of these materials as functions of wavelength and temperature, which will aid in the design of laser cavities and other nonlinear optical elements.

  1. Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the compositional and phase relationships among minerals in which rare earth elements (REE) occur as essential constituents (e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite). Particular consideration is given to the vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals and to the REE partitioning between minerals as related to the acid-base tendencies and mineral stabilities. It is shown that the treatment of coupled substitutions as vector quantities facilitates graphical representation of mineral composition spaces.

  2. Ion probe measurement of rare earth elements in biogenic phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, P.; Albarede, F. )

    1989-12-01

    The rare earth element (REE) distributions in individuals fish teeth and conodonts have been measured by ion probe. Concentrations and La/Yb ratios show little variations, except in the enamel, which suggests that REE uptake from the sedimented biogenic debris takes place at the water-sediment interface as an essentially quantitative process without fractionation. Late diagenetic disturbances remained of marginal importance. Hence, REE in phosphatic debris might reflect the input from the overlying water column.

  3. Observation of anomalous phonons in orthorhombic rare-earth manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P.; Chen, H. Y.; Tyson, T. A.; Liu, Z. X.; Bai, J. M.; Wang, L. P.; Choi, Y. J.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2010-12-01

    We observe the appearance of a phonon near the lock-in temperature in orthorhombic REMnO3 (RE denotes rare earth) (RE: Lu and Ho) and anomalous phonon hardening in orthorhombic LuMnO3. The anomalous phonon occurs at the onset of spontaneous polarization. No such changes were found in incommensurate orthorhombic DyMnO3. These observations directly reveal different electric polarization mechanisms in the E-type and incommensurate-type orthorhombic REMnO3.

  4. Trade Group Rules Against China in Rare Earths Dispute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-04-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) has ruled against China in a trade dispute over rare earth elements (REE) as well as tungsten and molybdenum, the group announced on 26 March. The European Union, Japan, and the United States brought trade cases against China in March 2012 concerning alleged unfair export restraints on the materials (see Eos, 93(13), 134-135, doi:10.1029/2012EO130002).

  5. The Synthesis and Characterization of Some Rare Earth Arsenides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-10

    Kobzenko, V. B. Chernogorenko, S. N. L’vov, M. I. Lesnaya, and K. A. Lynchak, "Equilibrium Diagram and Properties of Alloys of the As-Nd System...Stolchiometry and Structure on Physical Properties of the Rare Earth Arsen des .................................... 24 CHAPTER 3 OBJECTIVE AND TECHNICAL...Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) ..... ........ ... .......... . 67 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION..... ........... - .... .... . .... .. ..... 71 6.1 Properties of HoAs(Nd

  6. Magnetism of perovskite cobaltites with Kramers rare-earth ions

    SciTech Connect

    Jirák, Z. Hejtmánek, J.; Knížek, K.; Novák, P.; Šantavá, E.; Fujishiro, H.

    2014-05-07

    The band-gap insulators RECoO{sub 3} (RE = Nd{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, and Dy{sup 3+}) with Co{sup 3+} ions stabilized in the non-magnetic low-spin state have been investigated by specific heat measurements. The experiments evidence an antiferromagnetic ordering of the rare earths with Néel temperature of T{sub N} = 1.25, 1.50, and 3.60 K for NdCoO{sub 3}, SmCoO{sub 3}, and DyCoO{sub 3}, respectively. With increasing external field, the lambda peak in specific heat, indicative of the transition, shifts to lower temperatures and vanishes for field of about 3 T. Starting from this point, a broader Schottky peak is formed, centered in 1 K range, and its position is moved to higher temperatures proportionally to applied field. The origin of the peak is in Zeeman splitting of the ground Kramers doublet, and the gradual shift with field defines effective g-factors for the rare-earth pseudospins in studied compounds. The results obtained are confronted with the calculations of crystal field splitting of the rare-earth multiplets.

  7. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Castleman, A. W.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REs) consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies. The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Therefore, mimicking the properties of REs in a superatom framework is especially valuable but at the same time, technically challenging and requiring advanced concepts about manipulating properties of atom/molecular complexes. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs. Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs (namely Nd and Eu, respectively), opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry. Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials. Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel “magic boron” counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters. PMID:25848014

  8. Correlations in rare-earth transition-metal permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Skomski, R. Manchanda, P.; Kashyap, A.

    2015-05-07

    It is investigated how electron-electron correlations affect the intrinsic properties of rare-earth transition-metal magnets. Focusing on orbital moment and anisotropy, we perform model calculations for 3d-4f alloys and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for NdCo{sub 5}. On an independent-electron level, the use of a single Slater determinant with broken spin symmetry introduces Hund's rule correlations, which govern the behavior of rare-earth ions and of alloys described by the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and LSDA + U approximations to DFT. By contrast, rare-earth ions in intermetallics involve configuration interactions between two or more Slater determinants and lead to phenomena such as spin-charge distribution. Analyzing DFT as a Legendre transformation and using Bethe's crystal-field theory, we show that the corresponding density functionals are very different from familiar LSDA-type expressions and outline the effect of spin-charge separation on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  9. Restoration of rare earth mine areas: organic amendments and phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Wen; Liu, Shenghong; Zhang, Limin; Zhong, Liyan; Luo, Ximei; Liang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Overexploitation of rare earth mine has caused serious desertification and various environmental issues, and ecological restoration of a mining area is an important concern in China. In this study, experiments involving dry grass landfilling, chicken manure broadcasting, and plant cultivation were carried out to reclaim a rare earth mine area located in Heping County, Guangdong Province, China. The prime focus was to improve soil quality in terms of nutrients, microbial community, enzyme activity, and physicochemical properties so as to reclaim the land. After 2 years of restoration, an increase of organic matter (OM), available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) levels, and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and a reduction of the available nitrogen (N) level and urease (URE) activity in soil were achieved compared to the original mined land. The nutrients and enzyme activities in soil with 5 years of restoration were close to or surpass those in the unexploited land as control. The bulk density, total porosity, water holding capacity, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of soil were improved, and the number of cultivable microorganisms and the bacterial diversity in soil were greatly increased with time during ecological restoration, especially for surface soil. Furthermore, the artificial vegetation stably grew at the restored mining sites. The results indicated that organic amendments and phytoremediation could ecologically restore the rare earth mining sites and the mined land could finally be planted as farmland.

  10. Three-tier rare-earth imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Brodeur, A.E.; Silberstein, M.J.; Graviss, E.R.; Ferguson, T.L.; Ortmeyer, K.M.; Nalesnik, W.J.

    1981-04-01

    The increased efficiency of gadolinium oxysulfide intensifying screens as compared to calcium tungstate screens depends primarily on increased absorption of x-ray photons coupled with a twofold increase in light output. Whether this increased efficiency can be effectively used in a routine diagnostic department to significantly decrease radiation dose was the subject of this study. Consecutive radiographic examinations (5806) were conducted using these rare earth screens. Each radiographic room used three individual rare earth screen/orthochromatic film combinations in order to obtain different speeds. These were labeled A, B, and C and ranged from par speed high detail to ultra high speed with less detail but correspondingly less patient radiation exposure. The system selected for a particular examination was based on the radiologists' requirements for imaging of anatomic detail. Those examinations requiring less detailed resolution (such as bone alignment through a wet plaster cast) were assigned the fastest speed available. The use of a rare earth/3-tier system resulted in an overall reduction in radiation exposure of about 80%.

  11. Microstructural defects in some rare earth laves phase single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, Y.J.; Abell, J.S. . School of Metallurgy and Materials.)

    1993-08-15

    With the extensive research in magnetic behavior of rare earth intermetallic compounds, more specific microstructural characterization on the available single crystals is obviously necessary because many interpretations of the physical property measurements can be particularly dependent on the knowledge of the microstructural defects, impurity distributions, etc. Among the more interesting and also the most extensively investigated rare earth intermetallics are RAl[sub 2](R = rare earth elements) compounds, which have the C15 cubic Laves phase structure with the tetrahedra of smaller Al atoms residing at the four corners of the cubic cell. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the nature of the magnetism of RAl[sub 2] single crystals by neutron diffraction, e.g. heat capacity measurements, x-ray topography, etc., little work has been performed on characterization of microstructural defects and their effects on physical property measurements. In this work, the authors report a microstructural study on as-grown single crystals of CeAl[sub 2] and TbAl[sub 2] by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The presence of (001) growth faults in CeAl[sub 2] single crystals and (111) planar defects in TbAl[sub 2] single crystals have been identified, and the possible formation mechanism and the influence on the magnetic properties are discussed.

  12. Correlations in rare-earth transition-metal permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomski, R.; Manchanda, P.; Kashyap, A.

    2015-05-01

    It is investigated how electron-electron correlations affect the intrinsic properties of rare-earth transition-metal magnets. Focusing on orbital moment and anisotropy, we perform model calculations for 3d-4f alloys and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for NdCo5. On an independent-electron level, the use of a single Slater determinant with broken spin symmetry introduces Hund's rule correlations, which govern the behavior of rare-earth ions and of alloys described by the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and LSDA + U approximations to DFT. By contrast, rare-earth ions in intermetallics involve configuration interactions between two or more Slater determinants and lead to phenomena such as spin-charge distribution. Analyzing DFT as a Legendre transformation and using Bethe's crystal-field theory, we show that the corresponding density functionals are very different from familiar LSDA-type expressions and outline the effect of spin-charge separation on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  13. Properties of rare-earth iron garnets from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Ryan; Xu, Bin; Xu, Changsong; Xu, Hu; Bellaiche, L.

    2017-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of rare-earth iron garnets (RIG), which contain 160 atoms per unit cell, are systematically investigated for rare-earth elements varying from La to Lu (and including Y), by performing spin polarized density-functional calculations. The effects of 4 f electrons (as core or as valence electrons) on the lattice constant, internal coordinates, and bond lengths are found to be rather small, with these predicted structural properties agreeing rather well with available experiments. On the other hand, treating such electrons as valence electrons is essential to interpret the total magnetization measured in some RIG at low temperature, the different orientation and magnitude of the magnetizations that Fe and rare-earth ions can adopt and to also explain why some RIG have a compensation temperature while others do not. The magnetic exchange couplings and orbital-projected density of states are also reported for two representative materials, namely Gd3Fe5O12 and Nd3Fe5O12 , when accounting for their 4 f electrons.

  14. Development of rare earth regenerator materials in fine wire form

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, T.; Seuntjens, J.M.

    1997-06-01

    The use of rare earth metals, both in the pure and alloyed state, have been examined for use as regenerators in cryocooler applications and as the working material in active magnetic refrigerators. In both applications there is a requirement for the rare earth material to have a constant and uniform cross section, an average size on the order of 50-200 microns in diameter, and low levels of impurities. Existing powder production methods have drawbacks such as oxygen contamination, non-uniform size, inconsistent cross sections, and low production yields. A novel approach for the production of rare earth metals and alloys in fine wire form has been developed. This is accomplished by assembling a copperjacket and niobium barrier around a RE ingot, extruding the assembly, and reducing it with standard wire drawing practices. Strand anneals are utilized between drawing passes when necessary in order to recrystallize the RE core and restore ductility. The copperjacket is removed by chemical means at final size, leaving the Nb barrier in place as a protective coating. This process has been applied to gadolinium, dysprosium and a GdDy alloy.

  15. Effect of rare earth oxides for improvement of MCFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Ken-ichiro; Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Matsuzawa, Koichi; Mitsushima, Shigenori; Kamiya, Nobuyuki

    The solubility of rare earth metal oxides and their effect on the NiO solubility have been discussed to stabilize the cathode of molten carbonate fuel cells. The solubility of Ho, Yb, and Nd oxides were 4.4 × 10 -4, 3.4 × 10 -4, and 1.3 × 10 -3 (mole fraction) at 923 K, respectively. The solubilities of NiO in (Li 0.52/Na 0.48) 2CO 3 with the saturated Ho, Yb, and Nd were 1.57 × 10 -5, 1.41 × 10 -5, and 9.5 × 10 -6, respectively. Among these three, Nd, which has the highest solubility in the carbonates, reduced the NiO solubility most; although, the La reduced the NiO solubility more than Nd. The logarithm of the solubility of the rare earth metal oxides has a linear relation to the Coulomb force ratio between the rare earth metal and the alkaline metal. Following this relation, the La should have the highest solubility among all the lanthanides. The basicity which NiO solubility closely relates has a linear relationship to the Coulomb force parameter of the melts. Based on these two models, the La would be the best additive to reduce the NiO solubility in Li/Na eutectic carbonate melt, among all the lanthanides.

  16. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Castleman, A W

    2015-04-21

    Rare earth elements (REs) consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies. The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Therefore, mimicking the properties of REs in a superatom framework is especially valuable but at the same time, technically challenging and requiring advanced concepts about manipulating properties of atom/molecular complexes. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs. Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs (namely Nd and Eu, respectively), opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry. Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials. Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel "magic boron" counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters.

  17. Investigating Rare Earth Element Systematics in the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Torres, M. E.; Kim, J. H.; Verba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The lanthanide series of elements (the 14 rare earth elements, REEs) have similar chemical properties and respond to different chemical and physical processes in the natural environment by developing unique patterns in their concentration distribution when normalized to an average shale REE content. The interpretation of the REE content in a gas-bearing black shale deposited in a marine environment must therefore take into account the paleoredox conditions of deposition as well as any diagenetic remobilization and authigenic mineral formation. We analyzed 15 samples from a core of the Marcellus Shale (Whipkey ST1, Greene Co., PA) for REEs, TOC, gas-producing potential, trace metal content, and carbon isotopes of organic matter in order to determine the REE systematics of a black shale currently undergoing shale gas development. We also conducted a series of sequential leaching experiments targeting the phosphatic fractions in order to evaluate the dominant host phase of REEs in a black shale. Knowledge of the REE system in the Marcellus black shale will allow us to evaluate potential REE release and behavior during hydraulic fracturing operations. Total REE content of the Whipkey ST1 core ranged from 65-185 μg/g and we observed three distinct REE shale-normalized patterns: middle-REE enrichment (MREE/MREE* ~2) with heavy-REE enrichment (HREE/LREE ~1.8-2), flat patterns, and a linear enrichment towards the heavy-REE (HREE/LREE ~1.5-2.5). The MREE enrichment occurred in the high carbonate samples of the Stafford Member overlying the Marcellus Formation. The HREE enrichment occurred in the Union Springs Member of the Marcellus Formation, corresponding to a high TOC peak (TOC ~4.6-6.2 wt%) and moderate carbonate levels (CaCO3 ~4-53 wt%). Results from the sequential leaching experiments suggest that the dominant host of the REEs is the organic fraction of the black shale and that the detrital and authigenic fractions have characteristic MREE enrichments. We present our

  18. Efficient, High-Torque Electric Vehicle Motor: Advanced Electric Vehicle Motors with Low or No Rare Earth Content

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: QM Power will develop a new type of electric motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs without the use of rare-earth-based magnets. Many of today’s EV motors use rare earth magnets to efficiently provide torque to the wheels. QM Power’s motors would contain magnets that use no rare earth minerals, are light and compact, and can deliver more power with greater efficiency and at reduced cost. Key innovations in this project include a new motor design with iron-based magnetic materials, a new motor control technique, and advanced manufacturing techniques that substantially reduce the cost of the motor. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a cost-effective EV motor that offers the rough peak equivalent of 270 horsepower.

  19. The Development of HfO2-Rare Earth Based Oxide Materials and Barrier Coatings for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan James

    2014-01-01

    Advanced hafnia-rare earth oxides, rare earth aluminates and silicates have been developed for thermal environmental barrier systems for aerospace propulsion engine and thermal protection applications. The high temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of these oxide material systems make them attractive and potentially viable for thermal protection systems. This paper will focus on the development of the high performance and high temperature capable ZrO2HfO2-rare earth based alloy and compound oxide materials, processed as protective coating systems using state-or-the-art processing techniques. The emphasis has been in particular placed on assessing their temperature capability, stability and suitability for advanced space vehicle entry thermal protection systems. Fundamental thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the material systems have been investigated at high temperatures. Laser high-heat-flux testing has also been developed to validate the material systems, and demonstrating durability under space entry high heat flux conditions.

  20. Co-doping of glasses with rare earth ions and metallic nanoparticles for frequency up-conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackerow, S.; Seifert, G.

    2010-05-01

    We explore different approaches to achieve co-doping of glasses with rare earth ions and metallic nanoparticles, and to manipulate the spectral position of the particles' surface plasmon resonance. The final goal is to find a composite material with improved efficiency of frequency up-conversion of light for photovoltaic applications. The potential for improvement has been shown by theoretical calculations predicting that absorption and emission probabilities of the ions can be enhanced when the plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles is close to the respective transition frequency of the ions. In this work we demonstrate the sequential co-doping of glasses already containing rare-earth ions with Ag nanoparticles, as well as implantation of rare-earth ions in glasses which already contained metallic nanoparticles. It could also be demonstrated that the surface plasmon resonance of the created particles can be tuned by femtosecond laser induced shape transformation of the Ag clusters.

  1. Anion-exchangeable layered materials based on rare-earth phosphors: unique combination of rare-earth host and exchangeable anions.

    PubMed

    Geng, Fengxia; Ma, Renzhi; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2010-09-21

    Layered materials, three-dimensional crystals built from stacking two-dimensional components, are attracting intense interest because of their structural anisotropy and the fascinating properties that result. However, the range of such layered materials that can exchange anions is quite small. Continuing efforts have been underway to identify a new class of anion-exchangeable materials. One major goal is the incorporation of rare-earth elements within the host because researchers expect that the marriage of rare-earth skeleton host and the exchangeable species within the interlayer will open up new avenues both for the assembly of layered materials and for the understanding of rare-earth element chemistry. Such lanthanide layered solids have industrial potential. These materials are also of academic importance, serving as an ideal model for studying the cationic size effect on structure stability associated with lanthanide contraction. In this Account, we present the work done by ourselves and others on this novel class of materials. We examine the following four subtopics regarding these layered anionic materials: (1) synthesis strategy and composition diversity, (2) structural features, (3) structure stability with relative humidity, and (4) applications. These materials can be synthesized either by hydrothermal reactions or by homogeneous precipitation, and a variety of anions can be intercalated into the gallery. Although only cations with a suitable size can form the layered structure, the possible range is wide, from early to late lanthanides. We illustrate the effect of lanthanide contraction on properties including morphology, lattice dimensions, and coordination numbers. Because each lanthanide metal ion coordinates water molecules, and the water molecules point directly into the gallery space, this feature plays a critical role in stabilizing the layered structure. In the 9-fold monocapped square antiprism structure, the humidity-triggered transition

  2. Influence of strain and polycrystalline ordering on magnetic properties of high moment rare earth metals and alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheunert, G.; Ward, C.; Hendren, W. R.; Lapicki, A. A.; Hardeman, R.; Mooney, M.; Gubbins, M.; Bowman, R. M.

    2014-10-01

    Despite being the most suitable candidates for solenoid pole pieces in state-of-the-art superconductor-based electromagnets, the intrinsic magnetic properties of heavy rare earth metals and their alloys have gained comparatively little attention. With the potential of integration in micro and nanoscale devices, thin films of Gd, Dy, Tb, DyGd and DyTb were plasma-sputtered and investigated for their in-plane magnetic properties, with an emphasis on magnetization versus temperature profiles. Based on crystal structure analysis of the polycrystalline rare earth films, which consist of a low magnetic moment fcc layer at the seed interface topped with a higher moment hcp layer, an experimental protocol is introduced which allows the direct magnetic analysis of the individual layers. In line with the general trend of heavy lanthanides, the saturation magnetization was found to drop with increasing unit cell size. In situ annealed rare earth films exceeded the saturation magnetization of a high-moment Fe65Co35 reference film in the cryogenic temperature regime, proving their potential for pole piece applications; however as-deposited rare earth films were found completely unsuitable. In agreement with theoretical predictions, sufficiently strained crystal phases of Tb and Dy did not exhibit an incommensurate magnetic order, unlike their single-crystal counterparts which have a helical phase. DyGd and DyTb alloys followed the trends of the elemental rare earth metals in terms of crystal structure and magnetic properties. Inter-rare-earth alloys hence present a desirable blend of saturation magnetization and operating temperature.

  3. Rare Earth elements as sediment tracers in Mangrove ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, A. L.; Swathi, S.

    2013-05-01

    Rare earth elements have been widely used as geochemical source fingerprints of rocks and sediments to study processes involving cosmo-chemistry, igneous petrology, tectonic setting and for investigations of water-rock interactions and weathering processes including transport of weathering products to the oceans.Many studies have addressed the use of REEs in investigating the environmental impact of human activity and demonstrated that the REE natural distribution in sediment from densely industrialised and populated regions can be altered by anthropogenic influences.The coastal wetlands like Mangroves are ultimate sinks for all the material derived from the terrestrial and marine environment.The high productivity and low ratio of sediment respiration to net primary production gives mangrove sediments the potential for long-term sequestration of these pollutants/metals before reaching the coastal ocean. Geochemical study of REE in these sedimentary systems is useful for determining the nature of the biogeochemical processes. In particular, REE show a great sensitivity to pH changes, redox conditions and adsorption/ desorption reactions. So, they may be used as markers of discharge provenance, weathering processes, changes in environmental conditions in the water and sediments of Mangrove/wetland systems. Our study aims to establish the abundance, distribution and enrichment of REEs to track the sediment sources and biogeochemical processes occurring in the mangrove environment.Core sediments were collected from the different environmental settings within the Pichavaram mangrove area.Higher REE concentration in Pichavaram sediments indicated greater input from sources like terrestrial weathering and anthropogenic activities which in turn are affected by saline mixing and dynamic physico-chemical processes occurring in the mangrove environment. REE enrichment order was attributed to the alkaline pH (7-8.5) and reducing conditions prevailing in the mangrove

  4. The incorporation of rare earth elements in modern coral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholkovitz, Edward; Shen, Glen T.

    1995-07-01

    We report measurements of rare earth elements (REEs) which show that these trace elements are being incorporated in modern coral in proportion to their seawater concentrations. Four Bermuda North Rock coral species, Diploria strigosa, Diploria labyrinthiformis, Montastrea annularis, and Porites astreoides and two Tarawa atoll samples of the species Hydnophora microconos were analyzed by TI-IDMS following cleaning techniques to isolate the lattice-bound REEs. Based on the replicate analyses of the same piece of Diploria strigosa, excellent reproducibility was achieved. The REE/Ca ratios (0.1-3 nmol/mol) of the Bermuda and Tarawa corals are similar to those of Cd/Ca, the trace metal with the lowest seawater concentration used in coral studies. With the exception of Ce, the distribution coefficients (e.g., DNd = [Nd coral/Nd seawater] × [Ca seawater/Ca coral]) between Bermuda coral lattice and Sargasso seawater have fairly flat patterns across the REE series. The values of D range from 1 to 3, like those reported for other trace elements in corals. This suggests, but does not prove, that REEs are incorporated in the aragonite lattice of these corals. The shale-normalized REE patterns of the Tarawa corals also have seawater-like distributions; however, no local seawater data are available to calculate values of D. Two Bermuda species (D. labyrinthiformis and P. astreoides) have values of D for Ce that are high with respect to the D values of La and Nd, implying that there is preferential uptake of Ce into the lattice. This may be related to the fact that Ce is the only REE with an active redox chemistry in seawater. There is considerable interest in using the chemical and isotopic composition of coral as indicators of climatic variations. The combination of REE/Ca ratios and neodymium isotopic composition of coral has the potential to help understand important natural processes. A primary application could be directed toward a tracer for river water discharge in

  5. Rare-earth distribution behaviour and lattice parameter changes on rare-earth substituted garnet single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, H.; Numazawa, T.; Sato, M.

    1994-08-01

    The selection of rare-earth substituted Ga and Al garnets in solid solution and their growth to single crystals using the conventional Czochralski technique is described. The crystals grown were investigated for their distribution behavior and lattice parameter changes in order to understand their characteristics in the solid solution. Investigation was by means of an ICP chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis with powdered samples ground from wafers taken from both the tops and tails of the crystals grown.

  6. 77 FR 58578 - Certain Sintered Rare Earth Magnets, Methods of Making Same and Products Containing Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Certain Sintered Rare Earth Magnets, Methods of Making Same and Products Containing Same... the sale within the United States after importation of certain sintered rare earth magnets, methods of... after importation of certain sintered rare earth magnets, methods of making same and products...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (PMN P-05-324) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (PMN P-05-324) is subject to reporting under this section...

  9. The formation of crystals in glasses containing rare earth oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Fadzil, Syazwani Mohd; Hrma, Pavel; Crum, Jarrod; Siong, Khoo Kok; Ngatiman, Mohammad Fadzlee; Said, Riduan Mt

    2014-02-12

    Korean spent nuclear fuel will reach the capacity of the available temporary storage by 2016. Pyroprocessing and direct disposal seems to be an alternative way to manage and reuse spent nuclear fuel while avoiding the wet reprocessing technology. Pyroprocessing produces several wastes streams, including metals, salts, and rare earths, which must be converted into stabilized form. A suitable form for rare earth immobilization is borosilicate glass. The borosilicate glass form exhibits excellent durability, allows a high waste loading, and is easy to process. In this work, we combined the rare earths waste of composition (in wt%) 39.2Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–22.7CeO{sub 2}–11.7La{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10.9PrO{sub 2}–1.3Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}–1.3Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–8.1Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}–4.8Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} with a baseline glass of composition 60.2SiO{sub 2}–16.0B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–12.6Na{sub 2}O–3.8Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–5.7CaO–1.7ZrO{sub 2}. Crystallization in waste glasses occurs as the waste loading increases. It may produce complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. To study crystal formation, we initially made glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and then glasses with 5%, 10% and 15% of the complete rare earth mix. Samples were heat-treated for 24 hours at temperatures 800°C to 1150°C in 50°C increments. Quenched samples were analyzed using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Stillwellite (LaBSiO{sub 5}) and oxyapatite (Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26}) were found in glasses containing La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while oxyapatite (Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26} and NaNd{sub 9}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26}) precipitated in glasses with additions of mixed rare earths. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) of the glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} were 800°C, 959°C and 986°C, respectively; while T{sub L} was 825°C, 1059°C and 1267°C for glasses

  10. Pb and rare earth element diffusion in xenotime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.

    2006-05-01

    Diffusion of Pb and the rare earth elements Sm, Dy and Yb have been characterized in synthetic xenotime under dry conditions. The synthetic xenotime was grown via a Na 2CO 3-MoO 3 flux method. The sources of diffusant for the rare earth diffusion experiments were REE phosphate powders, with experiments run using sources containing a single REE. For Pb, the source consisted a mixture of YPO 4 and PbTiO 3. Experiments were performed by placing source and xenotime in Pt capsules, and annealing capsules in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 30 min to several weeks, at temperatures from 1000 to 1500 °C. The REE and Pb distributions in the xenotime were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relations are obtained for diffusion in xenotime, normal to (101): D=1.5×10exp⁡(-441±12 kJmol/R⁢T)ms.D=9.0×10exp⁡(-349±16 kJmol/R⁢T)ms.D=3.9×10exp⁡(-362±13 kJmol/R⁢T)ms. Diffusivities among the REE do not differ greatly in xenotime over the investigated temperature range, in contrast to findings for the REE in zircon [Cherniak, D.J., Hanchar, J.M., Watson, E.B., 1997. Rare earth diffusion in zircon. Chem. Geol. 134, 289-301.], where the LREE diffuse more slowly, and with higher activation energies for diffusion, than the heavier rare earths. In zircon, these differences among diffusion of the rare earths are attributed to the relatively large size of the REE with respect to Zr, for which they likely substitute in the zircon lattice. With the systematic increase in ionic radius from the heavy to lighter REE, this size mismatch becomes more pronounced and diffusivities of the LREE are as consequence slower. Although xenotime is isostructural with zircon, the REE are more closely matched in size to Y, so in xenotime this effect appears much smaller and the REE diffuse at similar rates. In addition, the process of diffusion in xenotime likely involves simple REE + 3 → Y + 3 exchange, without charge compensation as needed

  11. Biological applications of rare-earth based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bouzigues, Cedric; Gacoin, Thierry; Alexandrou, Antigoni

    2011-11-22

    Biomedicine and cell and molecular biology require powerful imaging techniques of the single molecule scale to the whole organism, either for fundamental science or diagnosis. These applications are however often limited by the optical properties of the available probes. Moreover, in cell biology, the measurement of the cell response with spatial and temporal resolution is a central instrumental problem. This has been one of the main motivations for the development of new probes and imaging techniques either for biomolecule labeling or detection of an intracellular signaling species. The weak photostability of genetically encoded probes or organic dyes has motivated the interest for different types of nanoparticles for imaging such as quantum dots, nanodiamonds, dye-doped silica particles, or metallic nanoparticles. One of the most active fields of research in the past decade has thus been the development of rare-earth based nanoparticles, whose optical properties and low cytotoxicity are promising for biological applications. Attractive properties of rare-earth based nanoparticles include high photostability, absence of blinking, extremely narrow emission lines, large Stokes shifts, long lifetimes that can be exploited for retarded detection schemes, and facile functionalization strategies. The use of specific ions in their compositions can be moreover exploited for oxidant detection or for implementing potent contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. In this review, we present these different applications of rare-earth nanoparticles for biomolecule detection and imaging in vitro, in living cells or in small animals. We highlight how chemical composition tuning and surface functionalization lead to specific properties, which can be used for different imaging modalities. We discuss their performances for imaging in comparison with other probes and to what extent they could constitute a central tool in the future of molecular and cell biology. © 2011 American

  12. Spiral formation during Czochralski growth of rare-earth scandates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uecker, R.; Wilke, H.; Schlom, D. G.; Velickov, B.; Reiche, P.; Polity, A.; Bernhagen, M.; Rossberg, M.

    2006-09-01

    Single crystals of the rare-earth scandates DyScO 3, GdScO 3, SmScO 3, and NdScO 3 were grown by the Czochralski technique. The influence of the absorption of radiant heat in the growing crystals on interface stability was investigated. Numerical simulations were performed to calculate the influence of thermal instabilities close to the growth interface on the axial symmetry of the flow field, which eventually leads to spiral growth. To inhibit spiral formation, a conical baffle was utilized to intensifying the buoyant-thermocapillary convection.

  13. Rare earth chalcogenide stoichiometry determination. [of thermoelectric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth chalcogenides, and particularly lanthanum sulfide, are currently explored as candidate materials for thermoelectric applications. Since the electrical properties of LaS(x) are largely determined by its stoichiometry, a simple and accurate method has been developed for determining the value of x. The procedure involves dissolving a weighted sample in acid and measuring the amount of hydrogen evolved by the lanthanum that is in excess of the 1.500 ratio of S/La. The analytical error in the determination of x in LaS(x) is about 0.001.

  14. Observation of Anomalous Phonons in Orthorhombic Rare-earth Manganites

    SciTech Connect

    P Gao; H Chen; T Tyson; Z Liu; J Bai; L Wang; Y Chio; S Cheong

    2011-12-31

    We observe the appearance of a phonon near the lock-in temperature in orthorhombic REMnO{sub 3} (RE denotes rare earth) (RE: Lu and Ho) and anomalous phonon hardening in orthorhombic LuMnO{sub 3}. The anomalous phonon occurs at the onset of spontaneous polarization. No such changes were found in incommensurate orthorhombic DyMnO{sub 3}. These observations directly reveal different electric polarization mechanisms in the E-type and incommensurate-type orthorhombic REMnO{sub 3}.

  15. Are rare-earth nanoparticles suitable for in vivo applications?

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunyan; Hou, Yi; Gao, Mingyuan

    2014-10-29

    Rare earth (RE) nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention due to their unique optical and magnetic properties associated with f-electrons. The recent accomplishments in RE nanoparticle synthesis have aroused great interest of scientists to further explore their biomedical applications. This Research News summarizes recent achievements in controlled synthesis of magnetic and luminescent RE nanoparticles, surface modification, and toxicity studies of RE nanomaterials, and highlights state-of-the-art in in vivo applications of RE nanoparticles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Recycling of rare earth particle by mini-hydrocyclones.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Feng; Fu, Jian; Cheng, Hao; Cui, Zhengwei

    2017-03-01

    Mini-hydrocyclones were applied to separate the fine rare earth particles from the suspensions. The effects of the flow rate, split ratio, and feed concentration on the total separation efficiency and grade separation efficiency were studied. The combined effects of the flow rate (1200-1600L/h), split ratio (20-60%) and concentration (0.6-1.0wt%) on the total separation efficiency in mini-hydrocyclones were investigated using a response surface methodology. The optimum operating parameters for a total separation efficiency of 92.5% were: feed flow rate=1406L/h, split ratio=20%, and feed concentration=1wt%.

  17. Rare earth element patterns in biotite, muscovite and tourmaline minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Lepel, E.A.

    1986-04-21

    Rare earth element concentrations in the minerals biotite and muscovite from the mica schist country rocks of the Etta pegmatite and tourmalines from the Bob Ingersoll pegmatite have been measured by INAA and CNAA. The concentrations range from 10/sup -4/ g/g to 10/sup -10g//sub g/. The REE patterns of biotite, muscovite and tourmaline reported herein are highly fractionated from light to heavy REE. The REE concentrations in biotite and muscovite are high and indigenous. The pegmatite tourmalines contain low concentrations of REE. Variations in tourmaline REE patterns reflect the geochemical evolution of pegmatite melt/fluid system during crystallization.

  18. Small hole polarons in rare-earth titanates

    SciTech Connect

    Bjaalie, L.; Moetakef, P.; Cain, T. A.; Janotti, A.; Himmetoglu, B.; Stemmer, S.; Van de Walle, C. G.; Ouellette, D. G.; Allen, S. J.

    2015-06-08

    We investigate the behavior of hole polarons in rare-earth titanates by combining optical conductivity measurements with first-principles hybrid density functional calculations. Sr-doped GdTiO{sub 3} (Gd{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}) was grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We show that a feature in the optical conductivity that was previously identified with the Mott-Hubbard gap is actually associated with the excitation of a small polaron. The assignment is based on an excellent match between the experimental spectra and first-principles calculations for polaron excitation mechanisms.

  19. Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented that mainly treats minerals in which the rare-earth elements are essential constituents, e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite. The chemical mechanisms and limits of REE substitution in some rock-forming minerals (zircon, apatite, titanite, garnet) are also derived. Vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals is examined and some comments on REE-partitioning between minerals as related to acid-based tendencies and mineral stabilities are presented. As the same or analogous coupled substitutions involving the REE occur in a wide variety of mineral structures, they are discussed together.

  20. Double-exchange mechanism in rare-earth compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gulacsi, M.

    2015-03-15

    We show that double-exchange mechanism is responsible for ferromagnetism in low dimensional rare-earth compounds. We use the bosonized version of the one-dimensional Anderson lattice model in Toulouse limit to characterize the properties of the emerging ferromagnetic phase. We give a comprehensive description of the ferromagnetic ordering of the correlated electrons which appears at intermediate couplings and doping. The obtained ferromagnetic phase transitions have been identified to be an order–disorder transition of the quantum random transverse-field Ising type.

  1. Synthesis and luminescence of some rare earth metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, Mikhail N.; Pushkarev, Anatoly P.

    2016-12-01

    In the present paper the synthesis, photoand electroluminescent properties of new rare earth metal complexes prepared and studied at the Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry during the last decade are reviewed. The obtained compounds give luminescence in UV, visible and NIR regions. The substituted phenolates, naphtholates, mercaptobenzothiazolate, 8-oxyquinolinolate, polyfluorinated alcoholates and chalcogenophosphinates were used as ligands. The synthesis and structure of unusual three-nuclear sulfidenitride clusters of Nd and Dy are described. The new excitation mechanism of ytterbium phenolates and naphtholates, which includes the stage of reversible reduction of Yb to divalent state and oxidation of the ligands in the excitation process, is discussed.

  2. Anomalous Hall Effect in a Feromagnetic Rare-Earth Cobalite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoilov, A. V.; Yeh, N. C.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1996-01-01

    Rare-Earth manganites and cobalites with the perovskite structure have been a subject of great recent interest because their electrical resistance changes significantly when a magnetic field is applied...we have studied the Hall effect in thin film La(sub 0.5)Ca(sub 0.5)CoO(sub 3) material and have obtained convincing evidence fo the so called anomalous Hall effect, typical for magnetic metals...Our results suggest that near the ferromagnetic ordering temperature, the dominant electron scattering mechanism is the spin fluctuation.

  3. Resonance electronic Raman scattering in rare earth crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.M.

    1988-11-10

    The intensities of Raman scattering transitions between electronic energy levels of trivalent rare earth ions doped into transparent crystals were measured and compared to theory. A particle emphasis was placed on the examination of the effect of intermediate state resonances on the Raman scattering intensities. Two specific systems were studied: Ce/sup 3 +/(4f/sup 1/) in single crystals of LuPO/sub 4/ and Er/sup 3 +/(4f/sup 11/) in single crystals of ErPO/sub 4/. 134 refs., 92 figs., 33 tabs.

  4. Magnetism in rare-earth quasicrystals: RKKY interactions and ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiem, Stefanie; Chalker, J. T.

    2015-04-01

    We study magnetism in simple models for rare-earth quasicrystals, by considering Ising spins on a quasiperiodic tiling, coupled via RKKY interactions. Computing these interactions from a tight-binding model on the tiling, we find that they are frustrated and strongly dependent on the local environment. Although such features are often associated with spin glass behaviour, we show using Monte Carlo simulations that the spin system has a phase transition to a low-temperature state with long-range quasiperiodic magnetic order.

  5. Raman Investigations of Rare Earth Arsenate Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, G; Santos, C. C.; Ayala, A. P.; Guedes, I.; Boatner, Lynn A; Loong, C. K.

    2010-01-01

    Polarized Raman Spectroscopy was used to investigate the room-temperature phonon characteristics of a series of rare-earth arsenate (REAsO4, RE = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, and Lu) single crystals. The Raman data were interpreted in a systematic manner based on the known tetragonal zircon structure of these compounds, and assignments and correlations were made for the observed bands. We found that the wavenumber of the internal modes of the AsO4 tetrahedron increased with increasing atomic number, and for three out of four lattice wavenumbers observed, this tendency was not nearly so marked as in the case of the internal mode wavenumber.

  6. Crystal growth of pyrochlore rare-earth stannates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakaran, D.; Wang, S.; Boothroyd, A. T.

    2017-06-01

    We report crystal growth of several rare-earth stannates RE2Sn2O7 (RE=Pr, Tb, Ho, Dy, Yb and Lu) using the flux technique. Different combinations of flux were tried, and a Na2B4O7-NaF (1.2:1) mixture was found to be suitable for crystal growth. X-ray diffraction and thermal characterisation data are presented, as well as some initial measurements of magnetic and thermodynamic properties of the crystals. Little effect was observed with changing oxygen content by Sc substitution for Sn.

  7. Compositional and phase relations among rare earth element minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented that mainly treats minerals in which the rare-earth elements are essential constituents, e.g., bastnaesite, monazite, xenotime, aeschynite, allanite. The chemical mechanisms and limits of REE substitution in some rock-forming minerals (zircon, apatite, titanite, garnet) are also derived. Vector representation of complex coupled substitutions in selected REE-bearing minerals is examined and some comments on REE-partitioning between minerals as related to acid-based tendencies and mineral stabilities are presented. As the same or analogous coupled substitutions involving the REE occur in a wide variety of mineral structures, they are discussed together.

  8. Rare earth element content of cryptocrystalline magnesites of Konya, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Zedef, Veysel; Russell, Michael

    2016-04-18

    We examined the rare earth element content of several cryptocrystalline magnesites as well as hydromagnesite, host rock serpentinites, lake water and hot spring water from Turkey. Southwestern Turkey hosts cryptocrystalline magnesites, sedimentary magnesites with presently forming, biologically mediated hydromagnesites and travertines. Our results show the REE content of the minerals, rocks and waters are well below detection limits. One hydromagnesite sample from Lake Salda has slightly high La (2.38ppb), Ce (3.91 ppb) and Nd (1.68 ppb) when compared to other samples, but these are also still below detection limits of the method we followed.

  9. Synthesis of nanocrystalline rare earth oxides by glycothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Saburo; Iwamoto, Shinji; Inoue, Masashi

    2008-11-03

    The reaction of yttrium acetate hydrate in 1,2-propanediol at 300 deg. C yielded a product containing acetate groups and glycol moieties. From this product, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} was directly crystallized at 400 deg. C without the formation of a carbonate oxide phase. The thus-obtained Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples had a small crystallite size (2.2 nm) and significantly large surface area (280 m{sup 2}/g). Other nanocrystalline rare earth (Gd-Yb) oxides were also obtained by this method.

  10. Preparation and luminescence properties of phosphors of rare earth complexes based on polyoxotungstates

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, He-Rui; Lu, Xiao-Neng; Liao, Jin-Sheng; Zhang, Cai-Wei; You, Hang-Ying; Liu, Cai-Ming

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Three new phosphors of rare earth complexes based on polyoxotungstates were synthesized. • [Eu(PW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}]{sup 11−} (1) emits red light which used as potential red light materials. • [Sm(PW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}] {sup 11−} (2) emits strong orange-red light at 598.7 nm. • [Dy(PW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}] {sup 11−} (3) emits white light which used as potential white light materials. - Abstract: Three new phosphors of rare earth complexes based on polyoxotungstates, K{sub 3}Cs{sub 8}[Eu(PW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}]·11H{sub 2}O (1), K{sub 3}Cs{sub 8}[Sm(PW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}]·10H{sub 2}O (2), and K{sub 5}Cs{sub 6}[Dy(PW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}]·15H{sub 2}O (3) have been prepared and characterized. The crystallographic analyses reveal that these compounds consist of two monovacant keggin anions [PW{sub 11}O{sub 39}]{sup 7−} connected by a rare earth ion in a sandwich structure. The investigations of photoluminescence properties show that phosphor 1 emits strong red light at 614 and 702 nm, 2 emits strong orange-red light at 598.7 nm, and 3 exists two strong emissions at 479 nm (blue) and 574 nm (orange). The luminescence properties suggest that the 1 can be applied as the potential red-emitting crystal phosphor, and the 3 may be regarded as a potential white light material for LEDs.

  11. Rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes in sedimentary organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freslon, Nicolas; Bayon, Germain; Toucanne, Samuel; Bermell, Sylvain; Bollinger, Claire; Chéron, Sandrine; Etoubleau, Joel; Germain, Yoan; Khripounoff, Alexis; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Rouget, Marie-Laure

    2014-09-01

    We report rare earth element (REE) and neodymium (Nd) isotope data for the organic fraction of sediments collected from various depositional environments, i.e. rivers (n = 25), estuaries (n = 18), open-ocean settings (n = 15), and cold seeps (n = 12). Sedimentary organic matter (SOM) was extracted using a mixed hydrogen peroxide/nitric acid solution (20%-H2O2-0.02 M-HNO3), after removal of carbonate and oxy-hydroxide phases with dilute hydrochloric acid (0.25 M-HCl). A series of experimental tests indicate that extraction of sedimentary organic compounds using H2O2 may be complicated occasionally by partial dissolution of sulphide minerals and residual carbonates. However, this contamination is expected to be minor for REE because measured concentrations in H2O2 leachates are about two-orders of magnitude higher than in the above mentioned phases. The mean REE concentrations determined in the H2O2 leachates for samples from rivers, estuaries, coastal seas and open-ocean settings yield relatively similar levels, with ΣREE = 109 ± 86 ppm (mean ± s; n = 58). The organic fractions leached from cold seep sediments display even higher concentration levels (285 ± 150 ppm; mean ± s; n = 12). The H2O2 leachates for most sediments exhibit remarkably similar shale-normalized REE patterns, all characterized by a mid-REE enrichment compared to the other REE. This suggests that the distribution of REE in leached sedimentary organic phases is controlled primarily by biogeochemical processes, rather than by the composition of the source from which they derive (e.g. pore, river or sea-water). The Nd isotopic compositions for organic phases leached from river sediments are very similar to those for the corresponding detrital fractions. In contrast, the SOM extracted from marine sediments display εNd values that typically range between the εNd signatures for terrestrial organic matter (inferred from the analysis of the sedimentary detrital fractions) and marine organic matter

  12. Intermediate phases in some rare earth-ruthenium systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharifrazi, P.; Raman, A.; Mohanty, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    The phase equilibria and crystal structures of intermediate phases were investigated in eight representative RE-Ru systems using powder X-ray diffraction and metallographic techniques. The Fe3C, Mn5C2 and Er5Ru3 structures occur in all but the Ce-Ru systems. Phases analogous to Er5Ru3 possess an unknown crystal structure similar to Er5Rh3(I). MgCu2 and MgZn2 type Laves phases are encountered in the light rare earth and heavy rare earth systems, respectively, and RERu2 phases, where RE = Nd and Sm, possess both the Laves phase structures. An intermediate phase, NdRu, with an unknown structure, occurs only in the Nd-Ru system. A bcc structure with 40 atoms per unit cell is encountered in the phases Er3Ru2 and Y3Ru2. The behavior of cerium in Ce-Ru alloys is unique in that four unidentified structures, not encountered in other RE-Ru systems, have been encountered. Also a phase designated as Ce3Ru is found with the Th7Fe3 type structure.

  13. Coal fly ash as a resource for rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Franus, Wojciech; Wiatros-Motyka, Małgorzata M; Wdowin, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have been recognised as critical raw materials, crucial for many clean technologies. As the gap between their global demand and supply increases, the search for their alternative resources becomes more and more important, especially for the countries which depend highly on their import. Coal fly ash (CFA), which when not utilised is considered waste, has been regarded as the possible source of many elements, including REE. Due to the increase in the energy demand, CFA production is expected to grow, making research into the use of this material a necessity. As Poland is the second biggest coal consumer in the European Union, the authors have studied different coal fly ashes from ten Polish power plants for their rare earth element content. All the fly ashes have a broadly similar distribution of rear earth elements, with light REE being dominant. Most of the samples have REE content relatively high and according to Seredin and Dai (Int J Coal Geol 94: 67-93, 2012) classification can be considered promising REE raw materials.

  14. Precise trace rare earth analysis by radiochemical neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Lepel, E.A.; Weimer, W.C.; Wogman, N.A.

    1981-06-01

    A rare earth group separation scheme followed by normal Ge(Li), low energy photon detector (LEPD), and Ge(Li)-NaI(Tl) coincidence-noncoincidence spectrometry significantly enhances the detection sensitivity of individual rare earth elements (REE) at or below the ppB level. Based on the selected ..gamma..-ray energies, normal Ge(Li) counting is favored for /sup 140/La, /sup 170/Tb, and /sup 169/Yb; LEPD is favored for low ..gamma..-ray energies of /sup 147/Nd, /sup 153/Sm, /sup 166/Ho, and /sup 169/Yb; and noncoincidence counting is favored for /sup 141/Ce, /sup 143/Ce, /sup 142/Pr, /sup 153/Sm, /sup 171/Er, and /sup 175/Yb. The detection of radionuclides /sup 152m/Eu, /sup 159/Gd, and /sup 177/Lu is equally sensitive by normal Ge(Li) and noncoincidence counting; /sup 152/Eu is equally sensitive by LEPD and normal Ge(Li); and /sup 153/Gd and /sup 170/Tm is equally favored by all the counting modes. Overall, noncoincidence counting is favored for most of the REE. Precise measurements of the REE were made in geological and biological standards.

  15. [Infrared multiphoton quantum cutting phenomena of rare earth materials].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Guo-Jian; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Hu, Li-Li; Li, Song; Yu, Chun-Lei; Chen, Zhi-Jian; Cui, Jian-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Duan; Zhou, Hong-Yu; Wu, Zheng-Long

    2012-10-01

    Infrared quantum cutting of rare earth ion is an international hot research field. It is significant for the enhancement of solar cell efficiency and for the reduction of solar cell price. The present paper summarizes the research significance of infrared quantum cutting of rare earth ion. Based on the summarization of general principle and loss mechanism of solar cell, the possible method to enhance the solar cell efficiency by infrared quantum cutting is analyzed. Meanwhile, the present paper summarizes the infrared quantum cutting phenomena of Er3+ ion single-doped material. There is intense 4I13/2 --> 4I15/2 infrared quantum cutting luminescence of Er3+ ion when the 2H11/2 energy level is excited. The intense {2H11/2 --> 4I9/2, 4I15/2 --> 4I13/2} cross energy transfer is the main reason for the result in the high quantum cutting efficiency when the 2H11/2 energy level is excited.

  16. RARE EARTH ELEMENT IMPACTS ON BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y.; Barnes, J.; Fox, S.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) is expected to lead to new development and expansion in industries processing and or recycling REE. For some industrial operators, sending aqueous waste streams to a municipal wastewater treatment plant, or publicly owned treatment works (POTW), may be a cost effective disposal option. However, wastewaters that adversely affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment at the POTW will not be accepted. The objective of our research is to assess the effects of wastewaters that might be generated by new rare earth element (REE) beneficiation or recycling processes on biological wastewater treatment systems. We have been investigating the impact of yttrium and europium on the biological activity of activated sludge collected from an operating municipal wastewater treatment plant. We have also examined the effect of an organic complexant that is commonly used in REE extraction and separations; similar compounds may be a component of newly developed REE recycling processes. Our preliminary results indicate that in the presence of Eu, respiration rates for the activated sludge decrease relative to the no-Eu controls, at Eu concentrations ranging from <10 to 660 µM. Yttrium appears to inhibit respiration as well, although negative impacts have been observed only at the highest Y amendment level tested (660 µM). The organic complexant appears to have a negative impact on activated sludge activity as well, although results are variable. Ultimately the intent of this research is to help REE industries to develop environmentally friendly and economically sustainable beneficiation and recycling processes.

  17. Assessing rare earth elements in quartz rich geological samples.

    PubMed

    Santoro, A; Thoss, V; Ribeiro Guevara, S; Urgast, D; Raab, A; Mastrolitti, S; Feldmann, J

    2016-01-01

    Sodium peroxide (Na2O2) fusion coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) measurements was used to rapidly screen quartz-rich geological samples for rare earth element (REE) content. The method accuracy was checked with a geological reference material and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) measurements. The used mass-mode combinations presented accurate results (only exception being (157)Gd in He gas mode) with recovery of the geological reference material QLO-1 between 80% and 98% (lower values for Lu, Nd and Sm) and in general comparable to INAA measurements. Low limits of detection for all elements were achieved, generally below 10 pg g(-1), as well as measurement repeatability below 15%. Overall, the Na2O2/ICP-MS/MS method proved to be a suitable lab-based method to quickly and accurately screen rock samples originating from quartz-rich geological areas for rare earth element content; particularly useful if checking commercial viability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sublattice Magnetic Relaxation in Rare Earth Iron Garnets

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Walsh, Brian

    2013-07-08

    The magnetic properties of rare earth garnets make them attractive materials for applications ranging from optical communications to magnetic refrigeration. The purpose of this research was to determine the AC magnetic properties of several rare earth garnets, in order to ascertain the contributions of various sublattices. Gd3Fe5O¬12, Gd3Ga5O12, Tb3Fe5O12, Tb3Ga5O12, and Y3Fe5O12 were synthesized by a solid state reaction of their oxides and verified by x-ray diffraction. Frequency-dependent AC susceptibility and DC magnetization were measured versus temperature (10 – 340 K). Field cooling had little effect on AC susceptibility, but large effect on DC magnetization, increasing magnetization at the lowest temperature and shifting the compensation point to lower temperatures. Data suggest that interaction of the two iron lattices results in the two frequency dependent magnetic relaxations in the iron garnets, which were fit using the Vogel-Fulcher and Arrhenius laws.

  19. (Magnetic studies of iron-rare-earth-metalloid alloys)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This research is focused on studying new phases and microstructures of rare-earth and transition-metal alloys and compounds. In particular we investigate several classes of materials which are expected to have high magnetizations and coercivities, which are necessary conditions for high performance permanent magnet and related applications. Hard and semi-hard magnetic materials form the basis of much of the electric power and information storage industries and the discovery of new and less expensive materials with outstanding properties is of great interest. Our work is centered on two general types of problems. One is the growth and control of the microstructure of thin films with specified magnetic anisotropies. Particular attention is paid to nanoscale variations in atomic order in multilayered samples to achieve the desired properties. The second type of problem involves fundamental electronic structure and its relation to the magnetic properties of new Fe-and Co-rich phases containing rare earths. These studies involve a variety of experimental measurements and theoretical calculations.

  20. Multicomponent, Rare-Earth-Doped Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming

    2005-01-01

    Multicomponent, rare-earth-doped, perovskite-type thermal-barrier coating materials have been developed in an effort to obtain lower thermal conductivity, greater phase stability, and greater high-temperature capability, relative to those of the prior thermal-barrier coating material of choice, which is yttria-partially stabilized zirconia. As used here, "thermal-barrier coatings" (TBCs) denotes thin ceramic layers used to insulate air-cooled metallic components of heat engines (e.g., gas turbines) from hot gases. These layers are generally fabricated by plasma spraying or physical vapor deposition of the TBC materials onto the metal components. A TBC as deposited has some porosity, which is desirable in that it reduces the thermal conductivity below the intrinsic thermal conductivity of the fully dense form of the material. Undesirably, the thermal conductivity gradually increases because the porosity gradually decreases as a consequence of sintering during high-temperature service. Because of these and other considerations such as phase transformations, the maximum allowable service temperature for yttria-partially stabilized zirconia TBCs lies in the range of about 1,200 to 1,300 C. In contrast, the present multicomponent, rare-earth-doped, perovskite-type TBCs can withstand higher temperatures.

  1. Solidification Characteristics of Wrought Magnesium Alloys Containing Rare Earth Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaid, A.; Czerwinski, F.; Zavadil, R.; Aniolek, M.; Hadadzadeh, A.

    A significant barrier preventing use of magnesium sheet in automotive light-weighting initiatives is its high manufacturing cost and very limited formability at room temperature. This barrier can be overcome by the use of twin roll casting technology and new magnesium alloys, specifically designed for twin roll casting. Recent studies have shown that magnesium, when alloyed with rare earth elements, gave rise to weakening of the basal texture resulting in improved room temperature formability. In this research, a combination of calculations using the FACTsage software and examinations using a number of experimental techniques was explored to determine the solidification characteristics of wrought magnesium alloys containing rare earth metal of neodymium: ZEK100, Mg-1Zn-0.5Nd and Mg-1Zn-1Nd. As predicted by the FACTsage software, the solidification under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions affects the type and volume fractions of phases formed for a given chemical composition of the alloy. The thermal analysis identified temperatures of metallurgical reactions taking place during solidification and their changes with neodymium content. As verified by controlled solidification experiments the cooling rate during solidification affected the refinement level of the alloy microstructure, a volume fraction of intermetallic precipitates and their distribution. This research will help to design new magnesium alloys, specifically optimized for twin roll casting.

  2. Undercooled rapidly solidified titanium-rare earth alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kral, M.V.; Hofmeister, W.H.; Wittig, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The microstructural effects of undercooling on eight titanium-rare earth alloys were investigated. Electromagnetic levitation allowed cooling of the liquid well below the liquidus prior to nucleation/solidification. For each alloy, a series of samples was splat quenched with systematically varied undercoolings. The resulting materials were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy in the as-quenched and annealed states. Typically, rapid solidification of titanium-rare earth alloys results in supersaturation of {alpha} Ti and precipitation occurs during annealing treatments. In these experiments, evidence of precipitation during cooling through the {beta}/{alpha} transus was observed and has been attributed to an interphase boundary precipitation mechanism. The results of undercooling/splat quench experiments were utilized to select materials for undercool/rapid quench technology (URQT) processing. This novel technique combines electromagnetic levitation, an ultrahigh (10{sup {minus}8} torr) vacuum system and a three meter drop tube with melt spinning via a variable speed copper wheel. Materials processed by this method exhibited homogeneous solidification microstructures uncharacteristic of conventional melt spinning, and small (1 nm) interphase boundary precipitates in the as-quenched state.

  3. Magnetoelectric and magnetoelastic properties of rare-earth ferroborates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadomtseva, A. M.; Popov, Yu. F.; Vorob'ev, G. P.; Pyatakov, A. P.; Krotov, S. S.; Kamilov, K. I.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Mukhin, A. A.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Kuz'menko, A. M.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Gudim, I. A.; Temerov, V. L.

    2010-06-01

    The magnetic, electric, magnetoelectric, and magnetoelastic properties of rare-earth ferroborates RFe3(BO3)4 (R =Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) as well as yttrium ferroborate YFe3(BO3)4 have been studied comprehensively. A strong dependence not only of the magnetic but also magnetoelectric properties on the type of rare-earth ion, specifically, on its anisotropy, which determines the magnetic structure and the large contribution to the electric polarization, has been found. This is manifested in the strong temperature dependence of the polarization below the Néel point TN and its specific field dependence, which is determined by the competition between the external and exchange f-d fields. A close correlation has been found between the magnetoelastic properties of ferroborates and the magnetoelastic and magnetic anomalies at magnetic-field induced phase transitions. It is found that in easy-plane ferroborates, together with magnetic-field induced electric polarization spontaneous polarization also arises below the Néel point. The ferroelectric ordering in ferroborates is of extrinsic character, giving rise to strong magnetoelectric coupling below TN. Aside from the antiferromagnetic phase transition, the particulars of the structural phase transition accompanied by anomalies of the dielectric and magnetoelectric properties are examined for the first time. The character of the dielectric anomalies at a structural transition is analyzed for the first time on the basis of Landau's approach.

  4. Homometallic rare-Earth metal phosphinidene clusters: synthesis and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Luo, Gen; Hong, Jianquan; Zhou, Xigeng; Weng, Linhong; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Lixin

    2014-01-20

    Two new trinuclear μ3 -bridged rare-earth metal phosphinidene complexes, [{L(Ln)(μ-Me)}3 (μ3 -Me)(μ3 -PPh)] (L=[PhC(NC6 H4 iPr2 -2,6)2 ](-) , Ln=Y (2 a), Lu (2 b)), were synthesized through methane elimination of the corresponding carbene precursors with phenylphosphine. Heating a toluene solution of 2 at 120 °C leads to an unprecedented ortho CH bond activation of the PhP ligand to form the bridged phosphinidene/phenyl complexes. Reactions of 2 with ketones, thione, or isothiocyanate show clear phospha-Wittig chemistry, giving the corresponding organic phosphinidenation products and oxide (sulfide) complexes. Reaction of 2 with CS2 leads to the formation of novel trinuclear rare-earth metal thione dianion clusters, for which a possible pathway was determined by DFT calculation. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Rare-earth-free Magnetic Manganese Bismuth Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Jian Q.; Cui, Huizhong; Huang, Xiaopeng; Gong, Maogang; Qin, Wei; Kirkeminde, Alec; Cui, Jun; Ren, Shenqiang

    2015-01-01

    Earth abundant manganese bismuth (MnBi) has long been of interest due to its large magnetocrystalline anisotropy and high energy density for advanced permanent magnet applications. However, solution synthesis of MnBi phase is challenging due to the reduction potential mismatch between Mn and Bi elements. In this study, we show a versatile MnBi synthesis method involving the metal co-reduction followed by thermal annealing. The magnetically hard MnBi crystalline phase is then exchange coupled with magnetically soft cobalt coating. Our processing approach offers a promising strategy for manufacturing rare-earth-free magnetic nanocrystals.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of rare-earth-free magnetic manganese bismuth nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, J; Cui, HZ; Huang, XP; Gong, MG; Qin, W; Kirkeminde, A; Cui, J; Ren, SQ

    2015-01-01

    Earth abundant manganese bismuth (MnBi) has long been of interest due to its largemagnetocrystalline anisotropy and high energy density for advanced permanent magnet applications. However, solution synthesis of MnBi phase is challenging due to the reduction potential mismatch between Mn and Bi elements. In this study, we show a versatile MnBi synthesis method involving the metal co-reduction followed by thermal annealing. The magnetically hard MnBi crystalline phase is then exchange coupled with magnetically soft cobalt coating. Our processing approach offers a promising strategy for manufacturing rare-earth-free magnetic nanocrystals.

  7. Rare-Earth Elements in Lighting and Optical Applications and Their Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xin; Chang, Moon-Hwan; Pecht, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are used in lighting and optical applications to enable color and light adjustment, miniaturization, and energy efficiency. Common applications of REEs include phosphors for light-emitting diodes, lasers, and electronic video displays. This article reviews how REEs are widely used in these applications. However, supply constraints, including rising prices, environmental concerns over mining and refining processes, and China's control over the supply of the vast majority of REEs, are of concern for manufacturers. In view of these supply constraints, this article discusses ways for manufacturers of lighting and optical devices to identify potential substitutes and recycling methods for REEs.

  8. STUDY OF BINARY OXIDES OF URANIUM AND RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The formation of fluorite-type phases was investigated in R2O3- U3O8 - O2 systems (where R-La, Sm, Dy, Yb) annealed for 66-85 hr at 1200C, and the...coulometric analysis at a controlled potential. X-ray phase analysis was carried out by using the powder method with RKD-57 and RKU-86 cameras. The degree of...stability of the hexavalent state of uranium at high temperatures. Contrary to expectations, the solubility of rare earth oxides in U3O8 was found to be very low (less than 1.5 mol % of RO1.5).

  9. X-ray-induced shortwave infrared biomedical imaging using rare-earth nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Naczynski, Dominik Jan; Sun, Conroy; Türkcan, Silvan; Jenkins, Cesare; Koh, Ai Leen; Ikeda, Debra; Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei

    2015-01-14

    Shortwave infrared (SWIR or NIR-II) light provides significant advantages for imaging biological structures due to reduced autofluorescence and photon scattering. Here, we report on the development of rare-earth nanoprobes that exhibit SWIR luminescence following X-ray irradiation. We demonstrate the ability of X-ray-induced SWIR luminescence (X-IR) to monitor biodistribution and map lymphatic drainage. Our results indicate X-IR imaging is a promising new modality for preclinical applications and has potential for dual-modality molecular disease imaging.

  10. X-ray-Induced Shortwave Infrared Biomedical Imaging Using Rare-Earth Nanoprobes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Shortwave infrared (SWIR or NIR-II) light provides significant advantages for imaging biological structures due to reduced autofluorescence and photon scattering. Here, we report on the development of rare-earth nanoprobes that exhibit SWIR luminescence following X-ray irradiation. We demonstrate the ability of X-ray-induced SWIR luminescence (X-IR) to monitor biodistribution and map lymphatic drainage. Our results indicate X-IR imaging is a promising new modality for preclinical applications and has potential for dual-modality molecular disease imaging. PMID:25485705

  11. Giant magnetic anisotropy of rare-earth adatoms and dimers adsorbed by graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Yong-Feng; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Yan; Shi, Li-Bin

    2017-05-24

    Nowadays, transition-metal adatoms and dimers with giant magnetic anisotropy have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in data storage, spintronics and quantum computations. Using density-functional calculations, we investigated the magnetic anisotropy of the rare-earth adatoms and dimers adsorbed by graphene oxide. Our calculations reveal that the adatoms of Tm, Er and Sm possess giant magnetic anisotropy, typically larger than 40 meV. When the dimers of (Tm,Er,Sm)-Ir are adsorbed onto graphene oxide, the magnetic anisotropy even exceeds 200 meV. The magnetic anisotropy can be tuned by the external electric field as well as the environment.

  12. Luminescence and structural properties of RbGdS2 compounds doped by rare earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarý, V.; Havlák, L.; Bárta, J.; Mihóková, E.; Nikl, M.

    2013-04-01

    Rare earth elements (Pr, Ce) doped ternary sulfides of formula RbGd1-xRExS2 were synthesized in the form of crystalline hexagonal platelets by chemical reaction under the flow of hydrogen sulfide. The X-ray powder diffraction detected only a single crystalline phase of rhombohedral lattice system. Optical properties of studied systems are investigated by methods of time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. Thermal stability of the Pr3+ emission is demonstrated. Application potential in the white light-emitting diode solid state lighting or X-ray phosphors is discussed.

  13. X-ray resonant magnetic scattering and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism branching ratios, L[subscript 3] / L[subscript 2], for heavy rare earths

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yongbin; Kim, Jong-Woo; Goldman, Alan I.; Harmon, Bruce N.

    2010-07-19

    In this study we have used first principles electronic structure methods to investigate the detailed contributions to the L{sub 3}/L{sub 2} branching ratio in the heavy rare earth elements. The calculations use the full potential, relativistic, linear augmented plane wave method with the LSDA+U approach for consideration of the local 4f electronic orbitals. With no spin orbit coupling (SOC) in the conducting bands, and with the same radial function for the 2p{sub 3/2} and 2p{sub 1/2} core states, the branching ratio (BR) is exactly 1:-1 for the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra of the ferromagnetic heavy rare earth metals. However, with full SOC the BR ranges from 1.5 to 6.0 in going from Gd to Er. The energy and spin dependence of the 5d radial functions are important. The results point to problems with modified atomic models which have been proposed to explain the BR. Recent x-ray resonant magentic scattering experiments on (Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Er,Tm)Ni{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} are discussed.

  14. White light emission from GaN stack layers doped by different rare-earth metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chang

    2015-02-01

    Experimental progress of electroluminescence devices (ELDs) employing GaN doped with rare-earth metals had been significantly made targeting RGB displays. However, reports on the theoretical models to design the devices and the applications were limited. Our previous paper proposed a device model using the quantum collision theory and Judd-Ofelt approximation to design the ELDs for white light illumination. In the present study, the model is modified by considering the light extraction efficiency and optical loss during propagating in the films. To improve the luminous efficiency, an ELD with three stack layers of GaN:Tm/GaN:Er/GaN:Eu is proposed and designed. The model predicts that the color of the integrated light can be controlled by applied voltage, thickness of each doping layer and doping concentrations of the rare earth metals. The luminous efficacy of white light emission at a bias of -100 V is calculated to be 274 lm/W, which is much higher than that of fluorescent lumps. The proposed ELD will open a door to efficient solid-state lighting.

  15. Thermochemical study of rare earth and nitrogen incorporation in glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yahong

    Rare earth containing aluminosilicate, borosilicate, aluminate and nitrogen containing aluminosilicate glasses are technically important materials. They have extraordinary physical and chemical properties such as high glass transition temperature, very low electrical conductivity, and excellent chemical stability. These unique properties lead to applications as coatings on metals and ceramics, optical fibers, semiconductors, and nuclear waste containment materials. In addition, such systems contain the most widely used additives for sintering of Si3N4, SiAlON and SiC ceramics for high temperature applications. Thermodynamic properties and the relations among energetics, structure and bonding are essential to controlling processing parameters to synthesize, at lower cost, materials having better properties. Earlier investigations mainly pertained to specific physical properties of rare-earth doped oxide and oxynitride glasses. Work on the thermodynamic stability and materials compatibility has been very sparse. High temperature solution calorimetry in molten oxide solvents is a powerful tool for the thermodynamic study of refractory materials. With implementation and improvement, this technique has been applied to the first measurement of enthalpies of formation of RE-Si-Al-O glasses, REAlO3 glasses, RE-Si-Al-O-N glasses, and Si3N 4 and Ge3N4 with high pressure spinel structure. The first successful synthesis of REAlO3 glasses has been achieved by containerless melting. Their large enthalpies of crystallization confirm that they are reluctant glass formers. For glasses along the 2REAlO3 -3SiO2 join, the strongly negative heats of mixing support the absence of miscibility gaps except possibly at very high silica content. Energetic evidence has been presented for incipient phase-ordered regions in Gd- or Hf-containing sodium alumino-borosilicate glasses for plutonium immobilization. Linear relations between enthalpies of formation of RESiAlON glasses from elements and

  16. A Structural Investigation of Hydrous and Anhydrous Rare-Earth Phosphates.

    PubMed

    Rafiuddin, Mohamed Ruwaid; Grosvenor, Andrew P

    2016-10-03

    Rhabdophane- (REPO4·nH2O; RE = La to Dy), monazite- (REPO4; RE = La to Gd), and xenotime-type (REPO4 and RE'PO4·nH2O; RE = Tb to Lu and Y; RE' = Ho to Lu and Y) rare-earth phosphate materials are being considered for a number of applications including as photonic materials, for biolabeling studies, and as potential nuclear wasteforms. Structural studies of hydrous rare-earth phosphates are rather limited when compared to anhydrous rare-earth phosphates. In this study, rhabdophane- (REPO4·nH2O; RE = La, Nd, Sm, Gd, and Dy) and xenotime-type (REPO4·nH2O; RE = Y and Yb) materials were synthesized by a precipitation-based method and investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). Examination of the powder XRD data from rhabdophane-type materials has confirmed that the rhabdophane structure crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system rather than the hexagonal structure that has most often been reported. Materials adopting the rhabdophane- or xenotime-type structure were studied as a function of temperature to understand how the structure varies with increasing annealing temperature. Local structural information was obtained by collecting P K- and RE L1-edge XANES spectra. Examination of P K-edge XANES spectra from rhabdophane- and xenotime-type materials revealed changes in the local environment around P as a function of temperature. These changes were attributed to the removal of water from these structures as a result of high temperature annealing.

  17. Structural transition in rare earth doped zirconium oxide: A positron annihilation study

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Keka; Bisoi, Abhijit

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: New microstructural analysis and phase transition of rare earth doped mixed oxide compounds such as: Sm{sub 2−x}Dy{sub x}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (where x = 0.0 ≤ x ≥ 2.0) that are potentially useful as solid oxide fuels, ionic conductors, optoelectronic materials and most importantly as radiation resistant host for high level rad-waste disposal, structural transition in the system is reported through positron annihilation spectroscopy as there is an indication in the X-ray diffraction analysis. Highlights: ► Zirconium oxide material doped with rare earth ions. ► The method of positron annihilation spectroscopy suggests a phase transition in the system. ► The crystal structure transformation from pure pyrochlore to defect fluorite type of structure is shown by X-ray diffraction results. -- Abstract: A series of compounds with the general composition Sm{sub 2−x}Dy{sub x}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (where 0 ≤ x ≥ 2.0) were synthesized by chemical route and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The rare earth ion namely Sm{sup +3} in the compound was gradually replaced with another smaller and heavier ion, Dy{sup +3} of the 4f series, there by resulting in order–disorder structural transition, which has been studied by positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening spectroscopy. This study reveals the subtle electronic micro environmental changes in the pyrochlore lattice (prevalent due to the oxygen vacancy in anti-site defect structure of the compound) toward its transformation to defect fluorite structure as found in Dy{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. A comparison of the changes perceived with PAS as compared to XRD analysis is critically assayed.

  18. Hybrid quantum nanophotonic devices for coupling to rare-earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazono, Evan; Hartz, Alex; Zhong, Tian; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-03-01

    With an assortment of narrow line-width transitions spanning the visible and IR spectrum and long spin coherence times, rare-earth doped crystals are the leading material system for solid-state quantum memories. Integrating these materials in an on-chip optical platform would create opportunities for highly integrated light-matter interfaces for quantum communication and quantum computing. Nano-photonic resonators with high quality factors and small mode volumes are required for efficient on-chip coupling to the small dipole moment of rare-earth ion transitions. However, direct fabrication of optical cavities in these crystals with current nanofabrication techniques is difficult and unparallelized, as either exotic etch chemistries or physical milling processes are required. We fabricated hybrid devices by mechanically transferring a nanoscale membrane of gallium arsenide (GaAs) onto a neodymium-doped yttrium silicon oxide (Y2SiO5) crystal and then using electron beam lithography and standard III-V dry etching to pattern nanobeam photonic crystal cavities and ring resonator cavities, a technique that is easily adapted to other frequency ranges for arbitrary dopants in any rare earth host system. Single crystalline GaAs was chosen for its low loss and high refractive index at the transition wavelength. We demonstrated the potential to evanescently couple between the cavity field and the 883 nm 4I9/2- 4F3/2 transition of nearby neodymium impurities in the host crystal by examining transmission spectra through a waveguide coupled to the resonator with a custom-built confocal microscope. The prospects and requirements for using this system for scalable quantum networks are discussed.

  19. Standard reference water samples for rare earth element determinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, P.L.; Antweiler, R.C.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Taylor, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    Standard reference water samples (SRWS) were collected from two mine sites, one near Ophir, CO, USA and the other near Redding, CA, USA. The samples were filtered, preserved, and analyzed for rare earth element (REE) concentrations (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). These two samples were acid mine waters with elevated concentrations of REEs (0.45-161 ??g/1). Seventeen international laboratories participated in a 'round-robin' chemical analysis program, which made it possible to evaluate the data by robust statistical procedures that are insensitive to outliers. The resulting most probable values are reported. Ten to 15 of the participants also reported values for Ba, Y, and Sc. Field parameters, major ion, and other trace element concentrations, not subject to statistical evaluation, are provided.

  20. Gaps and pseudogaps in perovskite rare earth nickelates

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S. James; Ouellette, Daniel G.; Kally, James; Kozhanov, Alex; Hauser, Adam J.; Mikheev, Evgeny; Zhang, Jack Y.; Moreno, Nelson E.; Son, Junwoo; Stemmer, Susanne; Balents, Leon

    2015-06-01

    We report on tunneling measurements that reveal the evolution of the quasiparticle state density in two rare earth perovskite nickelates, NdNiO{sub 3} and LaNiO{sub 3}, that are close to a bandwidth controlled metal to insulator transition. We measure the opening of a sharp gap of ∼30 meV in NdNiO{sub 3} in its insulating ground state. LaNiO{sub 3}, which remains a correlated metal at all practical temperatures, exhibits a pseudogap of the same order. The results point to both types of gaps arising from a common origin, namely, a quantum critical point associated with the T = 0 K metal-insulator transition. The results support theoretical models of the quantum phase transition in terms of spin and charge instabilities of an itinerant Fermi surface.

  1. SEPARATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS FROM RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Kohman, T.P.

    1961-11-21

    A process of separating neptunium and plutonium values from rare earths and alkaline earth fission products present on a solid mixed actinide carrier (Th or U(IV) oxalate or fluoride) --fission product carrier (LaF/sub 3/, CeF/sub 3/, SrF/sub 2/, CaF/sub 2/, YF/sub 3/, La oxalate, cerous oxalate, Sr oxalate, Ca oxalate or Y oxalate) by extraction of the actinides at elevated temperature with a solution of ammonium fluoride and/or ammonium oxalate is described. Separation of the fission-product-containing carriers from the actinide solution formed and precipitation of the neptunium and plutonium from the solution with mineral acid are also accomplished. (AEC)

  2. Rare earth elements in parasol mushroom Macrolepiota procera.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Sapkota, Atindra; Mędyk, Małgorzata; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-04-15

    This study aimed to investigate occurrence and distribution of 16 rare earth elements (REEs) in edible saprobic mushroom Macrolepiota procera, and to estimate possible intake and risk to human consumer. Mushrooms samples were collected from sixteen geographically diverse sites in the northern regions of Poland. The results showed that for Ce as the most abundant among the RREs in edible caps, the mean concentration was at 0.18±0.29mgkg(-1)dry biomass. The mean concentration for Σ16 REEs determined in caps of fungus was 0.50mgkg(-1)dry biomass and in whole fruiting bodies was 0.75mgkg(-1)dry biomass. From a point of view by consumer, the amounts of REEs contained in edible caps of M. procera could be considered small. Hence, eating a tasty caps of this fungus would not result in a health risk for consumer because of exposure to the REEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on laser drilling in rare-earth magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Guozhong; Liu Limin; Li Changjiang

    1996-12-31

    A Nd/YAG pulse laser is used to drill in Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B permanent magnetic rotor. The experimental studies and analysis on the morphology and the phase composition of the drilled rotor are described. In the center of the drilled rotor, there is a hole which diameter is equal roughly to the girdle size of the Gauss laser beam. The hole wall is rapid fused amorphous matter, which morphology and composition are obviously different from that before hole drilling. The grain in heat-affected zone dined, but the composition has not changed. The experimental results show that the reasonable selection of laser parameters according to physical properties of materials is necessary in order to improve product quality and production efficiency and that the lower laser power, the narrower pulse and the multiple-drilling and advantageous to the processing for hard-brittle materials as rare-earth magnets.

  4. Rare-earth phosphors for remote thermographic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, S.W. ); Franks, L.A.; Borella, H.M.; Lutz, S.S.; Turley, W.D. ); Noel, B.W.; Beasley, A. )

    1989-04-01

    Numerous phosphors with rare-earth dopants have emissions that are strongly dependent on temperature and are therefore useful for remote-temperature measurement, especially in moving, confined, or hazardous systems. The emission properties of various phosphors of this type were measured from room temperature to {approximately}1,200{degree}C, along with data relative to their stability under thermal cycling. For practical temperature monitoring applications, thermographic phosphors must remain relatively stable under the conditions they must experience during the measurement. One important consideration then, is any change in fluorescent properties that might accompany temperature cycling. The phosphors that had the most stable behavior under cycling were La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu, YVO{sub 4}:Eu, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, and YVO{sub 4}:Dy. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Circular magnetic x-ray dichroism for rare earths

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, H.; Wang, X.; Harmon, B.N. ); Carra, P. )

    1994-11-15

    Circular magnetic x-ray dichroism is a promising new tool for the study of spin and orbital moments in ferromagnetically ordered materials. For rare-earth systems the [ital L][sub 2] and [ital L][sub 3] edge dichroic spectra give information about the magnetic properties of the 5[ital d] conduction electrons. This article addresses a few of the key issues concerning the interpretation of the spectra. In particular, the quadrupole nature of the dichroic spectra below the [ital L] absorption edges and its angular dependence is discussed. The important role of the 4[ital f]-5[ital d] exchange in causing a large and important spin dependence in the 2[ital p]--5[ital d] matrix elements is likewise examined.

  6. Radiative performance of rare earth garnet thin film selective emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, R.A.; Chubb, D.L.; Good, B.S.

    1994-08-01

    In this paper the authors present the first emitter efficiency results for the thin film 40 percent Er-1.5 percent Ho YAG (Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Y3Al5O12) and 25 percent Ho YAG selective emitter at 1500 K with a platinum substrate. Spectral emittance and emissive power measurements were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.2 microns). Emitter efficiency and power density are significantly improved with the addition of multiple rare earth dopants. Predicted efficiency results are presented for an optimized (equal power density in the Er, (4)I[sub 15/2]-(4)I[sub 13/2] at 1.5 microns, and Ho, (5)I[sub 7]-(5)I[sub 8] at 2.0 micron emission bands) Er-Ho YAG thin film selective emitter.

  7. Reactive recording with rare-earth transition metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jooho; Kuwahara, Masashi; Atoda, Nobufumi; Tominaga, Junji

    2001-10-01

    Reactive recording was achieved with typical rare-earth transition metal (RE-TM) for magneto-optical recording. Almost the same carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) and much higher modulation were obtained by the reactive recording, compared with conventional phase change (PC) recording. By applying this recording material to a super-resolution near-field structure for terabyte recording, CNR below 100-nm-mark length signal, readout durability, and power margin were greatly improved. To identify the recording mechanism, we examined the magnetic and thermo-optical properties, finding that the film properties of amorphous RE-TM are steeply changed at ˜773 K by crystallization and thermal-activated reaction with dielectric layers.

  8. Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong; Li, Jigang; Zhou, Qing; Yang, Guangmei; Ding, Xiao Lan; Li, Xiaodong; Cai, Chen Xin; Zhang, Zhao; Wei, Hai Yan; Lu, Tian Hong; Deng, Xing Wang; Huang, Xiao Hua

    2014-01-01

    It has long been observed that rare earth elements (REEs) regulate multiple facets of plant growth and development. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, using electron microscopic autoradiography, we show the life cycle of a light REE (lanthanum) and a heavy REE (terbium) in horseradish leaf cells. Our data indicate that REEs were first anchored on the plasma membrane in the form of nanoscale particles, and then entered the cells by endocytosis. Consistently, REEs activated endocytosis in plant cells, which may be the cellular basis of REE actions in plants. Moreover, we discovered that a portion of REEs was successively released into the cytoplasm, self-assembled to form nanoscale clusters, and finally deposited in horseradish leaf cells. Taken together, our data reveal the life cycle of REEs and their cellular behaviors in plant cells, which shed light on the cellular mechanisms of REE actions in living organisms. PMID:25114214

  9. Orthodontic rare earth magnets--in vitro assessment of cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bondemark, L; Kurol, J; Wennberg, A

    1994-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare in vitro the cytotoxic effects of uncoated and parylene-coated rare earth magnets, used in orthodontics. Cytotoxicity of samarium-cobalt magnets (SmCo5 and Sm2Co17) and neodymium-iron-boron magnets (Nd2Fe14B) was assessed by two in vitro methods, the millipore filter method and an extraction method. Orthodontic stainless steel brackets served as controls. Uncoated SmCo5-magnets showed high cytotoxicity while uncoated Sm2Co17-magnets demonstrated moderate cytotoxicity. Uncoated neodymium-iron-boron magnets, as well as parylene coated Sm2Co17-magnets and parylene-coated neodymium-iron-boron magnets, showed negligible cytotoxicity. Short-term exposure to a static magnetic field did not cause any cytotoxic effect on the cells.

  10. Sonochemical synthesis of mesoporous transition metal and rare earth oxides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanqin; Yin, Lunxiang; Gedanken, Arahon

    2002-11-01

    Straight-extended layered mesostructures based on transItion metal (Fe, Cr) and rare earth (Y, Ce, La, Sm, Er) oxides are synthesized by sonication for 3 h. After a longer period of sonication (6 h), hexagonal mesostructures based on Y- and Er-oxides are obtained. The surface areas of the Y-based hexagonal mesophases before and after extraction are 46.5, 256 m2/g, respectively. For Er-based hexagonal mesophases, the surface areas before and after extraction are 157 and 225 m2/g. The pore sizes after extraction are 5.0 and 2.2 nm for Y- and Er-based mesophases, respectively. Hexagonal mesostructures are also obtained for Zr-based material after sonication for 3 h and the hexagonal structure is still maintained after calcinations at 400 degrees C for 4 h, although the surface area is only 35 m2/g.

  11. Vanadium oxide bronzes containing rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, V.L.; Zubkov, V.G.; Fedyukov, A.S.; Zainulin, Yu.G.

    1988-05-01

    We attempted to make phases having the general formula Ln/sub x/V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (Ln = La, Eu, Yb) without success; the specimens usually consisted of three phases: the rare-earth orthovanadate LnVO/sub 4/, vanadium(V) oxide, and VO/sub 2/. To shift the process to give Ln/sub x/V/sub 2/O/sub 5/, heat treatment was applied to mixtures of the initial high-purity substances. The x-ray patterns were recorded with a DRON-UM1 apparatus with Cr K..cap alpha.. radiation and were processed by the Poroshok program. The IR spectra were recorded with UR-20 spectrometer with oil mulls.

  12. Radiative Performance of Rare Earth Garnet Thin Film Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present the first emitter efficiency results for the thin film 40 percent Er-1.5 percent Ho YAG (Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Y3Al5O12) and 25 percent Ho YAG selective emitter at 1500 K with a platinum substrate. Spectral emittance and emissive power measurements were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.2 microns). Emitter efficiency and power density are significantly improved with the addition of multiple rare earth dopants. Predicted efficiency results are presented for an optimized (equal power density in the Er, (4)I(sub 15/2)-(4)I(sub 13/2) at 1.5 microns, and Ho, (5)I(sub 7)-(5)I(sub 8) at 2.0 micron emission bands) Er-Ho YAG thin film selective emitter.

  13. Exposure, metabolism, and toxicity of rare earths and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, S; Suzuki, K T

    1996-01-01

    For the past three decades, most attention in heavy metal toxicology has been paid to cadmium, mercury, lead, chromium, nickel, vanadium, and tin because these metals widely polluted the environment. However, with the development of new materials in the last decade, the need for toxicological studies on those new materials has been increasing. A group of rare earths (RE) is a good example. Although some RE have been used for superconductors, plastic magnets, and ceramics, few toxicological data are available compared to other heavy metals described above. Because chemical properties of RE are very similar, it is plausible that their binding affinities to biomolecules, metabolism, and toxicity in the living system are also very similar. In this report, we present an overview of the metabolism and health hazards of RE and related compounds, including our recent studies. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C PMID:8722113

  14. Rare Earth Fluorescent Nanomaterials for Enhanced Development of Latent Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Li, Ming; Yu, Aoyang; Wu, Jian; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-12-30

    The most commonly found fingerprints at crime scenes are latent and, thus, an efficient method for detecting latent fingerprints is very important. However, traditional developing techniques have drawbacks such as low developing sensitivity, high background interference, complicated operation, and high toxicity. To tackle this challenge, we have synthesized two kinds of rare earth fluorescent nanomaterials, including the fluoresce red-emitting YVO4:Eu nanocrystals and green-emitting LaPO4:Ce,Tb nanobelts, and then used them as fluorescent labels for the development of latent fingerprints with high sensitivity, high contrast, high selectivity, high efficiency, and low background interference, on various substrates including noninfiltrating materials, semi-infiltrating materials, and infiltrating materials.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Rare Earth Doped Fluoride Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsohn, Luiz G.; Kucera, Courtney J.; James, Tiffany L.; Sprinkle, Kevin B.; DiMaio, Jeffrey R.; Kokuoz, Baris; Yazgan-Kukouz, Basak; DeVol, Timothy A.; Ballato, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the synthesis, structure and applications of metal fluoride nanoparticles, with particular focus on rare earth (RE) doped fluoride nanoparticles obtained by our research group. Nanoparticles were produced by precipitation methods using the ligand ammonium di-n-octadecyldithiophosphate (ADDP) that allows the growth of shells around a core particle while simultaneously avoiding particle aggregation. Nanoparticles were characterized on their structure, morphology, and luminescent properties. We discuss the synthesis, properties, and application of heavy metal fluorides; specifically LaF3:RE and PbF2, and group IIA fluorides. Particular attention is given to the synthesis of core/shell nanoparticles, including selectively RE-doped LaF3/LaF3, and CaF2/CaF2 core/(multi-)shell nanoparticles, and the CaF2-LaF3 system.

  16. Rare earth activated yttrium aluminate phosphors with modulated luminescence.

    PubMed

    Muresan, L E; Popovici, E J; Perhaita, I; Indrea, E; Oro, J; Casan Pastor, N

    2016-06-01

    Yttrium aluminate (Y3 A5 O12 ) was doped with different rare earth ions (i.e. Gd(3+) , Ce(3+) , Eu(3+) and/or Tb(3+) ) in order to obtain phosphors (YAG:RE) with general formula,Y3-x-a Gdx REa Al5 O12 (x = 0; 1.485; 2.97 and a = 0.03). The synthesis of the phosphor samples was done using the simultaneous addition of reagents technique. This study reveals new aspects regarding the influence of different activator ions on the morpho-structural and luminescent characteristics of garnet type phosphor. All YAG:RE phosphors are well crystallized powders containing a cubic-Y3 Al5 O12 phase as major component along with monoclinic-Y4 Al2 O9 and orthorhombic-YAlO3 phases as the impurity. The crystallites dimensions of YAG:RE phosphors vary between 38 nm and 88 nm, while the unit cell slowly increase as the ionic radius of the activator increases. Under UV excitation, YAG:Ce exhibits yellow emission due to electron transition in Ce(3+) from the 5d level to the ground state levels ((2) F5/2 , (2) F7/2 ). The emission intensity of Ce(3+) is enhanced in the presence of the Tb(3+) ions and is decreased in the presence of Eu(3+) ions due to some radiative or non-radiative processes that take place between activator ions. By varying the rare earth ions, the emission colour can be modulated from green to white and red. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Heat capacities, order-disorder transitions, and thermodynamic properties of rare-earth orthoferrites and rare-earth iron garnets

    SciTech Connect

    Parida, S.C. Rakshit, S.K.; Singh, Ziley

    2008-01-15

    Rare-earth orthoferrites, RFeO{sub 3}, and rare-earth iron garnets (RIGs) R{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (R=rare-earth elements) were prepared by citrate-nitrate gel combustion method and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. Isobaric molar heat capacities of these oxides were determined by using differential scanning calorimetry from 130 to 860 K. Order-disorder transition temperatures were determined from the heat capacity measurements. The Neel temperatures (T{sub N}) due to antiferromagentic to paramagnetic transitions in orthoferrites and the Curie temperatures (T{sub C}) due to ferrimagnetic to paramagnetic transitions in garnets were determined from the heat capacity data. Both T{sub N} and T{sub C} systematically decrease with increasing atomic number of R across the series. Lattice, electronic and magnetic contributions to the total heat capacity were calculated. Debye temperatures as a function of absolute temperature were calculated for these compounds. Thermodynamic functions like C{sub p,m}{sup o}, S{sub m}{sup o}, H{sup o}, G{sup o}, (H{sub T}{sup o}-H{sub 0}{sup o}), (H{sub T}{sup o}-H{sub 298.15K}{sup o}), -(G{sub T}{sup o}-H{sub 298.15K}{sup o})/T, {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o}, and {delta}{sub f}G{sub m}{sup o} have been generated for the compounds RFeO{sub 3}(s) and R{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}(s) based on the experimental data obtained in this study and the available data in the literature. - Graphical abstract: Plot of molar heat capacities (C{sub p,m}{sup o}) of R{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}(s) (R=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) against temperature (T). The inset shows the magnified portion of the heat capacity plot near the transition region indicating nearly same values of Curie temperatures for different R{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}(s)

  18. Determination of rare earth elements in fluid inclusions by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    SciTech Connect

    Ghazi, A.M.; Vanko, D.A. ); Roedder, E. ); Seeley, R.C. )

    1993-09-01

    An inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) is used to determine rare earth element (REE) abundances in fluid inclusions. Quartz concentrates from the Bingham porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Utah, US, and from a quartz vein in brecciated amphibolite dredged from the Mathematician Ridge, an abandoned spreading center in the eastern Pacific, were prepared by a modified crush-leach method. Leachates and solutions from acid digestion of quartz residue from leaching were analyzed by ICP-MS, using conventional sample introduction. The results demonstrate that the crush-leach method, followed by ICP-MS analysis of leachates, is effective for REE determination. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns for the Bingham samples are light rare earth elements (LREE) enriched, with a small negative Eu anomaly, and the pattern for the Mathematician Ridge sample is nearly flat, with a positive Eu anomaly.

  19. Magnetocaloric properties of rare-earth substituted DyCrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDannald, A.; Jain, M.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, there has been a focus on the need for efficient refrigeration technology without the use of expensive or harmful working fluids, especially at temperatures below 30 K. Solid state refrigeration, based on the magnetocaloric effect, provides a possible solution to this problem. The rare-earth chromites (RCrO3), especially DyCrO3, with its large magnetic moment dysprosium ion, are potential candidates for such an application. The Dy3+ ordering transition at low temperatures (<10 K) likely causes a large magnetocaloric response in this material. This study investigates the possibility of tuning the magnetocaloric properties through the use of rare-earth substitution. Both Y3+ and Ho3+ substitutions were found to decrease the magnetocaloric response by disrupting the R3+ ordering. Whereas Er3+ substitution was found to increase the magnetocaloric response, likely due to an increase in the R3+ ordering temperature. The large magnetocaloric entropy change of Er3+ substituted DyCrO3 (10.92 J/kg K with a relative cooling power of 237 J/kg at 40 kOe and 5 K) indicates that this material system is well suited for low temperature (<30 K) solid state refrigeration applications.

  20. Magnetocaloric properties of rare-earth substituted DyCrO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    McDannald, A.; Jain, M.

    2015-07-28

    Recently, there has been a focus on the need for efficient refrigeration technology without the use of expensive or harmful working fluids, especially at temperatures below 30 K. Solid state refrigeration, based on the magnetocaloric effect, provides a possible solution to this problem. The rare-earth chromites (RCrO{sub 3}), especially DyCrO{sub 3}, with its large magnetic moment dysprosium ion, are potential candidates for such an application. The Dy{sup 3+} ordering transition at low temperatures (<10 K) likely causes a large magnetocaloric response in this material. This study investigates the possibility of tuning the magnetocaloric properties through the use of rare-earth substitution. Both Y{sup 3+} and Ho{sup 3+} substitutions were found to decrease the magnetocaloric response by disrupting the R{sup 3+} ordering. Whereas Er{sup 3+} substitution was found to increase the magnetocaloric response, likely due to an increase in the R{sup 3+} ordering temperature. The large magnetocaloric entropy change of Er{sup 3+} substituted DyCrO{sub 3} (10.92 J/kg K with a relative cooling power of 237 J/kg at 40 kOe and 5 K) indicates that this material system is well suited for low temperature (<30 K) solid state refrigeration applications.

  1. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Isotopic Yttrium-90-Labeled Rare Earth Fluoride Nanocrystals for Multimodal Imaging.

    PubMed

    Paik, Taejong; Chacko, Ann-Marie; Mikitsh, John L; Friedberg, Joseph S; Pryma, Daniel A; Murray, Christopher B

    2015-09-22

    Isotopically labeled nanomaterials have recently attracted much attention in biomedical research, environmental health studies, and clinical medicine because radioactive probes allow the elucidation of in vitro and in vivo cellular transport mechanisms, as well as the unambiguous distribution and localization of nanomaterials in vivo. In addition, nanocrystal-based inorganic materials have a unique capability of customizing size, shape, and composition; with the potential to be designed as multimodal imaging probes. Size and shape of nanocrystals can directly influence interactions with biological systems, hence it is important to develop synthetic methods to design radiolabeled nanocrystals with precise control of size and shape. Here, we report size- and shape-controlled synthesis of rare earth fluoride nanocrystals doped with the β-emitting radioisotope yttrium-90 ((90)Y). Size and shape of nanocrystals are tailored via tight control of reaction parameters and the type of rare earth hosts (e.g., Gd or Y) employed. Radiolabeled nanocrystals are synthesized in high radiochemical yield and purity as well as excellent radiolabel stability in the face of surface modification with different polymeric ligands. We demonstrate the Cerenkov radioluminescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging capabilities of (90)Y-doped GdF3 nanoplates, which offer unique opportunities as a promising platform for multimodal imaging and targeted therapy.

  2. Bioadsorption of rare earth elements through cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Dan M.; Reed, David W.; Yung, Mimi C.; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M.; Anderko, Andrzej; Fujita, Yoshiko; Riman, Richard E.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-02-02

    In this study, with the increasing demand for rare earth elements (REEs) in many emerging clean energy technologies, there is an urgent need for the development of new approaches for efficient REE extraction and recovery. As a step toward this goal, we genetically engineered the aerobic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus for REE adsorption through high-density cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags (LBTs) on its S-layer. The LBT-displayed strains exhibited enhanced adsorption of REEs compared to cells lacking LBT, high specificity for REEs, and an adsorption preference for REEs with small atomic radii. Adsorbed Tb3+ could be effectively recovered using citrate, consistent with thermodynamic speciation calculations that predicted strong complexation of Tb3+ by citrate. No reduction in Tb3+ adsorption capacity was observed following citrate elution, enabling consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. The LBT-displayed strain was effective for extracting REEs from the acid leachate of core samples collected at a prospective rare earth mine. Our collective results demonstrate a rapid, efficient, and reversible process for REE adsorption with potential industrial application for REE enrichment and separation.

  3. Bioadsorption of rare earth elements through cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Dan M.; Reed, David W.; Yung, Mimi C.; ...

    2016-02-02

    In this study, with the increasing demand for rare earth elements (REEs) in many emerging clean energy technologies, there is an urgent need for the development of new approaches for efficient REE extraction and recovery. As a step toward this goal, we genetically engineered the aerobic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus for REE adsorption through high-density cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags (LBTs) on its S-layer. The LBT-displayed strains exhibited enhanced adsorption of REEs compared to cells lacking LBT, high specificity for REEs, and an adsorption preference for REEs with small atomic radii. Adsorbed Tb3+ could be effectively recovered using citrate,more » consistent with thermodynamic speciation calculations that predicted strong complexation of Tb3+ by citrate. No reduction in Tb3+ adsorption capacity was observed following citrate elution, enabling consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. The LBT-displayed strain was effective for extracting REEs from the acid leachate of core samples collected at a prospective rare earth mine. Our collective results demonstrate a rapid, efficient, and reversible process for REE adsorption with potential industrial application for REE enrichment and separation.« less

  4. Bioadsorption of Rare Earth Elements through Cell Surface Display of Lanthanide Binding Tags.

    PubMed

    Park, Dan M; Reed, David W; Yung, Mimi C; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M; Anderko, Andrzej; Fujita, Yoshiko; Riman, Richard E; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-03-01

    With the increasing demand for rare earth elements (REEs) in many emerging clean energy technologies, there is an urgent need for the development of new approaches for efficient REE extraction and recovery. As a step toward this goal, we genetically engineered the aerobic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus for REE adsorption through high-density cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags (LBTs) on its S-layer. The LBT-displayed strains exhibited enhanced adsorption of REEs compared to cells lacking LBT, high specificity for REEs, and an adsorption preference for REEs with small atomic radii. Adsorbed Tb(3+) could be effectively recovered using citrate, consistent with thermodynamic speciation calculations that predicted strong complexation of Tb(3+) by citrate. No reduction in Tb(3+) adsorption capacity was observed following citrate elution, enabling consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. The LBT-displayed strain was effective for extracting REEs from the acid leachate of core samples collected at a prospective rare earth mine. Our collective results demonstrate a rapid, efficient, and reversible process for REE adsorption with potential industrial application for REE enrichment and separation.

  5. Rare earth elements and hypertension risk among housewives: A pilot study in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Yan, Lailai; Huo, Wenhua; Lu, Qun; Cheng, Zixi; Zhang, Jingxu; Li, Zhiwen

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that residents living near rare earth mining areas have high concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in their hair. However, the adverse effects of REEs on human health have rarely been the focus of epidemiological studies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between REEs in hair and the risk of hypertension in housewives. We recruited 398 housewives in Shanxi Province, China, consisting of 163 women with hypertension (cases) and 235 healthy women without hypertension (controls). We analyzed 15 REEs (lanthanum (La), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), lutetium (Lu), Yttrium (Y), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), and neodymium (Nd)) and calcium (Ca) accumulated in housewives hair over a period of two years. The results revealed that, with the exception of Eu, concentrations of the REEs in hair were higher in the cases than in the controls. The univariate odds ratios (ORs) of the 14 REEs were >1, and four of the REEs (Dy, Tm, Yb, and Y) also had adjusted ORs > 1. The increasing dose-response trends of the four REEs further indicated the potential for increased hypertension risk. Moreover, the REEs were negatively correlated with Ca content in hair. These results might suggest an antagonistic effect of REEs on Ca in the human body. It was concluded that high intake of REEs might increase the risk of hypertension among housewives.

  6. Systematic approach in designing rare-Earth-free hybrid semiconductor phosphors for general lighting applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Wei; Wei, George Z; Banerjee, Debasis; Hu, Zhichao; Li, Jing

    2014-10-08

    As one of the most rapidly evolving branches of solid-state lighting technologies, light emitting diodes (LEDs) are gradually replacing conventional lighting sources due to their advantages in energy saving and environmental protection. At the present time, commercially available white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) are predominantly phosphor based (e.g., a yellow-emitting phosphor, such as cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet or (YAG):Ce(3+), coupled with a blue-emitting InGaN/GaN diode), which rely heavily on rare-earth (RE) metals. To avoid potential supply risks of these elements, we have developed an inorganic-organic hybrid phosphor family based on I-VII binary semiconductors. The hybrid phosphor materials are totally free of rare-earth metals. They can be synthesized by a simple, low-cost solution process and are easily scalable. Their band gap and emission energy, intensity, and color can be systematically tuned by incorporating ligands with suitable electronic properties. High quantum efficiency is achieved for some of these compounds. Such features make this group of materials promising candidates as alternative phosphors for use in general lighting devices.

  7. Molecular rare-earth-metal hydrides in non-cyclopentadienyl environments.

    PubMed

    Fegler, Waldemar; Venugopal, Ajay; Kramer, Mathias; Okuda, Jun

    2015-02-02

    Molecular hydrides of the rare-earth metals play an important role as homogeneous catalysts and as counterparts of solid-state interstitial hydrides. Structurally well-characterized non-metallocene-type hydride complexes allow the study of elementary reactions that occur at rare-earth-metal centers and of catalytic reactions involving bonds between rare-earth metals and hydrides. In addition to neutral hydrides, cationic derivatives have now become available.

  8. Google Earth locations of USA and seafloor hydrothermal vents with associated rare earth element data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Andrew Fowler

    2016-02-10

    Google Earth .kmz files that contain the locations of geothermal wells and thermal springs in the USA, and seafloor hydrothermal vents that have associated rare earth element data. The file does not contain the actual data, the actual data is available through the GDR website in two tier 3 data sets entitled "Compilation of Rare Earth Element Analyses from US Geothermal Fields and Mid Ocean Ridge (MOR) Hydrothermal Vents" and "Rare earth element content of thermal fluids from Surprise Valley, California"

  9. Rare Earth Elements in National Defense: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    refined metals, and is the majority producer of the world’s two strongest magnets ( samarium cobalt (SmCo) and neodymium iron boron (NeFeB) permanent...light rare earths (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium ) and heavy rare earths (europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium... samarium cobalt (SmCo), and neodymium iron boron (NdFeB). NdFeB magnets, considered the world’s strongest permanent magnets, dominate rare earth magnet

  10. Methods for preparation of nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates for lighting applications

    DOEpatents

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Manoharan, Mohan; Martins Loureiro, Sergio Paulo; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani

    2013-04-16

    Disclosed here are methods for the preparation of optionally activated nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates. The optionally activated nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates may be used as one or more of quantum-splitting phosphor, visible-light emitting phosphor, vacuum-UV absorbing phosphor, and UV-emitting phosphor. Also disclosed herein are discharge lamps comprising the optionally activated nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates provided by these methods.

  11. Metal sulfide and rare-earth phosphate nanostructures and methods of making same

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Stanislaus; Zhang, Fen

    2016-06-28

    The present invention provides a method of producing a crystalline rare earth phosphate nanostructure. The method comprising: providing a rare earth metal precursor solution and providing a phosphate precursor solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal precursor solution and the phosphate precursor solution, wherein metal cations of the metal precursor solution and phosphate ions of the phosphate precursor solution react, thereby producing a crystalline rare earth metal phosphate nanostructure.

  12. Minerals yearbook, 1993: Rare earths, the lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.B.

    1995-03-01

    Domestic mine production of rare earths decreased in 1993. The domestic economy continued to recover slowly during the year and inflation rose a modest 2.5%. Estimated domestic apparent consumption decreased 21%; however, earnings by the major domestic processor reportedly increased amid a slight decline in sales. Demand increased for rare earths used in petroleum fluid cracking catalysts, automotive catalytic converters, permanent magnets, and television and lighting phosphors. Demand decreased for rare earths in automotive UV glass applications.

  13. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis, Microstructure, and Magnetic Properties of Rare-Earth Cobaltites.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Seijas, Julia; Prado-Gonjal, Jesús; Ávila Brande, David; Terry, Ian; Morán, Emilio; Schmidt, Rainer

    2017-01-03

    The series of perovskite rare-earth (RE) doped cobaltites (RE)CoO3 (RE = La-Dy) was prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. The crystal structure undergoes a change of symmetry depending on the size of the RE cation. LaCoO3 is rhombohedral, S.G. R3̅c (No. 167), while, for the rest of the RE series (Pr-Dy), the symmetry is orthorhombic, S.G. Pnma (No. 62). The crystal structure obtained by X-ray diffraction was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which yielded a good match between experimental and simulated images. It is further shown that the well-known magnetism in LaCoO3, which involves a thermally induced Co(3+) (d(6)) low spin to intermediate or high spin state transition, is strongly modified by the RE cation, and a rich variety of magnetic order has been detected across the series.

  14. Modification of phonon processes in nanostructured rare-earth-ion-doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Thomas; Veissier, Lucile; Thiel, Charles W.; Cone, Rufus L.; Barclay, Paul E.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Nano-structuring impurity-doped crystals affects the phonon density of states and thereby modifies the atomic dynamics induced by interaction with phonons. We propose the use of nano-structured materials in the form of powders or phononic bandgap crystals to enable or improve persistent spectral hole burning and coherence for inhomogeneously broadened absorption lines in rare-earth-ion-doped crystals. This is crucial for applications such as ultra-precise radio-frequency spectrum analyzers and optical quantum memories. As an example, we discuss how phonon engineering can enable spectral hole burning in erbium-doped materials operating in the convenient telecommunication band and present simulations for density of states of nano-sized powders and phononic crystals for the case of Y2SiO5 , a widely used material in current quantum memory research.

  15. Influence of process time on microstructure and properties of 17-4PH steel plasma nitrocarburized with rare earths addition at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, M. F.; Liu, R. L.

    2010-08-01

    17-4PH stainless steel was plasma nitrocarburized at 430 °C for different time with rare earths (RE) addition. Plasma RE nitrocarburized layers were studied by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, X-ray diffraction, microhardness tests, pin-on-disc tribometer and anodic polarization tests. The results show that rare earths atoms can diffuse into the surface of 17-4PH steel. The modified layer depths increase with increasing process time and the layer growth conforms approximately to the parabolic law. The phases in the modified layer are mainly of γ'-Fe 4N, nitrogen and carbon expanded martensite (α' N) as well as some incipient CrN at short time (2 h). With increasing of process time, the phases of CrN and γ'-Fe 4N increase but α' N decomposes gradually. Interestingly, the peaks of γ'-Fe 4N display a high (2 0 0) plane preferred orientation. The hardness of the modified specimen is more than 1340 HV, which is about 3.7 times higher than that of untreated one. The friction coefficients and wear rates of specimens can be dramatically decreased by plasma RE nitrocarburizing. The surface hardness and the friction coefficients decrease gradually with increasing process time. The corrosion test shows that the 8 h treated specimen has the best corrosion resistance with the characterization of lower corrosion current density, a higher corrosion potential and a large passive region as compared with those of untreated one.

  16. Rare-earth metal diisopropylamide-catalyzed intramolecular hydroamination.

    PubMed

    Spallek, Tatiana; Anwander, Reiner

    2016-10-18

    Rare-earth metal diisopropylamide complexes LiLn(NiPr2)4(THF) (Ln = Sc, Y, La), [LiY(NiPr2)4]n, NaLn(NiPr2)4(THF) (Ln = Sc, Y), Sc(NiPr2)3(THF) and Ce(NiPr2)4 were screened as catalysts for the intramolecular hydroamination/cyclization (IHC) of 1-amino-2,2-dimethyl-4-pentene, 1-amino-2,2-diphenyl-4-pentene, and 1-amino-2,2-diphenyl-5-hexene at ambient and moderately increased temperature of 60 °C in C6D6. The lithium ate complexes displayed the most efficient precatalysts with high conversion rates at 60 °C for the phenyl-substituted substrates and Ln = Y and La, affording turnover frequencies Nt as high as 164 h(-1). The catalytic activity could be increased by employing THF-free complex [LiY(NiPr2)4]n (Nt = 45.8 h(-1) at 26 °C; 34.1 h(-1) for LiY(NiPr2)4(THF)). In situ generation of putative LiY(NiPr2)4(THF) from YCl3(THF)3.3 and four equivalents of LiNiPr2 (LDA) in C6D6 generated a catalyst revealing Nt comparable to pre-isolated crystallized LiY(NiPr2)4(THF) but yielding even higher substrate conversion. The IHC reactions were also examined for rare-earth metal bis(trimethylsilyl)amide catalysts Ln[N(SiMe3)2]3 (Ln = Sc, Y, La) as well as for LDA using the same reaction conditions, revealing overall superior activity of the silylamide derivatives but poor performance of LDA compared to the rare-earth metal diisopropylamide complexes LiLn(NiPr2)4(THF). Cyclization of 1-amino-2,2-diphenyl-5-hexene to the 6-membered heterocycle 2-methyl-4,4-diphenylpiperidine by lanthanum derivative LiLa(NiPr2)4(THF) was accompanied by a competitive isomerization reaction affording max. 20% of 1-amino-2,2-diphenyl-4-hexene after 2 h at 60 °C. Crystalline tetravalent Ce(NiPr2)4 showed a better IHC performance than crystalline trivalent Sc(NiPr2)3(THF) as preliminary examined for 1-amino-2,2-diphenyl-4-pentene at 26 °C (Nt = 5.6 and 0.9 h(-1), respectively), but cyclization came to a halt after 2 h, probably due to decomposition of the catalyst.

  17. Energetics of Rare Earth Doped Uranium Oxide Solid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei

    The physical and chemical properties of UO2 nuclear fuels are affected as fission products accumulate during irradiation. The lanthanides, a main group of fission products, form extensive solid solutions with uranium oxide in the fluorite structure. Thermodynamic studies of such solid solutions had been performed to obtain partial molar free energies of oxygen as a function of dopant concentration and temperature; however, direct measurement of formation enthalpies was hampered by the refractory nature of these oxides. In this work, high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry was utilized to study the thermochemistry of various rare earth doped uranium oxide LnxU 1-xO2-0.5x+y (Ln = La, Y, Nd) over a wide range of dopant concentrations and oxygen contents. The sintered solid solutions were carefully characterized to determine their phase purity, chemical composition, and uranium oxidation state, with most of the materials in the oxygen excess regime. The enthalpies of formation of LnxU1-xO2-0.5x+y were calculated from the calorimetric data. The oxidation enthalpies of these solid solutions are similar to that of UO2. The formation enthalpies from constituent oxides (LnO1.5, UO2, and UO3) become increasingly negative with addition of dopant cations and appear relatively independent of the uranium oxidation state (oxygen content) when the type and concentration of the dopants are the same. This is valid in the oxygen excess regime; thus an estimation of formation enthalpies of LnxU1-xO2 materials can be made. The formation enthalpies from elements of hyperstoichiometric LnxU1-xO 2-0.5x+y materials obtained from calorimetric measurements are in good agreement with those calculated from free energy data. A direct comparison between the formation enthalpies from calorimetric study and computational research using density functional theory was also performed. The experimental and computational energies of LnxU 1-xO2 (Ln = La, Y, Nd) generally agree within 10 k

  18. Combinatorial investigation of rare-earth free permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fackler, Sean Wu

    The combinatorial high throughput method allows one to rapidly study a large number of samples with systematically changing parameters. We apply this method to study Fe-Co-V alloys as alternatives to rare-earth permanent magnets. Rare-earth permanent magnets derive their unmatched magnetic properties from the hybridization of Fe and Co with the f-orbitals of rare-earth elements, which have strong spin-orbit coupling. It is predicted that Fe and Co may also have strong hybridization with 4d and 5d refractory transition metals with strong spin-orbit coupling. Refractory transition metals like V also have the desirable property of high temperature stability, which is important for permanent magnet applications in traction motors. In this work, we focus on the role of crystal structure, composition, and secondary phases in the origin of competitive permanent magnetic properties of a particular Fe-Co-V alloy. Fe38Co52V10, compositions are known as Vicalloys. Fe-CoV composition spreads were sputtered onto three-inch silicon wafers and patterned into discrete sample pads forming a combinatorial library. We employed highthroughput screening methods using synchrotron X-rays, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) to rapidly screen crystal structure, composition, and magnetic properties, respectively. We found that in-plane magnetic coercive fields of our Vicalloy thin films agree with known bulk values (300 G), but found a remarkable eight times increase of the out-of-plane coercive fields (˜2,500 G). To explain this, we measured the switching fields between in-plane and out-of-plane thin film directions which revealed that the Kondorsky model of 180° domain wall reversal was responsible for Vicalloy's enhanced out-of-plane coercive field and possibly its permanent magnetic properties. The Kondorsky model suggests that domain-wall pinning is the origin of Vicalloy's permanent magnetic properties, in contrast to strain, shape, or

  19. Rare earth elements exploitation, geopolitical implications and raw materials trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemin, Marie-Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) correspond to seventeen elements of the periodic table. They are used in high technology, cracking, electric cars' magnet, metal alloy for batteries, and also in phone construction or ceramics for electronic card. REEs are an important resource for high technology. This project targets 16 years old students in the subject "personalized aid" and will last six weeks. The purpose of this project is to develop autonomy and research in groups for a transdisciplinary work. This project gathers knowledge in geology, geography and economics. During the first session students analyze the geology applications of the REE. They begin the analysis with learning the composition in different rocks such as basalt and diorite to make the link with crystallization. Then they compare it with adakite to understand the formation of these rocks. In the second session, they study REE exploitation. We can find them as oxides in many deposits. The principal concentrations of rare earth elements are associated with uncommon varieties of igneous rocks, such as carbonatites. They can use Qgis, to localize this high concentration. In the third session, they study the environmental costs of REE exploitation. Indeed, the exploitation produces thorium and carcinogenic toxins: sulphates, ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Processing one ton of rare earths produces 2,000 tons of toxic waste. This session focuses, first, on Baotou's region, and then on an example they are free to choose. In the fourth session, they study the geopolitical issues of REE with a focus on China. In fact this country is the largest producer of REE, and is providing 95% of the overall production. REE in China are at the center of a geopolitical strategy. In fact, China implements a sort of protectionism. Indeed, the export tax on REE is very high so, as a foreign company, it is financially attractive to establish a manufacturing subsidiary in China in order to use REE. As a matter of fact

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Alkaline-Earth Metal (Ca, Sr, and Ba) Doped Nanodimensional LaMnO3 Rare-Earth Manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asma, Khalid; Saadat, Anwar Siddiqi; Affia, Aslam

    2013-07-01

    The substitution of divalent cations of alkaline-earth elements in nanodimensional structures of rare-earth manganites produces advanced materials with potential electrical and magnetic functionalities. A systematic investigation of La0.65A0.35MnO3 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) materials synthesized with a modified citrate route adopting ethanol dehydration has been undertaken. The structural and morphological analyses are carried out by using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Resistivity measurements are performed in variation with temperature to study the electrical transport properties which are found to vary with the size of the A-site cationic radius. Room temperature magnetic measurements are carried out to investigate the type of magnetic phase present in materials. The stability of the magnetic phase and coercivity are found to be dependent on the size of nanocrystallites.

  1. [Determination of trace rare earth in fossil of dinosaurian egg by laser thermal lens spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yan, H; Zheng, Y; Yan, S

    1997-10-01

    Determination of trace rare earth in fossil of dinosaurian egg by LTLS (Laser thermal lens spectrometry) is presented in this paper. The trace rare earth in fossil of dinosaurian egg was separated and concentrated with ion exchange method. The measure conditions and effect factors are discussedian. The LTLS was applied to the determination of trace rare earth in fossil of dinosaurian egg with satisfactory results. It provides the reference data for the studies on the fossil of dinosaurian egg and an analytical method for the determination of rare earth in geochemical sample.

  2. Calculation of binary phase diagrams between the actinide elements, rare earth elements, and transition metal elements

    SciTech Connect

    Selle, J E

    1992-06-26

    Attempts were made to apply the Kaufman method of calculating binary phase diagrams to the calculation of binary phase diagrams between the rare earths, actinides, and the refractory transition metals. Difficulties were encountered in applying the method to the rare earths and actinides, and modifications were necessary to provide accurate representation of known diagrams. To calculate the interaction parameters for rare earth-rare earth diagrams, it was necessary to use the atomic volumes for each of the phases: liquid, body-centered cubic, hexagonal close-packed, and face-centered cubic. Determination of the atomic volumes of each of these phases for each element is discussed in detail. In some cases, empirical means were necessary. Results are presented on the calculation of rare earth-rare earth, rare earth-actinide, and actinide-actinide diagrams. For rare earth-refractory transition metal diagrams and actinide-refractory transition metal diagrams, empirical means were required to develop values for the enthalpy of vaporization for rare earth elements and values for the constant (C) required when intermediate phases are present. Results of using the values determined for each element are presented.

  3. Synthesis, structure and reactivity of rare-earth metal complexes containing anionic phosphorus ligands.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianshu; Kaercher, Sabrina; Roesky, Peter W

    2014-01-07

    A comprehensive review of structurally characterized rare-earth metal complexes containing anionic phosphorus ligands is presented. Since rare-earth elements form hard ions and phosphorus is considered as a soft ligand, the rare-earth metal phosphorus coordination is regarded as a less favorite combination. Three classes of phosphorus ligands, (1) the monoanionic organophosphide ligands (PR2(-)) bearing one negative charge on the phosphorus atom; (2) the dianionic phosphinidene (PR(2-)) and P(3-) ligands; and (3) the pure inorganic polyphosphide ligands (Pn(x-)), are included here. Particular attention has been paid to the synthesis, structure, and reactivity of the rare-earth metal phosphides.

  4. Rare-earth metal prices in the USA ca. 1960 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, James B.

    1997-01-01

    Rare-earth metal prices were compiled from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Although commercial demand for rare-earth metals began in 1908, as the alloy mischmetal, commercial quantities of a wide range of individual rare-earth metals were not available until the late 1950s. The discovery of a large, high-grade rare-earth deposit at Mountain Pass. CA, USA, in 1949, was significant because it led to the production of commercial quantities or rare-earth elements that reduced prices and encouraged wider application of the materials. The availability of ore from Mountain Pass, and other large rare-earth deposits, especially those in Australia and China, has provided the world with abundant resources for rare-earth metal production. This availability, coupled with improved technology from Government and private-sector metallurgical research, has resulted in substantial decreases in rare-earth metal prices since the late 1950s and early 1960s. Price series for the individual rare-earth metals (except promethium) are quoted on a kilogram basis from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Prices are given in US dollars on an actual and constant dollar basis. Industrial and economic factors affecting prices during this time period are examined.

  5. Rare-earth metal prices in the USA ca. 1960 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Rare-earth metal prices were compiled from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Although commercial demand for rare-earth metals began in 1908, as the alloy mischmetal, commercial quantities of a wide range of individual rare-earth metals were not available until the late 1950s. The discovery of a large, high-grade rare-earth deposit at Mountain Pass, CA, USA, in 1949, was significant because it led to the production of commercial quantities of rare-earth elements that reduced prices and encouraged wider application of the materials. The availability of ore from Mountain Pass, and other large rare-earth deposits, especially those in Australia and China, has provided the world with abundant resources for rare-earth metal production. This availability, coupled with improved technology from Government and private-sector metallurgical research, has resulted in substantial decreases in rare-earth metal prices since the late 1950s and early 1960s. Price series for the individual rare-earth metals (except promethium) are quoted on a kilogram basis from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Prices are given in US dollars on an actual and constant dollar basis. Industrial and economic factors affecting prices during this time period are examined.

  6. Monolithically integrated active waveguides and lasers using rare-earth doped spin-on glass

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Sullivan, C.T.; Vawter, G.A.

    1996-09-01

    This LDRD program No. 3505.230 explored a new approach to monolithic integration of active waveguides and rare-earth solid state lasers directly onto III-V substrates. It involved selectively incorporating rare-earth ions into spin-on glasses (SOGs) that could be solvent cast and then patterned with conventional microelectronic processing. The patterned, rare-earth spin-on glasses (RESOGs) were to be photopumped by laser diodes prefabricated on the wafer and would serve as directly integrated active waveguides and/or rare-earth solid state lasers.

  7. Magneto-structural correlations in rare-earth cobalt pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Corey Mitchell

    Magnetic materials are used in many applications such as credit cards, hard drives, electric motors, sensors, etc. Although a vast range of magnetic solids is available for these purposes, our ability to improve their efficiency and discover new materials remains paramount to the sustainable progress and economic profitability in many technological areas. The search for magnetic solids with improved performance requires fundamental understanding of correlations between the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of existing materials, as well as active exploratory synthesis that targets the development of new magnets. Some of the strongest permanent magnets, Nd 2Fe14B, SmCo5, and Sm2Co17, combine transition and rare-earth metals, benefiting from the strong exchange between the 4f and 3d magnetic sublattices. Although these materials have been studied in great detail, the development of novel magnets requires thorough investigation of other 3d-4 f intermetallics, in order to gain further insights into correlations between their crystal structures and magnetic properties. Among many types of intermetallic materials, ternary pnictides RCo 2Pn2 (R = La, Ce, Pr, Nd; Pn = P, As) are of interest because, despite their simple crystal structures, they contain two magnetic sublattices, exchange interactions between which may lead to rich and unprecedented magnetic behavior. Nevertheless, magnetism of these materials was studied only to a limited extent, especially as compared to the extensive studies of their silicide and germanide analogues. The ThCr2Si2 structure type, to which these ternary pnictides belong, is one of the most ubiquitous atomic arrangements encountered among intermetallic compounds. It accounts for over 1000 known intermetallics and has received increased attention due to the recently discovered FeAs-based superconductors. This dissertation is devoted to the investigation of

  8. Molecular nitrides with titanium and rare-earth metals.

    PubMed

    Caballo, Jorge; García-Castro, María; Martín, Avelino; Mena, Miguel; Pérez-Redondo, Adrián; Yélamos, Carlos

    2011-07-18

    A series of titanium-group 3/lanthanide metal complexes have been prepared by reaction of [{Ti(η(5)-C(5)Me(5))(μ-NH)}(3)(μ(3)-N)] (1) with halide, triflate, or amido derivatives of the rare-earth metals. Treatment of 1 with metal halide complexes [MCl(3)(thf)(n)] or metal trifluoromethanesulfonate derivatives [M(O(3)SCF(3))(3)] at room temperature affords the cube-type adducts [X(3)M{(μ(3)-NH)(3)Ti(3)(η(5)-C(5)Me(5))(3)(μ(3)-N)}] (X = Cl, M = Sc (2), Y (3), La (4), Sm (5), Er (6), Lu (7); X = OTf, M = Y (8), Sm (9), Er (10)). Treatment of yttrium (3) and lanthanum (4) halide complexes with 3 equiv of lithium 2,6-dimethylphenoxido [LiOAr] produces the aryloxido complexes [(ArO)(3)M{(μ(3)-NH)(3)Ti(3)(η(5)-C(5)Me(5))(3)(μ(3)-N)}] (M = Y (11), La (12)). Complex 1 reacts with 0.5 equiv of rare-earth bis(trimethylsilyl)amido derivatives [M{N(SiMe(3))(2)}(3)] in toluene at 85-180 °C to afford the corner-shared double-cube nitrido compounds [M(μ(3)-N)(3)(μ(3)-NH)(3){Ti(3)(η(5)-C(5)Me(5))(3)(μ(3)-N)}(2)] (M = Sc (13), Y (14), La (15), Sm (16), Eu (17), Er (18), Lu (19)) via NH(SiMe(3))(2) elimination. A single-cube intermediate [{(Me(3)Si)(2)N}Sc{(μ(3)-N)(2)(μ(3)-NH)Ti(3)(η(5)-C(5)Me(5))(3)(μ(3)-N)}] (20) was obtained by the treatment of 1 with 1 equiv of the scandium bis(trimethylsilyl)amido derivative [Sc{N(SiMe(3))(2)}(3)]. The X-ray crystal structures of 2, 7, 11, 14, 15, and 19 have been determined. The thermal decomposition in the solid state of double-cube nitrido complexes 14, 15, and 18 has been investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements, as well as by pyrolysis experiments at 1100 °C under different atmospheres (Ar, H(2)/N(2), NH(3)) for the yttrium complex 14.

  9. Diagenetic uptake of rare earth elements by conodont apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Algeo, T. J.; Cao, L.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Li, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The rare earth element (REE) composition of bioapatite has long been used as a proxy for ancient seawater chemistry and paleomarine environmental reconstruction, based on the assumption of preservation of a hydrogenous (seawater-derived) REE signal. Recent work, however, has begun to question the provenance of REEs in conodonts, emphasizing the importance of REEs released by the lithogenous fraction of the sediment and subsequently adsorbed onto conodont apatite in the burial environment. Here, we investigate patterns of REE and trace-element abundance in conodonts and their host sediments from the Early to Late Ordovician Huanghuachang and Chenjiahe sections of Hubei Province, South China. Several lines of evidence indicate that REEs in the conodont samples were acquired mainly from clay minerals in the host sediment during burial diagenesis: (1) REEs in conodonts show a strong positive correlation to Th and other lithogenic elements; (2) conodonts and whole-rock samples show general patterns of REE and trace-element enrichment that are highly similar to each other and bear no resemblance to seawater elemental concentrations; (3) similar patterns are observed in Triassic conodonts and whole-rock samples; and (4) Y/Ho ratios in conodonts are mostly <40 (mean ~33), values that are consistent with derivation of >90% of REEs from lithogenous sources. Conodonts show pronounced middle rare earth element (MREE) enrichment, a pattern that is unambiguously of diagenetic origin owing to its association with lower Y/Ho ratios. With increasing MREE enrichment of conodont samples, U concentrations and LaN/YbN ratios shift from high to low, and Mn concentrations from low to high. These patterns suggest that conodont diagenesis was initiated at shallow burial depths under suboxic conditions (i.e., in the zone of Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reduction) but continued at greater burial depths, with most acquisition of secondary REEs at later diagenetic stages. Our findings indicate that (1

  10. Extraction separation of rare-earth ions via competitive ligand complexations between aqueous and ionic-liquid phases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Bell, Jason R; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2011-08-21

    The extraction separation of rare earth elements is one of the most challenging separation processes in hydrometallurgy and advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The TALSPEAK process (trivalent actinide lanthanide separations by phosphorus-reagent extraction from aqueous komplexes) is a prime example of these separation processes. The objective of this paper is to explore the use of ionic liquids (ILs) for the TALSPEAK-like process, to further enhance its extraction efficiencies for lanthanides, and to investigate the potential of using this modified TALSPEAK process for separation of lanthanides among themselves. Eight imidazolium ILs ([C(n)mim][NTf(2)] and [C(n)mim][BETI], n = 4,6,8,10) and one pyrrolidinium IL ([C(4)mPy][NTf(2)]) were investigated as diluents using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as an extractant for the separation of lanthanide ions from aqueous solutions of 50 mM glycolic acid or citric acid and 5 mM diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). The extraction efficiencies were studied in comparison with diisopropylbenzene (DIPB), an organic solvent used as a diluent for the conventional TALSPEAK extraction system. Excellent extraction efficiencies and selectivities were found for a number of lanthanide ions using HDEHP as an extractant in these ILs. The effects of different alkyl chain lengths in the cations of ILs and of different anions on extraction efficiencies and selectivities of lanthanide ions are also presented in this paper. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  11. Extraction Separation of Rare-Earth Ions via Competitive Ligand Complexations between Aqueous and Ionic-Liquid Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Huimin; Sun, Xiaoqi; Bell, Jason R; Dai, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The extraction separation of rare earth elements is the most challenging separation processes in hydrometallurgy and advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The TALSPEAK process (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes) is a prime example of these separation processes. The objective of this paper is to explore the use of ionic liquids (ILs) for the TALSPEAK-like process, to further enhance its extraction efficiencies for lanthanides, and to investigate the potential of using this modified TALSPEAK process for separation of lanthanides among themselves. Eight imidazolium ILs ([Cnmim][NTf2] and [Cnmim][BETI], n=4,6,8,10) and one pyrrolidinium IL ([C4mPy][NTf2]) were investigated as diluents using di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) as an extractant for separation of lanthanide ions from aqueous solutions of 50 mM glycolic acid or citric acid and 5 mM diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). The extraction efficiencies were studied in comparison with diisopropylbenzene (DIPB), an organic solvent used as diluent for the conventional TALSPEAK extraction system. Excellent extraction efficiencies and selectivities were found for a number of lanthanide ions using HDEHP as an extractant in these ILs. The effects of different alkyl chain lengths in the cations of ILs and anions on extraction efficiencies and selectivities of lanthanide ions are also presented in this paper.

  12. A mini-review on rare earth metal-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic remediation of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Saqib, Najm Us; Adnan, Rohana; Shah, Irfan

    2016-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been considered a useful material for the treatment of wastewater due to its non-toxic character, chemical stability and excellent electrical and optical properties which contribute in its wide range of applications, particularly in environmental remediation technology. However, the wide band gap of TiO2 photocatalyst (anatase phase, 3.20 eV) limits its photocatalytic activity to the ultraviolet region of light. Besides that, the electron-hole pair recombination has been found to reduce the efficiency of the photocatalyst. To overcome these problems, tailoring of TiO2 surface with rare earth metals to improve its surface, optical and photocatalytic properties has been investigated by many researchers. The surface modifications with rare earth metals proved to enhance the efficiency of TiO2 photocatalyts by way of reducing the band gap by shifting the working wavelength to the visible region and inhibiting the anatase-to-rutile phase transformations. This review paper summarises the attempts on modification of TiO2 using rare earth metals describing their effect on the photocatalytic activities of the modified TiO2 photocatalyst.

  13. Photofunctional hybrids of rare earth complexes covalently bonded to ZnO core-shell nanoparticle substrate through polymer linkage.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yan-Fei; Yan, Bing

    2012-06-28

    A novel series of multi-component hybrids are assembled based on rare earth coordinated to rare earth ion (Eu(3+), Tb(3+), Sm(3+), Dy(3+)) complex systems and ZnO nanocomposites through three different ester units (ethyl methacrylate (EMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 2,2,3,4,4,4-hexafluorobutyl methacrylate (HFMA)) as functional polymer linkages. Methacrylic-group-modified ZnO nanoparticles (designated ZnO-MAA) are synthesized based on the reaction between zinc methacrylate and LiOH with the molar ratio 1 : 3.5 via sol-gel process. The final hybrid materials are prepared by introducing rare earth complexes into ZnO-MAA matrix via addition polymerization reaction in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as the initiator. The detailed characterization and luminescence of these hybrid materials are discussed. It is found that ZnO-MAA-HEMA/EMA/HFBMA-RE-phen hybrid systems have effective intramolecular energy transfer process and exhibit longer lifetime and higher quantum efficiency.

  14. Review on dielectric properties of rare earth doped barium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Fatin Adila; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Idris, Mohd Sobri

    2016-07-19

    Rare earth doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) were studied due to high permittivity, excellent electrical properties and have wide usage in various applications. This paper reviewed on the electrical properties of RE doped BaTiO{sub 3} (RE: Lanthanum (La), Erbium (Er), Samarium (Sm), Neodymium (Nd), Cerium (Ce)), processing method, phase transition occurred and solid solution range for complete study. Most of the RE doped BaTiO{sub 3} downshifted the Curie temperature (T{sub C}). Transition temperature also known as Curie temperature, T{sub C} where the ceramics had a transition from ferroelectric to a paraelectric phase. In this review, the dielectric constant of La-doped BaTiO{sub 3}, Er-doped BaTiO{sub 3}, Sm-doped BaTiO{sub 3}, Nd-doped BaTiO{sub 3} and Ce-doped BaTiO{sub 3} had been proved to increase and the transition temperature or also known as T{sub C} also lowered down to room temperature as for all the RE doped BaTiO{sub 3} except for Er-doped BaTiO{sub 3}.

  15. Magnetic strength and corrosion of rare earth magnets.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Khalid A; Drummond, James L; Graber, Thomas; BeGole, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Rare earth magnets have been used in orthodontics, but their corrosion tendency in the oral cavity limits long-term clinical application. The aim of this project was to evaluate several; magnet coatings and their effects on magnetic flux density. A total of 60 neodymium-iron-boron magnets divided into 6 equal groups--polytetrafluoroethylene-coated (PTFE), parylene-coated, and noncoated--were subjected to 4 weeks of aging in saline solution, ball milling, and corrosion testing. A significant decrease in magnet flux density was recorded after applying a protective layer of parylene, whereas a slight decrease was found after applying a protective layer of PTFE. After 4 weeks of aging, the coated magnets were superior to the noncoated magnets in retaining magnetism. The corrosion-behavior test showed no significant difference between the 2 types of coated magnets, and considerable amounts of iron-leached ions were seen in all groups. Throughout the processes of coating, soaking, ball milling, and corrosion testing, PTFE was a better coating material than parylene for preserving magnet flux density. However, corrosion testing showed significant metal leaching in all groups.

  16. Origin of heavy rare earth mineralization in South China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cheng; Kynický, Jindřich; Smith, Martin P.; Kopriva, Antonin; Brtnický, Martin; Urubek, Tomas; Yang, Yueheng; Zhao, Zheng; He, Chen; Song, Wenlei

    2017-01-01

    Heavy rare earth elements (HREE) are dominantly mined from the weathering crusts of granites in South China. Although weathering processes occur globally, no economic HREE resources of this type have yet been found outside China. Here, we report the occurrence of unidentified REE minerals in the granites from South Chinese deposits. They contain high levels of both HREE and light REE, but are strongly depleted in Ce, implying high oxidation state. These REE minerals show higher initial Nd isotope than primary REE-rich minerals (ɛNd(t)=0.9±0.8 versus −11.5±0.5). The mineralized weathering crusts inherited REE signature of the granites, but show more Ce depletion and more overall concentration of the REE. We propose, therefore, that highly oxidized, REE-rich fluids, derived from external, isotopically depleted sources, metasomatized the granites, which resulted in Ce depletion as Ce4+ and enrichment of the remaining REE, especially the HREE, contributing to formation of a globally important REE resource. PMID:28220784

  17. Origin of heavy rare earth mineralization in South China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Kynický, Jindřich; Smith, Martin P; Kopriva, Antonin; Brtnický, Martin; Urubek, Tomas; Yang, Yueheng; Zhao, Zheng; He, Chen; Song, Wenlei

    2017-02-21

    Heavy rare earth elements (HREE) are dominantly mined from the weathering crusts of granites in South China. Although weathering processes occur globally, no economic HREE resources of this type have yet been found outside China. Here, we report the occurrence of unidentified REE minerals in the granites from South Chinese deposits. They contain high levels of both HREE and light REE, but are strongly depleted in Ce, implying high oxidation state. These REE minerals show higher initial Nd isotope than primary REE-rich minerals (ɛNd(t)=0.9±0.8 versus -11.5±0.5). The mineralized weathering crusts inherited REE signature of the granites, but show more Ce depletion and more overall concentration of the REE. We propose, therefore, that highly oxidized, REE-rich fluids, derived from external, isotopically depleted sources, metasomatized the granites, which resulted in Ce depletion as Ce(4+) and enrichment of the remaining REE, especially the HREE, contributing to formation of a globally important REE resource.

  18. Origin of heavy rare earth mineralization in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Cheng; Kynický, Jindřich; Smith, Martin P.; Kopriva, Antonin; Brtnický, Martin; Urubek, Tomas; Yang, Yueheng; Zhao, Zheng; He, Chen; Song, Wenlei

    2017-02-01

    Heavy rare earth elements (HREE) are dominantly mined from the weathering crusts of granites in South China. Although weathering processes occur globally, no economic HREE resources of this type have yet been found outside China. Here, we report the occurrence of unidentified REE minerals in the granites from South Chinese deposits. They contain high levels of both HREE and light REE, but are strongly depleted in Ce, implying high oxidation state. These REE minerals show higher initial Nd isotope than primary REE-rich minerals (εNd(t)=0.9+/-0.8 versus -11.5+/-0.5). The mineralized weathering crusts inherited REE signature of the granites, but show more Ce depletion and more overall concentration of the REE. We propose, therefore, that highly oxidized, REE-rich fluids, derived from external, isotopically depleted sources, metasomatized the granites, which resulted in Ce depletion as Ce4+ and enrichment of the remaining REE, especially the HREE, contributing to formation of a globally important REE resource.

  19. Raman scattering study of rare-earth hexaboride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogita, N.; Nagai, S.; Udagawa, M.; Iga, F.; Sera, M.; Oguchi, T.; Akimitsu, J.; Kunii, S.

    2005-04-01

    The excitation-energy, polarization, pressure, and temperature dependences of Raman scattering spectra have been measured for the RB6 crystals ( R=Ca, La, Ce, Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy, and Yb). In the Raman spectra, the extra peaks have been clearly observed at around 200 cm-1, except for the Raman-active phonons and CEF excitations. The extra peaks show anomalous behavior in the temperature, polarization, and lattice parameter dependences. These anomalous behaviors originate from the vibration of the rare-earth ions in octahedral B 6 cage, and the extra peaks can be assigned as the second-order Raman excitations of T 1u[3]. To check the validity of our assignment, we have measured the pressure dependence. In this paper, the results of the “ extra peaks” at about 200 cm -1, and pressure dependence of SmB 6 are presented. The sample preparation and experimental details are explained in our previous report [3]. The Pm3m symmetry of RB 6 gives us the phonon numbers at Brilloiun zone center; Γ=A1g+Eg+T1g+T2g+3T1u+T2u. The Raman-active phonons are A1g, Eg, and T2g, which are the vibration of boron octahedra. In cubic symmetry, all Raman-active phonons appear in the (x+y,x+y) polarization geometry. In the notation of (x,y), x and y denote the polarization directions of incident and scattered light, respectively. x and y correspond to the crystal axes of [1 0 0] and [0 1 0], respectively. Fig. 1 shows the Raman spectra of trivalent RB6 at room temperature in the energy region below T2g phonons ( ≃700 cm-1). Each spectrum is depicted in the order of the decreasing lattice parameters from top to bottom. As shown in Fig. 1, the energy of T2g phonon decreases with increasing lattice parameter, and this is normal dependence. However, the extra peaks (arrows) show an anti-trend for T2g phonon's. Focusing on the size of cage space consisting of surrounding borons for rare earth ion a-rR( a and rR are lattice parameter and ionic radius, respectively), the energy of the peaks is

  20. Spectroscopy of Luminescent Crystals Containing Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Meng-Ling; Lii, Kwang-Hwa; Chang, Bor-Chen

    2013-06-01

    We have studied the spectroscopy of luminescent crystals containing rare earth elements such as KEuGe_2O_6, Cs_3EuSi_6O_{15}, K_4[(UO_2)Eu_2(Ge_2O_7)_2], and R_2(C_8H_{10}O_4)_3 (R= Y, Tb, or Eu). The emission and excitation spectra of these compounds were recorded at ambient temperature. These spectra are consistent with the structures which were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystals containing hybrid luminescent centers were also synthesized and interesting energy transfer mechanisms were observed. For example, dramatic luminescence quenching was found in KEu_xNd_{1-x}Ge_2O_6 (x= 0.98, 0.96, 0.94, and 0.84) as well as in Cs_3Eu_{0.98}Nd_{0.02}Si_6O_{15}, while different compositions of Y_xEu_yTb_{2-x-y}(C_8H_{10}O_4)_3 exhibit different emission colors. Emission lifetimes were also measured for these compounds, and the results shed light on the energy transfer mechanisms. Detailed results of our research will be presented. P.-L. Chen, P.-Y. Chiang, H.-C. Yeh, B.-C. Chang, and K.-H. Lii, Dalton Trans., 1721 (2008). M.-Y. Hung, Y.-H. Chen, B.-C. Chang, and K.-H. Lii, Chem. Mater. 17, 5743 (2005).