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Sample records for potential salmonid production

  1. Tetraploid production in salmonids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetraploid induction is of interest to aquaculture and fisheries as part of a more efficient means of producing triploid fish by mating a tetraploid parent with a diploid parent (tetraploid-derived triploids). Tetraploid induction has previously been reported in salmonids including rainbow trout a...

  2. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Yakama Indian Nation, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Gregory

    2003-05-01

    This document represents the FY2002 BPA contract Statement of Work for the Yakama Nation (YN) portion of the project entitled 'Assessment of current and potential salmonid production in Rattlesnake Creek associated with restoration efforts'. The purpose of the project is to complete detailed surveys of water quality, fish populations, habitat conditions and riparian health in the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin of the White Salmon River in south central Washington. Results of the surveys will be used to establish Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin baseline environmental factors prior to anticipated removal of Condit Dam in 2006 and enable cost-effective formulation of future watershed restoration strategies.

  3. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Effors; US Geological Survey Reports, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S.

    2006-02-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the third year of at least a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  4. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Efforts, US Geological Survey Report, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G.

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attended to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first objective was to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort included measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective was to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the fourth year of a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  5. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  6. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-01-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1914. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for future genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the first year of a three-year study, this report is restricted to describing our work on the first two objectives only.

  7. The relationship between productivities of salmonids and forest stands in northern California watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frazey, S.L.; Wilzbach, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Productivities of resident salmonids and upland and riporian forests in 22 small watersheds of coastal northern California were estimated and compared to determine whether: 1) upland site productivity predicted riparian site productivity; 2) either upland or riparian site productivity predicted salmonid productivity; and 3) other parameters explained more of the variance in salmonid productivity. Upland and riparian site productivities were estimated using Site Index values for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and red alder (Alnus rubra), respectively. Salmonid productivity was indexed by back-calculated length at age 1 of the largest individuals sampled and by total biomass. Upland and riparian site indices were correlated, but neither factor contributed to the best approximating models of salmonid productivity. Total salmonid biomass was best described by a positive relationship with drainage area. Length of dominant fish was best described by a positive relationship with percentage of hardwoods within riparian areas, which may result from nutrient and/or litter subsidies provided by red older. The inability of forest productivity to predict salmon productivity may reflect insufficient variation in independent variables, limitations of the indices, and the operation of other factors affecting salmonid production. The lack of an apparent relationship between upland conifer and salmonid productivity suggests that management of land for timber productivity and component streams for salmonid production in these sites will require separate, albeit integrated, management strategies.

  8. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

  9. The potential impacts of migratory difficulty, including warmer waters and altered flow conditions, on the reproductive success of salmonid fishes.

    PubMed

    Fenkes, Miriam; Shiels, Holly A; Fitzpatrick, John L; Nudds, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change and urbanisation of watercourses affect water temperatures and current flow velocities in river systems on a global scale. This represents a particularly critical issue for migratory fish species with complex life histories that use rivers to reproduce. Salmonids are migratory keystone species that provide substantial economical value to ecosystems and human societies. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of the effects of environmental stressors on their reproductive success is critical in order to ensure their continued abundance during future climatic change. Salmonids are capital breeders, relying entirely on endogenous energy stores to fuel return migration to their natal spawning sites and reproduction upon arrival. Metabolic rates and cost of transport en-route increase with temperature and at extreme temperatures, swimming is increasingly fuelled anaerobically, resulting in an oxygen debt and reduced capacity to recover from exhaustive exercise. Thermally challenged salmonids also produce less viable gametes, which themselves are affected by water temperature after release. Passage through hydrological barriers and temperature changes both affect energy expenditure. As a result, important energetic tradeoffs emerge between extra energy used during migration and that available for other facets of the reproductive cycle, such as reproductive competition and gamete production. However, studies identifying these tradeoffs are extremely sparse. This review focuses on the specific locomotor responses of salmonids to thermal and hydrological challenges, identifying gaps in our knowledge and highlighting the potential implications for key aspects of their reproduction.

  10. The potential impacts of migratory difficulty, including warmer waters and altered flow conditions, on the reproductive success of salmonid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fenkes, Miriam; Shiels, Holly A.; Fitzpatrick, John L.; Nudds, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and urbanisation of watercourses affect water temperatures and current flow velocities in river systems on a global scale. This represents a particularly critical issue for migratory fish species with complex life histories that use rivers to reproduce. Salmonids are migratory keystone species that provide substantial economical value to ecosystems and human societies. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of the effects of environmental stressors on their reproductive success is critical in order to ensure their continued abundance during future climatic change. Salmonids are capital breeders, relying entirely on endogenous energy stores to fuel return migration to their natal spawning sites and reproduction upon arrival. Metabolic rates and cost of transport en-route increase with temperature and at extreme temperatures, swimming is increasingly fuelled anaerobically, resulting in an oxygen debt and reduced capacity to recover from exhaustive exercise. Thermally challenged salmonids also produce less viable gametes, which themselves are affected by water temperature after release. Passage through hydrological barriers and temperature changes both affect energy expenditure. As a result, important energetic tradeoffs emerge between extra energy used during migration and that available for other facets of the reproductive cycle, such as reproductive competition and gamete production. However, studies identifying these tradeoffs are extremely sparse. This review focuses on the specific locomotor responses of salmonids to thermal and hydrological challenges, identifying gaps in our knowledge and highlighting the potential implications for key aspects of their reproduction. PMID:26603555

  11. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfli, Steve

    2004-02-01

    The White Salmon River Watershed Enhancement Project (WSRWEP) began in 1993 through efforts of the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), local stakeholders and various agencies. Early accomplishments of the project included the formation of a multi-stakeholder watershed management committee (WMC) and technical advisory committee (TAC), completion of several baseline assessments, drafting of a watershed management plan, and beginning implementation of the plan. Since inception, the effort has utilized the support of various government/private grants, and local in-kind contributions to accomplish project goals. The WMC and its partners utilize a four-pronged approach for achieving watershed enhancement: on-ground restoration, extension of technical and financial assistance to cooperators, community and environmental education, and assessment/monitoring to develop strategies and track the success of ongoing work. Project activities are generally targeted to sub-basins and stream reaches within the White Salmon watershed that exhibit important water quality and fish/wildlife habitat problems. Such project prioritization is being conducted with the active input of both the White Salmon WMC and TAC. An important current phase of the WSRWEP targets detailed monitoring and assessment of the Rattlesnake Creek sub-basin, and is the focus of this report. The 'Assessment of Rattlesnake Creek in Relation to Restoration Efforts' project (BPA Project ID Number 21009) was identified and prioritized for accomplishment by the White Salmon River TAC in January of 2000. Rationale for the project stemmed from the group's realization that Condit Dam on the lower White Salmon is scheduled for removal, or fish passage retrofitting, within the near future. Given this eventuality, the TAC identified the current lack of understanding regarding both potential anadromous habitat and existing native fish and habitat conditions above Condit Dam (RM 3.2) as an important need. In response to the

  12. Efficacy, fate, and potential effects on salmonids of mosquito larvicides in catch basins in Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sternberg, Morgan; Grue, Christian; Conquest, Loveday; Grassley, James; King, Kerensa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy, fate, and potential for direct effects on salmonids of 4 common mosquito larvicides (Mosquito Dunks® and Bits® (AI: Bacillis thuringiensis var. israelensis, [Bti]), VectoLex® WSP (AI: Bacillus sphaericus [Bs], VectoLex CG [AI: Bs], and Altosid® Briquets [AI: s-methoprene]) in Seattle, WA, during 3 summers. During efficacy trials in 2006, all treatments resulted in a rapid reduction in number of mosquito pupae (Mosquito Dunks and Bits and VectoLex WSP) or emergence success (Altosid Briquets). VectoLex CG was chosen for city-wide application in 2007 and 2008. The average counts of pupae within round-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 11 wk in 2007, whereas efficacy in grated-top basins was short-lived. In 2008 the average counts of pupae within grated-top basins remained significantly below the control average for 10 wk. Altosid XR was also effective in reducing adult emergence within grated basins in 2008. In 2007 and 2008, frequent precipitation events made the evaluation of efficacy difficult due to reductions in pupae across control and treated basins. Four separate analyses of VectoLex products revealed that the product was a combination of Bs and Bti. Both Bs and Bti were detected in 3 urban creeks connected to treated basins in 2007 and 2008. Laboratory toxicity test results suggest that concentrations of Bs and Bti detected in each of the watersheds pose little direct hazard to juvenile salmonids.

  13. Salmonid alphavirus replication in mosquito cells: towards a novel vaccine production system.

    PubMed

    Hikke, Mia C; Verest, Marjan; Vlak, Just M; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2014-09-01

    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) causes pancreas disease and sleeping disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and confers a major burden to the aquaculture industry. A commercial inactivated whole virus vaccine propagated in a salmon cell line at low temperature provides effective protection against SAV infections. Alphaviruses (family Togaviridae) are generally transmitted between vertebrate hosts via blood-sucking arthropod vectors, typically mosquitoes. SAV is unique in this respect because it can be transmitted directly from fish to fish and has no known invertebrate vector. Here, we show for the first time that SAV is able to complete a full infectious cycle within arthropod cells derived from the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus. Progeny virus is produced in C6/36 and U4.4. cells in a temperature-dependent manner (at 15 °C but not at 18 °C), can be serially passaged and remains infectious to salmonid Chinook salmon embryo cells. This suggests that SAV is not a vertebrate-restricted alphavirus after all and may have the potential to replicate in invertebrates. The current study also shows the ability of SAV to be propagated in mosquito cells, thereby possibly providing an alternative SAV production system for vaccine applications.

  14. AN INTEGRATED WATERSHED APPROACH LINKING SALMONID PRODUCTIVITY TO FRESHWATER HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Western Ecology Division is undertaking research addressing catchment-scale dynamics of freshwater habitat productivity for native fishes. Through partnerships with state and federal agencies and private landowners, current field efforts focus on linkages among stream chemi...

  15. Juvenile anadromous salmonid production in upper Columbia River side channels with different levels of hydrological connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martens, Kyle D.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contribution of three types of side channels based on their hydrologic connectivity (seasonally disconnected, partially connected, and connected) to production of juvenile anadromous salmonids. Juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss and Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha were found in all three of these side channel types and in each year of the study. Upon connection with the main stem at high flows, the seasonally disconnected side channels experienced an emptying out of the previous year's fish while filling with young-of-year fish during the 2- to 4-month period of hydrologic connection. There were no differences between the densities of juvenile steelhead and Chinook Salmon and the rate of smolts produced among the three types of side channels. Recently reintroduced Coho Salmon O. kisutch had sporadic presence and abundance in partially and connected side channels, but the smolt production rate was over two times that of steelhead and Chinook Salmon in seasonally disconnected side channels. Within seasonally disconnected side channels, young-of-year salmonids in deep pools (≥100 cm) had greater survival than those in shallow pools (<100 cm). Densities of juvenile steelhead in all side channel types were similar to those in tributaries and were higher than in main-stem lateral margins. Juvenile Chinook Salmon densities were higher in side channels than in both tributary and main-stem lateral margins. Our results suggest that improving quality of pool habitat within seasonally disconnected side channels can result in improved survival for juvenile anadromous salmonids during the period of disconnection. Habitat improvement in these seasonally disconnected side channels should be recognized as a worthy restoration strategy, especially when full connectivity of side channels may not be a feasible target (e.g., through lack of water availability) or when full connectivity may present too high a risk (e.g., flooding, stream capture, bank

  16. Application of neural networks to prediction of fish diversity and salmonid production in the Lake Ontario basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.

    2005-01-01

    Diversity and fish productivity are important measures of the health and status of aquatic systems. Being able to predict the values of these indices as a function of environmental variables would be valuable to management. Diversity and productivity have been related to environmental conditions by multiple linear regression and discriminant analysis, but such methods have several shortcomings. In an effort to predict fish species diversity and estimate salmonid production for streams in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario, I constructed neural networks and trained them on a data set containing abiotic information and either fish diversity or juvenile salmonid abundance. Twenty percent of the original data were retained as a test data set and used in the training. The ability to extend these neural networks to conditions throughout the streams was tested with data not involved in the network training. The resulting neural networks were able to predict the number of salmonids with more than 84% accuracy and diversity with more than 73% accuracy, which was far superior to the performance of multiple regression. The networks also identified the environmental variables with the greatest predictive power, namely, those describing water movement, stream size, and water chemistry. Thirteen input variables were used to predict diversity and 17 to predict salmonid abundance.

  17. Isolation, Characterization and Virulence Potential of Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi in Salmonid Cultures in Chile.

    PubMed

    Avendaño-Herrera, R; Irgang, R; Sandoval, C; Moreno-Lira, P; Houel, A; Duchaud, E; Poblete-Morales, M; Nicolas, P; Ilardi, P

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we isolated, identified and characterized isolates of Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmed in Chile for the first time. In 2010 and 2014, mortalities were observed in Atlantic salmon (average weight 25-30 and 480-520 g, respectively) at an aquaculture centre in Puerto Montt, Chile. Severe tail rots, frayed fins and, in some cases, damaged gills were detected. Wet smear analyses of these lesions revealed a high occurrence of Gram-negative, filamentous bacteria. Microbiological analysis of infected gill and tail tissues yielded six bacterial isolates. All were identified as T. dicentrarchi through polyphasic taxonomy, which included phenotypic characterization, 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing. The latter method revealed a close relationship of the Chilean genotype with the T. dicentrarchi type strain and two Norwegian Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) isolates. The pathogenic potential of the TdChD05 isolate was assessed by challenging Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for one hour, which resulted in mean cumulative mortality rates of 65% and 93%, respectively, as well as clinical signs 14 days post-challenge. However, challenged Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) presented no mortalities or clinical signs of infection. These findings indicate that the geographical and host distribution of T. dicentrarchi is wider than previously established and that this bacterium may have negative impacts on salmonid cultures.

  18. Changes in Snowmelt Runoff Timing: Potential Implications for Stream Temperature and Native Salmonid Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, R.; Boon, S.; Byrne, J. M.; Silins, U.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric warming is expected to maintain the trend towards an earlier onset of spring snowmelt across western North America in the future. An advanced spring streamflow peak has important implications for aquatic ecosystems, particularly cold-water salmonids that are sensitive to changes in stream hydrological and thermal regimes. We tested stream temperature sensitivity to atmospheric warming scenarios in a headwater catchment on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains by applying a process-based hydrometeorological and stream temperature model. We used a field study in three thermally and hydrologically distinct catchments to provide context for modelling. Results indicate that stream temperature sensitivity to atmospheric warming is variable and corresponds with changes in streamflow. Predictions of lower spring, higher summer and fall, and lower winter stream temperatures are consistent with field study results. This analysis suggests the thermal habitat of native salmonids could become less suitable under future climatic conditions, favouring non-native species.

  19. The potential influence of changing climate on the persistence of salmonids of the inland west

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haak, A.L.; Williams, J.E.; Isaak, D.; Todd, A.; Muhlfeld, C.C.; Kershner, J.L.; Gresswell, R.E.; Hostetler, S.W.; Neville, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's climate warmed steadily during the 20th century, and mean annual air temperatures are estimated to have increased by 0.6°C (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). Although many cycles of warming and cooling have occurred in the past, the most recent warming period is unique in its rate and magnitude of change (Siegenthaler and others, 2005) and in its association with anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , 2007). The climate in the western United States warmed in concert with the global trend but at an accelerated rate (+0.8°C during the 20th century; Saunders and others, 2008). The region could also prove especially sensitive to future changes because the relatively small human population is growing rapidly, as are demands on limited water supplies. Regional hydrological patterns are dominated by seasonal snow accumulation at upper elevations. Most of the region is relatively dry, and both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are strongly constrained b y water availability (Barnett and others, 2008; Brown and others, 2008). Stream environments are dynamic and climatically extreme, and salmonid fishes are the dominant elements of the native biodiversity (McPhail and Lindsey, 1986; Waples and others, 2008). Salmonids have broad economic and ecologic importance, but a century of intensive water resource development, nonnative fish stocking, and land use has significantly reduced many populations and several taxa are now protected under the Endangered Species Act (Thurow and others, 1997; Trotter, 2008). Because salmonids require relatively pristine, cold water environments and are often isolated in headwater habitats, members of this group may be especially vulnerable to the effects of a warming climate (Keleher and Rahel, 1996; Rieman and others, 2007; Williams and others, 2009). Warming during the 20th century drove a series of environmental trends that have profound implications for many

  20. Studies on the possibility of vertical transmission of Norwegian salmonid Alphavirus in production of Atlantic salmon in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bratland, André; Nylund, Are

    2009-09-01

    Disease associated with salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) infection is a significant problem for farm production of salmonids in Europe. The SAV subtype 3 (SAV3) is a Norwegian subtype present exclusively in production systems for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in western Norway. It has been suggested that SAV3 is transmitted through smolt transport from the main area for SAV disease in western Norway to as far as northern Norway. One explanation for this type of spread is that SAV is present at freshwater production sites for Atlantic salmon smolts. The present study confirms this, showing that SAV3 is present at smolt production sites in Norway. At two sites in northern Norway that had received eggs from broodfish companies in Hordaland County, western Norway, 2-4-g fry were positive for SAV3. Hence, it cannot be excluded that vertical transmission could have contributed to the presence of SAV3 in northern Norway. In the present study, we followed the normal production cycle for Atlantic salmon in a fish farming company in Hordaland County. Twelve of 353 broodfish in study 1 and 28 of 31 broodfish in study 2 were found to be carriers of SAV3. In the same two studies, SAV was also detected in eggs (1 of 220), eyed eggs (3 of 270), and fry (6 of 600). The SAV was not detected in parr, smolts, or postsmolts, but after a year at sea the fish developed SAV disease. Given the difficulties in tracing the virus through the production cycle until development of SAV disease in the marine farm, we cannot draw any firm conclusions about whether vertical transmission occurs in Norwegian salmon production, and we cannot exclude the possibility that the development of SAV after 1 year at sea was caused by horizontal transmission rather than vertical transmission.

  1. Analysis of Historic Data for Juvenile and Adult Salmonid Production. Phase 1, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hilborn, Ray; Pascual, Miguel; Donnelly, Robert; Coronado-Hernadez, Claribel

    1993-11-01

    Survival of hatchery reared Columbia River chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) salmon from release to return is highly variable and thought to be related to river flow during juvenile outmigration in the spring. The purpose of this project is to examine the relationship between survival of coded-wire-tagged (CWT) Columbia River salmonids and in-river flow and other freshwater factors. This report covers Phase 1, in which two methods to estimate survival were developed and evaluated, and criteria for data selection were established.

  2. Potential Factors Affecting Survival Differ by Run-Timing and Location: Linear Mixed-Effects Models of Pacific Salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Klamath River, California

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, Rebecca M.; Holyoak, Marcel; Johnson, Michael L.; Moyle, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing survival of Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) is essential to species conservation, because drivers of mortality can vary over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although recent studies have evaluated the effects of climate, habitat quality, or resource management (e.g., hatchery operations) on salmonid recruitment and survival, a failure to look at multiple factors simultaneously leaves open questions about the relative importance of different factors. We analyzed the relationship between ten factors and survival (1980–2007) of four populations of salmonids with distinct life histories from two adjacent watersheds (Salmon and Scott rivers) in the Klamath River basin, California. The factors were ocean abundance, ocean harvest, hatchery releases, hatchery returns, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation, snow depth, flow, and watershed disturbance. Permutation tests and linear mixed-effects models tested effects of factors on survival of each taxon. Potential factors affecting survival differed among taxa and between locations. Fall Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha survival trends appeared to be driven partially or entirely by hatchery practices. Trends in three taxa (Salmon River spring Chinook salmon, Scott River fall Chinook salmon; Salmon River summer steelhead trout O. mykiss) were also likely driven by factors subject to climatic forcing (ocean abundance, summer flow). Our findings underscore the importance of multiple factors in simultaneously driving population trends in widespread species such as anadromous salmonids. They also show that the suite of factors may differ among different taxa in the same location as well as among populations of the same taxa in different watersheds. In the Klamath basin, hatchery practices need to be reevaluated to protect wild salmonids. PMID:24866173

  3. Stochastic simulation of live salmonid movement in England and Wales to predict potential spread of exotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Thrush, Mark; Peeler, Edmund

    2006-10-17

    The anthropogenic movement of live fish has been identified as the most important route for the transmission of disease between river catchments. To assist in contingency planning for exotic salmonid disease outbreaks, a stochastic model was developed to assess the potential geographic distribution of an introduced pathogen with time to first detection. The Live Fish Movement Database (a resource funded by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs [Defra] and managed by the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science [CEFAS] and the Environment Agency [EA]) was used to establish details of live fish movement in England and Wales. A contact network was created for farm to farm and farm to non-farm (fishery) movements of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, and probability functions were used to model the timing and destination of movements from farm sites, based on these trading activities. Monte Carlo simulations were run to track the progression of potential disease transmission from single index farm inputs through river catchments with time. Two hundred farms exported fish to 1653 destinations in 147 of the total 198 river catchments. The median number of catchments contacted after 3 and 12 mo were 3 and 6, respectively. In 5% of simulations 63 or more catchments were contacted, and in 1% of simulations 75 or more catchments were contacted after 12 mo. These results may be used to underpin the development of contingency plans for exotic disease outbreaks.

  4. A Simple Model that Identifies Potential Effects of Sea-Level Rise on Estuarine and Estuary-Ecotone Habitat Locations for Salmonids in Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flitcroft, Rebecca; Burnett, Kelly; Christiansen, Kelly

    2013-07-01

    Diadromous aquatic species that cross a diverse range of habitats (including marine, estuarine, and freshwater) face different effects of climate change in each environment. One such group of species is the anadromous Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.). Studies of the potential effects of climate change on salmonids have focused on both marine and freshwater environments. Access to a variety of estuarine habitat has been shown to enhance juvenile life-history diversity, thereby contributing to the resilience of many salmonid species. Our study is focused on the effect of sea-level rise on the availability, complexity, and distribution of estuarine, and low-freshwater habitat for Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), steelhead (anadromous O. mykiss), and coho salmon ( O. kisutch) along the Oregon Coast under future climate change scenarios. Using LiDAR, we modeled the geomorphologies of five Oregon estuaries and estimated a contour associated with the current mean high tide. Contour intervals at 1- and 2-m increments above the current mean high tide were generated, and changes in the estuary morphology were assessed. Because our analysis relied on digital data, we compared three types of digital data in one estuary to assess the utility of different data sets in predicting the changes in estuary shape. For each salmonid species, changes in the amount and complexity of estuarine edge habitats varied by estuary. The simple modeling approach we applied can also be used to identify areas that may be most amenable to pre-emptive restoration actions to mitigate or enhance salmonid habitat under future climatic conditions.

  5. A simple model that identifies potential effects of sea-level rise on estuarine and estuary-ecotone habitat locations for salmonids in Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Flitcroft, Rebecca; Burnett, Kelly; Christiansen, Kelly

    2013-07-01

    Diadromous aquatic species that cross a diverse range of habitats (including marine, estuarine, and freshwater) face different effects of climate change in each environment. One such group of species is the anadromous Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). Studies of the potential effects of climate change on salmonids have focused on both marine and freshwater environments. Access to a variety of estuarine habitat has been shown to enhance juvenile life-history diversity, thereby contributing to the resilience of many salmonid species. Our study is focused on the effect of sea-level rise on the availability, complexity, and distribution of estuarine, and low-freshwater habitat for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), steelhead (anadromous O. mykiss), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) along the Oregon Coast under future climate change scenarios. Using LiDAR, we modeled the geomorphologies of five Oregon estuaries and estimated a contour associated with the current mean high tide. Contour intervals at 1- and 2-m increments above the current mean high tide were generated, and changes in the estuary morphology were assessed. Because our analysis relied on digital data, we compared three types of digital data in one estuary to assess the utility of different data sets in predicting the changes in estuary shape. For each salmonid species, changes in the amount and complexity of estuarine edge habitats varied by estuary. The simple modeling approach we applied can also be used to identify areas that may be most amenable to pre-emptive restoration actions to mitigate or enhance salmonid habitat under future climatic conditions.

  6. Introduced northern pike consumption of salmonids in Southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Dupuis, Aaron W; Shields, Patrick A; Dunker, Kristine J.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of introduced northern pike (Esox lucius) on salmonid populations have attracted much attention because salmonids are popular subsistence, sport and commercial fish. Concern over the predatory effects of introduced pike on salmonids is especially high in Southcentral Alaska, where pike were illegally introduced to the Susitna River basin in the 1950s. We used pike abundance, growth, and diet estimates and bioenergetics models to characterise the realised and potential consumptive impacts that introduced pike (age 2 and older) have on salmonids in Alexander Creek, a tributary to the Susitna River. We found that juvenile salmonids were the dominant prey item in pike diets and that pike could consume up to 1.10 metric tons (realised consumption) and 1.66 metric tons (potential consumption) of juvenile salmonids in a summer. Age 3–4 pike had the highest per capita consumption of juvenile salmonids, and age 2 and age 3–4 pike had the highest overall consumption of juvenile salmonid biomass. Using historical data on Chinook salmon and pike potential consumption of juvenile salmonids, we found that pike consumption of juvenile salmonids may lead to collapsed salmon stocks in Alexander Creek. Taken together, our results indicate that pike consume a substantial biomass of juvenile salmonids in Alexander Creek and that coexistence of pike and salmon is unlikely without management actions to reduce or eliminate introduced pike.

  7. Linking ecosystems, food webs, and fish production: subsidies in salmonid watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wipfli, Mark S.; Baxter, Colden V.

    2010-01-01

    Physical characteristics of riverine habitats, such as large wood abundance, pool geometry and abundance, riparian vegetation cover, and surface flow conditions, have traditionally been thought to constrain fish production in these ecosystems. Conversely, the role of food resources (quantity and quality) in controlling fish production has received far less attention and consideration, though they can also be key productivity drivers. Traditional freshwater food web illustrations have typically conveyed the notion that most fish food is produced within the local aquatic habitat itself, but the concepts and model we synthesize in this article show that most fish food comes from external or very distant sources—including subsidies from marine systems borne from adult returns of anadromous fishes, from fishless headwater tributaries that transport prey to downstream fish, and from adjacent streamside vegetation and associated habitats. The model we propose further illustrates how key trophic pathways and food sources vary through time and space throughout watersheds. Insights into how food supplies affect fishes can help guide how we view riverine ecosystems, their structure and function, their interactions with marine and terrestrial systems, and how we manage natural resources, including fish, riparian habitats, and forests.

  8. Variability in triactinomyxon production from Tubifex tubifex populations from the same mitochondrial DNA lineage infected with Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, C.; Zickovich, J.; Winton, J.R.; Kerans, B.L.

    2008-01-01

    Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease, infects both salmonid fish and an aquatic oligochaete, Tubifex tubifex. Although M. cerebralis has been detected in river drainages throughout the United States, disease severity among wild fish populations has been highly variable. Tubifex tubifex populations have been genetically characterized using sequences from the 16S mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene, the 18S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1), and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Our earlier work indicated that large differences in compatibility between the parasite and populations of T. tubifex may play a substantial role in the distribution of whirling disease and resulting mortality in different watersheds. In the present study, we examined 4 laboratory populations of T. tubifex belonging to 16S mtDNA lineage III and 1 population belonging to 16S mtDNA lineage I for triactinomyxon (TAM) production after infection with M. cerebralis myxospores. All 4 16S mtDNA lineage III populations produced TAMs, but statistically significant differences in TAM production were observed. Most individuals in the 16S mtDNA lineage III-infected populations produced TAMs. The 16S mtDNA lineage I population produced few TAMs. Further genetic characterization of the 16S mtDNA lineage III populations with RAPD markers indicated that populations producing similar levels of TAMs had more genetic similarity. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2008.

  9. Tolerance of developing salmonid eggs and fry to nitrate exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kincheloe, John W.; Wedemeyer, Gary A.; Koch, David L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on tests which show significant effects on early salmonid life stages of nitrates at levels commonly found in groundwaters in geographical areas that are influenced by fertilizer application. It has long been known, from fish cultural experience, that in certain site specific locations, chronic problems can be expected with salmonid egg development and early fry mortality. However, fingerlings which survive usually grow normally. A complete explanation is lacking although several environmental factors have been proposed to account for this phenomenon. One, which has so far received little attention, is that nitrate levels in the ground and surface waters of many areas have been increasing significantly over historical background levels. Ammonia, urea, and other potential sources of nitrate can enter natural waters from a variety of sources, such as domestic or industrial sewage, animal feedlots, or seepage and return flows from agricultural lands. The latter may be the largest contributor, since billions of tons of nitrate fertilizers are applied to agricultural crops on a worldwide basis each year. In addition, intensive forest management techniques include the aerial application of nitrate fertilizer to increase the yield of wood products, while range management practices call for use of nitrates to increase forage production. The nitrate that is not taken up by plants ultimately appears in ground or surface waters.

  10. Piscirickettsia salmonis Imbalances the Innate Immune Response to Succeed in a Productive Infection in a Salmonid Cell Line Model

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Claudio A.; Gomez, Fernando A.; Mercado, Luis; Ramírez, Ramón; Marshall, Sergio H.

    2016-01-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes the disease called “salmon rickettsial syndrome”. Attempts to control this disease have been unsuccessful, because existing vaccines have not achieved the expected effectiveness and the antibiotics used fail to completely eradicate the pathogen. This is in part the product of lack of scientific information that still lacks on the mechanisms used by this bacterium to overcome infected–cell responses and survive to induce a productive infection in macrophages. For that, this work was focused in determining if P. salmonis is able to modify the expression and the imbalance of IL-12 and IL-10 using an in vitro model. Additionally, we also evaluated the role the antimicrobial peptide hepcidin had in the control of this pathogen in infected cells. Therefore, the expression of IL-10 and IL-12 was evaluated at earlier stages of infection in the RTS11 cell line derived from Oncorhynchus mykiss macrophages. Simultaneously, the hepcidin expression and location was analyzed in the macrophages infected with the pathogen. Our results suggest that IL-10 is clearly induced at early stages of infection with values peaking at 36 hours post infection. Furthermore, infective P. salmonis downregulates the expression of antimicrobial peptide hepcidin and vesicles containing this peptide were unable to merge with the infective bacteria. Our results suggest that P. salmonis is able to manipulate the behavior of host cytokines and likely might constitute a virulence mechanism that promotes intracellular bacterial replication in leukocytes cells lines of trout and salmon. This mechanism involves the generation of an optimum environment for the microorganism and the downregulation of antimicrobial effectors like hepcidin. PMID:27723816

  11. Genetic characterization of salmonid alphavirus in Norway.

    PubMed

    Hjortaas, M J; Jensen, B Bang; Taksdal, T; Olsen, A B; Lillehaug, A; Trettenes, E; Sindre, H

    2016-02-01

    Pancreas disease (PD), caused by salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV3), emerged in Norwegian aquaculture in the 1980s and is now endemic along the south-western coast. In 2011, the first cases of PD caused by marine salmonid alphavirus subtype 2 (SAV2) were reported. This subtype has spread rapidly among the fish farms outside the PD-endemic zone and is responsible for disease outbreaks at an increasing numbers of sites. To describe the geographical distribution of salmonid alphavirus (SAV), and to assess the time and site of introduction of marine SAV2 to Norway, an extensive genetic characterization including more than 200 SAV-positive samples from 157 Norwegian marine production sites collected from May 2007 to December 2012 was executed. The first samples positive for marine SAV2 originated from Romsdal, in June 2010. Sequence analysis of the E2 gene revealed that all marine SAV2 included in this study were nearly identical, suggesting a single introduction into Norwegian aquaculture. Further, this study provides evidence of a separate geographical distribution of two subtypes in Norway. SAV3 is present in south-western Norway, and marine SAV2 circulates in north-western and Mid-Norway, a geographical area which since 2010 constitutes the endemic zone for marine SAV2.

  12. Characteristics of current international trade of live salmonid eggs.

    PubMed

    Jansen, M; McLeary, R

    1996-06-01

    World trade in live salmonid embryos (eyed eggs) has grown in response to increased global salmon production, particularly in South America, and parallels international trade in farmed salmonid products. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) are the most commercially important species. In 1992, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated world production of rainbow trout at 300,000 tonnes, while the production of Atlantic salmon was estimated at 250,000 tonnes and coho salmon at 50,000 tonnes. One can estimate that roughly 3 billion, 150 million and 30 million eggs, respectively, were required to produce this yield. Broodstock are cultivated world-wide, using a wide variety of water sources, including the marine environment, riverine water containing anadromous fish, and ground water free of migrating fish. As many as 70% of all coho eggs are derived from feral fish. Approximately 50% of all commercial salmonid eyed eggs are produced in Europe, and approximately 15% are produced in the state of Washington, United States of America. Conditions which are ideal for commercial salmonid grow-out are not necessarily ideal for the cultivation of salmonid broodstock; this is one reason why international egg trade is necessary. The trend of current salmonid health regulations is towards facilitating egg commerce on a regional level, in an attempt to control disease transmission. Regulations controlling egg importation often include pathogens which are not vertically transmitted. This serves only to increase egg prices, in compensation for the cost of laboratory tests. Genetic improvements have been the cornerstone of increasing commercial production of all agricultural commodities. Fish health regulations are sometimes instituted in an effort to protect the local industry, but in fact they act more often to restrict the flow of genetic material and may actually serve to reduce industry

  13. Evolutionary consequences of habitat loss for Pacific anadromous salmonids

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Michelle M; Carlson, Stephanie M; Beechie, Timothy J; Pess, George R; Jorgensen, Jeffrey C; Sogard, Susan M; Sultan, Sonia E; Holzer, Damon M; Travis, Joseph; Sanderson, Beth L; Power, Mary E; Carmichael, Richard W

    2008-01-01

    Large portions of anadromous salmonid habitat in the western United States has been lost because of dams and other blockages. This loss has the potential to affect salmonid evolution through natural selection if the loss is biased, affecting certain types of habitat differentially, and if phenotypic traits correlated with those habitat types are heritable. Habitat loss can also affect salmonid evolution indirectly, by reducing genetic variation and changing its distribution within and among populations. In this paper, we compare the characteristics of lost habitats with currently accessible habitats and review the heritability of traits which show correlations with habitat/environmental gradients. We find that although there is some regional variation, inaccessible habitats tend to be higher in elevation, wetter and both warmer in the summer and colder in the winter than habitats currently available to anadromous salmonids. We present several case studies that demonstrate either a change in phenotypic or life history expression or an apparent reduction in genetic variation associated with habitat blockages. These results suggest that loss of habitat will alter evolutionary trajectories in salmonid populations and Evolutionarily Significant Units. Changes in both selective regime and standing genetic diversity might affect the ability of these taxa to respond to subsequent environmental perturbations. Both natural and anthropogenic and should be considered seriously in developing management and conservation strategies. PMID:25567633

  14. Special Issue: Evolutionary perspectives on salmonid conservation and management

    PubMed Central

    Waples, Robin S; Hendry, Andrew P

    2008-01-01

    This special issue of Evolutionary Applications comprises 15 papers that illustrate how evolutionary principles can inform the conservation and management of salmonid fishes. Several papers address the past evolutionary history of salmonids to gain insights into their likely plastic and genetic responses to future environmental change. The remaining papers consider potential evolutionary responses to climate warming, biological invasions, artificial propagation, habitat alteration, and harvesting. All of these papers consider how such influences might alter selective regimes, which should then favour plastic or genetic responses. Some of the papers then go on to document such responses, at least some of which are genetically based and adaptive. Despite the different approaches and target species, all of the papers argue for the importance of evolutionary considerations in the conservation and management of salmonids. PMID:25567625

  15. The footprint of salmonids on river morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. A.; Tonina, D.

    2012-12-01

    Female salmonids dig a pit in the streambed where they lay their eggs, which then cover with sediment from a second pit forming an egg nest call redd. This formation results in a shape resembling a dune with an amplitude, which is the vertical difference between bottom of the pit and crest of the hump, varying from few centimetres (for small fish, chum or sockeye salmon) to tenths of a meter (for large fish, Chinook salmon). During redd construction, salmonids alter streambed topography, winnow away fine sediment and mix streambed material within a layer as thick as 50 cm, for the large chinook salmon. The spawning activities may result in additional roughness at the local scale due to redds. However, redd construction may smooth large-scale topography reducing roughness due the macro-bedform. These topographical changes vary streambed roughness, which in turn may affect shear stress distribution. Redds have been suggested to increase the overall flow resistance due to form drag resulting in lower grain shear stress and less particle mobility. However, the mixing of the sediment could prevent armouring of the streambed surface allowing higher than with armouring sediment transport. Here, we use detailed pre- and post-spawning bathymetries coupled with accurate 2-dimensional hydraulic numerical modelling to test which of these two effects has potentially more impact on sediment transport. Our results show that topographical roughness added by sockeye salmons, which build small redds with 15cm amplitude and 1 meter wavelength (longitudinal length of a redd), has negligible effect on shear stress at the reach-scale and limited at the local scale. Conversely, sediment mixing has an important effect on reducing armouring, increasing sediment mobility, which results in potentially more sediment transport in reaches with than without redds. Consequently, salmonid bioturbation due to mass-spawning fish can be a dominant element for sediment transport in mountain drainage

  16. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L.

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased

  17. Sea lice as a density-dependent constraint to salmonid farming.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Peder A; Kristoffersen, Anja B; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Jimenez, Daniel; Aldrin, Magne; Stien, Audun

    2012-06-22

    Fisheries catches worldwide have shown no increase over the last two decades, while aquaculture has been booming. To cover the demand for fish in the growing human population, continued high growth rates in aquaculture are needed. A potential constraint to such growth is infectious diseases, as disease transmission rates are expected to increase with increasing densities of farmed fish. Using an extensive dataset from all farms growing salmonids along the Norwegian coast, we document that densities of farmed salmonids surrounding individual farms have a strong effect on farm levels of parasitic sea lice and efforts to control sea lice infections. Furthermore, increased intervention efforts have been unsuccessful in controlling elevated infection levels in high salmonid density areas in 2009-2010. Our results emphasize host density effects of farmed salmonids on the population dynamics of sea lice and suggest that parasitic sea lice represent a potent negative feedback mechanism that may limit sustainable spatial densities of farmed salmonids.

  18. Analyses of potential factors affecting survival of juvenile salmonids volitionally passing through turbines at McNary and John Day Dams, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John; Hansel, Hal; Perry, Russell; Hockersmith, Eric; Sandford, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This report describes analyses of data from radio- or acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids passing through hydro-dam turbines to determine factors affecting fish survival. The data were collected during a series of studies designed to estimate passage and survival probabilities at McNary (2002-09) and John Day (2002-03) Dams on the Columbia River during controlled experiments of structures or operations at spillways. Relatively few tagged fish passed turbines in any single study, but sample sizes generally were adequate for our analyses when data were combined from studies using common methods over a series of years. We used information-theoretic methods to evaluate biological, operational, and group covariates by creating models fitting linear (all covariates) or curvilinear (operational covariates only) functions to the data. Biological covariates included tag burden, weight, and water temperature; operational covariates included spill percentage, total discharge, hydraulic head, and turbine unit discharge; and group covariates included year, treatment, and photoperiod. Several interactions between the variables also were considered. Support of covariates by the data was assessed by comparing the Akaike Information Criterion of competing models. The analyses were conducted because there was a lack of information about factors affecting survival of fish passing turbines volitionally and the data were available from past studies. The depth of acclimation, tag size relative to fish size (tag burden), turbine unit discharge, and area of entry into the turbine intake have been shown to affect turbine passage survival of juvenile salmonids in other studies. This study indicates that turbine passage survival of the study fish was primarily affected by biological covariates rather than operational covariates. A negative effect of tag burden was strongly supported in data from yearling Chinook salmon at John Day and McNary dams, but not for subyearling Chinook salmon or

  19. A spatially and temporally explicit, individual-based, life-history and productivity modeling approach for aquatic species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realized life history expression and productivity in aquatic species, and salmonid fishes in particular, is the result of multiple interacting factors including genetics, habitat, growth potential and condition, and the thermal regime individuals experience, both at critical stag...

  20. Combining Bioenergetic Responses of Fish to Thermal Regimes and Productivity in Reservoirs: Implications for Conservation and Re-Introduction of Anadromous Salmonids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, D.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature, food availability, and predation risk form vertical gradients determining growth and survival for fish in lakes and reservoirs. These gradients change on inter-annual, seasonal, and diel temporal scales and are strongly influenced by climatic variability, conflicting water demands and management. Temperatures associated with optimal growth and energy loss vary both among life stages and species of fish, but the quantity and quality of available food resources can significantly alter these thermal responses. Greater understanding of how water management affects the timing, magnitude, and duration of thermal stratification, and how key species and their supporting aquatic resources respond can improve strategies for development and operation of water storage facilities within the context of localized environmental and ecological constraints. An emerging trend for coldwater reservoirs in the Pacific Northwest has been to re-introduce anadromous salmon above historically impassable dams. Thermal regimes and the existing ecological communities in the reservoirs and tributary habitats above these dams will determine the seasonal importance of lotic and lentic habitats for rearing or migration corridors. The feasibility of reservoir rearing and migration can be evaluated by combining mass- and species-specific thermal growth response curves with temporal dynamics in the vertical and longitudinal thermal structure of reservoirs and associated distribution of food resources (primarily zooplankton). The value of reservoirs as rearing habitats or migration corridors could be compared with coincident tributary conditions to predict the likely temporal-spatial distribution of optimal conditions for growth and survival of different species or life stages of salmonids within the watershed and how these conditions might change under different climatic or water management scenarios.

  1. Fuel production potential of several agricultural crops

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, D.A.; Buchanan, W.; Bradford, B.N.

    1984-11-01

    Data collected on starch and sugar crops indicate that sweet potato and sweet sorghum have the best potential for alcohol production in the TVA area. Of the oil crops evaluated in this series of experiments only sunflower and okara appear to offer potential in the Tennessee Valley for oil production for fuel or other uses. 21 tabs.

  2. Vaccination against salmonid bacterial kidney disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has presented challenges for development of effective vaccines, despite several decades of research. The only vaccine against BKD that is commercially licensed is an injectable preparation containing live cells ...

  3. Modeling effects of climate change on Yakima River salmonid habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential effects of two climate change scenarios on salmonid habitats in the Yakima River by linking the outputs from a watershed model, a river operations model, a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The watershed model produced a discharge time series (hydrograph) in two study reaches under three climate scenarios: a baseline (1981–2005), a 1-°C increase in mean air temperature (plus one scenario), and a 2-°C increase (plus two scenario). A river operations model modified the discharge time series with Yakima River operational rules, a 2D model provided spatially explicit depth and velocity grids for two floodplain reaches, while an expert panel provided habitat criteria for four life stages of coho and fall Chinook salmon. We generated discharge-habitat functions for each salmonid life stage (e.g., spawning, rearing) in main stem and side channels, and habitat time series for baseline, plus one (P1) and plus two (P2) scenarios. The spatial and temporal patterns in salmonid habitats differed by reach, life stage, and climate scenario. Seventy-five percent of the 28 discharge-habitat responses exhibited a decrease in habitat quantity, with the P2 scenario producing the largest changes, followed by P1. Fry and spring/summer rearing habitats were the most sensitive to warming and flow modification for both species. Side channels generally produced more habitat than main stem and were more responsive to flow changes, demonstrating the importance of lateral connectivity in the floodplain. A discharge-habitat sensitivity analysis revealed that proactive management of regulated surface waters (i.e., increasing or decreasing flows) might lessen the impacts of climate change on salmonid habitats.

  4. Trophic feasibility of reintroducing anadromous salmonids in three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River, Washington: Prey supply and consumption demand of resident fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorel, Mark H.; Hansen, Adam G.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The reintroduction of anadromous salmonids in reservoirs is being proposed with increasing frequency, requiring baseline studies to evaluate feasibility and estimate the capacity of reservoir food webs to support reintroduced populations. Using three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River as a case study, we demonstrate a method to determine juvenile salmonid smolt rearing capacities for lakes and reservoirs. To determine if the Lewis River reservoirs can support reintroduced populations of juvenile stream-type Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, we evaluated the monthly production of daphniaDaphnia spp. (the primary zooplankton consumed by resident salmonids in the system) and used bioenergetics to model the consumption demand of resident fishes in each reservoir. To estimate the surplus of Daphnia prey available for reintroduced salmonids, we assumed a maximum sustainable exploitation rate and accounted for the consumption demand of resident fishes. The number of smolts that could have been supported was estimated by dividing any surplus Daphnia production by the simulated consumption demand of an individual Chinook Salmon fry rearing in the reservoir to successful smolt size. In all three reservoirs, densities of Daphnia were highest in the epilimnion, but warm epilimnetic temperatures and the vertical distribution of planktivores suggested that access to abundant epilimnetic prey was limited. By comparing accessible prey supply and demand on a monthly basis, we were able to identify potential prey supply bottlenecks that could limit smolt production and growth. These results demonstrate that a bioenergetics approach can be a valuable method of examining constraints on lake and reservoir rearing capacity, such as thermal structure and temporal food supply. This method enables numerical estimation of rearing capacity, which is a useful metric for managers evaluating the feasibility of reintroducing Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in lentic systems.

  5. Antimatter Production at a Potential Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Reddy, Dhanireddy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Current antiproton production techniques rely on high-energy collisions between beam particles and target nuclei to produce particle and antiparticle pairs, but inherently low production and capture efficiencies render these techniques impractical for the cost-effective production of antimatter for space propulsion and other commercial applications. Based on Dirac's theory of the vacuum field, a new antimatter production concept is proposed in which particle-antiparticle pairs are created at the boundary of a steep potential step formed by the suppression of the local vacuum fields. Current antimatter production techniques are reviewed, followed by a description of Dirac's relativistic quantum theory of the vacuum state and corresponding solutions for particle tunneling and reflection from a potential barrier. The use of the Casimir effect to suppress local vacuum fields is presented as a possible technique for generating the sharp potential gradients required for particle-antiparticle pair creation.

  6. Potential output and the recent productivity decline

    SciTech Connect

    Tatom, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Recent revisions in the measures of the nation's output and capital stock, as well as minor changes in procedures, have altered the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis' measures of potential output. The major conclusions of earlier Bank studies, however, have been unaffected by these changes. In particular, the growth of potential output has been sharply reduced by the 1973 to 1974 and 1979 to 1980 energy shocks and subsequent adjustments in the desired capital intensity of production. These effects have been confirmed by the re-estimation of earlier production function coefficients, and, more important, the confirmation of the prior empirical estimates in the latest round of energy price increases. The decline in the growth of potential output since 1973 has, in recent years, been acknowledged by the Council of Economic Advisers, (CEA), but through a trend reduction rather than through sharp temporary declines in 1974 to 1975 and 1979 to 1980 as implied here. Nonetheless, the level of potential output estimated by the CEA in recent years is little different from this Bank's estimate. The slowing in potential output masks a sharper reduction in the growth of productivity in recent years. A detailed analysis of productivity developments shows a marked deterioration in growth relative to past trends. In the measurement of potential output, this deterioration has been partially offset by a more rapid growth of both potential and actual employment. 17 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  7. Global climate change and effects on Pacific Northwest salmonids: An exploratory case study

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    Recently, a number of papers have addressed global warming and freshwater fisheries. The recent report to Congress by the US Environmental Protection Agency included an analysis of potential effects of global warming on fisheries of the Great Lakes, California, and the Southeast. In California, the report stated that salinity increases in the San Francisco Bay could enhance the abundance of marine fish species, while anadromous species could be adversely affected. This paper discusses global climate changes and the effects on Pacific Northwest Salmonids. The impacts of climate change or Spring Chinook production in the Yakima Sub-basin was simulated using a computer modeling system developed for the Northwest Power planning council. 35 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Method for determining minimum pool requirements to maintain and enhance salmonid fisheries in small Wyoming reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Paula M.; Hubert, Wayne A.

    1993-09-01

    Methods for determination of minimum pool levels in reservoirs that consider sport fishery values are being sought by managers. We developed a technique for assessing the effects of incremental changes in minimum pool levels on potential salmonid abundance in small (<100 surface hectares at full pool) reservoirs in Wyoming managed for irrigation and municipal water supplies. The method has two components. One component is used to determine the minimum pool level needed to eliminate the risk of overwinter loss of salmonids due to low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The other component predicts the potential biomass of salmonids in reservoirs as a function of water depth and total dissolved solids concentration of the reservoir water. Application of the method is demonstrated for two reservoirs in Wyoming.

  9. Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish species: a review.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, T; Dalsgaard, I

    1998-02-26

    Bacterial strains of Aeromonas salmonicida included in the recognized subsp. acromogenes, subsp. masoucida, and subsp. smithia in addition to the large number of strains not included in any of the described subspecies are referred to as atypical A. salmonicida. The atypical strains form a very heterogeneous group with respect to biochemical characteristics, growth conditions, and production of extracellular proteasess. Consequently, the present taxonomy of the species A. salmonicida is rather ambiguous. Atypical A. salmonicida has been isolated from a wide range of cultivated and wild fish species, non-salmonids as well as salmonids, inhabiting fresh water, brackish water and marine environments in northern and central Europe, South Africa, North America, Japan and Australia. In non-salmonid fish species, infections with atypical strains often manifest themselves as superficial skin ulcerations. The best known diseases associated with atypical A. salmonicida are carp Cyprinus carpio erythrodermatitis, goldfish Carassius auratus ulcer disease, and ulcer disease of flounder Platichthys flesus, but atypical strains are apparently involved in more disease outbreaks than previously suspected. Macroscopical and microscopical studies of ulcerated fish indicate internal organs are infrequently invaded by atypical A. salmonicida. This view is supported by the fact that atypical strains are irregularly isolated from visceral organs of ulcerated fish. High mortality caused by atypical A. salmonicida has been observed in populations of wild non-salmonids and farmed salmonids, although the association between the mortality in the wild fish stocks and atypical A. salmonicida has not always been properly assessed. In injection experiments the pathogenicity of the atypical strains examined showed large variation. An extacellular A-layer has been detected in different atypical strains, but virulence mechanisms different from those described for (typical) A. salmonicida subsp

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Shared Sex-Determination Region (SDR) among Salmonid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Faber-Hammond, Joshua J.; Phillips, Ruth B.; Brown, Kim H.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonids present an excellent model for studying evolution of young sex-chromosomes. Within the genus, Oncorhynchus, at least six independent sex-chromosome pairs have evolved, many unique to individual species. This variation results from the movement of the sex-determining gene, sdY, throughout the salmonid genome. While sdY is known to define sexual differentiation in salmonids, the mechanism of its movement throughout the genome has remained elusive due to high frequencies of repetitive elements, rDNA sequences, and transposons surrounding the sex-determining regions (SDR). Despite these difficulties, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library clones from both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon containing the sdY region have been reported. Here, we report the sequences for these BACs as well as the extended sequence for the known SDR in Chinook gained through genome walking methods. Comparative analysis allowed us to study the overlapping SDRs from three unique salmonid Y chromosomes to define the specific content, size, and variation present between the species. We found approximately 4.1 kb of orthologous sequence common to all three species, which contains the genetic content necessary for masculinization. The regions contain transposable elements that may be responsible for the translocations of the SDR throughout salmonid genomes and we examine potential mechanistic roles of each one. PMID:26112966

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Shared Sex-Determination Region (SDR) among Salmonid Fishes.

    PubMed

    Faber-Hammond, Joshua J; Phillips, Ruth B; Brown, Kim H

    2015-06-25

    Salmonids present an excellent model for studying evolution of young sex-chromosomes. Within the genus, Oncorhynchus, at least six independent sex-chromosome pairs have evolved, many unique to individual species. This variation results from the movement of the sex-determining gene, sdY, throughout the salmonid genome. While sdY is known to define sexual differentiation in salmonids, the mechanism of its movement throughout the genome has remained elusive due to high frequencies of repetitive elements, rDNA sequences, and transposons surrounding the sex-determining regions (SDR). Despite these difficulties, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library clones from both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon containing the sdY region have been reported. Here, we report the sequences for these BACs as well as the extended sequence for the known SDR in Chinook gained through genome walking methods. Comparative analysis allowed us to study the overlapping SDRs from three unique salmonid Y chromosomes to define the specific content, size, and variation present between the species. We found approximately 4.1 kb of orthologous sequence common to all three species, which contains the genetic content necessary for masculinization. The regions contain transposable elements that may be responsible for the translocations of the SDR throughout salmonid genomes and we examine potential mechanistic roles of each one.

  12. Assessment of harbor seal predation on adult salmonids in a Pacific Northwest estuary.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bryan E; Riemer, Susan D; Brown, Robin F; Ougzin, Aicha M; Bucklin, Katherine A

    2007-03-01

    aid the conservation and recovery of salmonids in the Pacific Northwest. Such understanding may also help inform management actions designed to reduce the impact of pinniped predation on salmonids, which potentially range from short-term lethal removal programs to long-term ecosystem restoration and protection efforts.

  13. Freshwater aspects of anadromous salmonid enhancement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, Rowan W.

    1982-01-01

    Freshwater enhancement of anadromous salmonid populations has been practiced in the United States and Canada since the late 1800's. Reduction of natural spawning habitat and increasing fishing pressure make artificial enhancement a possible alternative to declining populations. Enhancement of anadromous salmonids involved improvement of the natural environment and reducing natural mortality. Methods of enhancement include fishways, spawning and rearing channels, stream rehabilitation, lake fertilization, environmental management, and artificial propagation techniques. Five Pacific salmon species and steelhead trout are commonly enhanced, primarily in watershed entering the Pacific Ocean and Great Lakes. Enhancement efforts contribute heavily to a commercial and sport industry realizing over $1.5 billion.

  14. Drought, Climate Change and Potential Agricultural Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.; Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Caylor, K. K.; Wood, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a major factor in agricultural productivity, especially in developing regions where the capacity for water resources management is limited and climate variability ensures that drought is recurrent and problematic. Recent events in East Africa are testament to this, where drought conditions that have slowly developed over multiple years have contributed to reduced productivity and ultimately food crises and famine. Prospects for the future are not promising given ongoing problems of dwindling water supplies from non-renewable sources and the potential for increased water scarcity and increased drought with climate change. This is set against the expected increase in population by over 2 billion people by 2050 and rise in food demand, coupled with changes in demographics that affect food choices and increases in non-food agriculture. In this talk we discuss the global variability of drought over the 20th century and recent years, and the projected changes over the 21st century, and how this translates into changes in potential agricultural productivity. Drought is quantified using land surface hydrological models driven by a hybrid reanalysis-observational meteorological forcing dataset. Drought is defined in terms of anomalies of hydroclimatic variables, in particular precipitation, evaporation and soil moisture, and we calculate changes in various drought characteristics. Potential agricultural productivity is derived from the balance of precipitation to crop water demand, where demand is based on potential evaporation and crop coefficients for a range of staple crops. Some regional examples are shown of historic variations in drought and potential productivity, and the estimated water deficit for various crops. The multitude of events over the past decade, including heat waves in Europe, fires in Russia, long-term drought in northern China, southeast Australia, the Western US and a series of droughts in the Amazon and Argentina, hint at the influence of

  15. Some myxosporidia found in Pacific Northwest salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasutake, W.T.; Wood, E.M.

    1957-01-01

    During the histological examination of a group of wild and hatchery salmonids undescribed sporazoans were frequently observed. This was not unexpected, since Myxosporidia are typical fish parasites (Kudo, 1920). Myxidium were observed in kidney tubules, Cholromyxum in glomeruli, and Myxobous in the spinal cord and on epidermal scales. The present paper will deal with the description and indentification of these unclassified Myxosporodia.

  16. Invasive salmonids and lake order interact in the decline of puye grande Galaxias platei in western Patagonia lakes.

    PubMed

    Correa, Cristian; Hendry, Andrew P

    2012-04-01

    Salmonid fishes, native to the northern hemisphere, have become naturalized in many austral countries and appear linked to the decline of native fishes, particularly galaxiids. However, a lack of baseline information and the potential for confounding anthropogenic stressors have led to uncertainty regarding the association between salmonid invasions and galaxiid declines, especially in lakes, as these have been much less studied than streams. We surveyed 25 lakes in the Aysén region of Chilean Patagonia, including both uninvaded and salmonid-invaded lakes. Abundance indices (AI) of Galaxias platei and salmonids (Salmo trutta and Oncorhynchus mykiss) were calculated using capture-per-unit-effort data from gillnets, minnow traps, and electrofishing. We also measured additional environmental variables, including deforestation, lake morphometrics, altitude, and hydrological position (i.e., lake order). An information-theoretic approach to explaining the AI of G. platei revealed that by far the strongest effect was a negative association with the AI of salmonids. Lake order was also important, and using structural equation modeling, we show that this is an indirect effect naturally constraining the salmonid invasion success in Patagonia. Supporting this conclusion, an analysis of an independent data set from 106 mountain lakes in western Canada showed that introduced salmonids are indeed less successful in low-order lakes. Reproductive failure due to insufficient spawning habitat and harsh environmental conditions could be the cause of these limits to salmonid success. The existence of this effect in Chilean Patagonia suggests that low-order lakes are likely to provide natural ecological refugia for G. platei. Finally, pristine, high-order lakes should be actively protected as these have become rare and irreplaceable unspoiled references of the most diverse, natural lake ecosystems in Patagonia.

  17. Potential of biofilm-based biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Wu; Chen, Shulin

    2009-05-01

    Biofilm technology has been extensively applied to wastewater treatment, but its potential application in biofuel production has not been explored. Current technologies of converting lignocellulose materials to biofuel are hampered by costly processing steps in pretreatment, saccharification, and product recovery. Biofilms may have a potential to improve efficiency of these processes. Advantages of biofilms include concentration of cell-associated hydrolytic enzymes at the biofilm-substrate interface to increase reaction rates, a layered microbial structure in which multiple species may sequentially convert complex substrates and coferment hexose and pentose as hydrolysates diffuse outward, and the possibility of fungal-bacterial symbioses that allow simultaneous delignification and saccharification. More importantly, the confined microenvironment within a biofilm selectively rewards cells with better phenotypes conferred from intercellular gene or signal exchange, a process which is absent in suspended cultures. The immobilized property of biofilm, especially when affixed to a membrane, simplifies the separation of biofuel from its producer and promotes retention of biomass for continued reaction in the fermenter. Highly consolidated bioprocessing, including delignification, saccharification, fermentation, and separation in a single reactor, may be possible through the application of biofilm technology. To date, solid-state fermentation is the only biofuel process to which the advantages of biofilms have been applied, even though it has received limited attention and improvements. The transfer of biofilm technology from environmental engineering has the potential to spur great innovations in the optimization of biofuel production.

  18. Salmonid alphavirus replicon is functional in fish, mammalian and insect cells and in vivo in shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Olsen, Christel M; Pemula, Anand Kumar; Braaen, Stine; Sankaran, Krishnan; Rimstad, Espen

    2013-11-19

    The Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is the etiological agent of pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Sleeping disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). SAV differs from alphaviruses infecting terrestrial animals in that it infects salmonid fish at low temperatures and does not use an arthropod vector for transmission. In this study we have shown that a SAVbased replicon could express proteins when driven by the subgenomic promoter in vitro in cells from fish, mammals and insects, as well as in vivo in shrimps (Litopanaeus vannamei). The SAV-replicon was found to be functional at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C. Protein expression was slow and moderate compared to that reported from terrestrial alphavirus replicons or from vectors where protein expression was under control of the immediate early CMV-promoter. No cytopathic effect was visually observable in cells transfected with SAV-replicon vectors. Double stranded RNA was present for several days after transfection of the SAV-replicon in fish cell lines and its presence was indicated also in shrimp. The combination of prolonged dsRNA production, low toxicity, and wide temperature range for expression, may potentially be advantageous for the use of the SAV replicon to induce immune responses in aquaculture of fish and shrimp.

  19. Demonstration of the salmonid humoral response to Renibacterium salmoninarum using a monoclonal antibody against salmonid immunoglobulin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomew, J.L.; Arkoosh , M.R.; Rohovec, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The specificity of the antibody response of salmonids to Renibacterium salmoninarum antigens was demonstrated by western blotting techniques that utilized a monoclonal antibody against salmonid immunoglobulin. In this study, the specificity of the response in immunized chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytschawas compared with the response in naturally infected chinook salmon and coho salmon O. kisutch, and immunized rabbits. The antibody response in immunized salmon and rabbits and the naturally infected fish was primarily against the 57–58kilodalton protein complex. In addition to recognizing these proteins in the extracellular fraction and whole-cell preparations, antibody from the immunized salmon and rabbits detected four proteins with lower molecular masses. Western blotting techniques allow identification of the specific antigens recognized and are a useful tool for comparing the immunogenicity of different R. salmoninarumpreparations. Immunofluorescent techniques with whole bacteria were less sensitive than western blotting in detecting salmonid anti-R. salmoninarumantibody.

  20. Natural products as potential anticonvulsants: caffeoylquinic acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Oh, Myung Sook

    2012-03-01

    Current anticonvulsant therapies are generally directed at symptomatic treatment by suppressing excitability within the brain. Consequently, they have adverse effects such as cognitive impairment, dependence, and abuse. The need for more effective and less toxic anticonvulsants has generated renewed interest in natural products for the treatment of convulsions. Caffeoylquinic acids (CQs) are naturally occurring phenolic acids that are distributed widely in plants. There has been increasing interest in the biological activities of CQs in diseases of the central nervous system. In this issue, Nugroho et al. give evidence for the anticonvulsive effect of a CQ-rich extract from Aster glehni Franchet et Sckmidt. They optimized the extract solvent conditions, resulting in high levels of CQs and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity. Then, they investigated the sedative and anticonvulsive effects in pentobarbital- and pentylenetetrazole-induced models in mice. The CQ-rich extract significantly inhibited tonic convulsions as assessed by onset time, tonic extent, and mortality. They suggested that the CQ-rich extract from A. glehni has potential for treating convulsions. This report provides preclinical data which may be used for the development of anticonvulsants from natural products.

  1. Interactions between fine-grained sediment delivery, river bed deposition and salmonid spawning success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, I.; Sear, D. A.; Collins, A. L.; Jones, J. I.; Naden, P. S.

    2015-03-01

    Salmonids clean river bed gravels to lay their eggs. However, during the incubation period fine sediment infiltrates the bed. This has been found to limit the success of salmonid spawning, as fine sediment reduces gravel permeability resulting in intra-gravel flow velocities and O2 concentrations decreasing. The success of salmonid spawning is therefore a function of the coincidence of fine sediment delivery and the development of the salmonid eggs. The presence of fine sediment also exerts sub-lethal effects on the rate of egg development with a negative feedback slowing and extending the incubation process meaning the eggs are in the gravels for longer and susceptible to more potential sediment delivery events. The SIDO (Sediment Intrusion and Dissolved Oxygen)-UK model is a physically-based numerical model which simulates the effect of fine sediment deposition on the abiotic characteristics of the salmonid redd, along with the consequences for egg development and survival. This model is used to investigate the interactions and feedbacks between the timing and concentrations of suspended sediment delivery events, and the deposition of fine sediment within the gravel bed, and the consequences of this on the rate of egg development and survival. The model simulations suggest that egg survival is highly sensitive to suspended sediment concentrations, particularly to changes in the supply rate of sand particles. The magnitude, frequency and specific timing of sediment delivery events effects egg survival rates. The modelling framework is also used to investigate the impact of the rate of gravel infilling by sediment. The hypotheses of continual, discrete event and non-linear decline in the rate of infilling are investigated.

  2. Veterinary aspects of salmonid fish farming: husbandry diseases.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, C J; Poupard, C W

    1975-07-19

    Most disease problems affecting farmed salmonid fish are either caused or exacerbated by bad husbandry and poor environmental conditions. The aspects of water quality and nutrition which are significant in causing husbandry problems are considered. The clinical aspects of these diseases are decribed in terms of the life cycle of salmonids, and methods of prevention are discussed.

  3. Introduced northern pike predation on salmonids in southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Ivey, Sam S.; Dunker, Kristine J.; Gross, Jackson A.

    2013-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) are opportunistic predators that can switch to alternative prey species after preferred prey have declined. This trophic adaptability allows invasive pike to have negative effects on aquatic food webs. In Southcentral Alaska, invasive pike are a substantial concern because they have spread to important spawning and rearing habitat for salmonids and are hypothesised to be responsible for recent salmonid declines. We described the relative importance of salmonids and other prey species to pike diets in the Deshka River and Alexander Creek in Southcentral Alaska. Salmonids were once abundant in both rivers, but they are now rare in Alexander Creek. In the Deshka River, we found that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) dominated pike diets and that small pike consumed more of these salmonids than large pike. In Alexander Creek, pike diets reflected the distribution of spawning salmonids, which decrease with distance upstream. Although salmonids dominated pike diets in the lowest reach of the stream, Arctic lamprey (Lampetra camtschatica) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) dominated pike diets in the middle and upper reaches. In both rivers, pike density did not influence diet and pike consumed smaller prey items than predicted by their gape-width. Our data suggest that (1) juvenile salmonids are a dominant prey item for pike, (2) small pike are the primary consumers of juvenile salmonids and (3) pike consume other native fish species when juvenile salmonids are less abundant. Implications of this trophic adaptability are that invasive pike can continue to increase while driving multiple species to low abundance.

  4. Predicting the Total Abundance of Resident Salmonids within the Willamette River Basin, Oregon - a Macroecological Modeling Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    I present a simple, macroecological model of fish abundance that was used to estimate the total number of non-migratory salmonids within the Willamette River Basin (western Oregon). The model begins with empirical point estimates of net primary production (NPP in g C/m2) in fore...

  5. Resource constraints in petroleum production potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Geologic reasons indicate that the dominant position of the Middle East as a source of conventional petroleum will not be changed by new discoveries elsewhere. The share of world crude oil production coming from the Middle East could increase, within 10 to 20 years, to exceed 50 percent, under even modest increases in world consumption. Nonconventional resources of oil exist in large quantities, but because of their low production rates they can at best only mitigate extant trends. Increased production of natural gas outside the United States, however, offers an opportunity for geographically diversified energy supplies in the near future.

  6. Physiological Assessment of Wild and Hatchery Juvenile Salmonids : Final Report, 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Donald A.; Beckman, Brian R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2003-08-01

    It is generally held that hatchery-reared salmonids are of inferior quality and have lower smolt-to-adult survival compared to naturally-reared salmon. The overall objectives of the work performed under this contract were the following: (1) Characterize the physiology and development of naturally rearing juvenile salmonids to: (2) Allow for the design of effective rearing programs for producing wild-like smolts in supplementation and production hatchery programs. (3) Examine the relationship between growth rate and size on the physiology and migratory performance of fish reared in hatchery programs. (4) Examine the interaction of rearing temperature and feed rate on the growth and smoltification of salmon for use in producing a more wild-like smolt in hatchery programs.

  7. Ecosystem-based management of predator-prey relationships: piscivorous birds and salmonids.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Francis K; Parrish, Julia K; Thompson, Christopher W; Maranto, Christina

    2008-04-01

    smolts are present, allowing bird presence after the diet switch to act as a tool for salmonid-predator control, and conducting adult-pikeminnow control throughout. Our analysis demonstrates that identifying the strength of ecosystem interactions represents a top priority when attempting to manage the abundance of a particular ecosystem constituent, and that the consequences of a single-species view may be counterintuitive, and potentially counterproductive.

  8. Carcinogenic Potential of Cholesterol Oxidation Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-15

    oxidation products of cholesterol. Subsequent pilot experiments revealed an increase in the incidence of liver tumors after brief inclusion in the diet of...similar properties. 3. To determine whether the nature of the total diet influences the liver tumor incidence in experimental mice on a regimen containing...females. We purchased the mice from the Charles River Laboratories, Inc., Wilmington, Mass. They were placed on the experimental diets shortly after

  9. Migratory salmonid redd habitat characteristics in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; McKenna, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Non-native migratory salmonids ascend tributaries to spawn in all the Great Lakes. In Lake Ontario, these species include Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), steelhead (O. mykiss), and brown trout (Salmo trutta). Although successful natural reproduction has been documented for many of these species, little research has been conducted on their spawning habitat. We examined the spawning habitat of these four species in the Salmon River, New York. Differences in fish size among the species were significantly correlated with spawning site selection. In the Salmon River, the larger species spawned in deeper areas with larger size substrate and made the largest redds. Discriminant function analysis correctly classified redds by species 64–100% of the time. The size of substrate materials below Lighthouse Hill Dam is within the preferred ranges for spawning for these four species indicating that river armoring has not negatively impacted salmonid production. Intra-specific and inter-specific competition for spawning sites may influence redd site selection for smaller salmonids and could be an impediment for Atlantic salmon (S. salar) restoration.

  10. Seasonal Juvenile Salmonid Presence and Migratory Behavior in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Welch, Ian D.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-04-30

    To facilitate preparing Biological Assessments of proposed channel maintenance projects, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to consolidate and synthesize available information about the use of the lower Columbia River and estuary by juvenile anadromous salmonids. The information to be synthesized included existing published documents as well as data from five years (2004-2008) of acoustic telemetry studies conducted in the Columbia River estuary using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System. For this synthesis, the Columbia River estuary includes the section of the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam at river kilometer (Rkm) 235 downstream to the mouth where it enters the Pacific Ocean. In this report, we summarize the seasonal salmonid presence and migration patterns in the Columbia River estuary based on information from published studies as well as relevant data from acoustic telemetry studies conducted by NOAA Fisheries and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) between 2004 and 2008. Recent acoustic telemetry studies, conducted using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS; developed by the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), provided information on the migratory behavior of juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) and Chinook salmon in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the Pacific Ocean. In this report, Section 2 provides a summary of information from published literature on the seasonal presence and migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Section 3 presents a detailed synthesis of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead migratory behavior based on use of the JSATS between 2004 and 2008. Section 4 provides a discussion of the information summarized in the report as well as information drawn from literature reviews on potential effects of channel maintenance activities to juvenile salmonids rearing in

  11. Potential methods for production of doped fullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Fure, J.; Alford, M.; Diener, M.

    1992-12-01

    The task is to produce macroscopic amounts of fullerenes containing cesium or potassium. Laser vaporization of microscopic amounts of mechanical mixtures of graphite and chemical compounds containing K and Cs results in measurable amount of fullerenes like K@C{sub 60} and Cs@C{sub 60}. The problem with extending these methods to a scale that gives macroscopic amounts of fullerenes is that pre-heated target causes the volatile K and Cs compounds to evaporate whereas omitting the pre-heating reduces the yield of fullerenes. A possible way to avoid this problem could be to trap cesium or potassium atoms inside soot particles or gigantic fullerenes. Another way could be to introduce a partial pressure of the dopants in the tube furnace in which the fullerene production takes place.

  12. The potential of sustainable algal biofuel production using wastewater resources.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Jon K; Dean, Andrew P; Osundeko, Olumayowa

    2011-01-01

    The potential of microalgae as a source of renewable energy has received considerable interest, but if microalgal biofuel production is to be economically viable and sustainable, further optimization of mass culture conditions are needed. Wastewaters derived from municipal, agricultural and industrial activities potentially provide cost-effective and sustainable means of algal growth for biofuels. In addition, there is also potential for combining wastewater treatment by algae, such as nutrient removal, with biofuel production. Here we will review the current research on this topic and discuss the potential benefits and limitations of using wastewaters as resources for cost-effective microalgal biofuel production.

  13. Functionality of probiotics - potential for product development.

    PubMed

    Dekker, James; Collett, Michael; Prasad, Jaya; Gopal, Pramod

    2007-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly accepted by consumers that live lactic acid bacteria do exert health benefits when eaten. In addition, it is also becoming recognised that not all probiotic bacteria are equal. It is now no longer just a question of providing sufficient numbers of viable bacteria in a product; industry must also provide proof of efficacy for each strain. In the early 1990s, Fonterra embarked on a programme to develop proprietary probiotic strains, and as a result, commercialised two strains, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. Over the past decade, Fonterra has developed a significant body of peerreviewed published reports around these strains, including studies showing safety in animal and human trials, protection against pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7, modulation of human and animal immune markers at realistic dose rates, and efficacy in human clinical trials. Based on this work, HN019 and HN001 have been applied to several functional foods both by Fonterra (under the DR10 and DR20 brands, respectively) and by third parties (e.g. under the HOWARU brand by Danisco). While the 'gold standard' of proof of efficacy is a phase III clinical trial, ethical considerations as well as expense preclude the use of clinical trials as screening tools for probiotics. Therefore, biomarkers have to be employed to identify strains with probiotic utility, and to define the different positive health benefits of existing probiotic strains. However, as the mechanisms by which most probiotic bacteria exert their health benefits remain unclear, the question of which biomarkers accurately reflect efficacy in vivo remains unresolved. With recent technological advances, and the shift toward probiotics targeted to specific conditions, researchers are beginning to tease out how probiotic bacteria work, and it is this knowledge that will inform biomarker development and improve the ability to offer the market safe

  14. Habitat Quality and Anadromous Fish Production Potential on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation: Annual Report 1987.

    SciTech Connect

    Heinith, Robert

    1987-12-01

    In 1987, The Warm Springs Indian Reservation Anadromous Fish Production and Habitat Improvement Program was in the sixth year of a scheduled eleven year program. To date, 21 kilometers of reservation stream habitat have been enhanced for salmonid production benefits. Unusual climatic conditions created a severe drought throughout the Warm Springs River Basin and Shitike Creek in 1987. Temperature extremes and low annual discharges ensued throughout reservation waters. Study sites, located in the Warm Springs River Basin and Shitike Creek, continued to be monitored for physical biological parameters. Post treatment evaluation of bioengineering work in Mill Creek (Strawberry Falls Project) was conducted. Despite low discharges, physical habitat parameters were improved and notable gains were observed in both spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytascha) and summer steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) abundance and biomass at post treatment sites. Major bioengineering work was completed at the Mill Creek (Potter's Pond) Site. 19 refs., 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Virulence of Renibacterium salmoninarum to salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, C.E.; Smith, D.R.; Shatzer, T.

    1997-01-01

    Virulence of Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates representing five origins was evaluated in eight salmonid hosts; four origins were of Lake Michigan and the fifth was of the Pacific Northwest. The species type strain, ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 33209, was also included. Each isolate was grown in a kidney disease medium (KDM2) supplemented with 1 % ATCC 33209 culture metabolite; serial 10-fold dilutions were prepared, and groups of fish were challenged by intraperitoneal injection with 0.1 mL of each dilution. A 70-d observation period followed, and bacterial kidney disease (BKD) was diagnosed by the fluorescent antibody technique. Virulence of isolates was quantified as a dose lethal to 50% of fish (LD50) for each host–isolate challenge. In the first set of experiments, 23 isolates were used to challenge groups of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. The mean LD50 was 1.087 x 106 colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/mL; SD = 2.022 x 106), and the LD50 values ranged from 8.457 x 106 to 2.227 x 104 cfu/mL. Analysis of variance to evaluate the effect of isolate origin on virulence in brook trout revealed no significant difference (F = 1.502; P = 0.243). Susceptibilities of the other salmonid hosts were evaluated by challenge with six isolates of R. salmoninarum representing each origin and the species type strain. For many of the host–isolate challenge combinations, time to death was highly dependent on the dilution (number of bacteria) injected. In general, the isolates MCO4M, B26, and A34 (all of Lake Michigan origin) tended to be more virulent. Also, LD50 values were dispersed throughout a wider range among the more susceptible hosts. Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brook trout were relatively resistant to challenge with the strains, whereas coho salmon O. kisutch, domestic Atlantic salmon Saltno salar, and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha were relatively susceptible. Another challenge evaluated the effect of

  16. Ultrastructural morphogenesis of salmonid alphavirus 1.

    PubMed

    Herath, T K; Ferguson, H W; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Richards, R H

    2012-11-01

    Studies on the ultrastructural morphogenesis of viruses give an insight into how the host cell mechanisms are utilized for new virion synthesis. A time course examining salmonid alphavirus 1 (SAV 1) assembly was performed by culturing the virus on Chinook salmon embryo cells (CHSE-214). Different stages of viral replication were observed under electron microscopy. Virus-like particles were observed inside membrane-bound vesicles as early as 1 h following contact of the virus with the cells. Membrane-dependent replication complexes were observed in the cytoplasm of the cells, with spherules found at the periphery of late endosome-like vacuoles. The use of intracellular membranes for RNA replication is similar to other positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses. The number of Golgi apparatus and associated vacuoles characterized by 'fuzzy'-coated membranes was greater in virus-infected cells. The mature enveloped virions started to bud out from the cells at approximately 24 h post-infection. These observations suggest that the pathway used by SAV 1 for the generation of new virus particles in vitro is comparable to viral replication observed with mammalian alphaviruses but with some interesting differences.

  17. Modification of fluvial gravel size by spawning salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Kondolf, G.M. ); Sale, M.J. ); Wolman, M.G. )

    1993-07-01

    Salmonids (salmon and trout) winnow fine sediment from streambed gravels during construction of the nest or [open quotes]redd[close quotes] used for spawning and incubation of fertilized eggs. The gravels and interstitial fine sediments excavated during this process are exposed to currents and differently transported: Gravels move a short distance, while the fine sediments are swept further downstream from the redd. To quantify the resultant modification of particle size distributions in redds, the authors sampled redds and adjacent undisturbed gravels to document changes in size distributions. These data were compiled with previously published observations to analyze the general nature of size modification during spawning. The final percentage finer than 1 mm in the gravels, P1[sub f], is related to the initial percentage finer than 1 mm, P1[sub i], by the equation P1[sub f] = 0.63 P1[sub i]. Hydraulic variables (water surface slope, mean column velocity, depth, shear stress, unit stream power) explained little of the variance and did not appear in the optimal models. Because fisheries biologists are called upon to evaluate gravels as potential spawning sites, these findings should prove useful in such evaluations. 44 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Salmonid-egg floating boxes as bioindication for riverine water quality and stocking success.

    PubMed

    Pander, J; Geist, J

    2010-06-01

    The salmonid-egg floating box provides an easy bioindication tool for an assessment of water quality, as demonstrated here for the reintroduction of Europe's largest salmonid species, the huchen Hucho hucho.

  19. A preliminary investigation of the efficacy of riparian fencing schemes for reducing contributions from eroding channel banks to the siltation of salmonid spawning gravels across the south west UK.

    PubMed

    Collins, Adrian L; Walling, Desmond E; McMellin, Grant K; Zhang, Yusheng; Gray, Janina; McGonigle, Daniel; Cherrington, Ross

    2010-06-01

    The low productivity of salmonids in many river systems across the UK is testament to their intolerance of water quality perturbations including those associated with excessive sedimentation. Catchment and fishery managers concerned with combating such issues require reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem to target management and on the efficacy of the mitigation options being implemented. In recognition of the latter requirement, a pre- and post-remediation sediment sourcing survey was used to examine the potential for using sediment tracing to assemble preliminary information on the efficacy of riparian fencing schemes for reducing sediment contributions from eroding channel banks to salmonid spawning gravels in the Rivers Camel, Fal, Lynher, Plym, Tamar and Tavy in the south west of the UK. Respective estimates of the overall mean proportion (+/-95% confidence limits) of the interstitial sediment input to salmonid spawning gravels originating from eroding channel banks during the pre- (1999-2000) and post-remediation (2008-2009) study periods were computed at 97+/-1% vs. 69+/-1%, 94+/-1% vs. 91+/-1%, 12+/-1% vs. 10+/-1%, 92+/-1% vs. 34+/-1%, 31+/-1% vs. 16+/-1% and 90+/-1% vs. 66+/-1%. Whilst the study demonstrates the potential utility of the fingerprinting approach for helping to assemble important information on the efficacy of bank fencing as a sediment source control measure at catchment scale, a number of limitations of the work and some suggestions for improving experimental design are discussed. Equivalent data are urgently required for many sediment mitigation options to help inform the development of water quality policy packages designed to protect aquatic ecosystems.

  20. Juvenile rainbow trout production in New York tributaries of Lake Ontario: implications for Atlantic salmon restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Johnson, James H.

    2005-01-01

    Three Pacific salmonid species Onchorynchus spp. have replaced the extirpated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar as the main migratory salmonid in the Lake Ontario drainage. One of those species, the nonnative rainbow trout O. mykiss, has become widely distributed within the historical Atlantic salmon habitat, occupying an ecological niche similar to that of juvenile Atlantic salmon. Consequently, both a tributary's carrying capacity for Atlantic salmon and competition from established nonnative species are important when considering the feasibility of Atlantic salmon restoration. Estimation of juvenile rainbow trout production will help evaluate the capacity of tributaries to produce salmonids that occupy similar niches. Geostatistical methods were applied to standardized and efficiency-corrected electrofishing data from three of New York's best salmonid-producing streams to precisely estimate juvenile rainbow trout populations. Results indicated that each study stream could produce 20,000–40,000 age-0 and 4,000–10,000 age-1 and older rainbow trout per year. Statistical interpolation indicated areas of significantly different production potential and points of significant changes in productivity. Closer examination of the niche similarity and competitive potential of these two species is needed to properly interpret these estimates with regard to Atlantic salmon restoration.

  1. Adaptive trade-offs in juvenile salmonid metabolism associated with habitat partitioning between coho salmon and steelhead trout in coastal streams.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; Rosenfeld, Jordan S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2011-09-01

    1. Adaptive trade-offs are fundamental to the evolution of diversity and the coexistence of similar taxa and occur when complimentary combinations of traits maximize efficiency of resource exploitation or survival at different points on environmental gradients. 2. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is a key physiological trait that reflects adaptations to baseline metabolic performance, whereas active metabolism reflects adaptations to variable metabolic output associated with performance related to foraging, predator avoidance, aggressive interactions or migratory movements. Benefits of high SMR and active metabolism may change along a resource (productivity) gradient, indicating that a trade-off exists among active metabolism, resting metabolism and energy intake. 3. We measured and compared SMR, maximal metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS), swim performance (UCrit) and growth of juvenile hatchery and wild steelhead and coho salmon held on high- and low-food rations in order to better understand the potential significance of variation in SMR to growth, differentiation between species, and patterns of habitat use along a productivity gradient. 4. We found that differences in SMR, MMR, AS, swim performance and growth rate between steelhead trout and coho salmon were reduced in hatchery-reared fish compared with wild fish. Wild steelhead had a higher MMR, AS, swim performance and growth rate than wild coho, but adaptations between species do not appear to involve differences in SMR or to trade-off increased growth rate against lower swim performance, as commonly observed for high-growth strains. Instead, we hypothesize that wild steelhead may be trading off higher growth rate for lower food consumption efficiency, similar to strategies adopted by anadromous vs. resident brook trout and Atlantic salmon vs. brook trout. This highlights potential differences in food consumption and digestion strategies as cryptic adaptations ecologically differentiating salmonid species

  2. An extremely sensitive nested PCR-RFLP mitochondrial marker for detection and identification of salmonids in eDNA from water samples

    PubMed Central

    Ardura, Alba; Fernández, Sara; Roca, Agustín A.; García-Vázquez, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Background Salmonids are native from the North Hemisphere but have been introduced for aquaculture and sport fishing in the South Hemisphere and inhabit most rivers and lakes in temperate and cold regions worldwide. Five species are included in the Global Invasive Species Database: rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, brown trout Salmo trutta, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. In contrast, other salmonids are endangered in their native settings. Methods Here we have developed a method to identify salmonid species directly from water samples, focusing on the Iberian Peninsula as a case study. We have designed nested Salmonidae-specific primers within the 16S rDNA region. From these primers and a PCR-RFLP procedure the target species can be unequivocally identified from DNA extracted from water samples. Results The method was validated in aquarium experiments and in the field with water from watersheds with known salmonid populations. Finally, the method was applied to obtain a global view of the Salmonidae community in Nalón River (north coast of Spain). Discussion This new powerful, very sensitive (identifying the species down to 10 pg DNA/ml water) and economical tool can be applied for monitoring the presence of salmonids in a variety of situations, from checking upstream colonization after removal of river barriers to monitoring potential escapes from fish farms. PMID:28265514

  3. Sustaining salmonid populations: A caring understanding of naturalness of taxa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Regier, Henry A.; Knudsen, E. Eric

    2004-01-01

    Species of the family of Salmonidae occur naturally in Northern Hemisphere waters that remain clear and cool to cold in summer. For purposes of reproduction, salmonids generally behaviorally respond to the currents of streams and lakes in recently glaciated areas. For feeding and maturation, many larger species migrate into existing systems of large lakes, seas, and oceans. The subfamilies include Salmoninae, Coregoninae, and Thymallinae. In many locales and regions of the hemisphere, numerous species of these subfamilies evolved and self-organized into species flocks or taxocenes of bewildering complexity. For example, any individual species may play different or unique ecological roles in different taxocenes. The northern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, with their seas and tributaries, each contained a metacomplex of such taxocenes that, in their natural state some centuries ago, resembled each other but differed in many ways. Humans have valued all species of this family for subsistence, ceremonial, naturalist, gustatory, angling, and commercial reasons for centuries. Modern progressive humans (MPHs), whose industrial and commercial enterprises have gradually spread over this hemisphere in recent time, now affect aquatic ecosystems at all scales from local to global. These human effects mingle in complex ways that together induce uniquely natural salmonid taxocenes to disintegrate with the loss of species, including those groups least tolerant to human manipulations, but extending more recently to those taxa more adapted to anthropogenic change. As we leave the modern era, dominated by MPHs, will we find ways to live sustainably with salmonid taxocenes that still exhibit self-organizational integrity, or will only individual, isolated populations of salmonid species, derived from those most tolerant of MPHs, survive? To achieve future sustainability of salmonids, we suggest implementation of a search for intuitive knowledge based on faith in the wisdom of

  4. Agroecological zones and the assessment of crop production potential

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumar, M. V. K.; Valentin, C.

    1997-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population puts considerable pressure on the scarce natural resources, and there is an urgent need to develop more efficient and sustainable agricultural production systems to feed the growing population. This should be based on an initial assessment of the physical and biological potential of natural resources, which can vary greatly. The agroecological zonation (AEZ) approach presents a useful preliminary evaluation of this potential, and ensures that representation is maintained at an appropriate biogeographic scale for regional sustainable development planning. The principal AEZs of the world, as described by the Technical Advisory Committee of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, are presented along with their extent and characteristics. Net primary productivity of terrestrial vegetation can be assessed from weather data, and it varies from 1 t dry matter ha-1 yr-1 in high latitude zones and dry regions to 29 t ha-1 yr-1 in tropical wet regions, depending on the climatic conditions. To assess the crop production potential, length of the growing period zones, a concept introduced by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, is very useful as it describes an area within which rainfall and temperature conditions are suitable for crop growth for a given number of days in the year. These data, combined with the information on soils and known requirements of different food crops, can be used to assess the potential crop productivity. Some perspectives on AEZs and crop production potential are presented by describing the manner in which production potential can be integrated with present constraints. Efforts to intensify production should place emphasis on methods appropriate to the socio-economic conditions in a given AEZ, and on promotion of conservation-effective and sustainable production systems to meet the food, fodder and fuel needs for the future.

  5. A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Ben F; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Leong, Jong; Walker, Neil; Lieph, Ryan; Cooper, Glenn A; Robb, Adrienne; Beetz-Sargent, Marianne; Holt, Robert A; Moore, Richard; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Rosner, Jamie; Rexroad, Caird E; McGowan, Colin R; Davidson, William S

    2008-01-01

    Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total), 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is consistent with an ancestral

  6. Risk factors for outbreaks of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) and associated mortality in Norwegian salmonid farming.

    PubMed

    Bang Jensen, Britt; Kristoffersen, Anja B

    2015-06-03

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) has for many years been considered one of the most important restraints to the production of salmonids in European aquaculture. In Norway, the disease is responsible for high losses in post-smolts in the first few weeks after sea transfer. Despite the importance of IPN, there are few epidemiological studies on risk factors and mitigation strategies. In this paper, we present analyses of data from all cohorts put to sea in 2009 to 2012 on Norwegian marine salmonid farms. The data used were obtained from national registers on salmonid production and disease outbreaks. The results showed that the risk of IPN outbreak was higher for spring versus autumn cohorts, Atlantic salmon versus rainbow trout and for cohorts on farms with previous history of IPN. The risk increased with increasing cohort size and infection pressure, whereas increasing temperature and weight at sea transfer decreased the risk. Estimations from a model of cumulative mortality within the first 6 mo after sea transfer showed that mortality in cohorts with IPN increased to approximately 7.2% as compared to a 'baseline' cohort with a mortality of 3.4%. If the cohort had both IPN and pancreas disease (PD), the estimated mortality increased to 12.9%, and cohorts with both IPN, PD and heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) had an estimated mortality of 16.6%, when all other significant factors were kept constant (these were cohort type, year, temperature at sea transfer and weight at sea transfer). Our results provide valuable inputs for mitigation strategies and for economic modelling of consequences of disease.

  7. Liposome production by microfluidics: potential and limiting factors

    PubMed Central

    Carugo, Dario; Bottaro, Elisabetta; Owen, Joshua; Stride, Eleanor; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of microfluidic techniques for the production of nanoscale lipid-based vesicular systems. In particular we focus on the key issues associated with the microfluidic production of liposomes. These include, but are not limited to, the role of lipid formulation, lipid concentration, residual amount of solvent, production method (including microchannel architecture), and drug loading in determining liposome characteristics. Furthermore, we propose microfluidic architectures for the mass production of liposomes with a view to potential industrial translation of this technology. PMID:27194474

  8. Mycobacteria in adult salmonid fishes returning to national fish hatcheries in Washington, Oregon and California in 1958-59

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.

    1963-01-01

    Incidence of acid-fast bacillus infections in salmonid fishes at West Coast hatcheries was determined for 1957-59. No evidence was obtained which would indicate a definite trend towards either increased or decreased rates of infection. It is apparent that the incidence of infection is higher in hatchery-marked fish than in unmarked fish. Only one hatchery was found free of infection during the 3 years covered by the investigation. This installation had never used raw salmon products in diet.

  9. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill

    2006-09-01

    treatment and control streams after carcass analog stocking. Stable isotope analysis provided some evidence that nutrients (primarily nitrogen) were incorporated into periphyton and invertebrates, although this evidence is not strong. No significant differences in water quality were observed between treatment and control streams after analog stocking. Although no significant changes were observed in fish abundance, this study does provide evidence that carcass analogs provide a viable and potentially useful alternative to stocking salmon carcasses. The analogs provide a direct food source to salmonids, and show some potential for providing nutrients for stream food webs. They can also increase stomach fullness and growth rates of individual fish. This nutrient source may very well improve individual fish condition sufficiently to improve overwintering or smolt survival. Further refinement of stocking densities and timing, treatment duration, and tailoring analog placement to individual stream characteristics (such as channel confinement and flow) will further improve the usefulness of carcass analogs.

  10. Clinical Trials Methods for Evaluation of Potential Reduced Exposure Products

    PubMed Central

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hanson, Karen; Briggs, Anna; Parascandola, Mark; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; O'Connor, Richard; Shields, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Potential reduced exposure tobacco products (PREPs) may have promise in reducing tobacco-related morbidity or mortality or may promote greater harm to individuals or the population. Critical to determining the risks or benefits from these products are valid human clinical trial PREP assessment methods. Assessment involves determining the effects of these products on biomarkers of exposure and of effect, which serve as proxies for harm, and assessing the potential for consumer uptake and abuse of the product. This article raises the critical methodological issues associated with PREP assessment, reviews the methods that have been used to assess PREPs, and describes the strengths and limitations of these methods. Additionally, recommendations for clinical trials PREP assessment methods and future research directions in this area based on this review and on the deliberations from a National Cancer Institute sponsored Clinical Trials PREP Methods Workshop are provided. PMID:19959672

  11. Estimating Production Potentials: Expert Bias in Applied Decision Making

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, Wendy Jane

    1998-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate how workers predict manufacturing production potentials given positively and negatively framed information. Findings indicate the existence of a bias toward positive information and suggest that this bias may be reduced with experience but is never the less maintained. Experts err in the same way non experts do in differentially processing negative and positive information. Additionally, both experts and non experts tend to overestimate production potentials in a positive direction. The authors propose that these biases should be addressed with further research including cross domain analyses and consideration in training, workplace design, and human performance modeling.

  12. Assessing the potential of polyculture to accelerate algal biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, Deborah T.; Mathews, Teresa J.; Pate, Ron C.; Huesemann, Michael H.; Lane, Todd W.; Wahlen, Bradley D.; Mandal, Shovon; Engler, Robert K.; Feris, Kevin P.; Shurin, Jon B.

    2016-10-24

    To date, the algal biofuel industry has focused on the cultivation of monocultures of highly productive algal strains, but scaling up production remains challenging. However, algal monocultures are difficult to maintain because they are easily contaminated by wild algal strains, grazers, and pathogens. In contrast, theory suggests that polycultures (multispecies assemblages) can promote both ecosystem stability and productivity. A greater understanding of species interactions and how communities change with time will need to be developed before polycultures can be successfully applied to large-scale algal production efforts. Here in this paper we review the agricultural and ecological literature to explore opportunities for increased annual biomass production through the use of algal polycultures. We discuss case studies where algal polycultures have been successfully maintained for industries other than the biofuel industry, as well as the few studies that have compared biomass production of algal polycultures to that of monocultures. Assemblages that include species with complementary traits are of particular promise. These assemblages have the potential not only to increase crop productivity and stability, but they may also be capable of utilizing natural resources (e.g. light, nutrients, water) more efficiently via tighter niche packing. Therefore, algal polycultures show promise for enhancing biomass productivity, enabling sustainable production and reducing overall production costs.

  13. Assessing the potential of polyculture to accelerate algal biofuel production

    DOE PAGES

    Newby, Deborah T.; Mathews, Teresa J.; Pate, Ron C.; ...

    2016-10-24

    To date, the algal biofuel industry has focused on the cultivation of monocultures of highly productive algal strains, but scaling up production remains challenging. However, algal monocultures are difficult to maintain because they are easily contaminated by wild algal strains, grazers, and pathogens. In contrast, theory suggests that polycultures (multispecies assemblages) can promote both ecosystem stability and productivity. A greater understanding of species interactions and how communities change with time will need to be developed before polycultures can be successfully applied to large-scale algal production efforts. Here in this paper we review the agricultural and ecological literature to explore opportunitiesmore » for increased annual biomass production through the use of algal polycultures. We discuss case studies where algal polycultures have been successfully maintained for industries other than the biofuel industry, as well as the few studies that have compared biomass production of algal polycultures to that of monocultures. Assemblages that include species with complementary traits are of particular promise. These assemblages have the potential not only to increase crop productivity and stability, but they may also be capable of utilizing natural resources (e.g. light, nutrients, water) more efficiently via tighter niche packing. Therefore, algal polycultures show promise for enhancing biomass productivity, enabling sustainable production and reducing overall production costs.« less

  14. Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

  15. Predation on Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery salmonids and Fallfish in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; McKenna, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally reproduced Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha contribute substantially to the fishery in Lake Ontario. The Salmon River, a Lake Ontario tributary in New York, produces the largest numbers of naturally spawned Chinook Salmon, with parr abundance in the river often exceeding 10 million. In the spring of each year, large numbers of hatchery salmonid yearlings—potential predators of Chinook Salmon parr—are released into the Salmon River by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. We sought to examine predation on Chinook Salmon parr in the Salmon River during May and June prior to out-migration. Over the 4 years examined (2009–2012), annual consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery-released yearling steelhead O. mykiss and Coho Salmon O. kisutch ranged from 1.5 to 3.3 million and from 0.4 to 2.1 million, respectively. In 2009, Fallfish Semotilus corporalis were estimated to consume 2.9 million Chinook Salmon parr. Predation was higher in May, when the average TL of Chinook Salmon parr was 44.5 mm, than in June. Fallfish were also important predators of naturally reproduced steelhead subyearlings, consuming an estimated 800,000 steelhead in 2009. Hatchery-released yearling salmonids consumed 13.8–15.3% of the Chinook Salmon parr that were estimated to be present in the Salmon River during 2010–2012. Earlier releases of hatchery salmonid yearlings could reduce the riverine consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by facilitating the out-migration of yearlings prior to Chinook Salmon emergence.

  16. National Microalgae Biofuel Production Potential and Resource Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Huesemann, Michael H.; Lane, Leonard J.

    2011-04-14

    Microalgae continue to receive global attention as a potential sustainable "energy crop" for biofuel production. An important step to realizing the potential of algae is quantifying the demands commercial-scale algal biofuel production will place on water and land resources. We present a high-resolution national resource and oil production assessment that brings to bear fundamental research questions of where open pond microalgae production can occur, how much land and water resource is required, and how much energy is produced. Our study suggests under current technology microalgae have the potential to generate 220 billion liters/year of oil, equivalent to 48% of current U.S. petroleum imports for transportation fuels. However, this level of production would require 5.5% of the land area in the conterminous U.S., and nearly three times the volume of water currently used for irrigated agriculture, averaging 1,421 L water per L of oil. Optimizing the selection of locations for microalgae production based on water use efficiency can greatly reduce total water demand. For example, focusing on locations along the Gulf Coast, Southeastern Seaboard, and areas adjacent to the Great Lakes, shows a 75% reduction in water demand to 350 L per L of oil produced with a 67% reduction in land use. These optimized locations have the potential to generate an oil volume equivalent to 17% of imports for transportation fuels, equal to the Energy Independence and Security Act year 2022 "advanced biofuels" production target, and utilizing some 25% of the current irrigation consumptive water demand for the U. S. These results suggest that, with proper planning, adequate land and water are available to meet a significant portion of the U.S. renewable fuel goals.

  17. Potential contribution of genomics and biotechnology in animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall objective of the book chapter is to define the potential contribution of genomics in livestock production in Latin American countries. A brief description on what is genomics, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection (GS) is provided. Genomics has been rapidly adopte...

  18. The carcinogenic potential of selected petroleum-derived products.

    PubMed

    Rothman, N; Emmett, E A

    1988-01-01

    In this chapter the authors examine the toxicologic and epidemiologic literature for a broad range of petroleum-derived products in order to assess the carcinogenic potential of these compounds. Types of evidence used, classes of compounds, and qualitative assessments of carcinogenicity are presented.

  19. Breeding salmonids for feed efficiency in current fishmeal and future plant-based diet environments.

    PubMed

    Quinton, Cheryl D; Kause, Antti; Koskela, Juha; Ritola, Ossi

    2007-01-01

    The aquaculture industry is increasingly replacing fishmeal in feeds for carnivorous fish with soybean meal (SBM). This diet change presents a potential for genotype-environment (G x E) interactions. We tested whether current salmonid breeding programmes that evaluate and select within fishmeal diets also improve growth and efficiency on potential future SBM diets. A total of 1680 European whitefish from 70 families were reared with either fishmeal- or SBM-based diets in a split-family design. Individual daily gain (DG), daily feed intake (DFI) and feed efficiency (FE) were recorded. Traits displayed only weak G x E interactions as variances and heritabilities did not differ substantially between the diets, and cross-diet genetic correlations were near unity. In both diets, DFI exhibited moderate heritability and had very high genetic correlation with DG whereas FE had low heritability. Predicted genetic responses demonstrated that selection to increase DG and FE on the fishmeal diet lead to favourable responses on the SBM diet. Selection for FE based on an index including DG and DFI achieved at least double FE gain versus selection on DG alone. Therefore, current breeding programmes are improving the biological ability of salmonids to use novel plant-based diets, and aiding the aquaculture industry to reduce fishmeal use.

  20. Growth inhibition of bacterial fish pathogens and quorum-sensing blocking by bacteria recovered from chilean salmonid farms.

    PubMed

    Fuente, Mery de la; Miranda, Claudio D; Jopia, Paz; González-Rocha, Gerardo; Guiliani, Nicolás; Sossa, Katherine; Urrutia, Homero

    2015-06-01

    The main goal of this study was to find bacterial isolates with the ability to inhibit the growth of the fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum, and Flavobacterium psychrophilum and to inhibit the blockage of the quorum-sensing (QS) system. A total of 80 gram-negative strains isolated from various freshwater Chilean salmonid farms were studied. We determined that 10 strains belonging to the genus Pseudomonas inhibited at least one of the assayed fish pathogens. Of these, nine strains were able to produce siderophores and two strains were able to inhibit the growth of all assayed pathogenic species. When the 80 strains were examined for QS-blocking activity, only the strains Pseudomonas sp. FF16 and Raoultella planticola R5B1 were identified as QS blockers. When the QS-blocker strains were analyzed for their ability to produce homoserine lactone (HSL) molecules, thin-layer chromatography analysis showed that both strains were able to produce C6-HSL- and C8-HSL-type molecules. Strain R5B1 did not show growth inhibition properties, but strain FF16 also led to inhibition of growth in A. hydrophila and F. psychrophilum as well as to siderophore production. Pseudomonas sp. FF16 exhibited potentially useful antagonistic properties and could be a probiotic candidate for the salmon farming industry.

  1. Flare-production potential associated with different sunspot groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eren, S.; Kilcik, A.; Atay, T.; Miteva, R.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Rozelot, J. P.; Ozguc, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we analysed different types (C, M, and X classes) of X-ray solar flares occurring in sunspot groups. The data cover 1996-2014 time interval, and a total of 4262 active regions (ARs) were included in the data set. We defined the solar-flare-production potential as the ratio of the total number of flares observed in a sunspot group to the total number of the same-class sunspot groups. Our main findings are as follows: (1) large and complex sunspot groups (D+E+F) have the flare-production potential about eight times higher than the small and simple (A+B+C+H) ARs; (2) 79 per cent of all flares were produced by the large and complex sunspot groups, while only 21 per cent of flares were produced by the small groups; (3) the largest and the most complex F-class (very large and very complex) sunspot groups exhibit the highest flare-production potential (2.16 flare per sunspot group), while the smallest and the least complex A class sunspot groups show the lowest (0.05 flare per group) flare-production potential; (4) temporal variation of sunspot counts, sunspot group areas, and the total number of flares (including C flares) showed similar time profiles during both cycles with multiple peaks; (5) the mean area of ARs very well describes the flare-production potential of each group with the regression coefficient of R2 = 0.99. Most of these sunspot groups (>70 per cent) are, according to the Zurich Classification, complex ARs.

  2. Concentrations and Potential Health Risks of Metals in Lip Products

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sa; Rojas-Cheatham, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background: Metal content in lip products has been an issue of concern. Objectives: We measured lead and eight other metals in a convenience sample of 32 lip products used by young Asian women in Oakland, California, and assessed potential health risks related to estimated intakes of these metals. Methods: We analyzed lip products by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and used previous estimates of lip product usage rates to determine daily oral intakes. We derived acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) based on information used to determine public health goals for exposure, and compared ADIs with estimated intakes to assess potential risks. Results: Most of the tested lip products contained high concentrations of titanium and aluminum. All examined products had detectable manganese. Lead was detected in 24 products (75%), with an average concentration of 0.36 ± 0.39 ppm, including one sample with 1.32 ppm. When used at the estimated average daily rate, estimated intakes were > 20% of ADIs derived for aluminum, cadmium, chromium, and manganese. In addition, average daily use of 10 products tested would result in chromium intake exceeding our estimated ADI for chromium. For high rates of product use (above the 95th percentile), the percentages of samples with estimated metal intakes exceeding ADIs were 3% for aluminum, 68% for chromium, and 22% for manganese. Estimated intakes of lead were < 20% of ADIs for average and high use. Conclusions: Cosmetics safety should be assessed not only by the presence of hazardous contents, but also by comparing estimated exposures with health-based standards. In addition to lead, metals such as aluminum, cadmium, chromium, and manganese require further investigation. PMID:23674482

  3. National microalgae biofuel production potential and resource demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, André M.; Skaggs, Richard J.; Huesemann, Michael H.; Lane, Leonard J.

    2011-03-01

    Microalgae are receiving increased global attention as a potential sustainable "energy crop" for biofuel production. An important step to realizing the potential of algae is quantifying the demands commercial-scale algal biofuel production will place on water and land resources. We present a high-resolution spatiotemporal assessment that brings to bear fundamental questions of where production can occur, how many land and water resources are required, and how much energy is produced. Our study suggests that under current technology, microalgae have the potential to generate 220 × 109 L yr-1 of oil, equivalent to 48% of current U.S. petroleum imports for transportation. However, this level of production requires 5.5% of the land area in the conterminous United States and nearly three times the water currently used for irrigated agriculture, averaging 1421 L water per liter of oil. Optimizing the locations for microalgae production on the basis of water use efficiency can greatly reduce total water demand. For example, focusing on locations along the Gulf Coast, southeastern seaboard, and Great Lakes shows a 75% reduction in consumptive freshwater use to 350 L per liter of oil produced with a 67% reduction in land use. These optimized locations have the potential to generate an oil volume equivalent to 17% of imports for transportation fuels, equal to the Energy Independence and Security Act year 2022 "advanced biofuels" production target and utilizing some 25% of the current irrigation demand. With proper planning, adequate land and water are available to meet a significant portion of the U.S. renewable fuel goals.

  4. Identifying improvement potentials in cement production with life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Michael Elias; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2010-12-01

    Cement production is an environmentally relevant process responsible for 5% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and 7% of industrial fuel use. In this study, life cycle assessment is used to evaluate improvement potentials in the cement production process in Europe and the USA. With a current fuel substitution rate of 18% in Europe and 11% in the USA, both regions have a substantial potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save virgin resources by further increasing the coprocessing of waste fuels. Upgrading production technology would be particularly effective in the USA where many kiln systems with very low energy efficiency are still in operation. Using best available technology and a thermal substitution rate of 50% for fuels, greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by 9% for Europe and 18% for the USA per tonne of cement. Since clinker production is the dominant pollution producing step in cement production, the substitution of clinker with mineral components such as ground granulated blast furnace slag or fly ash is an efficient measure to reduce the environmental impact. Blended cements exhibit substantially lower environmental footprints than Portland cement, even if the substitutes feature lower grindability and require additional drying and large transport distances. The highest savings in CO(2) emissions and resource consumption are achieved with a combination of measures in clinker production and cement blending.

  5. Surveillance methods for identifying, characterizing, and monitoring tobacco products: potential reduced exposure products as an example

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Norton, Kaila J.; Sweanor, David; Parascandola, Mark; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco products are widely sold and marketed, yet integrated data systems for identifying, tracking, and characterizing products are lacking. Tobacco manufacturers recently have developed potential reduction exposure products (PREPs) with implied or explicit health claims. Currently, a systematic approach for identifying, defining, and evaluating PREPs sold at the local, state or national levels in the US has not been developed. Identifying, characterizing, and monitoring new tobacco products could be greatly enhanced with a responsive surveillance system. This paper critically reviews available surveillance data sources for identifying and tracking tobacco products, including PREPs, evaluating strengths and weaknesses of potential data sources in light of their reliability and validity. Absent regulations mandating disclosure of product-specific information, it is likely that public health officials will need to rely on a variety of imperfect data sources to help identify, characterize, and monitor tobacco products, including PREPs. PMID:19959680

  6. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    PubMed Central

    van der Weijde, Tim; Alvim Kamei, Claire L.; Torres, Andres F.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Dolstra, Oene; Visser, Richard G. F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops—maize, sugarcane and sorghum—and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses—miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of biofuel. PMID:23653628

  7. Resource efficiency potential of selected technologies, products and strategies.

    PubMed

    Rohn, Holger; Pastewski, Nico; Lettenmeier, Michael; Wiesen, Klaus; Bienge, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Despite rising prices for natural resources during the past 30 years, global consumption of natural resources is still growing. This leads to ecological, economical and social problems. So far, however, limited effort has been made to decrease the natural resource use of goods and services. While resource efficiency is already on the political agenda (EU and national resource strategies), there are still substantial knowledge gaps on the effectiveness of resource efficiency improvement strategies in different fields. In this context and within the project "Material Efficiency and Resource Conservation", the natural resource use of 22 technologies, products and strategies was calculated and their resource efficiency potential analysed. In a preliminary literature- and expert-based identification process, over 250 technologies, strategies, and products, which are regarded as resource efficient, were identified. Out of these, 22 subjects with high resource efficiency potential were selected. They cover a wide range of relevant technologies, products and strategies, such as energy supply and storage, Green IT, transportation, foodstuffs, agricultural engineering, design strategies, lightweight construction, as well as the concept "Using Instead of Owning". To assess the life-cycle-wide resource use of the selected subjects, the material footprint has been applied as a reliable indicator. In addition, sustainability criteria on a qualitative basis were considered. The results presented in this paper show significant resource efficiency potential for many technologies, products and strategies.

  8. Leaching potential of silver from nanosilver-treated textile products.

    PubMed

    Limpiteeprakan, P; Babel, S

    2016-03-01

    The use of nanosilver as an antibacterial agent for various products has increased, especially so, in textiles. This study aims to investigate the potential of Ag to leach from commercial products which contain nano-Ag by using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test in accordance with USEPA method 1311. Eight nano-Ag products were purchased from the market. Only those products that are likely to be disposed of in a landfill after end use were selected. Nano-Ag fabrics of different concentrations were also prepared at the laboratory scale, and the TCLP test was performed on them as well. The current study assumes that the new products were discarded without use. The Ag content was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ranged from 0.95 to 2.82 μg/g of the product in the commercial products and from 1.49 to 350 μg/g of the product in the lab-prepared fabrics. In the TCLP test results, Ag concentrations ranged from 4.3 to 64.9 μg/L in the commercial products and from 28.9 to 28,381 μg/L in the lab-prepared fabrics. The results also indicate that the amount of Ag released depends on the type of the fabrics. Additionally, the size of the nano-Ag released in percentage is different for each prepared fabric. This study can help in understanding the amount of Ag released during the disposal phase of a product in a landfill.

  9. Potential commercial uses of EOS remote sensing products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Leslie L.

    1991-01-01

    The instrument complement of the Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite system will generate data sets with potential interest to a variety of users who are now just beginning to develop geographic information systems tailored to their special applications and/or jurisdictions. Other users may be looking for a unique product that enhances competitive position. The generally distributed products from EOS will require additional value added processing to derive the unique products desired by specific users. Entrepreneurs have an opportunity to create these proprietary level 4 products from the EOS data sets. Specific instruments or collections of instruments could provide information for crop futures trading, mineral exploration, television and printed medium news products, regional and local government land management and planning, digital map directories, products for third world users, ocean fishing fleet probability of harvest forecasts, and other areas not even imagined at this time. The projected level 3 product are examined that will be available at launch from EOS instruments and commercial uses of the data after value added processing is estimated.

  10. Potential of Different Coleus blumei Tissues for Rosmarinic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Vuković, Rosemary; Likić, Saša; Jelaska, Sibila

    2015-01-01

    Summary Rosmarinic acid is one of the main active components of Coleus blumei and is known to have numerous health benefits. The pharmacological significance of rosmarinic acid and its production through in vitro culture has been the subject of numerous studies. Here, the ability of different tissues to accumulate rosmarinic acid and sustainability in production over long cultivation have been tested. Calli, tumours, normal roots and hairy roots were established routinely by application of plant growth regulators or by transformation with agrobacteria. The differences among the established tumour lines were highly heterogeneous. Hairy root lines showed the highest mean growth rate and consistency in rosmarinic acid production. Although some tumour lines produced more rosmarinic acid than the hairy root lines, over a long cultivation period their productivity was unstable and decreased. Further, the effects of plant growth regulators on growth and rosmarinic acid accumulation were tested. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid significantly reduced tumour growth and rosmarinic acid production. 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid strongly stimulated hairy root growth whilst abscisic acid strongly enhanced rosmarinic acid production. Hairy roots cultured in an airlift bioreactor exhibited the highest potential for mass production of rosmarinic acid. PMID:27904326

  11. Bacterial and Fungal Proteolytic Enzymes: Production, Catalysis and Potential Applications.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues

    2017-02-03

    Submerged and solid-state bioprocesses have been extensively explored worldwide and employed in a number of important studies dealing with microbial cultivation for the production of enzymes. The development of these production technologies has facilitated the generation of new enzyme-based products with applications in pharmaceuticals, food, bioactive peptides, and basic research studies, among others. The applicability of microorganisms in biotechnology is potentiated because of their various advantages, including large-scale production, short time of cultivation, and ease of handling. Currently, several studies are being conducted to search for new microbial peptidases with peculiar biochemical properties for industrial applications. Bioprospecting, being an important prerequisite for research and biotechnological development, is based on exploring the microbial diversity for enzyme production. Limited information is available on the production of specific proteolytic enzymes from bacterial and fungal species, especially on the subgroups threonine and glutamic peptidases, and the seventh catalytic type, nonhydrolytic asparagine peptide lyase. This gap in information motivated the present study about these unique biocatalysts. In this study, the biochemical and biotechnological aspects of the seven catalytic types of proteolytic enzymes, namely aspartyl, cysteine, serine, metallo, glutamic, and threonine peptidase, and asparagine peptide lyase, are summarized, with an emphasis on new studies, production, catalysis, and application of these enzymes.

  12. Preliminary Screening of Potential Control Products against Drosophila suzukii

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Collins, Debbie A.; Blackburn, Lisa F.; Audsley, Neil; Bell, Howard A.

    2014-01-01

    The first recording of Drosophila suzukii in the UK occurred in the south of England during August 2012. Since then sticky traps have continued to record the presence of individuals. Several products (both chemical and biological) were investigated for their efficacy against different life-stages of the pest. Both direct and indirect exposure to control products was assessed. Spinosad, chlorantraniliprole and the experimental product, TA2674, showed excellent potential as control agents when used as either a pre- or post-dipping treatment for blueberries with mortalities of 100%, 93% and 98% mortality, respectively, being achieved following pre-treatment. Direct spray application of all products tested had limited impact upon adult flies. Highest mortality (68%) was achieved following direct application of TA2674. Entomopathogenic agents (nematodes and fungi) tested appeared to reduce fly population development (ranges of 34–44% mortality obtained) but would seem unable to eradicate outbreaks. The potential of the tested products to control D. suzukii is discussed. PMID:26462696

  13. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

  14. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tara C.; Hanson, Josh T.; Jewett, Shannon M.

    2004-01-01

    The year of 2002 represented the eighth year of a multi-year project, monitoring the outmigration and survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project both supplements and complements various ongoing and completed work within the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on juvenile outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts of natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also assist in assessment of the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program. General project objectives include: Evaluation of the outmigration and survival of natural and hatchery juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River, in an effort to enhance the understanding of migration characteristics, survival bottlenecks, species interactions and effects of management strategies. Specific objectives for 2002 included: (1) Operation of the remote interrogation system at Three Mile Falls Dam, West Extension Canal; (2) Design of improved PIT tag detection capabilities at Three Mile Falls Dam east bank adult fish ladder; (3) Estimates of migrant abundance, migration timing and in-basin survival of tagged juvenile salmonids representing various hatchery, rearing, acclimation and release strategies; (4) Monitoring of abundance and trends in natural production of salmon, steelhead and pacific lamprey; (5) Continuation of transport evaluation studies to evaluate the relative survival between transported and nontransported fish; (6) Assessment of the condition, health, size, growth and smolt status of hatchery and natural migrants; (7) Investigation of the effects of canal and fishway operations and environmental conditions on fish migration and survival; (8) Documentation of temporal distribution and diversity of resident

  15. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-08-01

    Sugarcane grown as energy cane presents a new potential to the Caribbean countries to provide their own energy needs and to reduce or eliminate fuel oil imports. The use of proper agronomic techniques can convert conventional sugarcane growing to a crop capable of giving energy feedstocks in the form of fiber for boiler fuel for electricity and fermentable solids for alcohol for motor fuel. Sugarcane can still be obtained from the energy cane for domestic consumption and export if desired. The aerable land now devoted to sugarcane can utilized for energy-cane production without causing any serious imbalance in food crop production.

  16. A Survey of Biofuel Production potentials in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykova, Natalya; Gustafsson, Jan-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Due to the abundance of fossil fuel resources in Russia, the development of the renewable energy market there was delayed. Recent technological advancement has led to an increasing interest in biofuel production. The aim of research was to evaluate how biofuels are introduced into the current energy scheme of the country. The potential production of biofuels was estimated based on sustainable approaches which provide solution for carbon emission reduction and environmental benefits. Russia still requires biofuel policy to make biofuels compatible with traditional fossil fuels.

  17. Ozone production potential following convective redistribution of biomass burning emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Scala, John R.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    1992-01-01

    The effects of deep convection on the potential for forming ozone in the free troposphere have been simulated for regions where the trace gas composition is influenced by biomass burning. Cloud photochemical and dynamic simulations based on observations in the 1980 and 1985 Brazilian campaigns form the basis of a sensitivity study of the ozone production potential under differing conditions. It is seen that there is considerably more ozone formed in the middle and upper troposphere when convection has redistributed hydrocarbons, NO(x), and CO compared to the example of no convection.

  18. Potential changes to stratospheric ozone from possible chlorofluorocarbon production

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Tarp, R.L.

    1980-03-17

    The Environmental Protection Agency has derived a series of scenarios for future atmospheric emission rates of the chlorofluorocarbons CFCl/sub 3/. These scenarios are based on potential industrial production and commercial applications, and the eventual release of these chemicals into the atmosphere. In this study, the potential effect on stratospheric ozone resulting from future chlorofluorocarbon emissions as suggested by these scenarios are examined. Assessments are based upon model calculations using the one-dimensional coupled transport and chemical kinetics model of the troposphere and stratosphere developed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL).

  19. Potentials for food waste minimization and effects on potential biogas production through anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Schott, Anna Bernstad Saraiva; Vukicevic, Sanita; Bohn, Irene; Andersson, Tova

    2013-08-01

    Several treatment alternatives for food waste can result in both energy and nutrient recovery, and thereby potential environmental benefits. However, according to the European Union waste management hierarchy, waste prevention should be the prioritized strategy to decrease the environmental burdens from all solid waste management. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the potential for food waste minimization among Swedish households through an investigation of the amount of avoidable food waste currently disposed of. A further aim was to investigate the effect on the national biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion of food waste, considering minimization potentials. A method for waste composition analyses of household food waste, where a differentiation between avoidable and unavoidable food waste is made, was used in a total of 24 waste composition analyses of household waste from Swedish residential areas. The total household food waste generation reached 3.4 kg (household and week)(-1), on average, of which 34% is avoidable. The theoretical methane (CH4) potential in unavoidable food waste reached 442 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1) or 128 Nm(3) tonne(-1) wet waste, while the measured (mesophilic CH4 batch tests) CH4 production reached 399 Ndm(3) (kg VS)(-1), which is lower than several previous assessments of CH4 production from household food waste. According to this study the combination of a decrease in food waste generation-in case of successful minimization-and decreased CH4 production from unavoidable food waste will thus result in lower total potential energy recovery from household food waste through anaerobic digestion CH4 potential than previously stated.

  20. A 6K-deletion variant of salmonid alphavirus is non-viable but can be rescued through RNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tz-Chun; Johansson, Daniel X; Haugland, Øyvind; Liljeström, Peter; Evensen, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Pancreas disease (PD) of Atlantic salmon is an emerging disease caused by Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) which mainly affects salmonid aquaculture in Western Europe. Although genome structure of SAV has been characterized and each individual viral protein has been identified, the role of 6K protein in viral replication and infectivity remains undefined. The 6K protein of alphaviruses is a small and hydrophobic protein which is involved in membrane permeabilization, protein processing and virus budding. Because these common features are shared across many viral species, they have been named viroporins. In the present study, we applied reverse genetics to generate SAV3 6K-deleted (Δ6K) variant and investigate the role of 6K protein. Our findings show that the 6K-deletion variant of salmonid alphavirus is non-viable. Despite viral proteins of Δ6K variant are detected in the cytoplasm by immunostaining, they are not found on the cell surface. Further, analysis of viral proteins produced in Δ6K cDNA clone transfected cells using radioimmunoprecipitation (RIPA) and western blot showed a protein band of larger size than E2 of wild-type SAV3. When Δ6K cDNA was co-transfected with SAV3 helper cDNA encoding the whole structural genes including 6K, the infectivity was rescued. The development of CPE after co-transfection and resolved genome sequence of rescued virus confirmed full-length viral genome being generated through RNA recombination. The discovery of the important role of the 6K protein in virus production provides a new possibility for the development of antiviral intervention which is highly needed to control SAV infection in salmonids.

  1. Assessing Juvenile Salmonid Passage Through Culverts: Field Research in Support of Protocol Development

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Greg D.; Evans, Nathan R.; Pearson, Walter H.; Southard, John A.

    2001-10-30

    The primary goal of our research this spring/ summer was to refine techniques and examine scenarios under which a standardized protocol could be applied to assess juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch) passage through road culverts. Field evaluations focused on capture-mark- recapture methods that allowed analysis of fish movement patterns, estimates of culvert passability, and potential identification of cues inducing these movements. At this stage, 0+ age coho salmon fry 30 mm to 65 mm long (fork length) were the species and age class of interest. Ultimately, the protocol will provide rapid, statistically rigorous methods for trained personnel to perform standardized biological assessments of culvert passability to a number of juvenile salmon species. Questions to be addressed by the research include the following: ? Do hydraulic structures such as culverts restrict habitat for juvenile salmonids? ? How do existing culverts and retrofits perform relative to juvenile salmonid passage? ? Do some culvert characteristics and hydraulic conditions provide better passage than others? ? Does the culvert represent a barrier to certain size classes of fish? Recommendations addressed issues of study site selection, initial capture, marking, recapture/observations, and estimating movement.

  2. Genomic patterns of diversity and divergence of two introduced salmonid species in Patagonia, South America.

    PubMed

    Narum, Shawn R; Gallardo, Pablo; Correa, Cristian; Matala, Amanda; Hasselman, Daniel; Sutherland, Ben J G; Bernatchez, Louis

    2017-04-01

    Invasive species have become widespread in aquatic environments throughout the world, yet there are few studies that have examined genomic variation of multiple introduced species in newly colonized environments. In this study, we contrast genomic variation in two salmonid species (anadromous Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, 11,579 SNPs and resident Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis, 13,522 SNPs) with differing invasion success after introduction to new environments in South America relative to populations from their native range in North America. Estimates of genetic diversity were not significantly different between introduced and source populations for either species, indicative of propagule pressure that has been shown to maintain diversity in founding populations relative to their native range. Introduced populations also demonstrated higher connectivity and gene flow than those in their native range. Evidence for candidate loci under divergent selection was observed, but was limited to specific introduced populations and was not widely evident. Patterns of genomic variation were consistent with general dispersal potential of each species and therefore also the notion that life history variation may contribute to both invasion success and subsequent genetic structure of these two salmonids in Patagonia.

  3. Rate of disappearance of gas bubble trauma signs in juvenile salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hans, K.M.; Mesa, M.G.; Maule, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the rate of disappearance of gas bubble trauma (GBT) signs in juvenile salmonids, we exposed spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss to water containing high levels of dissolved gas supersaturation (DGS) for a time period sufficient to induce signs of GBT, reduced the DGS to minimal levels, and then sampled fish through time to document changes in severity of GBT. Because of the tendency of GBT signs to dissipate at different rates, we conducted trials focusing on emboli (bubbles) in the gill filaments and lateral line and separate trials that focused on bubbles in the external surfaces (fins, eyes, and opercula). Bubbles in gill filaments dissipated almost completely within 2 h after transfer of fish to water of nearly normal DGS (104%), whereas bubbles in the lateral line dissipated to negligible levels within 5 h. Bubbles on external surfaces were more persistent through time than they were in gill filaments and the lateral line. Although typically dissipating to low levels within 48 h, external bubbles sometimes remained for 4 d. Assuming a direct relation exists between easily observable signs and direct mortality, our results suggest that fish can recover quickly from the potentially lethal effects of DGS once they move from water with high DGS to water of almost normal gas saturation. These results should be of fundamental importance to fishery managers interpreting the results of monitoring for the severity and prevalence of GBT in juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River system and perhaps elsewhere.

  4. Potential anti-inflammatory natural products from marine algae.

    PubMed

    Fernando, I P Shanura; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory diseases have become one of the leading causes of health issue throughout the world, having a considerable influence on healthcare costs. With the emerging developments in natural product, synthetic and combinatorial chemistry, a notable success has been achieved in discovering natural products and their synthetic structural analogs with anti-inflammatory activity. However, many of these therapeutics have indicated detrimental side effects upon prolonged usage. Marine algae have been identified as an underexplored reservoir of unique anti-inflammatory compounds. These include polyphenols, sulfated polysaccharides, terpenes, fatty acids, proteins and several other bioactives. Consumption of these marine algae could provide defense against the pathophysiology of many chronic inflammatory diseases. With further investigation, algal anti-inflammatory phytochemicals have the potential to be used as therapeutics or in the synthesis of structural analogs with profound anti-inflammatory activity with reduced side effects. The current review summarizes the latest knowledge about the potential anti-inflammatory compounds discovered from marine algae.

  5. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  6. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-12-01

    Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.

  7. Classifying Floating Potential Measurement Unit Data Products as Science Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria; Minow, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We are Co-Investigators for the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) on the International Space Station (ISS) and members of the FPMU operations and data analysis team. We are providing this memo for the purpose of classifying raw and processed FPMU data products and ancillary data as NASA science data with unrestricted, public availability in order to best support science uses of the data.

  8. Simulating Potential Switchgrass Production in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, T. O.; Parrish, David J.; Tyler, Donald D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2009-12-31

    Using results from field trials of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in the United States, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) process-level agroecosystem model was calibrated, validated, and applied to simulate potential productivity of switchgrass for use as a biofuel feedstock. The model was calibrated with a regional study of 10-yr switchgrass field trials and subsequently tested against a separate compiled dataset of field trials from across the eastern half of the country. An application of the model in a national database using 8-digit watersheds as the primary modeling unit produces 30-yr average switchgrass yield estimates that can be aggregated to 18 major watersheds. The model projects average annual switchgrass productivity of greater than 7 Mg ha-1 in the Upper Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, and Ohio watersheds. The major factors limiting simulated production vary by region; low precipitation is the primary limiting factor across the western half of the country, while moderately acidic soils limit yields on lands east of the Mississippi River. Average projected switchgrass production on all crop land in the continental US is 5.6 Mg ha-1. At this level of productivity, 28.6 million hectares of crop land would be required to produce the 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol called for by 2022 in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The model described here can be applied as a tool to inform the land-use and environmental consequences of switchgrass production.

  9. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production potential of heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yuta; Uchida, Takahiro; Morohoshi, Jota; Sei, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production potential of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge by genotypic and phenotypic characterizations. A total of 114 bacterial strains were isolated from four activated sludge samples taken from a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor and three wastewater treatment processes of two municipal wastewater treatment plants. PCR detection of the phaC genes encoding class I and II PHA synthase revealed that 15% of the total isolates possessed phaC genes, all of which had the closest similarities to known phaC genes of α- and β-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. PHA production experiments under aerobic and nitrogen-limited conditions showed that 68% of the total isolates were capable of producing PHA from at least one of the six substrates used (acetate, propionate, lactate, butyrate, glucose and glycerol). Genotypic and phenotypic characterizations revealed that 75% of the activated sludge bacteria had PHA production potential. Our results also indicated that short-chain fatty acids would be the preferable substrates for PHA production by activated sludge bacteria, and that there might be a variety of unidentified phaC genes in activated sludge.

  10. An overview of algae biofuel production and potential environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Menetrez, Marc Y

    2012-07-03

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas) and produce products with a wide variety of compositions and uses. These products include lipids, which can be processed into biodiesel; carbohydrates, which can be processed into ethanol; and proteins, which can be used for human and animal consumption. Algae are commonly genetically engineered to allow for advantageous process modification or optimization. However, issues remain regarding human exposure to algae-derived toxins, allergens, and carcinogens from both existing and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), as well as the overall environmental impact of GMOs. A literature review was performed to highlight issues related to the growth and use of algal products for generating biofuels. Human exposure and environmental impact issues are identified and discussed, as well as current research and development activities of academic, commercial, and governmental groups. It is hoped that the ideas contained in this paper will increase environmental awareness of issues surrounding the production of algae and will help the algae industry develop to its full potential.

  11. Endohelminth parasites from salmonids in intensive culture from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Quintanilla, J C; Rozas, M; Miranda, P; Ibarra, R; San Martín, M F; Raddatz, B; Wolter, M; Villegas, A; Canobra, C; Hausdorf, M; Silva, R

    2010-06-01

    A total of 228 salmonids (90 Oncorhynchus mykiss, 48 Oncorhynchus kisutch, and 90 Salmo salar) from 8 intensive aquaculture centers in the south of Chile were examined for endohelminths parasites between December 2008 and May 2009. The body cavities of 2 O. mykiss were infected by Diphyllobothrium sp. plerocercoids (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1.0, mean abundance: 0.07) from the Lake Tarahuin hatchery on the south of Chiloé Island. Also, tetraphyllidean plerocercoids (prevalence: 3.3%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance: 0.03) and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium aduncum (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance 0.07) were observed in O. kisutch from a marine hatchery in Chiloé. The occurrences of Diphyllobothrium sp. in a lake and a tetraphyllidean plerocercoid from marine cultured salmonid in Chiloé are reported for first time. No muscular infection by helminths was recorded in the fish examined.

  12. Effects of Dietary Potential Acid Production Value on Productivity in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Kim, E. T.; Lee, S. S.; Kim, H. J.; Song, J. Y.; Kim, C.-H.; Ha, Jong K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the potential acid production value (PAPV) of major diets and to determine the relationship between dietary PAPV and dairy production traits. Estimation of PAPV of major cattle feeds was based on an in vitro technique, which determined the degree of Ca dissociation from CaCO3. Data on feeds and production traits were collected on 744 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows from five different farms. Grains had high PAPV with variable protein sources and by-products. High PAPV feedstuffs had a higher total gas production and lower pH compared to those with low PAPV. Dietary PAPV had a positive correlation with intake of dry matter, NDF, ADF, milk yield and milk solid production but a negative correlation with milk protein and milk fat concentration. Current results indicate that dietary PAPV can be utilized in predicting dairy production traits. PMID:25049610

  13. Is hyporheic flow an indicator for salmonid spawning site selection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjankar, R. M.; Tonina, D.; Marzadri, A.; McKean, J. A.; Isaak, D.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have investigated the role of hydraulic variables in the selection of spawning sites by salmonids. Some recent studies suggest that the intensity of the ambient hyporheic flow, that present without a salmon egg pocket, is a cue for spawning site selection, but others have argued against it. We tested this hypothesis by using a unique dataset of field surveyed spawning site locations and an unprecedented meter-scale resolution bathymetry of a 13.5 km long reach of Bear Valley Creek (Idaho, USA), an important Chinook salmon spawning stream. We used a two-dimensional surface water model to quantify stream hydraulics and a three-dimensional hyporheic model to quantify the hyporheic flows. Our results show that the intensity of ambient hyporheic flows is not a statistically significant variable for spawning site selection. Conversely, the intensity of the water surface curvature and the habitat quality, quantified as a function of stream hydraulics and morphology, are the most important variables for salmonid spawning site selection. KEY WORDS: Salmonid spawning habitat, pool-riffle system, habitat quality, surface water curvature, hyporheic flow

  14. Characterization of the live salmonid movement network in Ireland: Implications for disease prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Yatabe, T; More, S J; Geoghegan, F; McManus, C; Hill, A E; Martínez-López, B

    2015-11-01

    Live fish movement is considered as having an important role in the transmission of infectious diseases. For that reason, interventions for cost-effective disease prevention and control rely on a sound understanding of the patterns of live fish movements in a region or country. Here, we characterize the network of live fish movements in the Irish salmonid farming industry during 2013, using social network analysis and spatial epidemiology methods, and identify interventions to limit the risk of disease introduction and spread. In the network there were 62 sites sending and/or receiving fish, with a total of 130 shipments (84 arcs) comprising approx. 17.2 million fish during the year. Atlantic salmon shipments covered longer distances than trout shipments, with some traversing the entire country. The average shipment of Atlantic salmon was 146,186 (SD 194,344) fish, compared to 77,928 (127,009) for trout, however, variability was high. There were 3 periods where shipments peaked (February-April, June-September, and November), which were related to specific stages of fish. The network was disconnected and had two major weak components, the first one with 39 nodes (mostly Atlantic salmon sites), and the second one with 10 nodes (exclusively trout sites). Correlation between in and out-degree at each site and assortativity coefficient were slightly low and non-significant: -0.08 (95% CI: -0.22, 0.06) and -0.13 (95% CI: -0.36, 0.08), respectively, indicating random mixing with regard to node degree. Although competing models also produced a good fit to degree distribution, it is likely that the network possesses both small-world and scale-free topology. This would facilitate the spread and persistence of infection in the salmon production system, but would also facilitate the design of risk-based surveillance strategies by targeting hubs, bridges or cut-points. Using Infomap community detection algorithms, 2 major communities were identified within the giant weak

  15. Determining the potential productivity of food crops in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    The quest to determine the maximum potential productivity of food crops is greatly benefitted by crop growth models. Many models have been developed to analyze and predict crop growth in the field, but it is difficult to predict biological responses to stress conditions. Crop growth models for the optimal environments of a Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) can be highly predictive. This paper discusses the application of a crop growth model to CELSS; the model is used to evaluate factors limiting growth. The model separately evaluates the following four physiological processes: absorption of PPF by photosynthetic tissue, carbon fixation (photosynthesis), carbon use (respiration), and carbon partitioning (harvest index). These constituent processes determine potentially achievable productivity. An analysis of each process suggests that low harvest index is the factor most limiting to yield. PPF absorption by plant canopies and respiration efficiency are also of major importance. Research concerning productivity in a CELSS should emphasize: (1) the development of gas exchange techniques to continuously monitor plant growth rates and (2) environmental techniques to reduce plant height in communities.

  16. Measures for Assessing Subjective Effects of Potential Reduced Exposure Products

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Karen; O’Connor, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) may reduce toxicant exposure and thereby may possibly reduce health risks associated with conventional tobacco use. However, lessened health risk to the individual or harm to the population through use of PREPs is unknown. Research is being conducted to evaluate the possible health effects associated with PREP use. As part of this evaluation, it is critical to provide sound measures of subjective responses to PREPs to determine the use and the abuse potential of a product, that is the likelihood that this product will lead to addiction. The goal of this paper is to conduct a systematic review of scales that have been used to measure the subjective responses to PREPs and examine their characteristics. In this paper, scales are identified and the items on the scales are described. Scales are also examined to determine whether they are sensitive in testing PREPs. Furthermore, scales to assess PREPs are recommended to investigators. Where no scales exist, items that may be critical for the development and validation of new scales are identified. PMID:19959674

  17. The global potential of local peri-urban food production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriewald, Steffen; Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Sterzel, Till; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    One big challenge for the rest of the 21st century will be the massive urbanisation. It is expected that more than 7 out of 10 persons will live in a city by the year 2050. Crucial developments towards a sustainable future will therefore take place in cities. One important approach for a sustainable city development is to re-localize food production and to close urban nutrient cycles through better waste management. The re-location of food production avoids CO2 emissions from transportation of food to cities and can also generate income for inhabitants. Cities are by definition locations where fertility accumulates. As cities are often built along rivers, their soils are often fertile. Furthermore, labour force and the possibility of producing fertilizer from human fecal matter within the city promises sustainable nutrients cycles. Although urban and peri-urban agriculture can be found in many cities worldwide and already have a substantial contribution to food supply, it has not jet been comprehensibly structured by research. We combine several worldwide data sets to determine the supply of cities with regional food production, where regional is defined as a production that occurs very close to the consumption within the peri-urban area. Therefore, urban areas are not defined by administrative boundaries but by connected built-up urban areas, and peri-urban area by the surrounding area with the same size multiplied with a scaling parameter. Both together accumulate to an urban-bio-region (UBR). With regard to national food consumption, a linear program achieves the best possible yield on agricultural areas and allows the computation of the fraction of population, which can be nourished. Additionally, several climate scenarios and different dietary patterns were considered. To close the gap between single case studies and to provide a quantitative overview of the global potential of peri-urban food production we used high resolution land-use data Global Land Cover

  18. Phytoplankton biomass, production and potential export in the North Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Bert; LeBlanc, Bernard; Mei, Zhi-Ping; Beret, Rachel; Michaud, Josée; Mundy, C.-J.; von Quillfeldt, Cecilie H.; Garneau, Marie-Ève; Roy, Suzanne; Gratton, Yves; Cochran, J. Kirk; Bélanger, Simon; Larouche, Pierre; Pakulski, J. Dean; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis

    The seasonal patterns of phytoplankton biomass and production were determined in the North Water, located between Greenland and Ellesmere Island (Canadian Arctic), in August 1997, April-July 1998, and August-September 1999. The patterns differed among the four defined regions of this large polynya, i.e. North (>77.5°N), East (>75°W), West (<75°W), and South (<76°N). Phytoplankton biomass and production were low during April throughout the North Water. Biomass first increased in the East during April. From there, the biomass spread north- and westwards during May-June, when the bloom culminated (chlorophyll a concentrations up to 19.8 mg m -3). The large-sized (>5 μm) fraction dominated the biomass and production during the bloom. During July, August, and September, biomass and production decreased over the whole region, with the highest biomass, dominated by large cells, occurring in the North. The annual particulate and dissolved phytoplankton production were the highest ever reported for the high Arctic, reaching maximum values of 254 and 123 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively, in the East. Rates in the North and West were considerably lower than in the East (ca. two- and three-fold, respectively). The f-ratios (i.e. ratio of new to total production), derived from the size structure of phytoplankton, were high north of 76°N (0.4-0.7). Regionally, this indicated a high potential export of particulate organic carbon ( EPOC) from the phytoplankton community to other trophic compartments and/or downwards in the East (155 g C m -2 yr -1), with lower values in the North and West (i.e. 77 and 42 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively). The seasonal and spatial patterns of EPOC were consistent with independent estimates of potential carbon export. Phytoplankton biomass and production were generally dominated by the large size fraction, whereas EPOC seemed to be dominated by the large size fraction early in the season and by the small size fraction (<5 μm) from June until the end

  19. Market potential for guinea fowl (Numidia meleagris) products.

    PubMed

    Madzimure, James; Saina, Happyson; Ngorora, Grace P K

    2011-12-01

    The survey evaluated the market potential for guinea fowl (GF; Numidia meleagris) products in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to traders/producers (n = 17), retailers (n = 12), cafeteria industry (n = 33) and consumers (n = 1,680) to establish their perceptions on guinea fowl products. The average household size was 6 ± 2. Each trader sold 10 ± 6.30 keets (mean ± standard error), 33 ± 15.05 growers, 20 ± 12.69 breeders and 20 ± 10.1 crates of 30 eggs per month. Each household consumed 2.5 ± 1.39 kg of GF meat and 3 ± 0.65 dozens of GF eggs per month. Retailers purchased 52 ± 44.42 crates of GF eggs and 41 ± 30.50/kg of GF meat whilst cafeteria purchased 33.6 ± 14 crates of GF eggs and 65.5 ± 33.52 kg of GF meat per month. Growers for breeding were the major product for sale by traders (94.1%) at a price of US$7.50 ± 1.74/bird. Different industries were offering different prices for guinea fowl products because of their scarcity on the market. The mean purchase price per crate of 30 guinea fowl eggs sold to the retail and cafeteria were US$3.00 ± 0.58 and US$4.50 ± 0.50, respectively. The mean purchase prices for GF meat was lower (P < 0.05) for retailers (US$2.5 ± 0.81/kg) than cafeteria (US$3.67 ± 0.83/kg). The challenges faced by producers in the marketing of guinea fowl products included poor supply due to the absence of good road networks to connect source areas and the market, perishability of dressed chickens due to power cuts and poor publicity. Overall, the study showed that there is greater market potential for guinea fowl products and farmers can channel their products through traders, cafeteria and retail industries.

  20. Assessing Success of Instream Structures for Salmonid Stream Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteway, S.; Biron, P.

    2009-05-01

    Stream restoration is a billion dollar industry in North America; despite this expenditure there remain questions regarding the effectiveness of current techniques such as the installation of instream structures. Assessing the effect that such structures have on physical habitat and on salmonid density are key ways of determining project success. The objectives of this research were to assess the impact of instream structures on physical habitat in the Nicolet River (Quebec) and to analyze physical habitat and fish density data from many stream restoration projects in North America. Results of intensive surveys of the Nicolet River show that the installation of weirs and deflectors results in a greater frequency of pools. These pools have significantly greater depths, lower velocities, larger sediment size and higher percent cover than those without structures. Meta analysis of data from 187 stream restoration projects in North America also show significant increases in percent pool area, average depth, and percent cover as well as decreases in channel width following the installation of structures. The physical changes observed in the Nicolet River resulted in improved trout habitat, as measured by applying habitat preference curves, but uneven stocking practices and fishing pressure confounded attempts to verify differences in trout density based on presence or absence of structures. The meta analysis, however, shows significant increases in salmonid density, measured as fish/m2, following the installation of structures. On average, density increased by 161%. Different structure types result in significantly different changes in physical habitat, with weir structures providing the largest density increase. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the combination of change in relative pool area and in width is the best predictor of change in salmonid density (r2=0.511). Instream structures are significantly more successful at increasing brook trout density

  1. Potential Application of Anaerobic Extremophiles for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    During substrate fermentation many anaerobes produce the hydrogen as a waste product, which often regulates the growth of the cultures as an inhibitor. In nature the hydrogen is usually removed from the ecosystem due to its physical properties or by consumption of hydrogen by secondary anaerobes, which sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors as is seen in the classical example in anaerobic microbial communities via the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur- reducers. It was demonstrated previously on mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH that bacterial hydrogen production could provide an alternative energy source. But at neutral pH the original cultures can easily be contaminated by methanogens, a most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and the cultivation of human pathogens on a global scale is very dangerous. In our laboratory, experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria that excrete hydrogen as the end metabolic product were performed at different temperature regimes. Mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacterial cultures have been studied and compared for the most effective hydrogen production. For high-mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many methanogens are known to exist. Furthermore, the development of pathogenic contaminant microorganisms is virtually impossible: carbonate-saturated solutions are used as antiseptics in medicine. Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as most safe process for global Scale industry in future. Here we present experimental data on the rates of hydrogen productivity for mesophilic, alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirocheta americana ASpG1 and moderately thermophilic, alkaliphilic, facultative anaerobe Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis K1 and

  2. Potential feedstock supply and costs for biodiesel production

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.G.; Howell, S.A.; Weber, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    Without considering technology constraints, tallows and waste greases have definite potential as feedstocks for the production of biodiesel in the United States. These materials are less expensive than most oils produced from oilseed crops such as soybeans, sunflowers, canola and rapeseed. At current crude petroleum prices, biodiesel derived from any of these materials will be more expensive than diesel derived from petroleum. However, when compared to other clean burning alternate fuels, recent data suggest biodiesel blends produced from any of these feedstocks may be the lowest total cost alternative fuel in certain areas of the United States. Economic feasibility analyses were performed to investigate the cost of producing biodiesel ($/gallon) subject to variances in feedstock cost, by-product credit (glycerol and meal) and capital costs. Cost of production per gallon of esterified biodiesel from soybean, sunflower, tallow and yellow grease ranged from $0.96 to $3.39 subject to feedstock and chemical costs, by-product credit and system capital cost.

  3. Central Appalachia: Production potential of low-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, J. )

    1991-09-01

    The vast preponderance of eastern US low sulfur and 1.2-lbs SO{sub 2}/MMBtu compliance coal comes from a relatively small area composed of 14 counties located in eastern Kentucky, southern West Virginia and western Virginia. These 14 counties accounted for 68% of all Central Appalachian coal production in 1989 as well as 85% of all compliance coal shipped to electric utilities from this region. A property-by-property analysis of total production potential in 10 of the 14 counties (Floyd, Knott, Letcher, Harlan, Martin and Pike in Kentucky and Boone, Kanawha, Logan and Mingo in West Virginia) resulted in the following estimates of active and yet to be developed properties: (1) total salable reserves for all sulfur levels were 5.9 billion tons and (2) 1.2-lbs. SO{sub 2}/MMBtu compliance'' reserves totaled 2.38 billion tons. This potential supply of compliance coal is adequate to meet the expanded utility demand expected under acid rain for the next 20 years. Beyond 2010, compliance supplies will begin to reach depletion levels in some areas of the study region. A review of the cost structure for all active mines was used to categorize the cost structure for developing potential supplies. FOB cash costs for all active mines in the ten counties ranged from $15 per ton to $35 per ton and the median mine cost was about $22 per ton. A total of 47 companies with the ability to produce and ship coal from owned or leased reserves are active in the ten-county region. Identified development and expansion projects controlled by active companies are capable of expanding the region's current production level by over 30 million tons per year over the next twenty years. Beyond this period the issue of reserve depletion for coal of all sulfur levels in the ten county region will become a pressing issue. 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, John L.

    1989-01-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration has been conducting a study concerning the epidemiology and control of three fish pathogens which cause major disease problems in salmonids of the Columbia River basin. The pathogens studied include Cera to myxa Shasta, the myxosporean parasite which causes ceratomyxosis; Renibacterium salmoninarum, the bacterium which is the etiological agent of bacterial kidney disease; and the rhabdovirus which causes infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). During this project, the host and geographic range of C. Shasta have been more precisely determined and the known geographic range has been significantly expanded. The effects of the parasite on fish migrating through the Columbia River and on their introduction into salt water have been examined. Similar studies have been conducted with R. salmoninarum and it has been shown that bacterial kidney disease occurs at all life stages of salmonids and is responsible for mortality in both fresh and salt water. It has also been demonstrated that different isolates of R. salmoninarum have different antigenic composition. Results of demonstration projects designed to control IHN by using UV treated water for early rearing of salmonid fry were equivocal. The scope of the project was considerably narrowed and focused during the past two years The project has concentrated on a study concerning the biology of C. Shasta and the identification of potential chemotherapeutants for control of bacterial kidney disease. The emphasis of work on C. Shasta has been its pathogenesis. This aspect of the parasite has been investigated using histopathologic and immunologic methodology. Mode of transmission, the nature of the infectious stage, and potential intermediate hosts of the parasite have also been areas of active research. Classes of chemotherapeutants with the highest potential for efficacy against R. salmoninarum have been

  5. Potential of mask production process for finer pattern fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagawa, Keisuke; Ugajin, Kunihiro; Suenaga, Machiko; Kobayashi, Yoshihito; Motokawa, Takeharu; Hagihara, Kazuki; Saito, Masato; Itoh, Masamitsu

    2013-09-01

    Photomask used for optical lithography has been developed for purpose of fabrication a pattern along with finer designed rules and increase the productivity. With regard to pattern fabrication on mask, EB (Electron beam) mask writer has been used because it has high resolution beam. But in producing photomask, minimum pattern size on mask is hits a peak around 40nm by the resolution limit of ArF immersion systems. This value is easy to achieve by current EB writer. So, photomask process with EB writer has gotten attached to increase turnaround time. In next generation lithography such as EUV (Extreme ultraviolet) lithography and Nano-imprint lithography, it is enable to fabricate finer pattern beyond the resolution limit of ArF immersion systems. Thereby the pattern on a mask becomes finer rapidly. According to ITRS 2012, fabrication of finer patterns less than 20nm will be required on EUV mask and on NIL template. Especially in NIL template, less than 15nm pattern will be required half a decade later. But today's development of EB writer is aiming to increase photomask's productivity, so we will face a difficulty to fabricate finer pattern in near future. In this paper, we examined a potential of mask production process with EB writer from the view of finer pattern fabrication performances. We succeeded to fabricate hp (half-pitch) 17nm pattern on mask plate by using VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) type EB mask writer with CAR (Chemically Amplified Resist). This result suggests that the photomask fabrication process has the potential for sub-20nm generation mask production.

  6. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Shinjiro; Hanasaki, Naota; Itsubo, Norihiro; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan

    2014-05-01

    The sustainability of freshwater use is often evaluated based on the total volume of water consumption or withdrawal. However, the renewable freshwater resource and potential impacts of water depletion differ with location and water source. In addition, most estimates of the environmental impacts of water use have focused on depletion from a single-source perspective without separating geographically different water sources. Therefore, comprehensive potential impacts from multiple water sources remain unclear. In this study, we quantified the potential impacts of the global food production on freshwater availability (water availability footprint), applying the Water Availability Factor (fwa). Each water source including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater had individual fwa, which is calculated based on the geophysical hydrological cycle, to reflect the differences among renewable freshwater resources by place and source. The fwa for each water source was estimated based on land area or time period required to obtain the reference volume of freshwater. The reference volume was regarded as 1 m3 of rainfall over an area of 1.0 m2 (1,000 mm/year), based on the global mean annual precipitation. This concept is consistent with the Ecological Footprint (EF), which measures how much biologically productive land area is required to provide the resources consumed. The EF concept is measured in global hectares, a standardized unit equal to one hectare with global average bioproductivity. We found that the current agriculture consumes freshwater resources at 1.3 times the rapid rate than sustainable water use. This rate can also indicate environmental water scarcity. Among environmentally water-scarce countries, well-financed countries tend to import cereal products as virtual water to compensate for their domestic water resources. Among water-abundant countries, well-financed countries tend to export cereal products by exploiting their freshwater availability. The fwa

  7. Comparing Chemical Mechanisms using Tagged Ozone Production Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, J.; Butler, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a short-lived climate forcing pollutant that is detrimental to human health and crop growth. It is produced by reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the presence of sunlight [Atkinson,2000]. The chemistry of intermediate species formed during VOC degradation show a time dependence and impacts the amount of O3 produced by the VOC [Butler et al., 2011]. Representing the intricacies of these reactions is not viable for chemical mechanisms used in global and regional models due to the computational resources available. Thus, chemical mechanisms reduce the amount of reactions either by lumping chemical species together as a model species, reducing the number of reaction pathways or both. As different chemical mechanisms use varying reduction techniques and assumptions especially with respect to the intermediate degradation species, it is important to compare the temporal evolution of ozone production obtained from differing chemical mechanisms. In this study, chemical mechanisms are compared using Tagged Ozone Production Potentials (TOPP) [Butler et al.,2011]. TOPPs measure the effect of a VOC on the odd oxygen family (Ox), which includes O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and other species whose cycling effect O3 and NO2 production. TOPP values are obtained via a boxmodel run lasting seven diurnal cycles and tagging all species produced during VOC degradation; this enables the Ox production to be attributed to the VOC. This technique enables the temporal evolution of a VOCs' Ox production to be compared between the mechanisms. Comparing the TOPP profiles of the VOCs obtained using different mechanisms shows the effect of reduction techniques implemented by the mechanism and also allows a comparison of the tropospheric chemistry represented in the mechanisms. [Atkinson,2000] Atkinson, R. (2000). Atmospheric chemistry of VOCs and NOx. Atmospheric Environment, 34:2063-2101 [Butler et al., 2011] Butler, T. M

  8. Gamagrass varieties as potential feedstock for fermentable sugar production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiele; Zhang, Ximing; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R; Eubanks, Mary W

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the potential of gamagrass as a feedstock for biofuels, seven gamagrass varieties were analyzed for their chemical composition and subjected to pretreatment at 121 °C using 1% NaOH/H(2)SO(4) (w/w) for 60 min and enzymatic hydrolysis for fermentable sugar production. Based on total sugar yield, the varieties Eagle Point Devil Corn and Sun Devil were selected for NaOH and H(2)SO(4) pretreatment, respectively. The investigation on pretreatment conditions showed that, the conditions applied in gamagrass variety screening (121 °C, 1% NaOH/H(2)SO(4), 60 min) were sufficient to maximize sugar production, such that the total sugar yield of Eagle Point Devil Corn reached 479.6 mg g(-1) after NaOH pretreatment and that of Sun Devil reached 456.5 mg g(-1) raw biomass after H(2)SO(4) pretreatment. Compared with other potential energy crops including switchgrass and Bermuda grass, gamagrass gave a higher sugar yield after NaOH pretreatment and a comparable sugar yield after H(2)SO(4) pretreatment.

  9. Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Tanya Y.; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G.

    2014-01-01

    Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical techniques and equipment bring foods under closer and closer scrutiny. This review considers the formation of lipid oxidation products, hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent lipid oxidation and the associated risk of trans fatty acid formation. The formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction is described, as well as the genetic and agronomic approaches being taken to reduce the acrylamide-forming potential of cereal grain. The multiple routes for the formation of furan and associated chemicals, including hydroxymethylfurfuryl, are also described. The evolving regulatory and public perception situations for these processing contaminants and their implications for the cereal supply chain are discussed, emphasising the need for cereal breeders to engage with the contaminants issue. PMID:24882936

  10. Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Tanya Y; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G

    2014-05-01

    Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical techniques and equipment bring foods under closer and closer scrutiny. This review considers the formation of lipid oxidation products, hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent lipid oxidation and the associated risk of trans fatty acid formation. The formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction is described, as well as the genetic and agronomic approaches being taken to reduce the acrylamide-forming potential of cereal grain. The multiple routes for the formation of furan and associated chemicals, including hydroxymethylfurfuryl, are also described. The evolving regulatory and public perception situations for these processing contaminants and their implications for the cereal supply chain are discussed, emphasising the need for cereal breeders to engage with the contaminants issue.

  11. Natural product modulators of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as potential anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Tiago; Sieglitz, Florian; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L

    2016-11-07

    Treatment of cancer is a significant challenge in clinical medicine, and its research is a top priority in chemical biology and drug discovery. Consequently, there is an urgent need for identifying innovative chemotypes capable of modulating unexploited drug targets. The transient receptor potential (TRPs) channels persist scarcely explored as targets, despite intervening in a plethora of pathophysiological events in numerous diseases, including cancer. Both agonists and antagonists have proven capable of evoking phenotype changes leading to either cell death or reduced cell migration. Among these, natural products entail biologically pre-validated and privileged architectures for TRP recognition. Furthermore, several natural products have significantly contributed to our current knowledge on TRP biology. In this Tutorial Review we focus on selected natural products, e.g. capsaicinoids, cannabinoids and terpenes, by highlighting challenges and opportunities in their use as starting points for designing natural product-inspired TRP channel modulators. Importantly, the de-orphanization of natural products as TRP channel ligands may leverage their exploration as viable strategy for developing anticancer therapies. Finally, we foresee that TRP channels may be explored for the selective pharmacodelivery of cytotoxic payloads to diseased tissues, providing an innovative platform in chemical biology and molecular medicine.

  12. Hydrological and thermal effects of hydropeaking on early life stages of salmonids: A modelling approach for implementing mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Alfredsen, Knut Tore

    2016-12-15

    Alterations in hydrological and thermal regimes can potentially affect salmonid early life stages development and survival. The dewatering of salmon spawning redds due to hydropeaking can lead to mortality in early life stages, with higher impact on the alevins as they have lower tolerance to dewatering than the eggs. Flow-related mitigation measures can reduce early life stage mortality. We present a set of modelling tools to assess impacts and mitigation options to minimise the risk of mortality in early life stages in hydropeaking rivers. We successfully modelled long-term hydrological and thermal alterations and consequences for development rates. We estimated the risk of early life stages mortality and assessed the cost-effectiveness of implementing three release-related mitigation options (A,B,C). The economic cost of mitigation was low and ranged between 0.7% and 2.6% of the annual hydropower production. Options reducing the flow during spawning (B and C) in addition to only release minimum flows during development (A) were considered more effective for egg and alevin survival. Options B and C were however constraint by water availability in the system for certain years, and therefore only option A was always feasible. The set of modelling tools used in this study were satisfactory and their applications can be useful especially in systems where little field data is available. Targeted measures built on well-informed modelling tools can be tested on their effectiveness to mitigate dewatering effects vs. the hydropower system capacity to release or conserve water for power production. Environmental flow releases targeting specific ecological objectives can provide better cost-effective options than conventional operational rules complying with general legislation.

  13. Engineering analysis of potential photosynthetic bacterial hydrogen-production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlevich, A.; Karpuk, M. E.

    1982-06-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) are capable of generating hydrogen from organics in effluents from food processing, pulp and paper, and chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Hydrogen evolution takes place under light in the absence of air. The rate of hydrogen production is expected to range between 300 to 600 scf of hydrogen per 1000 galloons of waste stream treated per hour. This hydrogen production system has been demonstrated at a bench-scale level and is ready for engineering development. A conceptual design for a PSB hydrogen production system is described. The system is expected to be sited adjacent to a waste stream source which will be pretreated by fermentation and pH adjustment, innoculated with bacteria, and then passed into the reactor. The reactor effluent can either be discharged into a rapid infiltration system, an irrigation ditch, and/or recycled back into the reactor. Several potential reactor designs have been developed, analyzed, and costed. A large covered pond appears to be the most economical design approach.

  14. Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

  15. Screening of biomethane production potential from dominant microalgae.

    PubMed

    Fermoso, Fernando G; Beltran, Carolina; Jimenez, Antonia; Fernández, María José; Rincón, Bárbara; Borja, Rafael; Jeison, David

    2016-10-14

    The use of microalgae for biomethane production has been considerably increasing during the recent years. In this study, four dominant species belonging to the genera Scenedesmus, Chlorella, Dunaliella and Nostoc were selected. The influence of different genera with several morphological, structural and physicochemical characteristics on methane production was assessed in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The ultimate methane yield values were 332 ± 24, 211 ± 2, 63 ± 17 and 28 ± 10 mL CH4/g VSadded for Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella sorokiniana, Dunaliella salina and Nostoc sp., respectively. The highest methane production was achieved by microalga species that had no complex cell wall or wall basically composed by proteins and simple sugars such as in S. obliquus, whereas lower methane yields were found for D. salina and Nostoc sp., due to the salinity effects and cell wall composition in terms of complex polysaccharide and glycolipid layers, respectively. Kinetic constant values obtained in the BMP tests ranged between 1.00 ± 0.08 and 0.097 ± 0.005 days(-1) for D. salina and S. obliquus, respectively.

  16. Chitinolytic enzymes: an appraisal as a product of commercial potential.

    PubMed

    Chavan, S B; Deshpande, M V

    2013-01-01

    Chitin, its deacetylated form, chitosan and chitinolytic enzymes viz. endo-chitinase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitosanase, chitin deacetylase (CDA) are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. Presently, chitin degrading enzymes constitute high-cost low-volume products in human health care and associated research. Indeed chitinases and CDA-chitosanase complex possesss tremendous potential in agriculture to control plant pathogenic fungi and insects. The success in exploring chitinases especially for agriculture, i.e. as a high-volume low-cost product, depends on the availability of highly active preparations with a reasonable cost. Therefore, a reconsideration in terms of understanding the roles of chitinolytic enzymes in applications, e.g. host-pathogen interaction for biocontrol, different mechanisms of chitin degradation, and identification of new enzymes with varying specificities, may make them more useful in a variety of commercial processes in the near future. The possible issues and challenges encountered in the translation of proof of concept into a commercial product will be appraised in this review.

  17. By-products: oil sorbents as a potential energy source.

    PubMed

    Karakasi, Olga K; Moutsatsou, Angeliki

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the utilization of an industrial by-product, lignite fly ash, in oil pollution treatment, with the further potential profit of energy production. The properties of lignite fly ash, such as fine particle size, porosity, hydrophobic character, combined with the properties, such as high porosity and low specific gravity, of an agricultural by-product, namely sawdust, resulted in an effective oil-sorbent material. The materials were mixed either in the dry state or in aqueous solution. The oil sorption behaviour of the fly ash-sawdust mixtures was investigated in both marine and dry environments. Mixtures containing fly ash and 15-25% w/w sawdust performed better than each material alone when added to oil spills in a marine environment, as they formed a cohesive semi-solid phase, adsorbing almost no water, floating on the water surface and allowing total oil removal. For the clean-up of an oil spill 0.5 mm thick with surface area 1000 m(2), 225-255 kg of lignite fly ash can be utilized with the addition of 15-25% w/w sawdust. Fly ash-sawdust mixtures have also proved efficient for oil spill clean-up on land, since their oil sorption capacity in dry conditions was at least 0.6-1.4 g oil g(-1) mixture. The higher calorific value of the resultant oil-fly ash-sawdust mixtures increased up to that of bituminous coal and oil and exceeded that of lignite, thereby encouraging their utilization as alternative fuels especially in the cement industry, suggesting that the remaining ash can contribute in clinker production.

  18. Redox potential: An indicator of site productivity in forest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajedi, Toktam; Prescott, Cindy; Lavkulich, Les

    2010-05-01

    Redox potential (Eh) is an integrated soil measurement that reflects several environmental conditions in the soil associated with aeration, moisture and carbon (organic matter) dynamics. Its measurement can be related to water table fluctuations, precipitation and landscape gradients, organic matter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics, biological diversity and plant species distribution. Redox is an excellent indicator of soil biological processes, as it is largely a reflection of microbial activities which to a large extent govern carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling. Redox thus serves as an ecological indicator of site productivity at the ecosystem scale and may be used for management purposes as its magnitude can be altered by activities such as harvesting and drainage. A threshold value of 300 mv has been documented as the critical value below which anaerobic conditions in the soil develop. However, redox measurements and its impacts on ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling and productivity, especially in forest ecosystems, have not received the attention that this "master" variable deserves, On northern Vancouver Island, Canada, regenerating stands of western redcedar-western hemlock (CH) sites exhibit symptoms of nutrient deficiencies and slow growth, but this phenomenon does not occur on adjacent western hemlock- amabalis fir (HA) sites. We tested the hypothesis that differences in nutrient supply and distribution of plant species was caused by differences in moisture regime and redox potential. Redox potential, pH, soil aeration depth (steel rods), organic matter thickness, bulk density, soil carbon store, plant species distribution and richness were measured at five old-growth and five 10-year-old cutover blocks. Results of investigations confirmed that CH forests were wetter, had redox values lower than the critical 300mv and a shallower aerated zone, compared with adjacent regenerating HA sites. Fifty percent of the CH plots had redox values

  19. Salmonid sexual development is not consistently altered by embryonic exposure to endocrine-active chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, D B; Curtis, L R; Williams, D E

    2000-01-01

    Fish sexual development is sensitive to exogenous hormone manipulation, and salmonids have been used extensively as environmental sentinels and models for biomedical research. We simulated maternal transfer of contaminants by microinjecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) embryos. Fish were reared for 6 months and sexed, and gonads were removed for histology and measurement of in vitro steroid production. Analysis of fat samples showed that dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE) levels, o, p'M-DDE and p,o, p'-DDE isomers, were elevated 6 months after treatment. A preliminary study showed an increased ratio of males to females after treatment with 80 mg/kg and 160 mg/kg of the xenoestrogen o,o, p'-DDE. One fish treated with 160 mg/kg o,o, p'-DDE had gonads with cells typical of both males and females. A follow-up study, using more fish and excluding the highly toxic 160 mg/kg o,o, p'-DDE dose, showed no effect on sex ratio or gonadal histology. Embryonic exposure of monosex male trout, monosex female trout, and mixed sex salmon to o, o, p'-DDE, p,o, p'-DDE, mixtures of DDE isomers, and octylphenol failed to alter sexual development. We observed no treatment-dependent changes in in vitro gonadal steroid production in any experiments. Trout exposed in ovo and reared to maturity spawned successfully. These results suggest that mortality attributable to the xenoestrogens o,o, p'-DDE, chlordecone, and octylphenol, and the antiandrogen p,o, p'-DDE, is likely to occur before the appearance of subtle changes in sexual development. Because trout appeared to be sensitive to endocrine disruption, we cannot dismiss the threat of heavily contaminated sites or complex mixtures to normal sexual development of salmonids or other aquatic organisms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10706532

  20. Large scale modelling of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infection pressure based on lice monitoring data from Norwegian salmonid farms.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Anja B; Jimenez, Daniel; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Grøntvedt, Randi; Stien, Audun; Jansen, Peder A

    2014-12-01

    Infection by parasitic sea lice is a substantial problem in industrial scale salmon farming. To control the problem, Norwegian salmonid farms are not permitted to exceed a threshold level of infection on their fish, and farms are required to monitor and report lice levels on a weekly basis to ensure compliance with the regulation. In the present study, we combine the monitoring data with a deterministic model for salmon lice population dynamics to estimate farm production of infectious lice stages. Furthermore, we use an empirical estimate of the relative risk of salmon lice transmission between farms, that depend on inter-farm distances, to estimate the external infection pressure at a farm site, i.e. the infection pressure from infective salmon lice of neighbouring farm origin. Finally, we test whether our estimates of infection pressure from neighbouring farms as well as internal within farm infection pressure, predicts subsequent development of infection in cohorts of farmed salmonids in their initial phase of marine production. We find that estimated external infection pressure is a main predictor of salmon lice population dynamics in newly stocked cohorts of salmonids. Our results emphasize the importance of keeping the production of infectious lice stages at low levels within local networks of salmon farms. Our model can easily be implemented for real time estimation of infection pressure at the national scale, utilizing the masses of data generated through the compulsory lice monitoring in salmon farms. The implementation of such a system should give the salmon industry greater predictability with respect to salmon lice infection levels, and aid the decision making process when the development of new farm sites are planned.

  1. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho; 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kevin A.

    1999-03-01

    Native resident salmonids in the western United States are in decline throughout much of their range. The purpose of the multi-phased project is to restore native salmonids in the upper Snake River basin to self-sustaining, harvestable levels.

  2. Co-Speciation of the Ectoparasite Gyrodactylus teuchis (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes) and Its Salmonid Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Christoph; Weiss, Steven J.; Stojanovski, Stojmir; Bachmann, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Co-speciation is a fundamental concept of evolutionary biology and intuitively appealing, yet in practice hard to demonstrate as it is often blurred by other evolutionary processes. We investigate the phylogeographic history of the monogenean ectoparasites Gyrodactylus teuchis and G. truttae on European salmonids of the genus Salmo. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 were sequenced for 189 Gyrodactylus individuals collected from 50 localities, distributed across most major European river systems, from the Iberian- to the Balkan Peninsula. Despite both anthropogenic and naturally caused admixture of the principal host lineages among major river basins, co-phylogenetic analyses revealed significant global congruence for host and parasite phylogenies, providing firm support for co-speciation of G. teuchis and its salmonid hosts brown trout (S. trutta) and Atlantic salmon (S. salar). The major split within G. teuchis, coinciding with the initial divergence of the hosts was dated to ~1.5 My BP, using a Bayesian framework based on an indirect calibration point obtained from the host phylogeny. The presence of G. teuchis in Europe thus predates some of the major Pleistocene glaciations. In contrast, G. truttae exhibited remarkably low intraspecific genetic diversity. Given the direct life cycle and potentially high transmission potential of gyrodactylids, this finding is interpreted as indication for a recent emergence (<60 ky BP) of G. truttae via a host-switch. Our study thus suggests that instances of two fundamentally different mechanisms of speciation (co-speciation vs. host-switching) may have occurred on the same hosts in Europe within a time span of less than 1.5 My in two gyrodactylid ectoparasite species. PMID:26080029

  3. The contribution of molecular epidemiology to the understanding and control of viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Snow, Michael

    2011-04-05

    Molecular epidemiology is a science which utilizes molecular biology to define the distribution of disease in a population (descriptive epidemiology) and relies heavily on integration of traditional (or analytical) epidemiological approaches to identify the etiological determinants of this distribution. The study of viral pathogens of aquaculture has provided many exciting opportunities to apply such tools. This review considers the extent to which molecular epidemiological studies have contributed to better understanding and control of disease in aquaculture, drawing on examples of viral diseases of salmonid fish of commercial significance including viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). Significant outcomes of molecular epidemiological studies include:Improved taxonomic classification of viruses. A better understanding of the natural distribution of viruses. An improved understanding of the origins of viral pathogens in aquaculture. An improved understanding of the risks of translocation of pathogens outwith their natural host range. An increased ability to trace the source of new disease outbreaks. Development of a basis for ensuring development of appropriate diagnostic tools. An ability to classify isolates and thus target future research aimed at better understanding biological function. While molecular epidemiological studies have no doubt already made a significant contribution in these areas, the advent of new technologies such as pyrosequencing heralds a quantum leap in the ability to generate descriptive molecular sequence data. The ability of molecular epidemiology to fulfil its potential to translate complex disease pathways into relevant fish health policy is thus unlikely to be limited by the generation of descriptive molecular markers. More likely, full realisation of the potential to better explain viral transmission pathways will be dependent on the ability to assimilate

  4. Co-Speciation of the Ectoparasite Gyrodactylus teuchis (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes) and Its Salmonid Hosts.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Christoph; Weiss, Steven J; Stojanovski, Stojmir; Bachmann, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Co-speciation is a fundamental concept of evolutionary biology and intuitively appealing, yet in practice hard to demonstrate as it is often blurred by other evolutionary processes. We investigate the phylogeographic history of the monogenean ectoparasites Gyrodactylus teuchis and G. truttae on European salmonids of the genus Salmo. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 were sequenced for 189 Gyrodactylus individuals collected from 50 localities, distributed across most major European river systems, from the Iberian- to the Balkan Peninsula. Despite both anthropogenic and naturally caused admixture of the principal host lineages among major river basins, co-phylogenetic analyses revealed significant global congruence for host and parasite phylogenies, providing firm support for co-speciation of G. teuchis and its salmonid hosts brown trout (S. trutta) and Atlantic salmon (S. salar). The major split within G. teuchis, coinciding with the initial divergence of the hosts was dated to ~1.5 My BP, using a Bayesian framework based on an indirect calibration point obtained from the host phylogeny. The presence of G. teuchis in Europe thus predates some of the major Pleistocene glaciations. In contrast, G. truttae exhibited remarkably low intraspecific genetic diversity. Given the direct life cycle and potentially high transmission potential of gyrodactylids, this finding is interpreted as indication for a recent emergence (<60 ky BP) of G. truttae via a host-switch. Our study thus suggests that instances of two fundamentally different mechanisms of speciation (co-speciation vs. host-switching) may have occurred on the same hosts in Europe within a time span of less than 1.5 My in two gyrodactylid ectoparasite species.

  5. Searching for an Integrated Watershed Salmonid Population Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligon, F. K.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2005-05-01

    In proposing to restore a stream or watershed, we imply that we know what we are restoring and why. However, in many cases, restoration proceeds without having the tools to adequately assess the efficacy of a project-both in terms of its likely local success and what effects it may have at a larger watershed or regional scale. In salmonid ecology and restoration, our approach has been to "step back" and investigate the degree to which geology, tectonics, and climate determine the relative abundance and temporal variability of the species present in a watershed or reach. In other words, does the habitat provided by a landscape prior to European disturbance (the so-called historical reference condition) allow us to predict, using salmon life history theory, the historical population dynamics of all salmonid species for a watershed or region? Likewise, as changes in physical processes have occurred due to human disturbance, can we predict the differential effects on the abundance of different salmonid species historically present in the watershed? To explore these questions, we have developed the "reference model". The reference model is based on a set of desktop watershed analyses tools that estimate a number of landscape attributes including channel slope, drainage area, stream temperature, and shallow landslide sensitivity. The model uses these tools to predict the spatial distribution of habitat and its quality and quantity. Then, by relating the habitat to life stage specific survival, the model predicts population dynamics under reference and current conditions, and under proposed restoration scenarios. In applying the reference model, we explicitly link salmon restoration targets and plans to an understanding of the role of physical processes on the historical and current population dynamics. As is true with most models, the reference model's predictions have the greatest value when they can be treated as testable hypotheses. Ongoing restoration projects that

  6. How well can captive breeding programs conserve biodiversity? A review of salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Dylan J

    2008-01-01

    Captive breeding programs are increasingly being initiated to prevent the imminent extinction of endangered species and/or populations. But how well can they conserve genetic diversity and fitness, or re-establish self-sustaining populations in the wild? A review of these complex questions and related issues in salmonid fishes reveals several insights and uncertainties. Most programs can maintain genetic diversity within populations over several generations, but available research suggests the loss of fitness in captivity can be rapid, its magnitude probably increasing with the duration in captivity. Over the long-term, there is likely tremendous variation between (i) programs in their capacity to maintain genetic diversity and fitness, and (ii) species or even intraspecific life-history types in both the severity and manner of fitness-costs accrued. Encouragingly, many new theoretical and methodological approaches now exist for current and future programs to potentially reduce these effects. Nevertheless, an unavoidable trade-off exists between conserving genetic diversity and fitness in certain instances, such as when captive-bred individuals are temporarily released into the wild. Owing to several confounding factors, there is also currently little evidence that captive-bred lines of salmonids can or cannot be reintroduced as self-sustaining populations. Most notably, the root causes of salmonid declines have not been mitigated where captive breeding programs exist. Little research has also addressed under what conditions an increase in population abundance due to captive-rearing might offset fitness reductions induced in captivity. Finally, more empirical investigation is needed to evaluate the genetic/fitness benefits and risks associated with (i) maintaining captive broodstocks as either single or multiple populations within one or more facilities, (ii) utilizing cryopreservation or surrogate broodstock technologies, and (iii) adopting other alternatives to

  7. Review of the negative influences of non-native salmonids on native fish species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Non-native salmonids are often introduced into areas containing species of concern, yet a comprehensive overview of the short- and long-term consequences of these introductions is lacking in the Great Plains. Several authors have suggested that non-native salmonids negatively inflfluence species of concern. The objective of this paper is to review known interactions between non-native salmonids and native fifishes, with a focus on native species of concern. After an extensive search of the literature, it appears that in many cases non-native salmonids do negatively inflfl uence species of concern (e.g., reduce abundance and alter behavior) via different mechanisms (e.g., predation and competition). However, there are some instances in which introduced salmonids have had no perceived negative inflfl uence on native fifi shes. Unfortunately, the majority of the literature is circumstantial, and there is a need to experimentally manipulate these interactions.

  8. Some metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins in salmonid fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, G.A.; Ross, A.J.; Smith, L.

    1968-01-01

    Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were highly resistant to endotoxins from both Escherichia coli and Aeromonas salmonicida (a fish pathogen) at 14 and 18 C.This resistance was investigated with liver tryptophan pyrrolase, liver glycogen depletion in vitro, and the arterial blood pressure as indicators. Liver glycogen depletion was accelerated by both endotoxins, but there was no significant cardiovascular response or effect on liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity. Since the cardiovascular effects of histamine were also limited, it was concluded that the metabolic effects of bacterial endotoxins in salmonids are qualitatively different from those of the higher vertebrates.

  9. Incorporating spatial context into the analysis of salmonid habitat relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Baxter, Colden V.; Ebersole, J.L.; Gresswell, Bob; Church, Michael; Biron, Pascale M.; Roy, Andre G.

    2012-01-01

    In this response to the chapter by Lapointe (this volume), we discuss the question of why it is so difficult to predict salmonid-habitat relations in gravel-bed rivers and streams. We acknowledge that this cannot be an exhaustive treatment of the subject and, thus, identify what we believe are several key issues that demonstrate the necessity of incorporating spatial context into the analysis of fish-habitat data. Our emphasis is on spatial context (i.e., scale and location), but it is important to note that the same principles may be applied with some modification to temporal context, which is beyond the scope of this chapter.

  10. Anaerobic Fungi and Their Potential for Biogas Production.

    PubMed

    Dollhofer, Veronika; Podmirseg, Sabine Marie; Callaghan, Tony Martin; Griffith, Gareth Wyn; Fliegerová, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Plant biomass is the largest reservoir of environmentally friendly renewable energy on earth. However, the complex and recalcitrant structure of these lignocellulose-rich substrates is a severe limitation for biogas production. Microbial pro-ventricular anaerobic digestion of ruminants can serve as a model for improvement of converting lignocellulosic biomass into energy. Anaerobic fungi are key players in the digestive system of various animals, they produce a plethora of plant carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes. Combined with the invasive growth of their rhizoid system their contribution to cell wall polysaccharide decomposition may greatly exceed that of bacteria. The cellulolytic arsenal of anaerobic fungi consists of both secreted enzymes, as well as extracellular multi-enzyme complexes called cellulosomes. These complexes are extremely active, can degrade both amorphous and crystalline cellulose and are probably the main reason of cellulolytic efficiency of anaerobic fungi. The synergistic use of mechanical and enzymatic degradation makes anaerobic fungi promising candidates to improve biogas production from recalcitrant biomass. This chapter presents an overview about their biology and their potential for implementation in the biogas process.

  11. Potentials of engineered nanoparticles as fertilizers for increasing agronomic productions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

    2015-05-01

    Development and application of new types of fertilizers using innovative nanotechnology are one of the potentially effective options of significantly enhancing the global agricultural productions needed to meet the future demands of the growing population. Indeed, the review of available literature indicates that some engineered nanomaterials can enhance plant-growth in certain concentration ranges and could be used as nanofertilizers in agriculture to increase agronomic yields of crops and/or minimize environmental pollution. This article summarizes this type of nanomaterials under four categories: macronutrient nanofertilizers, micronutrient nanofertilizers, nutrient-loaded nanofertilizers, and plant-growth-enhancing nanomaterials. Each category is discussed respectively with reference to nanomaterials' chemical composition, particle size, concentrations applied, benefited plant species, plant incubation methods, and plant-growth enhancement aspects and the rates. The importance, research directions, and research requirements of each nanofertilizer category for achieving sustainable agriculture are also specifically examined. Finally, this review suggests that development of N and P macronutrient nanofertilizers is a high research and development priority both for food production and environmental protection.

  12. Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus as a potential source for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shovon; Mallick, Nirupama

    2009-08-01

    Biodiesel from microalgae seems to be the only renewable biofuel that has the potential to completely replace the petroleum-derived transport fuels. Therefore, improving lipid content of microalgal strains could be a cost-effective second generation feedstock for biodiesel production. Lipid accumulation in Scenedesmus obliquus was studied under various culture conditions. The most significant increase in lipid reached 43% of dry cell weight (dcw), which was recorded under N-deficiency (against 12.7% under control condition). Under P-deficiency and thiosulphate supplementation the lipid content also increased up to 30% (dcw). Application of response surface methodology in combination with central composite rotary design (CCRD) resulted in a lipid yield of 61.3% (against 58.3% obtained experimentally) at 0.04, 0.03, and 1.0 g l(-1) of nitrate, phosphate, and sodium thiosulphate, respectively for time culture of 8 days. Scenedesmus cells pre-grown in glucose (1.5%)-supplemented N 11 medium when subjected to the above optimized condition, the lipid accumulation was boosted up to 2.16 g l(-1), the value approximately 40-fold higher with respect to the control condition. The presence of palmitate and oleate as the major constituents makes S. obliquus biomass a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production.

  13. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Van Bockstael, Mark; Diaby, Mamadou; Cissé, Kabinet; Diallo, Thierno Amadou; Sano, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that export shipments of rough diamonds were free of conflict concerns. Outcomes of the meeting were formally supported later in December of 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. The goal of this study was to estimate the alluvial diamond resource endowment and the current production capacity of the alluvial diamond mining sector of Guinea. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within Guinea's diamondiferous regions, while the diamond-production capacity of these zones was estimated by inputting the number of artisanal miners, the number of days artisans work per year, and the average grade of the deposits into a formulaic expression. Guinea's resource potential was estimated to be approximately 40 million carats, while the production capacity was estimated to lie within a range of 480,000 to 720,000 carats per year. While preliminary results have been produced by integrating historical documents, five fieldwork campaigns, and remote sensing and GIS analysis, significant data gaps remain. The artisanal mining sector is dynamic and is affected by a variety of internal and external factors. Estimates of the number of artisans and deposit variables, such as grade, vary from site to site and from zone to zone. This report has been developed on the basis of the most detailed information available at this time. However, continued fieldwork and evaluation of artisanally mined deposits would increase the accuracy of the results.

  14. Evaluating oral noncombustible potential-reduced exposure products for smokers

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Potential-reduced exposure products (PREPs) are marketed as a way for smokers to continue using tobacco while possibly lessening their tobacco toxicant intake. Some tobacco-based PREPs are combustible and intended to be smoked, while others are noncombustible and intended to be administered orally (e.g., Camel Snus [CS] tobacco sachets and Ariva tobacco tablets). The ability of these noncombustible PREPs to reduce smokers’ exposure to cigarette-delivered toxicants and suppress tobacco abstinence symptoms effectively is unclear. Clinical laboratory methods have been used to measure combustible PREP-associated toxicant exposure and abstinence symptom suppression and could be applied to evaluating the effects of orally administered noncombustible PREPs. Methods: In this study, 21 smokers (6 women) participated in four 5-day conditions that differed by product used: CS, Ariva, own brand cigarettes, or no tobacco. Measures included expired-air carbon monoxide (CO), the urinary metabolite of nicotine (cotinine), the urinary metabolite of the carcinogen NNK (NNAL-T), and subjective effect ratings. Results: Relative to own brand, all other conditions were associated with CO and cotinine levels that were lower and abstinence symptom ratings that were greater. Only no-tobacco use was associated with significantly lower NNAL levels. Acceptability ratings were also lower in all conditions relative to own brand. Discussion: Although these oral products reduce exposure to CO, their ineffective abstinence symptom suppression and low acceptability may limit their viability as PREPs. As with combustible PREPs, clinical laboratory study of orally administered noncombustible PREPs will be a valuable part of any comprehensive PREP evaluation strategy. PMID:20159791

  15. Abuse Liability Assessment of Tobacco Products Including Potential Reduced Exposure Products (PREPs)

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; O'Connor, Rich J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2009-01-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes, but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREPS). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the premarket assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This paper describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based. PMID:19959676

  16. Abuse liability assessment of tobacco products including potential reduced exposure products.

    PubMed

    Carter, Lawrence P; Stitzer, Maxine L; Henningfield, Jack E; O'Connor, Rich J; Cummings, K Michael; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2009-12-01

    The harm produced by tobacco products is a result of frequent use of a highly toxic product. Reducing the adverse public health impact of tobacco products might be most effectively achieved by reducing the likelihood of their use and the toxicity of the products. Products that retain some characteristics of cigarettes but have been altered with the intention of reducing toxicity have been referred to as modified risk tobacco products or potential reduced exposure products (MRTP/PREP). Evaluation of their content, emission, and toxicity is discussed in other articles in this special issue. Here, we discuss the methodology that has been used to examine the likelihood of abuse or addiction. Abuse liability assessment (ALA) methodology has been used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other drug regulatory agencies world-wide for decades to assess the risks posed by a wide variety of pharmacologically active substances. ALA is routinely required among other evaluations of safety during the pre-market assessment of new drugs, and is continually adapted to meet the challenges posed by new drug classes and drug formulations. In the 2009 law giving FDA regulation over tobacco products, FDA is now required to evaluate new tobacco products including MRTP/PREPs to determine their risk for abuse and toxicity at the population level. This article describes the traditional tools and methods of ALA that can be used to evaluate new tobacco and nicotine products including MRTP/PREPs. Such ALA data could contribute to the scientific foundation on which future public policy decisions are based.

  17. The Potential of Microalgae Lipids for Edible Oil Production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanfei; Zhang, Dongmei; Xue, Shengzhang; Wang, Meng; Cong, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of oil-rich green algae, Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Nannochloropsis oceanica, to produce edible oil with respect to lipid and residue properties. The results showed that C. vulgaris and N. oceanica had similarly much higher lipid recovery (about 50 %) in hexane extraction than that of S. obliquus (about 25 %), and C. vulgaris had the highest content of neutral lipids among the three algae. The fatty acid compositions of neutral lipids from C. vulgaris and S. obliquus were mainly C16 and C18, resembling that of vegetable oils. ARA and EPA were the specific valuable fatty acids in lipids of N. oceanica, but the content of which was lower in neutral lipids. Phytol was identified as the major unsaponifiable component in lipids of the three algae. Combined with the evaluation of the ratios in SFA/MUFA/PUFA, (n-6):(n-3) and content of free fatty acids, lipids obtained from C. vulgaris displayed the great potential for edible oil production. Lipids of N. oceanica showed the highest antioxidant activity, and its residue contained the largest amounts of protein as well as the amino acid compositions were greatly beneficial to the health of human beings.

  18. Comparison of Lake Ontario zooplankton communities between 1967 and 1985: before and after implementation of salmonid stocking and phosphorus control

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsson, O.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two strong, contrasting management strategies were applied to Lake Ontario during the 1970s. There has been a 40 percent reduction in phosphorus loading to the lake and an exponential increase in salmonid stocking. A comparison of zooplankton community structure and abundance from 1981 to 1985 with that of earlier studies (1967 to 1972) found no detectable change in the range of abundances or community composition between the two periods. Clearly, neither management strategy has had a discernible impact on the zooplankton community to date; however, the potential for change in the system remains high. 36 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Penev, M.; Heimiller, D.

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  20. Isolation of Tasmanian Rickettsia-like organism (RLO) from farmed salmonids: identification of multiple serotypes and confirmation of pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Morrison, R N; Young, N D; Knowles, G; Cornish, M C; Carson, J

    2016-12-21

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. farmed in south-east Tasmania, Australia, are susceptible to infection by the Tasmanian Rickettsia-like organism (TRLO), a Gram-negative bacterium. Here, we report the first isolation of TRLO from south-east Tasmania in pure culture and show that the bacterium is culturable on both specialised enriched agar and in cell culture using the CHSE-214 cell line. In vitro cultured TRLO was used to reproducibly elicit disease in Atlantic salmon parr held in fresh water. In inoculated fish, TRLO was observed intracytoplasmically in peripheral blood leucocytes, suggesting that these cells are responsible for haematogenous dispersal of the bacterium within the host. Fish with experimentally induced disease presented with gross and histopathological changes similar to TRLO-infected fish at commercial marine farms. TRLO was also isolated in culture from farmed Atlantic salmon in the Tamar River and Macquarie Harbour production areas in Tasmania, both of which have no history of TRLO-associated disease. These TRLO isolates appear to be serologically distinct from each other as well as from isolates obtained from south-east Tasmania, linking each serotype to a specific geographical location within Tasmania. Despite the lack of clinical evidence of TRLO-linked disease in fish grown in the Tamar River and Macquarie Harbour, experimental infection trials demonstrably showed the pathogenic potential of these TRLO serovars. Together, these data provide evidence that TRLO is a fastidious, facultative intracellular bacterium and confirm TRLO as a pathogen of Atlantic salmon, causing a disease designated Tasmanian salmonid rickettsiosis.

  1. Prevention and control of viral diseases of salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.

    1976-01-01

    Three viral diseases of salmonids are of worldwide concern: infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS), and infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). Six principal approaches are being used to prevent or control these diseases: 1) preventing contact o the pathogen with the host, 2) environmental manipulation, 3) immunization, 4) chemotherapy, 5 selective breeding for disease resistance, and 6) reducing stress conditions which augment disease conditions. Preventing the introduction of a pathogen into a new stock of fish has been accomplished mainly by implementing stringent laws to prevent transport of infected fish into uninfected areas. Stocks of fish already infected are sometimes destroyed, and the hatchery is disinfected and restocked with fish free of specific pathogens. Environmental manipulation (elevated water temperature) has been successfully used to control IHN. Chemotherapeutics such as povidone-iodine for IPN and benzipyrene for IHN show promise of controlling mortalities; however, the practicality of using these drugs to eliminate the carrier fish has not been evaluated. Salmonids are capable of developing immune responses to viruses; however, development of effective vaccines, selective breeding for disease resistance, and identification of stress conditions which augment disease are still in the experimental phase.

  2. Outplanting Anadromous Salmonids, A Lilterature Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Eugene M.

    1985-10-01

    This paper presents a list of more than 200 references on topics associated with offstation releases of hatchery stocks of anadromous fish used to supplement or reestablish wild rearing. The narrative briefly reviews influences of genetics, rearing density of fish in the natural environment, survival rates observed from outplanted stocks, and estimation procedures for stocking rates and rearing densities. We have attempted to summarize guidelines and recommendations for fishery managers to consider. Based on tagging studies, a typical smolt release from a Willamette River hatchery would return 0.29% of the smolts to the stream of release as adults. Catch to escapement ratios for adult Willamette chinook vary widely between broods, but on average two fish are caught for each fish that escapes. The catch is about evenly divided between offshore and freshwater harvest. British Columbia is the primary location of offshore harvest, and the lower Willamette River is the primary location of freshwater harvest. Review of departmental policy indicates that only Willamette stock spring chinook are currently acceptable for use in a proposed outplant study within the Willamette basin. Further, most Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife district management biologists would prefer not to transfer any stocks of spring chinook between drainage subbasins. State fishery managers identified 16 Willamette basin streams as being suitable for supplementation with spring chinook from hatcheries. We reviewed the potential for rearing salmon in reservoirs throughout the basin. Use of the Carmen-Smith spawning channel, which was constructed on the upper McKenzie River in 1960, has generally declined with the decline in populations of chinook salmon in this river. The Carmen-Smith channel still provides a spawning place for those relatively few adult chinook that still return each year, but more fishery benefits may result from other uses of this facility. 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values). PMID:23097596

  4. Impact of inorganic contaminants on microalgae productivity and bioremediation potential.

    PubMed

    Torres, Eric M; Hess, Derek; McNeil, Brian T; Guy, Tessa; Quinn, Jason C

    2017-05-01

    As underdeveloped nations continue to industrialize and world population continues to increase, the need for energy, natural resources, and goods will lead to ever increasing inorganic contaminants, such as heavy metals, in various waste streams that can have damaging effects on plant life, wildlife, and human health. This work is focused on the evaluation of the potential of Nannochloropsis salina to be integrated with contaminated water sources for the concurrent production of a biofuel feedstock while providing an environmental service through bioremediation. Individual contaminants (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg, Se, and Zn) at various concentrations ranging from a low concentration (1X) to higher concentrations (10X, and 40X) found in contaminated systems (mine tailings, wastewater treatment plants, produced water) were introduced into growth media. Biological growth experimentation was performed in triplicate at the various contaminant concentrations and at 3 different light intensities. Results show that baseline concentrations of each contaminant slightly decreased biomass growth to between 89% and 99% of the control with the exception of Ni which dramatically reduced growth. Increased contaminant concentrations resulted in progressively lower growth rates for all contaminants tested. Lipid analysis shows most baseline contaminant concentrations slightly decrease or have minimal effects on lipid content at all light levels. Trace contaminant analysis on the biomass showed Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, and Zn were sorbed by the microalgae with minimal contaminants remaining in the growth media illustrating the effectiveness of microalgae to bioremediate these contaminants when levels are sufficiently low to not detrimentally impact productivity. The microalgae biomass was less efficient at sorption of As, Cr, Ni, and Se.

  5. The potential of cellulosic ethanol production from grasses in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongwatanapaiboon, Jinaporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Burapatana, Vorakan; Inochanon, Ratanavalee; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Chulalaksananukul, Warawut

    2012-01-01

    The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85-38.51, 31.13-42.61, and 3.10-5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500-600 mg/g grasses (70-80% yield) were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35 °C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values).

  6. Use of tamarisk as a potential feedstock for biofuel production.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Norman, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the energy and water use of saltcedar (or tamarisk) as biomass for biofuel production in a hypothetical sub-region in New Mexico. The baseline scenario consists of a rural stretch of the Middle Rio Grande River with 25% coverage of mature saltcedar that is removed and converted to biofuels. A manufacturing system life cycle consisting of harvesting, transportation, pyrolysis, and purification is constructed for calculating energy and water balances. On a dry short ton woody biomass basis, the total energy input is approximately 8.21 mmBTU/st. There is potential for 18.82 mmBTU/st of energy output from the baseline system. Of the extractable energy, approximately 61.1% consists of bio-oil, 20.3% bio-char, and 18.6% biogas. Water consumptive use by removal of tamarisk will not impact the existing rate of evapotranspiration. However, approximately 195 gal of water is needed per short ton of woody biomass for the conversion of biomass to biocrude, three-quarters of which is cooling water that can be recovered and recycled. The impact of salt presence is briefly assessed. Not accounted for in the baseline are high concentrations of Calcium, Sodium, and Sulfur ions in saltcedar woody biomass that can potentially shift the relative quantities of bio-char and bio-oil. This can be alleviated by a pre-wash step prior to the conversion step. More study is needed to account for the impact of salt presence on the overall energy and water balance.

  7. Natural products from resurrection plants: potential for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Gechev, Tsanko S; Hille, Jacques; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Benina, Maria; Mehterov, Nikolay; Toneva, Valentina; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    Resurrection species are a group of land plants that can tolerate extreme desiccation of their vegetative tissues during harsh drought stress, and still quickly - often within hours - regain normal physiological and metabolic functions following rehydration. At the molecular level, this desiccation tolerance is attributed to basal cellular mechanisms including the constitutive expression of stress-associated genes and high levels of protective metabolites present already in the absence of stress, as well as to transcriptome and metabolome reconfigurations rapidly occurring during the initial phases of drought stress. Parts of this response are conferred by unique metabolites, including a diverse array of sugars, phenolic compounds, and polyols, some of which accumulate to high concentrations within the plant cell. In addition to drought stress, these metabolites are proposed to contribute to the protection against other abiotic stresses and to an increased oxidative stress tolerance. Recently, extracts of resurrection species and particular secondary metabolites therein were reported to display biological activities of importance to medicine, with e.g. antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, and antiviral activities, rendering them possible candidates for the development of novel drug substances as well as for cosmetics. Herein, we provide an overview of the metabolite composition of resurrection species, summarize the latest reports related to the use of natural products from resurrection plants, and outline their potential for medical applications.

  8. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gassley, James M.; Grue, Christian E.

    2001-10-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakama/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW)--whose goal is to increase natural production historically present within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research--conducted by Dr. Steve Mathews and David Phinney of the University of Washington--confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon, and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit was asked by the YKFP and the WDFW to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Mathews and Phinney were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') continued. New efforts initiated in 1999 included piscivorous bird surveys at smolt acclimation sites operated by the Yakama Nation, monitoring of the North Fork Teanaway River for changes in avian piscivore abundance associated with the installation of the Jack Creek acclimation facility, and aerial surveys seeking to identify avian piscivores along the length of the Yakima River. In 1999, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by Common Mergansers (which forage underwater) was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. A second-order polynomial equation was used to

  9. Exploring Potential U.S. Switchgrass Production for Lignocellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, Carla A; Davis, Ethan; Jager, Yetta; West, Tristram O.; Perlack, Robert D; Brandt, Craig C; Wullschleger, Stan D; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Webb, Erin; Downing, Mark

    2008-08-01

    In response to concerns about oil dependency and the contributions of fossil fuel use to climatic change, the U.S. Department of Energy has begun a research initiative to make 20% of motor fuels biofuel based in 10 years, and make 30% of fuels bio-based by 2030. Fundamental to this objective is developing an understanding of feedstock dynamics of crops suitable for cellulosic ethanol production. This report focuses on switchgrass, reviewing the existing literature from field trials across the United States, and compiling it for the first time into a single database. Data available from the literature included cultivar and crop management information, and location of the field trial. For each location we determined latitude and longitude, and used this information to add temperature and precipitation records from the nearest weather station. Within this broad database we were able to identify the major sources of variation in biomass yield, and to characterize yield as a function of some of the more influential factors, e.g., stand age, ecotype, precipitation and temperature in the year of harvest, site latitude, and fertilization regime. We then used a modeling approach, based chiefly on climatic factors and ecotype, to predict potential yields for a given temperature and weather pattern (based on 95th percentile response curves), assuming the choice of optimal cultivars and harvest schedules. For upland ecotype varieties, potential yields were as high as 18 to 20 Mg/ha, given ideal growing conditions, whereas yields in lowland ecotype varieties could reach 23 to 27 Mg/ha. The predictive equations were used to produce maps of potential yield across the continental United States, based on precipitation and temperature in the long term climate record, using the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Potential yields calculated via this characterization were subsequently compared to the Oak Ridge

  10. The Potential Environmental Impact of Waste from Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing production of ethanol has been established as an important contributor to future energy independence. A trend in decreasing profitability and resource conflicts has given grain based ethanol production a limited and difficult future. Growing emphasis is being place...

  11. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of Mali

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Kone, Fatiaga

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in Mali (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in Mali and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, four different methodologies were used: the cylindrical calculation of the primary kimberlitic deposits, the surface area methodology, the volume and grade approach, and the content per kilometer approach. Approximately 700,000 carats are estimated to be in the alluvial deposits of the Kenieba region, with 540,000 carats calculated to lie within the concentration grade deposits. Additionally, 580,000 carats are estimated to have

  12. Productivity limits and potentials of the principles of conservation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Liang, Xinqiang; Linquist, Bruce A; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Lee, Juhwan; Lundy, Mark E; van Gestel, Natasja; Six, Johan; Venterea, Rodney T; van Kessel, Chris

    2015-01-15

    One of the primary challenges of our time is to feed a growing and more demanding world population with reduced external inputs and minimal environmental impacts, all under more variable and extreme climate conditions in the future. Conservation agriculture represents a set of three crop management principles that has received strong international support to help address this challenge, with recent conservation agriculture efforts focusing on smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. However, conservation agriculture is highly debated, with respect to both its effects on crop yields and its applicability in different farming contexts. Here we conduct a global meta-analysis using 5,463 paired yield observations from 610 studies to compare no-till, the original and central concept of conservation agriculture, with conventional tillage practices across 48 crops and 63 countries. Overall, our results show that no-till reduces yields, yet this response is variable and under certain conditions no-till can produce equivalent or greater yields than conventional tillage. Importantly, when no-till is combined with the other two conservation agriculture principles of residue retention and crop rotation, its negative impacts are minimized. Moreover, no-till in combination with the other two principles significantly increases rainfed crop productivity in dry climates, suggesting that it may become an important climate-change adaptation strategy for ever-drier regions of the world. However, any expansion of conservation agriculture should be done with caution in these areas, as implementation of the other two principles is often challenging in resource-poor and vulnerable smallholder farming systems, thereby increasing the likelihood of yield losses rather than gains. Although farming systems are multifunctional, and environmental and socio-economic factors need to be considered, our analysis indicates that the potential contribution of no-till to the

  13. Modelling the effect of fine sediment on salmonid spawning habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, Ian; Sear, David; Collins, Adrian; Jones, Iwan; Naden, Pam

    2013-04-01

    Diffuse fine sediment delivery to rivers is recognised as a widespread problem in the UK. Furthermore, projections suggest that sediment pressures may increase in the future due to both climate change and land use changes. This fine sediment infiltrates into the bed and clogs up salmonid spawning gravels. Fine sediment has been found to reduce survival rates of salmonid eggs in both field and laboratory experiments, with the main hypotheses used to explain this being (a) fine sediment reduces gravel permeability and intra-gravel flow velocities; (b) intra-gravel O2 concentrations decrease due to reduced supply and increased consumption by organic sediments; and (c) clay particles block the exchange of O2 across the egg membrane. The SIDO (Sediment Intrusion and Dissolved Oxygen)-UK model is a physically based numerical model which stimulates the effect of fine sediment intrusion on the abiotic characteristics of the salmonid redd, along with the consequences for egg development and survival. The first 2 hypotheses above are represented, while the third is not yet included. Field observations from the River Ithon, Wales, have been used to calibrate the model using sediment accumulation data. The model was then used to assess the impact of varying sediment inputs upon the sediment intrusion rates, abiotic redd characteristics and fish egg survival rates. Results indicate that egg survival is highly sensitive to the discharge and the suspended sediment concentrations, particularly to changes in the supply rate of sand particles, rather than silt and clay. This can be explained by the increased likelihood of blocking of intra-gravel pores by larger sand particles, which reduce intra-gravel flow velocities and the supply of oxygen rich water. A doubling of the sand concentration results in a 51% increase in red infilling, which causes a 24% reduction in the average intra-gravel flow velocity. A corresponding 20% decrease of the average O2 concentration is evident which

  14. Potential of water surface-floating microalgae for biodiesel production: Floating-biomass and lipid productivities.

    PubMed

    Muto, Masaki; Nojima, Daisuke; Yue, Liang; Kanehara, Hideyuki; Naruse, Hideaki; Ujiro, Asuka; Yoshino, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Microalgae have been accepted as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production owing to their capability of converting solar energy into lipids through photosynthesis. However, the high capital and operating costs, and high energy consumption, are hampering commercialization of microalgal biodiesel. In this study, the surface-floating microalga, strain AVFF007 (tentatively identified as Botryosphaerella sudetica), which naturally forms a biofilm on surfaces, was characterized for use in biodiesel production. The biofilm could be conveniently harvested from the surface of the water by adsorbing onto a polyethylene film. The lipid productivity of strain AVFF007 was 46.3 mg/L/day, allowing direct comparison to lipid productivities of other microalgal species. The moisture content of the surface-floating biomass was 86.0 ± 1.2%, which was much lower than that of the biomass harvested using centrifugation. These results reveal the potential of this surface-floating microalgal species as a biodiesel producer, employing a novel biomass harvesting and dewatering strategy.

  15. Understanding the influence of predation by introduced fishes on juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River Basin: Closing some knowledge gaps. Interim Report of Research 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Brien P.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2011-01-01

    In response to these recent concerns about the potential predatory impact of non-native piscivores on salmon survival, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA) co-hosted a workshop to address predation on juvenile salmonids in the CRB by non-native fish (Halton 2008). The purpose of the workshop was to review, evaluate, and develop strategies to reduce predation by non-native fishes on juvenile salmonids. In the end, discussion at the workshop and at subsequent meetings considered two potential ideas to reduce predation by non-native fish on juvenile salmonids; (1) understanding the role of juvenile American shad Alosa sapidissima in the diet of non-native predators in the fall; and (2) the effects of localized, intense reductions of smallmouth bass in areas of particularly high salmonid predation. In this report, we describe initial efforts to understand the influence of juvenile American shad as a prey item for introduced predators in the middle Columbia River. Our first objective, addressed in Chapter 1, was to evaluate the efficacy of nonlethal methods to describe the physiological condition of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish from late summer through late fall. Such information will be used to understand the contribution of juvenile American shad to the energy reserves of predaceous fish prior to winter. In Chapter 2, we describe the results of some limited sampling to document the food habits of smallmouth bass, walleye, and channel catfish in three reservoirs of the middle Columbia River during late fall. Collectively, we hope to increase our understanding of the contribution of juvenile American shad to the diets of introduced predators and the contribution of this diet to their energy reserves, growth, and perhaps over-winter survival. Managers should be able to use this information for deciding whether to control the population of American shad in the CRB or for managing introduced

  16. Virucidal activity of two Iodophors to salmonid viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.; Pietsch, John P.

    1972-01-01

    Wescodyne® and Betadine®, organic iodine complexes, were compared in vitro for virucidal activity against infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), and viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) viruses. Both iodophors were about equally effective on all three viruses. Each iodophor completely destroyed IHN virus within 30 sec at 12 ppm iodine, and was not affected by water hardness. Virucidal activity, however, was reduced at pH levels above 8.0 and in the presence of organic matter. Wescodyne was also compared with seven disinfectants commonly used in fish hatcheries, for virucidal properties against IHN virus. Wescodyne and chlorine were the only disinfectants to completely destroy the virus. Either Wescodyne or Betadine would effectively destroy the salmonid viruses at less than 25 ppm iodine within 5 min in solutions near neutrality.

  17. Diplostomum spathaceum metacercarial infection and colour change in salmonid fish.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki-Kinnunen, P; Karvonen, A; Anttila, P; Valtonen, E T

    2004-05-01

    Colour changes in two salmonid fish, the salmon (Salmo salar) and sea trout (S. trutta), were examined in relation to infection with the trematode Diplostomum spathaceum. This parasite had no effect on the rate of colour change in these fish, although species specific differences in colour adjustment times were observed. Increasing asymmetry in parasite numbers between the right and left eye, which could lead to the retention of vision in one eye, nevertheless tended to reduce the colour change time in salmon with moderate infection (P=0.08). This first experimental attempt to examine colour changes in fish in relation to eye fluke infections provides grounds for future investigations. The darker appearance of the heavily infected fish described in the literature suggests that a high parasite burden actually causes colour changes. We emphasise that detailed quantitative studies using fish with higher parasite loads, especially from the tail of the aggregated parasite distribution, are needed to describe these relationships in detail.

  18. French Brittany macroalgae screening: composition and methane potential for potential alternative sources of energy and products.

    PubMed

    Jard, G; Marfaing, H; Carrère, H; Delgenes, J P; Steyer, J P; Dumas, C

    2013-09-01

    Macroalgae are biomass resources that represent a valuable feedstock to be used entirely for human consumption or for food additives after some extractions (mainly colloids) and/or for energy production. In order to better develop the algal sector, it is important to determine the capacity of macroalgae to produce these added-values molecules for food and/or for energy industries on the basis of their biochemical characteristics. In this study, ten macroalgae obtained from French Brittany coasts (France) were selected. The global biochemical composition (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, fibers), the presence and characteristics of added-values molecules (alginates, polyphenols) and the biochemical methane potential of these algae were determined. Regarding its biochemical composition, Palmaria palmata is interesting for food (rich in nutrients) and for anaerobic digestion (0.279 LCH4/gVS). Saccharina latissima could be used for alginate extraction (242 g/kgTS, ratio between mannuronic and guluronic acid M/G=1.4) and Sargassum muticum for polyphenol extraction (19.8 g/kgTS).

  19. Readability of Directions on Potentially Hazardous Household Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyrczak, Fred

    1976-01-01

    The study focused on an analysis of the readability of directions on harmful household products. High school students' reading ability was tested using eight sets of sample directions. The results of the study indicate a need for improving the students' ability to read directions on such products. (EC)

  20. POTENTIAL BENCHMARKS FOR ACTINIDE PRODUCTION IN HANFORD REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ; TOFFER H

    2011-10-19

    A significant experimental program was conducted in the early Hanford reactors to understand the reactor production of actinides. These experiments were conducted with sufficient rigor, in some cases, to provide useful information that can be utilized today in development of benchmark experiments that may be used for the validation of present computer codes for the production of these actinides in low enriched uranium fuel.

  1. Improving the Potential for Increased World Food Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A stable world food production is completely dependent on the ability of people to grow, harvest, and utilize plants as a source of food. The United Nations estimates that in order to feed the world’s increasing population that by the year 2040 agriculture will have to increase food production by a...

  2. Immunological characterization of a bacterial protein isolated from salmonid fish naturally infected with Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Sergio H; Conejeros, Pablo; Zahr, Marcela; Olivares, Jorge; Gómez, Fernando; Cataldo, Patricio; Henríquez, Vitalia

    2007-03-01

    The Salmon Rickettsia syndrome (SRS) remains a major infectious disease in the Chilean aquaculture. A limited number of Piscirickettsia salmonis proteins have been characterized so far for their use as potential candidates for vaccines studies. In this study, we identified and expressed a highly immunogenic protein of P. salmonis extracted by selective hydrophobicity from crude-cell macerates of naturally infected salmonid fish. One and two-D PAGE gels followed by Western blot analysis with a battery of polyclonal anti-P. salmonis antibodies have allowed the isolation of the target protein. Basic local alignment search (BLAST) done after partial sequencing of the pure protein identified it as a member of the heat-shock protein (HSP) family of prokaryotes. The protein, named ChaPs, was cloned as a single open reading frame encoding 545 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 57.3 kDa. The amplicon representing the entire novel gene was expressed in vitro in different heterologous systems: the PurePro Caulobacter crescentus expression system from where most of the characterization was attained, and also in the Escherichia coli BL-21 CodonPlus model for commercially potential purposes. The immunologic potential of ChaPs was determined with serum from naturally infected fish.

  3. Biofuel production from microalgae as feedstock: current status and potential.

    PubMed

    Han, Song-Fang; Jin, Wen-Biao; Tu, Ren-Jie; Wu, Wei-Min

    2015-06-01

    Algal biofuel has become an attractive alternative of petroleum-based fuels in the past decade. Microalgae have been proposed as a feedstock to produce biodiesel, since they are capable of mitigating CO2 emission and accumulating lipids with high productivity. This article is an overview of the updated status of biofuels, especially biodiesel production from microalgae including fundamental research, culture selection and engineering process development; it summarizes research on mathematical and life cycle modeling on algae growth and biomass production; and it updates global efforts of research and development and commercialization attempts. The major challenges are also discussed.

  4. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The

  5. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  6. Factors Affecting the Survival of Upstream Migrant Adult Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 9 of 11.

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Mueller, Robert P.

    1993-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is developing conservation planning documentation to support the National Marine Fisheries Service`s (NMFS) recovery plan for Columbia Basin salmonid stocks that are currently listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Information from the conservation planning documentation will be used as a partial scientific basis for identifying alternative conservation strategies and to make recommendations toward conserving, rebuilding, and ultimately removing these salmon stocks from the list of endangered species. This report describes the adult upstream survival study, a synthesis of biological analyses related to conditions affecting the survival of adult upstream migrant salmonids in the Columbia River system. The objective of the adult upstream survival study was to analyze existing data related to increasing the survival of adult migrant salmonids returning to the Snake River system. The fate and accountability of each stock during its upstream migration period and the uncertainties associated with measurements of escapement and survival were evaluated. Operational measures that affected the survival of adult salmon were evaluated including existing conditions, augmented flows from upstream storage release, and drawdown of mainstem reservoirs. The potential impacts and benefits of these measures to each ESA stock were, also described based on considerations of species behavior and run timing.

  7. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  8. Potential antimalarials from African natural products: A reviw

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Bashir; Shittu, Oluwatosin Kudirat; Kabiru, Adamu Yusuf; Jigam, Ali Audu; Umar, Maimuna Bello; Berinyuy, Eustace Bonghan; Alozieuwa, Blessing Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains an overwhelming infectious disease with significant health challenges in African and other endemic countries globally. Resistance to antimalarial drugs has become one of the most momentous challenges to human health, and thus has necessitated the hunt for new and effective drugs. Consequently, few decades have witnessed a surfeit of research geared to validate the effectiveness of commonly used traditionally medicines against malaria fever. The present review work focuses on documenting natural products from African whose activity has been reported in vivo or in vitro against malaria parasite. Literature was collected using electronic search of published articles (Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, Sciencedirect, and Science domain) that report on antiplasmodial activity of natural products from differernts Africa region. A total of 652 plant taxa from 146 families, 134 isolated antimalarial compounds from 39 plants species, 2 herbal formulations and 4 insect/products were found to be reported in literature from 1996 to 2015. Plants species from family Asteraceae (11.04%), Fababceae (8.128%), Euphorbiaceae (5.52%), Rubiaceas (5.52%), and Apocyanaceae (5.214%), have received more scientific validation than others. African natural products possess remarkable healing properties as revealed in the various citations as promising antimalarial agents. Some of these natural products from Africa demonstrate high, promising or low activities against Plasmodium parasite. This study also shows that natural products from Africa have a huge amount of novel antimalarial compounds that could serve as a leads for the development of new and effective antiplasmodial drugs. However, in a view of bridging the gap in knowledge, clinical validation of these natural products are of paramount importance. PMID:26649238

  9. Potential application of anaerobic extremophiles for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-11-01

    In processes of the substrate fermentation most anaerobes produce molecular hydrogen as a waste end product, which often controls the culture growth as an inhibitor. Usually in nature the hydrogen is easily removed from an ecosystem, due to its physical features, and an immediate consumption by the secondary anaerobes that sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors; a classical example of this kind of substrate competition in anaerobic microbial communities is the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur-reducers. Previously, on the mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH, it was demonstrated that bacterial hydrogen production could provide a good alternative energy source. At neutral pH the original cultures could easily contaminated by methanogens, and the most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and furthermore, the cultivation with pathogenic contaminants on an industrial scale would create an unsafe situation. In our laboratory the experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria producing hydrogen as an end metabolic product were performed at different conditions. The mesophilic, haloalkaliphilic and obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirochaeta americana ASpG1T was studied and various cultivation regimes were compared for the most effective hydrogen production. In a highly mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many known methanogens are capable of growth, and the probability of developing pathogenic contaminants is theoretically is close to zero (in medicine carbonate- saturated solutions are applied as antiseptics). Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as a safe and economical process for large-scale industrial bio-hydrogen production in the future. Here we present and discuss the experimental data

  10. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-04-01

    Development in organic farming has been stimulated by farmers and consumers becoming interested in healthy food products and sustainable environment. Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which is based on the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. Organic development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized, and is usually associated with minimum use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and drugs. This low external input agriculture also referred to as "organic by default" can create basis for organic farming where agroecological methods are introduced and present an alternative in terms of intensification to the current low-input/low-output systems. Traditional farming should not be confused with organic farming because in some cases, the existing traditional practices have consequences like overstocking and less attention to soil improvement as well as to animal health and welfare, which is contrary to organic principles of ecology, fairness, health, and care. Challenges of implementing sustainable organic practices in the Ugandan livestock sector threaten its future development, such as vectors and vector-borne diseases, organic feed insufficiency, limited education, research, and support to organic livestock production. The prospects of organic livestock development in Uganda can be enhanced with more scientific research in organic livestock production under local conditions and strengthening institutional support.

  11. Wavemill Product Assessment - Defining potential products from a novel spaceborne interferometric SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, Jose; Gommenginger, Christine; Burbidge, Geoff; Quilfen, Yves; Cotton, David; Buck, Christopher; Donlon, Craig

    2013-04-01

    The Wavemill is a new radar instrument concept that offers the possibility of generating two-dimensional wide swath, high resolution, high precision maps of surface current vectors and ocean topography. Based on a single spacecraft, it avoids the difficulties of synchronisation and baseline estimation associated with other interferometric SAR systems based on two or more satellites. WaPA, the Wavemill Product Assessment project, is supported by ESA under the General Studies Programme (GSP) to define the scientific capabilities and limitations of a spaceborne Wavemill instrument. The Wavemill concept has developed steadily since its first inception in 2005. A number of Wavemill studies in recent years have gradually put together facts and figures to support the case for Wavemill as a possible spaceborne mission. The WaPA project builds on past studies to address some key aspects relating to the expected performances and limitations of a spaceborne Wavemill instrument. This study is a critical step on the path towards establishing Wavemill as a convincing candidate instrument for a future ocean current mission. In this paper we present the technical concept of the Wavemill instrument, provide an overview of current capability in terms of measuring surface currents from spaceborne SAR, present results from an airborne proof-of-concept campaign and then discuss some early findings from the project in terms of the potential products and their expected performance.

  12. Ammonium photo-production by heterocytous cyanobacteria: potentials and constraints.

    PubMed

    Grizeau, Dominique; Bui, Lan Anh; Dupré, Catherine; Legrand, Jack

    2016-08-01

    Over the last decades, production of microalgae and cyanobacteria has been developed for several applications, including novel foods, cosmetic ingredients and more recently biofuel. The sustainability of these promising developments can be hindered by some constraints, such as water and nutrient footprints. This review surveys data on N2-fixing cyanobacteria for biomass production and ways to induce and improve the excretion of ammonium within cultures under aerobic conditions. The nitrogenase complex is oxygen sensitive. Nevertheless, nitrogen fixation occurs under oxic conditions due to cyanobacteria-specific characteristics. For instance, in some cyanobacteria, the vegetative cell differentiation in heterocyts provides a well-adapted anaerobic microenvironment for nitrogenase protection. Therefore, cell cultures of oxygenic cyanobacteria have been grown in laboratory and pilot photobioreactors (Dasgupta et al., 2010; Fontes et al., 1987; Moreno et al., 2003; Nayak & Das, 2013). Biomass production under diazotrophic conditions has been shown to be controlled by environmental factors such as light intensity, temperature, aeration rate, and inorganic carbon concentration, also, more specifically, by the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the culture medium. Currently, there is little information regarding the production of extracellular ammonium by heterocytous cyanobacteria. This review compares the available data on maximum ammonium concentrations and analyses the specific rate production in cultures grown as free or immobilized filamentous cyanobacteria. Extracellular production of ammonium could be coupled, as suggested by recent research on non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria, to that of other high value metabolites. There is little information available regarding the possibility for using diazotrophic cyanobacteria as cellular factories may be in regard of the constraints due to nitrogen fixation.

  13. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  14. Evolutionary effects of alternative artificial propagation programs: implications for viability of endangered anadromous salmonids

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Michelle M; Utter, Fred M; Baldwin, Casey; Carmichael, Richard W; Hassemer, Peter F; Howell, Philip J; Spruell, Paul; Cooney, Thomas D; Schaller, Howard A; Petrosky, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    Most hatchery programs for anadromous salmonids have been initiated to increase the numbers of fish for harvest, to mitigate for habitat losses, or to increase abundance in populations at low abundance. However, the manner in which these programs are implemented can have significant impacts on the evolutionary trajectory and long-term viability of populations. In this paper, we review the potential benefits and risks of hatchery programs relative to the conservation of species listed under the US Endangered Species Act. To illustrate, we present the range of potential effects within a population as well as among populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) where changes to major hatchery programs are being considered. We apply evolutionary considerations emerging from these examples to suggest broader principles for hatchery uses that are consistent with conservation goals. We conclude that because of the evolutionary risks posed by artificial propagation programs, they should not be viewed as a substitute for addressing other limiting factors that prevent achieving viability. At the population level, artificial propagation programs that are implemented as a short-term approach to avoid imminent extinction are more likely to achieve long-term population viability than approaches that rely on long-term supplementation. In addition, artificial propagation programs can have out-of-population impacts that should be considered in conservation planning. PMID:25567637

  15. Potential components for weed management in organic vegetable production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic vegetable production relies on a variety of tactics for preventing losses to crop yield and quality that result from weed interference. These include field selection, long term field management, cultivation practices, mulching, and manual weeding to name a few. The concept of "herbicides" th...

  16. Discovery potential of radiative neutralino production at the ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiner, Herbi K.; Kittel, Olaf; Langenfeld, Ulrich

    2006-12-01

    We study radiative neutralino production e+e-→χ˜10χ˜10γ at the linear collider with longitudinally polarized beams. We consider the standard model background from radiative neutrino production e+e-→νν¯γ, and the supersymmetric radiative production of sneutrinos e+e-→ν˜ν˜*γ, which can be a background for invisible sneutrino decays. We give the complete tree-level formulas for the amplitudes and matrix elements squared. In the minimal supersymmetric standard model, we study the dependence of the cross sections on the beam polarizations, on the parameters of the neutralino sector, and on the selectron masses. We show that for b-inolike neutralinos longitudinal polarized beams enhance the signal and simultaneously reduce the background, such that statistics is significantly enhanced. We point out that there are parameter regions where radiative neutralino production is the only channel to study SUSY particles, since heavier neutralinos, charginos and sleptons are too heavy to be pair-produced in the first stage of the linear collider with s=500GeV.

  17. Wavemill Product Assessment- Defining Products and Evaluating Potential Performance from a Novel Spaceborne Interferometric SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, P. D.; Gommenginger, C.; Martin, A.; Marquez, J.; Burbidge, G.; Quilfen, Y.; Chapron, B.; Reppucci, A.; Buck, C.

    2016-08-01

    and limitations of a spaceborne Wavemill instrument for ocean current vector and sea surface height mapping.- An analysis of the potential for ocean wind vector retrieval from a spaceborne Wavemill instrument.- An investigation of possible secondary products from Wavemill relating to rivers, ocean/atmosphere interactions, ocean swell and cryospheric applications.An assessment of the synergy between Wavemill and ocean surface current products derived from other remote sensing techniques, accounting for the nature and variability of the measured properties, to identify any additional requirements on a future Wavemill mission.

  18. Designing advanced biochar products for maximizing greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural operations continue to increase. Carbon enriched char materials like biochar have been described as a mitigation strategy. Utilization of biochar material as a soil amendment has been demonstrated to provide potentially further soil GHG suppression du...

  19. Finding Creative Potential on Intelligence Tests via Divergent Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, James C.; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Lichtenberger, Elizabeth O.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing creative potential using a comprehensive battery of standardized tests requires a focus on "how" and "why" an individual responds in addition to "how well" they respond. Using the "intelligent testing" philosophy of focusing on the person being tested rather than the measure itself helps…

  20. Potential strategies for increasing drug-discovery productivity.

    PubMed

    Cumming, John G; Finlay, M Raymond V; Giordanetto, Fabrizio; Hemmerling, Martin; Lister, Troy; Sanganee, Hitesh; Waring, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The productivity challenge facing the pharmaceutical industry is well documented. Strategies to improve productivity have mainly focused on enhancing efficiency, such as the application of Lean Six Sigma process improvement methods and the introduction of modeling and simulation in place of 'wet' experiments. While these strategies have their benefits, the real challenge is to improve effectiveness by reducing clinical failure rates. We advocate redesigning the screening cascade to identify and optimize novel compounds with improved efficacy against disease, not just with improved potency against the target. There should be greater use of disease-relevant phenotypic screens in conjunction with target-based assays to drive medicinal chemistry optimization. An opportunistic approach to polypharmacology is recommended. There should also be more emphasis on optimization of the molecular mechanism of action incorporating understanding of binding kinetics, consideration of covalent drug strategies and targeting allosteric modulators.

  1. GHG emissions and mitigation potential in organic egg production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Sylvia; Malin, Daniella; Smith, Pete; Hillier, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Models and tools are used to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture from management processes when measurements are not available. The Cool Farm Tool is widely used by farmers for this purpose. This study focus on the livestock part of the tool. The GHG emissions from livestock include enteric methane emissions from ruminants, nitrous oxide emissions from manure management, land use and land-use change, feed production, processing and transport. A case study is presented of organic egg producers in the USA, who used the tool over three years to calculate their emissions with the Cool Farm Tool. The highest GHG emissions were produced through feed, followed by transport and manure management. The farmers became more aware about the emissions in egg production and started to take action to reduce emissions. The results showed that the averaged GHG emissions decreased over the three years of the study.

  2. Weirs: Counting and sampling adult salmonids in streams and rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Zabkar, Laura M.; Johnson, David H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Weirs—which function as porous barriers built across stream—have long been used to capture migrating fish in flowing waters. For example, the Netsilik peoples of northern Canada used V-shaped weirs constructed of river rocks gathered onsite to capture migrating Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus (Balikci 1970). Similarly, fences constructed of stakes and a latticework of willow branches or staves were used by Native Americans to capture migrating salmon in streams along the West Coast of North America (Stewart 1994). In modern times, weirs have also been used in terminal fisheries and to capture brood fish for use in fish culture. Weirs have been used to gather data on age structure, condition, sex ratio, spawning escapement, abundance, and migratory patterns of fish in streams. One of the critical elements of fisheries management and stock assessment of salmonids is a count of adult fish returning to spawn. Weirs are frequently used to capture or count fish to determine status and trends of populations or direct inseason management of fisheries; generally, weirs are the standard against which other techniques are measured. To evaluate fishery management actions, the number of fish escaping to spawn is often compared to river-specific target spawning requirements (O’Connell and Dempson 1995). A critical factor in these analyses is the determination of total run size (O’Connell 2003). O’Connell compared methods of run-size estimation against absolute counts from a rigid weir and concluded that, given the uncertainty of estimators, the absolute counts obtained at the weir wer significantly better than modeled estimates, which deviated as much as 50–60% from actual counts. The use of weirs is generally restricted to streams and small rivers because of construction expense, formation of navigation barriers, and the tendency of weirs to clog with debris, which can cause flooding and collapse of the structure (Hubert 1996). When feasible, however, weirs are

  3. Potential products from North Dakota lignite fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G R

    1980-06-01

    Four major areas where fly ash can be used are explored. Concrete building blocks with fly ash replacing 50% of the portland cement have proven to be successful using current ASTM standards. Results in the ceramics area show that a ceramic-like product using fly ash and crushed glass with a small amount of clay as a green binder. Some preliminary results using sulfur ash in building materials are reported and with results of making wallboard from ash. (MHR)

  4. Microbial production of surfactants and their commercial potential.

    PubMed Central

    Desai, J D; Banat, I M

    1997-01-01

    Many microorganisms, especially bacteria, produce biosurfactants when grown on water-immiscible substrates. Biosurfactants are more effective, selective, environmentally friendly, and stable than many synthetic surfactants. Most common biosurfactants are glycolipids in which carbohydrates are attached to a long-chain aliphatic acid, while others, like lipopeptides, lipoproteins, and heteropolysaccharides, are more complex. Rapid and reliable methods for screening and selection of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms and evaluation of their activity have been developed. Genes involved in rhamnolipid synthesis (rhlAB) and regulation (rhlI and rhlR) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are characterized, and expression of rhlAB in heterologous hosts is discussed. Genes for surfactin production (sfp, srfA, and comA) in Bacillus spp. are also characterized. Fermentative production of biosurfactants depends primarily on the microbial strain, source of carbon and nitrogen, pH, temperature, and concentration of oxygen and metal ions. Addition of water-immiscible substrates to media and nitrogen and iron limitations in the media result in an overproduction of some biosurfactants. Other important advances are the use of water-soluble substrates and agroindustrial wastes for production, development of continuous recovery processes, and production through biotransformation. Commercialization of biosurfactants in the cosmetic, food, health care, pulp- and paper-processing, coal, ceramic, and metal industries has been proposed. However, the most promising applications are cleaning of oil-contaminated tankers, oil spill management, transportation of heavy crude oil, enhanced oil recovery, recovery of crude oil from sludge, and bioremediation of sites contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other pollutants. Perspectives for future research and applications are also discussed. PMID:9106364

  5. Potential problems associated with use of speech recognition products.

    PubMed

    Kambeyanda, D; Singer, L; Cronk, S

    1997-01-01

    Commercial speech recognition products are being used increasingly as alternate input devices for computers, particularly by persons with physical disabilities. These discrete speech dictation systems require the user to insert brief but distinct pauses after each spoken word. Anecdotal evidence suggests that some persons using these products experience moderate to severe problems with their voices, such as hoarseness, sore throats, and even complete loss of voice. This preliminary study, which includes data gathered from survey dissemination and clinical studies, indicates that persons with cumulative trauma disorder may be the most susceptible to these voice problems. Also, we hypothesized that in using these discrete speech recognition systems, there may be a tendency to maintain constant pitch, volume, and inflection, keeping the vocal tract musculature in a fixed position. Maintaining this fixed position for extended periods may result in muscle fatigue and, eventually, injury to the laryngeal musculature. Further studies are needed, however, to investigate the effects suggested here. In the meantime, we recommend that users become informed about the unnatural speech patterns used with discrete speech recognition systems; learn to use good vocal hygiene, such as performing warm-up and cool-down voice exercises; and use alternate methods of input along with the speech recognition product.

  6. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events.

  7. Application of molecular endpoints in early life stage salmonid environmental biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, Vicki L; Sherrard, Ryan; Kennedy, Chris J; Elphick, James R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Molecular endpoints can enhance existing whole animal bioassays by more fully characterizing the biological impacts of aquatic pollutants. Laboratory and field studies were used to examine the utility of adopting molecular endpoints for a well-developed in situ early life stage (eyed embryo to onset of swim-up fry) salmonid bioassay to improve diagnostic assessments of water quality in the field. Coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) were exposed in the laboratory to the model metal (zinc, 40μg/L) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pyrene, 100μg/L) in water to examine the resulting early life stage salmonid responses. In situ field exposures and bioassays were conducted in parallel to evaluate the water quality of three urban streams in British Columbia (two sites with anthropogenic inputs and one reference site). The endpoints measured in swim-up fry included survival, deformities, growth (weight and length), vitellogenin (vtg) and metallothionein (Mt) protein levels, and hepatic gene expression (e.g., metallothioneins [mta and mtb], endocrine biomarkers [vtg and estrogen receptors, esr] and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes [cytochrome P450 1A3, cyp1a3 and glutathione transferases, gstk]). No effects were observed in the zinc treatment, however exposure of swim-up fry to pyrene resulted in decreased survival, deformities and increased estrogen receptor alpha (er1) mRNA levels. In the field exposures, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (cyp1a3, gstk) and zinc transporter (zntBigM103) mRNA were significantly increased in swim-up fry deployed at the sites with more anthropogenic inputs compared to the reference site. Cluster analysis revealed that gene expression profiles in individuals from the streams receiving anthropogenic inputs were more similar to each other than to the reference site. Collectively, the results obtained in this study suggest that molecular endpoints may be useful, and potentially more sensitive, indicators of site

  8. Modeling Food Delivery Dynamics For Juvenile Salmonids Under Variable Flow Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L.; Utz, R.; Anderson, K.; Nisbet, R.

    2010-12-01

    Traditional approaches for assessing instream flow needs for salmonids have typically focused on the importance of physical habitat in determining fish habitat selection. This somewhat simplistic approach does not account for differences in food delivery rates to salmonids that arise due to spatial variability in river morphology, hydraulics and temporal variations in the flow regime. Explicitly linking how changes in the flow regime influences food delivery dynamics is an important step in advancing process-based bioenergetic models that seek to predict growth rates of salmonids across various life-stages. Here we investigate how food delivery rates for juvenile salmonids vary both spatially and with flow magnitude in a meandering reach of the Merced River, CA. We utilize a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model and discrete particle tracking algorithm to simulate invertebrate drift transport rates at baseflow and a near-bankfull discharge. Modeling results indicate that at baseflow, the maximum drift density occurs in the channel thalweg, while drift densities decrease towards the channel margins due to the process of organisms settling out of the drift. During high-flow events, typical of spring dam-releases, the invertebrate drift transport pathway follows a similar trajectory along the high velocity core and the drift concentrations are greatest in the channel centerline, though the zone of invertebrate transport occupies a greater fraction of the channel width. Based on invertebrate supply rates alone, feeding juvenile salmonids would be expected to be distributed down the channel centerline where the maximum predicted food delivery rates are located in this reach. However, flow velocities in these channel sections are beyond maximum sustainable swimming speeds for most juvenile salmonids. Our preliminary findings suggest that a lack of low velocity refuge may prevent juvenile salmonids from deriving energy from the areas with maximum drift density in this

  9. Airports Offer Unrealized Potential for Alternative Energy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devault, Travis L.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Blackwell, Bradley F.; Martin, James A.; Schmidt, Jason A.; Wes Burger, L.; Patterson, James W.

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  10. Prochloron-ascidian symbioses: Photosynthetic potential and productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, R. A.; Cheng, L.; Alberte, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    The chlorophyll content of didemnid asidians with symbiotic algae (Prochloron) from oligotropic tropical marine waters around Palau, Western Carolin Islands is discussed. Several species contain as much chlorophyll per unit dry weight as many herbaceous crop plants and more than do other symbiotic associations such as lichens, green Hydra, etc. Their chlorphyllA/B ratios (3-9) were generally much lighter than those of angiosperms (2-4). Where they abound, Prochloron - ascidian symbiosis could make a major contribution to the productivity, especially in localized areas of tropical marine waters characterized by low nutrient levels and high irradiance.

  11. Airports offer unrealized potential for alternative energy production.

    PubMed

    DeVault, Travis L; Belant, Jerrold L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Martin, James A; Schmidt, Jason A; Wes Burger, L; Patterson, James W

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  12. Natural products as potential cancer therapy enhancers: A preclinical update.

    PubMed

    Agbarya, Abed; Ruimi, Nili; Epelbaum, Ron; Ben-Arye, Eran; Mahajna, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease that arises as a consequence of alterations in many physiological processes. Recently, hallmarks of cancer were suggested that include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis, along with two emerging hallmarks including reprogramming energy metabolism and escaping immune destruction. Treating multifactorial diseases, such as cancer with agents targeting a single target, might provide partial treatment and, in many cases, disappointing cure rates. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Since ancient times, plants, herbs, and other natural products have been used as healing agents. Moreover, the majority of the medicinal substances available today have their origin in natural compounds. Traditionally, pharmaceuticals are used to cure diseases, and nutrition and herbs are used to prevent disease and to provide an optimal balance of macro- and micro-nutrients needed for good health. We explored the combination of natural products, dietary nutrition, and cancer chemotherapeutics for improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapeutics and negating side effects.

  13. Laccase: Microbial Sources, Production, Purification, and Potential Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Shraddha; Shekher, Ravi; Sehgal, Simran; Kamthania, Mohit; Kumar, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    Laccase belongs to the blue multicopper oxidases and participates in cross-linking of monomers, degradation of polymers, and ring cleavage of aromatic compounds. It is widely distributed in higher plants and fungi. It is present in Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes and Basidiomycetes and abundant in lignin-degrading white-rot fungi. It is also used in the synthesis of organic substance, where typical substrates are amines and phenols, the reaction products are dimers and oligomers derived from the coupling of reactive radical intermediates. In the recent years, these enzymes have gained application in the field of textile, pulp and paper, and food industry. Recently, it is also used in the design of biosensors, biofuel cells, as a medical diagnostics tool and bioremediation agent to clean up herbicides, pesticides and certain explosives in soil. Laccases have received attention of researchers in the last few decades due to their ability to oxidize both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants. It has been identified as the principal enzyme associated with cuticular hardening in insects. Two main forms have been found: laccase-1 and laccase-2. This paper reviews the occurrence, mode of action, general properties, production, applications, and immobilization of laccases within different industrial fields. PMID:21755038

  14. Natural products as potential cancer therapy enhancers: A preclinical update

    PubMed Central

    Agbarya, Abed; Ruimi, Nili; Epelbaum, Ron; Ben-Arye, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease that arises as a consequence of alterations in many physiological processes. Recently, hallmarks of cancer were suggested that include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis, along with two emerging hallmarks including reprogramming energy metabolism and escaping immune destruction. Treating multifactorial diseases, such as cancer with agents targeting a single target, might provide partial treatment and, in many cases, disappointing cure rates. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Since ancient times, plants, herbs, and other natural products have been used as healing agents. Moreover, the majority of the medicinal substances available today have their origin in natural compounds. Traditionally, pharmaceuticals are used to cure diseases, and nutrition and herbs are used to prevent disease and to provide an optimal balance of macro- and micro-nutrients needed for good health. We explored the combination of natural products, dietary nutrition, and cancer chemotherapeutics for improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapeutics and negating side effects. PMID:26770737

  15. Production of Chitooligosaccharides and Their Potential Applications in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aam, Berit B.; Heggset, Ellinor B.; Norberg, Anne Line; Sørlie, Morten; Vårum, Kjell M.; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.

    2010-01-01

    Chitooligosaccharides (CHOS) are homo- or heterooligomers of N-acetylglucosamine and D-glucosamine. CHOS can be produced using chitin or chitosan as a starting material, using enzymatic conversions, chemical methods or combinations thereof. Production of well-defined CHOS-mixtures, or even pure CHOS, is of great interest since these oligosaccharides are thought to have several interesting bioactivities. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these bioactivities is of major importance. However, so far in-depth knowledge on the mode-of-action of CHOS is scarce, one major reason being that most published studies are done with badly characterized heterogeneous mixtures of CHOS. Production of CHOS that are well-defined in terms of length, degree of N-acetylation, and sequence is not straightforward. Here we provide an overview of techniques that may be used to produce and characterize reasonably well-defined CHOS fractions. We also present possible medical applications of CHOS, including tumor growth inhibition and inhibition of TH2-induced inflammation in asthma, as well as use as a bone-strengthener in osteoporosis, a vector for gene delivery, an antibacterial agent, an antifungal agent, an anti-malaria agent, or a hemostatic agent in wound-dressings. By using well-defined CHOS-mixtures it will become possible to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these bioactivities. PMID:20559485

  16. Surface Flow Outlets to Protect Juvenile Salmonids Passing through Hydropower Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2006-10-27

    We reviewed results of research conducted by engineers and biologists over the past 50 years related to development of surface flow outlets (SFOs) for juvenile salmonids that migrate downstream past hydropower dams. An SFO is a non-turbine, water-efficient passage route with an overflow structure through which flow and fish pass over a dam. Our review covered 69 SFOs in Europe and North America. We identified five main types of SFOs ? low-flow bypass/sluices, high-flow sluices, forebay collectors, powerhouse retrofits, and surface spills. Most low-flow bypass/sluices are sited in Europe and on the east coast of North America, where mean annual project discharge and hydropower production for the dams we reviewed were 95 m3/s and 15 MW, respectively. The other four SFO types are found at dams on the west coast of North America with 2184 m3/s mean annual discharge and 788 MW mean output. A conceptual framework based on fish behavior and hydraulics for different regions of a hydropower project was developed to evaluate SFO performance. For all SFO types, fish collection efficiency averaged 54%, with an average effectiveness ratio of 17:1 (fish to inflow). Surface flow outlet technology can meet the goal of concurrent anadromous fish protection and hydropower generation.

  17. Asymmetric competition drives lake use of coexisting salmonids.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N; Hindar, Kjetil; Northcote, T G; Engen, S

    2008-10-01

    To what degree are population differences in resource use caused by competition and the occupation of adjacent positions along environmental gradients evidence of competition? Habitat use may be the result of a competitive lottery, or restricted by competition. We tested to what extent population differences in habitat use of two salmonids, cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) and Dolly Varden charr (Salvelinus malma) were influenced by interspecific competition. We hypothesized that the depth distribution of Dolly Varden charr would be affected by competition from the more littoral and surface-oriented cutthroat trout, and that the depth distribution of cutthroat trout would be little affected by competition from Dolly Varden charr. Sympatric populations of cutthroat trout and Dolly Varden charr were created by reciprocal transfers of previously allopatric populations in two experimental lakes. We found evidence of asymmetric competition, as Dolly Varden charr were displaced from littoral habitats when sympatric with cutthroat trout, whereas cutthroat trout remained unaffected by the presence of Dolly Varden charr. Evolved differences between the species, and differences between experimental lakes, also contributed to population differences in habitat use, but asymmetric competition remained as the main driver of different depth distributions in sympatry.

  18. Potential Fluctuations and Energetic Ion Production in Hollow Cathode Discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.; Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2007-01-01

    Ions with energies significantly in excess of the applied discharge voltage have been reported for many years in hollow cathode discharges. Models of dc potential hills downstream of the cathode and instabilities in postulated double layers in the cathode orifice have been proposed to explain this, but have not been substantiated. Measurements of the dc and rf plasma density and potential profiles near the exit of hollow cathodes by miniature fast-scanning probes suggests that turbulent ion acoustic fluctuations and ionization instabilities in the cathode plume significantly increase the energy of the ions that flow from this region. Increases in the discharge current and/or decreases in the cathode gas flow enhance the amplitude of the fluctuations and increase the number and energy of the energetic ions, which increases the erosion rate of the cathode electrodes. The transition from the quiescent 'spot mode' to the noisy 'plume mode' characteristic of these discharges is found to be a gradual transition of increasing fluctuation amplitudes.

  19. Incipient toxicity of lithium to freshwater organisms representing a salmonid habitat

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, R.; Klopfer, D.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    Because the eventual development of fusion power reactors could increase the mining, use and disposal of lithium five-fold by the year 2000, potential effects from unusual amounts of lithium in aquatic environments were investigated. Freshwater oganisms representing a Pacific Northwest salmonid habitat were exposed to elevated conentrations of lithium. Nine parameters were used to determine the incipient toxicity of lithium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), insect larvae (Chironomus sp.), and Columbia River periphyton. All three groups of biota were incipiently sensitive to lithium at concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results correspond with the incipient toxicity of beryllium, a chemically similar component of fusion reactor cores. A maximum lithium concentration of 0.01 mg/L occurs naturally in most freshwater environments (beryllium is rarer). Therefore, a concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L may be regarded as approaching toxic concentrations when assessing the hazards of lithium in freshwaters.

  20. An online database for IHN virus in Pacific Salmonid fish: MEAP-IHNV

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    The MEAP-IHNV database provides access to detailed data for anyone interested in IHNV molecular epidemiology, such as fish health professionals, fish culture facility managers, and academic researchers. The flexible search capabilities enable the user to generate various output formats, including tables and maps, which should assist users in developing and testing hypotheses about how IHNV moves across landscapes and changes over time. The MEAP-IHNV database is available online at http://gis.nacse.org/ihnv/ (fig. 1). The database contains records that provide background information and genetic sequencing data for more than 1,000 individual field isolates of the fish virus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and is updated approximately annually. It focuses on IHNV isolates collected throughout western North America from 1966 to the present. The database also includes a small number of IHNV isolates from Eastern Russia. By engaging the expertise of the broader community of colleagues interested in IHNV, our goal is to enhance the overall understanding of IHNV epidemiology, including defining sources of disease outbreaks and viral emergence events, identifying virus traffic patterns and potential reservoirs, and understanding how human management of salmonid fish culture affects disease. Ultimately, this knowledge can be used to develop new strategies to reduce the effect of IHN disease in cultured and wild fish.

  1. Genetic and serological diversity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates from salmonids in United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Thao P H; Bartie, Kerry L; Thompson, Kim D; Verner-Jeffreys, David W; Hoare, Rowena; Adams, Alexandra

    2017-03-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is one of the most important bacterial pathogens affecting cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and is increasingly causing problems in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hatcheries. Little is known about the heterogeneity of F. psychrophilum isolates on UK salmonid farms. A total of 315 F. psychrophilum isolates, 293 of which were collected from 27 sites within the UK, were characterised using four genotyping methods and a serotyping scheme. A high strain diversity was identified among the isolates with 54 pulsotypes, ten (GTG)5-PCR types, two 16S rRNA allele lineages, seven plasmid profiles and three serotypes. Seven PFGE groups and 27 singletons were formed at a band similarity of 80%. PFGE group P (n=75) was found to be numerically predominant in eight sites within the UK. Two major PFGE clusters and 13 outliers were found at the band similarity of 40%. The predominant profileobserved within the F. psychrophilum isolates examined was PFGE cluster II - (GTG)5-PCR type r1-16S rRNA lineage II - serotype Th (70/156 isolates examined, 45%). Co-existence of genetically and serologically heterogeneous isolates within each farm was detected, confounding the ability to control RTFS outbreaks. The occurrence over time (up to 11 years) of F. psychrophilum pulsotypes in three representative sites (Scot I, Scot III and Scot V) within Scotland was examined, potentially providing important epidemiological data for farm management and the development of site-specific vaccines.

  2. Monster potential meets potential monster: pros and cons of deploying genetically modified microalgae for biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Flynn, K J; Mitra, A; Greenwell, H C; Sui, J

    2013-02-06

    Biofuels production from microalgae attracts much attention but remains an unproven technology. We explore routes to enhance production through modifications to a range of generic microalgal physiological characteristics. Our analysis shows that biofuels production may be enhanced ca fivefold through genetic modification (GM) of factors affecting growth rate, respiration, photoacclimation, photosynthesis efficiency and the minimum cell quotas for nitrogen and phosphorous (N : C and P : C). However, simulations indicate that the ideal GM microalgae for commercial deployment could, on escape to the environment, become a harmful algal bloom species par excellence, with attendant risks to ecosystems and livelihoods. In large measure, this is because an organism able to produce carbohydrate and/or lipid at high rates, providing stock metabolites for biofuels production, will also be able to attain a stoichiometric composition that will be far from optimal as food for the support of zooplankton growth. This composition could suppress or even halt the grazing activity that would otherwise control the microalgal growth in nature. In consequence, we recommend that the genetic manipulation of microalgae, with inherent consequences on a scale comparable to geoengineering, should be considered under strict international regulation.

  3. Monster potential meets potential monster: pros and cons of deploying genetically modified microalgae for biofuels production

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, K. J.; Mitra, A.; Greenwell, H. C.; Sui, J.

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels production from microalgae attracts much attention but remains an unproven technology. We explore routes to enhance production through modifications to a range of generic microalgal physiological characteristics. Our analysis shows that biofuels production may be enhanced ca fivefold through genetic modification (GM) of factors affecting growth rate, respiration, photoacclimation, photosynthesis efficiency and the minimum cell quotas for nitrogen and phosphorous (N : C and P : C). However, simulations indicate that the ideal GM microalgae for commercial deployment could, on escape to the environment, become a harmful algal bloom species par excellence, with attendant risks to ecosystems and livelihoods. In large measure, this is because an organism able to produce carbohydrate and/or lipid at high rates, providing stock metabolites for biofuels production, will also be able to attain a stoichiometric composition that will be far from optimal as food for the support of zooplankton growth. This composition could suppress or even halt the grazing activity that would otherwise control the microalgal growth in nature. In consequence, we recommend that the genetic manipulation of microalgae, with inherent consequences on a scale comparable to geoengineering, should be considered under strict international regulation. PMID:24427510

  4. Drilling and production - Economics show CO2 EOR potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    CO2 EOR may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. A simple model aided in assessing the economics of CO2 EOR for central Kansas and the Midcontinent. The model used CO2 Prophet, a DOE freeware reservoir numerical simulation program, to determine reservoir performance, including injected and produced fluid rates, and CO2 utilization. Economic parameters, e.g., oil price, CO2 costs, capital costs, net revenue interest, production taxes, and lease operating expenses, are typical for anticipated conditions in the region and present price climate. Preliminary economic analysis shows that CO2 EOR should give an internal rate of return (IRR) > 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for $20/bbl, CO2 costs $1/million cu ft, and gross utilization is 10 million cu ft of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 is reduced to $0.75/million cu ft, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling shows that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost.

  5. Effects of crossovers between homeologs on inheritance and population genomics in polyploid-derived salmonid fishes.

    PubMed

    Allendorf, Fred W; Bassham, Susan; Cresko, William A; Limborg, Morten T; Seeb, Lisa W; Seeb, James E

    2015-01-01

    A whole genome duplication occurred in the ancestor of all salmonid fishes some 50-100 million years ago. Early inheritance studies with allozymes indicated that loci in the salmonid genome are inherited disomically in females. However, some pairs of duplicated loci showed patterns of inheritance in males indicating pairing and recombination between homeologous chromosomes. Nearly 20% of loci in the salmonid genome are duplicated and share the same alleles (isoloci), apparently due to homeologous recombination. Half-tetrad analysis revealed that isoloci tend to be telomeric. These results suggested that residual tetrasomic inheritance of isoloci results from homeologous recombination near chromosome ends and that continued disomic inheritance resulted from homologous pairing of centromeric regions. Many current genetic maps of salmonids are based on single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites that are no longer duplicated. Therefore, long sections of chromosomes on these maps are poorly represented, especially telomeric regions. In addition, preferential multivalent pairing of homeologs from the same species in F1 hybrids results in an excess of nonparental gametes (so-called pseudolinkage). We consider how not including duplicated loci has affected our understanding of population and evolutionary genetics of salmonids, and we discuss how incorporating these loci will benefit our understanding of population genomics.

  6. Potential use of feedlot cattle manure for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Vancov, T; Schneider, R C S; Palmer, J; McIntosh, S; Stuetz, R

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports on processing options for the conversion of feedlot cattle manures into composite sugars for ethanol fermentation. Small-scale anaerobic digestion trials revealed that the process significantly reduces the content of glucan and xylan (ca. 70%) without effecting lignin. Moreover, anaerobic digestate (AD) fibres were poor substrates for cellulase (Cellic® CTec 2) saccharification, generating a maximum combined sugar yield of ca. 12% per original dry weight. Dilute acid pretreatment and enzyme saccharification of raw manures significantly improved total sugar recoveries, totalling 264 mg/g (79% theoretical). This was attained when manures were pretreated with 2.5% H2SO4 for 90 min at 121°C and saccharified with 50 FPU CTec 2/g glucan. Saccharomyces cerevisiae efficiently fermented crude hydrolysates within 6 h, yielding 7.3 g/L ethanol, representing glucose to ethanol conversion rate of 70%. With further developments (i.e., fermentation of xylose), this process could deliver greater yields, reinforcing its potential as a biofuel feedstock.

  7. Electromagnetic wave emitting products and "Kikoh" potentiate human leukocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Y; Iizawa, O; Ishimoto, K; Jiang, X; Kanoh, T

    1993-09-01

    Tourmaline (electric stone, a type of granite stone), common granite stone, ceramic disks, hot spring water and human palmar energy (called "Kikoh" in Japan and China), all which emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region (wavelength 4-14 microns). These materials were thus examined for effects on human leukocyte activity and on lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. It was revealed that these materials significantly increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, phagocytosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils, and the blastogenetic response of lymphocytes to mitogens. Chemotactic activity by neutrophils was also enhanced by exposure to tourmaline and the palm of "Kikohshi" i.e., a person who heals professionally by the laying on of hands. Despite the increase in reactive oxygen species generated by neutrophils, lipid peroxidation from unsaturated fatty acid was markedly inhibited by these four materials. The results suggest that materials emitting electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared range, which are widely used in Japan for cosmetic, therapeutic, and preservative purposes, appear capable of potentiating leukocyte functions without promoting oxidative injury.

  8. Electromagnetic wave emitting products and ``Kikoh'' potentiate human leukocyte functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Yukie; Iizawa, Osamu; Ishimoto, Koichi; Jiang, Xiaoxia; Kanoh, Tadashi

    1993-09-01

    Tourmaline (electric stone, a type of granite stone), common granite stone, ceramic disks, hot spring water and human palmar energy (called “Kikoh” in Japan and China), all which emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region (wavelength 4 14 µm). These materials were thus examined for effects on human leukocyte activity and on lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. It was revealed that these materials significantly increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, phagocytosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils, and the blastogenetic response of lymphocytes to mitogens. Chemotactic activity by neutrophils was also enhanced by exposure to tourmaline and the palm of “Kikohshi” i.e., a person who heals professionally by the laying on of hands. Despite the increase in reactive oxygen species generated by neutrophils, lipid peroxidation from unsaturated fatty acid was markedly inhibited by these four materials. The results suggest that materials emitting electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared range, which are widely used in Japan for cosmetic, therapeutic, and preservative purposes, appear capable of potentiating leukocyte functions without promoting oxidative injury.

  9. Potential insurance products for Brownfields Cleanup and redevelopment. Survey results of insurance industry products available for transference of risk at potentially contaminated property

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The following report discusses the findings of this survey in greater depth. Section I provides an overview of the potential risks encountered by owners of potentially contaminated property and discusses common ways key players control these risks, including the use of insurance. Section II describes how the insurance industry works and provides an overview of the main environmental insurance products, a discussion of the survey findings, and market factors that influence environmental insurance policies. Section III offers concluding remarks and recommendations.

  10. Topographic and lithologic controls on occurrence of cobble-boulder channel beds: implications for salmonid over-wintering habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, E. T.; Sklar, L. S.; Marshall, J. A.; Ligon, F. K.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    Channel beds dominated by cobble- and boulder-sized particles provide over-wintering habitat to Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other salmonids because the fish use the interstitial space as refuge from high flows, particularly where large woody debris and off-channel habitat are not present. Methods for predicting the occurrence and quality of cobble-boulder (CoBo) substrate are needed to guide population modeling and landuse management to support salmonid restoration efforts. Here we report results of an ongoing study of the controls on CoBo occurrence in Pescadero Creek, a forested coastal watershed draining the north-western side of the Santa Cruz mountains in central California. Our operational definition of CoBo is a bed material median grain size of 120 mm, with a thickness of at least 150 mm, open interstitial matrix, and low recurrence interval of mobilization (e.g 50 years). CoBo habitat is typically found at channel slopes of 2% and greater, and where drainage area is sufficient to provide perennial flow, however many channels with these slope-area characteristics are too fine-grained to serve as CoBo habitat. We hypothesize that the occurrence of Cobo habitat is controlled by hillslope sediment supply conditions. In particular, production of a sufficient supply of cobbles and boulders requires a durable bedrock lithology and either steep topography capable of producing debris flow-generating landslides or bedrock-walled inner gorges. In larger-drainage-area, lower-slope mainstem channels, coarse sediment plumes associated with tributary junctions may also be common sites of CoBo occurrence. We are using a combination of field reconnaissance and surveying, geologic mapping, and DEM analysis of channel network and hillslope topography to assess sediment supply conditions associated with occurrence of CoBo substrates. We are also assessing the habitat quality of reaches with CoBo substrates, which can be degraded by high supply of gravel and

  11. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tara C.; Jewett, Shannon M.; Hanson, Josh T.

    2003-04-11

    This is the seventh year of a multi-year project, monitoring the outmigration and survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project both supplements and complements ongoing and completed work within the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on juvenile outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts of natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also measure the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program. The general objectives for 2001 were to: (1) Estimate migrant abundance and survival and determine migration parameters of PIT-tagged hatchery and natural juvenile salmonids; (2) Monitor natural production and estimate overall abundance of pacific lamprey, chinook and coho salmon and summer steelhead; (3) Assess the condition and health of migrants and determine length-frequency distributions through time; (4) Investigate the effects of canal and fishway operations and environmental conditions on fish migration and survival; (5) Investigate and implement improved tag monitoring capabilities; and (6) Participate in planning and coordination activities within the basin and disseminate results. More specifically, 2001 objectives included the ongoing evaluation of migrant abundance and survival of tagged hatchery fish groups from various species-specific hatchery, rearing, acclimation and release strategies; fourth year reach survival results; continuation of transport evaluation studies; outmigrant monitoring and estimation of natural abundance, and further investigation of the effects of canal operations, environmental factors, fish condition and health on migration, abundance and survival. Some of the key findings for 2001 are: (1) A significant decline in outmigrant abundance of

  12. Trends in spawning populations of Pacific anadromous salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konkel, G.W.; McIntyre, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Annual escapement records for 1968-1984 for five species of Pacific salmon-chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho (O. kisutch), sockeye (O. nerka), pink (O. gorbuscha), and chum (O. keta)—and steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) were obtained from published and unpublished sources and organized in a computer database. More than 25,500 escapement records were obtained for more than 1,100 locations throughout Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California. Escapement trends for naturally reproducing populations for which data were available for at least 7 years from 1968 to 1984 and at least 4 years from 1975 to 1984 were analyzed by linear regression. Significant trends were observed in about 30% of the 886 populations examined. Trends were summarized by species for three geographic regions in Alaska and four in the Pacific Northwest (including California). For chinook, sockeye, and pink salmon, trends were predominantly increasing in the Alaska regions and either lacking or predominantly decreasing in most of the Pacific Northwest regions; for coho and chum salmon, trends were predominantly decreasing in one or more Alaska regions as well as in most of the Pacific Northwest regions. For steelhead, too few populations were examined to enable us to characterize trends throughout their range. Among the 657 salmonid populations excluded from the trend analysis because the data sets were incomplete, 13 (of which 2 were in Alaska) declined to zero during the period of analysis. For coho, sockeye, pink, and chum salmon and steelhead, major data gaps were revealed by a comparison of the geographic distribution of escapement records with the spawning distribution of the species. For chinook salmon, escapement records were more geographically representative of the spawning distribution.

  13. Nonmigratory salmonids and tailwaters - a survey of stocking practices in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swink, William D.

    1983-01-01

    A mail survey of fisheries agencies in the United States showed that 207.7 million nonmigratory salmonids were stocked in 1980 in the waters of 47 states (exclusive of the Great Lakes). Stocking in tailwaters accounted for 6.9 million or 3.3% of the total. In the South, 32.3% of all salmonids were stocked in tailwaters. Percentages stocked in tailwaters were lower in the West (1.8%), Midwest (1.5%), and Northeast (0.5%) because natural trout water is abundant in these regions. The rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) was the salmonid most commonly stocked in tailwaters, composing 95% of the fish 150 mm long or longer and 75% of the fish shorter than 150 mm. Nationally, tailwaters were more likely than other waters to be stocked with fish of the larger size.

  14. Prevalence of Renibacterium salmoninarum among downstream-migrating salmonids in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanders, J.E.; Long, J.J; Arakawa, C.K.; Bartholomew, J.L.; Rohovec, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) is an important contributor to mortality of salmonids in hatcheries in the Columbia River basin. However, the impact of BKD on the survival of downstream migrants is difficult to determine because there is little information on the disease-related mortality among these fish. In this study, the impact of BKD on juvenile salmonids was examined by determining the percentage of downriver migrants infected with Renibacterium salmoninarum (the causative agent of BKD) and evaluating the effects of salt water on the progress of the disease. During the 2 years of this study, approximately 20% of the three species of migrating hatchery and wild salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) collected were infected with R. salmoninarum. Mortality caused by BKD increased when fish were held in salt water.

  15. [Climatic potential productivity of winter wheat and summer maize in Huanghuaihai Plain in 2011-2050].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Fang; Guo, Jian-Ping; Wu, Ding-Rong; Fang, Shi-Bo; E, You-Hao

    2011-12-01

    Based on the daily data under B2 climate scenario (2011-2050) and baseline climate condition (1961-1990) extracted from the regional climate model PRECIS, and by using the Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ) model, a prediction was conducted on the possible spatiotemporal changes of the climatic potential productivity of the two crops in the Huanghuaihai Plain in 2011-2050. Under baseline climate condition, the climatic potential productivities of winter wheat and summer maize presented a regional differentiation, i.e., higher in southeast and lower in northwest regions, and higher along coast and lower in inland at the same latitudes, and fluctuated within the ranges of 3893-11000 kg x hm(-2) and 5908-12000 kg x hm(-2), respectively. Under B2 climate scenario, the climatic potential productivity of winter wheat and summer maize would have a greater inter-annual change, due to the different matching degrees of light, temperature and water during the growth periods of the crops. The climatic potential productivity of winter wheat in 2011-2030 and summer maize in 2021-2040 would have an obvious increase, with great potential for development. Under the conditions of maintaining the present production, the climatic potential productivity of winter wheat in 2011-2050 would present an overall regional differentiation of reverse change in southeast and northwest regions and the same change in coastal and inland areas, whereas the climatic potential productivity of summer maize in 2011-2050 would have little regional differentiation.

  16. Marine effect of introduced salmonids: Prey consumption by exotic steelhead and anadromous brown trout in the Patagonian Continental Shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ciancio, J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Pascual, M.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of stable isotope analysis, we estimated the marine diet of the most abundant anadromous salmonid species in Patagonian Atlantic basins. The results were coupled with bioenergetic and population models to estimate the consumption of food by salmonids and was compared with that by seabirds, the most abundant top predators in the area. Amphipods were the main salmonid prey, followed by sprat, silversides, squid, and euphausiids. The total consumption, even assuming large anadromous salmonid populations, represented <5% of the total consumption by seabirds. We also identified the particular seabird colonies and artisanal fisheries with which salmonid trophic interactions at a more local scale could be significant. ?? 2010, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  17. Direct Determination of Equilibrium Potentials for Hydrogen Oxidation/Production by Open Circuit Potential Measurements in Acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, John A. S.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-04-01

    Open circuit potentials were measured for acetonitrile solutions of a variety of acids and their conjugate bases under 1 atm H2. Acids examined were triethylammonium, dimethylformamidium, 2,6-dichloroanilinium, 4-cyanoanilinium, 4-bromoanilinium, and 4-anisidinium salts. These potentials, along with the pKa values of the acids, establish the value of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) potential in acetonitrile as -0.028(4) V vs the ferrocenium/ferrocene couple. Dimethylformamidium forms homoconjugates and other aggregates with dimethylformamide; open circuit potentials (OCPs) were used to quantify the extent of these reactions. Overpotentials for electrocatalytic hydrogen production and oxidation were determined from open circuit potentials and voltammograms of acidic or basic catalyst solutions under H2. For these solutions, agreement between OCP values and potentials calculated using the Nernst equation is within 12 mV. Finally, use of the measured equilibrium potential allows direct comparison of catalytic systems in different media; it requires neither pKa values, homoconjugation constants, nor the SHE potential.

  18. Direct determination of equilibrium potentials for hydrogen oxidation/production by open circuit potential measurements in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Roberts, John A S; Bullock, R Morris

    2013-04-01

    Open circuit potentials were measured for acetonitrile solutions of a variety of acids and their conjugate bases under 1 atm H2. Acids examined were triethylammonium, dimethylformamidium, 2,6-dichloroanilinium, 4-cyanoanilinium, 4-bromoanilinium, and 4-anisidinium salts. These potentials, along with the pKa values of the acids, establish the value of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) potential in acetonitrile as -0.028(4) V vs the ferrocenium/ferrocene couple. Dimethylformamidium forms homoconjugates and other aggregates with dimethylformamide; open circuit potentials (OCPs) were used to quantify the extent of these reactions. Overpotentials for electrocatalytic hydrogen production and oxidation were determined from open circuit potentials and voltammograms of acidic or basic catalyst solutions under H2. For these solutions, agreement between OCP values and potentials calculated using the Nernst equation is within 12 mV. Use of the measured equilibrium potential allows direct comparison of catalytic systems in different media; it requires neither pKa values, homoconjugation constants, nor the SHE potential.

  19. Modeling the Potential Effects of New Tobacco Products and Policies. A Dynamic Population Model for Multiple Product Use and Harm

    DOE PAGES

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Rostron, Brian L.; Verzi, Stephen J.; ...

    2015-03-27

    Background Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. Methods and Findings We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use formore » the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Conclusion Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of

  20. Modeling the Potential Effects of New Tobacco Products and Policies: A Dynamic Population Model for Multiple Product Use and Harm

    PubMed Central

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Rostron, Brian L.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Coleman, Blair N.; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. Methods and Findings We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Conclusion Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health

  1. Modeling the Potential Effects of New Tobacco Products and Policies. A Dynamic Population Model for Multiple Product Use and Harm

    SciTech Connect

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Rostron, Brian L.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Coleman, Blair N.; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2015-03-27

    Background Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. Methods and Findings We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Conclusion Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health

  2. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Cameron, William A.; Shapleigh, Stacey L.

    1995-12-01

    This is the first year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla river basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural fish populations. This project also completed tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  3. Genetic relatedness of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from cultured salmonids in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Il; Cha, Seung Joo; Lee, Chu; Baek, Harim; Hwang, Seong Don; Cho, Mi Young; Jee, Bo Young; Park, Myoung-Ae

    2016-08-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV; n = 18) was identified in the Korean national surveillance program between February 2013 and April 2015, suggesting that IHNV is a major viral pathogen in cultured salmonids. By phylogeny analysis, we found that the JRt-Nagano and JRt-Shizuoka groups could each be further subdivided into three distinct subtypes. The Korean strains were genetically similar to Japanese isolates, suggesting introduction from Japan. Interestingly, the amino acid sequences of the middle glycoprotein gene show that distinct Korean subtypes have circulated, indicating that the settled IHNVs might be evolved stably in cultured salmonid farm environments.

  4. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Suzanne M.; Kern, J. Chris; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the second year report of a multi-year project that monitors the outmigration and survival of hatchery and naturally-produced juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project supplements and complements ongoing or completed fisheries projects in the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on outmigration and survival will assist researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts for natural and restored fish populations. The authors also report on tasks related to evaluating juvenile salmonid passage at Three Mile Falls Dam and West Extension Canal.

  5. Productivity ranges of sustainable biomass potentials from non-agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueler, Vivian; Fuss, Sabine; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Weddige, Ulf; Beringer, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Land is under pressure from a number of demands, including the need for increased supplies of bioenergy. While bioenergy is an important ingredient in many pathways compatible with reaching the 2 °C target, areas where cultivation of the biomass feedstock would be most productive appear to co-host other important ecosystems services. We categorize global geo-data on land availability into productivity deciles, and provide a geographically explicit assessment of potentials that are concurrent with EU sustainability criteria. The deciles unambiguously classify the global productivity range of potential land currently not in agricultural production for biomass cultivation. Results show that 53 exajoule (EJ) sustainable biomass potential are available from 167 million hectares (Mha) with a productivity above 10 tons of dry matter per hectare and year (tD Mha-1 a-1), while additional 33 EJ are available on 264 Mha with yields between 4 and 10 tD M ha-1 a-1: some regions lose less of their highly productive potentials to sustainability concerns than others and regional contributions to bioenergy potentials shift when less productive land is considered. Challenges to limit developments to the exploitation of sustainable potentials arise in Latin America, Africa and Developing Asia, while new opportunities emerge for Transition Economies and OECD countries to cultivate marginal land.

  6. Characterizing the distribution of an endangered salmonid using environmental DNA analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laramie, Matthew B.; Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.

    2015-01-01

    Determining species distributions accurately is crucial to developing conservation and management strategies for imperiled species, but a challenging task for small populations. We evaluated the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis for improving detection and thus potentially refining the known distribution of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Methow and Okanogan Subbasins of the Upper Columbia River, which span the border between Washington, USA and British Columbia, Canada. We developed an assay to target a 90 base pair sequence of Chinook DNA and used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to quantify the amount of Chinook eDNA in triplicate 1-L water samples collected at 48 stream locations in June and again in August 2012. The overall probability of detecting Chinook with our eDNA method in areas within the known distribution was 0.77 (±0.05 SE). Detection probability was lower in June (0.62, ±0.08 SE) during high flows and at the beginning of spring Chinook migration than during base flows in August (0.93, ±0.04 SE). In the Methow subbasin, mean eDNA concentration was higher in August compared to June, especially in smaller tributaries, probably resulting from the arrival of spring Chinook adults, reduced discharge, or both. Chinook eDNA concentrations did not appear to change in the Okanogan subbasin from June to August. Contrary to our expectations about downstream eDNA accumulation, Chinook eDNA did not decrease in concentration in upstream reaches (0–120 km). Further examination of factors influencing spatial distribution of eDNA in lotic systems may allow for greater inference of local population densities along stream networks or watersheds. These results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of eDNA detection methods for determining landscape-level distribution of anadromous salmonids in large river systems.

  7. Effect of multiple turbine passage on juvenile Snake River salmonid survival

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, K. D.; Anderson, J. J.; Vucellck, J. A.

    2005-09-01

    Juvenile salmonids originating in the Snake River upstream of Lower Granite Dam must pass up to eight hydroelectric projects during their downstream migration to the Pacific Ocean. Fish may pass a project through a turbine or a spillbay or be screened into a bypass system that either collects fish into a barge or releases them downstream of the project. Previous reviews of studies of downstream passage for salmon at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River basin found higher mean mortality at turbines than for spillways or bypass systems. The potential mechanisms of mortality during turbine passage may include pressure changes, cavitation, shear, turbulence, strike, or grinding. Observing those mechanisms is challenging in the field, but laboratory studies have demonstrated that a single exposure to shear or pressure changes similar to turbine passage conditions can result in injury for some individuals. Because fish pass several dams along their migration, individuals experience a series of passage events. If estimates of surviving the passage of a single project are applied to each passage event, then the underlying assumption is that the mortality at each project is independent of previous exposure. If individuals approaching a project were already sub-lethally stressed, higher than expected mortality rates might occur upon subsequent passage events. Report presents the hypothesis that fish passing more than one turbine will experience a greater than expected rate of mortality. Because measuring an incremental increase in mortality would be challenging in the field, scientists developed an approach to first assess whether such an increment has any potential to influence a fish population. This approach identified populations at risk and will help design laboratory or field experiments to address those risks.

  8. Influence of Habitat Modifications on Habitat Composition and Anadromous Salmonid Populations in Fish Creek, Oregon, 1983-1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Gordon H.; Everest, Fred H.; Hohler, David B.

    1990-05-01

    Modification of degraded habitats to increase populations of anadromous salmonids is a major focus of management agencies throughout the Pacific Northwest. Millions of dollars are spent annually on such efforts. Inherent in implementing habitat improvements is the need for quantitative evaluation of the biological and physical effects of such work. Reeves et al. (in press), however, noted that such evaluations are rare, making it difficult to assess the true results of habitat work. While it is not economically possible to thoroughly evaluate every habitat project, it is essential that intensive evaluations be done on selected representative projects. One such evaluation program has been underway since 1982 on Fish Creek, a tributary of the Clackamas River near Estacada, OR. Habitat modification has been done by the USDA Forest Service, Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest with funding provided in part by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The USDA Forest Service, Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit, Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), Corvallis, OR is charged with: (1) evaluating the biological and physical responses to habitat modifications on a basin scale; and (2) developing a cost-benefit analysis of the program. Preliminary results have been reported in a series of annual publications, Everest and Sedell 1983, 1984 and Everest et al. 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) report 1988 observations of biological and physical changes in habitat, salmonid populations, and smolt production in Fish Creek, and (2) examine preliminary trends in fish habitat and populations related to habitat improvement over the period 1983-1988. We have prefaced the trends in the latter objective as preliminary because we believe it could take a minimum of 10 years before the full biological and physical responses to habitat work are realized. We therefore urge caution in interpreting these preliminary results.

  9. Detection of salmonid alphavirus RNA in wild marine fish: implications for the origins of salmon pancreas disease in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Snow, M; Black, J; Matejusova, I; McIntosh, R; Baretto, E; Wallace, I S; Bruno, D W

    2010-09-17

    Salmonid alphaviruses (SAVs), which include the aetiological agents of salmon pancreas disease (SPD) in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. and sleeping disease (SD) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), are significant viral pathogens of European salmonid aquaculture. SAV is horizontally transmitted and the virus can survive for extended periods in seawater. A lack of convincing evidence for vertical transmission coupled to the fact that the SPD virus (SPDV) occurs in historically infected sites irrespective of fallow period duration suggests that a substantial reservoir of infection exists in the marine environment. We used a highly sensitive real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting a region of the SAV nsP1 gene to screen wild marine fish species for the presence of SAV in an attempt to identify such a potential reservoir. Screened fish species were caught in the vicinity of aquaculture activity in an area with a previous history of SAV infection (Shetland Isles, Scotland). SAV RNA was detected in internal organs (kidney and heart) from the flatfish species common dab Limanda limanda, long rough dab Hippoglossoides platessoides, and plaice Pleuronectes platessa. Based on these findings, sampling was extended to an area remote from aquaculture activity (Stonehaven Bay, NE coast of Scotland) from where heart tissues obtained from common dab also tested positive. While no virus could be cultivated from these samples, qPCR detections were shown to be SAV-specific by sequencing of an alternative gene region (E2) to that targeted by the qPCR assay. Analysis of these nucleotide sequences revealed minor differences to those previously obtained from farmed salmon, and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of an E2 dataset demonstrated a subtype V-like sequence.

  10. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, Daniel D.; Collis, Ken; Lyons, Donald E.

    2009-06-18

    This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on smolt survival, and assess potential management options to reduce cormorant predation; and (3) monitor large colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds in the estuary (i.e., glaucous-winged/western gulls [Larus glaucescens/occidentalis]) to determine the potential impacts on smolt survival. Study objectives on the mid-Columbia River, work funded by the Walla Walla District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were to (1) measure the impact of predation by Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants on smolt survival; and (2) monitor large nesting colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds (i.e., California gulls [L. californicus], ring-billed gulls [L. delawarensis], American white pelicans [Pelecanus erythrorhynchos]) on the mid-Columbia River to determine the potential for significant impacts on smolt survival. Our efforts to evaluate system-wide losses of juvenile salmonids to avian predation indicated that Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants were responsible for the vast majority of smolt losses to avian predators in the Columbia Basin, with most losses occurring in the Columbia River estuary. In 2006, East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary supported the largest known breeding colonies of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the world. The Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island consisted of about 9,200 breeding pairs in 2006, up slightly (but not significantly so) from the estimate of colony size in 2005 (8,820 pairs). There has not been a

  11. Actual identity of six micrococcal strains selected as potential starter for dry fermented sausages production.

    PubMed

    Selgas, M D; Sanz, B; Ordóñez, J A

    1989-06-01

    The DNA guanine + cytosine contents of six strains previously selected as potential starters for their use for the dry fermented sausages production have been determined. Five strains were characterized as Micrococcus spp. and the remainder as incertae sedis.

  12. Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) initial effort to provide information and analysis on the potential impacts on petroleum product markets from reductions in Northeast petroleum refining activity.

  13. Isotope production potential at Sandia National Laboratories: Product, waste, packaging, and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Trennel, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Congress directed the U.S. Department of Energy to establish a domestic source of molybdenum-99, an essential isotope used in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacology. An Environmental Impact Statement for production of {sup 99}Mo at one of four candidate sites is being prepared. As one of the candidate sites, Sandia National Laboratories is developing the Isotope Production Project. Using federally approved processes and procedures now owned by the U.S. Department of Energy, and existing facilities that would be modified to meet the production requirements, the Sandia National Laboratories` Isotope Project would manufacture up to 30 percent of the U.S. market, with the capacity to meet 100 percent of the domestic need if necessary. This paper provides a brief overview of the facility, equipment, and processes required to produce isotopes. Packaging and transportation issues affecting both product and waste are addressed, and the storage and disposal of the four low-level radioactive waste types generated by the production program are considered. Recommendations for future development are provided.

  14. Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets is an update to a previous Energy Information Administration (EIA) report, Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets, released in December 2011. This update analyzes possible market responses and impacts in the event Sunoco's Philadelphia refinery closes this summer, in addition to the recently idled refineries on the East Coast and in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  15. Microbial and physicochemical properties of sugarcane bagasse for potential conversion to value-added products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane bagasse is a potential source for commercially-viable products such as animal feed, mulch, or fuel. The applications will be determined by the levels of moisture, ash and beneficial chemicals in the bagasse. Manufacturing value-added products will be impacted by microbes, and may require m...

  16. 76 FR 50226 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... tobacco products and tobacco smoke. This information will assist the Agency in establishing a list...

  17. Products Depend on Creative Potential: A Comment on the Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runco, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Ghassib (2010) presents a provocative view of science as industry. He ties science specifically to a "productivist" industrial model and to knowledge production. If judged based on what is explicit in this article, his theory is useful and logical. There are, however, several concerns as well. Some of these are implied by the title of his article,…

  18. Comparison of growth and metabolic regulation between wild, domesticated and transgenic salmonids.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain a better understanding of the aspects underlying normal and growth hormone enhanced growth in salmonids, quantitative expression analysis was performed for a number of genes related to muscle growth, metabolism, immunology and energy regulation. This analysis was performed in liver and musc...

  19. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-04-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  20. Minimally Invasive Detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis in Cultivated Salmonids via the PCR

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Sergio; Heath, Sekou; Henríquez, Vitalia; Orrego, Cristián

    1998-01-01

    The attributes of the PCR allowed implementation of an assay for specific detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis from a few microliters of fish serum. This opens the way to less invasive modes of sampling for this microbial pathogen in salmonids. PMID:9687475

  1. Genome Sequence of a Lactococcus lactis Strain Isolated from Salmonid Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Opazo, Rafael; Gajardo, Felipe; Ruiz, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a common inhabitant of the intestinal microbiota of salmonids, especially those in aquaculture systems. Here, we present a genome sequence of a Lactococcus lactis strain isolated from the intestinal contents of rainbow trout reared in Chile. PMID:27563049

  2. Osmoregulatory actions of the GH/IGF axis in non-salmonid teleosts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancera, J.M.; McCormick, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    Salmonid fishes provided the first findings on the influence of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis on osmoregulation in teleost fishes. Recent studies on non-salmonid species, however, indicate that this physiological action of the GH/IGF-I axis is not restricted to salmonids or anadromous fishes. GH-producing cells in the pituitary of fish acclimated to different salinities show different degrees of activation depending on the species studied. Plasma GH levels either increase or do not change after transfer of fish from freshwater to seawater. Treatment with GH or IGF-I increases salinity tolerance and/or increases gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). As in salmonids, a positive interaction between GH and cortisol for improving hypoosmoregulatory capacity has been described in tilapia (O. mossambicus). Research on the osmoregulatory role of the GH/IGF-I axis is derived from a small number of teleost species. The study of more species with different osmoregulary patterns will be necessary to fully clarify the osmoregulatory role of GH/IGF-I axis in fish. The available data does suggest, however, that the influence of the GH/IGF-I axis on osmoregulation may be a common feature of euryhalinity in teleosts. Copyright (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc.

  3. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie L.

    1998-09-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerabilit2048 different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  4. Inactivation of bacteria using ultraviolet irradiation in a recirculating salmonid culture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to determine the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation dosages required to inactivate bacteria in a commercial-scale recirculating salmonid culture system. Research was conducted in the commercial-scale recirculating system used for Arctic char growout at the Conservation ...

  5. Using Satellite Tracking and Isotopic Information to Characterize the Impact of South American Sea Lions on Salmonid Aquaculture in Southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Sepúlveda, Maritza; Newsome, Seth D.; Pavez, Guido; Oliva, Doris; Costa, Daniel P.; Hückstädt, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL) and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD) contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common. PMID:26309046

  6. Using Satellite Tracking and Isotopic Information to Characterize the Impact of South American Sea Lions on Salmonid Aquaculture in Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Maritza; Newsome, Seth D; Pavez, Guido; Oliva, Doris; Costa, Daniel P; Hückstädt, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL) and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD) contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common.

  7. A rapid solid-phase extraction fluorometric method for thiamine and riboflavin in salmonid eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, James L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Brown, Scott B.; Brown, Lisa R.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Fitzsimons, John D.

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed and successfully applied to the selective measurement of thiamine (nonphosphorylated), total thiamine (sum of thiamine, thiamine monophosphate [TMP], thiamine diphosphate [TDP], and thiamine triphosphate [TTP]), and potentially interfering riboflavin in acidic (2% trichloroacetic acid) extracts of selected salmonid and walleye egg samples. Acidic extracts of eggs were applied directly to end-capped C18, reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns and separated into three fractions by elution with mixtures of PO4 buffer (pH 2), methanol (10%), and acetonitrile (20%). All thiamine compounds recovered in the first two fractions were oxidized to their corresponding thiochromes with alkaline potassium hexacyanoferrate, and we measured the thiochrome fluorescence (excitation at 360 nm, emission at 460 nm) in a 96-well microplate reader. Riboflavin, recovered in third fraction (eluted with pH 2, 20% acetonitrile), was analyzed directly by measuring the fluorescence of this fraction (excitation at 450 nm, emission at 530 nm). Significant portions of the phosphate esters of thiamine (TMP, TDP, and presumably TTP), when present at low concentrations (< 10 nmol of total -thiamine per gram of egg), were not retained by the 100-mg SPE column, and were collected directly during sample loading and in a subsequent phosphoric acid rinse as fraction 1. Free thiamine (nonphosphorylated) and remaining portions of the TDP and TMP were then eluted in the second fraction with 10% methanol/PO4 buffer, whereas the un-ionized, relatively nonpolar riboflavin was eluted in the third fraction with 20% acetonitrile. This new method uses a traditional sample homogenization of egg tissue to extract thiamine compounds into 2% trichlororacetic acid solution; an inexpensive, commercially available SPE column; small amounts of sample (0.5-1 g); microliter volumes of solvents per sample; a traditional, relatively nonhazardous, oxidation of thiamine compounds to

  8. Bacon Production: Evaluating Potential Processing and Management Practices to Improve Product Quality of Industrial Sliced Bacon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scramlin, Stacy Maurine

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine areas of improvement to bacon production. The first trial was conducted to determine differences in belly and bacon quality traits in pigs fed ractopamine (RAC) for various durations during finishing. A 2x3x2 factorial arrangement was used with barrows and gilts, fed RAC levels of 0.0, 5.0, or 7.4…

  9. Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children's potential exposures.

    PubMed

    Tulve, Nicolle S; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Vance, Marina E; Rogers, Kim; Mwilu, Samuel; LeBouf, Ryan F; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willis, Robert; Thomas, Treye A; Marr, Linsey C

    2015-05-01

    Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their physiological functions, developmental stage, and activities and behaviors. Despite much research to date, children's potential exposures to AgNPs are not well characterized. Our objectives were to characterize selected consumer products containing AgNPs and to use the data to estimate a child's potential non-dietary ingestion exposure. We identified and cataloged 165 consumer products claiming to contain AgNPs that may be used by or near children or found in the home. Nineteen products (textile, liquid, plastic) were selected for further analysis. We developed a tiered analytical approach to determine silver content, form (particulate or ionic), size, morphology, agglomeration state, and composition. Silver was detected in all products except one sippy cup body. Among products in a given category, silver mass contributions were highly variable and not always uniformly distributed within products, highlighting the need to sample multiple areas of a product. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Using this data, a child's potential non-dietary ingestion exposure to AgNPs when drinking milk formula from a sippy cup is 1.53 μg Ag/kg. Additional research is needed to understand the number and types of consumer products containing silver and the concentrations of silver in these products in order to more accurately predict children's potential aggregate and cumulative exposures to AgNPs.

  10. Comparison of methane production potential, biodegradability, and kinetics of different organic substrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Guangqing; Chen, Chang; He, Yanfeng; Liu, Xiaoying

    2013-12-01

    The methane production potential, biodegradability, and kinetics of a wide range of organic substrates were determined using a unified and simple method. Results showed that feedstocks that contained high energy density and easily degradable substrates exhibited high methane production potential and biodegradability. Lignocellulosic biomass with high content of fibrous compositions had low methane yield and biodegradability. Feedstocks with high lignin content (≥ 15%, on a TS basis) had low first-order rate constant (0.05-0.06 1/d) compared to others. A negative linear correlation between lignin content and experimental methane yield (or biodegradability) was found for lignocellulosic and manure wastes. This could be used as a fast method to predict the methane production potential and biodegradability of fiber-rich substrates. The findings of this study provided a database for the conversion efficiency of different organic substrates and might be useful for applications of biomethane potential assay and anaerobic digestion in the future.

  11. Invasion versus isolation: trade-offs in managing native salmonids with barriers to upstream movement.

    PubMed

    Fausch, Kurt D; Rieman, Bruce E; Dunham, Jason B; Young, Michael K; Peterson, Douglas P

    2009-08-01

    Conservation biologists often face the trade-off that increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes to reduce extinction risk of native species can foster invasion by non-native species that enter via the corridors created, which can then increase extinction risk. This dilemma is acute for stream fishes, especially native salmonids, because their populations are frequently relegated to fragments of headwater habitat threatened by invasion from downstream by 3 cosmopolitan non-native salmonids. Managers often block these upstream invasions with movement barriers, but isolation of native salmonids in small headwater streams can increase the threat of local extinction. We propose a conceptual framework to address this worldwide problem that focuses on 4 main questions. First, are populations of conservation value present (considering evolutionary legacies, ecological functions, and socioeconomic benefits as distinct values)? Second, are populations vulnerable to invasion and displacement by non-native salmonids? Third, would these populations be threatened with local extinction if isolated with barriers? And, fourth, how should management be prioritized among multiple populations? We also developed a conceptual model of the joint trade-off of invasion and isolation threats that considers the opportunities for managers to make strategic decisions. We illustrated use of this framework in an analysis of the invasion-isolation trade-off for native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) in 2 contrasting basins in western North America where invasion and isolation are either present and strong or farther away and apparently weak. These cases demonstrate that decisions to install or remove barriers to conserve native salmonids are often complex and depend on conservation values, environmental context (which influences the threat of invasion and isolation), and additional socioeconomic factors. Explicit analysis with tools such as those we propose can help managers make

  12. Soil productive potential of the river basins located in European part of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Shoba, Sergei; Trifonova, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The search for integral monitoring indicators of natural ecosystems biosphere functions assessment is becoming really urgent nowadays. From the point of view of ecologic and economic indicators, characterizing ecosystems structure and functioning, soil fertility and vegetation productivity parameters, which have been studied for a long time as biosphere and environment forming functions rank first priority. For integrated characteristic of ecosystems soil and vegetation condition we have suggested to apply the index of "soil-productive potential" (SPP), characterizing the ability of nature and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems for sustained product (phytomass) reproduction under specific soil-bioclimatic conditions. It characterizes ecosystem reserve via the index expressed in numbers and averages the following parameters: • specific phytomass reserve (all living elevated and underground parts of plants in terms of total dry mass t/ hectare are considered); • specific productivity (phytomass augmentation for a year per unit area); • natural soil fertility (humus content, % as a characteristic); • crop-producing power (grain crop-producing power is considered, centner/hectare); • bioclimatic parameters (integrated index, including the sum of biologically active temperatures and moistening coefficient); • soil-ecologic index (SEI). Soil-productive potential allows the assessment of average perennial area resource for phytomass production by natural and nature-anthropogenic ecosystems. For more convenient comparative estimation, characteristics are ranked by dividing them into equal intervals according to 5-number scale with consequent numbers summation to overall index. As a result both soil-productive potential of natural eco-systems and total soil-productive potential of the whole area with a glance to the condition of available agrocenosis are calculated. Soil-productive potential of 12 first-rank major river basins of the European part of Russia have

  13. Development of a sensitive and controlled real-time RT-PCR assay for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in marine salmonid aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Matejusova, Iveta; McKay, Paul; McBeath, Alastair J A; Collet, Bertrand; Snow, Michael

    2008-07-07

    A survey was undertaken to determine the potential distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in marine cage-based salmonid farms in Scotland. A rapid, accurate and sensitive quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed, targeting a conserved region of the nucleoprotein (N) gene of the virus. The qRT-PCR assay was shown to be more sensitive than the conventional VHSV RT-PCR. A validation protocol included several different virus isolates as the target and confirmed that the assay could detect all European VHSV genotypes (I, II and III). Both endogenous and exogenous controls were designed to control for integrity of template and distinguish between true VHSV positives and contamination with the positive control material. In total, the universal European VHSV qRT-PCR assay with exogenous positive control was applied to screen 2040 individual Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and 150 individual rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. No evidence of the presence of VHSV in association with either salmonid species in Scottish marine farms was detected. However, both marine Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout are still considered possible carriers of VHSV, which remains a potential threat to freshwater farming. Therefore, a continued surveillance of these species in marine environment is recommended.

  14. Dehydrogenase activity in association with poised potential during biohydrogen production in single chamber microbial electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Lenin Babu, M

    2011-09-01

    Variation in the dehydrogenase (DH) activity and its simultaneous influence on hydrogen (H2) production, substrate degradation rate (SDR) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) generation was investigated with respect to varying poised potential in single chambered membrane-less microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) using anaerobic consortia as biocatalyst. Poised potential showed significant influence on H2 production and DH activity. Maximum H2 production was observed at 1.0V whereas the control system showed least H2 production among the experimental variations studied. DH activity was observed maximum at 0.6V followed by 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0V, suggests the influence of poised potential on the microbial metabolism. Almost complete degradation of substrate was observed in all the experimental conditions studied irrespective of the applied potential. Experimental data was also analysed employing multiple regression analysis and 3D-surface plots to find out the best theoretical poised potential for maximum H2 production and DH activity.

  15. Emission characteristics of VOCs emitted from consumer and commercial products and their ozone formation potential.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Kim, Su-Yeon; Son, Youn-Suk; Choi, In-Young; Park, Seong-Ryong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from several consumer and commercial products (body wash, dishwashing detergent, air freshener, windshield washer fluid, lubricant, hair spray, and insecticide) were studied and compared. The spray products were found to emit the highest amount of VOCs (~96 wt%). In contrast, the body wash products showed the lowest VOC contents (~1.6 wt%). In the spray products, 21.6-96.4 % of the VOCs were propane, iso-butane, and n-butane, which are the components of liquefied petroleum gas. Monoterpene (C10H16) was the dominant component of the VOCs in the non-spray products (e.g., body wash, 53-88 %). In particular, methanol was present with the highest amount of VOCs in windshield washer fluid products. In terms of the number of carbon, the windshield washer fluids, lubricants, insecticides, and hair sprays comprised >95 % of the VOCs in the range C2-C5. The VOCs in the range C6-C10 were predominantly found in the body wash products. The dishwashing detergents and air fresheners contained diverse VOCs from C2 to C11. Besides comprising hazardous VOCs, VOCs from consumer products were also ozone precursors. The ozone formation potential of the consumer and commercial spray products was estimated to be higher than those of liquid and gel materials. In particular, the hair sprays showed the highest ozone formation potential.

  16. Physiological tolerance and stoichiometric potential of cyanobacteria for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    PubMed

    Kämäräinen, Jari; Knoop, Henning; Stanford, Natalie J; Guerrero, Fernando; Akhtar, M Kalim; Aro, Eva-Mari; Steuer, Ralf; Jones, Patrik R

    2012-11-30

    Cyanobacteria are capable of directly converting sunlight, carbon dioxide and water into hydrocarbon fuel or precursors thereof. Many biological and non-biological factors will influence the ability of such a production system to become economically sustainable. We evaluated two factors in engineerable cyanobacteria which could potentially limit economic sustainability: (i) tolerance of the host to the intended end-product, and (ii) stoichiometric potential for production. Alcohols, when externally added, inhibited growth the most, followed by aldehydes and acids, whilst alkanes were the least inhibitory. The growth inhibition became progressively greater with increasing chain-length for alcohols, whilst the intermediate C6 alkane caused more inhibition than both C3 and C11 alkane. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was more tolerant to some of the tested chemicals than Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, particularly ethanol and undecane. Stoichiometric evaluation of the potential yields suggested that there is no difference in the potential productivity of harvestable energy between any of the studied fuels, with the exception of ethylene, for which maximal stoichiometric yield is considerably lower. In summary, it was concluded that alkanes would constitute the best choice metabolic end-product for fuel production using cyanobacteria if high-yielding strains can be developed.

  17. Electrifying white biotechnology: engineering and economic potential of electricity-driven bio-production.

    PubMed

    Harnisch, Falk; Rosa, Luis F M; Kracke, Frauke; Virdis, Bernardino; Krömer, Jens O

    2015-03-01

    The production of fuels and chemicals by electricity-driven bio-production (i.e., using electric energy to drive biosynthesis) holds great promises. However, this electrification of white biotechnology is particularly challenging to achieve because of the different optimal operating conditions of electrochemical and biochemical reactions. In this article, we address the technical parameters and obstacles to be taken into account when engineering microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for bio-production. In addition, BES-based bio-production processes reported in the literature are compared against industrial needs showing that a still large gap has to be closed. Finally, the feasibility of BES bio-production is analysed based on bulk electricity prices. Using the example of lysine production from sucrose, we demonstrate that there is a realistic market potential as cost savings of 8.4 % (in EU) and 18.0 % (in US) could be anticipated, if the necessary yields can be obtained.

  18. MODELING TOOLS FOR ASSESSING LANDSCAPE-LEVEL DETERMINANTS OF FISH PRODUCTION: EXAMPLES FROM WESTERN OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most studies addressing relationships between salmonids and factors that affect their freshwater production have focused on small areas and short time frames. Limits of understanding gained at fine spatiotemporal scales have become obvious, and aggregating fine-scale information ...

  19. Development of an Index to Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids within the Yakima River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Major, III, Walter; Grue, Christian E.; Ryding, Kristen E.

    2002-08-01

    Avian predation of fish is suspected to contribute to the loss of out-migrating juvenile salmonids in the Yakima Basin, potentially constraining natural and artificial production. In 1997 and 1998, the Yakima/ Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP)--whose goal is increasing natural production within the Yakima River--initiated investigations to assess the feasibility of developing an index to avian predation of juvenile salmon within the river. This research confirmed that Ring-billed Gulls and Common Mergansers were the primary avian predators of juvenile salmon (Phinney et al. 1998), and that under certain conditions could significantly impact migrating smolt populations. Beginning in 1999, the Washington Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit (WACFWRU) was asked by the YKFP to continue development of avian consumption indices. Monitoring methods developed by Phinney et al. (1998) were adopted (with modifications) and monitoring of impacts to juvenile salmon along river reaches and at areas of high predator/prey concentrations (colloquially referred to as ''hotspots'') has continued each year through 2001. In 2001, piscivorous birds were counted from river banks at hotspots and from a raft or drift boat along river reaches. Consumption by gulls at hotspots was based on direct observations of foraging success and modeled abundance; consumption by all other piscivorous birds was estimated using published dietary requirements and modeled abundance. Seasonal patterns of avian piscivore abundance were identified, diurnal patterns of gull abundance at hotspots were identified, and predation indices were calculated for hotspots and river reaches (for both spring and summer). Changes in survey methods in 2001 included the addition of surveys in the ''Canyon'' reach during spring and altering the method of directly measuring gull feeding rates at hotspots. Primary avian predators in 2001 were ''gulls'' (California and Ring-billed) at hotspots and Common Mergansers within

  20. Chemical diversity of microbial volatiles and their potential for plant growth and productivity

    PubMed Central

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Maffei, Massimo E.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) are produced by a wide array of microorganisms ranging from bacteria to fungi. A growing body of evidence indicates that MVOCs are ecofriendly and can be exploited as a cost-effective sustainable strategy for use in agricultural practice as agents that enhance plant growth, productivity, and disease resistance. As naturally occurring chemicals, MVOCs have potential as possible alternatives to harmful pesticides, fungicides, and bactericides as well as genetic modification. Recent studies performed under open field conditions demonstrate that efficiently adopting MVOCs may contribute to sustainable crop protection and production. We review here the chemical diversity of MVOCs by describing microbial–plants and microbial–microbial interactions. Furthermore, we discuss MVOCs role in inducing phenotypic plant responses and their potential physiological effects on crops. Finally, we analyze potential and actual limitations for MVOC use and deployment in field conditions as a sustainable strategy for improving productivity and reducing pesticide use. PMID:25821453

  1. Chemical diversity of microbial volatiles and their potential for plant growth and productivity.

    PubMed

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Maffei, Massimo E

    2015-01-01

    Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) are produced by a wide array of microorganisms ranging from bacteria to fungi. A growing body of evidence indicates that MVOCs are ecofriendly and can be exploited as a cost-effective sustainable strategy for use in agricultural practice as agents that enhance plant growth, productivity, and disease resistance. As naturally occurring chemicals, MVOCs have potential as possible alternatives to harmful pesticides, fungicides, and bactericides as well as genetic modification. Recent studies performed under open field conditions demonstrate that efficiently adopting MVOCs may contribute to sustainable crop protection and production. We review here the chemical diversity of MVOCs by describing microbial-plants and microbial-microbial interactions. Furthermore, we discuss MVOCs role in inducing phenotypic plant responses and their potential physiological effects on crops. Finally, we analyze potential and actual limitations for MVOC use and deployment in field conditions as a sustainable strategy for improving productivity and reducing pesticide use.

  2. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria and their potential in the preservation of fruit products.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto; Jain, Sona

    2017-01-03

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well-recognized for their potential as natural food preservatives. These antimicrobial peptides usually do not change the sensorial properties of food products and can be used in combination with traditional preservation methods to ensure microbial stability. In recent years, fruit products are increasingly being associated with food-borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, and bacteriocins are important candidates to preserve these products. Bacteriocins have been extensively studied to preserve foods of animal origin. However, little information is available for their use in vegetable products, especially in minimally processed ready-to-eat fruits. Although, many bacteriocins possess useful characteristics that can be used to preserve fruit products, to date, only nisin, enterocin AS-48, bovicin HC5, enterocin 416K1, pediocin and bificin C6165 have been tested for their activity against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in these products. Among these, only nisin and pediocin are approved to be commercially used as food additives, and their use in fruit products is still limited to certain countries. Considering the increasing demand for fresh-tasting fruit products and concern for public safety, the study of other bacteriocins with biochemical characteristics that make them candidates for the preservation of these products are of great interest. Efforts for their approval as food additives are also important. In this review, we discuss why the study of bacteriocins as an alternative method to preserve fruit products is important; we detail the biotechnological approaches for the use of bacteriocins in fruit products; and describe some bacteriocins that have been tested and have potential to be tested for the preservation of fruit products.

  3. Assessing the global warming potential of wooden products from the furniture sector to improve their ecodesign.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Gasol, Carles M; Lozano, Raúl García; Moreira, María Teresa; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall i Pons, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the global warming potential of several wood products as an environmental criterion for their ecodesign. Two methodologies were combined: the quantification of greenhouse gas emissions (equivalent CO(2)) of several representative wood based products from the furniture sector and the integration of environmental aspects into product design. The products under assessment were classified in two groups: indoor products and outdoor products, depending on their location. "Indoor products" included a convertible cot/bed, a kitchen cabinet, an office table, a living room furniture, a headboard, youth room accessories and a wine crate, while the "Outdoor products" analysed were a ventilated wooden wall and a wooden playground. Spanish wood processing companies located in Galicia (NW Spain) and Catalonia (NE Spain) were analysed in detail. The life cycle of each product was carried out from a cradle-to-gate perspective according to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, using global warming potential as the selected impact category. According to the results, metals, boards and energy use appeared to be the most contributing elements to the environmental impact of the different products under assessment, with total contributions ranging from 40% to 90%. Furthermore, eco-design strategies were proposed by means of the methodology known as Design for the Environment (DfE). Improvement strategies viable for implementation in the short term were considered and analysed in detail, accounting for remarkable reductions in the equivalent CO(2) emissions (up to 60%). These strategies would be focused on the use of renewable energies such as photovoltaic cells, the promotion of national fibres or changes in the materials used. Other alternatives to be implemented in the long term can be of potential interest for future developments.

  4. Study of the geothermal production potential in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Min H.

    1991-09-10

    Preliminary studies of geothermal production potential for the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin have been carried out. Reservoir data such as formation depth, subsurface temperatures, and water quality were reviewed for geothermal brine production predictions. This study, in addition, provides important information about net pay thickness, porosity, volume of geothermal water available, and productivity index for future geothermal direct-use development. Preliminary results show that the Inyan Kara Formation of the Dakota Group is the most favorable geothermal resource in terms of water quality and productivity. The Madison, Duperow, and Red River Formations are deeper formations but because of their low permeability and great depth, the potential flow rates from these three formations are considerably less than those of the Inyan Kara Formation. Also, poor water quality and low porosity will make those formations less favorable for geothermal direct-use development.

  5. Study sizes up Iraq`s reserves, exploration status, production potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, M.W.

    1996-06-24

    Iraq has a volatile exploration and production history, but unlike more stable OAPEC countries it was National Oil Co. (INOC) rather than foreign oil companies that discovered most of the country`s proved oil reserves. Proved reserves are in Paleozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary reservoirs charged by Silurian and Jurassic and/or Cretaceous source rocks. The pre-gulf war production capacity was 3.5 million b/d, but the country`s current damaged production capacity is about 2.5 million b/d. New discoveries have elevated Iraq`s proved reserves to 120 billion bbl of oil. The paper discusses exploration history, proven reserves, exploration plays, exploration potential, and production potential.

  6. Changes in Gas Bubble Disease Signs for Migrating Juvenile Salmonids Experimentally Exposed to Supersaturated Gasses, 1996-1997 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Absolon, Randall F.

    1999-03-01

    This study was designed to answer the question of whether gas bubble disease (GBD) signs change as a result of the hydrostatic conditions juvenile salmonids encounter when they enter the turbine intake of hydroelectric projects during their downstream migration.

  7. Global wheat production potentials and management flexibility under the representative concentration pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balkovič, Juraj; van der Velde, Marijn; Skalský, Rastislav; Xiong, Wei; Folberth, Christian; Khabarov, Nikolay; Smirnov, Alexey; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Wheat is the third largest crop globally and an essential source of calories in human diets. Maintaining and increasing global wheat production is therefore strongly linked to food security. A large geographic variation in wheat yields across similar climates points to sizeable yield gaps in many nations, and indicates a regionally variable flexibility to increase wheat production. Wheat is particularly sensitive to a changing climate thus limiting management opportunities to enable (sustainable) intensification with potentially significant implications for future wheat production. We present a comprehensive global evaluation of future wheat yields and production under distinct Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) using the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) agro-ecosystem model. We project, in a geographically explicit manner, future wheat production pathways for rainfed and irrigated wheat systems. We explore agricultural management flexibility by quantifying the development of wheat yield potentials under current, rainfed, exploitable (given current irrigation infrastructure), and irrigated intensification levels. Globally, because of climate change, wheat production under conventional management (around the year 2000) would decrease across all RCPs by 37 to 52 and 54 to 103 Mt in the 2050s and 2090s, respectively. However, the exploitable and potential production gap will stay above 350 and 580 Mt, respectively, for all RCPs and time horizons, indicating that negative impacts of climate change can globally be offset by adequate intensification using currently existing irrigation infrastructure and nutrient additions. Future world wheat production on cropland already under cultivation can be increased by ~ 35% through intensified fertilization and ~ 50% through increased fertilization and extended irrigation, if sufficient water would be available. Significant potential can still be exploited, especially in rainfed wheat systems in Russia

  8. Natural products as a source of potential cancer chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents.

    PubMed

    Cassady, J M; Baird, W M; Chang, C J

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the chemistry of novel bioactive natural products are reported. This research is directed to the exploration of plants with confirmed activity in bioassays designed to detect potential cancer chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents. Structural work and chemical studies are reported for several cytotoxic agents from the plants Annona densicoma, Annona reticulata, Claopodium crispifolium, Polytrichum obioense, and Psorospermum febrifugum. Studies are also reported based on development of a mammalian cell culture benzo[a]pyrene metabolism assay for the detection of potential anticarcinogenic agents from natural products. In this study a number of isoflavonoids and flavonoids with antimutagenic activity have been discovered.

  9. Complex marine natural products as potential epigenetic and production regulators of antibiotics from a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Waters, Amanda L; Sims, James W; Fullmer, Alexis; Ellison, Serena; Hamann, Mark T

    2013-05-01

    Marine microbes are capable of producing secondary metabolites for defense and competition. Factors exerting an impact on secondary metabolite production of microbial communities included bioactive natural products and co-culturing. These external influences may have practical applications such as increased yields or the generation of new metabolites from otherwise silent genes in addition to reducing or limiting the production of undesirable metabolites. In this paper, we discuss the metabolic profiles of a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of a number of potential chemical epigenetic regulators, adjusting carbon sources and co-culturing with other microbes to induce a competitive response. As a result of these stressors certain groups of antibiotics or antimalarial agents were increased most notably when treating P. aeruginosa with sceptrin and co-culturing with another Pseudomonas sp. An interesting cross-talking event between these two Pseudomonas species when cultured together and exposed to sceptrin was observed.

  10. Complex marine natural products as potential epigenetic and production regulators of antibiotics from a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Waters, Amanda L.; Sims, James W.; Fullmer, Alexis; Ellison, Serena; Hamann, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Marine microbes are capable of producing secondary metabolites for defense and competition. Factors exerting an impact on secondary metabolite production of microbial communities included bioactive natural products and co-culturing. These external influences may have practical applications such as increased yields or the generation of new metabolites from otherwise silent genes in addition to reducing or limiting the production of undesirable metabolites. In this paper, we discuss the metabolic profiles of a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of a number of potential chemical epigenetic regulators, adjusting carbon sources and co-culturing with other microbes to induce a competitive response. As a result of these stressors certain groups of antibiotics or antimalarial agents were increased most notably when treating P. aeruginosa with sceptrin and co-culturing with another Pseudomonas sp. An interesting cross-talking event between these two Pseudomonas species when cultured together and exposed to sceptrin was observed. PMID:23563743

  11. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E.; Joshi, Sanket J.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Al-Maqbali, Dua’a; Banat, Ibrahim M.

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13–15% salinity, pH range of 2–12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery. PMID:26635782

  12. Potential new production in two upwelling regions of the western Arabian Sea: Estimation and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaomei; Zhan, Haigang; Du, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Using satellite-derived and in situ data, the wind-driven potential new production (nitrate supply) for the 300 km wide coastal band in two upwelling regions of the western Arabian Sea (AS) during the southwest monsoon is estimated. The upward nitrate flux to the euphotic zone is generally based on the physical processes of coastal transport (Ekman transport and geostrophic transport) and offshore Ekman pumping. The coastal geostrophic current in the western AS influences the upwelling intensity and latitudinal distributions of nitrate supply. The Oman and Somalia upwelling regions have similar level of potential new production (nitrate supply) during the summer monsoon, while the satellite estimates of primary production off Oman are 2 times greater than those off Somalia. The much higher potential f-ratio in the Somalia upwelling region indicates that the primary production could be limited by availability of other macronutrients (e.g., silicate). The correlation analysis of the primary production and the aerosol optical thickness shows that the Oman upwelling region displays a stronger coupling between the atmospheric deposition and the phytoplankton abundance. The high summertime dust levels in the atmosphere are suggested to contribute to the high primary production in the Oman upwelling region.

  13. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Maqbali, Dua'a; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13-15% salinity, pH range of 2-12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

  14. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production.

    PubMed

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop.

  15. Potential methane production and methane oxidation rates in peatland ecosystems of the Appalachian Mountains, United States

    SciTech Connect

    Yavitt, J.B.; Lang, G.E.; Downey, D.M. )

    1988-09-01

    Potential rates of methane production and carbon dioxide production were measured on 11 dates in 1986 in peat from six plant communities typical of moss-dominated peatlands in the Appalachian Mountains. Annual methane production ranged from 2.7 to 17.5 mol/sq m, and annual carbon dioxide production ranged from 30.6 to 79.0 mol/sq m. The wide range in methane production values among the communities found within a single peatland indicates that obtaining one production value for a peatland may not be appropriate. Low temperature constrained the potential for methane production in winter, while the chemical quality of the peat substrate appears to control methane production in the summer. Methane oxidation was measured throughout the peat profile to a depth of 30 cm. Values for methane oxidation ranged from 0.08 to 18.7 microM/hr among the six plant communities. Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria probably mediated most of the activity. On a daily basis during the summer, between 11 and 100% of the methane produced is susceptible to oxidation within the peat column. Pools of dissolved methane and dissolved carbon dioxide in pore waters were less than 0.2 and less than 1.0 mol/sq m, respectively, indicating that methane does not accumulate in the pore waters. Peatlands have been considered as an important source of biologically produced methane. Despite the high rates of methane production, the high rates of methane oxidation dampen the potential emission of methane to the atmosphere. 41 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Potential of biocellulose nanofibers production from agricultural renewable resources: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Dahman, Yaser; Jayasuriya, Kithsiri E; Kalis, Magdalina

    2010-11-01

    In the present preliminary study, we report results for the biocellulose nanofibres production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Production was examined by utilizing different feedstocks of single sugars and sugar mixtures with compositions similar to the acid hydrolyzates of different agriculture residues. Profiles for cell proliferation, sugar consumption, and the subsequent pH changes were thoroughly analyzed. Highest biocellulose production of 5.65 g/L was achieved in fructose medium with total sugar consumption of 95.57%. Moreover, the highest production using sugar mixtures was 5.2 g/L, which was achieved in feedstock with composition identical to the acid hydrolyzate of wheat straws. This represented the highest biocellulose yield of 17.72 g/g sugars compared with 14.77 g/g fructose. The lowest production of 1.1 and 1.75 g/L were obtained in xylose and glucose media, respectively, while sucrose and arabinose media achieved relatively higher production of 4.7 and 4.1 g/L, respectively. Deviation in pH of the fermentation broths from the optimum value of 4-5 generally had marked effect on biocellulose production with single sugars in feedstock. However, the final pH values recorded in the different sugar mixtures were approximately 3.3-3.4, which had lower effect on production hindrance. Analyzing profiles for sugars' concentrations and cell growth showed that large amount of the metabolized sugars were mainly utilized for bacterial cell growth and maintenance, rather than biocellulose production. This was clearly observed with single sugars of low production, while sugar consumption was rather utilized for biocellulose production with sugar mixtures. Results reported in this study demonstrate that agriculture residues might be used as potential feedstocks for the biocellulose nanofibres production. Not only this represents a renewable source of feedstock, but also might lead to major improvements in production if proper supplements and control were utilized in

  17. Identification of potentially hazardous human gene products in GMO risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bergmans, Hans; Logie, Colin; Van Maanen, Kees; Hermsen, Harm; Meredyth, Michelle; Van Der Vlugt, Cécile

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), e.g. viral vectors, could threaten the environment if by their release they spread hazardous gene products. Even in contained use, to prevent adverse consequences, viral vectors carrying genes from mammals or humans should be especially scrutinized as to whether gene products that they synthesize could be hazardous in their new context. Examples of such potentially hazardous gene products (PHGPs) are: protein toxins, products of dominant alleles that have a role in hereditary diseases, gene products and sequences involved in genome rearrangements, gene products involved in immunomodulation or with an endocrine function, gene products involved in apoptosis, activated proto-oncogenes. For contained use of a GMO that carries a construct encoding a PHGP, the precautionary principle dictates that safety measures should be applied on a "worst case" basis, until the risks of the specific case have been assessed. The potential hazard of cloned genes can be estimated before empirical data on the actual GMO become available. Preliminary data may be used to focus hazard identification and risk assessment. Both predictive and empirical data may also help to identify what further information is needed to assess the risk of the GMO. A two-step approach, whereby a PHGP is evaluated for its conceptual dangers, then checked by data bank searches, is delineated here.

  18. A methanotroph-based biorefinery: Potential scenarios for generating multiple products from a single fermentation.

    PubMed

    Strong, P J; Kalyuzhnaya, M; Silverman, J; Clarke, W P

    2016-09-01

    Methane, a carbon source for methanotrophic bacteria, is the principal component of natural gas and is produced during anaerobic digestion of organic matter (biogas). Methanotrophs are a viable source of single cell protein (feed supplement) and can produce various products, since they accumulate osmolytes (e.g. ectoine, sucrose), phospholipids (potential biofuels) and biopolymers (polyhydroxybutyrate, glycogen), among others. Other cell components, such as surface layers, metal chelating proteins (methanobactin), enzymes (methane monooxygenase) or heterologous proteins hold promise as future products. Here, scenarios are presented where ectoine, polyhydroxybutyrate or protein G are synthesised as the primary product, in conjunction with a variety of ancillary products that could enhance process viability. Single or dual-stage processes and volumetric requirements for bioreactors are discussed, in terms of an annual biomass output of 1000 tonnesyear(-1). Product yields are discussed in relation to methane and oxygen consumption and organic waste generation.

  19. Potential for polyhydroxyalkanoate production on German or European municipal waste water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H

    2016-08-01

    Biopolymers, which are made of renewable raw materials and/or biodegradable residual materials present a possible alternative to common plastic. A potential analysis, based on experimental results in laboratory scale and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 20% of the 2015 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition a profound estimation regarding all European Union member states showed that theoretically about 115% of the actual worldwide biopolymer production could be produced on European waste water treatment plants. With an upgraded biopolymer production and a theoretically reachable biopolymer proportion of around 60% of the cell dry weight a total of 1,794,656tPHAa or approximately 236% of today's biopolymer production could be produced on waste water treatment plants in the European Union, using primary sludge as raw material only.

  20. Off-flavors in salmonids raised in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers of aquaculture products will typically verify the flavor quality of their product by sensory evaluation (flavor testing) before harvesting the crop for market. “Off-flavors” detected in the product may require holding the fish in a purging system containing fresh, clean water to depurate ...

  1. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hanks, Michael E.; Khan, Fenton; Cook, Chris B.; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-06-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate juvenile salmon passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004 to inform decisions about long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway and spill passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. PNNL used fixed-location hydroacoustic sampling across the entire project, especially at the sluiceway and spillway, using multiple split-beam transducers at selected locations. At the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish. The fish data were interpreted and integrated with hydraulic data from a CFD model and in-field ADCP measurements. Two sluiceway operations were compared: West only (SL 1) vs. West+East (SL 1 + SL 18). Based on our findings, we concluded that The Dalles Dam sluiceway has the potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. This potential could be tapped with hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway. We recommended the following: (1) six rather than three sluice gates should be opened to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. (2) The turbine units below open sluice gates should be operated as a standard fish operations procedure. (3) In 2005, the Corps and fisheries agencies should consider operating sluice gates in one or more of the following combinations of six gates: (a) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 18-1, 18-2, 18-3 (repeat 2004 operation), (b) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, or (c) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 2-1, 2-2, 2-3. The following elements for surface flow bypasses which should be considered during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: (1) form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than {approx}7% of total project discharge), (2) create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s/m), (3) make water

  2. The assessment of impurities for genotoxic potential and subsequent control in drug substance and drug product.

    PubMed

    Dow, Linda K; Hansen, Marvin M; Pack, Brian W; Page, Todd J; Baertschi, Steven W

    2013-05-01

    The strategies implemented at Eli Lilly and Company to address European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration requirements governing the control of genotoxic impurities (GTIs) are presented. These strategies were developed to provide understanding with regard to the risk and potential liabilities that could be associated with developmental and marketed compounds. The strategies systematize the assessment of impurities for genotoxic potential, addressing both actual and potential impurities. Timing of activities is designed to minimize impact to development timelines while building a data package sufficient to either discharge the risk of potential GTI formation or support the implementation of a specification necessary for long-term control. This article presents the background associated with GTI control, the types of impurities that should be assessed, and the actions to be taken when an impurity is found to be genotoxic. A systematic approach to define potential degradation products derived from stress-testing studies is outlined with a proposal to perform a genotoxic risk assessment on these impurities. Finally, an Arrhenius-based strategy is proposed for a rapid assessment of the likelihood of potential degradation impurities to form in the commercial drug product formulation. Importantly, this article makes a proposal for discharging the risk of a potential GTI with supporting data.

  3. A life-cycle approach to low-invasion potential bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demand for energy has increased economic incentives to develop and deploy novel bioenergy crops for biomass production. Similarities in plant traits between many candidate bioenergy crops and known invasive species have raised concerns about the potential for bioenergy crops to escape pro...

  4. Human Communication Needs and Organizational Productivity: The Potential Impact of Office Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culnan, Mary J.; Bair, James H.

    1983-01-01

    This survey of potential impacts of office automation on organizational communication and productivity covers the following--(1) the relationship between office automation and organizational communication; (2) communication variables relevant to office automation; (3) benefits and caveats related to implementation of office automation. Thirty-four…

  5. Disease severity and yield potential of rice cultivars in organic production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The market demand for organically produced rice has driven the steady increase in the acreage of organic rice in the U. S., with Texas and California being the largest states. Yield potential and disease management are among the principal challenges associated with organic rice production. We evalua...

  6. 77 FR 20034 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Established List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Established List AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; establishment of a list. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is establishing a list of harmful...

  7. The Potential of Carbonyl Sulfide as a Tracer for Gross Primary Productivity at Flux Tower Sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regional/continental scale studies of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) seasonal dynamics and leaf level studies of plant OCS uptake have shown a close relationship to CO2 dynamics and uptake, suggesting potential for OCS as a tracer for gross primary productivity (GPP). Canopy CO2 and OCS differen...

  8. Electron-positron pair production in the Aharonov-Bohm potential

    SciTech Connect

    Skarzhinsky, V.D. |; Audretsch, J.; Jasper, U.

    1996-02-01

    In the framework of QED we evaluate the cross section for electron-positron pair production by a single photon in the presence of the external Aharonov-Bohm potential in first order of perturbation theory. We analyze energy, angular, and polarization distributions at different energy regines: near the threshold and at high photon energies. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Magnetophoretic potential at the movement of cluster products of electrochemical reactions in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Gorobets, O. Yu. Gorobets, Yu. I.; Rospotniuk, V. P.

    2015-08-21

    An electric field arises from the influence of a nonuniform static magnetic field on charged colloid particles with magnetic susceptibility different from that of the surrounding liquid. It arises, for example, under the influence of a nonuniform static magnetic field in clusters of electrochemical reaction products created during metal etching, deposition, and corrosion processes without an external electric current passing through an electrolyte near a magnetized electrode surface. The corresponding potential consists of a Nernst potential of inhomogeneous distribution of concentration of colloid particles and a magnetophoretic potential (MPP). This potential has been calculated using a thermodynamic approach based on the equations of thermodynamics of nonequilibrium systems and the Onsager relations for a mass flow of correlated magnetic clusters under a gradient magnetic force in the electrolyte. The conditions under which the MPP contribution to the total electric potential may be significant are discussed with a reference to the example of a corroding spherical ferromagnetic steel electrode.

  10. Enumeration of Juvenile Salmonids in the Okanogan Basin Using Rotary Screw Traps, Performance Period: March 15, 2006 - July 15, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Peter N.; Rayton, Michael D.

    2007-05-01

    The Colville Tribes identified the need for collecting baseline census data on the timing and abundance of juvenile salmonids in the Okanogan River basin for the purpose of documenting local fish populations, augmenting existing fishery data and assessing natural production trends of salmonids. This report documents and assesses the pilot year of rotary trap capture of salmonid smolts on the Okanogan River. The project is a component of the Colville Tribes Okanogan Basin Monitoring and Evaluation Program (OBMEP) which began in 2004. Trapping for outmigrating fish began on 14 March 2006 and continued through 11 July 2006. Anadromous forms of Oncorhynchus, including summer steelhead (O. mykiss), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), and sockeye (O. nerka), were targeted for this study; all have verified, natural production in the Okanogan basin. Both 8-ft and 5-ft rotary screw traps were deployed on the Okanogan River from the Highway 20 Bridge and typically fished during evening hours or 24 hours per day, depending upon trap position and discharge conditions. Juvenile Chinook salmon were the most abundant species trapped in 2006 (10,682 fry and 2,024 smolts), followed by sockeye (205 parr and 3,291 smolts) and steelhead (1 fry and 333 smolts). Of the trapped Chinook, all fry were wild origin and all but five of the smolts were hatchery-reared. All trapped sockeye were wild origin and 88% of the steelhead smolts were hatchery-reared. Mark-recapture experiments were conducted using Chinook fry and hatchery-reared steelhead smolts (sockeye were not used in 2006 because the peak of the juvenile migration occurred prior to the onset of the mark-recapture experiments). A total of 930 chinook fry were marked and released across eight separate release dates (numbers of marked Chinook fry released per day ranged from 34 to 290 fish). A total of 11 chinook fry were recaptured for an overall trap efficiency of 1.18%. A total of 710 hatchery-reared steelhead were marked and released across

  11. Estimating Hydrogen Production Potential in Biorefineries Using Microbial Electrolysis Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are devices that use a hybrid biocatalysis-electrolysis process for production of hydrogen from organic matter. Future biofuel and bioproducts industries are expected to generate significant volumes of waste streams containing easily degradable organic matter. The emerging MEC technology has potential to derive added- value from these waste streams via production of hydrogen. Biorefinery process streams, particularly the stillage or distillation bottoms contain underutilized sugars as well as fermentation and pretreatment byproducts. In a lignocellulosic biorefinery designed for producing 70 million gallons of ethanol per year, up to 7200 m3/hr of hydrogen can be generated. The hydrogen can either be used as an energy source or a chemical reagent for upgrading and other reactions. The energy content of the hydrogen generated is sufficient to meet 57% of the distillation energy needs. We also report on the potential for hydrogen production in existing corn mills and sugar-based biorefineries. Removal of the organics from stillage has potential to facilitate water recycle. Pretreatment and fermentation byproducts generated in lignocellulosic biorefinery processes can accumulate to highly inhibitory levels in the process streams, if water is recycled. The byproducts of concern including sugar- and lignin- degradation products such as furans and phenolics can also be converted to hydrogen in MECs. We evaluate hydrogen production from various inhibitory byproducts generated during pretreatment of various types of biomass. Finally, the research needs for development of the MEC technology and aspects particularly relevant to the biorefineries are discussed.

  12. Cyclic voltammetry to evaluate the antioxidant potential in winemaking by-products.

    PubMed

    José Jara-Palacios, M; Luisa Escudero-Gilete, M; Miguel Hernández-Hierro, J; Heredia, Francisco J; Hernanz, Dolores

    2017-04-01

    Grape pomace is composed of seeds, skins and stems that are an important source of phenolic substances, which have antioxidant properties and potential benefits to human health. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) has been used to measure the total antioxidant potential of different winemaking by-products. The electrochemical behavior of pomace, seeds, skins and stems was measured by CV and lipid peroxidation inhibition by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method. Differences for the electrochemical parameter were found between the by-products, pomace and seeds, which presented the greatest voltammetric peak area. Furthermore, the by-products induced inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates. Pomace and seeds showed higher capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation than stems and skins, which could be because these by-products are richer in flavanols. Simple regression analyses showed that voltammetric parameters are highly correlated to the values obtained for lipid peroxidation inhibition. CV is a promising technique to estimate the total antioxidant potential of phenolic extract from winemaking by-products.

  13. A simple method for in situ monitoring of water temperature in substrates used by spawning salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Finn, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial water temperature within spawning habitats of salmonids may differ from surface-water temperature depending on intragravel flow paths, geomorphic setting, or presence of groundwater. Because survival and developmental timing of salmon are partly controlled by temperature, monitoring temperature within gravels used by spawning salmonids is required to adequately describe the environment experienced by incubating eggs and embryos. Here we describe a simple method of deploying electronic data loggers within gravel substrates with minimal alteration of the natural gravel structure and composition. Using data collected in spawning sites used by summer and fall chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta from two streams within the Yukon River watershed, we compare contrasting thermal regimes to demonstrate the utility of this method.

  14. Synthesis of juvenile salmonid passage studies at The Dalles Dam volume II: 2001 - 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.E.; Beeman, J.W.; Duran , I.N.; Puls, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. From 2001, when Ploskey et al. (2001a) completed their review of 1982-2000 research, through 2005, the USACE has funded over $20M of research in at least 40 studies. The purpose of this current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2005.

  15. Interspecific habitat associations of juvenile salmonids in Lake Ontario tributaries: implications for Atlantic salmon restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Diel variation in habitat use of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), subyearling coho salmon (O. kisutch), yearling steelhead (O. mykiss), and yearling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was examined during the spring in two tributaries of Lake Ontario. A total of 1318 habitat observations were made on juvenile salmonids including 367 on steelhead, 351 on Chinook salmon, 333 on Atlantic salmon, and 261 on coho salmon. Steelhead exhibited the most diel variation in habitat use and Chinook the least. Juvenile salmonids were generally associated with more cover and larger substrate during the day in both streams. Interspecific differences in habitat use in both streams occurred with Atlantic salmon (fast velocities) and coho salmon (pools) using the least similar habitat. Chinook salmon and Atlantic salmon used similar habitat in both streams. These findings should help guide future management actions specific to habitat protection and restoration of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries.

  16. Oil sands fine tailings - a resource material for potentially marketable products

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, A.; Sparks, B.D.; Coleman, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Oil sands fine tailings is a complex mixture of components each having specific physical or chemical characteristics. Studies on the fundamental properties of fine tailings have resulted in the development of methods to fractionate the tailings into products with market potential. These include: bitumen, for production of synthetic crude oil or as an ancillary fuel; clean kaolin for fine paper coating; a gelling agent for drilling mud formulation; emulsifying solids, for surfactant replacement; and a mineral fraction, for heavy metal recovery. In this investigation we have attempted to evaluate the economic potential of fine tailings as a resource material by determining the amount and value of these products; the prime objective was to determine the economic feasibility of a tailings treatment scheme.

  17. Methane production potentials, pathways, and communities of methanogens in vertical sediment profiles of river Sitka

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Václav; Blaser, Martin B.; Claus, Peter; Chaudhary, Prem P.; Rulík, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Biological methanogenesis is linked to permanent water logged systems, e.g., rice field soils or lake sediments. In these systems the methanogenic community as well as the pathway of methane formation are well-described. By contrast, the methanogenic potential of river sediments is so far not well-investigated. Therefore, we analyzed (a) the methanogenic potential (incubation experiments), (b) the pathway of methane production (stable carbon isotopes and inhibitor studies), and (c) the methanogenic community composition (terminal restriction length polymorphism of mcrA) in depth profiles of sediment cores of River Sitka, Czech Republic. We found two depth-related distinct maxima for the methanogenic potentials (a) The pathway of methane production was dominated by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (b) The methanogenic community composition was similar in all depth layers (c) The main TRFs were representative for Methanosarcina, Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium, and Methanomicrobium species. The isotopic signals of acetate indicated a relative high contribution of chemolithotrophic acetogenesis to the acetate pool. PMID:26052322

  18. An integrated assessment of the potential of agricultural and forestry residues for energy production in China

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Ji; Zhang, Aiping; Lam, Shu Kee; Zhang, Xuesong; Thomson, Allison M.; Lin, Erda; Jiang, Kejun; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page G.; Yu, Sha; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhou, Sheng

    2016-01-05

    Biomass has been widely recognized as an important energy source with high potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while minimizing environmental pollution. In this study, we employ the Global Change Assessment Model to estimate the potential of agricultural and forestry residue biomass for energy production in China. Potential availability of residue biomass as an energy source was analyzed for the 21st century under different climate policy scenarios. Currently, the amount of total annual residue biomass, averaged over 2003-2007, is around 15519PJ in China, consisting of 10818PJ from agriculture residues (70%) and 4701PJ forestry residues (30%). We estimate that 12693PJ of the total biomass is available for energy production, with 66% derived from agricultural residue and 34% from forestry residue. Most of the available residue is from south central China (3347PJ), east China (2862PJ) and south-west China (2229PJ), which combined exceeds 66% of the total national biomass. Under the reference scenario without carbon tax, the potential availability of residue biomass for energy production is projected to be 3380PJ by 2050 and 4108PJ by 2095, respectively. When carbon tax is imposed, biomass availability increases substantially. For the CCS 450ppm scenario, availability of biomass increases to 9002PJ (2050) and 11524PJ (2095), respectively. For the 450ppm scenario without CCS, 9183 (2050) and 11150PJ (2095) residue biomass, respectively, is projected to be available. Moreover, the implementation of CCS will have a little impact on the supply of residue biomass after 2035. Our results suggest that residue biomass has the potential to be an important component in China's sustainable energy production portfolio. As a low carbon emission energy source, climate change policies that involve carbon tariff and CCS technology promote the use of residue biomass for energy production in a low carbon-constrained world.

  19. A comprehensive review of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria: potential and prospects.

    PubMed

    Sokan-Adeaga, Adewale Allen; Ana, Godson R E E

    2015-01-01

    The quest for biofuels in Nigeria, no doubt, represents a legitimate ambition. This is so because the focus on biofuel production has assumed a global dimension, and the benefits that may accrue from such effort may turn out to be enormous if the preconditions are adequately satisfied. As a member of the global community, it has become exigent for Nigeria to explore other potential means of bettering her already impoverished economy. Biomass is the major energy source in Nigeria, contributing about 78% of Nigeria's primary energy supply. In this paper, a comprehensive review of the potential of biomass resources and biofuel production in Nigeria is given. The study adopted a desk review of existing literatures on major energy crops produced in Nigeria. A brief description of the current biofuel developmental activities in the country is also given. A variety of biomass resources exist in the country in large quantities with opportunities for expansion. Biomass resources considered include agricultural crops, agricultural crop residues, forestry resources, municipal solid waste, and animal waste. However, the prospects of achieving this giant stride appear not to be feasible in Nigeria. Although the focus on biofuel production may be a worthwhile endeavor in view of Nigeria's development woes, the paper argues that because Nigeria is yet to adequately satisfy the preconditions for such program, the effort may be designed to fail after all. To avoid this, the government must address key areas of concern such as food insecurity, environmental crisis, and blatant corruption in all quarters. It is concluded that given the large availability of biomass resources in Nigeria, there is immense potential for biofuel production from these biomass resources. With the very high potential for biofuel production, the governments as well as private investors are therefore encouraged to take practical steps toward investing in agriculture for the production of energy crops and the

  20. Production of a bioemulsifier with potential application in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jenyffer M; Stamford, Tânia L M; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2014-03-01

    Biosurfactants are of considerable interest due to their biodegradability, low degree of toxicity, and diverse applications. However, the high production costs involved in the acquisition of biosurfactants underscore the need for optimization of the production process to enable viable application on an industrial scale. The aims of the present study were to select a species of Candida that produces a biosurfactant with the greatest emulsifying potential and to investigate the influence of components of the production medium and cultivation conditions. Candida utilis achieved the lowest surface tension (35.53 mN/m), best emulsification index (73%), and highest yield (12.52 g/l) in a medium containing waste canola frying oil as the carbon source and ammonium nitrate as the nitrogen source. The best combination of medium components and cultivation conditions was 6% (w/v) glucose, 6% (w/v) waste canola frying oil, 0.2% (w/v) ammonium nitrate, 0.3% (w/v) yeast extract, 150 rpm, 1% inoculum (w/v), and 88 h of fermentation. The greatest biosurfactant production and the lowest surface tension were achieved in the first 24 h of production, and the maximum biomass production was recorded at 72 h. The biosurfactant produced from C. utilis under the conditions investigated in the present study has a potential to be a bioemulsifier for application in the food industry.

  1. Frozen blood products: clinically effective and potentially ideal for remote Australia.

    PubMed

    Holley, A; Marks, D C; Johnson, L; Reade, M C; Badloe, J F; Noorman, F

    2013-01-01

    The development of effective cryopreservation techniques for both red blood cells and platelets, which maintain ex vivo biological activity, in combination with frozen plasma, provides for a unique blood banking strategy. This technology greatly enhances the storage life of these products. The rationale and potential advantages of using cryopreservation techniques for the provision of blood products to remote and military environments have been effectively demonstrated in several conflicts over the last decade. Current haemostatic resuscitation doctrine for the exsanguinating patient supports the use of red blood cells, platelets and frozen plasma early in the resuscitation. We believe an integrated fresh-frozen blood bank inventory could facilitate provision of blood products, not only in the military setting but also in regional Australia, by overcoming many logistic and geographical challenges. The processes involved in production and point of care thawing are sufficiently well developed and achievable to make this technology a viable option. The potential limitations of cryopreservation and subsequent product thawing need to be considered if such a strategy is to be developed. A substantial body of international experience using cryopreserved products in remote settings has already been accrued. This experience provides a template for the possible creation of an Australian integrated fresh-frozen blood bank inventory that could conceivably enhance the care of patients in both regional Australia and in the military setting.

  2. Potential impact of Thailand's alcohol program on production, consumption, and trade of cassava, sugarcane, and corn

    SciTech Connect

    Boonserm, P.

    1985-01-01

    On the first of May 1980, Thailand's fuel-alcohol program was announced by the Thai government. According to the program, a target of 147 million liters of ethanol would be produced in 1981, from cassava, sugarcane, and other biomasses. Projecting increases in output each year, the target level of ethanol produciton was set at 482 million liters of ethanol for 1986. The proposed amount of ethanol production could create a major shift up in the demand schedule of energy crops such as cassava, sugarcane, and corn. The extent of the adjustments in price, production, consumption, and exports for these energy crops need to be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential impact of Thailand's fuel-alcohol program on price, production, consumption, and exports of three potential energy crops: cassava, sugarcane, and corn. Econometric commodity models of cassava, sugarcane, and corn are constructed and used as a method of assessment. The overall results of the forecasting simulations of the models indicate that the fuel-alcohol program proposed by the Thai government will cause the price, production, and total consumption of cassava, sugarcane, and corn to increase; on the other hand, it will cause exports to decline. In addition, based on the relative prices and the technical coefficients of ethanol production of these three energy crops, this study concludes that only cassava should be used to produce the proposed target of ethanol production.

  3. Gas production potential of disperse low-saturation hydrateaccumulations in oceanic sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George J.; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2006-07-19

    In this paper we evaluate the gas production potential ofdisperse, low-saturation (SH<0.1) hydrate accumulations in oceanicsediments. Such hydrate-bearing sediments constitute a significantportion of the global hydrate inventory. Using numerical simulation, weestimate (a) the rates of gas production and gas release from hydratedissociation, (b) the corresponding cumulative volumes of released andproduced gas, as well as (c) the water production rate and the mass ofproduced water from disperse, low-SH hydrate-bearing sediments subject todepressurization-induced dissociation over a 10-year production period.We investigate the sensitivity of items (a) to (c) to the followinghydraulic properties, reservoir conditions, and operational parameters:intrinsic permeability, porosity, pressure, temperature, hydratesaturation, and constant pressure at which the production well is kept.The results of this study indicate that, despite wide variations in theaforementioned parameters (covering the entire spectrum of suchdeposits), gas production is very limited, never exceeding a few thousandcubic meters of gas during the 10-year production period. Such lowproduction volumes are orders of magnitude below commonly acceptedstandards of economic viability, and are further burdened with veryunfavorable gas-to-water ratios. The unequivocal conclusion from thisstudy is that disperse, low-SH hydrate accumulations in oceanic sedimentsare not promising targets for gas production by means ofdepressurization-induced dissociation, and resources for early hydrateexploitation should be focused elsewhere.

  4. The production and potential loss mechanisms of bacterial biomass in the southern Gulf of Riga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomi, Pirjo; Lundsgaard, Claus; Ekebom, Jan; Olli, Kalle; Künnis, Kai

    1999-12-01

    Bacterial biomass and production were measured in the water column and sediment of the southern Gulf of Riga. The potential loss of bacteria in the water column by lysis, grazing and sedimentation was estimated. A generally higher biomass and production of bacteria (135-195 mg C m -3 and 53-80 mg C m -3 day -1) were measured during the midsummer when compared to the spring (56-123 mg C m -3 and 7-26 mg C m -3 day -1) and late summer (51-98 mg C m -3 and 4-16 mg C m -3 day -1) periods. Also heterotrophic nanoflagellate biomass (13-25 mg C m -3) and virus numbers (5-16×10 10 l -1) had a maximum during midsummer. The average benthic bacterial production was highest in spring (1132 mg C m -2 day -1) when compared to the other seasons (706-806 mg C m -2 day -1). Benthic bacterial production exceeded the bacterial productivity in the water column above (404-1750 mg C m -2 day -1) in spring and late summer but not in midsummer. Throughout the productive season grazing was estimated to consume 6-50% and viral lysis 55->100% of the total bacterial production. Loss of bacteria by sedimentation was less than 2% of the bacterial production in the water column.

  5. Lunar Phasing of the Thyroxine Surge Preparatory to Seaward Migration of Salmonid Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau, E. Gordon; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Nishioka, Richard S.; Bern, Howard A.; Folmar, Leroy C.

    1981-02-01

    Anadromous salmonid fish show a distinct surge in plasma thyroxine during the smoltification period prior to their migration to the sea. Analysis of 27 groups of hatchery-reared salmon and anadromous trout indicates that thyroxine levels peak coincident with the new moon. The ability to predict migratory readiness by lunar calendar would have substantial implications for the efficient culture of this economically important protein resource.

  6. Fine sediment impacts on Salmonid spawning success: Relative effects of pore blockage and oxygen demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, I.; Sear, D.; Collins, A.; Jones, I.; Naden, P.

    2013-12-01

    Salmonids act as geomorphic agents constructing a spawning habitat (redd) with fine sediment being washed out of the bed, increasing porosity around the incubating eggs. However, during the incubation period fine sediment infiltrates back into the river bed and degrades the habitat quality. Fine sediment has been found to reduce survival rates of salmonid eggs in both field and laboratory experiments, with the main hypotheses used to explain this being (a) fine sediment reduces gravel permeability and intra-gravel flow velocities; (b) intra-gravel O2 concentrations decrease due to reduced supply and increased consumption by organic sediments; and (c) clay particles block the exchange of O2 across the egg membrane. The SIDO (Sediment Intrusion and Dissolved Oxygen)-UK model is a physically based numerical model which stimulates the effect of fine sediment intrusion on the abiotic characteristics of the salmonid redd, along with the consequences for egg development and survival. This has been used to assess the sensitivity of salmonid egg survival to changes in the quantity and composition of fine sediment, including particle size and sediment oxygen demand. Results indicate that egg survival is highly sensitive to the discharge and the suspended sediment concentrations, particularly to changes in the supply rate of sand particles, rather than silt and clay. This can be explained by the increased likelihood of blocking of intra-gravel pores by larger sand particles, which reduce intra-gravel flow velocities and the supply of oxygen rich water. Furthermore, this effect of sediment mass has been found to be more important than the sediment oxygen consumption process. These findings have implications for how we manage the sediment delivery problem, especially as future projections indicate increased sediment delivery under climate and land management change.

  7. Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids, 1994-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hans, Karen M.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes laboratory and field monitoring studies of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in migrating juvenile salmonids in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The first chapter describes laboratory studies of the progression of GBT signs leading to mortality and the use of the signs for GBT assessment. The progression and severity of GBT signs in juvenile salmonids exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) and temperatures was assessed and quantified. Next, the prevalence, severity, and individual variation of GBT signs was evaluated to attempt to relate them to mortality. Finally, methods for gill examination in fish exposed to high TDG were developed and evaluated. Primary findings were: (1) no single sign of GBT was clearly correlated with mortality, but many GBT signs progressively worsened; (2) both prevalence and severity of GBT signs in several tissues is necessary; (3) bubbles in the lateral line were the earliest sign of GBT, showed progressive worsening, and had low individual variation but may develop poorly during chronic exposures; (4) fin bubbles had high prevalence, progressively worsened, and may be a persistent sign of GBT; and (5) gill bubbles appear to be the proximate cause of death but may only be relevant at high TDG levels and are difficult to examine. Chapter Two describes monitoring results of juvenile salmonids for signs of GBT. Emigrating fish were collected and examined for bubbles in fins and lateral lines. Preliminary findings were: (1) few fish had signs of GBT, but prevalence and severity appeared to increase as fish migrated downstream; (2) there was no apparent correlation between GBT signs in the fins, lateral line, or gills; (3) prevalence and severity of GBT was suggestive of long-term, non-lethal exposure to relatively low level gas supersaturated water; and (4) it appeared that GBT was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids. 24 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Salmonid Chromosome Evolution as Revealed by a Novel Method for Comparing RADseq Linkage Maps

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin, Thierry; Normandeau, Eric; Lamothe, Manuel; Isabel, Nathalie; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD) can provide material for evolutionary innovation. Family Salmonidae is ideal for studying the effects of WGD as the ancestral salmonid underwent WGD relatively recently, ∼65 Ma, then rediploidized and diversified. Extensive synteny between homologous chromosome arms occurs in extant salmonids, but each species has both conserved and unique chromosome arm fusions and fissions. Assembly of large, outbred eukaryotic genomes can be difficult, but structural rearrangements within such taxa can be investigated using linkage maps. RAD sequencing provides unprecedented ability to generate high-density linkage maps for nonmodel species, but can result in low numbers of homologous markers between species due to phylogenetic distance or differences in library preparation. Here, we generate a high-density linkage map (3,826 markers) for the Salvelinus genera (Brook Charr S. fontinalis), and then identify corresponding chromosome arms among the other available salmonid high-density linkage maps, including six species of Oncorhynchus, and one species for each of Salmo, Coregonus, and the nonduplicated sister group for the salmonids, Northern Pike Esox lucius for identifying post-duplicated homeologs. To facilitate this process, we developed MapComp to identify identical and proximate (i.e. nearby) markers between linkage maps using a reference genome of a related species as an intermediate, increasing the number of comparable markers between linkage maps by 5-fold. This enabled a characterization of the most likely history of retained chromosomal rearrangements post-WGD, and several conserved chromosomal inversions. Analyses of RADseq-based linkage maps from other taxa will also benefit from MapComp, available at: https://github.com/enormandeau/mapcomp/ PMID:28173098

  9. Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Survival at John Day Dam with Emphasis on the Prototype Surface Flow Outlet, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Mark A.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao; Monter, Tyrell J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.

    2009-12-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of Top Spill Weirs installed at two spillbays at John Day Dam and evaluate the effectiveness of these surface flow outlets at attracting juvenile salmon away from the powerhouse and reducing turbine passage. The Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate survival of juvenile salmonids passing the dam and also for calculating performance metrics used to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the dam at passing juvenile salmonids.

  10. MODIS vegetation products as proxies of photosynthetic potential: a look across meteorological and biologic driven ecosystem productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Huete, A.; Davies, K.; Cleverly, J.; Beringer, J.; Eamus, D.; van Gorsel, E.; Hutley, L. B.; Meyer, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    A direct relationship between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) measured by the eddy covariance (EC) method and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices (VIs) has been observed in many temperate and tropical ecosystems. However, in Australian evergreen forests, and particularly sclerophyll woodlands, MODIS VIs do not capture seasonality of GEP. In this study, we re-evaluate the connection between satellite and flux tower data at four contrasting Australian ecosystems, through comparisons of ecosystem photosynthetic activity (GEP) and potential (e.g. ecosystem light use efficiency and quantum yield) with MODIS vegetation satellite products, including VIs, gross primary productivity (GPPMOD), leaf area index (LAIMOD), and fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPARMOD). We found that satellite derived greenness products constitute a measurement of ecosystem structure (e.g. leaf area index - quantity of leaves) and function (e.g. leaf level photosynthetic assimilation capacity - quality of leaves), rather than productivity. Our results show that in primarily meteorological-driven (e.g. photosynthetic active radiation, air temperature and/or precipitation) and relatively aseasonal vegetation photosynthetic potential ecosystems (e.g. evergreen wet sclerophyll forests), there were no statistically significant relationships between GEP and satellite derived measures of greenness. In contrast, for phenology-driven ecosystems (e.g. tropical savannas), changes in the vegetation status drove GEP, and tower-based measurements of photosynthetic activity were best represented by VIs. We observed the highest correlations between MODIS products and GEP in locations where key meteorological variables and vegetation phenology were synchronous (e.g. semi-arid Acacia woodlands) and low correlation at locations where they were asynchronous (e.g. Mediterranean ecosystems). Eddy covariance data offer much more than validation and/or calibration of

  11. Highlights of marine invertebrate-derived biosynthetic products: their biomedical potential and possible production by microbial associants.

    PubMed

    Radjasa, Ocky K; Vaske, Yvette M; Navarro, Gabriel; Vervoort, Hélène C; Tenney, Karen; Linington, Roger G; Crews, Phillip

    2011-11-15

    potential. The record of using complex scaffolds of marine invertebrate products as the starting point for development will be reviewed by considering eight case examples. The potential promise of developing invertebrate-derived micro-organisms as the starting point for further exploration of therapeutically relevant structures is considered. Also significant is the circumstance that there are some 14 sponge-derived compounds that are available to facilitate fundamental biological investigations.

  12. Highlights of marine invertebrate-derived biosynthetic products: Their biomedical potential and possible production by microbial associants

    PubMed Central

    Radjasa, Ocky K.; Vaske, Yvette M.; Navarro, Gabriel; Vervoort, Hélène C.; Tenney, Karen; Linington, Roger G.; Crews, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    potential. The record of using complex scaffolds of marine invertebrate products as the starting point for development will be reviewed by considering eight case examples. The potential promise of developing invertebrate-derived micro-organisms as the starting point for further exploration of therapeutically relevant structures is considered. Also significant is the circumstance that there are some 14 sponge-derived compounds that are available to facilitate fundamental biological investigations. PMID:21835627

  13. Potential for improving the carbon footprint of butter and blend products.

    PubMed

    Flysjö, A

    2011-12-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of a product efficiently, it is crucial to consider the entire value chain of the product; that is, to apply life cycle thinking, to avoid suboptimization and identify the areas where the largest potential improvements can be made. This study analyzed the carbon footprint (CF) of butter and dairy blend products, with the focus on fat content and size and type of packaging (including product waste at the consumer level). The products analyzed were butter with 80% fat in 250-g wrap, 250-g tub, and 10-g mini tub, and blends with 80% and 60% fat in 250-g tubs. Life cycle assessment was used to account for all greenhouse gas emissions from cow to consumer. A critical aspect when calculating the CF is how emissions are allocated between different products. Here, allocation of raw milk between products was based on a weighted fat and protein content (1:1.7), based on the price paid for raw milk to dairy farmers. The CF (expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂e) for 1 kg of butter or blend (assuming no product waste at consumer) ranged from 5.2 kg (blend with 60% fat content) to 9.3 kg of CO₂e (butter in 250-g tub). When including product waste at the consumer level, the CF ranged from 5.5 kg of CO₂e (blend with 60% fat content) to 14.7 kg of CO₂e (butter in mini tub). Fat content and the proportion of vegetable oil in products had the greatest effect on CF of the products, with lower fat content and a higher proportion of vegetable oil resulting in lower CF. Hence, if the same functionality as butter could be retained while shifting to lower fat and higher proportions of vegetable oil, the CF of the product would be decreased. Size and type of packaging were less important, but it is crucial to have the correct size and type of packaging to avoid product losses at the consumer. The greatest share of greenhouse gas emissions associated with butter production occurred at the farm level; thus, minimizing product losses in the

  14. Effect of Total Dissolved Solids on Fertilization and Development of Two Salmonid Species.

    PubMed

    Baker, Josh A; Elphick, James R; McPherson, Cathy A; Chapman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    Some studies have shown that the early life stages of salmonids are particularly sensitive to elevated concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS). We evaluated the effect of TDS released in treated effluent into Snap Lake (Northwest Territories, Canada) by the Snap Lake Diamond Mine on two salmonids native to Snap Lake: Salvenius namaycush (lake trout) and Thymallus arcticus (Arctic grayling). Exposures encompassed the embryo-alevin-fry early life stages and extended to 142 days for lake trout and 69 days for Arctic grayling. Such extended testing is uncommon with these two species. Two exposures were conducted with each species, one initiated prior to fertilization, and the other subsequent to fertilization. Fertilization, survival, and growth were not adversely affected for either species by TDS at concentrations >1400 mg/L, with the exception of survival of lake trout, which produced an LC20 of 991 mg/L in one test, and >1484 mg/L in the second test. For the specific TDS composition tested, which was dominated by chloride (45 %-47 %) and calcium (20 %-21 %), the early life stages of these two fish species were relatively insensitive. Although some authors have suggested lower TDS regulatory limits for salmonid early life stages, our study indicates that this is not necessary, at least for these two fish species and for the specific ionic composition tested.

  15. Sluiceway Operations to Pass Juvenile Salmonids at The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Skalski, J. R.; Klatte, Bernard A.

    2013-11-20

    Existing ice and trash sluiceways are commonly used to pass juvenile salmonids downstream at hydropower dams through a benign, non-turbine route. At The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River, managers undertook optimizing operations of sluiceway weirs to maximize survival of juvenile salmonids at the powerhouse. We applied fixed-location hydroacoustic methods to compare fish passage rates and sluiceway efficiencies for two weir configurations during 2004 and 2005: three weirs versus six weirs, located at the mid- versus east powerhouse, respectively. We also analyzed horizontal distributions of passage at the sluiceway and turbines and the effects of operating turbines beneath open sluiceway gates to provide supporting data relevant to operations optimization. Based on the findings, we recommend the following for long-term operations for the sluiceway at The Dalles Dam: open six rather than three sluiceway weirs to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway; open the three weirs above the western-most operating main turbine unit (MU) and the three weirs at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high; operate the turbine units below open sluiceway weirs as a standard procedure; operate the sluiceway 24 h/d year-round to maximize its benefits to juvenile salmonids; and use the same operations for spring and summer emigrants. These operational concepts are transferable to dams where sluiceway surface flow outlets are used protect downstream migrating fishes.

  16. Expert initial review of Columbia River Basin salmonid management models: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1993-10-01

    Over the past years, several fish passage models have been developed to examine the downstream survival of salmon during their annual migration through the Columbia River reservoir system to below Bonneville Dam. More recently, models have been created to simulate the survival of salmon throughout the entire life cycle. The models are used by various regional agencies and native American tribes to assess impacts of dam operation, harvesting, and predation on salmonid abundance. These models are now also being used to assess extinction probabilities and evaluate restoration alternatives for threatened and endangered salmonid stocks. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) coordinated an initial evaluation of the principal models by a panel of outside, expert reviewers. None of the models were unequivocally endorsed by any reviewer. Significant strengths and weaknesses were noted for each with respect to reasonability of assumptions and equations, adequacy of documentation, adequacy of supporting data, and calibration procedures. Although the models reviewed differ in some important respects, all reflect a common conceptual basis in classical population dynamic theory and a common empirical basis consisting of the available time series of salmonid stock data, hydrographic records, experimental studies of dam passage parameters, and measurements of reservoir mortality. The results of this initial review are not to be construed as a comprehensive scientific peer review of existing Columbia River Basin (CRB) salmon population models and data. The peer review process can be enhanced further by a dynamic exchange regional modelers and scientific panel experts involving interaction and feedback.

  17. Temporal and spatial variation of early mortality syndrome in salmonids from Lakes Michigan and Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolgamood, M.; Hnath, J.G.; Brown, S.B.; Moore, K.; Marcquenski, S.V.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the extent that early mortality syndrome (EMS) impacts different Pacific salmonid stocks and the association of EMS with thiamine, we collected eggs of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch from three Lake Michigan tributaries (Platte River, Thompson Creek, and Root River) in 1996-2001. We also obtained eggs of Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha from Lake Michigan (Little Manistee River) and Lake Huron (Swan River) in 1998-2001. Unfertilized eggs from individual females were frozen for thiamine analysis, and the remainder were fertilized and reared until first feeding. We observed a high incidence of EMS in offspring when total egg thiamine levels were less than 1.7 nmol/g in both coho and Chinook salmon. In Lake Michigan strain coho salmon from the Platte River, EMS occurred in more than 70% of monitored families in 1996, 1999, 2000, and 2001, while 1997 and 1998 were years when EMS was low (70%) in 1999, 2000, and 2001. Chinook salmon from Lake Huron exhibited high (>70%) EMS in 2001, moderate (40-60%) EMS in 1999, and low (<25%) EMS in 1998. Our data suggest that the incidence of EMS in salmonids varies by species, location, and year. The data support the general contention that EMS in salmonids is associated with low egg thiamine content. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  18. Detection of salmonid alphavirus RNA in Celtic and Irish Sea flatfish.

    PubMed

    McCleary, S; Giltrap, M; Henshilwood, K; Ruane, N M

    2014-04-23

    Pancreas disease (PD) caused by the salmonid alphavirus (SAV) has been the most significant cause of mortalities in Irish farmed salmon Salmo salar L. over the past decade. SAV is a single-strand positive-sense RNA virus, originally thought to be unique to salmonids, but has recently been detected using real-time RT-PCR in a number of wild non-salmonid fish. In the present report, 610 wild flatfish (common dab Limanda limanda, plaice Pleuronectes platessa and megrim Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis) were caught from the Irish and Celtic Seas and screened for SAV using real-time RT-PCR and sequencing. In general, a very low prevalence was recorded in common dab and plaice, except for 1 haul in Dublin Bay where 25% of common dab were SAV-positive. SAV sequence analysis supported the fact that real-time RT-PCR detections were specific and further characterised the detected viruses within SAV Subtype I, the predominant subtype found in farmed salmon in Ireland.

  19. Lake Michigan: effects of exploitation, introductions, and eutrophication on the salmonid community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue; McLain, Alberton L.

    1972-01-01

    Lake Michigan surface area is 22,400 square miles and its main depth is 276 ft. Its fauna is generally typical of North American oligotrophic lakes. The original fish populations included 10 coregonines and one salmonine. The lake whitefish, the lake herring, and the lake trout were most abundant. Man's activities have caused great changes in the lake in the past 120 years. Although changes in water chemistry and in the lower biota have been generally modest (except locally), those in salmonid communities have been vast. Exploitation, exotic fish species (especially the sea lamprey and alewife), and accelerated eutrophication and other pollution, all have played a role in bringing about the modifications (mostly marked declines in abundance) in salmonid communities. Commercial exploitation was largely responsible for the changes in the salmonid communities before the invasion of the lamprey (1936), although eutrophication and other pollution, and alterations of spawning streams, also were important. The lamprey and alewife (first reported in 1949), however, have exerted a greater impact than the other factors in recent decades.

  20. Developments in the control of bacterial kidney disease of salmonid fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Bullock, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial kidney disease of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibactenum salrnoninarum, was first reported more than 50 yr ago; nevertheless, large gaps persist in our knowledge of the infection - particularly in methods for its control. In the 1950's, principal control measures consisted of prophylactic or therapeutic feeding of sulfonamides, which were later supplanted by the antibiotic erythromycin. Chemotherapy has effected some reduction of mortality, but benefits are typically transient and mortality usually resumes after the drug is withdrawn. Some studies have indicated that diet composition affects the prevalence and severity of the disease. Although tests of chemotherapeutants and diet modification have continued, research emphasis has shifted partly toward prevention of the disease by breaking the infection cycle. It is now generally accepted that R. salrnoninarum can be transmitted both vertically and horizontally. Experimental evidence indicates that immersion of newly fertilized eggs in iodophor or erythromycin does not prevent vertical transmission. However, the injection of female salmon with erythromycin before they spawn shows promise as a practical means of interrupting vertical transmission. The results of attempts to prevent infection of juvenile salmonids by vaccination against bacterial kidney disease have been disappointing, thus underscoring a basic need for a better understanding of protective mechanisms in salmonids. The recent development of more sensitive and quantitative detection methods should aid in evaluating the efficacy of current and future control strategies.

  1. Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Penaluna, Brooke E.; Dunham, Jason B.; García de Leaniz, Carlos; Soto, Doris; Fleming, Ian A.; Gomez-Uchidam, Daniel; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Vargas, Pamela V.; León-Muñoz, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions create complex ecological and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from successful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of invaders, including human influences, characteristics of the invader, and biotic interactions. We apply this framework by contrasting hypotheses and available evidence to explain variability in invasion success for 12 salmonids introduced to Chile. The success of Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta seems to be influenced by a context-specific combination of their phenotypic plasticity, low ecosystem resistance, and propagule pressure. These well-established invaders may limit the success of subsequently introduced salmonids, with the possible exception of O. tshawytscha, which has a short freshwater residency and limited spatial overlap with trout. Although propagule pressure is high for O. kisutch and S. salar due to their intensive use in aquaculture, their lack of success in Chile may be explained by environmental resistance, including earlier spawning times than in their native ranges, and interactions with previously established and resident Rainbow Trout. Other salmonids have also failed to establish, and they exhibit a suite of ecological traits, environmental resistance, and limited propagule pressure that are variably associated with their lack of success. Collectively, understanding how the various drivers of invasion success interact may explain the differential success of invaders and provide key guidance for managing both positive and negative outcomes associated with their presence.

  2. Efficacy and safety of an inactivated vaccine against Salmonid alphavirus (family Togaviridae).

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Marius; Tingbø, Terje; Solbakk, Inge-Tom; Evensen, Øystein; Furevik, Anette; Aas-Eng, Anne

    2012-08-17

    Pancreas disease (PD) in salmonid fish is caused by an infection with Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and remains as one of the major health problems in the European fish farming industry. Sequence studies have revealed a genetic diversity among viral strains. A subtype of SAV (SAV3) is causing an epizootic in farmed salmonids in Norway. Here we evaluate efficacy and safety of an inactivated virus vaccine based on ALV405, a strain of SAV3 that was isolated from Norwegian salmon. The vaccine provided an average relative percent survival (RPS) of 98.5 in an intraperitoneal challenge model, and induced nearly total protection against PD in a cohabitant challenge model. It provided significant protection against SAV-induced mortality also in a field trial under industrial conditions. Local reactions seen as melanization and adhesions in the visceral cavity were less severe than those induced by two commercial vaccines. Finally, we demonstrated that the protection is not impaired when the ALV405 antigen is combined with other viral or bacterial antigens in a polyvalent vaccine. The results confirm that efficient and safe protection against SAV infection and development of PD is possible using an inactivated virus vaccine, both alone and as a component in a polyvalent vaccine.

  3. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume II: Experiment Salmonid Survival with Combined PIT-CWT Tagging.

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Ken

    1997-06-01

    Experiment designs to estimate the effect of transportation on survival and return rates of Columbia River system salmonids are discussed along with statistical modeling techniques. Besides transportation, river flow and dam spill are necessary components in the design and analysis otherwise questions as to the effects of reservoir drawdowns and increased dam spill may never be satisfactorily answered. Four criteria for comparing different experiment designs are: (1) feasibility, (2) clarity of results, (3) scope of inference, and (4) time to learn. In this report, alternative designs for conducting experimental manipulations of smolt tagging studies to study effects of river operations such as flow levels, spill fractions, and transporting outmigrating salmonids around dams in the Columbia River system are presented. The principles of study design discussed in this report have broad implications for the many studies proposed to investigate both smolt and adult survival relationships. The concepts are illustrated for the case of the design and analysis of smolt transportation experiments. The merits of proposed transportation studies should be measured relative to these principles of proper statistical design and analysis.

  4. Smallmouth bass and largemouth bass predation on juvenile Chinook salmon and other salmonids in the Lake Washington basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, R.A.; Footen, B.A.; Fresh, K.L.; Celedonia, M.T.; Mejia, F.; Low, D.L.; Park, L.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the impact of predation by smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu and largemouth bass M. salmoides on juveniles of federally listed Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and other anadromous salmonid populations in the Lake Washington system. Bass were collected with boat electrofishing equipment in the south end of Lake Washington (February-June) and the Lake Washington Ship Canal (LWSC; April-July), a narrow waterway that smolts must migrate through to reach the marine environment. Genetic analysis was used to identify ingested salmonids to obtain a more precise species-specific consumption estimate. Overall, we examined the stomachs of 783 smallmouth bass and 310 largemouth bass greater than 100 mm fork length (FL). Rates of predation on salmonids in the south end of Lake Washington were generally low for both black bass species. In the LWSC, juvenile salmonids made up a substantial part of bass diets; consumption of salmonids was lower for largemouth bass than for smallmouth bass. Smallmouth bass predation on juvenile salmonids was greatest in June, when salmonids made up approximately 50% of their diet. In the LWSC, overall black bass consumption of salmonids was approximately 36,000 (bioenergetics model) to 46,000 (meal turnover consumption model) juveniles, of which about one-third was juvenile Chinook salmon, one-third was coho salmon O. kisutch, and one-third was sockeye salmon O. nerka. We estimated that about 2,460,000 juvenile Chinook salmon (hatchery and wild sources combined) were produced in the Lake Washington basin in 1999; thus, the mortality estimates in the LWSC range from 0.5% (bioenergetics) to 0.6% (meal turnover). Black bass prey mostly on subyearlings of each salmonid species. The vulnerability of subyearlings to predation can be attributed to their relatively small size; their tendency to migrate when water temperatures exceed 15??C, coinciding with greater black bass activity; and their use of nearshore areas, where overlap

  5. The effect of proposed software products' features on the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of potential customers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.; Yusof, Muhammad Mat

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the effect of proposed software products features on the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of potential customers of proposed software products. Kano model's functional and dysfunctional technique was used along with Berger et al.'s customer satisfaction coefficients. The result shows that only two features performed the most in influencing the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of would-be customers of the proposed software product. Attractive and one-dimensional features had the highest impact on the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of customers. This result will benefit requirements analysts, developers, designers, projects and sales managers in preparing for proposed products. Additional analysis showed that the Kano model's satisfaction and dissatisfaction scores were highly related to the Park et al.'s average satisfaction coefficient (r=96%), implying that these variables can be used interchangeably or in place of one another to elicit customer satisfaction. Furthermore, average satisfaction coefficients and satisfaction and dissatisfaction indexes were all positively and linearly correlated.

  6. Estimation of potential biomass resource and biogas production from aquatic plants in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, R. E.; Laurino, C. N.; Vallejos, R. H.

    1982-08-01

    The use of aquatic plants in artificial lakes as a biomass source for biogas and fertilizer production through anaerobic fermentation is evaluated, and the magnitude of this resource and the potential production of biogas and fertilizer are estimated. The specific case considered is the artificial lake that will be created by the construction of Parana Medio Hydroelectric Project on the middle Parana River in Argentina. The growth of the main aquatic plant, water hyacinth, on the middle Parana River has been measured, and its conversion to methane by anaerobic fermentation is determined. It is estimated that gross methane production may be between 1.0-4.1 x 10 to the 9th cu cm/year. The fermentation residue can be used as a soil conditioner, and it is estimated production of the residue may represent between 54,900-221,400 tons of nitrogen/year, a value which is 2-8 times the present nitrogen fertilizer demand in Argentina.

  7. Production of Enzymes From Agricultural Wastes and Their Potential Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Bharathiraja, S; Suriya, J; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is the significant technique for the conversion of agricultural wastes into valuable products. Agroindustrial wastes such as rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, and corncob are cheapest and plentifully available natural carbon sources for the production of industrially important enzymes. Innumerable enzymes that have numerous applications in industrial processes for food, drug, textile, and dye use have been produced from different types of microorganisms from agricultural wastes. Utilization of agricultural wastes offers great potential for reducing the production cost and increasing the use of enzymes for industrial purposes. This chapter focuses on economic production of actinobacterial enzymes from agricultural wastes to make a better alternative for utilization of biomass generated in million tons as waste annually.

  8. Convergence of potential net ecosystem production among contrasting C3 grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Matthias; Sonnentag, Oliver; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Kiely, Gerard; Galvagno, Marta; Gianelle, Damiano; Marcolla, Barbara; Pio, Casimiro; Migliavacca, Mirco; Jones, Michael B.; Saunders, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    Metabolic theory and body size constraints on biomass production and decomposition suggest that differences in the intrinsic potential net ecosystem production (NEPpot) should be small among contrasting C3 grasslands and therefore unable to explain the wide range in the annual apparent net ecosystem production (NEPapp) reported by previous studies. We estimated NEPpot for nine C3 grasslands under contrasting climate and management regimes using multi-year eddy covariance data. NEPpot converged within a narrow range suggesting little difference in the net carbon dioxide uptake capacity among C3 grasslands. Our results indicate a unique feature of C3 grasslands compared to other terrestrial ecosystems and suggest a state of stability in NEPpot due to tightly coupled production and respiration processes. Consequently, the annual NEPapp of C3 grasslands is primarily a function of seasonal and short-term environmental and management constraints, and therefore especially susceptible to changes in future climate patterns and associated adaptation of management practices.

  9. Year-Round Monitoring of Contaminants in Neal and Rogers Creeks, Hood River Basin, Oregon, 2011-12, and Assessment of Risks to Salmonids.

    PubMed

    Hapke, Whitney B; Morace, Jennifer L; Nilsen, Elena B; Alvarez, David A; Masterson, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide presence in streams is a potential threat to Endangered Species Act listed salmonids in the Hood River basin, Oregon, a primarily forested and agricultural basin. Two types of passive samplers, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), were simultaneously deployed at four sites in the basin during Mar. 2011-Mar. 2012 to measure the presence of pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The year-round use of passive samplers is a novel approach and offers several new insights. Currently used pesticides and legacy contaminants, including many chlorinated pesticides and PBDEs, were present throughout the year in the basin's streams. PCBs were not detected. Time-weighted average water concentrations for the 2-month deployment periods were estimated from concentrations of chemicals measured in the passive samplers. Currently used pesticide concentrations peaked during spring and were detected beyond their seasons of expected use. Summed concentrations of legacy contaminants in Neal Creek were highest during July-Sept., the period with the lowest streamflows. Endosulfan was the only pesticide detected in passive samplers at concentrations exceeding Oregon or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality thresholds. A Sensitive Pesticide Toxicity Index (SPTI) was used to estimate the relative acute potential toxicity among sample mixtures. The acute potential toxicity of the detected mixtures was likely greater for invertebrates than for fish and for all samples in Neal Creek compared to Rogers Creek, but the indices appear to be low overall (<0.1). Endosulfans and pyrethroid insecticides were the largest contributors to the SPTIs for both sites. SPTIs of some discrete (grab) samples from the basin that were used for comparison exceeded 0.1 when some insecticides (azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion) were detected at concentrations near or exceeding

  10. Year-Round Monitoring of Contaminants in Neal and Rogers Creeks, Hood River Basin, Oregon, 2011-12, and Assessment of Risks to Salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Hapke, Whitney B.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Alvarez, David A.; Masterson, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide presence in streams is a potential threat to Endangered Species Act listed salmonids in the Hood River basin, Oregon, a primarily forested and agricultural basin. Two types of passive samplers, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), were simultaneously deployed at four sites in the basin during Mar. 2011–Mar. 2012 to measure the presence of pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The year-round use of passive samplers is a novel approach and offers several new insights. Currently used pesticides and legacy contaminants, including many chlorinated pesticides and PBDEs, were present throughout the year in the basin’s streams. PCBs were not detected. Time-weighted average water concentrations for the 2-month deployment periods were estimated from concentrations of chemicals measured in the passive samplers. Currently used pesticide concentrations peaked during spring and were detected beyond their seasons of expected use. Summed concentrations of legacy contaminants in Neal Creek were highest during July–Sept., the period with the lowest streamflows. Endosulfan was the only pesticide detected in passive samplers at concentrations exceeding Oregon or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality thresholds. A Sensitive Pesticide Toxicity Index (SPTI) was used to estimate the relative acute potential toxicity among sample mixtures. The acute potential toxicity of the detected mixtures was likely greater for invertebrates than for fish and for all samples in Neal Creek compared to Rogers Creek, but the indices appear to be low overall (<0.1). Endosulfans and pyrethroid insecticides were the largest contributors to the SPTIs for both sites. SPTIs of some discrete (grab) samples from the basin that were used for comparison exceeded 0.1 when some insecticides (azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion) were detected at concentrations near or

  11. Year-round monitoring of contaminants in Neal and Rogers Creeks, Hood River Basin, Oregon, 2011-12, and assessment of risks to salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Temple, Whitney B.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Alvarez, David; Masterson, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide presence in streams is a potential threat to Endangered Species Act listed salmonids in the Hood River basin, Oregon, a primarily forested and agricultural basin. Two types of passive samplers, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), were simultaneously deployed at four sites in the basin during Mar. 2011–Mar. 2012 to measure the presence of pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The year-round use of passive samplers is a novel approach and offers several new insights. Currently used pesticides and legacy contaminants, including many chlorinated pesticides and PBDEs, were present throughout the year in the basin’s streams. PCBs were not detected. Time-weighted average water concentrations for the 2-month deployment periods were estimated from concentrations of chemicals measured in the passive samplers. Currently used pesticide concentrations peaked during spring and were detected beyond their seasons of expected use. Summed concentrations of legacy contaminants in Neal Creek were highest during July–Sept., the period with the lowest streamflows. Endosulfan was the only pesticide detected in passive samplers at concentrations exceeding Oregon or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality thresholds. A Sensitive Pesticide Toxicity Index (SPTI) was used to estimate the relative acute potential toxicity among sample mixtures. The acute potential toxicity of the detected mixtures was likely greater for invertebrates than for fish and for all samples in Neal Creek compared to Rogers Creek, but the indices appear to be low overall (<0.1). Endosulfans and pyrethroid insecticides were the largest contributors to the SPTIs for both sites. SPTIs of some discrete (grab) samples from the basin that were used for comparison exceeded 0.1 when some insecticides (azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion) were detected at concentrations near or

  12. Envisioning a metropolitan foodshed: potential environmental consequences of increasing food-crop production around Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, E. E.; Martin, P. A.; Schuble, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Nationwide, cities are increasingly developing policies aimed at greater sustainability, particularly focusing on reducing environmental impact. Such policies commonly emphasize more efficiently using energy to decrease the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the city. However, most plans ignore the food system as a factor in regional energy use and GHG emissions. Yet, the food system in the United States accounts for ~20% of per capita greenhouse gas emissions. Local, sustainable food production is cited as one strategy for mitigating GHG emissions of large metropolitan areas. “Sustainable” for regional agriculture is often identified as small-scale, diversified food crop production using best practices management. Localized food production (termed “foodshed”) using sustainable agriculture could mitigate climate change in multiple ways: (1) energy and therefore CO2-intensive portions of the conventional food system might be replaced by local, lower-input food production resulting in carbon offsets; (2) increased regional carbon storage might result from well-managed food crop production vs. commodity crop production; and (3) averted N2O emissions might result from closing nutrient cycles on agricultural lands following changes in management practices. The broader implications for environmental impact of widespread conversion to sustainable food crop agriculture, however, remain largely unknown. We examine the Chicago metropolitan region to quantify the impact of increased local food production on regional energy efficiency and GHG emissions. Geospatial analysis is used to quantify the resource potential for establishing a Chicago metropolitan foodshed. A regional foodshed is defined by minimizing cost through transportation mode (road, rail, or water) and maximizing the production potential of different soil types. Simple biogeochemical modeling is used to predict changes in N2O emissions and nutrient flows following changes in land management practices

  13. The potential of plants as a system for the development and production of human biologics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang; Davis, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    The growing promise of plant-made biologics is highlighted by the success story of ZMapp™ as a potentially life-saving drug during the Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016. Current plant expression platforms offer features beyond the traditional advantages of low cost, high scalability, increased safety, and eukaryotic protein modification. Novel transient expression vectors have been developed that allow the production of vaccines and therapeutics at unprecedented speed to control potential pandemics or bioterrorism attacks. Plant-host engineering provides a method for producing proteins with unique and uniform mammalian post-translational modifications, providing opportunities to develop biologics with increased efficacy relative to their mammalian cell-produced counterparts. Recent demonstrations that plant-made proteins can function as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens further exemplify the potential utility of plant-based protein production. However, resolving the technical and regulatory challenges of commercial-scale production, garnering acceptance from large pharmaceutical companies, and obtaining U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for several major classes of biologics are essential steps to fulfilling the untapped potential of this technology. PMID:27274814

  14. Nectar secretion dynamics and honey production potentials of some major honey plants in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Adgaba, Nuru; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Tadesse, Yilma; Getachew, Awraris; Awad, Awad M; Ansari, Mohammad J; Owayss, Ayman A; Mohammed, Seif Eldin A; Alqarni, Abdulaziz S

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of a bee plant species to honey production depends on the plant's nectar secretion quality and quantity, which is mainly governed by biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of the current study, was to investigate the nectar secretion dynamics and honey production potential of 14 major bee plant species of the target area. We examined the quantity and dynamics of nectar sugar per flower five times a day using a nectar sugar washing technique and direct measuring of nectar with calibrated capillary tubes. The average nectar sugar amount of the species varied from 0.41 mg/flower to 7.7 mg/flower (P < 0.0001). The honey sugar per flower was used to extrapolate the honey production potential per plant and per hectare of land. Accordingly the honey production potential of the species observed to vary from 14 kg/hectare in Otostegia fruticosa to 829 kg/hectare in Ziziphus spina-christi. The nectar secretion dynamics of the species generally showed an increasing trend early in the morning, peaking toward midday, followed by a decline but different species observed to have different peak nectar secretion times. Generally, the tree species secreted more nectar sugar/flower than the herbs. The nectar secretion amount of the species was positively correlated with the ambient temperature, indicating the adaptation of the species to hot climatic conditions. However, different species were observed to have a different optimum temperature for peak nectar secretion. Despite the limited rainfall and high temperature of the area, many plants were found to have good potential for honey production. The monetary value of honey per hectare of the studied honeybee plant species can be of equal or greater than the per-hectare monetary value of some cultivated crops that require numerous inputs. In addition, the information generated is believed to be useful in apiary site selection and to estimate the honey bee colony carrying capacity of an area.

  15. Most Plastic Products Release Estrogenic Chemicals: A Potential Health Problem That Can Be Solved

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun Z.; Yaniger, Stuart I.; Jordan, V. Craig; Klein, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chemicals having estrogenic activity (EA) reportedly cause many adverse health effects, especially at low (picomolar to nanomolar) doses in fetal and juvenile mammals. Objectives: We sought to determine whether commercially available plastic resins and products, including baby bottles and other products advertised as bisphenol A (BPA) free, release chemicals having EA. Methods: We used a roboticized MCF-7 cell proliferation assay, which is very sensitive, accurate, and repeatable, to quantify the EA of chemicals leached into saline or ethanol extracts of many types of commercially available plastic materials, some exposed to common-use stresses (microwaving, ultraviolet radiation, and/or autoclaving). Results: Almost all commercially available plastic products we sampled—independent of the type of resin, product, or retail source—leached chemicals having reliably detectable EA, including those advertised as BPA free. In some cases, BPA-free products released chemicals having more EA than did BPA-containing products. Conclusions: Many plastic products are mischaracterized as being EA free if extracted with only one solvent and not exposed to common-use stresses. However, we can identify existing compounds, or have developed, monomers, additives, or processing agents that have no detectable EA and have similar costs. Hence, our data suggest that EA-free plastic products exposed to common-use stresses and extracted by saline and ethanol solvents could be cost-effectively made on a commercial scale and thereby eliminate a potential health risk posed by most currently available plastic products that leach chemicals having EA into food products. PMID:21367689

  16. The Potential Role of Seaweeds in the Natural Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Production

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Margarida R. G.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Oliveira, Hugo M.; Mendonça, Carla; Cabrita, Ana R. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first to evaluate the effects of five seaweeds (Ulva sp., Laminaria ochroleuca, Saccharina latissima, Gigartina sp., and Gracilaria vermiculophylla) on gas and methane production and ruminal fermentation parameters when incubated in vitro with two substrates (meadow hay and corn silage) for 24 h. Seaweeds led to lower gas production, with Gigartina sp. presenting the lowest value. When incubated with meadow hay, Ulva sp., Gigartina sp. and G. vermiculophylla decreased methane production, but with corn silage, methane production was only decreased by G. vermiculophylla. With meadow hay, L. ochroleuca and S. latissima promoted similar methane production as the control, but with corn silage, L. ochroleuca increased it. With the exception of S. latissima, all seaweeds promoted similar levels of total volatile fatty acid production. The highest proportion of acetic acid was produced with Ulva sp., G. vermiculophylla, and S. latissima; the highest proportion of butyric acid with the control and L. ochroleuca; and the highest proportion of iso-valeric acid with Gigartina sp. These results reveal the potential of seaweeds to mitigate ruminal methane production and the importance of the basal diet. To efficiently use seaweeds as feed ingredients with nutritional and environmental benefits, more research is required to determine the mechanisms underlying seaweed and substrate interactions. PMID:27572486

  17. The Potential Role of Seaweeds in the Natural Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Margarida R. G.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Oliveira, Hugo M.; Mendonça, Carla; Cabrita, Ana R. J.

    2016-08-01

    This study is the first to evaluate the effects of five seaweeds (Ulva sp., Laminaria ochroleuca, Saccharina latissima, Gigartina sp., and Gracilaria vermiculophylla) on gas and methane production and ruminal fermentation parameters when incubated in vitro with two substrates (meadow hay and corn silage) for 24 h. Seaweeds led to lower gas production, with Gigartina sp. presenting the lowest value. When incubated with meadow hay, Ulva sp., Gigartina sp. and G. vermiculophylla decreased methane production, but with corn silage, methane production was only decreased by G. vermiculophylla. With meadow hay, L. ochroleuca and S. latissima promoted similar methane production as the control, but with corn silage, L. ochroleuca increased it. With the exception of S. latissima, all seaweeds promoted similar levels of total volatile fatty acid production. The highest proportion of acetic acid was produced with Ulva sp., G. vermiculophylla, and S. latissima; the highest proportion of butyric acid with the control and L. ochroleuca; and the highest proportion of iso-valeric acid with Gigartina sp. These results reveal the potential of seaweeds to mitigate ruminal methane production and the importance of the basal diet. To efficiently use seaweeds as feed ingredients with nutritional and environmental benefits, more research is required to determine the mechanisms underlying seaweed and substrate interactions.

  18. MODIS vegetation products as proxies of photosynthetic potential along a gradient of meteorologically and biologically driven ecosystem productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Huete, Alfredo; Davies, Kevin; Cleverly, James; Beringer, Jason; Eamus, Derek; van Gorsel, Eva; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Meyer, Wayne S.

    2016-10-01

    A direct relationship between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) estimated by the eddy covariance (EC) method and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices (VIs) has been observed in many temperate and tropical ecosystems. However, in Australian evergreen forests, and particularly sclerophyll and temperate woodlands, MODIS VIs do not capture seasonality of GEP. In this study, we re-evaluate the connection between satellite and flux tower data at four contrasting Australian ecosystems, through comparisons of GEP and four measures of photosynthetic potential, derived via parameterization of the light response curve: ecosystem light use efficiency (LUE), photosynthetic capacity (Pc), GEP at saturation (GEPsat), and quantum yield (α), with MODIS vegetation satellite products, including VIs, gross primary productivity (GPPMOD), leaf area index (LAIMOD), and fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPARMOD). We found that satellite-derived biophysical products constitute a measurement of ecosystem structure (e.g. leaf area index - quantity of leaves) and function (e.g. leaf level photosynthetic assimilation capacity - quality of leaves), rather than GEP. Our results show that in primarily meteorological-driven (e.g. photosynthetic active radiation, air temperature, and/or precipitation) and relatively aseasonal ecosystems (e.g. evergreen wet sclerophyll forests), there were no statistically significant relationships between GEP and satellite-derived measures of greenness. In contrast, for phenology-driven ecosystems (e.g. tropical savannas), changes in the vegetation status drove GEP, and tower-based measurements of photosynthetic activity were best represented by VIs. We observed the highest correlations between MODIS products and GEP in locations where key meteorological variables and vegetation phenology were synchronous (e.g. semi-arid Acacia woodlands) and low correlation at locations where they were asynchronous (e

  19. Forest biorefinery: Potential of poplar phytochemicals as value-added co-products.

    PubMed

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Rakshit, Sudip K; Dekker, Robert F H

    2015-11-01

    The global forestry industry after experiencing a market downturn during the past decade has now aimed its vision towards the integrated biorefinery. New business models and strategies are constantly being explored to re-invent the global wood and pulp/paper industry through sustainable resource exploitation. The goal is to produce diversified, innovative and revenue generating product lines using on-site bioresources (wood and tree residues). The most popular product lines are generally produced from wood fibers (biofuels, pulp/paper, biomaterials, and bio/chemicals). However, the bark and other tree residues like foliage that constitute forest wastes, still remain largely an underexploited resource from which extractives and phytochemicals can be harnessed as by-products (biopharmaceuticals, food additives and nutraceuticals, biopesticides, cosmetics). Commercially, Populus (poplar) tree species including hybrid varieties are cultivated as a fast growing bioenergy crop, but can also be utilized to produce bio-based chemicals. This review identifies and underlines the potential of natural products (phytochemicals) from Populus species that could lead to new business ventures in biorefineries and contribute to the bioeconomy. In brief, this review highlights the importance of by-products/co-products in forest industries, methods that can be employed to extract and purify poplar phytochemicals, the potential pharmaceutical and other uses of >160 phytochemicals identified from poplar species - their chemical structures, properties and bioactivities, the challenges and limitations of utilizing poplar phytochemicals, and potential commercial opportunities. Finally, the overall discussion and conclusion are made considering the recent biotechnological advances in phytochemical research to indicate the areas for future commercial applications from poplar tree species.

  20. Evaluating the acute effects of oral, non-combustible potential reduced exposure products marketed to smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, CO; Weaver, MF; Eissenberg, T

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-combustible potential reduced exposure products (PREPs; eg, Star Scientific’s Ariva; a variety of other smokeless tobacco products) are marketed to reduce the harm associated with smoking. This marketing occurs despite an absence of objective data concerning the toxicant exposure and effects of these PREPs. Methods used to examine combustible PREPs were adapted to assess the acute effects of non-combustible PREPs for smokers. Methods 28 overnight abstinent cigarette smokers (17 men, 14 non-white) each completed seven, Latin-squared ordered, approximately 2.5 h laboratory sessions that differed by product administered: Ariva, Marlboro Snus (Philip Morris, USA), Camel Snus (RJ Reynolds, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA), Commit nicotine lozenge (GlaxoSmithKline; 2 mg), own brand cigarettes, Quest cigarettes (Vector Tobacco; delivers very low levels of nicotine) and sham smoking (ie, puffing on an unlit cigarette). In each session, the product was administered twice (separated by 60 min), and plasma nicotine levels, expired air CO and subjective effects were assessed regularly. Results Non-combustible products delivered less nicotine than own brand cigarettes, did not expose smokers to CO and failed to suppress tobacco abstinence symptoms as effectively as combustible products. Conclusions While decreased toxicant exposure is a potential indicator of harm reduction potential, a failure to suppress abstinence symptoms suggests that currently marketed non-combustible PREPs may not be a viable harm reduction strategy for US smokers. This study demonstrates how clinical laboratory methods can be used to evaluate the short-term effects of non-combustible PREPs for smokers. PMID:19346218

  1. Production of thermostable hydrolases (cellulases and xylanase) from Thermoascus aurantiacus RCKK: a potential fungus.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kavish Kumar; Bhanja Dey, Tapati; Kumar, Sandeep; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2015-04-01

    Thermophilic fungi are potential sources of thermostable enzymes and other value added products. Present study has focused on optimization of different physicochemical parameters for production of thermostable cellulases and xylanase by Thermoascus aurantiacus RCKK under SSF. Enzyme production was supported maximally on wheat bran fed with 20% inoculum, at initial pH 5, temperature 45 °C and moisture ratio 1:3. The supplementation of wheat bran with yeast extract, Tween-80 and glycine further improved enzyme titres (CMCase 88 IU/g, FPase 15.8 IU/g, β-glucosidase 25.3 IU/g and xylanase 6,543 IU/g). The crude enzymes hydrolyzed phosphoric acid-swollen wheat straw, avicel and untreated xylan up to 74, 71 and 90%, respectively. In addition, T. aurantiacus RCKK produced antioxidants as fermentation by-products with significant %DPPH(∙) scavenging, FRAP and in vivo antioxidant capacity against H2O2-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These capabilities show that it holds potential to exploit crop by-products for providing various commodities.

  2. Evaluating the composition and processing potential of novel sources of Brazilian biomass for sustainable biorenewables production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The search for promising and renewable sources of carbohydrates for the production of biofuels and other biorenewables has been stimulated by an increase in global energy demand in the face of growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security. In particular, interest has focused on non-food lignocellulosic biomass as a potential source of abundant and sustainable feedstock for biorefineries. Here we investigate the potential of three Brazilian grasses (Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum and Brachiaria brizantha), as well as bark residues from the harvesting of two commercial Eucalyptus clones (E. grandis and E. grandis x urophylla) for biofuel production, and compare these to sugarcane bagasse. The effects of hot water, acid, alkaline and sulfite pretreatments (at increasing temperatures) on the chemical composition, morphology and saccharification yields of these different biomass types were evaluated. Results The average yield (per hectare), availability and general composition of all five biomasses were compared. Compositional analyses indicate a high level of hemicellulose and lignin removal in all grass varieties (including sugarcane bagasse) after acid and alkaline pretreatment with increasing temperatures, whilst the biomasses pretreated with hot water or sulfite showed little variation from the control. For all biomasses, higher cellulose enrichment resulted from treatment with sodium hydroxide at 130°C. At 180°C, a decrease in cellulose content was observed, which is associated with high amorphous cellulose removal and 5-hydroxymethyl-furaldehyde production. Morphological analysis showed the effects of different pretreatments on the biomass surface, revealing a high production of microfibrillated cellulose on grass surfaces, after treatment with 1% sodium hydroxide at 130°C for 30 minutes. This may explain the higher hydrolysis yields resulting from these pretreatments, since these cellulosic nanoparticles can be easily

  3. Soluble fibrin degradation products potentiate tissue plasminogen activator-induced fibrinogen proteolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Weitz, J I; Leslie, B; Ginsberg, J

    1991-01-01

    Despite its affinity for fibrin, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) administration causes systemic fibrinogenolysis. To investigate the mechanism, t-PA was incubated with plasma in the presence or absence of a fibrin clot, and the extent of fibrinogenolysis was determined by measuring B beta 1-42. In the presence of fibrin, there is a 21-fold increase in B beta 1-42 levels. The potentiation of fibrinogenolysis in the presence of fibrin is mediated by soluble fibrin degradation products because (a) the extent of t-PA induced fibrinogenolysis and clot lysis are directly related, (b) once clot lysis has been initiated, fibrinogenolysis continues even after the clot is removed, and (c) lysates of cross-linked fibrin clots potentiate t-PA-mediated fibrinogenolysis. Fibrin degradation products stimulate fibrinogenolysis by binding t-PA and plasminogen because approximately 70% of the labeled material in the clot lysates binds to both t-PA- and plasminogen-Sepharose, and only the bound fractions have potentiating activity. The binding site for t-PA and plasminogen is on the E domain because characterization of the potentiating fragments using gel filtration followed by PAGE and immunoblotting indicates that the major species is (DD)E complex, whereas minor components include high-molecular weight derivatives containing the (DD)E complex and fragment E. In contrast, D-dimer is the predominant species found in the fractions that do not bind to the adsorbants, and it has no potentiating activity. Thus, soluble products of t-PA-induced lysis of cross-linked fibrin potentiate t-PA-mediated fibrinogenolysis by providing a surface for t-PA and plasminogen binding thereby promoting plasmin generation. The occurrence of this phenomenon after therapeutic thrombolysis may explain the limited clot selectivity of t-PA. Images PMID:1900308

  4. The Electrokinetic Mechanism of Hydrothermal-Circulation-Related and Production-Induced Self-Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Ishido, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Sugihara, M.

    1987-01-20

    Self-potential (SP) surveys were carried out on a number of geothermal areas in Japan during the last decade. In most cases SP anomalies of positive polarity are found to overlie high temperature upflow zones. Streaming potential generated by hydrothermal circulation (Ishido, 1981) is considered to be the most likely cause of the observed positive anomalies. Repeated surveys conducted on the Nigorikawa caldera in Japan detected a change in SP induced by production of geothermal fluids. The observed change is dipolar in waveform and can also be attributed to an electrokinetic mechanism. 6 figs., 14 refs.

  5. Environmental characterization of two potential locations at Hanford for a new production reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, E.C.; Becker, C.D.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Imhoff, K.L.; McCallum, R.F.; Myers, D.A.; Page, T.L.; Price, K.R.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Rice D.G.; Schreiber D.L.; Skumatz L.A.; Sommer D.J.; Tawil J.J.; Wallace R.W.; Watson D.G.

    1984-09-01

    This report describes various environmental aspects of two areas on the Hanford Site that are potential locations for a New Production Reactor (NPR). The area known as the Skagit Hanford Site is considered the primary or reference site. The second area, termed the Firehouse Site, is considered the alternate site. The report encompasses an environmental characterization of these two potential NPR locations. Eight subject areas are covered: geography and demography; ecology; meteorology; hydrology; geology; cultural resources assessment; economic and social effects of station construction and operation; and environmental monitoring. 80 refs., 68 figs., 109 tabs.

  6. Potential effects of sulfur pollutants on grape production in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Viessman, S.M.; Knudson, D.A.; Streets, D.G.

    1982-08-01

    The purpose was to design and carry out a prototype assessment of the potential effects of sulfur pollutants on a crop of local economic significance; and, to identify the adequacy of existing research data and other information for quantifying the possible extent of adverse effects of such pollutants. Grape production in New York State was selected for this prototype assessment. The prototype assessment attempts to translate the emission characteristics of sources of sulfur pollutants into ambient concentrations of the pollutants in the vicinity of grape-producing regions. The ambient data are then compared with available dose-response data to estimate the potential effects on the grape crop.

  7. Using multi-dimensional Smolyak interpolation to make a sum-of-products potential

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, Gustavo Carrington, Tucker

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new method for obtaining potential energy surfaces in sum-of-products (SOP) form. If the number of terms is small enough, a SOP potential surface significantly reduces the cost of quantum dynamics calculations by obviating the need to do multidimensional integrals by quadrature. The method is based on a Smolyak interpolation technique and uses polynomial-like or spectral basis functions and 1D Lagrange-type functions. When written in terms of the basis functions from which the Lagrange-type functions are built, the Smolyak interpolant has only a modest number of terms. The ideas are tested for HONO (nitrous acid)

  8. Using multi-dimensional Smolyak interpolation to make a sum-of-products potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Gustavo; Carrington, Tucker

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new method for obtaining potential energy surfaces in sum-of-products (SOP) form. If the number of terms is small enough, a SOP potential surface significantly reduces the cost of quantum dynamics calculations by obviating the need to do multidimensional integrals by quadrature. The method is based on a Smolyak interpolation technique and uses polynomial-like or spectral basis functions and 1D Lagrange-type functions. When written in terms of the basis functions from which the Lagrange-type functions are built, the Smolyak interpolant has only a modest number of terms. The ideas are tested for HONO (nitrous acid).

  9. Evaluation of the production potential of the Crystal Hot Springs geothermal resource, north central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, C.K.; Owen, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Results of an artesian flow test of a 1000 foot deep well (USP/TH-1) are reported. The testing program was designed to provide necessary data for estimating the long-term production potential of the geothermal resource. Based on results of a 72 hour flow test, it was concluded that the state-owned portion of the Crystal Hot Springs resource is potentially capable of supplying sufficient energy to provide space and hot water heating for the minimum security portion of the Utah State Prison. However, development of the resource will have to be carefully managed to prevent premature depletion of the reservoir.

  10. Fractal dimension analysis of landscape scale variability in greenhouse gas production potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Bicalho, Elton; Spokas, Kurt; La Scala, Newton, Jr.

    2015-04-01

    Soil greenhouse gas emission is influenced by tillage and management practices that modify soil attributes directly related to the dynamics of soil carbon in the agricultural environment. The aim of this study was to assess the soil CO2 and N2O production potentials and their spatial variability characterized by fractal dimension in different scales, in addition to their correlation with other soil attributes. The quantification of soil CO2 and N2O production was carried out from dry soil samples collected in a grid of 50 × 50 m containing 133 points arranged symmetrically on a sugarcane area under green residue management in southern Brazil. Laboratory incubations were used to analyze greenhouse gas dynamics by gas chromatography. Soil CO2 and N2O production were correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with microbial biomass, silt and clay content, pH, available phosphorus, sum of metal cations (bases), and cation exchange capacity. Similarly, these soil attributes also were correlated with microbial biomass, supporting their role in soil microbial activity and greenhouse gas production. Furthermore, variations in the fractal dimension over the scale indicate that the pattern of the spatial variability structure of soil CO2 production potential was correlated to that observed for microbial biomass, pH, available phosphorus, sum of bases, and cation exchange capacity. On the other hand, only the spatial structure of the clay content, pH and the sum of bases were correlated with the soil N2O production. Therefore, examining the fractal dimension enables the spatially visualization of altering processes across a landscape at different scales, which highlights properties that influence greenhouse gas production and emission in agricultural areas.

  11. Using event related potentials to identify a user's behavioural intention aroused by product form design.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Guo, Fu; Zhang, Xuefeng; Qu, Qingxing; Liu, Weilin

    2016-07-01

    The capacity of product form to arouse user's behavioural intention plays a decisive role in further user experience, even in purchase decision, while traditional methods rarely give a fully understanding of user experience evoked by product form, especially the feeling of anticipated use of product. Behavioural intention aroused by product form designs has not yet been investigated electrophysiologically. Hence event related potentials (ERPs) were applied to explore the process of behavioural intention when users browsed different smart phone form designs with brand and price not taken into account for mainly studying the brain activity evoked by variety of product forms. Smart phone pictures with different anticipated user experience were displayed with equiprobability randomly. Participants were asked to click the left mouse button when certain picture gave them a feeling of behavioural intention to interact with. The brain signal of each participant was recorded by Curry 7.0. The results show that pictures with an ability to arouse participants' behavioural intention for further experience can evoke enhanced N300 and LPPs (late positive potentials) in central-parietal, parietal and occipital regions. The scalp topography shows that central-parietal, parietal and occipital regions are more activated. The results indicate that the discrepancy of ERPs can reflect the neural activities of behavioural intention formed or not. Moreover, amplitude of ERPs occurred in corresponding brain areas can be used to measure user experience. The exploring of neural correlated with behavioural intention provide an accurate measurement method of user's perception and help marketers to know which product can arouse users' behavioural intention, maybe taken as an evaluating indicator of product design.

  12. Quantifying blue and green virtual water contents in global crop production as well as potential production losses without irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Stefan; Döll, Petra

    2010-04-01

    SummaryCrop production requires large amounts of green and blue water. We developed the new global crop water model GCWM to compute consumptive water use (evapotranspiration) and virtual water content (evapotranspiration per harvested biomass) of crops at a spatial resolution of 5' by 5', distinguishing 26 crop classes, and blue versus green water. GCWM is based on the global land use data set MIRCA2000 that provides monthly growing areas for 26 crop classes under rainfed and irrigated conditions for the period 1998-2002 and represents multi-cropping. By computing daily soil water balances, GCWM determines evapotranspiration of blue and green water for each crop and grid cell. Cell-specific crop production under both rainfed and irrigated conditions is computed by downscaling average crop yields reported for 402 national and sub-national statistical units, relating rainfed and irrigated crop yields reported in census statistics to simulated ratios of actual to potential crop evapotranspiration for rainfed crops. By restricting water use of irrigated crops to green water only, the potential production loss without any irrigation was computed. For the period 1998-2002, the global value of total crop water use was 6685 km 3 yr -1, of which blue water use was 1180 km 3 yr -1, green water use of irrigated crops was 919 km 3 yr -1 and green water use of rainfed crops was 4586 km 3 yr -1. Total crop water use was largest for rice (941 km 3 yr -1), wheat (858 km 3 yr -1) and maize (722 km 3 yr -1). The largest amounts of blue water were used for rice (307 km 3 yr -1) and wheat (208 km 3 yr -1). Blue water use as percentage of total crop water use was highest for date palms (85%), cotton (39%), citrus fruits (33%), rice (33%) and sugar beets (32%), while for cassava, oil palm and cocoa, almost no blue water was used. Average crop yield of irrigated cereals was 442 Mg km -2 while average yield of rainfed cereals was only 266 Mg km -2. Average virtual water content of cereal

  13. Harnessing the Potential of Halogenated Natural Product Biosynthesis by Mangrove-Derived Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Gong; Tang, Xiao-Min; Xiao, Jing; Ma, Guang-Hui; Xu, Li; Xie, Shu-Jie; Xu, Min-Juan; Xiao, Xiang; Xu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove-derived actinomycetes are promising sources of bioactive natural products. In this study, using homologous screening of the biosynthetic genes and anti-microorganism/tumor assaying, 163 strains of actinomycetes isolated from mangrove sediments were investigated for their potential to produce halogenated metabolites. The FADH2-dependent halogenase genes, identified in PCR-screening, were clustered in distinct clades in the phylogenetic analysis. The coexistence of either polyketide synthase (PKS) or nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) as the backbone synthetases in the strains harboring the halogenase indicated that these strains had the potential to produce structurally diversified antibiotics. As a validation, a new enduracidin producer, Streptomyces atrovirens MGR140, was identified and confirmed by gene disruption and HPLC analysis. Moreover, a putative ansamycin biosynthesis gene cluster was detected in Streptomyces albogriseolus MGR072. Our results highlight that combined genome mining is an efficient technique to tap promising sources of halogenated natural products synthesized by mangrove-derived actinomycetes. PMID:24129229

  14. Current and potential trade in horticultural products irradiated for phytosanitary purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Griffin, Emilia; Hallman, Guy J.; Griffin, Robert L.

    2012-08-01

    The current status of trade in horticultural products irradiated for phytosanitary purposes is examined, including trends, strengths and weaknesses. A strategy is proposed to take advantage of the best future opportunities for increasing trade in irradiated horticultural products by identifying best possibilities for expanding both the number and volume of commodities for irradiation and then applying appropriate business criteria in a general analysis of the commodities, commercial scenarios, and geographic regions where the greatest potential exists for expansion. The results show that fresh fruits such as mango, papaya, citrus, grapes, and vegetables such as tomatoes, onions, asparagus, garlic, and peppers from Asia and the Americas show the greatest potential. Substantial opportunities for additional growth exist, especially as regulatory conditions become more favorable.

  15. Harnessing the potential of halogenated natural product biosynthesis by mangrove-derived actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Gong; Tang, Xiao-Min; Xiao, Jing; Ma, Guang-Hui; Xu, Li; Xie, Shu-Jie; Xu, Min-Juan; Xiao, Xiang; Xu, Jun

    2013-10-14

    Mangrove-derived actinomycetes are promising sources of bioactive natural products. In this study, using homologous screening of the biosynthetic genes and anti-microorganism/tumor assaying, 163 strains of actinomycetes isolated from mangrove sediments were investigated for their potential to produce halogenated metabolites. The FADH2-dependent halogenase genes, identified in PCR-screening, were clustered in distinct clades in the phylogenetic analysis. The coexistence of either polyketide synthase (PKS) or nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) as the backbone synthetases in the strains harboring the halogenase indicated that these strains had the potential to produce structurally diversified antibiotics. As a validation, a new enduracidin producer, Streptomyces atrovirens MGR140, was identified and confirmed by gene disruption and HPLC analysis. Moreover, a putative ansamycin biosynthesis gene cluster was detected in Streptomyces albogriseolus MGR072. Our results highlight that combined genome mining is an efficient technique to tap promising sources of halogenated natural products synthesized by mangrove-derived actinomycetes.

  16. Influence of headspace flushing on methane production in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests.

    PubMed

    Koch, Konrad; Fernández, Yadira Bajón; Drewes, Jörg E

    2015-06-01

    The influence of headspace flushing on the specific methane (CH4) production of blank samples with just inoculum in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests was studied. The three most common ways were applied: flushing with nitrogen (N2) gas, flushing with a mixture of N2 and CO2 (80/20 v/v), and no flushing. The results revealed that removing the oxygen is crucial to avoid aerobic respiration, which caused both hindered activity of methanogens and loss of methane potential. Furthermore it was demonstrated that 20% of CO2 in the flush gas increased significantly the methane production by over 20% compared to the flushing with pure N2. In order to mimic the same headspace conditions as in full-scale treatment plants, using a flush gas with a similar CO2 concentration as the expected biogas is suggested.

  17. Salinity induced oxidative stress enhanced biofuel production potential of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    PubMed

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Trivedi, Khanjan; Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass is considered as potential feedstock for biofuel production. Enhancement of biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents in microalgae is important for the commercialization of microalgal biofuels. In the present study, salinity stress induced physiological and biochemical changes in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 were studied. During single stage cultivation, 33.13% lipid and 35.91% carbohydrate content was found in 400 mM NaCl grown culture. During two stage cultivation, salinity stress of 400 mM for 3 days resulted in 24.77% lipid (containing 74.87% neutral lipid) along with higher biomass compared to single stage, making it an efficient strategy to enhance biofuel production potential of Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. Apart from biochemical content, stress biomarkers like hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, ascorbate peroxidase, proline and mineral contents were also studied to understand the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated lipid accumulation in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

  18. Human communication needs and organizational productivity: the potential impact of office automation.

    PubMed

    Culnan, M J; Bair, J H

    1983-05-01

    Much of what white collar workers do in offices is communication-related. White collar workers make up the majority of the labor force in the United States today and the majority of current labor costs. Because office automation represents more productive structured techniques for handling both written and oral communication, office automation therefore offers the potential to make organizations more productive by improving organizational communication. This article: (1) defines communication, (2) identifies the potential benefits to be realized from implementing office automation, and (3) offers caveats related to the implementation of office automation systems. Realization of the benefits of office automation depends upon the degree to which new modes of communication may be successfully substituted for traditional modes.

  19. A novel liquid medium for the efficient growth of the salmonid pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and optimization of culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, Mirtha; González, Ernesto; Marshall, Sergio H; Henríquez, Vitalia; Gómez, Fernando A; Martínez, Irene; Altamirano, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is the bacterium that causes Piscirickettsiosis, a systemic disease of salmonid fish responsible for significant economic losses within the aquaculture industry worldwide. The growth of the bacterium for vaccine formulation has been traditionally accomplished by infecting eukaryotic cell lines, a process that involves high production costs and is time-consuming. Recent research has demonstrated that it is possible to culture pure P. salmonis in a blood containing (cell-free) medium. In the present work we demonstrate the growth of P. salmonis in a liquid medium free from blood and serum components, thus establishing a novel and simplified bacteriological medium. Additionally, the new media reported provides improved growth conditions for P. salmonis, where biomass concentrations of approximately 800 mg cell dry weight L(-1) were obtained, about eight times higher than those reported for the blood containing medium. A 2- level full factorial design was employed to evaluate the significance of the main medium components on cell growth and an optimal temperature range of 23-27°C was determined for the microorganism to grow in the novel liquid media. Therefore, these results represent a breakthrough regarding P. salmonis research in order to optimize pure P. salmonis growth in liquid blood and serum free medium.

  20. A paleoscience approach to estimating the effects of climatic warming on salmonid fisheries of the Columbia River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Butler, V.L.; Scott, M.J.; Anderson, D.M.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1992-10-01

    To understand how climatic warming might affect salmonid populations, we are following a four-step procedure, incorporating paleoenvironmental data at the beginning and ending points, as follows. First, we used geomorphic, paleobotanical, and paleomalacological data to reconstruct stream conditions during the last 8000 years. Second, we estimated the effect on salmon of conditions extant approximately 6000 to 7000 radiocarbon years before present (B.P.), when temperatures were as much as 2[degrees]C warmer than at present. This became an analog of future warmer climate and its effects on spawning, incubation, and rearing parameters of the NPPC's Tributary Parameter Model (TPM) for estimating salmoned production. Third, we ran the TPM in conjunction with the NPPC System Planning Model (SPM) to calculate the effect of these analog conditions on the population of returning adult fish in selected stream systems. Ultimately, we will run the models for all salmon-accessible subbasins of the Columbia River system. Finally, we are identifying fish remains obtained from archaeological sites along the Columbia River to compare variations in the taxonomic composition of ancient fish assemblages with model predictions.

  1. A paleoscience approach to estimating the effects of climatic warming on salmonid fisheries of the Columbia River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Butler, V.L.; Scott, M.J.; Anderson, D.M.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1992-10-01

    To understand how climatic warming might affect salmonid populations, we are following a four-step procedure, incorporating paleoenvironmental data at the beginning and ending points, as follows. First, we used geomorphic, paleobotanical, and paleomalacological data to reconstruct stream conditions during the last 8000 years. Second, we estimated the effect on salmon of conditions extant approximately 6000 to 7000 radiocarbon years before present (B.P.), when temperatures were as much as 2{degrees}C warmer than at present. This became an analog of future warmer climate and its effects on spawning, incubation, and rearing parameters of the NPPC`s Tributary Parameter Model (TPM) for estimating salmoned production. Third, we ran the TPM in conjunction with the NPPC System Planning Model (SPM) to calculate the effect of these analog conditions on the population of returning adult fish in selected stream systems. Ultimately, we will run the models for all salmon-accessible subbasins of the Columbia River system. Finally, we are identifying fish remains obtained from archaeological sites along the Columbia River to compare variations in the taxonomic composition of ancient fish assemblages with model predictions.

  2. YC-1 potentiates cAMP-induced CREB activation and nitric oxide production in alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Tang, Ming-Chi; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Chang, Wen-De; Chung, Pei-Jen; Chang, Ya-Wen; Fang, Yao-Ching

    2012-04-15

    Alveolar macrophages play significant roles in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory lung diseases. Increases in exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are well documented to reflect disease severity in the airway. In this study, we investigated the effect of 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1), a known activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, on prostaglandin (PG)E{sub 1} (a stable PGE{sub 2} analogue) and forskolin (a adenylate cyclase activator) induced NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383). YC-1 did not directly cause NO production or iNOS expression, but drastically potentiated PGE{sub 1}- or forskolin-induced NO production and iNOS expression in NR8383 alveolar macrophages. Combination treatment with YC-1 and PGE{sub 1} significantly increased phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), but not nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. The combined effect on NO production, iNOS expression, and CREB phosphorylation was reversed by a protein kinase (PK)A inhibitor (H89), suggesting that the potentiating functions were mediated through a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Consistent with this, cAMP analogues, but not the cGMP analogue, caused NO release, iNOS expression, and CREB activation. YC-1 treatment induced an increase in PGE{sub 1}-induced cAMP formation, which occurred through the inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. Furthermore, the combination of rolipram (an inhibitor of PDE4), but not milronone (an inhibitor of PDE3), and PGE{sub 1} also triggered NO production and iNOS expression. In summary, YC-1 potentiates PGE{sub 1}-induced NO production and iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages through inhibition of cAMP PDE activity and activation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Highlights: ► YC-1 potentiated PGE1-induced iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages. ► The combination of YC-1 and PGE1 increased CREB but not NFκB activation.

  3. Potential terrestrial fate and effects on soil biota of a coal liquefaction product spill

    SciTech Connect

    Strayer, R.F.; Edwards, N.T.; Walton, B.T.; Charles-Shannon, V.

    1983-01-01

    Contaminated soil samples collected from the site of a coal liquefaction product spill were used to study potential fates and effects of this synthetic fuel. Simulated weathering in the laboratory caused significant changes in residual oil composition. Soil column leachates contained high phenol levels that decreased exponentially over time. Toxicity tests demonstrated that the oil-contaminated soil was phytotoxic and caused embryotoxic and teratogenic effects on eggs of the cricket Acheta domesticus.

  4. Temperature response of methane oxidation and production potentials in peatland ecosystems across Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welti, Nina; Korrensalo, Aino; Kerttula, Johanna; Maljanen, Marja; Uljas, Salli; Lohila, Annalea; Laine, Anna; Vesala, Timo; Elliott, David; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that the ecosystems located in the high latitudes are especially sensitive to warming. Therefore, we compared 14 peatland systems throughout Finland along a latitudinal gradient from 69°N to 61°N to examine the response of methane production and methane oxidation with warming climate. Peat samples were taken at the height of the growing season in 2015 from 0 - 10cm below the water table depth. The plant communities in sampling locations were described by estimating cover of each plant species and pH of water was measured. Upon return to the lab, we made two parallel treatments, under anoxic and oxic conditions in order to calculate the CH4 production and consumption potentials of the peat and used three temperatures, 4°C, 17.5°C, and 30°C to examine the temperature effect on the potentials. We hypothesized that there will be an observable response curve in CH4 production and oxidation relative to temperature with a greater response with increasing latitude. In general, increasing temperature increased the potential for CH4 production and oxidation, at some sites, the potential was highest at 17.5°C, indicating that there is an optimum temperature threshold for the in situ methane producing and oxidizing microbial communities. Above this threshold, the peat microbial communities are not able to cope with increasing temperature. This is especially noticeable for methane oxidation at sites above 62°N. As countries are being expected to adequately account for their greenhouse gas budgets with increasing temperature models, knowing where the temperature threshold exists is of critical importance.

  5. The potential of Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 for sugar feedstock production.

    PubMed

    Song, Kuo; Tan, Xiaoming; Liang, Yajing; Lu, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    It is important to obtain abundant sugar feedstocks economically and sustainably for bio-fermentation industry, especially for producing cheap biofuels and biochemicals. Besides plant biomass, photosynthetic cyanobacteria have also been considered to be potential microbe candidates for sustainable production of carbohydrate feedstocks. As the fastest growing cyanobacterium reported so far, Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 (Syn2973) might have huge potential for bioproduction. In this study, we explored the potentials of this strain as photo-bioreactors for sucrose and glycogen production. Under nitrogen-replete condition, Syn2973 could accumulate glycogen with a rate of 0.75 g L(-1) day(-1) at the exponential phase and reach a glycogen content as high as 51 % of the dry cell weight (DCW) at the stationary phase. By introducing a sucrose transporter CscB, Syn2973 was endowed with an ability to secrete over 94 % sucrose out of cells under salt stress condition. The highest extracellular sucrose productivity reached 35.5 mg L(-1) h(-1) for the Syn2973 strain expressing cscB, which contained the similar amounts of intracellular glycogen with the wild type. Potassium chloride was firstly proved to induce sucrose accumulation as well as sodium chloride in Syn2973. By semi-continuous culturing, 8.7 g L(-1) sucrose was produced by the cscB-expressing strain of Syn2973 in 21 days. These results support that Syn2973 is a promising candidate with great potential for production of sugars.

  6. Estimate of federal relighting potential and demand for efficient lighting products

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Elliott, D.B.; Richman, E.E.; Grover, S.E.

    1993-11-01

    The increasing level of electric utility rebates for energy-efficient lighting retrofits has recently prompted concern over the adequacy of the market supply of energy-efficient lighting products (Energy User News 1991). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Management Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed an estimate of the total potential for energy-efficient lighting retrofits in federally owned buildings. This estimate can be used to address the issue of the impact of federal relighting projects on the supply of energy-efficient lighting products. The estimate was developed in 1992, using 1991 data. Any investments in energy-efficient lighting products that occurred in 1992 will reduce the potential estimated here. This analysis proceeds by estimating the existing stock of lighting fixtures in federally owned buildings. The lighting technology screening matrix is then used to determine the minimum life-cycle cost retrofit for each type of existing lighting fixture. Estimates of the existing stock are developed for (1) four types of fluorescent lighting fixtures (2-, 3-, and 4-lamp, F40 4-foot fixtures, and 2-lamp, F96 8-foot fixtures, all with standard magnetic ballasts); (2) one type of incandescent fixture (a 75-watt single bulb fixture); and (3) one type of exit sign (containing two 20-watt incandescent bulbs). Estimates of the existing stock of lighting fixtures in federally owned buildings, estimates of the total potential demand for energy-efficient lighting products if all cost-effective retrofits were undertaken immediately, and total potential annual energy savings (in MWh and dollars), the total investment required to obtain the energy savings and the present value of the efficiency investment, are presented.

  7. Potential Benefits of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) 2.0 Social Networking Capabilities Within MBSE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-GD-0734 20. Potential Benefits Of Product Lifecycle Management ( PLM ) 2.0 Social Networking Capabilities Within MBSE – Axel...coined “ PLM 2.0”. Its goal is to facilitate and enhance the collaboration between engineers, end users and project managers. PLM 2.0 provides a...the design evolution and verify that their design intent is being met. As of now, PLM 2.0 concepts have been embedded in engineering software

  8. Unexploited potential of some biotechnological techniques for biofertilizer production and formulation.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, N; Vassileva, M; Lopez, A; Martos, V; Reyes, A; Maksimovic, I; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Malusà, E

    2015-06-01

    The massive application of chemical fertilizers to support crop production has resulted in soil, water, and air pollution at a global scale. In the same time, this situation escalated consumers' concerns regarding quality and safety of food production which, due to increase of fertilizer prices, have provoked corresponding price increase of food products. It is widely accepted that the only solution is to boost exploitation of plant-beneficial microorganisms which in conditions of undisturbed soils play a key role in increasing the availability of minerals that otherwise are inaccessible to plants. This review paper is focused on the employment of microbial inoculants and their production and formulation. Special attention is given to biotechniques that are not fully exploited as tools for biofertilizer manufacturing such as microbial co-cultivation and co-immobilization. Another emerging area includes biotechnological production and combined usage of microorganisms/active natural compounds (biostimulants) such as plant extracts and exudates, compost extracts, and products like strigolactones, which improve not only plant growth and development but also plant-microbial interactions. The most important potential and novel strategies in this field are presented as well as the tendencies that will be developed in the near future.

  9. A potential synbiotic product improves the lipid profile of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that intake of yacon or some lactic acid bacteria was able to inhibit the development of diabetes mellitus, by reducing glucose and associated symptoms, for example, the lipid profile. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the consumption influence of a potential symbiotic product of soybean and yacon extract and fermented Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus ssp jugurti 416 in reducing blood glucose and lipid levels in an animal model. Methods Diabetes mellitus was chemically induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). The rats were divided into four groups (n=10): GI – non-diabetic animals that received only a standard chow diet (negative control), GII – diabetic animals that received only chow diet (positive control), GIII – diabetic animals that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon unfermented product, GIV – diabetic rats that received the chow diet + 1 mL/kg body weight/day of soybean and yacon fermented product. There was a seven-week treatment period and the following parameters were evaluated: animal body weight, food and water intake, blood glucose, enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglycerides levels, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL-C. Cell viability of the fermented product was checked weekly for a seven-week period. Results The product average viable population was 108-109 CFU/mL, by ensuring both the rods and cocci regular intake. No difference was observed between the water and feed intake and body weight of groups that received unfermented and fermented products and the untreated diabetic group. The same was observed for the blood glucose and AST and ALT activities, while some improvement was observed for a lipid profile, represented by reduction of triglycerides level by 15.07% and 33.50% in groups III and IV, respectively, and an

  10. Lipid metabolism and potentials of biofuel and high added-value oil production in red algae.

    PubMed

    Sato, Naoki; Moriyama, Takashi; Mori, Natsumi; Toyoshima, Masakazu

    2017-04-01

    Biomass production is currently explored in microalgae, macroalgae and land plants. Microalgal biofuel development has been performed mostly in green algae. In the Japanese tradition, macrophytic red algae such as Pyropia yezoensis and Gelidium crinale have been utilized as food and industrial materials. Researches on the utilization of unicellular red microalgae such as Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Porphyridium purpureum started only quite recently. Red algae have relatively large plastid genomes harboring more than 200 protein-coding genes that support the biosynthetic capacity of the plastid. Engineering the plastid genome is a unique potential of red microalgae. In addition, large-scale growth facilities of P. purpureum have been developed for industrial production of biofuels. C. merolae has been studied as a model alga for cell and molecular biological analyses with its completely determined genomes and transformation techniques. Its acidic and warm habitat makes it easy to grow this alga axenically in large scales. Its potential as a biofuel producer is recently documented under nitrogen-limited conditions. Metabolic pathways of the accumulation of starch and triacylglycerol and the enzymes involved therein are being elucidated. Engineering these regulatory mechanisms will open a possibility of exploiting the full capability of production of biofuel and high added-value oil. In the present review, we will describe the characteristics and potential of these algae as biotechnological seeds.

  11. Nanobiotechnology as a novel paradigm for enzyme immobilisation and stabilisation with potential applications in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Verma, Madan Lal; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2013-01-01

    Nanobiotechnology is emerging as a new frontier of biotechnology. The potential applications of nanobiotechnology in bioenergy and biosensors have encouraged researchers in recent years to investigate new novel nanoscaffolds to build robust nanobiocatalytic systems. Enzymes, mainly hydrolytic class of enzyme, have been extensively immobilised on nanoscaffold support for long-term stabilisation by enhancing thermal, operational and storage catalytic potential. In the present report, novel nanoscaffold variants employed in the recent past for enzyme immobilisation, namely nanoparticles, nanofibres, nanotubes, nanopores, nanosheets and nanocomposites, are discussed in the context of lipase-mediated nanobiocatalysis. These nanocarriers have an inherently large surface area that leads to high enzyme loading and consequently high volumetric enzyme activity. Due to their high tensile strengths, nanoscale materials are often robust and resistant to breakage through mechanical shear in the running reactor making them suitable for multiple reuses. The optimisation of various nanosupports process parameters, such as the enzyme type and selection of suitable immobilisation method may help lead to the development of an efficient enzyme reactor. This might in turn offer a potential platform for exploring other enzymes for the development of stable nanobiocatalytic systems, which could help to address global environmental issues by facilitating the production of green energy. The successful validation of the feasibility of nanobiocatalysis for biodiesel production represents the beginning of a new field of research. The economic hurdles inherent in viably scaling nanobiocatalysts from a lab-scale to industrial biodiesel production are also discussed.

  12. Estimation of potential GHG emissions from net primary productivity of forests — a satellite based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, V. Krishna; Kant, Yogesh; Badarinath, K. V. S.

    Solar radiation in the wavelength interval between 400 and 700 nm provides the energy for photosynthesis and this information can be used for estimating Net Primary Productivity of plants. In the present study, AVHRR coarse resolution satellite data has been used for estimating NPP and thereby potential Green House Gas (GHG) emissions by integrating satellite and ground based measurements. NPP of forests has been calculated from annual sum of daily photosynthetic absorbed radiation and the radiation use efficiency of different plant species. Fraction of absorbed photosynthetic radiation for the deciduous ecosystem has been computed from monthly AVHRR NDVI composite values and using the AVHRR simple ratio. Results of the study suggested potential productivity of 5.81 t/ha/yr from satellite data, when compared to actual productivity values of 5.4 t/ha/yr from girth measurements. Potential GHG emissions estimated using the NPP value, aerial to total NPP ratio, above ground biomass, burning efficiency, and emission factors from ground measurements suggested total emissions of 2.8 × 10 11, 2.1 × 10 10, 2.7 × 10 9, 9.8 × 10 8 and 2.0 × 10 7 gms for CO 2, CO, CH 4, NO x and N 2O respectively for the study area.

  13. Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: yield potential, soil quality, and precision agriculture.

    PubMed

    Cassman, K G

    1999-05-25

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) provide about two-thirds of all energy in human diets, and four major cropping systems in which these cereals are grown represent the foundation of human food supply. Yield per unit time and land has increased markedly during the past 30 years in these systems, a result of intensified crop management involving improved germplasm, greater inputs of fertilizer, production of two or more crops per year on the same piece of land, and irrigation. Meeting future food demand while minimizing expansion of cultivated area primarily will depend on continued intensification of these same four systems. The manner in which further intensification is achieved, however, will differ markedly from the past because the exploitable gap between average farm yields and genetic yield potential is closing. At present, the rate of increase in yield potential is much less than the expected increase in demand. Hence, average farm yields must reach 70-80% of the yield potential ceiling within 30 years in each of these major cereal systems. Achieving consistent production at these high levels without causing environmental damage requires improvements in soil quality and precise management of all production factors in time and space. The scope of the scientific challenge related to these objectives is discussed. It is concluded that major scientific breakthroughs must occur in basic plant physiology, ecophysiology, agroecology, and soil science to achieve the ecological intensification that is needed to meet the expected increase in food demand.

  14. Enzymatic biodiesel production: an overview of potential feedstocks and process development.

    PubMed

    Hama, Shinji; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-05-01

    The increased global demand for biofuels has prompted the search for alternatives to edible oils for biodiesel production. Given the abundance and cost, waste and nonedible oils have been investigated as potential feedstocks. A recent research interest is the conversion of such feedstocks into biodiesel via enzymatic processes, which have considerable advantages over conventional alkali-catalyzed processes. To expand the viability of enzymatic biodiesel production, considerable effort has been directed toward process development in terms of biodiesel productivity, application to wide ranges of contents of water and fatty acids, adding value to glycerol byproducts, and bioreactor design. A cost evaluation suggested that, with the current enzyme prices, the cost of catalysts alone is not competitive against that of alkalis. However, it can also be expected that further process optimization will lead to a reduced cost in enzyme preparation as well as in downstream processes.

  15. D-amino acid oxidase: its potential in the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.

    PubMed

    Mujawar, S K

    1999-01-01

    D-Amino acid oxidase (DAAO) used in the preparation of alpha-keto acids, in the determination of D-amino acids and in the resolution of racemic mixture of amino acids is produced by a wide range of microorganisms. In the recent past this enzyme is being recognized for its potential in the commercial production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA), a starting material for various semisynthetic cephalosporins. Though this enzyme is widespread among microorganisms, very few microbial species have been explored for the production of 7-ACA; this is because cephalosporin C is quantitatively deaminated by limited microbial DAAOs. Comparison of physico-chemical properties of enzyme preparations indicate wide variations, however in general DAAOs are specific for D-configuration of amino acids. Both immobilized enzyme and cell preparations are developed for its various applications. The advantages of DAAO in the production of 7-ACA are discussed.

  16. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded.

  17. Influence of headspace pressure on methane production in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests.

    PubMed

    Valero, David; Montes, Jesús A; Rico, José Luis; Rico, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    The biochemical methane potential test is the most commonly applied method to determine methane production from organic wastes. One of the parameters measured is the volume of biogas produced which can be determined manometrically by keeping the volume constant and measuring increases in pressure. In the present study, the effect of pressure accumulation in the headspace of the reactors has been studied. Triplicate batch trials employing cocoa shell, waste coffee grounds and dairy manure as substrates have been performed under two headspace pressure conditions. The results obtained in the study showed that headspace overpressures higher than 600mbar affected methane production for waste coffee grounds. On the contrary, headspace overpressures within a range of 600-1000mbar did not affect methane production for cocoa shell and dairy manure. With the analyses performed in the present work it has not been possible to determine the reasons for the lower methane yield value obtained for the waste coffee grounds under high headspace pressures.

  18. Food protein-derived bioactive peptides: production, processing, and potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive peptides (BAPs), derived through enzymatic hydrolysis of food proteins, have demonstrated potential for application as health-promoting agents against numerous human health and disease conditions, including cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer. The feasibility of pharmacological application of these peptides depends on absorption and bioavailability in intact forms in target tissues, which in turn depends on structure of the peptides. Therefore, production and processing of peptides based on important structure-function parameters can lead to the production of potent peptides. This article reviews the literature on BAPs with emphasis on strategic production and processing methods as well as antihypertensive, anticancer, anticalmodulin, hypocholesterolemic, and multifunctional properties of the food protein-derived peptides. It is recommended that future research efforts on BAP should be directed toward elucidation of their in vivo molecular mechanisms of action, safety at various doses, and pharmacological activity in maintaining homeostasis during aberrant health conditions in human subjects.

  19. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chaohui; Liu, Yi; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed.

  20. Potential nationwide improvements in productivity and health from better indoor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-07-01

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of respiratory disease, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in their estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the US, the authors estimate potential annual savings and productivity gains of $6 to $19 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $1 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $20 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $12 to $125 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. In two example calculations, the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments exceed costs by a factor of 8 and 14. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  1. Potential Nationwide Improvements in Productivity and Health from Better Indoor Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-05-01

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of respiratory disease, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in our estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., we estimate potential annual savings and productivity gains of $6 to $19 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $1 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $20 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $12 to $125 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. In two example calculations, the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments exceed costs by a factor of 8 and 14. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  2. Biotechnological route for sustainable succinate production utilizing oil palm frond and kenaf as potential carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Luthfi, Abdullah Amru Indera; Manaf, Shareena Fairuz Abdul; Illias, Rosli Md; Harun, Shuhaida; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md

    2017-04-01

    Due to the world's dwindling energy supplies, greater thrust has been placed on the utilization of renewable resources for global succinate production. Exploration of such biotechnological route could be seen as an act of counterbalance to the continued fossil fuel dominance. Malaysia being a tropical country stands out among many other nations for its plenty of resources in the form of lignocellulosic biomass. To date, oil palm frond (OPF) contributes to the largest fraction of agricultural residues in Malaysia, while kenaf, a newly introduced fiber crop with relatively high growth rate, holds great potential for developing sustainable succinate production, apart from OPF. Utilization of non-food, inexhaustible, and low-cost derived biomass in the form of OPF and kenaf for bio-based succinate production remains largely untapped. Owing to the richness of carbohydrates in OPF and kenaf, bio-succinate commercialization using these sources appears as an attractive proposition for future sustainable developments. The aim of this paper was to review some research efforts in developing a biorefinery system based on OPF and kenaf as processing inputs. It presents the importance of the current progress in bio-succinate commercialization, in addition to describing the potential use of different succinate production hosts and various pretreatments-saccharifications under development for OPF and kenaf. Evaluations on the feasibility of OPF and kenaf as fermentation substrates are also discussed.

  3. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2003-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tara

    2007-02-01

    This report summarizes activities conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Juvenile Outmigration and Survival M&E project in the Umatilla River subbasin between 2004-2006. Information is used to make informed decisions on hatchery effectiveness, natural production success, passage improvement and flow enhancement strategies. Data collected includes annual estimates of smolt abundance, migration timing, and survival, life history characteristics and productivity status and trends for spring and fall Chinook salmon, coho salmon and summer steelhead. Productivity data provided is the key subbasin scale measure of the effectiveness of salmon and steelhead restoration actions in the Umatilla River. Information is also used for regional planning and recovery efforts of Mid-Columbia River (MCR) ESA-listed summer steelhead. Monitoring is conducted via smolt trapping and PIT-tag interrogation at Three Mile Falls Dam. The Umatilla Juvenile Outmigration and Survival Project was established in 1994 to evaluate the success of management actions and fisheries restoration efforts in the Umatilla River Basin. Project objectives for the 2004-2006 period were to: (1) operate the PIT tag detection system at Three Mile Falls Dam (TMFD), (2) enhance provisional PIT-tag interrogation equipment at the east bank adult fish ladder, (3) monitor the migration timing, abundance and survival of naturally-produced juvenile salmonids and trends in natural production, (4) determine migration parameters and survival of hatchery-produced fish representing various rearing, acclimation and release strategies, (5) evaluate the relative survival between transported and non-transported fish, (6) monitor juvenile life history characteristics and evaluate trends over time, (7) investigate the effects of river, canal, fishway operations and environmental conditions on smolt migration and survival, (8) document the temporal distribution and diversity of resident fish species, and (9

  4. Potential of marine natural products against drug-resistant fungal, viral, and parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Grkovic, Tanja; Pham, Ngoc B; Quinn, Ronald J; Hentschel, Ute

    2017-02-01

    Antibiotics have revolutionised medicine in many aspects, and their discovery is considered a turning point in human history. However, the most serious consequence of the use of antibiotics is the concomitant development of resistance against them. The marine environment has proven to be a very rich source of diverse natural products with significant antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antitumour, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities. Many marine natural products (MNPs)-for example, neoechinulin B-have been found to be promising drug candidates to alleviate the mortality and morbidity rates caused by drug-resistant infections, and several MNP-based anti-infectives have already entered phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trials, with six approved for usage by the US Food and Drug Administration and one by the EU. In this Review, we discuss the diversity of marine natural products that have shown in-vivo efficacy or in-vitro potential against drug-resistant infections of fungal, viral, and parasitic origin, and describe their mechanism of action. We highlight the drug-like physicochemical properties of the reported natural products that have bioactivity against drug-resistant pathogens in order to assess their drug potential. Difficulty in isolation and purification procedures, toxicity associated with the active compound, ecological impacts on natural environment, and insufficient investments by pharmaceutical companies are some of the clear reasons behind market failures and a poor pipeline of MNPs available to date. However, the diverse abundance of natural products in the marine environment could serve as a ray of light for the therapy of drug-resistant infections. Development of resistance-resistant antibiotics could be achieved via the coordinated networking of clinicians, microbiologists, natural product chemists, and pharmacologists together with pharmaceutical venture capitalist companies.

  5. Exploring the potential contribution of irrigation to global agricultural primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdogan, Mutlu

    2011-09-01

    The potential contribution of irrigation to global agricultural net primary productivity (NPP) was explored using the Carnegie Stanford Ames Approach (CASA) model, modified for irrigation inputs. Excluding the effects from cultivar choice, fertilizer application, and water availability, removing climatic constraints to productivity through irrigation has the potential to increase carbon uptake by global cropland areas (which already have an average carbon uptake rate in excess of 175 gC/m2/yr) by an average of 25 gC/m2/yr with a maximum of 627 gC/m2/yr, especially in heavily irrigated semiarid areas such as northern India, the Indus River Valley, northeast China, the western United States, and the Nile River Valley. When accumulated across all irrigated areas and years, the total contribution of irrigation could exceed 0.40 Pg C per year, a value equivalent to the total NPP of U.S. croplands (0.41 PgC). The results also reveal that the relationship between cropland productivity affected by irrigation and climatic moisture availability is nonlinear: in locations that receive less than 1500 mm/yr rainfall, cropland productivity has a strong response to moisture; as humidity increases, additional moisture has very little impact on the productivity of crop areas. Moreover, the relationship between irrigation amount and productivity increase is also nonlinear: in humid locations, NPP response to irrigation is small but persistent; as aridity increases, irrigation has a substantial impact but its effect quickly saturates for irrigation input above 800 mm/yr, which may point to the efficiency of irrigation for different precipitation regions.

  6. Global wheat production potentials and management flexibility under the representative concentration pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balkovic, Juraj; van der Velde, Marijn; Skalsky, Rastislav; Xiong, Wei; Folberth, Christian; Khabarov, Nikolay; Smirnov, Alexey

    2014-05-01

    Global wheat production is strongly linked with food security as wheat is one of the main sources of human nutrition. Increasing or stabilizing wheat yields in response to climate change is therefore imperative. To do so will require agricultural management interventions that have different levels of flexibility at regional level. Climate change is expected to worsen wheat growing conditions in many places and thus negatively impact on future management opportunities for sustainable intensification. We quantified, in a spatially explicit manner, global wheat yield developments under the envelope of Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5) under current and alternative fertilization and irrigation management to estimate future flexibility to cope with climate change impacts. A large-scale implementation of the EPIC model was integrated with the most recent information on global wheat cultivation currently available, and it was used to simulate regional and global wheat yields and production under historical climate and the RCP-driven and bias-corrected HadGEM2-ES climate projections. Fertilization and irrigation management scenarios were designed to project actual and exploitable (under current irrigation infrastructure) yields as well as the climate- and water-limited yield potentials. With current nutrient and water management, and across all RCPs, the global wheat production at the end of the century decreased from 50 to 100 Mt - with RCP2.6 having the lowest and RCP8.5 the highest impact. Despite the decrease in global wheat production potential on current cropland, the exploitable and climatic production gap of respectively 350 and 580 Mt indicates a considerable flexibility to counteract negative climate change impacts across all RCPs. Agricultural management could increase global wheat production by approximately 30% through intensified fertilization and 50% through improved fertilization and extended irrigation if nutrients or water

  7. Smokers' responses to advertisements for regular and light cigarettes and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, William L; Norton, Giulia diStefano; Ouellette, Tammy K; Rhodes, Wiliam M; Kling, Ryan; Connolly, Gregory N

    2004-12-01

    This study examines smokers' responses to advertisements for potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (PREP), light cigarettes, and regular cigarettes. A convenience sample of 600 adult smokers reviewed one actual advertisement for each type of product. Smokers ranked the products on health risk, amount of tar, and carcinogenicity, and identified the messages they perceived the advertisements to convey. Smokers perceived PREP products as having lower health risks (mean = 5.4 on a scale of 1-10) and carcinogens (6.6) than light cigarettes (5.8 and 6.9, respectively, p < .001), and lights as having lower health risks and carcinogen levels than regular cigarettes (8.2 and 8.8, respectively, p <.001). The average PREP rating for level of tar (5.3) was not significantly less than the light mean of 5.4, but both were significantly less than the regular mean of 8.4 (p <.001). Although no advertisements explicitly said that the products were healthy or safe, advertisements for PREP products and light cigarettes were interpreted as conveying positive messages about health and safety. Most smokers believed that claims made in cigarette advertisements must be approved by a government agency. The results indicate that advertisements can and do leave consumers with perceptions of the health and safety of tobacco products that are contrary to the scientific evidence. Explicit and implicit advertising messages may be strengthened by the perceived government endorsement. This supports the Institute of Medicine's recommendation to regulate the promotion, advertising, and labeling of PREP tobacco products and light cigarettes. Effective regulation may need to focus on consumer perceptions resulting from advertisements rather than the explicit content of advertising text.

  8. Global biomass production potentials exceed expected future demand without the need for cropland expansion

    PubMed Central

    Mauser, Wolfram; Klepper, Gernot; Zabel, Florian; Delzeit, Ruth; Hank, Tobias; Putzenlechner, Birgitta; Calzadilla, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Global biomass demand is expected to roughly double between 2005 and 2050. Current studies suggest that agricultural intensification through optimally managed crops on today's cropland alone is insufficient to satisfy future demand. In practice though, improving crop growth management through better technology and knowledge almost inevitably goes along with (1) improving farm management with increased cropping intensity and more annual harvests where feasible and (2) an economically more efficient spatial allocation of crops which maximizes farmers' profit. By explicitly considering these two factors we show that, without expansion of cropland, today's global biomass potentials substantially exceed previous estimates and even 2050s' demands. We attribute 39% increase in estimated global production potentials to increasing cropping intensities and 30% to the spatial reallocation of crops to their profit-maximizing locations. The additional potentials would make cropland expansion redundant. Their geographic distribution points at possible hotspots for future intensification. PMID:26558436

  9. Predicting Potential Global Distributions of Two Miscanthus Grasses: Implications for Horticulture, Biofuel Production, and Biological Invasions

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Heather A.; Sinasac, Sarah E.; Gedalof, Ze’ev; Newman, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    In many regions, large proportions of the naturalized and invasive non-native floras were originally introduced deliberately by humans. Pest risk assessments are now used in many jurisdictions to regulate the importation of species and usually include an estimation of the potential distribution in the import area. Two species of Asian grass (Miscanthus sacchariflorus and M. sinensis) that were originally introduced to North America as ornamental plants have since escaped cultivation. These species and their hybrid offspring are now receiving attention for large-scale production as biofuel crops in North America and elsewhere. We evaluated their potential global climate suitability for cultivation and potential invasion using the niche model CLIMEX and evaluated the models’ sensitivity to the parameter values. We then compared the sensitivity of projections of future climatically suitable area under two climate models and two emissions scenarios. The models indicate that the species have been introduced to most of the potential global climatically suitable areas in the northern but not the southern hemisphere. The more narrowly distributed species (M. sacchariflorus) is more sensitive to changes in model parameters, which could have implications for modelling species of conservation concern. Climate projections indicate likely contractions in potential range in the south, but expansions in the north, particularly in introduced areas where biomass production trials are under way. Climate sensitivity analysis shows that projections differ more between the selected climate change models than between the selected emissions scenarios. Local-scale assessments are required to overlay suitable habitat with climate projections to estimate areas of cultivation potential and invasion risk. PMID:24945154

  10. Predicting potential global distributions of two Miscanthus grasses: implications for horticulture, biofuel production, and biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Hager, Heather A; Sinasac, Sarah E; Gedalof, Ze'ev; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    In many regions, large proportions of the naturalized and invasive non-native floras were originally introduced deliberately by humans. Pest risk assessments are now used in many jurisdictions to regulate the importation of species and usually include an estimation of the potential distribution in the import area. Two species of Asian grass (Miscanthus sacchariflorus and M. sinensis) that were originally introduced to North America as ornamental plants have since escaped cultivation. These species and their hybrid offspring are now receiving attention for large-scale production as biofuel crops in North America and elsewhere. We evaluated their potential global climate suitability for cultivation and potential invasion using the niche model CLIMEX and evaluated the models' sensitivity to the parameter values. We then compared the sensitivity of projections of future climatically suitable area under two climate models and two emissions scenarios. The models indicate that the species have been introduced to most of the potential global climatically suitable areas in the northern but not the southern hemisphere. The more narrowly distributed species (M. sacchariflorus) is more sensitive to changes in model parameters, which could have implications for modelling species of conservation concern. Climate projections indicate likely contractions in potential range in the south, but expansions in the north, particularly in introduced areas where biomass production trials are under way. Climate sensitivity analysis shows that projections differ more between the selected climate change models than between the selected emissions scenarios. Local-scale assessments are required to overlay suitable habitat with climate projections to estimate areas of cultivation potential and invasion risk.

  11. System-Wide Significance of Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs : Annual Report of Research 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, C.J.

    1991-03-01

    The consumption rates of northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) preying upon juvenile salmonids were indexed in four reservoirs (Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary) of the lower Columbia River. During the spring and summer of 1990, over 2000 northern squawfish were collected from dam forebays, dam tailraces and mid-reservoir locations. Gut content data, predator weight and water temperature were used to compute a consumption index (CI) for northern squawfish. Juvenile salmonids were found in 435 of 1598 northern squawfish guts analyzed. Besides salmonids and other preyfish, crustaceans formed a significant portion of the diet. The CI of northern squawfish varied by season and location. At most locations, summer CI's of northern squawfish were higher than in the spring. Efforts to match sample collection with times of highest juvenile salmonid passage were successful except during July at The Dalles and Bonneville Reservoirs. Consumption indices were moderate to high at several locations even when passage was relatively low, suggesting salmonid predation rate by northern squawfish was not always a function of prey density. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Feeding response by northern squawfish to a hatchery release of juvenile salmonids in the Clearwater River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shively, R.S.; Poe, T.P.; Sauter, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    We collected gut contents from northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis captured in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 0–6 km from its confluence with the Snake River, following the release of 1.1 million yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery. Before the hatchery release, northern squawfish gut contents (by weight) in the study area were 38% crayfish Pacifastacus spp., 26% insects, 19% nonsalmonid fish, and 16% wheat kernels Triticum spp. Juvenile salmonids constituted 54% of gut contents about 24 h after the hatchery release, 78% after 5 d, and 86% after 7 d. The mean number of salmonids per gut (1.2) after release was higher than typically seen in guts from northern squawfish collected in mid-reservoir areas away from hydroelectric dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Length-frequency distributions of juvenile salmonids eaten and those captured in a scoop trap 4 km upstream of the study area indicated that northern squawfish were selectively feeding on the smaller individuals. We attribute the high rates of predation in the study area to the artificially high density of juvenile salmonids resulting from the hatchery release and to the physical characteristics of the study area in which the river changed from free flowing to impounded. Our results suggest that northern squawfish can quickly exploit hatchery releases of juvenile salmonids away from release sites in the Columbia River basin.

  13. New subtype of salmonid alphavirus (SAV), Togaviridae, from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in Norway.

    PubMed

    Hodneland, K; Bratland, A; Christie, K E; Endresen, C; Nylund, A

    2005-09-05

    In Europe, 2 closely related alphaviruses (Togaviridae) are regarded as the causative agents of sleeping disease (SD) and salmon pancreas disease (SPD): SD virus (SDV) has been isolated from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in France and the UK, while SPD virus (SPDV) has been isolated from salmon Salmo salar in Ireland and the UK. Farmed salmonids in western Norway also suffer from a disease called pancreas disease (PD), and this disease is also believed to be caused by an alphavirus. However, this virus has not yet been characterised at the molecular level. We have cultured a Norwegian salmonid alphavirus from moribund fishes diagnosed with cardiac myopathy syndrome (CMS) and fishes diagnosed with PD. The virus has also been found in salmon suffering from haemorrhagic smolt syndrome in the fresh water phase. The genomic organisation of the Norwegian salmonid alphavirus is identical to that in SPDV and SDV, and the nucleotide sequence similarity to the other 2 alphaviruses is 91.6 and 92.9%, respectively. Based on the pathological changes, host species and the nucleotide sequence, we suggest naming this virus Norwegian salmonid alphavirus (NSAV). Together with SPDV and SDV it constitutes a third subtype of salmonid alphavirus (SAV) species within the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae.

  14. A well-constrained estimate for the timing of the salmonid whole genome duplication reveals major decoupling from species diversification

    PubMed Central

    Macqueen, Daniel J.; Johnston, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome duplication (WGD) is often considered to be mechanistically associated with species diversification. Such ideas have been anecdotally attached to a WGD at the stem of the salmonid fish family, but remain untested. Here, we characterized an extensive set of gene paralogues retained from the salmonid WGD, in species covering the major lineages (subfamilies Salmoninae, Thymallinae and Coregoninae). By combining the data in calibrated relaxed molecular clock analyses, we provide the first well-constrained and direct estimate for the timing of the salmonid WGD. Our results suggest that the event occurred no later in time than 88 Ma and that 40–50 Myr passed subsequently until the subfamilies diverged. We also recovered a Thymallinae–Coregoninae sister relationship with maximal support. Comparative phylogenetic tests demonstrated that salmonid diversification patterns are closely allied in time with the continuous climatic cooling that followed the Eocene–Oligocene transition, with the highest diversification rates coinciding with recent ice ages. Further tests revealed considerably higher speciation rates in lineages that evolved anadromy—the physiological capacity to migrate between fresh and seawater—than in sister groups that retained the ancestral state of freshwater residency. Anadromy, which probably evolved in response to climatic cooling, is an established catalyst of genetic isolation, particularly during environmental perturbations (for example, glaciation cycles). We thus conclude that climate-linked ecophysiological factors, rather than WGD, were the primary drivers of salmonid diversification. PMID:24452024

  15. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control.

    PubMed

    Perkin, Lindsey C; Adrianos, Sherry L; Oppert, Brenda

    2016-09-19

    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi) may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs.

  16. Lactic acid bacteria producing B-group vitamins: a great potential for functional cereals products.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Dueñas, María Teresa; López, Paloma; Spano, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Wheat contains various essential nutrients including the B group of vitamins. However, B group vitamins, normally present in cereals-derived products, are easily removed or destroyed during milling, food processing or cooking. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as starter cultures for the fermentation of a large variety of foods and can improve the safety, shelf life, nutritional value, flavor and overall quality of the fermented products. In this regard, the identification and application of strains delivering health-promoting compounds is a fascinating field. Besides their key role in food fermentations, several LAB found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals are commercially used as probiotics and possess generally recognized as safe status. LAB are usually auxotrophic for several vitamins although certain strains of LAB have the capability to synthesize water-soluble vitamins such as those included in the B group. In recent years, a number of biotechnological processes have been explored to perform a more economical and sustainable vitamin production than that obtained via chemical synthesis. This review article will briefly report the current knowledge on lactic acid bacteria synthesis of vitamins B2, B11 and B12 and the potential strategies to increase B-group vitamin content in cereals-based products, where vitamins-producing LAB have been leading to the elaboration of novel fermented functional foods. In addition, the use of genetic strategies to increase vitamin production or to create novel vitamin-producing strains will be also discussed.

  17. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents: potential hot spots for natural products discovery?

    PubMed

    Thornburg, Christopher C; Zabriskie, T Mark; McPhail, Kerry L

    2010-03-26

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are among the most extreme and dynamic environments on Earth. However, islands of highly dense and biologically diverse communities exist in the immediate vicinity of hydrothermal vent flows, in stark contrast to the surrounding bare seafloor. These communities comprise organisms with distinct metabolisms based on chemosynthesis and growth rates comparable to those from shallow water tropical environments, which have been rich sources of biologically active natural products. The geological setting and geochemical nature of deep-sea vents that impact the biogeography of vent organisms, chemosynthesis, and the known biological and metabolic diversity of Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea, including the handful of natural products isolated to date from deep-sea vent organisms, are considered here in an assessment of deep-sea hydrothermal vents as potential hot spots for natural products investigations. Of critical importance too are the logistics of collecting deep vent organisms, opportunities for re-collection considering the stability and longevity of vent sites, and the ability to culture natural product-producing deep vent organisms in the laboratory. New cost-effective technologies in deep-sea research and more advanced molecular techniques aimed at screening a more inclusive genetic assembly are poised to accelerate natural product discoveries from these microbial diversity hot spots.

  18. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, Adeseye; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Hashim, Dzulkifly

    2013-03-01

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  19. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control

    PubMed Central

    Perkin, Lindsey C.; Adrianos, Sherry L.; Oppert, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi) may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs. PMID:27657138

  20. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    SciTech Connect

    Lasekan, Adeseye; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Hashim, Dzulkifly

    2013-03-15

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  1. Evaluation of the potential of 9 Nannochloropsis strains for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yubin; Wang, Zhiyao; Yu, Changjiang; Yin, Yehu; Zhou, Gongke

    2014-09-01

    Nannochloropsis have attracted sustained interest from algal biodiesel researchers due to their high biomass accumulation rate and high lipid content. There are six recognized species in the Nannochloropsis genus that are phylogenetically divided into Nannochloropsis gaditana, Nannochloropsis salina, Nannochloropsis granulata, Nannochloropsis limnetica, Nannochloropsis oceanica and Nannochloropsis oculata. In this study, the potential of 9 Nannochloropsis species from the 6 genus for biodiesel production was evaluated by determining their growth rate, biomass accumulation, lipid productivity, lipid composition, fatty acid profiles and biodiesel properties. The results showed that the best strain was N. oceanica IMET1, with lipid productivity of 158.76 ± 13.83 mg L(-1)day(-1), TAG production of 1.67 ± 0.20 g/L, favorable fatty acid profiles of C16-C18 (56.62 ± 1.96%) as well as suitable biodiesel properties of higher cetane number (54.61 ± 0.25), lower iodine number (104.85 ± 2.80 g I2/100g) and relative low cloud point (3.45 ± 0.50°C). N. oceanica IMET1 could be consider as valuable feedstock for microalgal biodiesel production.

  2. The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  3. Potential Impact of Increased Use of Biocides in Consumer Products on Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Peter; McBain, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    There has recently been much controversy surrounding the increased use of antibacterial substances in a wide range of consumer products and the possibility that, as with antibiotics, indiscriminate use of biocides might contribute to the overall pattern of susceptibility in the general environment and in the clinic. Such speculation, based on the isolation of resistant mutants from in vitro monoculture experiments, is not reflected by an emergence of biocide-resistant strains in vivo. This review provides a broad coverage of the biocide and resistance literature and evaluates the potential risks, perceived from such laboratory monoculture experiments, against evidence gathered over 50 years of field studies. An explanation for the continued effectiveness of broad-spectrum biocidal agents against the decline in efficacy of therapeutic agents is provided based on the fitness costs of resistance and the ubiquity of naturally occurring substances that possess antibacterial effect. While we conclude from this review of the literature that the incorporation of antibacterial agents into a widening sphere of personal products has had little or no impact on the patterns of microbial susceptibility observed in the environment, the associated risks remain finite. The use of such products should therefore be associated with a clear demonstration of added value either to consumer health or to the product life. Hygienic products should therefore be targeted to applications for which the risks have been established. PMID:12692093

  4. Changes in wheat potential productivity and drought severity in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Di; Wang, Jing; Pan, Zhihua; Dai, Tong; Wang, Enli; Zhang, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    Wheat production in Southwest China (SWC) plays a vital role in guaranteeing local grain security, but it is threatened by increasingly frequent seasonal drought in recent years. In spite of the importance, the impact of past climate change on wheat potential productivity and drought severity has not been properly addressed. In this study, we employed a relatively simple resource use efficiency model to analyze the spatiotemporal changes of the potential productivity (PP) and rainfed productivity (RP) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Southwest China (SWC) from 1962 to 2010. A wheat drought severity index was defined as the relative difference between PP and RP, i.e., (PP-RP)/PP, to evaluate the changing frequency and severity of drought under warming SWC. Across the entire region from 1962 to 2010, the negative impact of decreasing sunshine hours (0.06 h day-1 per decade, p < 0.05) on PP was offset by the increase in average temperature of wheat growing season (0.22 °C per decade, p < 0.01). PP increased by 283 kg ha-1 per decade (p < 0.01), while RP did not show significant trend due to increased water stress. The gap between PP and RP has increased by 26 kg ha-1 per decade (p < 0.01). Moderate and severe drought mostly occurred in central and southern SWC. The percentage of stations experienced moderate or severe drought increased by 2.0 % (p < 0.05) per decade, and reached 52 % in recent decade. Our results, together with the uneven distribution of rainfall, indicate great potential for irrigation development to harvest water and increase wheat yield under the warming climate in SWC.

  5. MicroRNA-155 potentiates the inflammatory response in hypothermia by suppressing IL-10 production.

    PubMed

    Billeter, Adrian T; Hellmann, Jason; Roberts, Henry; Druen, Devin; Gardner, Sarah A; Sarojini, Harshini; Galandiuk, Susan; Chien, Sufan; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Spite, Matthew; Polk, Hiram C

    2014-12-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is commonly used to improve neurological outcomes in patients after cardiac arrest. However, therapeutic hypothermia increases sepsis risk and unintentional hypothermia in surgical patients increases infectious complications. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms by which hypothermia dysregulates innate immunity are incompletely understood. We found that exposure of human monocytes to cold (32°C) potentiated LPS-induced production of TNF and IL-6, while blunting IL-10 production. This dysregulation was associated with increased expression of microRNA-155 (miR-155), which potentiates Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling by negatively regulating Ship1 and Socs1. Indeed, Ship1 and Socs1 were suppressed at 32°C and miR-155 antagomirs increased Ship1 and Socs1 and reversed the alterations in cytokine production in cold-exposed monocytes. In contrast, miR-155 mimics phenocopied the effects of cold exposure, reducing Ship1 and Socs1 and altering TNF and IL-10 production. In a murine model of LPS-induced peritonitis, cold exposure potentiated hypothermia and decreased survival (10 vs. 50%; P < 0.05), effects that were associated with increased miR-155, suppression of Ship1 and Socs1, and alterations in TNF and IL-10. Importantly, miR-155-deficiency reduced hypothermia and improved survival (78 vs. 32%, P < 0.05), which was associated with increased Ship1, Socs1, and IL-10. These results establish a causal role of miR-155 in the dysregulation of the inflammatory response to hypothermia.

  6. Hormone Use in Food Animal Production: Assessing Potential Dietary Exposures and Breast Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Nachman, Keeve E; Smith, Tyler J S

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the role of hormones in breast cancer etiology, following reports that heightened levels of endogenous hormones and exposure to exogenous hormones and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals through food and the environment are associated with increased breast cancer risk. Seven hormone drugs (testosterone propionate, trenbolone acetate, estradiol, zeranol, progesterone, melengestrol acetate, and bovine somatotropin) are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food animals. There is concern that these drugs or their biologically active metabolites may accumulate in edible tissues, potentially increasing the risk of exposure for consumers. To date, the potential for human exposure to residues of these compounds in animal products, as well as the risks that may result from this exposure, is poorly understood. In this paper, we discuss the existing scientific evidence examining the toxicological significance of exposure to hormones used in food animal production in relation to breast cancer risk. Through a discussion of U.S. federal regulatory programs and the primary literature, we interpret the state of surveillance for residues of hormone drugs in animal products and discuss trends in meat consumption in relation to the potential for hormone exposure. Given the lack of chronic bioassays of oral toxicity of the seven hormone compounds in the public literature and the limitations of existing residue surveillance programs, it is not currently possible to provide a quantitative characterization of risks that result from the use of hormonal drugs in food animal production, complicating our understanding of the role of dietary hormone exposure in the population burden of breast cancer.

  7. Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations of existing productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Miller, Norman L.; Running, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    United States (U.S.) energy policy includes an expectation that bioenergy will be a substantial future energy source. In particular, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) aims to increase annual U.S. biofuel (secondary bioenergy) production by more than 3-fold, from 40 to 136 billion liters ethanol, which implies an even larger increase in biomass demand (primary energy), from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 EJ yr–1. However, our understanding of many of the factors used to establish such energy targets is far from complete, introducing significgant uncertainty into the feasibility of current estimates of bioenergy potential. Here, we utilized satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data—measured for every 1 km2 of the 7.2 million km2 of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S.—to estimate primary bioenergy potential (PBP). Our results indicate that PBP of the conterminous U.S. ranges from roughly 5.9 to 22.2 EJ yr–1, depending on land use. The low end of this range represents the potential when harvesting residues only, while the high end would require an annual biomass harvest over an area more than three times current U.S. agricultural extent. While EISA energy targets are theoretically achievable, we show that meeting these targets utilizing current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current crop harvest or the conversion of 60% of rangeland productivity. Accordingly, realistically constrained estimates of bioenergy potential are critical for effective incorporation of bioenergy into the national energy portfolio.

  8. Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations of existing productivity.

    PubMed

    Smith, W Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C; Reed, Sasha C; Miller, Norman L; Running, Steven W

    2012-03-20

    United States (U.S.) energy policy includes an expectation that bioenergy will be a substantial future energy source. In particular, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) aims to increase annual U.S. biofuel (secondary bioenergy) production by more than 3-fold, from 40 to 136 billion liters ethanol, which implies an even larger increase in biomass demand (primary energy), from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 EJ yr(-1). However, our understanding of many of the factors used to establish such energy targets is far from complete, introducing significgant uncertainty into the feasibility of current estimates of bioenergy potential. Here, we utilized satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data-measured for every 1 km(2) of the 7.2 million km(2) of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S.-to estimate primary bioenergy potential (PBP). Our results indicate that PBP of the conterminous U.S. ranges from roughly 5.9 to 22.2 EJ yr(-1), depending on land use. The low end of this range represents the potential when harvesting residues only, while the high end would require an annual biomass harvest over an area more than three times current U.S. agricultural extent. While EISA energy targets are theoretically achievable, we show that meeting these targets utilizing current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current crop harvest or the conversion of 60% of rangeland productivity. Accordingly, realistically constrained estimates of bioenergy potential are critical for effective incorporation of bioenergy into the national energy portfolio.

  9. Potential restrictions for CO2 sequestration sites due to shale and tight gas production.

    PubMed

    Elliot, T R; Celia, M A

    2012-04-03

    Carbon capture and geological sequestration is the only available technology that both allows continued use of fossil fuels in the power sector and reduces significantly the associated CO(2) emissions. Geological sequestration requires a deep permeable geological formation into which captured CO(2)can be injected, and an overlying impermeable formation, called a caprock, that keeps the buoyant CO(2) within the injection formation. Shale formations typically have very low permeability and are considered to be good caprock formations. Production of natural gas from shale and other tight formations involves fracturing the shale with the explicit objective to greatly increase the permeability of the shale. As such, shale gas production is in direct conflict with the use of shale formations as a caprock barrier to CO(2) migration. We have examined the locations in the United States where deep saline aquifers, suitable for CO(2) sequestration, exist, as well as the locations of gas production from shale and other tight formations. While estimated sequestration capacity for CO(2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers is large, up to 80% of that capacity has areal overlap with potential shale-gas production regions and, therefore, could be adversely affected by shale and tight gas production. Analysis of stationary sources of CO(2) shows a similar effect: about two-thirds of the total emissions from these sources are located within 20 miles of a deep saline aquifer, but shale and tight gas production could affect up to 85% of these sources. These analyses indicate that colocation of deep saline aquifers with shale and tight gas production could significantly affect the sequestration capacity for CCS operations. This suggests that a more comprehensive management strategy for subsurface resource utilization should be developed.

  10. Engineered fungal polyketide biosynthesis in Pichia pastoris: a potential excellent host for polyketide production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polyketides are one of the most important classes of secondary metabolites and usually make good drugs. Currently, heterologous production of fungal polyketides for developing a high potential industrial application system with high production capacity and pharmacutical feasibility was still at its infancy. Pichia pastoris is a highly successful system for the high production of a variety of heterologous proteins. In this work, we aim to develop a P. pastoris based in vivo fungal polyketide production system for first time and evaluate its feasibility for future industrial application. Results A recombinant P. pastoris GS115-NpgA-ATX with Aspergillus nidulans phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPtase) gene npgA and Aspergillus terrus 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA) synthase (6-MSAS) gene atX was constructed. A specific compound was isolated and idenified as 6-MSA by HPLC, LC-MS and NMR. Transcription of both genes were detected. In 5-L bioreactor, the GS115-NpgA-ATX grew well and produced 6-MSA quickly until reached a high value of 2.2 g/L by methanol induction for 20 hours. Thereafter, the cells turned to death ascribing to high concentration of antimicrobial 6-MSA. The distribution of 6-MSA changed that during early and late induction phase it existed more in supernatant while during intermediate stage it mainly located intracellular. Different from 6-MSA production strain, recombinant M. purpureus pksCT expression strains for citrinin intermediate production, no matter PksCT located in cytoplasm or in peroxisomes, did not produce any specfic compound. However, both npgA and pksCT transcripted effectively in cells and western blot analysis proved the expression of PPtase. Then the PPTase was expressed and purified, marked by fluorescent probes, and reacted with purified ACP domain and its mutant ACPm of PksCT. Fluoresence was only observed in ACP but not ACPm, indicating that the PPTase worked well with ACP to make it bioactive holo-ACP. Thus, some

  11. The application of chaetotaxy in the discrimination of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 (Gyrodactylidae: Monogenea) from species of the genus parasitising British salmonids.

    PubMed

    Shinn, A P; Sommerville, C; Gibson, D I

    1998-05-01

    The chaetotaxy of argentophilic structures on three species of the monogenean genus Gyrodactylus was investigated in an attempt to distinguish species of this genus. Maps were prepared for Gyrodactylus salaris from Scandinavia and compared with two native species of Gyrodactylus parasitising salmonids in Britain, namely Gyrodactylus derjavini and Gyrodactylus truttae. The maps were subsequently refined and analysed for zones of homology and differentiation. The results demonstrate that G. salaris can be readily distinguished by this technique, which is, therefore, of great potential value in the identification of this notifiable pathogen. The key aggregations of sensilla discriminating G. salaris are, ventrally, the antero-ventral set, the medio-lateral set and the postero-lateral set, and, dorsally, the postero-dorsal set.

  12. Characterization of potential impurities and degradation products in electronic cigarette formulations and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Flora, Jason W; Meruva, Naren; Huang, Chorng B; Wilkinson, Celeste T; Ballentine, Regina; Smith, Donna C; Werley, Michael S; McKinney, Willie J

    2016-02-01

    E-cigarettes are gaining popularity in the U.S. as well as in other global markets. Currently, limited published analytical data characterizing e-cigarette formulations (e-liquids) and aerosols exist. While FDA has not published a harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) list for e-cigarettes, the HPHC list for currently regulated tobacco products may be useful to analytically characterize e-cigarette aerosols. For example, most e-cigarette formulations contain propylene glycol and glycerin, which may produce aldehydes when heated. In addition, nicotine-related chemicals have been previously reported as potential e-cigarette formulation impurities. This study determined e-liquid formulation impurities and potentially harmful chemicals in aerosols of select commercial MarkTen(®) e-cigarettes manufactured by NuMark LLC. The potential hazard of the identified formulation impurities and aerosol chemicals was also estimated. E-cigarettes were machine puffed (4-s duration, 55-mL volume, 30-s intervals) to battery exhaustion to maximize aerosol collection. Aerosols analyzed for carbonyls were collected in 20-puff increments to account for analyte instability. Tobacco specific nitrosamines were measured at levels observed in pharmaceutical grade nicotine. Nicotine-related impurities in the e-cigarette formulations were below the identification and qualification thresholds proposed in ICH Guideline Q3B(R2). Levels of potentially harmful chemicals detected in the aerosols were determined to be below published occupational exposure limits.

  13. The Black Aspergillus Species of Maize and Peanuts and Their Potential for Mycotoxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Palencia, Edwin R.; Hinton, Dorothy M.; Bacon, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as potential mycotoxin producers. Others are defined as benign relative to their ability to produce mycotoxins. However, these characterizations are based on in vitro culture and toxins production. Several can produce the ochratoxins that are toxic to livestock, poultry, and humans. The black aspergilli produce rots of grapes, maize, and numerous other fruits and grain and they are generally viewed as post-harvest pathogens. Data are review to suggest that black aspergilli, as so many others, are symptomless endophytes. These fungi and their mycotoxins contaminate several major grains, foodstuffs, and products made from them such as wine, and coffee. Evidence is presented that the black aspergilli are producers of other classes of mycotoxins such as the fumonisins, which are known carcinogenic and known prior investigations as being produced by the Fusarium species. Three species are identified in U.S. maize and peanuts as symptomless endophytes, which suggests the potential for concern as pathogens and as food safety hazards. PMID:22069592

  14. Potential of fructooligosaccharide prebiotics in alternative and nonconventional poultry production systems.

    PubMed

    Ricke, S C

    2015-06-01

    Fructooligosaccharide and inulin prebiotics are carbohydrate-based polymers derived from natural sources that can be utilized by certain gastrointestinal tract bacteria but not by the host animal. They are attractive as feed additives for nonconventional poultry production systems because they select for beneficial microorganisms that are thought to promote nutritional benefits to the bird and potentially limit foodborne pathogen establishment. There have been numerous studies conducted with prebiotic supplements to assess their impact in humans, animals, and conventionally raised poultry but only limited research has been conducted with birds grown under nonconventional production conditions. Much remains unknown about the specific mechanism(s) associated with their impact on the host as well as the gastrointestinal tract microflora. Utilization of several recently developed approaches such as microbiome and metabolomic analyses should offer more insight on how dietary prebiotic additives influence the development of the gastrointestinal tract microbiota and these subsequent changes correspond with alterations in a bird's physiology as it matures. As more detailed and precise studies are done with nonconventional poultry, it is likely that structurally distinct prebiotics will influence not only the gastrointestinal tract microbiota differently, but potentially interact directly and/or indirectly with the bird host in distinguishable patterns as well. These functions will be important to delineate if further applications are to be developed for specific prebiotics in nonconventional poultry production systems.

  15. The black Aspergillus species of maize and peanuts and their potential for mycotoxin production.

    PubMed

    Palencia, Edwin R; Hinton, Dorothy M; Bacon, Charles W

    2010-04-01

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as potential mycotoxin producers. Others are defined as benign relative to their ability to produce mycotoxins. However, these characterizations are based on in vitro culture and toxins production. Several can produce the ochratoxins that are toxic to livestock, poultry, and humans. The black aspergilli produce rots of grapes, maize, and numerous other fruits and grain and they are generally viewed as post-harvest pathogens. Data are review to suggest that black aspergilli, as so many others, are symptomless endophytes. These fungi and their mycotoxins contaminate several major grains, foodstuffs, and products made from them such as wine, and coffee. Evidence is presented that the black aspergilli are producers of other classes of mycotoxins such as the fumonisins, which are known carcinogenic and known prior investigations as being produced by the Fusarium species. Three species are identified in U.S. maize and peanuts as symptomless endophytes, which suggests the potential for concern as pathogens and as food safety hazards.

  16. Utilization of grasses for potential biofuel production and phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Balsamo, Ronald A; Kelly, William J; Satrio, Justinus A; Ruiz-Felix, M Nydia; Fetterman, Marisa; Wynn, Rodd; Hagel, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on investigating the use of common biofuel grasses to assess their potential as agents of long-term remediation of contaminated soils using lead as a model heavy metal ion. We present evidence demonstrating that switch grass and Timothy grass may be potentially useful for long-term phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils and describe novel techniques to track and remove contaminants from inception to useful product. Enzymatic digestion and thermochemical approaches are being used to convert this lignocellulosic feedstock into useful product (sugars, ethanol, biocrude oil+biochar). Preliminary studies on enzymatic hydrolysis and fast pyrolysis of the Switchgrass materials that were grown in heavy metal contaminated soil and non-contaminated soils show that the presence of lead in the Switchgrass material feedstock does not adversely affect the outcomes of the conversion processes. These results indicate that the modest levels of contaminant uptake allow these grass species to serve as phytoremediation agents as well as feedstocks for biofuel production in areas degraded by industrial pollution.

  17. Anaerobic growth and potential for amino acid production by nitrate respiration in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Takeno, Seiki; Ohnishi, Junko; Komatsu, Tomoha; Masaki, Tatsuya; Sen, Kikuo; Ikeda, Masato

    2007-07-01

    Oxygen limitation is a crucial problem in amino acid fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum. Toward this subject, our study was initiated by analysis of the oxygen-requiring properties of C. glutamicum, generally regarded as a strict aerobe. This organism formed colonies on agar plates up to relatively low oxygen concentrations (0.5% O(2)), while no visible colonies were formed in the absence of O(2). However, in the presence of nitrate (NO3-), the organism exhibited limited growth anaerobically with production of nitrite (NO2-), indicating that C. glutamicum can use nitrate as a final electron acceptor. Assays of cell extracts from aerobic and hypoxic cultures yielded comparable nitrate reductase activities, irrespective of nitrate levels. Genome analysis revealed a narK2GHJI cluster potentially relevant to nitrate reductase and transport. Disruptions of narG and narJ abolished the nitrate-dependent anaerobic growth with the loss of nitrate reductase activity. Disruption of the putative nitrate/nitrite antiporter gene narK2 did not affect the enzyme activity but impaired the anaerobic growth. These indicate that this locus is responsible for nitrate respiration. Agar piece assays using L-lysine- and L-arginine-producing strains showed that production of both amino acids occurred anaerobically by nitrate respiration, indicating the potential of C. glutamicum for anaerobic amino acid production.

  18. Changes in Gas Bubble Disease Signs and Survival of Migrating Juvenile Salmonids Experimentally Exposed to Supersaturated Gasses, 1995-1996 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Absolon, Randall F.

    1997-11-01

    Research conducted in 1996 to evaluate (1) changes in GBD signs in juvenile salmonids resulting from passage through turbine intakes and bypass systems, and (2) relative survival during migration through the lower Snake River for juvenile salmonids experimentally exposed to supersaturation of dissolved gas.

  19. Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases of Salmonids in the Columbia River Basin, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, John L.

    1984-11-01

    The Department of Microbiology at Oregon State University with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration conducted a study relating to the epidemiology and control of three fish diseases of salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. These three diseases were ceratomyxosis which is caused by the myxosporidan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta, bacterial kidney disease, the etiological agent of which is Renibacterium salmoninarum, and infectious hematopoietic necrosis, which is caused by a rhabdovirus. Each of these diseases is highly destructive and difficult or impossible to treat with antimicrobial agents. The presence of ceratomyxosis in rainbow trout exposed at McNary and Little Goose Dams extends the range of this disease about 200 miles further up the Columbia River and into the Snake River drainage. Wallowa steelhead trout were less resistant to this disease than other upriver stocks tested. Juvenile salmonids entering the Columbia River estuary were collected periodically between May to September, 1983. Nine percent of the beach seined chinook salmon and 5, 11 and 12%, respectively, of the purse seined coho and chinook salmon and steelhead trout were infected with Ceratomyxa shasta. Experiments indicated ceratomyxosis progresses in salt water at the same rate as in fresh water once the fish have become infected. These data indicate a longer exposure to infective stages of C. shasta than previously identified and that approximately 10% of the migrating salmonids are infected and will probably die from this organism after entering salt water. Since sampling began in 1981 the bacterial kidney disease organism, Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been detected by the fluorescent antibody test in seven salmonid species caught in the open ocean off the coasts of Washington and Oregon. The bacterium has been found primarily in chinook salmon (11%) with lesions in 2.5% of these fish. This disease was also detected at levels ranging from 17% in coho salmon to 25% in chinook

  20. Evaluations on the potential productivity of winter wheat based on agro-ecological zone in the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Li, Q.; Du, X.; Zhao, L.; Lu, Y.; Li, D.; Liu, J.

    2015-04-01

    Wheat is the most widely grown crop globally and an essential source of calories in human diets. Maintaining and increasing global wheat production is therefore strongly linked to food security. In this paper, the evaluation model of winter wheat potential productivity was proposed based on agro-ecological zone and the historical winter wheat yield data in recent 30 years (1983-2011) obtained from FAO. And the potential productions of winter wheat in the world were investigated. The results showed that the realistic potential productivity of winter wheat in Western Europe was highest and it was more than 7500 kg/hm2. The realistic potential productivity of winter wheat in North China Plain were also higher, which was about 6000 kg/hm2. However, the realistic potential productivity of winter wheat in the United States which is the main winter wheat producing country were not high, only about 3000 kg/hm2. In addition to these regions which were the main winter wheat producing areas, the realistic potential productivity in other regions of the world were very low and mainly less than 1500 kg/hm2, like in southwest region of Russia. The gaps between potential productivity and realistic productivity of winter wheat in Kazakhstan and India were biggest, and the percentages of the gap in realistic productivity of winter wheat in Kazakhstan and India were more than 40%. In Russia, the gap between potential productivity and realistic productivity of winter wheat was lowest and the percentage of the gap in realistic productivity of winter wheat in Russia was only 10%.

  1. A fine-scale assessment of using barriers to conserve native stream salmonids: a case study in Akokala Creek, Glacier National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; D'Angelo, Vincent S.; S. T. Kalinowski,; Landguth, Erin L.; C. C. Downs,; J. Tohtz,; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Biologists are often faced with the difficult decision in managing native salmonids of where and when to install barriers as a conservation action to prevent upstream invasion of nonnative fishes. However, fine-scale approaches to assess long-term persistence of populations within streams and watersheds chosen for isolation management are often lacking. We employed a spatially-explicit approach to evaluate stream habitat conditions, relative abundance, and genetic diversity of native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) within the Akokala Creek watershed in Glacier National Park- a population threatened by introgressive hybridization with nonnative rainbow trout (O. mykiss) from nearby sources. The systematic survey of 24 stream reaches showed broad overlap in fish population and suitable habitat characteristics among reaches and no natural barriers to fish migration were found. Analysis of population structure using 16 microsatellite loci showed modest amounts of genetic diversity among reaches, and that fish from Long Bow Creek were the only moderately distinct genetic group. We then used this information to assess the potential impacts of three barrier placement scenarios on long-term population persistence and genetic diversity. The two barrier placement scenarios in headwater areas generally failed to meet general persistence criteria for minimum population size (2,500 individuals, Ne = 500), maintenance of long-term genetic diversity (He), and no population subdivision. Conversely, placing a barrier near the stream mouth and selectively passing non-hybridized, migratory spawners entering Akokala Creek met all persistence criteria and may offer the best option to conserve native trout populations and life history diversity. Systematic, fine-scale stream habitat, fish distribution, and genetic assessments in streams chosen for barrier installation are needed in conjunction with broader scale assessments to understand the potential impacts of

  2. Synthesis of Juvenile Salmonid Passage Studies at The Dalles Dam, Volume II, 2001-05

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Beeman, John W.; Duran, Ian; Puls, Andrew

    2007-08-15

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. Since the review by Ploskey et al. (2001a) of research during 1982-2000 at The Dalles Dam, the Corps funded over $20M of research in at least 39 studies during 2001-2006. The purpose of the current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2006. The data we synthesize comes from numerous research techniques employed to address particular study objectives at The Dalles Dam. The suite of techniques includes acoustic and radio telemetry, acoustic cameras, acoustic Doppler current profilers, balloon tags, computational fluid dynamics models, drogues, fixed and mobile hydroacoustics, fyke nets, physical scale models, PIT-tags, sensor fish, sonar trackers, and underwater video. Hydraulic data involves flow patterns and water velocities. Biological data involve forebay approach paths and residence times, horizontal and diel distributions, passage efficiencies and effectiveness, fish behaviors, tailrace egress and predation rates, and route-specific and total project survival rates. Data for 2001-2006 are synthesized in this report to provide, in conjunction with Ploskey et al. (2001a), resources for engineers, biologists, and dam operators to use when making decisions about fish protection measures for juvenile salmonids at The Dalles Dam. This review covers the major fish passage research efforts during 2001-2006 and includes sections on the Environmental Setting, Forebay and Project Passage Studies, Spill Studies, Sluiceway Studies, Turbine Studies, Smolt Survival Studies, and a Discussion.

  3. Froude Number is the Single Most Important Hydraulic Parameter for Salmonid Spawning Habitat.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, E.; Moir, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Many gravel-bed rivers exhibit historic straightening or embanking, reducing river complexity and the available habitat for key species such as salmon. A defensible method for predicting salmonid spawning habitat is an important tool for anyone engaged in assessing a river restoration. Most empirical methods to predict spawning habitat use lookup tables of depth, velocity and substrate. However, natural site selection is different: salmon must pick a location where they can successfully build a redd, and where eggs have a sufficient survival rate. Also, using dimensional variables, such as depth and velocity, is problematic: spawning occurs in rivers of differing size, depth and velocity range. Non-dimensional variables have proven useful in other branches of fluid dynamics, and instream habitat is no different. Empirical river data has a high correlation between observed salmon redds and Froude number, without insight into why. Here we present a physics based model of spawning and bedform evolution, which shows that Froude number is indeed a rational choice for characterizing the bedform, substrate, and flow necessary for spawning. It is familiar for Froude to characterize surface waves, but Froude also characterizes longitudinal bedform in a mobile bed river. We postulate that these bedforms and their hydraulics perform two roles in salmonid spawning: allowing transport of clasts during redd building, and oxygenating eggs. We present an example of this Froude number and substrate based habitat characterization on a Scottish river for which we have detailed topography at several stages during river restoration and subsequent evolution of natural processes. We show changes to the channel Froude regime as a result of natural process and validate habitat predictions against redds observed during 2014 and 2015 spawning seasons, also relating this data to the Froude regime in other, nearby, rivers. We discuss the use of the Froude spectrum in providing an indicator of

  4. The complete salmonid IGF-IR gene repertoire and its transcriptional response to disease

    PubMed Central

    Alzaid, Abdullah; Martin, Samuel A. M.; Macqueen, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF-IR)