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Sample records for potential target cells

  1. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  2. Therapeutic potential of targeting acinar cell reprogramming in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-Hin; Li, You-Jia; Chen, Yang-Chao

    2016-08-21

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a common pancreatic cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Treating this life-threatening disease remains challenging due to the lack of effective prognosis, diagnosis and therapy. Apart from pancreatic duct cells, acinar cells may also be the origin of PDAC. During pancreatitis or combined with activating KRas(G12D) mutation, acinar cells lose their cellular identity and undergo a transdifferentiation process called acinar-to-ductal-metaplasia (ADM), forming duct cells which may then transform into pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and eventually PDAC. During ADM, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, Wnt, Notch and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/Akt signaling inhibits the transcription of acinar-specific genes, including Mist and amylase, but promotes the expression of ductal genes, such as cytokeratin-19. Inhibition of this transdifferentiation process hinders the development of PanIN and PDAC. In addition, the transdifferentiated cells regain acinar identity, indicating ADM may be a reversible process. This provides a new therapeutic direction in treating PDAC through cancer reprogramming. Many studies have already demonstrated the success of switching PanIN/PDAC back to normal cells through the use of PD325901, the expression of E47, and the knockdown of Dickkopf-3. In this review, we discuss the signaling pathways involved in ADM and the therapeutic potential of targeting reprogramming in order to treat PDAC.

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenases in cancer stem cells: potential as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to current chemotherapeutic or radiation-based cancer treatment strategies is a serious concern. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are typically able to evade treatment and establish a recurrent tumor or metastasis, and it is these that lead to the majority of cancer deaths. Therefore, a major current goal is to develop treatment strategies that eliminate the resistant CSCs as well as the bulk tumor cells in order to achieve complete disease clearance. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are important for maintenance and differentiation of stem cells as well as normal development. There is expanding evidence that ALDH expression increases in response to therapy and promotes chemoresistance and survival mechanisms in CSCs. This perspective will discuss a paper by Cojoc and colleagues recently published in Cancer Research, that indicates ALDHs play a key role in resistance to radiation therapy and tumor recurrence in prostate cancer. The authors suggest that ALDHs are a potential therapeutic target for treatment prostate cancer patients to limit radiation resistance and disease recurrence. The findings are consistent with work from other cancers showing ALDHs are major contributors of CSC signaling and resistance to anti-cancer treatments. This perspective will address representative work concerning the validity of ALDH and the associated retinoic acid signaling pathway as chemotherapeutic targets for prostate as well as other cancers. PMID:28149880

  4. Cell migration in paediatric glioma; characterisation and potential therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Cockle, J V; Picton, S; Levesley, J; Ilett, E; Carcaboso, A M; Short, S; Steel, L P; Melcher, A; Lawler, S E; Brüning-Richardson, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paediatric high grade glioma (pHGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) are highly aggressive brain tumours. Their invasive phenotype contributes to their limited therapeutic response, and novel treatments that block brain tumour invasion are needed. Methods: Here, we examine the migratory characteristics and treatment effect of small molecule glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors, lithium chloride (LiCl) and the indirubin derivative 6-bromoindirubin-oxime (BIO), previously shown to inhibit the migration of adult glioma cells, on two pHGG cell lines (SF188 and KNS42) and one patient-derived DIPG line (HSJD-DIPG-007) using 2D (transwell membrane, immunofluorescence, live cell imaging) and 3D (migration on nanofibre plates and spheroid invasion in collagen) assays. Results: All lines were migratory, but there were differences in morphology and migration rates. Both LiCl and BIO reduced migration and instigated cytoskeletal rearrangement of stress fibres and focal adhesions when viewed by immunofluorescence. In the presence of drugs, loss of polarity and differences in cellular movement were observed by live cell imaging. Conclusions: Ours is the first study to demonstrate that it is possible to pharmacologically target migration of paediatric glioma in vitro using LiCl and BIO, and we conclude that these agents and their derivatives warrant further preclinical investigation as potential anti-migratory therapeutics for these devastating tumours. PMID:25628092

  5. Cancer stem cells: a potential target for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hong; Fang, Xiaoguang; Luo, Qi; Ouyang, Gaoliang

    2015-09-01

    Current evidence indicates that a subpopulation of cancer cells, named cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells, are responsible for the initiation, growth, metastasis, therapy resistance and recurrence of cancers. CSCs share core regulatory pathways with normal stem cells; however, CSCs rely on distinct reprogrammed pathways to maintain stemness and to contribute to the progression of cancers. The specific targeting of CSCs, together with conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy, may achieve stable remission or cure cancer. Therefore, the identification of CSCs and a better understanding of the complex characteristics of CSCs will provide invaluable diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic targets for clinical application. In this review, we will introduce the dysregulated properties of CSCs in cancers and discuss the possible challenges in targeting CSCs for cancer treatment.

  6. Cancer stem cell metabolism: a potential target for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Abhijeet; Deshpande, Kedar; Arfuso, Frank; Newsholme, Philip; Dharmarajan, Arun

    2016-11-08

    Cancer Stem cells (CSCs) are a unipotent cell population present within the tumour cell mass. CSCs are known to be highly chemo-resistant, and in recent years, they have gained intense interest as key tumour initiating cells that may also play an integral role in tumour recurrence following chemotherapy. Cancer cells have the ability to alter their metabolism in order to fulfil bio-energetic and biosynthetic requirements. They are largely dependent on aerobic glycolysis for their energy production and also are associated with increased fatty acid synthesis and increased rates of glutamine utilisation. Emerging evidence has shown that therapeutic resistance to cancer treatment may arise due to dysregulation in glucose metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, and glutaminolysis. To propagate their lethal effects and maintain survival, tumour cells alter their metabolic requirements to ensure optimal nutrient use for their survival, evasion from host immune attack, and proliferation. It is now evident that cancer cells metabolise glutamine to grow rapidly because it provides the metabolic stimulus for required energy and precursors for synthesis of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. It can also regulate the activities of some of the signalling pathways that control the proliferation of cancer cells.This review describes the key metabolic pathways required by CSCs to maintain a survival advantage and highlights how a combined approach of targeting cellular metabolism in conjunction with the use of chemotherapeutic drugs may provide a promising strategy to overcome therapeutic resistance and therefore aid in cancer therapy.

  7. Cancer Stem Cells: Potential Target for Bioactive Food Components

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young S.; Farrar, William; Colburn, Nancy H.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells often have phenotypic and functional characteristics similar to normal stem cells including the properties of self-renewal and differentiation. Recent findings suggest that uncontrolled self-renewal may explain cancer relapses and may represent a critical target for cancer prevention. It is conceivable that the loss of regulatory molecules resulting from inappropriate consumption of specific foods and their constituents may foster the aberrant self-renewal of cancer stem cells. In fact, increasing evidence points to the network delivering signals for self-renewal from extracellular compartments to the nucleus including changes in stem cell environments, inducible expression of microRNAs, hyperplastic nuclear chromatin structures, and the on/off of differentiation process as possible sites of action for bioactive food components. Diverse dietary constituents such as vitamins A and D, genistein, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), sulforaphane, curcumin, piperine, theanine, and choline have been shown to modify self-renewal properties of cancer stem cells. The ability of these bioactive food components to influence the balance between proliferative and quiescent cells by regulating critical feedback molecules in the network including dickkopf 1 (DKK-1), secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2), B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1), and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) may account for their biological response. Overall, the response to food components does not appear to be tissue or organ specific, suggesting there may be common cellular mechanisms. Unquestionably, additional studies are needed to clarify the physiological role of these dietary components in preventing the resistance of tumor cells to traditional drugs and cancer recurrence. PMID:22704055

  8. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: a Potential Approach for Cell labeling

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Song, Haijing; Affleck, Donna; McDougald, Darryl L.; Storms, Robert W.; Zalutksy, Michael R.; Chin, Bennett B.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction To advance the science and clinical application of stem cell therapy, the availability of a highly sensitive, quantitative, and translational method for tracking stem cells would be invaluable. Because hematopoetic stem cells express high levels of the cytosolic enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1), we sought to develop an agent that is specific to ALDH1 and thus to cells expressing the enzyme. Such an agent might be also helpful in identifying tumors that are resistant to cyclophosphomide chemotherapy because ALDH1 is known to be responsible for this resistance. Methods We developed schemes for the synthesis of two 3radioiodinated aldehdyes—N-formylmethyl-5-[*I]iodopyridine-3-carboxamide ([*I]FMIC) and 4-diethylamino-3-[*I]iodobenzaldehyde ([*I]DEIBA)—at no-carrier-added levels from their respective tin precursors. These agents were evaluated using pure ALDH1 and tumor cells that expressed the enzyme. Results The average radiochemical yields for the synthesis [125I]FMIC and [125I]DEIBA were 70 ± 5% and 47 ± 14%, respectively. ALDH1 converted both compounds to respective acids suggesting their suitability as ALDH1 imaging agents. Although ability of ALDH1 within the cells to oxidize one of these substrates was shown, specific uptake in ALDH-expressing tumor cells could not be demonstrated. Conclusion To pursue this approach for ALDH1 imaging, radiolabeled aldehydes need to be designed such that, in addition to being good substrates for ALDH1, the cognate products should be sufficiently polar so as to be retained within the cells. PMID:19875048

  9. Combined expressional analysis, bioinformatics and targeted proteomics identify new potential therapeutic targets in glioblastoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Stangeland, Biljana; Mughal, Awais A; Grieg, Zanina; Sandberg, Cecilie Jonsgar; Joel, Mrinal; Nygård, Ståle; Meling, Torstein; Murrell, Wayne; Vik Mo, Einar O; Langmoen, Iver A

    2015-09-22

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is both the most common and the most lethal primary brain tumor. It is thought that GBM stem cells (GSCs) are critically important in resistance to therapy. Therefore, there is a strong rationale to target these cells in order to develop new molecular therapies.To identify molecular targets in GSCs, we compared gene expression in GSCs to that in neural stem cells (NSCs) from the adult human brain, using microarrays. Bioinformatic filtering identified 20 genes (PBK/TOPK, CENPA, KIF15, DEPDC1, CDC6, DLG7/DLGAP5/HURP, KIF18A, EZH2, HMMR/RHAMM/CD168, NOL4, MPP6, MDM1, RAPGEF4, RHBDD1, FNDC3B, FILIP1L, MCC, ATXN7L4/ATXN7L1, P2RY5/LPAR6 and FAM118A) that were consistently expressed in GSC cultures and consistently not expressed in NSC cultures. The expression of these genes was confirmed in clinical samples (TCGA and REMBRANDT). The first nine genes were highly co-expressed in all GBM subtypes and were part of the same protein-protein interaction network. Furthermore, their combined up-regulation correlated negatively with patient survival in the mesenchymal GBM subtype. Using targeted proteomics and the COGNOSCENTE database we linked these genes to GBM signalling pathways.Nine genes: PBK, CENPA, KIF15, DEPDC1, CDC6, DLG7, KIF18A, EZH2 and HMMR should be further explored as targets for treatment of GBM.

  10. Myeloid-Biased Stem Cells as Potential Targets for Chronic Myelogeneous Leukemia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    AD Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0798 TITLE: Myeloid-Biased Stem Cells as Potential Targets for Chronic Myelogeneous Leukemia PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Christa Muller-Sieburg, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center San Diego, Ca 92121-1131 REPORT DATE: September 2005 TYPE OF REPORT...2005 4, TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Myeloid-Biased Stem Cells as Potential Targets for Chronic Myelogeneous Leukemia 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81

  11. Medicinal Plants: A Potential Source of Compounds for Targeting Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Zulkipli, Ihsan N; David, Sheba R; Rajabalaya, Rajan; Idris, Adi

    2015-01-01

    Modern medicinal plant drug discovery has provided pharmacologically active compounds targeted against a multitude of conditions and diseases, such as infection, inflammation, and cancer. To date, natural products from medicinal plants remain a solid niche as a source from which cancer therapies can be derived. Among other properties, one favorable characteristic of an anticancer drug is its ability to block the uncontrollable process of cell division, as cancer cells are notorious for their abnormal cell division. There are numerous other documented works on the potential anticancer activity of drugs derived from medicinal plants, and their effects on cell division are an attractive and growing therapeutic target. Despite this, there remains a vast number of unidentified natural products that are potentially promising sources for medical applications. This mini review aims to revise the current knowledge of the effects of natural plant products on cell division. PMID:26106261

  12. Identification of Cell Surface Proteins as Potential Immunotherapy Targets in 12 Pediatric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Orentas, Rimas J.; Yang, James J.; Wen, Xinyu; Wei, Jun S.; Mackall, Crystal L.; Khan, Javed

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances now allow us to rapidly produce CARs and other antibody-derived therapeutics targeting cell surface receptors. To maximize the potential of these new technologies, relevant extracellular targets must be identified. The Pediatric Oncology Branch of the NCI curates a freely accessible database of gene expression data for both pediatric cancers and normal tissues, through which we have defined discrete sets of over-expressed transcripts in 12 pediatric cancer subtypes as compared to normal tissues. We coupled gene expression profiles to current annotation databases (i.e., Affymetrix, Gene Ontology, Entrez Gene), in order to categorize transcripts by their sub-cellular location. In this manner we generated a list of potential immune targets expressed on the cell surface, ranked by their difference from normal tissue. Global differences from normal between each of the pediatric tumor types studied varied, indicating that some malignancies expressed transcript sets that were more highly diverged from normal tissues than others. The validity of our approach is seen by our findings for pre-B cell ALL, where targets currently in clinical trials were top-ranked hits (CD19, CD22). For some cancers, reagents already in development could potentially be applied to a new disease class, as exemplified by CD30 expression on sarcomas. Moreover, several potential new targets shared among several pediatric solid tumors are herein identified, such as MCAM (MUC18), metadherin (MTDH), and glypican-2 (GPC2). These targets have been identified at the mRNA level and are yet to be validated at the protein level. The safety of targeting these antigens has yet to be demonstrated and therefore the identified transcripts should be considered preliminary candidates for new CAR and therapeutic antibody targets. Prospective candidate targets will be evaluated by proteomic analysis including Westerns and immunohistochemistry of normal and tumor tissues. PMID:23251904

  13. Identification of potential target genes of ROR-alpha in THP1 and HUVEC cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Cagri; Coban, Neslihan; Ozsait-Selcuk, Bilge; Sirma-Ekmekci, Sema; Yildirim, Ozlem; Erginel-Unaltuna, Nihan

    2017-04-01

    ROR-alpha is a nuclear receptor, activity of which can be modulated by natural or synthetic ligands. Due to its possible involvement in, and potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis, we aimed to identify ROR-alpha target genes in monocytic and endothelial cell lines. We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by tiling array (ChIP-on-chip) for ROR-alpha in monocytic cell line THP1 and endothelial cell line HUVEC. Following bioinformatic analysis of the array data, we tested four candidate genes in terms of dependence of their expression level on ligand-mediated ROR-alpha activity, and two of them in terms of promoter occupancy by ROR-alpha. Bioinformatic analyses of ChIP-on-chip data suggested that ROR-alpha binds to genomic regions near the transcription start site (TSS) of more than 3000 genes in THP1 and HUVEC. Potential ROR-alpha target genes in both cell types seem to be involved mainly in membrane receptor activity, signal transduction and ion transport. While SPP1 and IKBKA were shown to be direct target genes of ROR-alpha in THP1 monocytes, inflammation related gene HMOX1 and heat shock protein gene HSPA8 were shown to be potential target genes of ROR-alpha. Our results suggest that ROR-alpha may regulate signaling receptor activity, and transmembrane transport activity through its potential target genes. ROR-alpha seems also to play role in cellular sensitivity to environmental substances like arsenite and chloroprene. Although, the expression analyses have shown that synthetic ROR-alpha ligands can modulate some of potential ROR-alpha target genes, functional significance of ligand-dependent modulation of gene expression needs to be confirmed with further analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Therapeutic potential of the metabolic modulator phenformin in targeting the stem cell compartment in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Albini, Adriana; Longo, Caterina; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Grisendi, Giulia; Dominici, Massimo; Ciarrocchi, Alessia; Dallaglio, Katiuscia

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous and treatment-resistant skin cancer. Tumor resistance and recurrence are due to the persistence in the patient of aggressive cells with stem cell features, the cancer stem cells (CSC). Recent evidences have shown that CSC display a distinct metabolic profile as compared to tumor bulk population: a promising anti-tumor strategy is therefore to target specific metabolic pathways driving CSC behavior. Biguanides (metformin and phenformin) are anti-diabetic drugs able to perturb cellular metabolism and displaying anti-cancer activity. However, their ability to target the CSC compartment in melanoma is not known. Here we show that phenformin, but not metformin, strongly reduces melanoma cell viability, growth and invasion in both 2D and 3D (spheroids) models. While phenformin decreases melanoma CSC markers expression and the levels of the pro-survival factor MITF, MITF overexpression fails to prevent phenformin effects. Phenformin significantly reduces cell viability in melanoma by targeting both CSC (ALDHhigh) and non-CSC cells and by significantly reducing the number of viable cells in ALDHhigh and ALDHlow-derived spheroids. Consistently, phenformin reduces melanoma cell viability and growth independently from SOX2 levels. Our results show that phenformin is able to affect both CSC and non-CSC melanoma cell viability and growth and suggests its potential use as anti-cancer therapy in melanoma. PMID:28036292

  15. Formulation of temozolomide-loaded nanoparticles and their targeting potential to melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guan; Li, Ronghua; Tang, Jianqin; Ma, Yafeng; Hou, Xiaoyang; Yang, Chunsheng; Guo, Wenwen; Xin, Yong; Liu, Yanqun

    2017-02-01

    The present study was carried out to prepare and evaluate a temozolomide (TMZ)-loaded polyamide-amine dendrimer (PAMAM)‑based nanodrug delivery system, and to explore its ability to target human melanoma (A375) cells in vitro. Firstly, PAMAM-PEG and PAMAM-PEG-GE11 were synthesized by substitution and addition reactions, and their products were identified and characterized by fourier transform-infrared (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as differential light scattering (DLS). Using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-modified PAMAM, we synthesized FITC-PAMAM, FITC-PAMAM-PEG and FITC-PAMAM-PEG-GE11. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were used to monitor the uptake of A375 cells of these three nanomaterials. Secondly, TMZ-PAMAM‑PEG‑GE11-HA drug complexes were prepared by ultrasonic emulsification, and their particle size, zeta potential and morphology were evaluated by DLS and TEM. Drug loading (DL) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) were assayed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Thirdly, we ascertained whether TMZ-PAMAM-PEG-GE11-HA conjugates could target A375 cells in vitro. The TMZ-PAMAM‑PEG‑GE11-HA nanodrug delivery system was successfully synthesized according to FTIR and 1H-NMR. Its mean particle size was 183.2 nm and zeta potential was -0.01 mV. It was a regular sphere with good uniformity. The EE of TMZ-PAMAM-PEG-GE11-HA was ~50.63% and DL ~10.4%. TMZ-PAMAM-PEG-GE11-HA targeted A375 cells in vitro. In conclusion, the TMZ-PAMAM‑PEG-GE11-HA nanodrug delivery system was successfully prepared, and demonstrated its potential for targeting A375 cells in vitro. This system enhanced the sensitivity of A375 cells to TMZ, and provided a novel targeted strategy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.

  16. Recent Advances in Biomarkers and Potential Targeted Therapies in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yavrouian, Eric J.; Sinha, Uttam K.

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a devastating tumor of the upper aerodigestive tract with no significant change in treatment modality or improvement in survival over the last several decades. Biomarkers are important biological molecules that can be utilized in tumor detection, prognosis, and as targeted therapies. There are several important biomarkers and potential targets in the forefront, including biomarkers of tumorigenesis, signal transduction molecules, proteins involved in angiogenesis, and oncogenic viruses. The clinical applications of these biomarkers are in various states from in vitro and in vivo models, phase II and III clinical trials, to accepted modes of treatment in patients with HNSCC. Given the potential improvement in prognosis that biomarkers and their targeted therapies may have on the treatment of HNSCC, their investigation is both important and essential. PMID:22523710

  17. Therapeutic potential of a peptide targeting BCL-2 cell guardians in cancer.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jerry M

    2012-06-01

    A promising approach to cancer therapy is to elicit apoptosis with "BH3 mimetic" drugs, which target proteins of the BCL-2 family. As of yet, however, such drugs can target only certain BCL-2 family proteins. Hence, in this issue of the JCI, LaBelle et al. assess instead the therapeutic potential of a "stapled" BH3 peptide from the BIM protein, which inactivates all its prosurvival relatives. The peptide killed cultured hematologic tumor cells and abated growth of a leukemia xenograft, without perturbing the hematopoietic compartment. Hence, such peptides might eventually provide a new way to treat refractory leukemias.

  18. Binding motifs of CBP2 a potential cell surface target for carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sauk, J J; Coletta, R D; Norris, K; Hebert, C

    2000-05-01

    Previously we have shown (Hebert et al. [1999] J. Cell Biochem. 73:248-258) that among many cell lines the CBP2 gene product, Hsp47, eludes its retention receptor, erd2P, resulting in the appearance of Hsp47 on the cell surface associated with the tetraspanin protein CD9. Since Hsp47 possesses a highly restricted binding cleft, random peptide display libraries were used to characterize peptides binding to Hsp47 and then to target this protein on carcinoma cell lines in vitro. Comparison of the clones obtained from panning revealed little specific homology based on sequence alone. To determine whether carcinoma cells expressing Hsp47 could selectively take up the selected bacteriophages, traditional immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were employed. These studies revealed that phage-displaying Hsp47 binding peptides bound to cell lines expressing Hsp47 and that the peptides were rapidly taken up to a location coincident with Hsp47 staining. These observations were confirmed by cytometric analyses. These data indicate that CBP2 product may provide a molecular target for chemotherapy and/or imaging of malignancies.

  19. Targeting peroxiredoxin I potentiates 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced cell differentiation in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Liu, Chuanxu; Qin, Dongjun; Song, Lili; Xia, Li; Lei, Hu; Yu, Yun; Wang, Weiwei; Pu, Jianxin; Sun, Handong; Wu, Yingli; Xu, Hanzhang; Hao, Siguo

    2016-03-01

    Although 1,25‑dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) is regarded as a promising inducing agent for leukemia cell differentiation, it is not as effective an agent as all‑trans‑retinoic acid, and its usefulness is also limited by the adverse effects of hypercalcemia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether combining VD3 with adenanthin, a peroxiresoxin I (Prx I)‑targeting natural compound, improves the efficacy of VD3. Cell viability was assessed using a trypan blue exclusion assay and flow cytometry was used to evaluate the expression of cell surface markers, CD11b/CD14, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Wright's staining was used to examine morphological changes and RNA‑interference was used to knockdown Prx I and p65 gene expression. Protein expression was determined by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that adenanthin markedly enhanced VD3‑induced cell differentiation of leukemia NB4 cells, as evidenced by the increased percentage of CD11b‑ and CD14‑positive cells, the mature morphology of the monocytes and the increased phagocytic ability. Consistent with these results, knockdown of Prx I, but not nuclear factor‑κB (p65), enhanced VD3‑induced cell differentiation. The combinatorial effects of adenanthin and VD3 were shown to be associated with the ROS‑CCAAT‑enhancer‑binding protein (C/EBP)β axis, since N‑acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger, was able to abrogate the differentiation‑enhancing effects of adenanthin, and the knockdown of C/EBPβ also inhibited the combinatorial effects of adenanthin and VD3. In addition, co‑treatment with adenanthin and VD3 was able to induce differentiation in other non‑acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and primary leukemia cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed a novel role for Prx I in VD3‑induced cell differentiation, and suggested that targeting Prx I may represent a novel strategy to enhance VD3‑induced leukemia cell differentiation.

  20. Fatty acid synthase as a potential therapeutic target in feline oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Walz, J Z; Saha, J; Arora, A; Khammanivong, A; O'Sullivan, M G; Dickerson, E B

    2017-09-04

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an aggressive and treatment-resistant malignancy in both feline and human patients. Recent work has demonstrated aberrant expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and an increased capacity for lipogenesis in human OSCC and other cancers. In human OSCC, inhibition of FASN decreased cell viability and growth in vitro, and diminished tumour growth and metastasis in murine preclinical models. This study aimed to characterize FASN as a therapeutic target in feline OSCC. Immunohistochemistry revealed high FASN expression in primary feline OSCC tumours, and FASN expression was detected in OSCC cell lines (3 feline and 3 human) by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Orlistat, a FASN inhibitor, substantially reduced cell viability in both feline and human OSCC lines, although feline cell lines consistently displayed higher sensitivity to the drug. FASN mRNA expression among cell lines mirrored sensitivity to orlistat, with feline cell lines expressing higher levels of FASN. Consistent with this observation, diminished sensitivity to orlistat treatment and decreased FASN mRNA expression were observed in feline OSCC cells following incubation under hypoxic conditions. Treatment with orlistat did not potentiate sensitivity to carboplatin in the cell lines investigated; instead, combinations of the 2 drugs resulted in additive to antagonistic effects. Our results suggest that FASN inhibition is a viable therapeutic target for feline OSCC. Furthermore, cats may serve as a spontaneous large animal model for human oral cancer, although differences in the regulation of lipogenesis between these 2 species require further investigation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation by midazolam by targeting transient receptor potential melastatin 7.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yunling; Li, Yuan; Chen, Jingkao; Wu, Sihan; Xiao, Xiao; Xie, Shanshan; Tang, Lipeng; Yan, Min; Wang, Youqiong; Lin, Jun; Zhu, Wenbo; Yan, Guangmei

    2013-03-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a Ca(2+)-permeable channel, has been demonstrated to be present in cancer cells and involved in their growth and proliferation. The present study used midazolam, a benzodiazepine class anesthesic, to pharmacologically intervene in the expression of TRPM7 and to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Midazolam significantly inhibited the growth and proliferation of FaDu human hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells, concurring with the induction of G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest and blockage of Rb activation. Central-type and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor antagonists did not abrogate proliferation inhibition by midazolam, while the specific TRPM7 agonist bradykinin reversed this effect. In addition, other benzodiazepines, diazepam and clonazepam also exhibited anti-proliferative activities. The inhibitory activity on cancer cell growth and proliferation, combined with the TRPM-dependent mechanism, reveals the anticancer potential of midazolam as a TRPM7 inhibitor and supports the suggestion that TRPM7 is a valuable target for pharmaceutical intervention.

  2. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation by midazolam by targeting transient receptor potential melastatin 7

    PubMed Central

    DOU, YUNLING; LI, YUAN; CHEN, JINGKAO; WU, SIHAN; XIAO, XIAO; XIE, SHANSHAN; TANG, LIPENG; YAN, MIN; WANG, YOUQIONG; LIN, JUN; ZHU, WENBO; YAN, GUANGMEI

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a Ca2+-permeable channel, has been demonstrated to be present in cancer cells and involved in their growth and proliferation. The present study used midazolam, a benzodiazepine class anesthesic, to pharmacologically intervene in the expression of TRPM7 and to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Midazolam significantly inhibited the growth and proliferation of FaDu human hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells, concurring with the induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and blockage of Rb activation. Central-type and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor antagonists did not abrogate proliferation inhibition by midazolam, while the specific TRPM7 agonist bradykinin reversed this effect. In addition, other benzodiazepines, diazepam and clonazepam also exhibited anti-proliferative activities. The inhibitory activity on cancer cell growth and proliferation, combined with the TRPM-dependent mechanism, reveals the anticancer potential of midazolam as a TRPM7 inhibitor and supports the suggestion that TRPM7 is a valuable target for pharmaceutical intervention. PMID:23426784

  3. Th17 Cells as Potential Probiotic Therapeutic Targets in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    PubMed

    Owaga, Eddy; Hsieh, Rong-Hong; Mugendi, Beatrice; Masuku, Sakhile; Shih, Chun-Kuang; Chang, Jung-Su

    2015-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by wasting and chronic intestinal inflammation triggered by various cytokine-mediated pathways. In recent years, it was shown that T helper 17 (Th17) cells are involved in the pathogenesis of IBD, which makes them an attractive therapeutic target. Th17 cells preferentially produce interleukin (IL)-17A-F as signature cytokines. The role of the interplay between host genetics and intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBD was demonstrated. Probiotics are live microorganisms that when orally ingested in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host by modulating the enteric flora or by stimulating the local immune system. Several studies indicated the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing and treating IBD (ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease). Furthermore, there is mounting evidence of probiotics selectively targeting the Th17 lineage in the prevention and management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as IBD. This review highlights critical roles of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of IBD and the rationale for using probiotics as a novel therapeutic approach for IBD through manipulation of Th17 cells. The potential molecular mechanisms by which probiotics modulate Th17 cells differentiation and production are also discussed.

  4. Redox Potential Ultrasensitive Nanoparticle for the Targeted Delivery of Camptothecin to HER2-Positive Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ideal “smart” nanoparticles for drug delivery should enhance therapeutic efficacy without introducing side effects. To achieve that, we developed a drug delivery system (HCN) based on a polymer–drug conjugate of poly[2-(pyridin-2-yldisulfanyl)]-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) and camptothecin with an intracellularly cleavable linker and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) targeting ligands. An in vitro drug release study found that HCN was stable in the physiological environment and supersensitive to the stimulus of elevated intracellular redox potential, releasing all payloads in less than 30 min. Furthermore, confocal microscopy revealed that HCN could specifically enter HER2-positive cancer cells. As a consequence, HCN could effectively kill HER2-positive cancer cells while not affecting HER2-negative cells. PMID:24779647

  5. Changing the paradigm: the potential for targeted therapy in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Megan L.; Birkeland, Andrew C.; Hoesli, Rebecca; Swiecicki, Paul; Spector, Matthew E.; Brenner, J. Chad

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) remains a highly morbid and fatal disease. Historically, it has been a model example for organ preservation and treatment stratification paradigms. Unfortunately, survival for LSCC has stagnated over the past few decades. As the era of next-generation sequencing and personalized treatment for cancer approaches, LSCC may be an ideal disease for consideration of further treatment stratification and personalization. Here, we will discuss the important history of LSCC as a model system for organ preservation, unique and potentially targetable genetic signatures of LSCC, and methods for bringing stratified, personalized treatment strategies to the 21st century. PMID:27144065

  6. Hydroxyl-HIF2-alpha is potential therapeutic target for renal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Isono, Takahiro; Chano, Tokuhiro; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Kageyama, Susumu; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Suzaki, Masafumi; Yuasa, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Dormant cancer cells are deprivation-resistant, and cause a number of problems for therapeutic approaches for cancers. Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) include deprivation-resistant cells that are resistant to various treatments. In this study, the specific characteristics of deprivation-resistant cells were transcriptionally identified by next generation sequencing. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) transcription factor network was significantly enhanced in deprivation-resistant RCCs compared to the sensitive RCCs. Deprivation-resistant RCCs, that had lost Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor expression, expressed hydroxyl-HIF2-alpha in the nucleus, but not sensitive-RCCs. Hydroxyl-HIF-alpha was also expressed in nuclei of RCC tissue samples. Knockdown for HIF2-alpha, but not HIF1-alpha, induced cell death related to a reduction in HIF-related gene expression in deprivation-resistant RCC cells. Chetomin, a nuclear HIF-inhibitor, induced marked level of cytotoxicity in deprivation-resistant cells, similar to the knockdown of HIF2-alpha. Therefore, hydroxyl-HIF2-alpha might be a potential therapeutic target for RCCs.

  7. New gene expressed in prostate: a potential target for T cell-mediated prostate cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Vittore; Poole, Diane J; Palena, Claudia; Das, Sudipto; Bera, Tapan K; Remondo, Cinzia; Gulley, James L; Arlen, Philip M; Yokokawa, Junko; Pastan, Ira; Schlom, Jeffrey; Tsang, Kwong Y

    2010-01-01

    New gene expressed in prostate (NGEP) is a prostate-specific gene encoding either a small cytoplasmic protein (NGEP-S) or a larger polytopic membrane protein (NGEP-L). NGEP-L expression is detectable only in prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and normal prostate. We have identified an HLA-A2 binding NGEP epitope (designated P703) which was used to generate T cell lines from several patients with localized and metastatic prostate cancer. These T cell lines were able to specifically lyse HLA-A2 and NGEP-expressing human tumor cells. NGEP-P703 tetramer binding assays demonstrated that metastatic prostate cancer patients had a higher frequency of NGEP-specific T cells when compared with healthy donors. Moreover, an increased frequency of NGEP-specific T cells was detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of prostate cancer patients post-vaccination with a PSA-based vaccine, further indicating the immunogenicity of NGEP. These studies thus identify NGEP as a potential target for T cell-mediated immunotherapy of prostate cancer.

  8. Hydroxyl-HIF2-alpha is potential therapeutic target for renal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Isono, Takahiro; Chano, Tokuhiro; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Kageyama, Susumu; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Suzaki, Masafumi; Yuasa, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Dormant cancer cells are deprivation-resistant, and cause a number of problems for therapeutic approaches for cancers. Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) include deprivation-resistant cells that are resistant to various treatments. In this study, the specific characteristics of deprivation-resistant cells were transcriptionally identified by next generation sequencing. The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) transcription factor network was significantly enhanced in deprivation-resistant RCCs compared to the sensitive RCCs. Deprivation-resistant RCCs, that had lost Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor expression, expressed hydroxyl-HIF2-alpha in the nucleus, but not sensitive-RCCs. Hydroxyl-HIF-alpha was also expressed in nuclei of RCC tissue samples. Knockdown for HIF2-alpha, but not HIF1-alpha, induced cell death related to a reduction in HIF-related gene expression in deprivation-resistant RCC cells. Chetomin, a nuclear HIF-inhibitor, induced marked level of cytotoxicity in deprivation-resistant cells, similar to the knockdown of HIF2-alpha. Therefore, hydroxyl-HIF2-alpha might be a potential therapeutic target for RCCs. PMID:27822416

  9. TRESK channel as a potential target to treat T-cell mediated immune dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2009-12-25

    In this review, we propose that TRESK background K{sup +} channel could serve as a potential therapeutic target for T-cell mediated immune dysfunction. TRESK has many immune function-related properties. TRESK is abundantly expressed in the thymus, the spleen, and human leukemic T-lymphocytes. TRESK is highly activated by Ca{sup 2+}, calcineurin, acetylcholine, and histamine which induce hypertrophy, whereas TRESK is inhibited by immunosuppressants, such as cyclosporin A and FK506. Cyclosporine A and FK506 target the binding site of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) to inhibit calcineurin. Interestingly, TRESK possesses an NFAT-like docking site that is present at its intracellular loop. Calcineurin has been found to interact with TRESK via specific NFAT-like docking site. When the T-cell is activated, calcineurin can bind to the NFAT-docking site of TRESK. The activation of both TRESK and NFAT via Ca{sup 2+}-calcineurin-NFAT/TRESK pathway could modulate the transcription of new genes in addition to regulating several aspects of T-cell function.

  10. Extracellular Matrix-dependent Pathways in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines Reveal Potential Targets for Anticancer Therapies.

    PubMed

    Stankevicius, Vaidotas; Vasauskas, Gintautas; Noreikiene, Rimante; Kuodyte, Karolina; Valius, Mindaugas; Suziedelis, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    Cancer cells grown in a 3D culture are more resistant to anticancer therapy treatment compared to those in a monolayer 2D culture. Emerging evidence has suggested that the key reasons for increased cell survival could be gene expression changes in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction-dependent manner. Global gene-expression changes were obtained in human colorectal carcinoma HT29 and DLD1 cell lines between 2D and laminin-rich (lr) ECM 3D growth conditions by gene-expression microarray analysis. The most significantly altered functional categories were revealed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. The microarray data revealed that 841 and 1190 genes were differentially expressed in colorectal carcinoma DLD1 and HT29 cells. KEGG analysis indicated that the most significantly altered categories were cell adhesion, mitogen-activated protein kinase and immune response. Our results indicate altered pathways related to cancer development and progression and suggest potential ECM-regulated targets for the development of anticancer therapies. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Vandetanib and cabozantinib potentiate mitochondria-targeted agents to suppress medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Starenki, Dmytro; Hong, Seung-Keun; Wu, Pui-Kei; Park, Jong-In

    2017-07-03

    Although the FDA-approved receptor tyrosine kinases inhibitors, vandetanib and cabozantinib, are used to treat surgically inoperable progressive medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), not all patients are responsive while the disease sometimes progresses after an initial response. To better understand MTC drug resistance at molecular and biochemical levels, we have generated drug-resistant subpopulations of the human MTC cell lines, TT and MZ-CRC-1, via prolonged exposure to vandetanib and cabozantinib. These drug-resistant progenies exhibited substantial cross-resistance to vandetanib and cabozantinib, suggesting that these inhibitors may invoke an overlapping resistance mechanism(s) in MTC cells. Of note, vandetanib and cabozantinib increased mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in drug-naïve as well as drug-resistant cells but only drug-naïve cells exhibited substantially altered oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rates. Therefore, these inhibitors appear to cause a bioenergetics stress to which drug-resistant MTC cells are more tolerant. Given the ability of vandetanib and cabozantinib to increase Δψm, we hypothesized that these inhibitors can augment growth inhibitory effects of mitochondria-targeted carboxy-proxyl and ubiquinone by increasing their Δψm-dependent uptake/retention in MTC cells. Indeed, our in vitro and mouse xenograft data strongly support this possibility.

  12. Identification of potential targets for differentiation in human leukemia cells induced by diallyl disulfide.

    PubMed

    Ling, Hui; He, Jie; Tan, Hui; Yi, Lan; Liu, Fang; Ji, Xiaoxia; Wu, Youhua; Hu, Haobin; Zeng, Xi; Ai, Xiaohong; Jiang, Hao; Su, Qi

    2017-02-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a primary component of garlic, which has chemopreventive potential. We previously found that moderate doses (15-120 µM) of DADS induced apoptosis and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. In this study, we observed the effect of low doses (8 µM) of DADS on human leukemia HL-60 cells. We found that DADS could inhibit proliferation, migration and invasion in HL-60 cells, and arrested cells at G0/G1 stage. Then, cell differentiation was displayed by morphologic observation, NBT reduction activity and CD11b evaluation of cytometric flow. It showed that DADS induced differentiation, reduced the ability of NBT and increased CD11b expression. Likewise, DADS inhibited xenograft tumor growth and induced differentiation in vivo. In order to make sure how DADS induced differentiation, we compared the protein expression profile of DADS-treated cells with that of untreated control. Using high resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 18 differentially expressed proteins after treatment with DADS, including four upregulated and 14 downregulated proteins. RT-PCR and western blot assay showed that DJ-1, cofilin 1, RhoGDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2), Calreticulin (CTR) and PCNA were decreased by DADS. These data suggest that the effects of DADS on leukemia may be due to multiple targets for intervention.

  13. FGFR as potential target in the treatment of squamous non small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tiseo, Marcello; Gelsomino, Francesco; Alfieri, Roberta; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Bozzetti, Cecilia; De Giorgi, Anna Maria; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    To date therapeutic options for squamous cell lung cancer patients remain scarce because no druggable targets have been identified so far. Aberrant signaling by FGFs (fibroblast growth factors) and FGFRs (fibroblast growth factors receptors) has been implicated in several human cancers and, particularly, in squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). FGFR gene amplifications, somatic missense mutations, chromosomal translocations are the most frequent mechanisms able to induce aberrant activation of this pathway. Data from literature have established that the presence of an aberrant FGFR signaling has to be considered a possible negative prognostic factor but predictive of potential sensitivity to FGFR inhibitors. In the last years, clinical research efforts allowed to identify and evaluate promising FGFR inhibitors, such as monoclonal antibodies, ligand traps, non-selective or selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This review summarizes the current knowledge about FGFR alterations in NSCLC and the relative inhibitors in development, in particular in squamous NSCLC.

  14. Cancer Stem Cells: The Potential Targets of Chinese Medicines and Their Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ming; Tan, Hor Yue; Li, Sha; Cheung, Fan; Wang, Ning; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    The pivotal role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the initiation and progression of malignancies has been rigorously validated, and the specific methods for identifying and isolating the CSCs from the parental cancer population have also been rapidly developed in recent years. This review aims to provide an overview of recent research progress of Chinese medicines (CMs) and their active compounds in inhibiting tumor progression by targeting CSCs. A great deal of CMs and their active compounds, such as Antrodia camphorate, berberine, resveratrol, and curcumin have been shown to regress CSCs, in terms of reversing drug resistance, inducing cell death and inhibiting cell proliferation as well as metastasis. Furthermore, one of the active compounds in coptis, berbamine may inhibit tumor progression by modulating microRNAs to regulate CSCs. The underlying molecular mechanisms and related signaling pathways involved in these processes were also discussed and concluded in this paper. Overall, the use of CMs and their active compounds may be a promising therapeutic strategy to eradicate cancer by targeting CSCs. However, further studies are needed to clarify the potential of clinical application of CMs and their active compounds as complementary and alternative therapy in this field. PMID:27338343

  15. Identification of Pathways in Liver Repair Potentially Targeted by Secretory Proteins from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Sandra; Hempel, Madlen; Brückner, Sandra; Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael; Kaufmann, Roland; Christ, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Background: The beneficial impact of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on both acute and chronic liver diseases has been confirmed, although the molecular mechanisms behind it remain elusive. We aim to identify factors secreted by undifferentiated and hepatocytic differentiated MSC in vitro in order to delineate liver repair pathways potentially targeted by MSC. Methods: Secreted factors were determined by protein arrays and related pathways identified by biomathematical analyses. Results: MSC from adipose tissue and bone marrow expressed a similar pattern of surface markers. After hepatocytic differentiation, CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1, ICAM-1) increased and CD166 (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, ALCAM) decreased. MSC secreted different factors before and after differentiation. These comprised cytokines involved in innate immunity and growth factors regulating liver regeneration. Pathway analysis revealed cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, chemokine signalling pathways, the complement and coagulation cascades as well as the Januskinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NOD-like receptor) signalling pathways as relevant networks. Relationships to transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1-α) signalling seemed also relevant. Conclusion: MSC secreted proteins, which differed depending on cell source and degree of differentiation. The factors might address inflammatory and growth factor pathways as well as chemo-attraction and innate immunity. Since these are prone to dysregulation in most liver diseases, MSC release hepatotropic factors, potentially supporting liver regeneration. PMID:27409608

  16. Receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit) inhibitors: a potential therapeutic target in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspour Babaei, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Saleem, Mohammad; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is involved in intracellular signaling, and the mutated form of c-Kit plays a crucial role in occurrence of some cancers. The function of c-Kit has led to the concept that inhibiting c-Kit kinase activity can be a target for cancer therapy. The promising results of inhibition of c-Kit for treatment of cancers have been observed in some cancers such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, acute myeloid leukemia, melanoma, and other tumors, and these results have encouraged attempts toward improvement of using c-Kit as a capable target for cancer therapy. This paper presents the findings of previous studies regarding c-Kit as a receptor tyrosine kinase and an oncogene, as well as its gene targets and signaling pathways in normal and cancer cells. The c-Kit gene location, protein structure, and the role of c-Kit in normal cell have been discussed. Comprehending the molecular mechanism underlying c-Kit-mediated tumorogenesis is consequently essential and may lead to the identification of future novel drug targets. The potential mechanisms by which c-Kit induces cellular transformation have been described. This study aims to elucidate the function of c-Kit for future cancer therapy. In addition, it has c-Kit inhibitor drug properties and their functions have been listed in tables and demonstrated in schematic pictures. This review also has collected previous studies that targeted c-Kit as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. This paper further emphasizes the advantages of this approach, as well as the limitations that must be addressed in the future. Finally, although c-Kit is an attractive target for cancer therapy, based on the outcomes of treatment of patients with c-Kit inhibitors, it is unlikely that Kit inhibitors alone can lead to cure. It seems that c-Kit mutations alone are not sufficient for tumorogenesis, but do play a crucial role in cancer occurrence. PMID:27536065

  17. Therapeutic potential of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes: a cell-free modality for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiang-Jun; Sun, Xu-Yong; Huang, Kuan-Ming; Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhuo-Shun; Zou, Dan-Dan; Wang, Bin; Warnock, Garth L; Dai, Long-Jun; Luo, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based T-cell adoptive immunotherapy is a distinctively promising therapy for cancer. The engineering of CARs into T cells provides T cells with tumor-targeting capabilities and intensifies their cytotoxic activity through stimulated cell expansion and enhanced cytokine production. As a novel and potent therapeutic modality, there exists some uncontrollable processes which are the potential sources of adverse events. As an extension of this impactful modality, CAR-T cell-derived exosomes may substitute CAR-T cells to act as ultimate attackers, thereby overcoming some limitations. Exosomes retain most characteristics of parent cells and play an essential role in intercellular communications via transmitting their cargo to recipient cells. The application of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes will make this cell-based therapy more clinically controllable as it also provides a cell-free platform to diversify anticancer mediators, which responds effectively to the complexity and volatility of cancer. It is believed that the appropriate application of both cellular and exosomal platforms will make this effective treatment more practicable.

  18. Therapeutic potential of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes: a cell-free modality for targeted cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Zhuo-Shun; Zou, Dan-Dan; Wang, Bin; Warnock, Garth L.; Dai, Long-Jun; Luo, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based T-cell adoptive immunotherapy is a distinctively promising therapy for cancer. The engineering of CARs into T cells provides T cells with tumor-targeting capabilities and intensifies their cytotoxic activity through stimulated cell expansion and enhanced cytokine production. As a novel and potent therapeutic modality, there exists some uncontrollable processes which are the potential sources of adverse events. As an extension of this impactful modality, CAR-T cell-derived exosomes may substitute CAR-T cells to act as ultimate attackers, thereby overcoming some limitations. Exosomes retain most characteristics of parent cells and play an essential role in intercellular communications via transmitting their cargo to recipient cells. The application of CAR-T cell-derived exosomes will make this cell-based therapy more clinically controllable as it also provides a cell-free platform to diversify anticancer mediators, which responds effectively to the complexity and volatility of cancer. It is believed that the appropriate application of both cellular and exosomal platforms will make this effective treatment more practicable. PMID:26496034

  19. [Cell signaling pathways interaction in cellular proliferation: Potential target for therapeutic interventionism].

    PubMed

    Valdespino-Gómez, Víctor Manuel; Valdespino-Castillo, Patricia Margarita; Valdespino-Castillo, Víctor Edmundo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, cellular physiology is best understood by analysing their interacting molecular components. Proteins are the major components of the cells. Different proteins are organised in the form of functional clusters, pathways or networks. These molecules are ordered in clusters of receptor molecules of extracellular signals, transducers, sensors and biological response effectors. The identification of these intracellular signaling pathways in different cellular types has required a long journey of experimental work. More than 300 intracellular signaling pathways have been identified in human cells. They participate in cell homeostasis processes for structural and functional maintenance. Some of them participate simultaneously or in a nearly-consecutive progression to generate a cellular phenotypic change. In this review, an analysis is performed on the main intracellular signaling pathways that take part in the cellular proliferation process, and the potential use of some components of these pathways as target for therapeutic interventionism are also underlined. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. FGFR gene alterations in lung squamous cell carcinoma are potential targets for the multikinase inhibitor nintedanib.

    PubMed

    Hibi, Masaaki; Kaneda, Hiroyasu; Tanizaki, Junko; Sakai, Kazuko; Togashi, Yosuke; Terashima, Masato; De Velasco, Marco Antonio; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Banno, Eri; Nakamura, Yu; Takeda, Masayuki; Ito, Akihiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Okamoto, Isamu; Nishio, Kazuto

    2016-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene alterations are relatively frequent in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and are a potential targets for therapy with FGFR inhibitors. However, little is known regarding the clinicopathologic features associated with FGFR alterations. The angiokinase inhibitor nintedanib has shown promising activity in clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer. We have now applied next-generation sequencing (NGS) to characterize FGFR alterations in LSCC patients as well as examined the antitumor activity of nintedanib in LSCC cell lines positive for FGFR1 copy number gain (CNG). The effects of nintedanib on the proliferation of and FGFR signaling in LSCC cell lines were examined in vitro, and its effects on tumor formation were examined in vivo. A total of 75 clinical LSCC specimens were screened for FGFR alterations by NGS. Nintedanib inhibited the proliferation of FGFR1 CNG-positive LSCC cell lines in association with attenuation of the FGFR1-ERK signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. FGFR1 CNG (10.7%), FGFR1 mutation (2.7%), FGFR2 mutation (2.7%), FGFR4 mutation (5.3%), and FGFR3 fusion (1.3%) were detected in LSCC specimens by NGS. Clinicopathologic features did not differ between LSCC patients positive or negative for FGFR alterations. However, among the 36 patients with disease recurrence after surgery, prognosis was significantly worse for those harboring FGFR alterations. Screening for FGFR alterations by NGS warrants further study as a means to identify patients with LSCC recurrence after surgery who might benefit from nintedanib therapy.

  1. The microenvironment in hairy cell leukemia: pathways and potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Jan A.; Sivina, Mariela; Ravandi, Farhad

    2014-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) cells accumulate and proliferate in the spleen and the bone marrow. In these tissue compartments, HCL cells interact with accessory cells, matrix proteins, and various cyctokines, collectively referred to as the ‘microenvironment.’ Surface receptors expressed on HCL cells and respective stromal ligands are critical for this cross-talk between HCL cells and the microenvironment. Chemokine receptors, adhesion molecules (integrins, CD44), the B cell antigen receptor (BCR), and CD40, expressed on the HCL cells, are likely to be critical for homing, retention, survival, and expansion of the neoplastic B cells. Some of these pathways are now targeted in first clinical trials in other mature B-cell malignancies. We summarize key aspects of the cellular and molecular interactions between HCL cells and their microenvironment. Also, we outline future prospects for therapeutic targeting of the microenvironment in HCL, focusing on CXCR4 and kinase inhibitors (Syk, Btk, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3K]) that target B cell receptor signaling. PMID:21438839

  2. Kinase Gene Expression Profiling of Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue Identifies Potential New Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ramaker, Ryne C.; Cooper, Sara J.; Chen, Dongquan; Sudarshan, Sunil; Wei, Shi; Guru, Arjun S.; Zhao, Amy; Cooper, Tiffiny; Della Manna, Deborah L.; Naik, Gurudatta; Myers, Richard M.; Sonpavde, Guru

    2016-01-01

    Kinases are therapeutically actionable targets. Kinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) improve outcomes in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), but are not curative. Metastatic tumor tissue has not been comprehensively studied for kinase gene expression. Paired intra-patient kinase gene expression analysis in primary tumor (T), matched normal kidney (N) and metastatic tumor tissue (M) may assist in identifying drivers of metastasis and prioritizing therapeutic targets. We compared the expression of 519 kinase genes using NanoString in T, N and M in 35 patients to discover genes over-expressed in M compared to T and N tissue. RNA-seq data derived from ccRCC tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to demonstrate differential expression of genes in primary tumor tissue from patients that had metastasis at baseline (n = 79) compared to those that did not develop metastasis for at least 2 years (n = 187). Functional analysis was conducted to identify key signaling pathways by using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Of 10 kinase genes overexpressed in metastases compared to primary tumor in the discovery cohort, 9 genes were also differentially expressed in TCGA primary tumors with metastasis at baseline compared to primary tumors without metastasis for at least 2 years: EPHB2, AURKA, GSG2, IKBKE, MELK, CSK, CHEK2, CDC7 and MAP3K8; p<0.001). The top pathways overexpressed in M tissue were pyridoxal 5'-phosphate salvage, salvage pathways of pyrimidine ribonucleotides, NF-kB signaling, NGF signaling and cell cycle control of chromosomal replication. The 9 kinase genes validated to be over-expressed in metastatic ccRCC may represent currently unrecognized but potentially actionable therapeutic targets that warrant functional validation. PMID:27574806

  3. Kinase Gene Expression Profiling of Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue Identifies Potential New Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Ghatalia, Pooja; Yang, Eddy S; Lasseigne, Brittany N; Ramaker, Ryne C; Cooper, Sara J; Chen, Dongquan; Sudarshan, Sunil; Wei, Shi; Guru, Arjun S; Zhao, Amy; Cooper, Tiffiny; Della Manna, Deborah L; Naik, Gurudatta; Myers, Richard M; Sonpavde, Guru

    2016-01-01

    Kinases are therapeutically actionable targets. Kinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) improve outcomes in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), but are not curative. Metastatic tumor tissue has not been comprehensively studied for kinase gene expression. Paired intra-patient kinase gene expression analysis in primary tumor (T), matched normal kidney (N) and metastatic tumor tissue (M) may assist in identifying drivers of metastasis and prioritizing therapeutic targets. We compared the expression of 519 kinase genes using NanoString in T, N and M in 35 patients to discover genes over-expressed in M compared to T and N tissue. RNA-seq data derived from ccRCC tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to demonstrate differential expression of genes in primary tumor tissue from patients that had metastasis at baseline (n = 79) compared to those that did not develop metastasis for at least 2 years (n = 187). Functional analysis was conducted to identify key signaling pathways by using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Of 10 kinase genes overexpressed in metastases compared to primary tumor in the discovery cohort, 9 genes were also differentially expressed in TCGA primary tumors with metastasis at baseline compared to primary tumors without metastasis for at least 2 years: EPHB2, AURKA, GSG2, IKBKE, MELK, CSK, CHEK2, CDC7 and MAP3K8; p<0.001). The top pathways overexpressed in M tissue were pyridoxal 5'-phosphate salvage, salvage pathways of pyrimidine ribonucleotides, NF-kB signaling, NGF signaling and cell cycle control of chromosomal replication. The 9 kinase genes validated to be over-expressed in metastatic ccRCC may represent currently unrecognized but potentially actionable therapeutic targets that warrant functional validation.

  4. Oxidative Stress in Ischemic Brain Damage: Mechanisms of Cell Death and Potential Molecular Targets for Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hai; Yoshioka, Hideyuki; Kim, Gab Seok; Jung, Joo Eun; Okami, Nobuya; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Maier, Carolina M.; Narasimhan, Purnima; Goeders, Christina E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Significant amounts of oxygen free radicals (oxidants) are generated during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, and oxidative stress plays an important role in brain damage after stroke. In addition to oxidizing macromolecules, leading to cell injury, oxidants are also involved in cell death/survival signal pathways and cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Experimental data from laboratory animals that either overexpress (transgenic) or are deficient in (knock-out) antioxidant proteins, mainly superoxide dismutase, have provided strong evidence of the role of oxidative stress in ischemic brain damage. In addition to mitochondria, recent reports demonstrate that NADPH oxidase (NOX), an important pro-oxidant enzyme, is also involved in the generation of oxidants in the brain after stroke. Inhibition of NOX is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia. We propose that superoxide dismutase and NOX activity in the brain is a major determinant for ischemic damage/repair and that these major anti- and pro-oxidant enzymes are potential endogenous molecular targets for stroke therapy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1505–1517. PMID:20812869

  5. Global and Targeted Metabolomics of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Discovers Potential Diagnostic and Therapeutic Biomarkers*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Chen, Yanhua; Zhang, Ruiping; Song, Yongmei; Cao, Jianzhong; Bi, Nan; Wang, Jingbo; He, Jiuming; Bai, Jinfa; Dong, Lijia; Wang, Luhua; Zhan, Qimin; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers useful for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have the ability to increase the long term survival of cancer patients. A metabolomics study, using plasma from four groups including ESCC patients before, during, and after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and healthy controls, was originally carried out by LC-MS to determine global alterations in the metabolic profiles and find biomarkers potentially applicable to diagnosis and monitoring treatment effects. It is worth pointing out that a clear clustering and separation of metabolic data from the four groups was observed, which indicated that disease status and treatment intervention resulted in specific metabolic perturbations in the patients. A series of metabolites were found to be significantly altered in ESCC patients versus healthy controls and in pre- versus post-treatment patients based on multivariate statistical data analysis (MVDA). To further validate the reliability of these potential biomarkers, an independent validation was performed by using the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) based targeted approach. Finally, 18 most significantly altered plasma metabolites in ESCC patients, relative to healthy controls, were tentatively identified as lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs), fatty acids, l-carnitine, acylcarnitines, organic acids, and a sterol metabolite. The classification performance of these metabolites were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC)1 analysis and a biomarker panel was generated. Together, biological significance of these metabolites was discussed. Comparison between pre- and post-treatment patients generated 11 metabolites as potential therapeutic biomarkers that were tentatively identified as amino acids, acylcarnitines, and lysoPCs. Levels of three of these (octanoylcarnitine, lysoPC(16:1), and decanoylcarnitine) were closely correlated with treatment effect. Moreover, variation of these three potential biomarkers was investigated over

  6. ALDH1A Isozymes Are Markers of Human Melanoma Stem Cells and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuchun; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Chen, Ying; Robinson, William A; Robinson, Steven E; McCarter, Martin D; Wang, Jianbin; Gonzalez, Rene; Thompson, David C; Norris, David A; Roop, Dennis R; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Fujita, Mayumi

    2012-01-01

    Although the concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is well accepted for many tumors, the existence of such cells in human melanoma has been the subject of debate. In the present study, we demonstrate the existence of human melanoma cells that fulfill the criteria for CSCs (self-renewal and differentiation) by serially xenotransplanting cells into NOD/SCID mice. These cells possess high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity with ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3 being the predominant ALDH isozymes. ALDH-positive melanoma cells are more tumorigenic than ALDH-negative cells in both NOD/SCID mice and NSG mice. Biological analyses of the ALDH-positive melanoma cells reveal the ALDH isozymes to be key molecules regulating the function of these cells. Silencing ALDH1A by siRNA or shRNA leads to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and decreased cell viability in vitro and reduced tumorigenesis in vivo. ALDH-positive melanoma cells are more resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and silencing ALDH1A by siRNA sensitizes melanoma cells to drug-induced cell death. Furthermore, we, for the first time, examined the molecular signatures of ALDH-positive CSCs from patient-derived tumor specimens. The signatures of melanoma CSCs include retinoic acid (RA)-driven target genes with RA response elements and genes associated with stem cell function. These findings implicate that ALDH isozymes are not only biomarkers of CSCs but also attractive therapeutic targets for human melanoma. Further investigation of these isozymes and genes will enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing CSCs and reveal new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention of cancer. PMID:22887839

  7. Targeting programmed cell death ligand 1 in osteosarcoma: an auto-commentary on therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jacson K; Cote, Gregory M; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PDL1) expression was recently shown to correlate with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in a subset of osteosarcoma patients. Among clinical factors evaluated across human osteosarcoma samples, a pulmonary origin of metastases correlated with high PDL1 expression and prominent TILs. Considering that multiple agents targeting PD-1/PDL1 are under development, targeting this immune checkpoint may be a novel immunotherapeutic route for osteosarcoma in future clinical trials.

  8. Sphingosine kinase signalling in immune cells: potential as novel therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Melendez, Alirio J

    2008-01-01

    of S1P to these receptors trigger an wide range of cellular responses including proliferation, enhanced extracellular matrix assembly, stimulation of adherent junctions, formation of actin stress fibres, and inhibition of apoptosis induced by either ceramide or growth factor withdrawal. Moreover, blocking S1P1-receptor inhibits lymphocyte egress from lymphatic organs. This review summarises the evidence linking SphK signalling pathway to immune-cell activation and based on these data discuss the potential for targeting SphKs to suppress inflammation and other pathological conditions.

  9. miR-133 regulates Evi1 expression in AML cells as a potential therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Haruna; Lu, Jun; Oba, Shigeyoshi; Kawamata, Toyotaka; Yoshimi, Akihide; Kurosaki, Natsumi; Yokoyama, Kazuaki; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Kurokawa, Mineo; Tojo, Arinobu; Ando, Kiyoshi; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Katagiri, Koko; Kotani, Ai

    2016-01-01

    The Ecotropic viral integration site 1 (Evi1) is a zinc finger transcription factor, which is located on chromosome 3q26, over-expression in some acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Elevated Evi1 expression in AML is associated with unfavorable prognosis. Therefore, Evi1 is one of the strong candidate in molecular target therapy for the leukemia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, vital to many cell functions that negatively regulate gene expression by translation or inducing sequence-specific degradation of target mRNAs. As a novel biologics, miRNAs is a promising therapeutic target due to its low toxicity and low cost. We screened miRNAs which down-regulate Evi1. miR-133 was identified to directly bind to Evi1 to regulate it. miR-133 increases drug sensitivity specifically in Evi1 expressing leukemic cells, but not in Evi1-non-expressing cells The results suggest that miR-133 can be promising therapeutic target for the Evi1 dysregulated poor prognostic leukemia. PMID:26754824

  10. Potential proteins targeted by let-7f-5p in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yi; Song, Jiandong

    2017-07-24

    MicroRNAs are a class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs mediating posttranscriptional gene silencing. The current authors hypothesized that let-7f-5p is likely involved in cell invasion and proliferation by regulating the expression of target genes. The current study combined let-7f-5p with iTRAQ to assess its effect on gene expression in HeLa cells. Results indicated that 164 proteins were expressed at different levels in HeLa cells overexpressing let-7f-5p and negative controls and that 172 proteins were expressed at different levels in let-7f-5p-silenced HeLa cells and negative controls. Results indicated that let-7f-5p may suppress insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) in HeLa cells.

  11. NY-ESO-1 as a potential immunotherapeutic target in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Giesen, Eva; Jilaveanu, Lucia B; Parisi, Fabio; Kluger, Yuval; Camp, Robert L; Kluger, Harriet M

    2014-07-30

    Novel immune therapies targeting tumor specific antigens are being developed. Our purpose was to determine expression of the cancer testes antigen NY-ESO-1 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), as NY-ESO-1 targeting approaches, particularly adoptive cell therapy, have not been evaluated in this disease. We employed tissue microarrays containing >300 unique RCC cases and adjacent benign renal tissue to determine NY-ESO-1 expression using a quantitative immunofluorescence method. In addition, we studied NY-ESO-1 expression in 35 matched primary and metastatic RCC specimens to assess concordance between different tumor sites. NY-ESO-1 was highly expressed in a subset of RCCs. Expression in primary RCC specimens was significantly higher than adjacent normal renal tissue (P<0.0001) and higher in clear cell carcinomas than papillary RCC (P<0.0001). Expression levels in metastatic specimens were higher than in matched primary samples (P=0.0018), and the correlation between the two sites was modest (χ2=3.5, p=0.06). Aberrant NY-ESO-1 expression seen in clear cell RCC suggests that NY-ESO-1 targeting approaches should be studied in this disease. Expression is higher in metastatic sites, and discordance between primary and metastatic sites in some patients suggests that patient selection for these therapies should be based on expression in metastatic rather than nephrectomy specimens.

  12. NY-ESO-1 as a potential immunotherapeutic target in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Fabio; Kluger, Yuval; Camp, Robert L.; Kluger, Harriet M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Novel immune therapies targeting tumor specific antigens are being developed. Our purpose was to determine expression of the cancer testes antigen NY-ESO-1 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), as NY-ESO-1 targeting approaches, particularly adoptive cell therapy, have not been evaluated in this disease. Methods: We employed tissue microarrays containing >300 unique RCC cases and adjacent benign renal tissue to determine NY-ESO-1 expression using a quantitative immunofluorescence method. In addition, we studied NY-ESO-1 expression in 35 matched primary and metastatic RCC specimens to assess concordance between different tumor sites. Results: NY-ESO-1 was highly expressed in a subset of RCCs. Expression in primary RCC specimens was significantly higher than adjacent normal renal tissue (P<0.0001) and higher in clear cell carcinomas than papillary RCC (P<0.0001). Expression levels in metastatic specimens were higher than in matched primary samples (P=0.0018), and the correlation between the two sites was modest (χ2=3.5, p=0.06). Conclusions: Aberrant NY-ESO-1 expression seen in clear cell RCC suggests that NY-ESO-1 targeting approaches should be studied in this disease. Expression is higher in metastatic sites, and discordance between primary and metastatic sites in some patients suggests that patient selection for these therapies should be based on expression in metastatic rather than nephrectomy specimens. PMID:24970819

  13. [Signal pathways of cell proliferation and death as targets of potential chemotherapeutics].

    PubMed

    Repický, A; Jantová, S; Milata, V

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review current information concerning signal transduction pathways of cell proliferation and cell death applicable in the research of antitumor compounds with a specific effect. Actually, cancer counts among the world gravest diseases. Research of the mechanisms of action of chemotherapeutics helps us to find compounds with high cytotoxic activity to tumor cells and low or no cytotoxicity to normal cells. Many present studies deal with the ability of drugs to hit the proliferation signal pathways or cell death pathways specifically. Various proliferation signal pathways have been identified, e.g. pathways of mitogen-activated proteinkinases. In original studies, cell death was considered to perform in necrotic and apoptotic forms, whereas in contrast to necrosis, apoptosis represented the programmed process. However, other forms of programmed cell death were discovered, the programmed necrosis and autophagic cell death. Similarly, beside the intrinsic, mitochondrial-mediated, and extrinsic, receptor-mediated pathways, new mechanisms of induction of apoptosis were discovered: the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway in which calcium plays an important role, the lysosomal pathway and the ceramide-induced pathway. Current information concerning transduction of antiproliferative and death stimuli in cells allows to explain the mechanisms of action of known drugs and also brings novel therapeutical targets which can serve in treatment of such diseases as cancer.

  14. The clinical potential of targeted nanomedicine: delivering to cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Soo; Rait, Antonina; Rubab, Farwah; Rao, Abhi K; Kiritsy, Michael C; Pirollo, Kathleen F; Wang, Shangzi; Weiner, Louis M; Chang, Esther H

    2014-02-01

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have been implicated in recurrence and treatment resistance in many human cancers. Thus, a CSC-targeted drug delivery strategy to eliminate CSCs is a desirable approach for developing a more effective anticancer therapy. We have developed a tumor-targeting nanodelivery platform (scL) for systemic administration of molecular medicines. Following treatment with the scL nanocomplex carrying various payloads, we have observed exquisite tumor-targeting specificity and significant antitumor response with long-term survival benefit in numerous animal models. We hypothesized that this observed efficacy might be attributed, at least in part, to elimination of CSCs. Here, we demonstrate the ability of scL to target both CSCs and differentiated nonstem cancer cells (non-CSCs) in various mouse models including subcutaneous and intracranial xenografts, syngeneic, and chemically induced tumors. We also show that systemic administration of scL carrying the wtp53 gene was able to induce tumor growth inhibition and the death of both CSCs and non-CSCs in subcutaneous colorectal cancer xenografts suggesting that this could be an effective method to reduce cancer recurrence and treatment resistance. This scL nanocomplex is being evaluated in a number of clinical trials where it has been shown to be well tolerated with indications of anticancer activity.

  15. Potentiation of gene targeting in human cells by expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52

    PubMed Central

    Di Primio, Cristina; Galli, Alvaro; Cervelli, Tiziana; Zoppè, Monica; Rainaldi, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    When exogenous DNA is stably introduced in mammalian cells, it is typically integrated in random positions, and only a minor fraction enters a pathway of homologous recombination (HR). The complex Rad51/Rad52 is a major player in the management of exogenous DNA in eukaryotic organisms and plays a critical role in the choice of repair system. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the pathway of choice is HR, mediated by Rad52 (ScRad52), which differs slightly from its human homologue. Here, we present an approach that utilizes ScRad52 to enhance HR in human cells containing a specific substrate for recombination. Clones of HeLa cells were produced expressing functional ScRad52. These cells showed enhanced resistance to DNA damaging treatments and revealed a different distribution of Rad51 foci (a marker of recombination complex formation). More significantly, ScRad52 expression resulted in an up to 37-fold increase in gene targeting by HR. In the same cells, random integration of exogenous DNA was significantly reduced, consistent with the view that HR and non-homologous end joining are alternative competing pathways. Expression of ScRad52 could offer a major improvement for experiments requiring gene targeting by HR, both in basic research and in gene therapy studies. PMID:16106043

  16. Fusion of dendritic cells and CD34+CD38- acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells potentiates targeting AML-initiating cells by specific CTL induction.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhang; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Hong, Mei; Feng, Zuo-Hua; Huang, Bo

    2009-05-01

    Distinct leukemia-initiating cells (L-ICs) represent a critical target for therapeutic intervention of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A potential strategy to eradicate L-ICs is to generate L-IC-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). However, owing to rarity and immortality of L-ICs, it is difficult for antigen-presenting cells to capture L-ICs for specific antigen presentation. Here, we report a novel approach by fusing allogeneic dendritic cells (DCs) and CD34CD38 AML progenitor cells, through which specific CTLs were effectively induced, leading to the cytolysis to AML-initiating cells. Fusion of either DC/CD34CD38 AML cell or DC/CD34 AML cell could effectively induce the proliferation and activation of CTLs. However, only the former CTLs could effectively attack AML progenitor cells, and result in the unkilled progenitor/initiating cells losing the abilities of active proliferation in vitro and engraftment in NOD-SCID mice. These findings suggest that AML progenitor/initiating cell-specific CTLs may be generated based on allogeneic DC/progenitor cell fusion strategy; the induced CTLs may potentially eradicate AML by targeting L-ICs directly or indirectly.

  17. Mevalonate metabolism regulates Basal breast cancer stem cells and is a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Ginestier, Christophe; Monville, Florence; Wicinski, Julien; Cabaud, Olivier; Cervera, Nathalie; Josselin, Emmanuelle; Finetti, Pascal; Guille, Arnaud; Larderet, Gaelle; Viens, Patrice; Sebti, Said; Bertucci, François; Birnbaum, Daniel; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle

    2012-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that breast tumors are organized in a hierarchy, with a subpopulation of tumorigenic cancer cells, the cancer stem cells (CSCs), which sustain tumor growth. The characterization of protein networks that govern CSC behavior is paramount to design new therapeutic strategies targeting this subpopulation of cells. We have sought to identify specific molecular pathways of CSCs isolated from 13 different breast cancer cell lines of luminal or basal/mesenchymal subtypes. We compared the gene expression profiling of cancer cells grown in adherent conditions to those of matched tumorsphere cultures. No specific pathway was identified to be commonly regulated in luminal tumorspheres, resulting from a minor CSC enrichment in tumorsphere passages from luminal cell lines. However, in basal/mesenchymal tumorspheres, the enzymes of the mevalonate metabolic pathway were overexpressed compared to those in cognate adherent cells. Inhibition of this pathway with hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase blockers resulted in a reduction of breast CSC independent of inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis and of protein farnesylation. Further modulation of this metabolic pathway demonstrated that protein geranylgeranylation (GG) is critical to breast CSC maintenance. A small molecule inhibitor of the geranylgeranyl transferase I (GGTI) enzyme reduced the breast CSC subpopulation both in vitro and in primary breast cancer xenografts. We found that the GGTI effect on the CSC subpopulation is mediated by inactivation of Ras homolog family member A (RHOA) and increased accumulation of P27(kip1) in the nucleus. The identification of protein GG as a major contributor to CSC maintenance opens promising perspectives for CSC targeted therapy in basal breast cancer.

  18. Identification of WEE1 as a potential molecular target in cancer cells by RNAi screening of the human tyrosine kinome

    PubMed Central

    Murrow, Lyndsay M.; Garimella, Sireesha V.; Jones, Tamara L.; Caplen, Natasha J.; Lipkowitz, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancers can be classified into those that express the estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors, those with ERBB2 (HER-2/Neu) amplification, and those without expression of ER, PR, or amplification of ERBB2 (referred to as triple-negative or basal-like breast cancer). In order to identify potential molecular targets in breast cancer, we performed a synthetic siRNA-mediated RNAi screen of the human tyrosine kinome. A primary RNAi screen conducted in the triple-negative/basal-like breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231 followed by secondary RNAi screens and further studies in this cell line and two additional triple-negative/basal-like breast cancer cell lines, BT20 and HCC1937, identified the G2/M checkpoint protein, WEE1, as a potential therapeutic target. Similar sensitivity to WEE1 inhibition was observed in cell lines from all subtypes of breast cancer. RNAi-mediated silencing or small compound inhibition of WEE1 in breast cancer cell lines resulted in an increase in γH2AX levels, arrest in the S-phase of the cell cycle, and a significant decrease in cell proliferation. WEE1-inhibited cells underwent apoptosis as demonstrated by positive Annexin V staining, increased sub-G1 DNA content, apoptotic morphology, caspase activation, and rescue by the pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. In contrast, the non-transformed mammary epithelial cell line, MCF10A, did not exhibit any of these downstream effects following WEE1 silencing or inhibition. These results identify WEE1 as a potential molecular target in breast cancer. PMID:19821025

  19. LGR5 expressing cells of hair follicle as potential targets for antibody mediated anti-cancer laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Boris V.

    2013-02-01

    Near infrared laser immunotherapy becomes now a new promising research field to cure the patients with cancers. One of the critical limitation in medical application of this treatment is availability of the specific markers for delivery of laser-sensitive nanoparticles. When coupled to antibodies to the cancer stem cells markers these nanoparticles may be delivered to the cancer tissue and mediate the laser induced thermolysis of the cancer stem cells that initiate and drive growth of cancer. This paper addresses the Lgr5 cell surface marker mediating the Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction as a potential target for anti-cancer laser immunotherapy of skin cancers.

  20. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor SAHA as Potential Targeted Therapy Agent for Larynx Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Grabarska, Aneta; Łuszczki, Jarogniew J; Nowosadzka, Ewa; Gumbarewicz, Ewelina; Jeleniewicz, Witold; Dmoszyńska-Graniczka, Magdalena; Kowalczuk, Krystyna; Kupisz, Krzysztof; Polberg, Krzysztof; Stepulak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in the head and neck region. Due to the poor response to chemotherapeutics in patients and low survival rate, successful treatment of larynx cancer still remains a challenge. Therefore, the identification of novel treatment options is needed. We investigated the anticancer effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on two different laryngeal cancer cell lines RK33 and RK45. We also studied the antiproliferative action of SAHA in combination with cisplatin and defined the type of pharmacological interaction between these drugs. Materials and Methods: Viability and proliferation of larynx cancer cell lines were studied by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide method and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation assay, respectively. The type of interaction between SAHA and cisplatin was determined by an isobolographic analysis. Western blotting, flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction method were used to determine acetylation of histone H3, cell cycle progression and genes expression, respectively. Apoptosis was assessed by means of nucleosomes released to cytosol. Results: SAHA alone or in combination with cisplatin inhibited larynx cancer cells proliferation, whereas displayed relatively low toxicity against normal cells - primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts. The mixture of SAHA with cisplatin exerted additive and synergistic interaction in RK33 and RK45 cells, respectively. We showed that SAHA induced hyperacetylation of histone H3 K9, K14 and K23 and triggered apoptosis. SAHA also caused cell cycle arrest by upregulation of CDKN1A and downregulation of CCND1 encoding p21WAF1/CIP1 and cyclin D1 proteins, respectively. Conclusion: Our studies demonstrated that SAHA may be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against larynx tumors.

  1. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor SAHA as Potential Targeted Therapy Agent for Larynx Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grabarska, Aneta; Łuszczki, Jarogniew J.; Nowosadzka, Ewa; Gumbarewicz, Ewelina; Jeleniewicz, Witold; Dmoszyńska-Graniczka, Magdalena; Kowalczuk, Krystyna; Kupisz, Krzysztof; Polberg, Krzysztof; Stepulak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in the head and neck region. Due to the poor response to chemotherapeutics in patients and low survival rate, successful treatment of larynx cancer still remains a challenge. Therefore, the identification of novel treatment options is needed. We investigated the anticancer effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on two different laryngeal cancer cell lines RK33 and RK45. We also studied the antiproliferative action of SAHA in combination with cisplatin and defined the type of pharmacological interaction between these drugs. Materials and Methods: Viability and proliferation of larynx cancer cell lines were studied by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide method and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation assay, respectively. The type of interaction between SAHA and cisplatin was determined by an isobolographic analysis. Western blotting, flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction method were used to determine acetylation of histone H3, cell cycle progression and genes expression, respectively. Apoptosis was assessed by means of nucleosomes released to cytosol. Results: SAHA alone or in combination with cisplatin inhibited larynx cancer cells proliferation, whereas displayed relatively low toxicity against normal cells - primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts. The mixture of SAHA with cisplatin exerted additive and synergistic interaction in RK33 and RK45 cells, respectively. We showed that SAHA induced hyperacetylation of histone H3 K9, K14 and K23 and triggered apoptosis. SAHA also caused cell cycle arrest by upregulation of CDKN1A and downregulation of CCND1 encoding p21WAF1/CIP1 and cyclin D1 proteins, respectively. Conclusion: Our studies demonstrated that SAHA may be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against larynx tumors. PMID:28123594

  2. Targeting cellular memory to reprogram the epigenome, restore potential, and improve somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Eilertsen, K J; Power, R A; Harkins, L L; Misica, P

    2007-03-01

    possibility of targeting cellular memory, and in particular inducing demethylation of a somatic nucleus prior to nuclear transfer, to enable reprogramming events typically carried out by oocyte factors and thereby improve developmental competence of SCNT-reconstructed embryos. Several recent published reviews of SCNT, cellular reprogramming and genomic demethylation served as valuable sources for the authors and are recommended as supplemental reading. These include the following: Bird, A., 2002. DNA methylation patterns and epigenetic memory. Gen. Dev. 16, 6-21; Grafi, G., 2004. How cells dedifferentiate: a lesson from plants. Dev. Biol. 268, 1-6; Latham, K.E., 2005. Early and delayed aspects of nuclear reprogramming during cloning. Biol. Cell 97, 119-132; Lyko, F., Brown, R., 2005. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and the development of epigenetic cancer therapies. J.Natl. Cancer Inst. 97, 1498-1506; Morgan, H.D., Santos, F., Green, K., Dean, W., Reik, W., 2005. Epigenetic reprogramming in mammals. Hum. Mol. Gen. 14, R47-R58; Szyf, M., 2005. DNA methylation and demethylation as targets for anticancer therapy. Biochemistry 70, 533-549; Buszczak, M., Spradling, A.C., 2006. Searching chromatin for stem cell identity. Cell 125, 233-236; Gurdon, J.B., 2006. From nuclear transfer to nuclear reprogramming: the reversal of cell differentiation. Annu. Rev. Cell. Dev. Biol. 22, 1-22; Yoo, C.B., Jones, P.A., 2006. Epigenetic therapy of cancer: past, present and future. Nat. Rev. 5, 37-50.

  3. Utilizing Functional Genomics Screening to Identify Potentially Novel Drug Targets in Cancer Cell Spheroid Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Eamonn; Wai, Patty; Leonidou, Andri; Bland, Philip; Khalique, Saira; Farnie, Gillian; Daley, Frances; Peck, Barrie; Natrajan, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    The identification of functional driver events in cancer is central to furthering our understanding of cancer biology and indispensable for the discovery of the next generation of novel drug targets. It is becoming apparent that more complex models of cancer are required to fully appreciate the contributing factors that drive tumorigenesis in vivo and increase the efficacy of novel therapies that make the transition from pre-clinical models to clinical trials. Here we present a methodology for generating uniform and reproducible tumor spheroids that can be subjected to siRNA functional screening. These spheroids display many characteristics that are found in solid tumors that are not present in traditional two-dimension culture. We show that several commonly used breast cancer cell lines are amenable to this protocol. Furthermore, we provide proof-of-principle data utilizing the breast cancer cell line BT474, confirming their dependency on amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor HER2 and mutation of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate 3-kinase (PIK3CA) when grown as tumor spheroids. Finally, we are able to further investigate and confirm the spatial impact of these dependencies using immunohistochemistry. PMID:28060271

  4. Do CDK4/6 inhibitors have potential as targeted therapeutics for squamous cell cancers?

    PubMed

    Kalu, Nene N; Johnson, Faye M

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Dysregulation of cell cycle progression has an established link to neoplasia and cancer progression. Components of the cyclin D-CDK4/6-INK4-Rb pathway are frequently altered in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) by diverse mechanisms, including viral oncogene-induced degradation, mutation, deletion, and amplification. Activation of the CDK4/6 pathway may predict response to CDK4/6 inhibitors and provide clinical biomarkers. Recently, the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib showed clinical efficacy in combination with cetuximab in HNSCC patients. Areas covered This review focuses on the current research on the use of CDK4/6 inhibitors, comprising preclinical animal studies through phase II clinical trials across all SCCs. Expert opinion CDK4/6 inhibitors have a proven clinical benefit in breast cancer, but data on SCCs are sparse. Although frequent dysregulation of the cyclin D-CDK4/6-INK4-Rb pathway in SCCs suggests that targeting CDK4/6 may hold promise for improved clinical outcomes, single-agent activity has been modest in preclinical studies and absent in clinical studies. Combinations with immunotherapy or inhibitors of the PI3 K/mTOR or EGFR pathway may be effective. Given that SCCs caused by human papillomavirus have high levels of p16 and low levels of Rb, the CDK4/6 inhibitors are predicted to be ineffective in these cancers.

  5. Cell Surface Glycoprotein of Reactive Stromal Fibroblasts as a Potential Antibody Target in Human Epithelial Cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Old, Lloyd J.; Rettig, Wolfgang J.

    1990-09-01

    The F19 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein (M_r, 95,000) of human sarcomas and proliferating, cultured fibroblasts that is absent from resting fibroblasts in normal adult tissues. Normal and malignant epithelial cells are also F19^-. The present immunohistochemical study describes induction of F19 in the reactive mesenchyme of epithelial tumors. F19^+ fibroblasts were found in primary and metastatic carcinomas, including colorectal (18 of 18 cases studied), breast (14/14), ovarian (21/21), bladder (9/10), and lung carcinomas (13/13). In contrast, the stroma of benign colorectal adenomas, fibrocystic disease and fibroadenomas of breast, benign prostate hyperplasia, in situ bladder carcinomas, and benign ovarian tumors showed no or only moderate numbers of F19^+ fibroblasts. Analysis of dermal incision wounds revealed that F19 is strongly induced during scar formation. Comparison of F19 with the extracellular matrix protein tenascin, a putative marker of tumor mesenchyme, showed a cellular staining pattern for F19 vs. the extracellular matrix pattern for tenascin and widespread expression of tenascin in F19^- normal tissues and benign tumors. Our results suggest that the F19^+ phenotype correlates with specialized fibroblast functions in wound healing and malignant tumor growth. Because of its abundance in tumor mesenchyme, F19 may serve as a target for antibodies labeled with radioisotopes or toxic agents, or inflammatogenic antibodies, in carcinoma patients.

  6. MEDI1873, a potent, stabilized hexameric agonist of human GITR with regulatory T-cell targeting potential

    PubMed Central

    Tigue, Natalie J.; Bamber, Lisa; Andrews, John; Ireland, Samantha; Hair, James; Carter, Edward; Sridharan, Sudharsan; Jovanović, Jelena; Rees, D. Gareth; Springall, Jeremy S.; Li, Yi-Ming; Chodorge, Matthieu; Perez-Martinez, David; Higazi, Daniel R.; Oberst, Michael; Kennedy, Maureen; Black, Chelsea M.; Yan, Li; Schwickart, Martin; Maguire, Shaun; Young, Lesley L.; Vaughan, Tristan; Wilkinson, Robert W.; Stewart, Ross

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) is part of a system of signals involved in controlling T-cell activation. Targeting and agonizing GITR in mice promotes antitumor immunity by enhancing the function of effector T cells and inhibiting regulatory T cells. Here, we describe MEDI1873, a novel hexameric human GITR agonist comprising an IgG1 Fc domain, a coronin 1A trimerization domain and the human GITRL extracellular domain (ECD). MEDI1873 was optimized through systematic testing of different trimerization domains, aglycosylation of the GITRL ECD and comparison of different Fc isotypes. MEDI1873 exhibits oligomeric heterogeneity and superiority to an anti-GITR antibody with respect to evoking robust GITR agonism, T-cell activation and clustering of Fc gamma receptors. Further, it recapitulates, in vitro, several aspects of GITR targeting described in mice, including modulation of regulatory T-cell suppression and the ability to increase the CD8+:CD4+ T-cell ratio via antibody-dependent T-cell cytotoxicity. To support translation into a therapeutic setting, we demonstrate that MEDI1873 is a potent T-cell agonist in vivo in non-human primates, inducing marked enhancement of humoral and T-cell proliferative responses against protein antigen, and demonstrate the presence of GITR- and FoxP3-expressing infiltrating lymphocytes in a range of human tumors. Overall our data provide compelling evidence that MEDI1873 is a novel, potent GITR agonist with the ability to modulate T-cell responses, and suggest that previously described GITR biology in mice may translate to the human setting, reinforcing the potential of targeting the GITR pathway as a therapeutic approach to cancer. PMID:28405505

  7. Plasma Membrane Proteomics of Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Identifies Potential Targets for Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Yvonne S.; Moresco, James J.; Tu, Patricia G.; Yates, John R.; Nardulli, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of broad spectrum chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer results in substantial and debilitating side effects, necessitating the development of targeted therapies to limit tumor proliferation and prevent metastasis. In recent years, the list of approved targeted therapies has expanded, and it includes both monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors that interfere with key proteins involved in the uncontrolled growth and migration of cancer cells. The targeting of plasma membrane proteins has been most successful to date, and this is reflected in the large representation of these proteins as targets of newer therapies. In view of these facts, experiments were designed to investigate the plasma membrane proteome of a variety of human breast cancer cell lines representing hormone-responsive, ErbB2 over-expressing and triple negative cell types, as well as a benign control. Plasma membranes were isolated by using an aqueous two-phase system, and the resulting proteins were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Overall, each of the cell lines expressed some unique proteins, and a number of proteins were expressed in multiple cell lines, but in patterns that did not always follow traditional clinical definitions of breast cancer type. From our data, it can be deduced that most cancer cells possess multiple strategies to promote uncontrolled growth, reflected in aberrant expression of tyrosine kinases, cellular adhesion molecules, and structural proteins. Our data set provides a very rich and complex picture of plasma membrane proteins present on breast cancer cells, and the sorting and categorizing of this data provides interesting insights into the biology, classification, and potential treatment of this prevalent and debilitating disease. PMID:25029196

  8. PIM Kinases as Potential Therapeutic Targets in a Subset of Peripheral T Cell Lymphoma Cases

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Sánchez, Esperanza; Odqvist, Lina; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Socorro M.; Sánchez-Beato, Margarita; Roncador, Giovanna; Domínguez-González, Beatriz; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; García Collazo, Ana M.; Cantalapiedra, Esther González; Fernández, Joaquín Pastor; del Olmo, Soraya Curiel; Pisonero, Helena; Madureira, Rebeca; Almaraz, Carmen; Mollejo, Manuela; Alves, F. Javier; Menárguez, Javier; González-Palacios, Fernando; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L.; Real, Francisco X.; García, Juan F.; Bischoff, James R.; Piris, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no efficient therapy for patients with peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL). The Proviral Integration site of Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases are important mediators of cell survival. We aimed to determine the therapeutic value of PIM kinases because they are overexpressed in PTCL patients, T cell lines and primary tumoral T cells. PIM kinases were inhibited genetically (using small interfering and short hairpin RNAs) and pharmacologically (mainly with the pan-PIM inhibitor (PIMi) ETP-39010) in a panel of 8 PTCL cell lines. Effects on cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle, key proteins and gene expression were evaluated. Individual inhibition of each of the PIM genes did not affect PTCL cell survival, partially because of a compensatory mechanism among the three PIM genes. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of all PIM kinases strongly induced apoptosis in all PTCL cell lines, without cell cycle arrest, in part through the induction of DNA damage. Therefore, pan-PIMi synergized with Cisplatin. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of PIM reduced primary tumoral T cell viability without affecting normal T cells ex vivo. Since anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ ALCL) cell lines were the most sensitive to the pan-PIMi, we tested the simultaneous inhibition of ALK and PIM kinases and found a strong synergistic effect in ALK+ ALCL cell lines. Our findings suggest that PIM kinase inhibition could be of therapeutic value in a subset of PTCL, especially when combined with ALK inhibitors, and might be clinically beneficial in ALK+ ALCL. PMID:25386922

  9. New Potential Targets of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists in Pancreatic β-Cells and Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that both insulin resistance and decreased insulin secretory capacity are important factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition to genetic factors, obesity and lipotoxicity can increase the risk of T2DM. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are novel antidiabetic drugs with multiple effects. They can stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibit postprandial glucagon release, delay gastric emptying, and induce pancreatic β-cell proliferation. They can also reduce the weight of patients with T2DM and relieve lipotoxicity at the cellular level. Many intracellular targets of GLP-1 have been found, but more remain to be identified. Elucidating these targets could be a basis for developing new potential drugs. My colleagues and I have investigated new targets of GLP-1, with a particular focus on pancreatic β-cell lines and hepatic cell lines. Herein, I summarize the recent work from my laboratory, with profound gratitude for receiving the prestigious 2016 Namgok Award. PMID:28181428

  10. Conserved B-Cell Epitopes among Human Bocavirus Species Indicate Potential Diagnostic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaying; Zhou, Hongli; Wu, Chao; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Vernet, Guy; Guo, Li; Wang, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    Background Human bocavirus species 1–4 (HBoV1–4) have been associated with respiratory and enteric infections in children. However, the immunological mechanisms in response to HBoV infections are not fully understood. Though previous studies have shown cross-reactivities between HBoV species, the epitopes responsible for this phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, we used genomic and immunologic approaches to identify the reactive epitopes conserved across multiple HBoV species and explored their potential as the basis of a novel diagnostic test for HBoVs. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated HBoV1–3 VP2 gene fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs) and used these libraries to analyze mouse antisera against VP2 protein of HBoV1, 2, and 3, and human sera positive for HBoVs. Using this approach, we mapped four epitope clusters of HBoVs and identified two immunodominant peptides–P1 (1MSDTDIQDQQPDTVDAPQNT20), and P2 (162EHAYPNASHPWDEDVMPDL180)–that are conserved among HBoV1–4. To confirm epitope immunogenicity, we immunized mice with the immunodominant P1 and P2 peptides identified in our screen and found that they elicited high titer antibodies in mice. These two antibodies could only recognize the VP2 of HBoV 1–4 in Western blot assays, rather than those of the two other parvoviruses human parvovirus B19 and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4). Based on our findings, we evaluated epitope-based peptide-IgM ELISAs as potential diagnostic tools for HBoVs IgM antibodies. We found that the P1+P2-IgM ELISA showed a higher sensitivity and specificity in HBoVs IgM detection than the assays using a single peptide. Conclusions/Significance The identification of the conserved B-cell epitopes among human bocavirus species contributes to our understanding of immunological cross-reactivities of HBoVs, and provides important insights for the development of HBoV diagnostic tools. PMID:24475201

  11. Assessing the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Cells and In Vivo using Targeted Click Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Angela; Pell, Victoria R.; Shaffer, Karl J.; Evans, Cameron; Stanley, Nathan J.; Robb, Ellen L.; Prime, Tracy A.; Chouchani, Edward T.; Cochemé, Helena M.; Fearnley, Ian M.; Vidoni, Sara; James, Andrew M.; Porteous, Carolyn M.; Partridge, Linda; Krieg, Thomas; Smith, Robin A.J.; Murphy, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) is a major determinant and indicator of cell fate, but it is not possible to assess small changes in Δψm within cells or in vivo. To overcome this, we developed an approach that utilizes two mitochondria-targeted probes each containing a triphenylphosphonium (TPP) lipophilic cation that drives their accumulation in response to Δψm and the plasma membrane potential (Δψp). One probe contains an azido moiety and the other a cyclooctyne, which react together in a concentration-dependent manner by “click” chemistry to form MitoClick. As the mitochondrial accumulation of both probes depends exponentially on Δψm and Δψp, the rate of MitoClick formation is exquisitely sensitive to small changes in these potentials. MitoClick accumulation can then be quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This approach enables assessment of subtle changes in membrane potentials within cells and in the mouse heart in vivo. PMID:26712463

  12. Assessing the Mitochondrial Membrane Potential in Cells and In Vivo using Targeted Click Chemistry and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Logan, Angela; Pell, Victoria R; Shaffer, Karl J; Evans, Cameron; Stanley, Nathan J; Robb, Ellen L; Prime, Tracy A; Chouchani, Edward T; Cochemé, Helena M; Fearnley, Ian M; Vidoni, Sara; James, Andrew M; Porteous, Carolyn M; Partridge, Linda; Krieg, Thomas; Smith, Robin A J; Murphy, Michael P

    2016-02-09

    The mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) is a major determinant and indicator of cell fate, but it is not possible to assess small changes in Δψm within cells or in vivo. To overcome this, we developed an approach that utilizes two mitochondria-targeted probes each containing a triphenylphosphonium (TPP) lipophilic cation that drives their accumulation in response to Δψm and the plasma membrane potential (Δψp). One probe contains an azido moiety and the other a cyclooctyne, which react together in a concentration-dependent manner by "click" chemistry to form MitoClick. As the mitochondrial accumulation of both probes depends exponentially on Δψm and Δψp, the rate of MitoClick formation is exquisitely sensitive to small changes in these potentials. MitoClick accumulation can then be quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This approach enables assessment of subtle changes in membrane potentials within cells and in the mouse heart in vivo. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular features of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma unravels potential novel therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Travert, Marion; Huang, Yenlin; De Leval, Laurence; Martin-Garcia, Nadine; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Helene; Berger, Françoise; Bosq, Jacques; Brière, Josette; Soulier, Jean; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Marafioti, Teresa; de Reyniès, Aurélien; Gaulard, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTL) is a rare entity mostly derived from γδ T cells that shows a fatal outcome. Its pathogenesis remains largely unknown. HSTL samples (7γδ, 2αβ) and the DERL2 HSTL-cell line were subject to combined gene expression profiling and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Compared to other T-cell lymphomas, HSTL disclosed a distinct molecular signature irrespective of TCR cell lineage. Compared to PTCL,NOS and normal γδ cells, HSTL overexpressed genes encoding NK-cell associated molecules, oncogenes (FOS, VAV3), the Sphingosine-1-phosphatase receptor 5 involved in cell trafficking and the tyrosine kinase SYK, whereas the tumor suppressor gene AIM1 was among the most downexpressed. Methylation analysis of DERL2 cells demonstrated highly methylated CpG islands of AIM1 and decitabine treatment induced significant increase in AIM1 transcripts. Notably, Syk was demonstrated in HSTL cells with its phosphorylated form present in DERL2 cells by Western blot, and in vitro DERL2 cells were sensitive to a Syk inhibitor. Genomic profiles confirmed recurrent isochromosome 7q (n=6/9) without alterations at 9q22 and 6q21 containing SYK and AIM1 genes, respectively. The current study identifies a distinct molecular signature for HSTL and highlights oncogenic pathways which offer rationale for exploring new therapeutic options such as Syk inhibitors and demethylating agents. PMID:22510872

  14. Multiple myeloma cell lines and primary tumors proteoma: protein biosynthesis and immune system as potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Evangelista, Adriane Feijó; Braga, Walter Moisés Tobias; de Lourdes Chauffaille, Maria; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Colleoni, Gisele Wally Braga

    2015-01-01

    Despite great advance in multiple myeloma (MM) treatment since 2000s, it is still an incurable disease and novel therapies are welcome. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore MM plasma cells' (MM-PC) proteome, in comparison with their normal counterparts (derived from palatine tonsils of normal donors, ND-PC), in order to find potential therapeutic targets expressed on the surface of these cells. We also aimed to evaluate the proteome of MM cell lines with different genetic alterations, to confirm findings obtained with primary tumor cells. Bone marrow (BM) samples from eight new cases of MM and palatine tonsils from seven unmatched controls were submitted to PC separation and, in addition to two MM cell lines (U266, RPMI-8226), were submitted to protein extraction for mass spectrometry analyses. A total of 81 proteins were differentially expressed between MM-PC and ND-PC - 72 upregulated and nine downregulated; U266 vs. RPMI 8226 cell lines presented 61 differentially expressed proteins - 51 upregulated and 10 downregulated. On primary tumors, bioinformatics analyses highlighted upregulation of protein biosynthesis machinery, as well as downregulation of immune response components, such as MHC class I and II, and complement receptors. We also provided comprehensive information about U266 and RPMI-8226 cell lines' proteome and could confirm some patients' findings. PMID:26807199

  15. Radioimmunotherapy of Fungal Diseases: The Therapeutic Potential of Cytocidal Radiation Delivered by Antibody Targeting Fungal Cell Surface Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy is the targeted delivery of cytocidal radiation to cells via specific antibody. Although mature for the treatment of cancer, RIT of infectious diseases is in pre-clinical development. However, as there is an obvious and urgent need for novel approaches to treat infectious diseases, RIT can provide us with a powerful approach to combat serious diseases, including invasive fungal infections. For example, RIT has proven more effective than standard amphotericin B for the treatment of experimental cryptococcosis. This review will discuss the concepts of RIT, its applications for infectious diseases, and the strides made to date to bring RIT of infectious diseases to fruition. Finally, we will discuss the potential of PAN-FUNGAL RIT, the targeting of conserved fungal cell surface antigens by RIT, as a treatment modality for fungi prior to the formal microbiological identification of the specific pathogen. In sum, RIT provides a mechanism for the targeted killing of drug susceptible or resistant fungi irrespective of the host immune status and may dramatically reduce the length of therapy currently required for many invasive fungal diseases. PMID:22275913

  16. The Metaboloepigenetic Dimension of Cancer Stem Cells: Evaluating the Market Potential for New Metabostemness-Targeting Oncology Drugs.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    The current global portfolio of oncology drugs is unlikely to produce durable disease remission for millions of cancer patients worldwide. This is due, in part, to the existence of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), a particularly aggressive type of malignant cell that is capable of indefinite self-replication, is refractory to conventional treatments, and is skilled at spreading and colonizing distant organs. To date, no drugs from big-league Pharma companies are capable of killing CSCs. Why? Quite simply, a classic drug development approach based on mutated genes and pathological protein products cannot efficiently target the plastic, epigenetic proclivity of cancer tissues to generate CSCs. Recent studies have proposed that certain elite metabolites (oncometabolites) and other common metabolites can significantly influence the establishment and maintenance of epigenetic signatures of stemness and cancer. Consequently, cellular metabolism and the core epigenetic codes, DNA methylation and histone modification, can be better viewed as an integrated metaboloepigenetic dimension of CSCs, which we have recently termed cancer metabostemness. By targeting weaknesses in the bridge connecting metabolism and epigenetics, a new generation of metabostemnessspecific drugs can be generated for potent and long-lasting elimination of life-threatening CSCs. Here I evaluate the market potential of re-modeling the oncology drug pipeline by discovering and developing new metabolic approaches able to target the apparently undruggable epigenetic programs that dynamically regulate the plasticity of non-CSC and CSC cellular states.

  17. A Lipidomics Approach in the Characterization of Zika-Infected Mosquito Cells: Potential Targets for Breaking the Transmission Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Lima, Estela de Oliveira; Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina; Esteves, Cibele Zanardi; Beck, Raissa Marques; Padilla, Marina Aiello; Milanez, Guilherme Paier; Arns, Clarice Weis; Proença-Modena, José Luiz; Souza-Neto, Jayme Augusto; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Zika virus in Oceania and Latin America, accompanied by unexpected clinical complications, made this infection a global public health concern. This virus has tropism to neural tissue, leading to microcephaly in newborns in a significant proportion of infected mothers. The clinical relevance of this infection, the difficulty to perform accurate diagnosis and the small amount of data in literature indicate the necessity of studies on Zika infection in order to characterize new biomarkers of this infection and to establish new targets for viral control in vertebrates and invertebrate vectors. Thus, this study aims at establishing a lipidomics profile of infected mosquito cells compared to a control group to define potential targets for viral control in mosquitoes. Thirteen lipids were elected as specific markers for Zika virus infection (Brazilian strain), which were identified as putatively linked to the intracellular mechanism of viral replication and/or cell recognition. Our findings bring biochemical information that may translate into useful targets for breaking the transmission cycle. PMID:27723844

  18. Targeting the Unfolded Protein Response as a Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Renal Carcinoma Cells Exposed to Cyclosporine A.

    PubMed

    Bodeau, Sandra; Sauzay, Chloé; Nyga, Rémy; Louandre, Christophe; Descamps, Véronique; François, Catherine; Godin, Corinne; Choukroun, Gabriel; Galmiche, Antoine

    2017-03-01

    Organ transplant patients treated with the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A often present malignant kidney tumors. Cyclosporine A can promote oncogenesis in a cell-intrinsic manner by increasing the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We explored the impact of cyclosporine A and the role of the unfolded protein response (UPR) on three human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines under normoxic and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions. Cyclosporine A regulated the expression of VEGF at the post-transcriptional level. Cyclosporine A induced the inositol requiring enzyme-1α (IRE1α) arm of the UPR and stabilized neosynthesized proteins in RCC cells. Toyocamycin, an inhibitor of IRE1α, abolished the clonogenic growth of RCC cells and reduced induction of VEGF by cyclosporine A under hypoxia. Our findings highlight the impact of cyclosporine A on the proteostasis of RCC cells, and suggest the potential therapeutic interest of targeting the UPR against tumors arising in the context of organ transplantation. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Targeting Membrane Lipid a Potential Cancer Cure?

    PubMed

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Lee, Wai-Leng; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2017-01-01

    Cancer mortality and morbidity is projected to increase significantly over the next few decades. Current chemotherapeutic strategies have significant limitations, and there is great interest in seeking novel therapies which are capable of specifically targeting cancer cells. Given that fundamental differences exist between the cellular membranes of healthy cells and tumor cells, novel therapies based on targeting membrane lipids in cancer cells is a promising approach that deserves attention in the field of anticancer drug development. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a lipid membrane component which exists only in the inner leaflet of cell membrane under normal circumstances, has increased surface representation on the outer membrane of tumor cells with disrupted membrane asymmetry. PE thus represents a potential chemotherapeutic target as the higher exposure of PE on the membrane surface of cancer cells. This feature as well as a high degree of expression of PE on endothelial cells in tumor vasculature, makes PE an attractive molecular target for future cancer interventions. There have already been several small molecules and membrane-active peptides identified which bind specifically to the PE molecules on the cancer cell membrane, subsequently inducing membrane disruption leading to cell lysis. This approach opens up a new front in the battle against cancer, and is of particular interest as it may be a strategy that may be prove effective against tumors that respond poorly to current chemotherapeutic agents. We aim to highlight the evidence suggesting that PE is a strong candidate to be explored as a potential molecular target for membrane targeted novel anticancer therapy.

  20. Dendritic cell targeted liposomes-protamine-DNA complexes mediated by synthetic mannosylated cholestrol as a potential carrier for DNA vaccine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pan; Chen, Simu; Jiang, Yuhong; Jiang, Jiayu; Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Xun

    2013-07-01

    To construct mannosylated liposomes/protamine/DNA (LPD) carriers for DNA vaccine targeting to dendritic cells (DCs), a mannosylated cholesterol derivative (Man-C6-Chol) was synthesized via simple ester linkage and amide bonds. Then, the Man-C6-Chol was applied to LPD formulation as a synthetic ligand. The physicochemical properties of mannosylated LPD (Man-LPD) were first evaluated, including the size and zeta potential, morphology and the ability to protect DNA against DNase I degradation. Man-LPD showed a small size with a stable viral-like structure. In comparison to non-mannose liposomes/LPD (Man-free liposomes/LPD), mannosylated liposomes/LPD (Man-liposomes/Man-LPD) exhibited higher efficiency in both intracellular uptake (2.3-fold) and transfection (4.5-fold) in vitro. Subsequent MTT assays indicated that the LPD carriers had low toxicity on the tested cells. Afterwards, the investigation into the maturation activation on primary bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) showed that both Man-LPD and Man-free LPD induced remarkable up-regulation of CD80, CD86 and CD40 on BMDCs. Inspired by these studies, we can conclude that the synthetic mannosylated LPD targeting to DCs was a potential carrier for DNA vaccine.

  1. FRMD4A: A potential therapeutic target for the treatment of tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xianghuai; Jia, Bo; Lin, Xi; Han, Jiusong; Qiu, Xiaoling; Chu, Hongxing; Sun, Xiang; Hu, Weitao; Pan, Jie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Jianjiang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify agents capable of inhibiting the invasion and metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma and thereby improve the outcomes of patients suffering from tongue cancer. FRMD4A antibodies were used to probe 78 paraffin-embedded specimens of tongue squamous cell carcinoma and 15 normal tongue tissues, which served as controls. Immunohistochemical methods were then used for analysis. Clinical pathological parameters were obtained, and the association between FRMD4A expression in the samples and the pathological parameters was analyzed. The human tongue cancer cell line CAL27 was used to study the effects of FRMD4A. CAL27 cells were transfected with small-interfering RNA against FRMD4A (FRMD4A-siRNA) and the mRNA and protein levels of FMRD4A were then evaluated by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The proliferation and cell-cycle assays of CAL27 cells were evaluated using the CCK8 method and flow cytometry. The invasion and migration of the cells were measured using a Matrigel invasion chamber and a scratch assay, respectively. The results showed FRMD4A overexpression in tongue squamous cell carcinoma, and the positive reaction was predominately located in the cytoplasm. Tumor clinical stage and lymph node metastasis showed a statistically significant correlation with FRMD4A expression. Transient silencing of the FRMD4A gene for 24 and 48 h significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression of FRMD4A, respctively. Silencing FRMD4A gene reduced the proliferation of CAL27 cells and led to cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, as well as significantly suppressing the migration and invasion capacity of CAL27 cells. The findings of the present study suggest that FRMD4A expression correlates with the development of tongue squamous cell carcinoma. For this reason, FRMD4A merits further study as it may be suitable for use as a therapeutic agent in antitumor treatment regimens. PMID:27666346

  2. Endothelial cell palmitoylproteomics identifies novel lipid modified targets and potential substrates for protein acyl transferases

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Ethan P.; Derakhshan, Behrad; Lam, TuKiet T.; Davalos, Alberto; Sessa, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Protein S-palmitoylation is the post-translational attachment of a saturated 16-carbon palmitic acid to a cysteine side chain via a thioester bond. Palmitoylation can affect protein localization, trafficking, stability, and function. The extent and roles of palmitoylation in endothelial cell (EC) biology is not well understood, in part due to technological limits on palmitoylprotein detection. Objective To develop a method using acyl-biotinyl exchange (ABE) technology coupled with mass spectrometry to globally isolate and identify palmitoylproteins in EC. Methods and Results More than 150 putative palmitoyl proteins were identified in EC using ABE and mass spectrometry. Among the novel palmitoylproteins identified is superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), an intensively studied enzyme that protects all cells from oxidative damage. Mutation of cysteine 6 prevents palmitoylation, leads to reduction in SOD1 activity in vivo and in vitro, and inhibits nuclear localization, thereby supporting a functional role for SOD1 palmitoylation. Moreover, we used ABE to search for substrates of particular protein acyl transferases in EC. We found that palmitoylation of the cell adhesion protein PECAM1 is dependent on the protein acyl transferase ZDHHC21. We show that knockdown of ZDHHC21 leads to reduced levels of PECAM1 at the cell surface. Conclusions Our data demonstrate the utility of EC palmitoylproteomics to reveal new insights into the role of this important post-translational lipid modification in EC biology. PMID:22496122

  3. TRPV2 activation induces apoptotic cell death in human T24 bladder cancer cells: a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takahiro; Ueda, Takashi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Ikegami, Yosuke; Saito, Masaki; Ishida, Yusuke; Ugawa, Shinya; Kohri, Kenjiro; Shimada, Shoichi

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the functional expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) channel protein in human urothelial carcinoma (UC) cells and to determine whether calcium influx into UC cells through TRPV2 is involved in apoptotic cell death. The expression of TRPV2 mRNA in bladder cancer cell lines (T24, a poorly differentiated UC cell line and RT4, a well-differentiated UC cell line) was analyzed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The calcium permeability of TRPV2 channels in T24 cells was investigated using a calcium imaging assay that used cannabidiol (CBD), a relatively selective TRPV2 agonist, and ruthenium red (RuR), a nonselective TRPV channel antagonist. The death of T24 or RT4 cells in the presence of CBD was evaluated using a cellular viability assay. Apoptosis of T24 cells caused by CBD was confirmed using an annexin-V assay and small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of TRPV2. TRPV2 mRNA was abundantly expressed in T24 cells. The expression level in UC cells was correlated with high-grade disease. The administration of CBD increased intracellular calcium concentrations in T24 cells. In addition, the viability of T24 cells progressively decreased with increasing concentrations of CBD, whereas RT4 cells were mostly unaffected. Cell death occurred via apoptosis caused by continuous influx of calcium through TRPV2. TRPV2 channels in UC cells are calcium-permeable and the regulation of calcium influx through these channels leads directly to the death of UC cells. TRPV2 channels in UC cells may be a potential new therapeutic target, especially in higher-grade UC cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrative genomic analyses of sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinoma define disease subtypes and potential new therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Dondeti, Vijay R; Wubbenhorst, Bradley; Lal, Priti; Gordan, John D; D'Andrea, Kurt; Attiyeh, Edward F; Simon, M Celeste; Nathanson, Katherine L

    2012-01-01

    Sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common type of adult kidney cancer, is often associated with genomic copy number aberrations on chromosomes 3p and 5q. Aberrations on chromosome 3p are associated with inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene von-Hippel Lindau (VHL), which activates the hypoxia-inducible factors HIF1α and HIF2α. In contrast, ccRCC genes on chromosome 5q remain to be defined. In this study, we conducted an integrated analysis of high-density copy number and gene expression data for 54 sporadic ccRCC tumors that identified the secreted glycoprotein STC2 (stanniocalcin 2) and the proteoglycan VCAN (versican) as potential 5q oncogenes in ccRCCs. In functional assays, STC2 and VCAN each promoted tumorigenesis by inhibiting cell death. Using the same approach, we also investigated the two VHL-deficient subtypes of ccRCC, which express both HIF1α and HIF2α (H1H2) or only HIF2α (H2). This analysis revealed a distinct pattern of genomic aberrations in each group, with the H1H2 group displaying, on average, a more aberrant genome than the H2 group. Together our findings provide a significant advance in understanding ccRCCs by offering a molecular definition of two subtypes with distinct characteristics as well as two potential chromosome 5q oncogenes, the overexpression of which is sufficient to promote tumorigenesis by limiting cell death. ©2011 AACR

  5. A Target-Based Whole Cell Screen Approach To Identify Potential Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Signal Peptidase

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The general secretion (Sec) pathway is a conserved essential pathway in bacteria and is the primary route of protein export across the cytoplasmic membrane. During protein export, the signal peptidase LepB catalyzes the cleavage of the signal peptide and subsequent release of mature proteins into the extracellular space. We developed a target-based whole cell assay to screen for potential inhibitors of LepB, the sole signal peptidase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, using a strain engineered to underexpress LepB (LepB-UE). We screened 72,000 compounds against both the Lep-UE and wild-type (wt) strains. We identified the phenylhydrazone (PHY) series as having higher activity against the LepB-UE strain. We conducted a limited structure–activity relationship determination around a representative PHY compound with differential activity (MICs of 3.0 μM against the LepB-UE strain and 18 μM against the wt); several analogues were less potent against the LepB overexpressing strain. A number of chemical modifications around the hydrazone moiety resulted in improved potency. Inhibition of LepB activity was observed for a number of compounds in a biochemical assay using cell membrane fraction derived from M. tuberculosis. Compounds did not increase cell permeability, dissipate membrane potential, or inhibit an unrelated mycobacterial enzyme, suggesting a specific mode of action related to the LepB secretory mechanism. PMID:27642770

  6. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells: a potential target for therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS)

    PubMed Central

    Duddy, M E; Dickson, G; Hawkins, S A; Armstrong, M A

    2001-01-01

    Monocytes can differentiate into dendritic cells (DC), cells with a pivotal role in both protective immunity and tolerance. Defects in the maturation or function of DC may be important in the development of autoimmune disease. We sought to establish if there were differences in the cytokine (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-4)-driven maturation of monocytes to DC in patients with MS and whether drugs used to treat MS affected this process in vitro. We have demonstrated that there is no defect in the ability of magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS)-purified monocytes from patients with MS to differentiate to DC, but equally they show no tendency to acquire a DC phenotype without exogenous cytokines. Interferon-beta1a prevents the acquisition of a full DC phenotype as determined by light and electron microscopy and by flow cytometry. Methylprednisolone not only prevents the development of monocyte-derived DC but totally redirects monocyte differentiation towards a macrophage phenotype. Evidence is evolving for a role for DC in central nervous system immunity, either within the brain or in cervical lymph nodes. The demonstrated effect of both drugs on monocyte differentiation may represent an important site for immune therapy in MS. PMID:11207659

  7. Molecular crosstalk between cancer cells and tumor microenvironment components suggests potential targets for new therapeutic approaches in mobile tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Dan; Salo, Tuula; Salo, Sirpa; Nyberg, Pia; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Costea, Daniela Elena; Vered, Marilena

    2012-01-01

    We characterized tumor microenvironment (TME) components of mobile tongue (MT) cancer patients in terms of overall inflammatory infiltrate, focusing on the protumorigenic/anti-inflammatory phenotypes and on cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in order to determine their interrelations and associations with clinical outcomes. In addition, by culturing tongue carcinoma cells (HSC-3) on a three-dimensional myoma organotypic model that mimics TME, we attempted to investigate the possible existence of a molecular crosstalk between cancer cells and TME components. Analysis of 64 cases of MT cancer patients revealed that the overall density of the inflammatory infiltrate was inversely correlated to the density of CAFs (P = 0.01), but that the cumulative density of the protumorigenic/anti-inflammatory phenotypes, including regulatory T cells (Tregs, Foxp3+), tumor-associated macrophages (TAM2, CD163+), and potentially Tregs-inducing immune cells (CD80+), was directly correlated with the density of CAFs (P = 0.01). The hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence in a TME rich in CD163+ Foxp3+ CD80+ was 2.9 (95% CI 1.03–8.6, P = 0.043 compared with low in CD163+ Foxp3+ CD80+). The HR for recurrence in a TME rich in CAFs was 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–12.8, P = 0.012 compared with low in CAFs). In vitro studies showed cancer-derived exosomes, epithelial–mesenchymal transition process, fibroblast-to-CAF-like cell transdifferentiation, and reciprocal interrelations between different cytokines suggesting the presence of molecular crosstalk between cancer cells and TME components. Collectively, these results highlighted the emerging need of new therapies targeting this crosstalk between the cancer cells and TME components in MT cancer. PMID:23342263

  8. Therapeutic potential of targeting IRES-dependent c-myc translation in multiple myeloma cells during ER stress.

    PubMed

    Shi, Y; Yang, Y; Hoang, B; Bardeleben, C; Holmes, B; Gera, J; Lichtenstein, A

    2016-02-25

    Protein translation is inhibited by the unfolded protein response (UPR)-induced eIF-2α phosphorylation to protect against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In addition, we found additional inhibition of protein translation owing to diminished mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex1) activity in ER-stressed multiple myeloma (MM) cells. However, c-myc protein levels and myc translation was maintained. To ascertain how c-myc was maintained, we studied myc IRES (internal ribosome entry site) function, which does not require mTORC1 activity. Myc IRES activity was upregulated in MM cells during ER stress induced by thapsigargin, tunicamycin or the myeloma therapeutic bortezomib. IRES activity was dependent on upstream MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and MNK1 (MAPK-interacting serine/threonine kinase 1) signaling. A screen identified hnRNP A1 (A1) and RPS25 as IRES-binding trans-acting factors required for ER stress-activated activity. A1 associated with RPS25 during ER stress and this was prevented by an MNK inhibitor. In a proof of principle, we identified a compound that prevented binding of A1 to the myc IRES and specifically inhibited myc IRES activity in MM cells. This compound, when used alone, was not cytotoxic nor did it inhibit myc translation or protein expression. However, when combined with ER stress inducers, especially bortezomib, a remarkable synergistic cytotoxicity ensued with associated inhibition of myc translation and expression. These results underscore the potential for targeting A1-mediated myc IRES activity in MM cells during ER stress.

  9. Potential Susceptibility Loci Identified for Renal Cell Carcinoma by Targeting Obesity-Related Genes.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiang; Purdue, Mark P; Ye, Yuanqing; Tu, Huakang; Wood, Christopher G; Tannir, Nizar M; Wang, Zhaoming; Albanes, Demetrius; Gapstur, Susan M; Stevens, Victoria L; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chanock, Stephen J; Wu, Xifeng

    2017-09-01

    Background: Obesity is an established risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of RCC have identified several susceptibility loci, additional variants might be missed due to the highly conservative selection.Methods: We conducted a multiphase study utilizing three independent genome-wide scans at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDA RCC GWAS and MDA RCC OncoArray) and National Cancer Institute (NCI RCC GWAS), which consisted of a total of 3,530 cases and 5,714 controls, to investigate genetic variations in obesity-related genes and RCC risk.Results: In the discovery phase, 32,946 SNPs located at ±10 kb of 2,001 obesity-related genes were extracted from MDA RCC GWAS and analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Proxies (R(2) > 0.8) were searched or imputation was performed if SNPs were not directly genotyped in the validation sets. Twenty-one SNPs with P < 0.05 in both MDA RCC GWAS and NCI RCC GWAS were subsequently evaluated in MDA RCC OncoArray. In the overall meta-analysis, significant (P < 0.05) associations with RCC risk were observed for SNP mapping to IL1RAPL2 [rs10521506-G: ORmeta = 0.87 (0.81-0.93), Pmeta = 2.33 × 10(-5)], PLIN2 [rs2229536-A: ORmeta = 0.87 (0.81-0.93), Pmeta = 2.33 × 10(-5)], SMAD3 [rs4601989-A: ORmeta = 0.86 (0.80-0.93), Pmeta = 2.71 × 10(-4)], MED13L [rs10850596-A: ORmeta = 1.14 (1.07-1.23), Pmeta = 1.50 × 10(-4)], and TSC1 [rs3761840-G: ORmeta = 0.90 (0.85-0.97), Pmeta = 2.47 × 10(-3)]. We did not observe any significant cis-expression quantitative trait loci effect for these SNPs in the TCGA KIRC data.Conclusions: Taken together, we found that genetic variation of obesity-related genes could influence RCC susceptibility.Impact: The five identified loci may provide new insights into disease etiology that reveal importance of obesity-related genes in RCC development. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1436-42. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Gene expression profiling of precursor T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma identifies oncogenic pathways that are potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Wei; Aplan, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the gene expression pattern of thymic tumors from precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (pre-T LBL) that arose in transgenic mice which over-expressed SCL, LMO1, or NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) with that of thymocytes from normal littermates. Only two genes, Ccl8 and Mrpl38, were consistently more than 4-fold over-expressed in pre-T LBL from all three genotypes analyzed, and a single gene, Prss16 was consistently under-expressed. However, we identified a number of genes, such as Cfl1, Tcra, Tcrb, Pbx3, Eif4a, Eif4b, and Cox8b that were over or under-expressed in pre-T LBL that arose in specific transgenic lines. Similar to the situation seen with human pre-T LBL, the SCL/LMO1 leukemias displayed an expression profile consistent with mature, late cortical thymocytes, whereas the NHD13 leukemias displayed an expression profile more consistent with immature thymocytes. We evaluated two of the most differentially regulated genes as potential therapeutic targets. Cfl1 was specifically over-expressed in SCL-LMO1 tumors; inactivation of Cfl1 using Okadaic acid resulted in suppression of leukemic cell growth. Overexpression of Ccl8 was a consistent finding in all 3 transgenic lines, and an antagonist for the Ccl8 receptor induced death of leukemic cell lines, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:17429429

  11. Irreversible EGFR inhibitor EKB-569 targets low-LET γ-radiation-triggered rel orchestration and potentiates cell death in squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aravindan, Natarajan; Thomas, Charles R; Aravindan, Sheeja; Mohan, Aswathi S; Veeraraghavan, Jamunarani; Natarajan, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    EKB-569 (Pelitinib), an irreversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor has shown potential therapeutic efficiency in solid tumors. However, cell-killing potential in combination with radiotherapy and its underlying molecular orchestration remain to be explored. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of EKB-569 on ionizing radiation (IR)-associated NFκB-dependent cell death. SCC-4 and SCC-9 cells exposed to IR (2Gy) with and without EKB-569 treatment were analyzed for transactivation of 88 NFκB pathway molecules, NFκB DNA-binding activity, translation of the NFκB downstream mediators, Birc1, 2 and 5, cell viability, metabolic activity and apoptosis. Selective targeting of IR-induced NFκB by EKB-569 and its influence on cell-fate were assessed by overexpressing (p50/p65) and silencing (ΔIκBα) NFκB. QPCR profiling after IR exposure revealed a significant induction of 74 NFκB signal transduction molecules. Of those, 72 were suppressed with EKB-569. EMSA revealed a dose dependent inhibition of NFκB by EKB-569. More importantly, EKB-569 inhibited IR-induced NFκB in a dose-dependent manner, and this inhibition was sustained up to at least 72 h. Immunoblotting revealed a significant suppression of IR-induced Birc1, 2 and 5 by EKB-569. We observed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, metabolic activity and apoptosis with EKB-569. EKB-569 significantly enhanced IR-induced cell death and apoptosis. Blocking NFκB improved IR-induced cell death. Conversely, NFκB overexpression negates EKB-569 -induced cell-killing. Together, these pre-clinical data suggest that EKB-569 is a radiosensitizer of squamous cell carcinoma and may mechanistically involve selective targeting of IR-induced NFκB-dependent survival signaling. Further pre-clinical in-vivo studies are warranted.

  12. Targeting Membrane Lipid a Potential Cancer Cure?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Lee, Wai-Leng; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2017-01-01

    Cancer mortality and morbidity is projected to increase significantly over the next few decades. Current chemotherapeutic strategies have significant limitations, and there is great interest in seeking novel therapies which are capable of specifically targeting cancer cells. Given that fundamental differences exist between the cellular membranes of healthy cells and tumor cells, novel therapies based on targeting membrane lipids in cancer cells is a promising approach that deserves attention in the field of anticancer drug development. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a lipid membrane component which exists only in the inner leaflet of cell membrane under normal circumstances, has increased surface representation on the outer membrane of tumor cells with disrupted membrane asymmetry. PE thus represents a potential chemotherapeutic target as the higher exposure of PE on the membrane surface of cancer cells. This feature as well as a high degree of expression of PE on endothelial cells in tumor vasculature, makes PE an attractive molecular target for future cancer interventions. There have already been several small molecules and membrane-active peptides identified which bind specifically to the PE molecules on the cancer cell membrane, subsequently inducing membrane disruption leading to cell lysis. This approach opens up a new front in the battle against cancer, and is of particular interest as it may be a strategy that may be prove effective against tumors that respond poorly to current chemotherapeutic agents. We aim to highlight the evidence suggesting that PE is a strong candidate to be explored as a potential molecular target for membrane targeted novel anticancer therapy. PMID:28167913

  13. Neuroinflammation: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Craft, Jeffrey M; Watterson, D Martin; Van Eldik, Linda J

    2005-10-01

    The increased appreciation of the importance of glial cell-propagated inflammation (termed 'neuroinflammation') in the progression of pathophysiology for diverse neurodegenerative diseases, has heightened interest in the rapid discovery of neuroinflammation-targeted therapeutics. Efforts include searches among existing drugs approved for other uses, as well as development of novel synthetic compounds that selectively downregulate neuroinflammatory responses. The use of existing drugs to target neuroinflammation has largely met with failure due to lack of efficacy or untoward side effects. However, the de novo development of new classes of therapeutics based on targeting selective aspects of glia activation pathways and glia-mediated pathophysiologies, versus targeting pathways of quantitative importance in non-CNS inflammatory responses, is yielding promising results in preclinical animal models. The authors briefly review selected clinical and preclinical data that reflect the prevailing approaches targeting neuroinflammation as a pathophysiological process contributing to onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The authors conclude with opinions based on recent experimental proofs of concept using preclinical animal models of pathophysiology. The focus is on Alzheimer's disease, but the concepts are transferrable to other neurodegenerative disorders with an inflammatory component.

  14. c-Met is a prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gibney, G. T.; Aziz, S. A.; Camp, R. L.; Conrad, P.; Schwartz, B. E.; Chen, C. R.; Kelly, W. K.; Kluger, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Activation of the c-Met pathway occurs in a range of malignancies, including papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Its activity in clear cell RCC is less clear. We investigated c-Met expression and inhibition in a large cohort of RCC tumors and cell lines. Methods c-Met protein expression was determined by automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) on a tissue microarray (TMA) constructed from 330 RCC tumors paired with adjacent normal renal tissue. c-Met expression and selective inhibition with SU11274 and ARQ 197 were studied in clear cell RCC cell lines. Results Higher c-Met expression was detected in all RCC subtypes than in the adjacent normal renal tissue (P < 0.0001). Expression was highest in papillary and sarcomatoid subtypes, and high-grade and stage tumors. Higher c-Met expression correlated with worse disease-specific survival [risk ratio = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.74; P = 0.0091] and was an independent predictor of survival, maintained in clear cell subset analyses. c-Met protein was activated in all cell lines, and proliferation (and colony formation) was blocked by SU11274 and ARQ 197. Conclusions c-Met is associated with poor pathologic features and prognosis in RCC. c-Met inhibition demonstrates in vitro activity against clear cell RCC. Further study of ARQ 197 with appropriate biomarker studies in RCC is warranted. PMID:23022995

  15. Potential tumor-tropic effect of genetically engineered stem cells expressing suicide enzymes to selectively target invasive cancer in animal models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung U; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Kim, Yun-Bae; Cho, Myung-Haing; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2011-04-01

    Stem cells have recently received a great deal of attention for their clinical and therapeutic potential to treat human disease and disorders. For instance, neural stem cells expressing a suicide gene which can concert prodrugs to their active metabolites may have great tropic and therapeutic potential for brain tumors, i.e., medulloblastoma and glioma. We are currently interested in therapeutic potential of these genetically engineered stem cells (GESTECs) to selectively target invasive tumors, i.e. ovarian, endometrial, breast, and lung cancer which can have a great impact on human and animal health. Thus, in this review we summarize the therapeutic potential of GESTEC, developed by us, and the putative mechanism(s) underlying their therapeutic and tropic potential in expressing suicide genes which can convert prodrugs to their active metabolites and in selectively targeting invasive tumors.

  16. Enhanced autophagy in cytarabine arabinoside-resistant U937 leukemia cells and its potential as a target for overcoming resistance.

    PubMed

    Cheong, June-Won; Kim, Yundeok; Eom, Ju In; Jeung, Hoi-Kyung; Min, Yoo Hong

    2016-04-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation mechanism that is essential for cell survival, differentiation, development, and homeostasis. Autophagy protects cells from various stresses, including protecting normal cells from harmful metabolic conditions, and cancer cells from chemotherapeutics. In the current study, a cytarabine arabinoside (Ara‑C)‑sensitive U937 leukemia cell line and an Ara‑C‑resistant U937 (U937/AR) cell line were assessed for baseline autophagy activity by investigating the LC3‑I conversion to LC3‑II, performing EGFP‑LC3 puncta, an acidic autophagolysosome assay, and measuring the expression of various autophagy‑related genes. The results demonstrated significantly higher autophagic activity in the U937/AR cells compared with the U937 cells, when the cells were cultured with or without serum. Furthermore, an increase in the autophagic activity in starved U937/AR cells was demonstrated, compared with that in the starved U937 cells. Administration of an autophagy inhibitor demonstrated no change in cell death in the two cell lines when cultured with serum, however, it induced cell death regardless of the Ara‑C sensitivity when the cell lines were cultured without serum. In addition, the U937 cells demonstrated an Ara‑C resistance when cultured without serum. Co‑treatment with Ara‑C and the autophagy inhibitor significantly induced cell death in the U937/AR and Ara‑C‑sensitive U937 cells. In conclusion, autophagy serves an important role in protecting U937 cells from Ara‑C and in the development of Ara‑C resistance. Inhibition of autophagy combined with the Ara‑C treatment in the U937 cells augmented the anti‑leukemic effect of Ara‑C and overcame Ara‑C resistance, suggesting that autophagy may be an important therapeutic target to further improve the treatment outcome in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

  17. Enhanced autophagy in cytarabine arabinoside-resistant U937 leukemia cells and its potential as a target for overcoming resistance

    PubMed Central

    CHEONG, JUNE-WON; KIM, YUNDEOK; EOM, JU IN; JEUNG, HOI-KYUNG; MIN, YOO HONG

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation mechanism that is essential for cell survival, differentiation, development, and homeostasis. Autophagy protects cells from various stresses, including protecting normal cells from harmful metabolic conditions, and cancer cells from chemotherapeutics. In the current study, a cytarabine arabinoside (Ara-C)-sensitive U937 leukemia cell line and an Ara-C-resistant U937 (U937/AR) cell line were assessed for baseline autophagy activity by investigating the LC3-I conversion to LC3-II, performing EGFP-LC3 puncta, an acidic autophagolysosome assay, and measuring the expression of various autophagy-related genes. The results demonstrated significantly higher autophagic activity in the U937/AR cells compared with the U937 cells, when the cells were cultured with or without serum. Furthermore, an increase in the autophagic activity in starved U937/AR cells was demonstrated, compared with that in the starved U937 cells. Administration of an autophagy inhibitor demonstrated no change in cell death in the two cell lines when cultured with serum, however, it induced cell death regardless of the Ara-C sensitivity when the cell lines were cultured without serum. In addition, the U937 cells demonstrated an Ara-C resistance when cultured without serum. Co-treatment with Ara-C and the autophagy inhibitor significantly induced cell death in the U937/AR and Ara-C-sensitive U937 cells. In conclusion, autophagy serves an important role in protecting U937 cells from Ara-C and in the development of Ara-C resistance. Inhibition of autophagy combined with the Ara-C treatment in the U937 cells augmented the anti-leukemic effect of Ara-C and overcame Ara-C resistance, suggesting that autophagy may be an important therapeutic target to further improve the treatment outcome in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:26935591

  18. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit the invasive potential of head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cells by targeting EGFR expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Prasad, Ram; Rosenthal, Eben; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2011-12-21

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is responsible for over 20,000 deaths every year in United States. Most of the deaths are due, in large part, to its propensity to metastasize. We have examined the effect of bioactive component grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on human cutaneous HNSCC cell invasion and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using SCC13 cell line as an in vitro model. The therapeutic effects of GSPs on cancer cell invasion were studied using Boyden chamber and wound healing assays. The effects of GSPs on the levels of various proteins related with cancer cell invasion were determined using western blot analysis. Using in vitro cell invasion assays, we observed that treatment of SCC13 cells with GSPs resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell invasion of these cells, which was associated with a reduction in the levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Treatment of cells with gefitinib and erlotinib, inhibitors of EGFR, or transient transfection of SCC13 cells with EGFR small interfering RNA, also inhibited invasion of these cells. The inhibition of cell invasion by GSPs was associated with the inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Treatment of cells with UO126, an inhibitor of MEK, also inhibited the invasion potential of SCC13 cells. Additionally, inhibition of human cutaneous HNSCC cell invasion by GSPs was associated with reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, which resulted in an increase in the levels of epithelial biomarker (E-cadherin) while loss of mesenchymal biomarkers (vimentin, fibronectin and N-cadherin) in cells. Similar effect on EMT biomarkers was also observed when cells were treated with erlotinib. The results obtained from this study indicate that grape seed proanthocyanidins have the ability to inhibit the invasion of human cutaneous HNSCC cells by targeting the EGFR expression and reversing the

  19. Potential of Central, Eastern and Western Africa Medicinal Plants for Cancer Therapy: Spotlight on Resistant Cells and Molecular Targets

    PubMed Central

    Mbaveng, Armelle T.; Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA) regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1), human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Plants with the ability to preferentially kills resistant cancer cells were also reported. Data compiled in the present document were retrieved from scientific websites such as PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-Science, and Scholar Google. In summary, plant extracts from CEWA and isolated compounds thereof exert cytotoxic effects by several modes of action including caspases activation, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells and inhibition of angiogenesis. Ten strongest cytotoxic plants from CEWA recorded following in vitro screening assays are: Beilschmiedia acuta Kosterm, Echinops giganteus var. lelyi (C. D. Adams) A. Rich., Erythrina sigmoidea Hua (Fabaceae), Imperata cylindrical Beauv. var. koenigii Durand et Schinz, Nauclea pobeguinii (Pobég. ex Pellegr.) Merr. ex E.M.A., Piper capense L.f., Polyscias fulva (Hiern) Harms., Uapaca togoensis Pax., Vepris soyauxii Engl. and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. Prominent antiproliferative compounds include: isoquinoline alkaloid isotetrandrine (51), two

  20. Potential of Central, Eastern and Western Africa Medicinal Plants for Cancer Therapy: Spotlight on Resistant Cells and Molecular Targets.

    PubMed

    Mbaveng, Armelle T; Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA) regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1), human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Plants with the ability to preferentially kills resistant cancer cells were also reported. Data compiled in the present document were retrieved from scientific websites such as PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-Science, and Scholar Google. In summary, plant extracts from CEWA and isolated compounds thereof exert cytotoxic effects by several modes of action including caspases activation, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells and inhibition of angiogenesis. Ten strongest cytotoxic plants from CEWA recorded following in vitro screening assays are: Beilschmiedia acuta Kosterm, Echinops giganteus var. lelyi (C. D. Adams) A. Rich., Erythrina sigmoidea Hua (Fabaceae), Imperata cylindrical Beauv. var. koenigii Durand et Schinz, Nauclea pobeguinii (Pobég. ex Pellegr.) Merr. ex E.M.A., Piper capense L.f., Polyscias fulva (Hiern) Harms., Uapaca togoensis Pax., Vepris soyauxii Engl. and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. Prominent antiproliferative compounds include: isoquinoline alkaloid isotetrandrine (51), two

  1. S100P is a potential molecular target of cadmium-induced inhibition of human placental trophoblast cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Taimei; Wang, Haiying; Zhang, Shen; Jiang, Xinglin; Wei, Xiaolong

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium, a common and highly toxic pollutant, has been known to accumulate high concentrations in placenta with deleterious effects on placental structure and function. Cadmium inhibits cell proliferation in placenta via targeting metal binding proteins. S100P, a Ca(2+)-binding protein, plays an important role in promoting cell proliferation and our previous study found its downregulation was linked to cadmium exposure in Guiyu, a famous e-waste recycling town in China. So, the present study was aimed to define whether cadmium inhibited cell proliferation through interfering with S100P. Using human trophoblast-derived HTR-8/SVneo cells as a model in vitro, we showed that cadmium exposure led to decreases in both cell proliferation and S100P expression. Knockdown of S100P in HTR-8/SVneo cells led to an obvious decrease of cell proliferation, and upregulation of S100P resulted in a significant increase of cell proliferation. Furthermore, after 24h of exposure to cadmium (20μM), cells transfected with pcDNA3.1-S100P showed a 1.3-fold higher S100P protein level, 38% higher proliferation evaluated with MTT assay than cells with no transfection, indicating that S100P expression attenuated cadmium-induced inhibition of cell proliferation. Taken together, we demonstrate that cadmium inhibits S100P expression and cell proliferation in placenta, meanwhile, S100P expression affects cell proliferation. Thus, our study is the first to indicate that cadmium may induce inhibition of placental trophoblast cell proliferation through targeting S100P. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Fibroblast activation protein-alpha and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26): cell-surface proteases that activate cell signaling and are potential targets for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP-alpha) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) are serine proteases with post-prolyl peptidase activities that can modify tumor cell behavior. FAP-alpha and DPPIV can form heteromeric complexes with each other and may function coordinately to modulate the growth, differentiation, adhesion, and metastasis of tumor cells. This review is focused on FAP-alpha and summarizes a series of studies showing that elevated expression of FAP-alpha results in profound changes in growth and malignant behavior of tumor cells. Depending on the model system investigated, FAP-alpha expression causes dramatic promotion or suppression of tumor growth. In the case of tumor promotion, FAP-alpha expression can drive tumor growth by increasing angiogenesis and by decreasing the anti-tumor response of the immune system. In the case of tumor suppression, FAP-alpha can decrease tumorigenicity of mouse melanoma cells and restore contact inhibition and growth factor dependence even when it is catalytically inactive, implying that protein-protein interactions mediate these effects. Understanding how FAP-alpha activates cell signaling is critical to determining how FAP-alpha mediates growth promotion versus growth suppression in the different model systems and ultimately in human cancer patients. In particular, the roles of FAP-alpha protease activity and FAP-alpha complex formation with DPPIV and other surface molecules in activating cell signaling need to be elucidated since these represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

  3. Distinct prognostic values and potential drug targets of ALDH1 isoenzymes in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    You, Qinghua; Guo, Huanchen; Xu, Dongxiang

    2015-01-01

    Increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity has been found in the stem cell populations of leukemia and some solid tumors including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, which ALDH1’s isoenzymes are contributing to ALDH1 activity remains elusive. In addition, the prognostic value of individual ALDH1 isoenzyme is not clear. In the current study, we investigated the prognostic value of ALDH1 isoenzymes in NSCLC patients through the Kaplan–Meier plotter database, which contains updated gene expression data and survival information from a total of 1,926 NSCLC patients. High expression of ALDH1A1 mRNA was found to be correlated to a better overall survival (OS) in all NSCLC patients followed for 20 years (hazard ratio [HR] 0.88 [0.77–0.99], P=0.039). In addition, high expression of ALDH1A1 mRNA was also found to be correlated to better OS in adenocarcinoma (Ade) patients (HR 0.71 [0.57–0.9], P=0.0044) but not in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients (HR 0.92 [0.72–1.16], P=0.48). High expression of ALDH1A2 and ALDH1B1 mRNA was found to be correlated to worser OS in all NSCLC patients, as well as in Ade, but not in SCC patients. High expression of both ALDH1A3 and ALDH1L1 mRNA was not found to be correlated to OS in all NSCLC patients. These results strongly support that ALDH1A1 mRNA in NSCLC is associated with better prognosis. In addition, our current study also supports that ALDH1A2 and ALDH1B1 might be major contributors to the ALDH1 activity in NSCLC, since high expression of ALDH1A2 and ALDH1B1 mRNA was found to be significantly correlated to worser OS in all NSCLC patients. Based on our study, ALDH1A2 and ALDH1B1 might be excellent potential drug targets for NSCLC patients. PMID:26366059

  4. Cyclooxygenase-2, a Potential Therapeutic Target, Is Regulated by miR-101 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ying; Li, Peng; Zhu, Sheng-tao; Yue, Ji-ping; Ji, Xiao-jun; He, Zhen; Ma, Dan; Wang, Li; Wang, Yong-jun; Zong, Ye; Wu, Yong-dong; Zhang, Shu-tian

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is known to promote the carcinogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). There are no reports on whether microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate COX-2 expression in ESCC. This study investigated the effect of miR-101 on ESCC through modulating COX-2 expression in ESCC. Methods Real-time quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to quantify miR-101 expression in ESCC clinical tissues and cell lines. The effects of miR-101 on ESCC progression were evaluated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8), transwell migration and invasion assays, as well as by flow cytometry. The COX-2 and PEG2 levels were determined by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The luciferase reporter assay was used to verify COX-2 as a direct target of miR-101. The anti-tumor activity of miR-101 in vivo was investigated in a xenograft nude mouse model of ESCC. Results Downregulation of miR-101 was confirmed through comparison of 30 pairs of ESCC tumor and adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.001), as well as in 11 ESCC cell lines and a human immortalized esophageal cell line (P < 0.001). Transfection of miR-101 in ESCC cell lines significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion (all P < 0.001). The antitumor effect of miR-101 was verified in a xenograft model. Furthermore, COX-2 was shown to be a target of miR-101. Conclusions Overexpression of miR-101 in ESCC inhibits proliferation and metastasis. Therefore, the miR-101/COX-2 pathway might be a therapeutic target in ESCC. PMID:26556718

  5. Therapeutic potential of the anti-diabetic agent metformin in targeting the skin cancer stem cell diaspora.

    PubMed

    Reddi, Anand; Powers, Matthew A; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-05-01

    Type II diabetes is associated with increased prevalence of cancer including both melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Emerging evidence from epidemiological studies suggest that diabetic patients on metformin have a lower risk of cancer incidence and mortality in a broad range of neoplasms. In both melanoma and SCC, populations of cancer stem cells (CSC) contribute to tumor initiation and metastasis. We propose that metformin constitutes a new class of targeted therapy that acts on the skin CSC diaspora. We posit that metformin selectively and simultaneously targets CSCs of the primary tumor as well as in metastatic niches thereby disrupting the dynamic dispersal of circulating CSCs between the primary tumor and metastatic site. This hypothesis suggests a new concept in dermato-oncology that treatment of type II diabetes and prevention of skin cancer are two sides of the same coin.

  6. A dual specificity kinase, DYRK1A, as a potential therapeutic target for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Aneesha; Nanjappa, Vishalakshi; Raja, Remya; Sathe, Gajanan; Puttamallesh, Vinuth N.; Jain, Ankit P.; Pinto, Sneha M.; Balaji, Sai A.; Chavan, Sandip; Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini A.; Mathur, Premendu P.; Kumar, Mahesh M.; Prasad, T. S. Keshava; Santosh, Vani; Sukumar, Geethanjali; Califano, Joseph A.; Rangarajan, Annapoorni; Sidransky, David; Pandey, Akhilesh; Gowda, Harsha; Chatterjee, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in clinical management, 5-year survival rate in patients with late-stage head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has not improved significantly over the past decade. Targeted therapies have emerged as one of the most promising approaches to treat several malignancies. Though tyrosine phosphorylation accounts for a minority of total phosphorylation, it is critical for activation of signaling pathways and plays a significant role in driving cancers. To identify activated tyrosine kinase signaling pathways in HNSCC, we compared the phosphotyrosine profiles of a panel of HNSCC cell lines to a normal oral keratinocyte cell line. Dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) was one of the kinases hyperphosphorylated at Tyr-321 in all HNSCC cell lines. Inhibition of DYRK1A resulted in an increased apoptosis and decrease in invasion and colony formation ability of HNSCC cell lines. Further, administration of the small molecular inhibitor against DYRK1A in mice bearing HNSCC xenograft tumors induced regression of tumor growth. Immunohistochemical labeling of DYRK1A in primary tumor tissues using tissue microarrays revealed strong to moderate staining of DYRK1A in 97.5% (39/40) of HNSCC tissues analyzed. Taken together our results suggest that DYRK1A could be a novel therapeutic target in HNSCC. PMID:27796319

  7. Fcγ receptor antigen targeting potentiates cross-presentation by human blood and lymphoid tissue BDCA-3+ dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Flinsenberg, Thijs W H; Compeer, Ewoud B; Koning, Dan; Klein, Mark; Amelung, Femke J; van Baarle, Debbie; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Boes, Marianne

    2012-12-20

    The reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) poses a serious health threat to immune compromised individuals. As a treatment strategy, dendritic cell (DC) vaccination trials are ongoing. Recent work suggests that BDCA-3(+) (CD141(+)) subset DCs may be particularly effective in DC vaccination trials. BDCA-3(+) DCs had however been mostly characterized for their ability to cross-present antigen from necrotic cells. We here describe our study of human BDCA-3(+) DCs in elicitation of HCMV-specific CD8(+) T-cell clones. We show that Fcgamma-receptor (FcγR) antigen targeting facilitates antigen cross-presentation in several DC subsets, including BDCA-3(+) DCs. FcγR antigen targeting stimulates antigen uptake by BDCA-1(+) rather than BDCA-3(+) DCs. Conversely, BDCA-3(+) DCs and not BDCA-1(+) DCs show improved cross-presentation by FcγR targeting, as measured by induced release of IFNγ and TNF by antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. FcγR-facilitated cross-presentation requires antigen processing in both an acidic endosomal compartment and by the proteasome, and did not induce substantial DC maturation. FcγRII is the most abundantly expressed FcγR on both BDCA-1(+) and BDCA-3(+) DCs. Furthermore we show that BDCA-3(+) DCs express relatively more stimulatory FcγRIIa than inhibitory FcγRIIb in comparison with BDCA-1(+) DCs. These studies support the exploration of FcγR antigen targeting to BDCA-3(+) DCs for human vaccination purposes.

  8. Tumour macrophages as potential targets of bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Tumour cells communicate with the cells of their microenvironment via a series of molecular and cellular interactions to aid their progression to a malignant state and ultimately their metastatic spread. Of the cells in the microenvironment with a key role in cancer development, tumour associated macrophages (TAMs) are among the most notable. Tumour cells release a range of chemokines, cytokines and growth factors to attract macrophages, and these in turn release numerous factors (e.g. VEGF, MMP-9 and EGF) that are implicated in invasion-promoting processes such as tumour cell growth, flicking of the angiogenic switch and immunosuppression. TAM density has been shown to correlate with poor prognosis in breast cancer, suggesting that these cells may represent a potential therapeutic target. However, there are currently no agents that specifically target TAM's available for clinical use. Bisphosphonates (BPs), such as zoledronic acid, are anti-resorptive agents approved for treatment of skeletal complication associated with metastatic breast cancer and prostate cancer. These agents act on osteoclasts, key cells in the bone microenvironment, to inhibit bone resorption. Over the past 30 years this has led to a great reduction in skeletal-related events (SRE's) in patients with advanced cancer and improved the morbidity associated with cancer-induced bone disease. However, there is now a growing body of evidence, both from in vitro and in vivo models, showing that zoledronic acid can also target tumour cells to increase apoptotic cell death and decrease proliferation, migration and invasion, and that this effect is significantly enhanced in combination with chemotherapy agents. Whether macrophages in the peripheral tumour microenvironment are exposed to sufficient levels of bisphosphonate to be affected is currently unknown. Macrophages belong to the same cell lineage as osteoclasts, the major target of BPs, and are highly phagocytic cells shown to be sensitive to

  9. Quantitative Proteomics of the Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Cell Envelope and Membrane Vesicles for the Discovery of Potential Therapeutic Targets*

    PubMed Central

    Zielke, Ryszard A.; Wierzbicki, Igor H.; Weber, Jacob V.; Gafken, Philip R.; Sikora, Aleksandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) is a human-specific pathogen, and the agent of a sexually transmitted disease, gonorrhea. There is a critical need for new approaches to study and treat GC infections because of the growing threat of multidrug-resistant isolates and the lack of a vaccine. Despite the implied role of the GC cell envelope and membrane vesicles in colonization and infection of human tissues and cell lines, comprehensive studies have not been undertaken to elucidate their constituents. Accordingly, in pursuit of novel molecular therapeutic targets, we have applied isobaric tagging for absolute quantification coupled with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for proteome quantitative analyses. Mining the proteome of cell envelopes and native membrane vesicles revealed 533 and 168 common proteins, respectively, in analyzed GC strains FA1090, F62, MS11, and 1291. A total of 22 differentially abundant proteins were discovered including previously unknown proteins. Among those proteins that displayed similar abundance in four GC strains, 34 were found in both cell envelopes and membrane vesicles fractions. Focusing on one of them, a homolog of an outer membrane protein LptD, we demonstrated that its depletion caused loss of GC viability. In addition, we selected for initial characterization six predicted outer membrane proteins with unknown function, which were identified as ubiquitous in the cell envelopes derived from examined GC isolates. These studies entitled a construction of deletion mutants and analyses of their resistance to different chemical probes. Loss of NGO1985, in particular, resulted in dramatically decreased GC viability upon treatment with detergents, polymyxin B, and chloramphenicol, suggesting that this protein functions in the maintenance of the cell envelope permeability barrier. Together, these findings underscore the concept that the cell envelope and membrane vesicles contain crucial, yet under-explored determinants of GC

  10. BRCA1, FANCD2 and Chk1 are potential molecular targets for the modulation of a radiation-induced DNA damage response in bystander cells.

    PubMed

    Burdak-Rothkamm, Susanne; Rothkamm, Kai; McClelland, Keeva; Al Rashid, Shahnaz T; Prise, Kevin M

    2015-01-28

    Radiotherapy is an important treatment option for many human cancers. Current research is investigating the use of molecular targeted drugs in order to improve responses to radiotherapy in various cancers. The cellular response to irradiation is driven by both direct DNA damage in the targeted cell and intercellular signalling leading to a broad range of bystander effects. This study aims to elucidate radiation-induced DNA damage response signalling in bystander cells and to identify potential molecular targets to modulate the radiation induced bystander response in a therapeutic setting. Stalled replication forks in T98G bystander cells were visualised via bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) nuclear foci detection at sites of single stranded DNA. γH2AX co-localised with these BrdU foci. BRCA1 and FANCD2 foci formed in T98G bystander cells. Using ATR mutant F02-98 hTERT and ATM deficient GM05849 fibroblasts it could be shown that ATR but not ATM was required for the recruitment of FANCD2 to sites of replication associated DNA damage in bystander cells whereas BRCA1 bystander foci were ATM-dependent. Phospho-Chk1 foci formation was observed in T98G bystander cells. Clonogenic survival assays showed moderate radiosensitisation of directly irradiated cells by the Chk1 inhibitor UCN-01 but increased radioresistance of bystander cells. This study identifies BRCA1, FANCD2 and Chk1 as potential targets for the modulation of radiation response in bystander cells. It adds to our understanding of the key molecular events propagating out-of-field effects of radiation and provides a rationale for the development of novel molecular targeted drugs for radiotherapy optimisation.

  11. BRCA1, FANCD2 and Chk1 are potential molecular targets for the modulation of a radiation-induced DNA damage response in bystander cells

    PubMed Central

    Burdak-Rothkamm, Susanne; Rothkamm, Kai; McClelland, Keeva; Al Rashid, Shahnaz T.; Prise, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an important treatment option for many human cancers. Current research is investigating the use of molecular targeted drugs in order to improve responses to radiotherapy in various cancers. The cellular response to irradiation is driven by both direct DNA damage in the targeted cell and intercellular signalling leading to a broad range of bystander effects. This study aims to elucidate radiation-induced DNA damage response signalling in bystander cells and to identify potential molecular targets to modulate the radiation induced bystander response in a therapeutic setting. Stalled replication forks in T98G bystander cells were visualised via bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) nuclear foci detection at sites of single stranded DNA. γH2AX co-localised with these BrdU foci. BRCA1 and FANCD2 foci formed in T98G bystander cells. Using ATR mutant F02-98 hTERT and ATM deficient GM05849 fibroblasts it could be shown that ATR but not ATM was required for the recruitment of FANCD2 to sites of replication associated DNA damage in bystander cells whereas BRCA1 bystander foci were ATM-dependent. Phospho-Chk1 foci formation was observed in T98G bystander cells. Clonogenic survival assays showed moderate radiosensitisation of directly irradiated cells by the Chk1 inhibitor UCN-01 but increased radioresistance of bystander cells. This study identifies BRCA1, FANCD2 and Chk1 as potential targets for the modulation of radiation response in bystander cells. It adds to our understanding of the key molecular events propagating out-of-field effects of radiation and provides a rationale for the development of novel molecular targeted drugs for radiotherapy optimisation. PMID:25304378

  12. Induction of cell death by stimulation of protein kinase C in human epithelial cells expressing a mutant ras oncogene: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed Central

    Hall-Jackson, C. A.; Jones, T.; Eccles, N. G.; Dawson, T. P.; Bond, J. A.; Gescher, A.; Wynford-Thomas, D.

    1998-01-01

    Ras oncogene activation is a key genetic event in several types of human cancer, making its signal pathways an ideal target for novel therapies. We previously showed that expression of mutant ras sensitizes human thyroid epithelial cells to induction of cell death by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and other phorbol esters. We have now investigated further the nature and mechanism of this cell death using both primary and cell line models. The cytotoxic effect of PMA could be blocked by bisindolylmaleimide (GF 109203X), a well-characterized inhibitor of c and n protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, and by prior down-regulation of PKC, indicating that it is mediated by acute stimulation, rather than down-regulation. Western analysis identified two candidate isoforms--alpha and epsilon--both of which showed PMA-induced subcellular translocation, either or both of which may be necessary for PMA-induced cell death. Immunofluorescence showed that PMA induced a rapid nuclear translocation of p42 MAP kinase of similar magnitude in the presence or absence of mutant ras expression. Cell death exhibited the microscopic features (chromatin condensation, TdT labelling) and DNA fragmentation typical of apoptosis but after a surprising lag (4 days). Taken together with recent models of ras-modulated apoptosis, our data suggest that activation of the MAPK pathway by PMA tips the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic signals generated by ras in favour of apoptosis. The high frequency of ras mutations in some cancers, such as cancer of the pancreas, which are refractory to conventional chemotherapy, together with the potential for stimulating PKC by cell-permeant pharmacological agents, makes this an attractive therapeutic approach. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:9744505

  13. Low dose gemcitabine-loaded lipid nanocapsules target monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells and potentiate cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Maria Stella; Lollo, Giovanna; Pitorre, Marion; Solito, Samantha; Pinton, Laura; Valpione, Sara; Bastiat, Guillaume; Mandruzzato, Susanna; Bronte, Vincenzo; Marigo, Ilaria; Benoit, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Tumor-induced expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is known to impair the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Among pharmacological approaches for MDSC modulation, chemotherapy with selected drugs has a considerable interest due to the possibility of a rapid translation to the clinic. However, such approach is poorly selective and may be associated with dose-dependent toxicities. In the present study, we showed that lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) loaded with a lauroyl-modified form of gemcitabine (GemC12) efficiently target the monocytic (M-) MDSC subset. Subcutaneous administration of GemC12-loaded LNCs reduced the percentage of spleen and tumor-infiltrating M-MDSCs in lymphoma and melanoma-bearing mice, with enhanced efficacy when compared to free gemcitabine. Consistently, fluorochrome-labeled LNCs were preferentially uptaken by monocytic cells rather than by other immune cells, in both tumor-bearing mice and human blood samples from healthy donors and melanoma patients. Very low dose administration of GemC12-loaded LNCs attenuated tumor-associated immunosuppression and increased the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. Overall, our results show that GemC12-LNCs have monocyte-targeting properties that can be useful for immunomodulatory purposes, and unveil new possibilities for the exploitation of nanoparticulate drug formulations in cancer immunotherapy.

  14. PB1 as a potential target for increasing the breadth of T-cell mediated immunity to Influenza A.

    PubMed

    Uddbäck, Ida E M; Steffensen, Maria A; Pedersen, Sara R; Nazerai, Loulieta; Thomsen, Allan R; Christensen, Jan P

    2016-10-07

    Recently, we showed that combined intranasal and subcutaneous immunization with a non-replicating adenoviral vector expressing NP of influenza A, strain PR8, induced long-standing protection against a range of influenza A viruses. However, H-2(b) mice challenged with an influenza A strain mutated in the dominant NP366 epitope were not efficiently protected. To address this problem, we envision the use of a cocktail of adenovectors targeting different internal proteins of influenza A virus. Consequently, we investigated the possibility of using PB1 as a target for an adenovector-based vaccine against influenza A. Our results showed that PB1 is not as immunogenic as the NP protein. However, by tethering PB1 to the murine invariant chain we were able to circumvent this problem and raise quite high numbers of PB1-specific CD8(+) T cells in the circulation. Nevertheless, mice immunized against PB1 were not as efficiently protected against influenza A challenge as similarly NP-vaccinated animals. The reason for this is not a difference in the quality of the primed cells, nor in functional avidity. However, under similar conditions of immunization fewer PB1-specific cells were recruited to the airways, and surface expression of the dominant PB1 peptide, PB1703, was less stable than in the case of NP366.

  15. PB1 as a potential target for increasing the breadth of T-cell mediated immunity to Influenza A

    PubMed Central

    Uddbäck, Ida E. M.; Steffensen, Maria A.; Pedersen, Sara R.; Nazerai, Loulieta; Thomsen, Allan R.; Christensen, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we showed that combined intranasal and subcutaneous immunization with a non-replicating adenoviral vector expressing NP of influenza A, strain PR8, induced long-standing protection against a range of influenza A viruses. However, H-2b mice challenged with an influenza A strain mutated in the dominant NP366 epitope were not efficiently protected. To address this problem, we envision the use of a cocktail of adenovectors targeting different internal proteins of influenza A virus. Consequently, we investigated the possibility of using PB1 as a target for an adenovector-based vaccine against influenza A. Our results showed that PB1 is not as immunogenic as the NP protein. However, by tethering PB1 to the murine invariant chain we were able to circumvent this problem and raise quite high numbers of PB1-specific CD8+ T cells in the circulation. Nevertheless, mice immunized against PB1 were not as efficiently protected against influenza A challenge as similarly NP-vaccinated animals. The reason for this is not a difference in the quality of the primed cells, nor in functional avidity. However, under similar conditions of immunization fewer PB1-specific cells were recruited to the airways, and surface expression of the dominant PB1 peptide, PB1703, was less stable than in the case of NP366. PMID:27713532

  16. Identification of potential targets for diallyl disulfide in human gastric cancer MGC-803 cells using proteomics approaches.

    PubMed

    Su, Bo; Su, Jian; He, Hui; Wu, Youhua; Xia, Hong; Zeng, Xi; Dai, Wenxiang; Ai, Xiaohong; Ling, Hui; Jiang, Hao; Su, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is characterized as an effective agent for the prevention and therapy of cancer, however, mechanisms regarding its anticancer effects are not fully clarified. In the present study, we compared the protein expression profile of gastric cancer MGC-803 cells subjected to DADS treatment with that of untreated control cells to explore potential molecules regulated by DADS. Using proteomic approaches, we identified 23 proteins showing statistically significant differences in expression, including 9 upregulated and 14 downregulated proteins. RT-PCR and western blot analysis confirmed that retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor α (RORα) and nM23 were increased by DADS, whereas LIM kinase-1 (LIMK1), urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (CDK1) were decreased. DADS treatment and knockdown of uPAR caused suppression of ERK/Fra-1 pathway, downregulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and vimentin, and upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) and E-cadherin, concomitant with inhibition of cell migration and invasion. Moreover, knockdown of uPAR potentiated the effects of DADS on MGC-803 cells. These data demonstrate that downregulation of uPAR may partially be responsible for DADS-induced inhibition of ERK/Fra-1 pathway, as well as cell migration and invasion. Thus, the discovery of DADS-induced differential expression proteins is conducive to reveal unknown mechanisms of DADS anti-gastric cancer.

  17. Targeted quantitative amniotic cell profiling: a potential diagnostic tool in the prenatal management of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Elliot C; Gray, Fabienne L; Ahmed, Azra; Zurakowski, David; Fauza, Dario O

    2013-06-01

    We sought to determine whether amniotic cell profiles correlate quantitatively with neural tube defect (NTD) type and/or size. Sprague-Dawley fetuses exposed to retinoic acid (n=61) underwent amniotic fluid sample procurement before term. Samples were analyzed by flow cytometry for the presence of cells concomitantly expressing Nestin and Sox-2 (neural stem cells, aNSCs), and cells concomitantly expressing CD29 and CD44 (mesenchymal stem cells, aMSCs). Statistical analysis included ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni adjusted comparisons (P<0.05). There was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of aNSCs in fetuses with spina bifida (6.78%± 1.87%) when compared to those with exencephaly (0.64%± 0.23%) or with both spina bifida and exencephaly (0.22%± 0.09%). Conversely, there was a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of aMSCs in fetuses with exencephaly, either isolated (1.09%± 0.42%) or in combination defects (2.37%± 0.63%) when compared with normal fetuses (8.83%± 1.38%). In fetuses with isolated exencephaly, there was a statistically significant inverse correlation between the proportion of aNSCs and defect size. The proportions of neural and mesenchymal stem cells in the amniotic fluid correlate with the type and size of experimental NTDs. Targeted quantitative amniotic cell profiling may become a useful diagnostic tool in the prenatal evaluation of these anomalies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A current review of folate receptor alpha as a potential tumor target in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huan; Guo, Jun; Li, Changzheng; Wang, Zhehai

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading common cause of cancer-related death, with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounting for 80% of all cases. To date, platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the cornerstone of first-line therapy. However, these agents have limited use in patients who have relapsed and have metastatic disease. Therefore, novel strategies are required to improve the clinical outcome. Folate receptor alpha (FRA) is overexpressed in the majority of NSCLC, particularly in lung adenocarcinomas. FRA is largely absent from normal tissue, making it an attractive therapeutic target. In this review, we discuss FRA expression in NSCLC, conjugated FRA agents, monoclonal antibody, and FRA-specific T-cell-based therapeutic strategies aiming to improve the cure rate of FRA-expressing NSCLC. PMID:26357465

  19. MDM2 is a potential therapeutic target and prognostic factor for ovarian clear cell carcinomas with wild type TP53

    PubMed Central

    Makii, Chinami; Oda, Katsutoshi; Ikeda, Yuji; Sone, Kenbun; Hasegawa, Kosei; Uehara, Yuriko; Nishijima, Akira; Asada, Kayo; Koso, Takahiro; Fukuda, Tomohiko; Inaba, Kanako; Oki, Shinya; Machino, Hidenori; Kojima, Machiko; Kashiyama, Tomoko; Mori-Uchino, Mayuyo; Arimoto, Takahide; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Kawana, Kei; Yano, Tetsu; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    MDM2, a ubiquitin ligase, suppresses wild type TP53 via proteasome-mediated degradation. We evaluated the prognostic and therapeutic value of MDM2 in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. MDM2 expression in ovarian cancer tissues was analyzed by microarray and real-time PCR, and its relationship with prognosis was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. The anti-tumor activities of MDM2 siRNA and the MDM2 inhibitor RG7112 were assessed by cell viability assay, western blotting, and flow cytometry. The anti-tumor effects of RG7112 in vivo were examined in a mouse xenograft model. MDM2 expression was significantly higher in clear cell carcinoma than in ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (P = 0.0092) and normal tissues (P = 0.035). High MDM2 expression determined by microarray was significantly associated with poor progression-free survival and poor overall survival (P = 0.0002, and P = 0.0008, respectively). Notably, RG7112 significantly suppressed cell viability in clear cell carcinoma cell lines with wild type TP53. RG7112 also strongly induced apoptosis, increased TP53 phosphorylation, and stimulated expression of the proapoptotic protein PUMA. Similarly, siRNA knockdown of MDM2 induced apoptosis. Finally, RG7112 significantly reduced the tumor volume of xenografted RMG-I clear cell carcinoma cells (P = 0.033), and the density of microvessels (P = 0.011). Our results highlight the prognostic value of MDM2 expression in clear cell carcinoma. Thus, MDM2 inhibitors such as RG7112 may constitute a class of potential therapeutics. PMID:27659536

  20. Targeting the T-cell co-stimulatory CD27/CD70 pathway in cancer immunotherapy: rationale and potential.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Koen; Borst, Jannie

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, cancer immunotherapy was named 'breakthrough of the year' based on the outcome of clinical trials with blocking antibodies to the T-cell co-inhibitory receptors CTLA-4 and PD-1. This success has emphasized that cytotoxic T-cell responses to cancer can occur, but are limited by peripheral tolerance and by immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. Targeting of CTLA-4, PD-1 or its ligands partly overcomes these limitations and can now be applied in multiple immunogenic cancer types. Furthermore, an increased success rate is expected from combining CTLA-4 and/or PD-1 blocking with deliberate engagement of T-cell co-stimulatory receptors, particularly TNF receptor (R) family members. The TNFR family includes CD27 (Tnfrsf7), for which an agonistic antibody has recently entered clinical trials. In this review, we describe how CD27 co-stimulation impacts the T-cell response, with the purpose to illuminate how CD27 agonism can be exploited in cancer immunotherapy.

  1. An Il12-Il2-Antibody Fusion Protein Targeting Hodgkin's Lymphoma Cells Potentiates Activation Of Nk And T Cells For An Anti-Tumor Attack

    PubMed Central

    Friedrichs, Björn; Heuser, Claudia; Guhlke, Stefan; Abken, Hinrich; Hombach, Andreas A.

    2012-01-01

    Successful immunotherapy of Hodgkin's disease is so far hampered by the striking unresponsiveness of lymphoma infiltrating immune cells. To mobilize both adoptive and innate immune cells for an anti-tumor attack we fused the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL2 and IL12 to an anti-CD30 scFv antibody in a dual cytokine fusion protein to accumulate both cytokines at the malignant CD30+ Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells in the lymphoma lesion. The tumor-targeted IL12-IL2 fusion protein was superior in activating resting T cells to amplify and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to targeted IL2 or IL12 alone. NK cells were also activated by the dual cytokine protein to secrete IFN-γ and to lyse target cells. The tumor-targeted IL12-IL2, when applied by i.v. injection to immune-competent mice with established antigen-positive tumors, accumulated at the tumor site and induced tumor regression. Data demonstrate that simultaneous targeting of two cytokines in a spatial and temporal simultaneous fashion to pre-defined tissues is feasible by a dual-cytokine antibody fusion protein. In the case of IL12 and IL2, this produced superior anti-tumor efficacy implying the strategy to muster a broader immune cell response in the combat against cancer. PMID:23028547

  2. REGULATORY T CELL SUPPRESSION IS POTENTIATED BY TARGET T CELLS IN A CELL CONTACT, IL-35- AND IL-10-DEPENDENT MANNER1

    PubMed Central

    Collison, Lauren W.; Pillai, Meenu R.; Chaturvedi, Vandana; Vignali, Dario A. A.

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) are believed to suppress conventional T cell (Tconv) proliferation in vitro in a contact-dependent, cytokine-independent manner, based in part on experiments in which Treg and Tconv are separated by a permeable membrane. We show that the production of interleukin-35 (IL-35), a novel inhibitory cytokine expressed by natural Treg, increases substantially following contact with Tconv. Surprisingly, Treg were able to mediate potent suppression of Tconv across a permeable membrane when placed in direct contact with Tconv in the upper chamber of a Transwell™ plate. Suppression was IL-35- and IL-10-dependent, and Tconv activation was required for maximal potentiation of Treg suppression. These data suggest that it is the ‘induction’ of suppression, rather than the ‘function’ of Treg that is obligatorily contact-dependent. PMID:19414764

  3. A cyclin-D1 interaction with BAX underlies its oncogenic role and potential as a therapeutic target in mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Elena; Fresquet, Vicente; Martinez-Useros, Javier; Richter-Larrea, Jose A.; Sagardoy, Ainara; Sesma, Izaskun; Almada, Luciana L.; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Siebert, Reiner; Gesk, Stefan; Calasanz, Maria J.; Malumbres, Raquel; Rieger, Melissa; Prosper, Felipe; Lossos, Izidore S.; Piris, Miguel Angel; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Martinez-Climent, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32) leading to cyclin-D1 overexpression plays an essential role in the development of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), an aggressive tumor that remains incurable with current treatment strategies. Cyclin-D1 has been postulated as an effective therapeutic target, but the evaluation of this target has been hampered by our incomplete understanding of its oncogenic functions and by the lack of valid MCL murine models. To address these issues, we generated a cyclin-D1–driven mouse model in which cyclin-D1 expression can be regulated externally. These mice developed cyclin-D1–expressing lymphomas capable of recapitulating features of human MCL. We found that cyclin-D1 inactivation was not sufficient to induce lymphoma regression in vivo; however, using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays, we identified a novel prosurvival cyclin-D1 function in MCL cells. Specifically, we found that cyclin-D1, besides increasing cell proliferation through deregulation of the cell cycle at the G1–S transition, sequestrates the proapoptotic protein BAX in the cytoplasm, thereby favoring BCL2’s antiapoptotic function. Accordingly, cyclin-D1 inhibition sensitized the lymphoma cells to apoptosis through BAX release. Thus, genetic or pharmacologic targeting of cyclin-D1 combined with a proapoptotic BH3 mimetic synergistically killed the cyclin-D1–expressing murine lymphomas, human MCL cell lines, and primary lymphoma cells. Our study identifies a role of cyclin-D1 in deregulating apoptosis in MCL cells, and highlights the potential benefit of simultaneously targeting cyclin-D1 and survival pathways in patients with MCL. This effective combination therapy also might be exploited in other cyclin-D1–expressing tumors. PMID:21746927

  4. STAT3 as a potential therapeutic target in ALDH+ and CD44+/CD24+ stem cell-like pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li; Jou, David; Wang, Yina; Ma, Haiyan; Liu, Tianshu; Fuchs, James; Li, Pui-Kai; Lü, Jiagao; Li, Chenglong; Lin, Jiayuh

    2016-01-01

    Persistent activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is commonly detected in many types of cancer including pancreatic cancer. Whether STAT3 is activated in stem cell-like pancreatic cancer cells and the effect of STAT3 inhibition, is still unknown. Flow cytometry was used to isolate pancreatic cancer stem-like cells which are identified by both aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive (ALDH+) as well as cluster of differentiation (CD) 44-positive/CD24-positive subpopulations (CD44+/CD24+). STAT3 activation and the effects of STAT3 inhibition by STAT3 inhibitors, LLL12, FLLL32, and Stattic in ALDH+ and CD44+/CD24+ cells were examined. Our results showed that ALDH+ and CD44+/CD24+ pancreatic cancer stem-like cells expressed higher levels of phosphorylated STAT3, an active form of STAT3, compared to ALDH-negative (ALDH−) and CD44-negative/CD24-negative (CD44−/CD24−) pancreatic cancer cells, suggesting that STAT3 is activated in pancreatic cancer stem-like cells. Small molecular STAT3 inhibitors inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation, STAT3 downstream target gene expression, cell viability, and tumorsphere formation in ALDH+ and CD44+/CD24+ cells. Our results indicate that STAT3 is a novel therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer stem-like cells and inhibition of activated STAT3 in these cells by STAT3 inhibitors may offer an effective treatment for pancreatic cancer. PMID:27748818

  5. Transcriptome-based repurposing of apigenin as a potential anti-fibrotic agent targeting hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Daniel F.; Goossens, Nicolas; Blas-García, Ana; Tsuchida, Takuma; Wooden, Benjamin; Wallace, Michael C.; Nieto, Natalia; Lade, Abigale; Redhead, Benjamin; Cederbaum, Arthur I; Dudley, Joel T.; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Lee, Youngmin A.; Hoshida, Yujin; Friedman, Scott L.

    2017-01-01

    We have used a computational approach to identify anti-fibrotic therapies by querying a transcriptome. A transcriptome signature of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the primary collagen-secreting cell in liver, and queried against a transcriptomic database that quantifies changes in gene expression in response to 1,309 FDA-approved drugs and bioactives (CMap). The flavonoid apigenin was among 9 top-ranked compounds predicted to have anti-fibrotic activity; indeed, apigenin dose-dependently reduced collagen I in the human HSC line, TWNT-4. To identify proteins mediating apigenin’s effect, we next overlapped a 122-gene signature unique to HSCs with a list of 160 genes encoding proteins that are known to interact with apigenin, which identified C1QTNF2, encoding for Complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 2, a secreted adipocytokine with metabolic effects in liver. To validate its disease relevance, C1QTNF2 expression is reduced during hepatic stellate cell activation in culture and in a mouse model of alcoholic liver injury in vivo, and its expression correlates with better clinical outcomes in patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis (n = 216), suggesting it may have a protective role in cirrhosis progression.These findings reinforce the value of computational approaches to drug discovery for hepatic fibrosis, and identify C1QTNF2 as a potential mediator of apigenin’s anti-fibrotic activity. PMID:28256512

  6. Comparative expression study of the endo-G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) repertoire in human glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells, U87-MG cells and non malignant cells of neural origin unveils new potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Fève, Marie; Saliou, Jean-Michel; Zeniou, Maria; Lennon, Sarah; Carapito, Christine; Dong, Jihu; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Cianférani, Sarah; Haiech, Jacques; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly aggressive, invasive brain tumors with bad prognosis and unmet medical need. These tumors are heterogeneous being constituted by a variety of cells in different states of differentiation. Among these, cells endowed with stem properties, tumor initiating/propagating properties and particularly resistant to chemo- and radiotherapies are designed as the real culprits for tumor maintenance and relapse after treatment. These cells, termed cancer stem-like cells, have been designed as prominent targets for new and more efficient cancer therapies. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a family of membrane receptors, play a prominent role in cell signaling, cell communication and crosstalk with the microenvironment. Their role in cancer has been highlighted but remains largely unexplored. Here, we report a descriptive study of the differential expression of the endo-GPCR repertoire in human glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells (GSCs), U-87 MG cells, human astrocytes and fetal neural stem cells (f-NSCs). The endo-GPCR transcriptome has been studied using Taqman Low Density Arrays. Of the 356 GPCRs investigated, 138 were retained for comparative studies between the different cell types. At the transcriptomic level, eight GPCRs were specifically expressed/overexpressed in GSCs. Seventeen GPCRs appeared specifically expressed in cells with stem properties (GSCs and f-NSCs). Results of GPCR expression at the protein level using mass spectrometry and proteomic analysis are also presented. The comparative GPCR expression study presented here gives clues for new pathways specifically used by GSCs and unveils novel potential therapeutic targets.

  7. C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL1)-targeted TRAIL augments the tumoricidal activity of granulocytes and potentiates therapeutic antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, Valerie R; de Bruyn, Marco; Shi, Ce; Gooden, Marloes J M; Wouters, Maartje C A; Samplonius, Douwe F; Hendriks, Djoke; Nijman, Hans W; Wei, Yunwei; Zhou, Jin; Helfrich, Wijnand; Bremer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies stems from their capacity to opsonize targeted cancer cells with subsequent phagocytic removal, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or induction of complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CDC). The major immune effector cells involved in these processes are natural killer (NK) cells and granulocytes. The latter and most prevalent blood cell population contributes to phagocytosis, but is not effective in inducing ADCC. Here, we report that targeted delivery of the tumoricidal protein tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to granulocyte marker C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL1), using fusion protein CLL1:TRAIL, equips granulocytes with high levels of TRAIL. Upon CLL1-selective binding of this fusion protein, granulocytes acquire additional TRAIL-mediated cytotoxic activity that, importantly, potentiates antibody-mediated cytotoxicity of clinically used therapeutic antibodies (e.g., rituximab, cetuximab). Thus, CLL1:TRAIL could be used as an adjuvant to optimize the clinical potential of anticancer antibody therapy by augmenting tumoricidal activity of granulocytes.

  8. A potential peptide vector that allows targeted delivery of a desired fusion protein into the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei Qing; Yang, Jun; Hong, Min; Gao, Chang E; Dong, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Effective control of breast cancer has been primarily hampered by a lack of tumor specificity in treatments. One potential way to improve targeting specificity is to develop novel vectors that specifically bind to and are internalized by tumor cells. Through a phage display library, an 11-L-amino acid peptide, PI (sequence, CASPSGALRSC), was selected. PI was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and named PI-FITC. Subsequently, the specific affinity of PI-FITC to MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and other cancer cell lines was observed by confocal microscopy. Our previous study established that PI-FITC also shows affinity to Calu-1 human lung carcinoma cells and major histocompatibility complex class I antigen molecules; therefore, the cytomembrane proteins of the cell lines were analyzed to determine those that were common to the two cell lines and may be associated with transmembrane transduction. To further test the delivery ability of PI to MDA-MB-231 cells, PI-glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was constructed and the internalization of this fusion protein was visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. The results revealed that PI exhibited specific affinity to MDA-MB-231 cells. Use of membrane transport inhibitors indicated that macropinocytosis and caveolin-mediated endocytosis may be involved in the endocytosis of PI. In addition, 11 membrane proteins common to MDA-MB-231 and Calu-1 may be associated with transmembrane transduction. In summary, PI was able to deliver PI-GST into MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, PI could be modified to be a potential vector, and may contribute to the development of targeted therapeutic strategies for breast cancer.

  9. TINAGL1 and B3GALNT1 are potential therapy target genes to suppress metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Umeyama, Hideaki; Iwadate, Mitsuo; Taguchi, Y-h

    2014-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains lethal despite the development of numerous drug therapy technologies. About 85% to 90% of lung cancers are NSCLC and the 5-year survival rate is at best still below 50%. Thus, it is important to find drugable target genes for NSCLC to develop an effective therapy for NSCLC. Integrated analysis of publically available gene expression and promoter methylation patterns of two highly aggressive NSCLC cell lines generated by in vivo selection was performed. We selected eleven critical genes that may mediate metastasis using recently proposed principal component analysis based unsupervised feature extraction. The eleven selected genes were significantly related to cancer diagnosis. The tertiary protein structure of the selected genes was inferred by Full Automatic Modeling System, a profile-based protein structure inference software, to determine protein functions and to specify genes that could be potential drug targets. We identified eleven potentially critical genes that may mediate NSCLC metastasis using bioinformatic analysis of publically available data sets. These genes are potential target genes for the therapy of NSCLC. Among the eleven genes, TINAGL1 and B3GALNT1 are possible candidates for drug compounds that inhibit their gene expression.

  10. Red blood cell destruction in autoimmune hemolytic anemia: role of complement and potential new targets for therapy.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Sigbjørn; Sundic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a collective term for several diseases characterized by autoantibody-initiated destruction of red blood cells (RBCs). Exact subclassification is essential. We provide a review of the respective types of AIHA with emphasis on mechanisms of RBC destruction, focusing in particular on complement involvement. Complement activation plays a definitive but limited role in warm-antibody AIHA (w-AIHA), whereas primary cold agglutinin disease (CAD), secondary cold agglutinin syndrome (CAS), and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) are entirely complement-dependent disorders. The details of complement involvement differ among these subtypes. The theoretical background for therapeutic complement inhibition in selected patients is very strong in CAD, CAS, and PCH but more limited in w-AIHA. The optimal target complement component for inhibition is assumed to be important and highly dependent on the type of AIHA. Complement modulation is currently not an evidence-based therapy modality in any AIHA, but a number of experimental and preclinical studies are in progress and a few clinical observations have been reported. Clinical studies of new complement inhibitors are probably not far ahead.

  11. Red Blood Cell Destruction in Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Role of Complement and Potential New Targets for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Berentsen, Sigbjørn

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a collective term for several diseases characterized by autoantibody-initiated destruction of red blood cells (RBCs). Exact subclassification is essential. We provide a review of the respective types of AIHA with emphasis on mechanisms of RBC destruction, focusing in particular on complement involvement. Complement activation plays a definitive but limited role in warm-antibody AIHA (w-AIHA), whereas primary cold agglutinin disease (CAD), secondary cold agglutinin syndrome (CAS), and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) are entirely complement-dependent disorders. The details of complement involvement differ among these subtypes. The theoretical background for therapeutic complement inhibition in selected patients is very strong in CAD, CAS, and PCH but more limited in w-AIHA. The optimal target complement component for inhibition is assumed to be important and highly dependent on the type of AIHA. Complement modulation is currently not an evidence-based therapy modality in any AIHA, but a number of experimental and preclinical studies are in progress and a few clinical observations have been reported. Clinical studies of new complement inhibitors are probably not far ahead. PMID:25705656

  12. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Josane F; Espreafico, Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Background Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP), confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP), when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Methods Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library) by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C) cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617), and the other (Met library) by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. Results We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. Conclusion This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in available expression study

  13. Targeting melanocortin receptors as potential novel therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Getting, Stephen J

    2006-07-01

    Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH(1-39)) and the melanocortins (alpha, beta and gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone [MSH]) are derived from a larger precursor molecule known as the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) protein. They exert their numerous biological effects by activating 7 transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), leading to adenylyl cyclase activation and subsequent cAMP accumulation within the target cell. To date, 5 melanocortin receptors (MCR) have been identified and termed MC1R to MC5R, they have been shown to have a wide and varied distribution throughout the body, being found in the central nervous system (CNS), periphery and immune cells. Melanocortins have a multitude of actions including: (i) modulating disease pathologies including arthritis, asthma, obesity; (ii) affecting functions, for example erectile dysfunction, skin tanning; and (iii) organ systems, for example cardiovascular system. Recently a mechanistic approach has been identified with alpha-MSH preventing NF-kappaB activation via the preservation and expression of IkappaBalphaprotein. This leads to a reduction of pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines and inhibition of adhesion molecule expression, with subsequent reduction in leukocyte emigration. Development of selective ligands with an appropriate pharmacokinetic profile will enable a pharmacological evaluation of the potential beneficial effects of the melanocortins. In this review I have discussed the potential mechanistic action for the melanocortins and some of the disease pathologies shown to be modulated. This review proposes targeting the MCR with the ultimate aim of controlling many of the diseases that we face today.

  14. Targeting regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Ménétrier-Caux, Christine; Curiel, Tyler; Faget, Julien; Manuel, Manuarii; Caux, Christophe; Zou, Weiping

    2012-03-01

    Cancers express tumor-associated antigens that should elicit immune response to antagonize the tumor growth, but spontaneous immune rejection of established cancer is rare, suggesting an immunosuppressive environment hindering host antitumor immunity. Among the specific and active tumor-mediated mechanisms, CD4(+)CD25(high) T regulatory cells (Treg) are important mediators of active immune evasion in cancer. In this review, we will discuss Treg subpopulations and the mechanisms of their suppressive functions. Treg depletion improves endogenous antitumor immunity and the efficacy of active immunotherapy in animal models for cancer, suggesting that inhibiting Treg function could also improve the limited successes of human cancer immunotherapy. We will also discuss specific strategies for devising effective cancer immunotherapy targeting Treg.

  15. Genetic targeting of the active transcription factor XBP1s to dendritic cells potentiates vaccine-induced prophylactic and therapeutic antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shenghe; Liu, Zuqiang; Donahue, Cara; Falo, Louis D; You, Zhaoyang

    2012-02-01

    In vivo dendritic cells (DC) targeting is an attractive approach with potential advantages in vaccine efficacy, cost, and availability. Identification of molecular adjuvants to in vivo "modulate " DC to coordinately render improved Th1 and CD8 T cell immunity, and attenuated deleterious Treg effects, is a critical challenge. Here, we report that in vivo genetic targeting of the active transcription factor XBP1s to DC (XBP1s/DC) potentiated vaccine-induced prophylactic and therapeutic antitumor immunity in multiple tumor models. This immunization strategy is based on a genetic vaccine encoding both cytomegalovirus (CMV)-driven vaccine Aghsp70 and DC-specific CD11c-driven XBP1s. The novel targeted vaccine induced durable Th1 and CD8 T cell responses to poorly immunogenic self/tumor antigen (Ag) and attenuated tumor-associated Treg suppressive function. Bone marrow (BM)-derived DC genetically modified to simultaneously overexpress XBP1s and express Aghsp70 upregulated CD40, CD70, CD86, interleukin (IL)-15, IL-15Rα, and CCR7 expression, and increased IL-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production in vitro. XBP1s/DC elevated functional DEC205(+)CD8α(+)DC in the draining lymph nodes (DLN). The data suggest a novel role for XBP1s in modulating DC to potentiate tumor vaccine efficacy via overcoming two major obstacles to tumor vaccines (i.e., T cell hyporesponsiveness against poorly immunologic self/tumor Ag and tumor-associated Treg-mediated suppression) and improving DEC205(+)CD8α(+)DC.

  16. The serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) is present in B-cell clones of diverse malignant origin: probing a potential anti-tumor target for psychotropics.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Elizabeth J; Holder, Michelle J; Chamba, Anita; Challa, Anita; Drake-Lee, Adrian; Bunce, Christopher M; Drayson, Mark T; Pilkington, Geoffrey; Blakely, Randy D; Dyer, Martin J S; Barnes, Nicholas M; Gordon, John

    2005-07-01

    Following our previous description of the serotonin transporter (SERT) acting as a conduit to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-mediated apoptosis, specifically in Burkitt's lymphoma, we now detail its expression among a broad spectrum of B cell malignancy, while exploring additional SERT substrates for potential therapeutic activity. SERT was readily detected in derived B cell lines with origins as diverse as B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Concentration and timecourse kinetics for the antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities of the amphetamine derivatives fenfluramine (an appetite suppressant) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy") revealed them as being similar to the endogenous indoleamine. A tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine, instead mirrored the behavior of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, both being effective in the low micromolar range. A majority of neoplastic clones were sensitive to one or more of the serotonergic compounds. Dysregulated bcl-2 expression, either by t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation or its introduction as a constitutively active transgene, provided protection from proapoptotic but not antiproliferative outcomes. These data indicate a potential for SERT as a novel anti-tumor target for amphetamine analogs, while evidence is presented that the seemingly more promising antidepressants are likely impacting malignant B cells independently of the transporter itself.

  17. Targeting Notch to target cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pannuti, Antonio; Foreman, Kimberly; Rizzo, Paola; Osipo, Clodia; Golde, Todd; Osborne, Barbara; Miele, Lucio

    2010-06-15

    The cellular heterogeneity of neoplasms has been at the center of considerable interest since the "cancer stem cell hypothesis", originally formulated for hematologic malignancies, was extended to solid tumors. The origins of cancer "stem" cells (CSC) or tumor-initiating cells (TIC; henceforth referred to as CSCs) and the methods to identify them are hotly debated topics. Nevertheless, the existence of subpopulations of tumor cells with stem-like characteristics has significant therapeutic implications. The stem-like phenotype includes indefinite self-replication, pluripotency, and, importantly, resistance to chemotherapeutics. Thus, it is plausible that CSCs, regardless of their origin, may escape standard therapies and cause disease recurrences and/or metastasis after apparently complete remissions. Consequently, the idea of selectively targeting CSCs with novel therapeutics is gaining considerable interest. The Notch pathway is one of the most intensively studied putative therapeutic targets in CSC, and several investigational Notch inhibitors are being developed. However, successful targeting of Notch signaling in CSC will require a thorough understanding of Notch regulation and the context-dependent interactions between Notch and other therapeutically relevant pathways. Understanding these interactions will increase our ability to design rational combination regimens that are more likely to prove safe and effective. Additionally, to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from treatment with Notch-targeting therapeutics, reliable biomarkers to measure pathway activity in CSC from specific tumors will have to be identified and validated. This article summarizes the most recent developments in the field of Notch-targeted cancer therapeutics, with emphasis on CSC.

  18. Caspase Dependent Programmed Cell Death in Developing Embryos: A Potential Target for Therapeutic Intervention against Pathogenic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Alok Das; Kumar, Sunil; Satapathy, Ashok Kumar; Ravindran, Balachandran

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful embryogenesis is a critical rate limiting step for the survival and transmission of parasitic worms as well as pathology mediated by them. Hence, blockage of this important process through therapeutic induction of apoptosis in their embryonic stages offers promise for developing effective anti-parasitic measures against these extra cellular parasites. However, unlike in the case of protozoan parasites, induction of apoptosis as a therapeutic approach is yet to be explored against metazoan helminth parasites. Methodology/Principal Findings For the first time, here we developed and evaluated flow cytometry based assays to assess several conserved features of apoptosis in developing embryos of a pathogenic filarial nematode Setaria digitata, in-vitro as well as ex-vivo. We validated programmed cell death in developing embryos by using immuno-fluorescence microscopy and scoring expression profile of nematode specific proteins related to apoptosis [e.g. CED-3, CED-4 and CED-9]. Mechanistically, apoptotic death of embryonic stages was found to be a caspase dependent phenomenon mediated primarily through induction of intracellular ROS. The apoptogenicity of some pharmacological compounds viz. DEC, Chloroquine, Primaquine and Curcumin were also evaluated. Curcumin was found to be the most effective pharmacological agent followed by Primaquine while Chloroquine displayed minimal effect and DEC had no demonstrable effect. Further, demonstration of induction of apoptosis in embryonic stages by lipid peroxidation products [molecules commonly associated with inflammatory responses in filarial disease] and demonstration of in-situ apoptosis of developing embryos in adult parasites in a natural bovine model of filariasis have offered a framework to understand anti-fecundity host immunity operational against parasitic helminths. Conclusions/Significance Our observations have revealed for the first time, that induction of apoptosis in developing embryos can

  19. FAIM2, as a novel diagnostic maker and a potential therapeutic target for small-cell lung cancer and atypical carcinoid

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hio Chung; Kim, Jong In; Chang, Hee Kyung; Woodard, Gavitt; Choi, Young Sik; Ku, Ja-Lok; Jablons, David M.; Kim, Il-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Lung neuroendocrine (NE) tumors are a heterogeneous group of tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells that includes typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and large cell NE cancer. The subtyping of NE tumors is based on the number of mitoses per high powered field and the presences of necrosis. However, the best diagnostic criteria to differentiate various subtypes of lung NE tumors remains controversial and few diagnostic markers distinguish typical and atypical carcinoid. In this study, we show that FAIM2, an inhibitory molecule in the Fas-apoptosis pathway, is significantly overexpressed in SCLC compared to non-small cell lung cancer. In addition, FAIM2 expression is significantly higher in atypical carcinoid than typical carcinoid. As atypical carcinoid has been shown to have worse clinical outcomes than typical carcinoid, our data suggests that FAIM2 may be a useful diagnostic marker for atypical carcinoid. Knockdown of FAIM2 expression increases Fas-induced apoptotic cell death in SCLC cells. Etoposide treatment combined with FAIM2 inhibition also shows modest but significant reduction of viable SCLC cells. Taken together, our results suggest that FAIM2 is a potential NE tumor marker with higher expression in atypical carcinoid and SCLC, and could be a new therapeutic target for SCLC. PMID:27677402

  20. Green Tea Catechins Reduce Invasive Potential of Human Melanoma Cells by Targeting COX-2, PGE2 Receptors and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tripti; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma is the most serious type of skin disease and a leading cause of death from skin disease due to its highly metastatic ability. To develop more effective chemopreventive agents for the prevention of melanoma, we have determined the effect of green tea catechins on the invasive potential of human melanoma cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using A375 (BRAF-mutated) and Hs294t (Non-BRAF-mutated) melanoma cell lines as an in vitro model. Employing cell invasion assays, we found that the inhibitory effects of green tea catechins on the cell migration were in the order of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)>(-)-epigallocatechin>(-)-epicatechin-3-gallate>(-)-gallocatechin>(-)-epicatechin. Treatment of A375 and Hs294t cells with EGCG resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell migration or invasion of these cells, which was associated with a reduction in the levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGE2 receptors (EP2 and EP4). Treatment of cells with celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, also inhibited melanoma cell migration. EGCG inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-, an inducer of COX-2, and PGE2-induced cell migration of cells. EGCG decreased EP2 agonist (butaprost)- and EP4 agonist (Cay10580)-induced cell migration ability. Moreover, EGCG inhibited the activation of NF-κB/p65, an upstream regulator of COX-2, in A375 melanoma cells, and treatment of cells with caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an inhibitor of NF-κB, also inhibited cell migration. Inhibition of melanoma cell migration by EGCG was associated with transition of mesenchymal stage to epithelial stage, which resulted in an increase in the levels of epithelial biomarkers (E-cadherin, cytokeratin and desmoglein 2) and a reduction in the levels of mesenchymal biomarkers (vimentin, fibronectin and N-cadherin) in A375 melanoma cells. Together, these results indicate that EGCG, a major green tea catechin, has the ability to inhibit melanoma cell invasion

  1. Minichromosome Maintenance Protein 7 is a potential therapeutic target in human cancer and a novel prognostic marker of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The research emphasis in anti-cancer drug discovery has always been to search for a drug with the greatest antitumor potential but fewest side effects. This can only be achieved if the drug used is against a specific target located in the tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated Minichromosome Maintenance Protein 7 (MCM7) as a novel therapeutic target in cancer. Results Immunohistochemical analysis showed that MCM7 was positively stained in 196 of 331 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 21 of 29 bladder tumor and 25 of 70 liver tumor cases whereas no significant staining was observed in various normal tissues. We also found an elevated expression of MCM7 to be associated with poor prognosis for patients with NSCLC (P = 0.0055). qRT-PCR revealed a higher expression of MCM7 in clinical bladder cancer tissues than in corresponding non-neoplastic tissues (P < 0.0001), and we confirmed that a wide range of cancers also overexpressed MCM7 by cDNA microarray analysis. Suppression of MCM7 using specific siRNAs inhibited incorporation of BrdU in lung and bladder cancer cells overexpressing MCM7, and suppressed the growth of those cells more efficiently than that of normal cell strains expressing lower levels of MCM7. Conclusions Since MCM7 expression was generally low in a number of normal tissues we examined, MCM7 has the characteristics of an ideal candidate for molecular targeted cancer therapy in various tumors and also as a good prognostic biomarker for NSCLC patients. PMID:21619671

  2. Unlocking the potential of CD70 as a novel immunotherapeutic target for non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Julie; Zwaenepoel, Karen; Rolfo, Christian; Van den Bossche, Jolien; Deben, Christophe; Silence, Karen; Hermans, Christophe; Smits, Evelien; Van Schil, Paul; Lardon, Filip; Deschoolmeester, Vanessa; Pauwels, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Although normally restricted to activated T and B cells and mature dendritic cells, constitutive expression of CD70, a member of the tumor necrosis family, has been described in both hematological and solid tumors, where it increases tumor cell and regulatory T cell survival by signaling through its receptor, CD27. We have assessed the co-expression of CD70 and CD27 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by immunohistochemistry to explore a correlation between expression of the protein and tumor histologic subtype, genetic aberrations and prognosis. Furthermore, we tested the ability of ARGX-110, a CD70-blocking antibody, to induce NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Our results revealed CD70 expression on the surface of both primary and metastatic NSCLC tumor cells and in the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, CD27-expressing tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were found adjacent to the tumor cells, suggesting active CD70-mediated signaling. Finally, we have shown that ARGX-110, has potent cytotoxic effects on CD70+ NSCLC cell lines. PMID:25951351

  3. The Role of AhR in Autoimmune Regulation and Its Potential as a Therapeutic Target against CD4 T Cell Mediated Inflammatory Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Conghui; Xie, Qunhui; Zhao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    AhR has recently emerged as a critical physiological regulator of immune responses affecting both innate and adaptive systems. Since the AhR signaling pathway represents an important link between environmental stimulators and immune-mediated inflammatory disorder, it has become the object of great interest among researchers recently. The current review discusses new insights into the mechanisms of action of a select group of inflammatory autoimmune diseases and the ligand-activated AhR signaling pathway. Representative ligands of AhR, both exogenous and endogenous, are also reviewed relative to their potential use as tools for understanding the role of AhR and as potential therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory autoimmune diseases, with a focus on CD4 helper T cells, which play important roles both in self-immune tolerance and in inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Evidence indicating the potential use of these ligands in regulating inflammation in various diseases is highlighted, and potential mechanisms of action causing immune system effects mediated by AhR signaling are also discussed. The current review will contribute to a better understanding of the role of AhR and its signaling pathway in CD4 helper T cell mediated inflammatory disorder. Considering the established importance of AhR in immune regulation and its potential as a therapeutic target, we also think that both further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of immune regulation that are mediated by the ligand-specific AhR signaling pathway, and integrated research and development of new therapeutic drug candidates targeting the AhR signaling pathway should be pursued urgently. PMID:24905409

  4. The role of AhR in autoimmune regulation and its potential as a therapeutic target against CD4 T cell mediated inflammatory disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Conghui; Xie, Qunhui; Zhao, Bin

    2014-06-05

    AhR has recently emerged as a critical physiological regulator of immune responses affecting both innate and adaptive systems. Since the AhR signaling pathway represents an important link between environmental stimulators and immune-mediated inflammatory disorder, it has become the object of great interest among researchers recently. The current review discusses new insights into the mechanisms of action of a select group of inflammatory autoimmune diseases and the ligand-activated AhR signaling pathway. Representative ligands of AhR, both exogenous and endogenous, are also reviewed relative to their potential use as tools for understanding the role of AhR and as potential therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory autoimmune diseases, with a focus on CD4 helper T cells, which play important roles both in self-immune tolerance and in inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Evidence indicating the potential use of these ligands in regulating inflammation in various diseases is highlighted, and potential mechanisms of action causing immune system effects mediated by AhR signaling are also discussed. The current review will contribute to a better understanding of the role of AhR and its signaling pathway in CD4 helper T cell mediated inflammatory disorder. Considering the established importance of AhR in immune regulation and its potential as a therapeutic target, we also think that both further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of immune regulation that are mediated by the ligand-specific AhR signaling pathway, and integrated research and development of new therapeutic drug candidates targeting the AhR signaling pathway should be pursued urgently.

  5. Tunicamycins: translocase-I inhibitors that target bacterial cell wall and mammalian N-glycoproteins. The potential for selective inhibitors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tunicamycins are a heterologous family of nucleoside antibiotics that target the biosynthesis of bacterial peptidoglycan and eukaryotic N-glycoproteins. The mechanism of action is known, with the tunicamycin-Mg2+ complex established as a transition state analog for hexosamine-1-phosphate: prenol pho...

  6. Comparative Expression Study of the Endo–G Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) Repertoire in Human Glioblastoma Cancer Stem-like Cells, U87-MG Cells and Non Malignant Cells of Neural Origin Unveils New Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Sarah; Carapito, Christine; Dong, Jihu; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Cianférani, Sarah; Haiech, Jacques; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly aggressive, invasive brain tumors with bad prognosis and unmet medical need. These tumors are heterogeneous being constituted by a variety of cells in different states of differentiation. Among these, cells endowed with stem properties, tumor initiating/propagating properties and particularly resistant to chemo- and radiotherapies are designed as the real culprits for tumor maintenance and relapse after treatment. These cells, termed cancer stem-like cells, have been designed as prominent targets for new and more efficient cancer therapies. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a family of membrane receptors, play a prominent role in cell signaling, cell communication and crosstalk with the microenvironment. Their role in cancer has been highlighted but remains largely unexplored. Here, we report a descriptive study of the differential expression of the endo-GPCR repertoire in human glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells (GSCs), U-87 MG cells, human astrocytes and fetal neural stem cells (f-NSCs). The endo-GPCR transcriptome has been studied using Taqman Low Density Arrays. Of the 356 GPCRs investigated, 138 were retained for comparative studies between the different cell types. At the transcriptomic level, eight GPCRs were specifically expressed/overexpressed in GSCs. Seventeen GPCRs appeared specifically expressed in cells with stem properties (GSCs and f-NSCs). Results of GPCR expression at the protein level using mass spectrometry and proteomic analysis are also presented. The comparative GPCR expression study presented here gives clues for new pathways specifically used by GSCs and unveils novel potential therapeutic targets. PMID:24662753

  7. Aurora Kinase A Is Upregulated in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma and Represents a Potential Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    Humme, Daniel; Haider, Ahmed; Möbs, Markus; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Ohmatsu, Hanako; Geilen, Cyprienne Isabell; Eberle, Jürgen; Krueger, James G; Beyer, Marc; Hummel, Michael; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Sterry, Wolfram; Assaf, Chalid

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) form a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas characterized by only poor prognosis in advanced stage. Despite significant progress made in the identification of novel genes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cutaneous lymphoma, the therapeutic value of these findings has still to be proven. Here, we demonstrate by gene expression arrays that Aurora kinase A is one of the highly overexpressed genes of the serine/threonine kinase in CTCL. The finding was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry in CTCL cell lines and primary patient samples. Moreover, treatment with a specific Aurora kinase A inhibitor blocks cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest in G2 phase, as well as apoptosis in CTCL cell lines. These data provide a promising rationale for using Aurora kinase A inhibition as a therapeutic modality of CTCL.

  8. Targeted therapy against EGFR and VEGFR using ZD6474 enhances the therapeutic potential of UV-B phototherapy in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The hypoxic environment of tumor region stimulated the up regulation of growth factors responsible for angiogenesis and tumor proliferation. Thus, targeting the tumor vasculature along with the proliferation by dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor may be the efficient way of treating advanced breast cancers, which can be further enhanced by combining with radiotherapy. However, the effectiveness of radiotherapy may be severely compromised by toxicities and tumor resistance due to radiation-induced adaptive response contributing to recurrence and metastases of breast cancer. The rational of using ZD6474 is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of combined VEGFR2 and EGFR targeting with concurrent targeted and localized UV-B phototherapy in vitro breast cancer cells with the anticipation to cure skin lesions infiltrated with breast cancer cells. Materials and methods Breast cancer cells were exposed to UV-B and ZD6474 and the cell viability, apoptosis, invasion and motility studies were conducted for the combinatorial effect. Graphs and statistical analyses were performed using Graph Pad Prism 5.0. Results ZD6474 and UV-B decreased cell viability in breast cancers in combinatorial manner without affecting the normal human mammary epithelial cells. ZD6474 inhibited cyclin E expression and induced p53 expression when combined with UV-B. It activated stress induced mitochondrial pathway by inducing translocation of bax and cytochrome-c. The combination of ZD6474 with UV-B vs. either agent alone also more potently down-regulated the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein, up-regulated pro-apoptotic signaling events involving expression of bax, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7 proteins, and induced poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase resulting in apoptosis. ZD6474 combined with UV-B inhibited invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro as compared to either single agent, indicating a potential involvement of pro-angiogenic growth factors in regulating the altered expression and

  9. Targeted therapy against EGFR and VEGFR using ZD6474 enhances the therapeutic potential of UV-B phototherapy in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Siddik; Rajput, Shashi; Tripathi, Amit Kumar; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2013-10-20

    The hypoxic environment of tumor region stimulated the up regulation of growth factors responsible for angiogenesis and tumor proliferation. Thus, targeting the tumor vasculature along with the proliferation by dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor may be the efficient way of treating advanced breast cancers, which can be further enhanced by combining with radiotherapy. However, the effectiveness of radiotherapy may be severely compromised by toxicities and tumor resistance due to radiation-induced adaptive response contributing to recurrence and metastases of breast cancer. The rational of using ZD6474 is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of combined VEGFR2 and EGFR targeting with concurrent targeted and localized UV-B phototherapy in vitro breast cancer cells with the anticipation to cure skin lesions infiltrated with breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells were exposed to UV-B and ZD6474 and the cell viability, apoptosis, invasion and motility studies were conducted for the combinatorial effect. Graphs and statistical analyses were performed using Graph Pad Prism 5.0. ZD6474 and UV-B decreased cell viability in breast cancers in combinatorial manner without affecting the normal human mammary epithelial cells. ZD6474 inhibited cyclin E expression and induced p53 expression when combined with UV-B. It activated stress induced mitochondrial pathway by inducing translocation of bax and cytochrome-c. The combination of ZD6474 with UV-B vs. either agent alone also more potently down-regulated the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein, up-regulated pro-apoptotic signaling events involving expression of bax, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7 proteins, and induced poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase resulting in apoptosis. ZD6474 combined with UV-B inhibited invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro as compared to either single agent, indicating a potential involvement of pro-angiogenic growth factors in regulating the altered expression and reorganization of cytoskeletal proteins

  10. Stromal Mesenchyme Cell Genes in Prostate Cancer Development: Epigenetic Markers for Cancer and Potential Targets for Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    25-29. 22. Goo, Y., Li, Z., Pajkovic, N., Shaffer, S., et al., Systematic investigation of lycopene effects in LNCaP cells by use of novel large...Shaffer, S.; Taylor, G.; Chen, J.; Campbell, D.; Arnstein, L.; Goodlett, D. R.; van Breemen, R., Systematic investigation of lycopene effects in LNCaP...Radulovic, D., van Breemen, RB., and Goodlett, DR. Effects of lycopene treatment on the sub-cellular proteomes of human LNCaP cells. European Symposium of

  11. Potential route of Th17/Treg cell dynamics in targeting type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis: an autoimmune disorder perspective.

    PubMed

    Karri, Suresh Kumar; Sheela, A

    2017-01-01

    Cytokines, small secreted proteins, have a specific effect on the interactions and communications between cells. They play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Factors in the breakdown of self-tolerance and the subsequent events leading to the induction of pathogenic responses remain unclear for most of the autoimmune diseases. Large numbers of studies have revealed a general scheme in which pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to the initiation and propagation of autoimmune inflammation, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines facilitate the regression of inflammation and thereby recovery from the disease. The interleukin (IL)-17/IL-23 axis that emerged as the new paradigm has compelled us to critically re-examine the cytokine-driven immune events in the pathogenesis and treatment of autoimmunity. T-helper 17 cells and Regulatory T cells are two lymphocyte subsets with opposing action. In this review, we discuss the mechanism that promotes development of these cells from common precursors and specific factors that impact their cell numbers and function. Also presented are findings that suggest how the equilibrium between pre-inflammatory T helper and regulatory T-cell subsets might be pharmacologically restored for therapeutic benefit, emphasising type-1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, the emerging clinical data showing anti-IL-17 and anti-IL-23 treatments for their efficacy in treating immune-mediated inflammatory diseases are presented.

  12. Targeting MEK/MAPK signal transduction module potentiates ATO-induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells through multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, Paolo; Giuliani, Nicola; Mazzera, Laura; Lombardi, Guerino; Ricca, Micaela; Corradi, Attilio; Cantoni, Anna Maria; Salvatore, Luigi; Riccioni, Roberta; Costanzo, Antonio; Testa, Ugo; Levrero, Massimo; Rizzoli, Vittorio; Bonati, Antonio

    2008-09-15

    We demonstrate that blockade of the MEK/ERK signaling module, using the small-molecule inhibitors PD184352 or PD325901 (PD), strikingly enhances arsenic trioxide (ATO)-induced cytotoxicity in human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) and in tumor cells from patients with multiple myeloma (MM) through a caspase-dependent mechanism. In HMCLs retaining a functional p53, PD treatment greatly enhances the ATO-induced p53 accumulation and p73, a p53 paralog, cooperates with p53 in caspase activation and apoptosis induction. In HMCLs carrying a nonfunctional p53, cotreatment with PD strikingly elevates the (DR4 + DR5)/(DcR1 + DcR2) tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors ratio and caspase-8 activation of ATO-treated cells. In MM cells, irrespective of p53 status, the combined PD/ATO treatment increases the level of the proapoptotic protein Bim (PD-mediated) and decreases antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 (ATO-mediated). Moreover, Bim physically interacts with both DR4 and DR5 TRAIL receptors in PD/ATO-treated cells, and loss of Bim interferes with the activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in response to PD/ATO. Finally, PD/ATO treatment induces tumor regression, prolongs survival, and is well tolerated in vivo in a human plasmacytoma xenograft model. These preclinical studies provide the framework for testing PD325901 and ATO combination therapy in clinical trials aimed to improve patient outcome in MM.

  13. Target cell extraction coupled with LC-MS/MS analysis for screening potential bioactive components in Ginkgo biloba extract with preventive effect against diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jing-ying; Chen, Xu; Zheng, Xiao-xiao; Jiang, Xiang-lan; Yang, Dong-zhi; Yu, Yan-yan; Du, Qian; Tang, Dao-quan; Yin, Xiao-xing

    2015-02-01

    A rapid and useful approach for screening potential bioactive components in Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) with preventive effect against diabetic nephropathy (DN) was developed using mesangial cells extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Mesangial cells were first divided into two groups according to their treatments with high glucose or high glucose plus GBE. After incubation for 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 48 h, the cells were harvested and extracted with 40% acetic acid in water before LC-MS/MS analysis. Then, 19 compounds and five metabolites were found to selectively combine with mesangial cells. Notably, compounds including quercetin and rutin were identified or tentatively characterized according to the results of retention time and MS spectra, which is highly consistent with our previous reports that quercetin and rutin are potent protective agents against glomerulosclerosis in DN. Therefore, all these results indicate that target cell extraction coupled with LC-MS/MS analysis can be successfully applied for predicting the bioactive components in GBE with preventive effect against DN. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. MicroRNA-182 targets SMAD7 to potentiate TGFβ-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jingyi; Lei, Rong; Zhuang, Xueqian; Li, Xiaoxun; Li, Gang; Lev, Sima; Segura, Miguel F.; Zhang, Xue; Hu, Guohong

    2016-01-01

    The transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway plays critical roles during cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis. SMAD7 is both a transcriptional target and a negative regulator of TGFβ signalling, thus mediating a negative feedback loop that may potentially restrain TGFβ responses of cancer cells. Here, however, we show that TGFβ treatment induces SMAD7 transcription but not its protein level in a panel of cancer cells. Mechanistic studies reveal that TGFβ activates the expression of microRNA-182 (miR-182), which suppresses SMAD7 protein. miR-182 silencing leads to SMAD7 upregulation on TGFβ treatment and prevents TGFβ-induced EMT and invasion of cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-182 promotes breast tumour invasion and TGFβ-induced osteoclastogenesis for bone metastasis. Furthermore, miR-182 expression inversely correlates with SMAD7 protein in human tumour samples. Therefore, our data reveal the miR-182-mediated disruption of TGFβ self-restraint and provide a mechanism to explain the unleashed TGFβ responses in metastatic cancer cells. PMID:27996004

  15. Targeting prostate cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Crea, Francesco; Mathews, Lesley A; Farrar, William L; Hurt, Elaine M

    2009-12-01

    Cancer stem cells are the sub-population of cells present within tumors responsible for tumorigenesis. These cells have unique biological properties including self-renewal and the ability to differentiate. Furthermore, it is thought that these cells are more resistant to conventional chemotherapy and, as a result, are responsible for patient relapse. We will discuss the identification of prostate cancer stem cells, their unique properties and how these cells may be targeted for more efficacious therapies.

  16. Mitochondria-targeted esculetin alleviates mitochondrial dysfunction by AMPK-mediated nitric oxide and SIRT3 regulation in endothelial cells: potential implications in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Karnewar, Santosh; Vasamsetti, Sathish Babu; Gopoju, Raja; Kanugula, Anantha Koteswararao; Ganji, Sai Krishna; Prabhakar, Sripadi; Rangaraj, Nandini; Tupperwar, Nitin; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar

    2016-04-11

    Mitochondria-targeted compounds are emerging as a new class of drugs that can potentially alter the pathophysiology of those diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role. We have synthesized a novel mitochondria-targeted esculetin (Mito-Esc) with an aim to investigate its effect during oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell death and angiotensin (Ang)-II-induced atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. Mito-Esc but not natural esculetin treatment significantly inhibited H2O2- and Ang-II-induced cell death in human aortic endothelial cells by enhancing NO production via AMPK-mediated eNOS phosphorylation. While L-NAME (NOS inhibitor) significantly abrogated Mito-Esc-mediated protective effects, Compound c (inhibitor of AMPK) significantly decreased Mito-Esc-mediated increase in NO production. Notably, Mito-Esc promoted mitochondrial biogenesis by enhancing SIRT3 expression through AMPK activation; and restored H2O2-induced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. siSIRT3 treatment not only completely reversed Mito-Esc-mediated mitochondrial biogenetic marker expressions but also caused endothelial cell death. Furthermore, Mito-Esc administration to ApoE(-/-) mice greatly alleviated Ang-II-induced atheromatous plaque formation, monocyte infiltration and serum pro-inflammatory cytokines levels. We conclude that Mito-Esc is preferentially taken up by the mitochondria and preserves endothelial cell survival during oxidative stress by modulating NO generation via AMPK. Also, Mito-Esc-induced SIRT3 plays a pivotal role in mediating mitochondrial biogenesis and perhaps contributes to its anti-atherogenic effects.

  17. Mitochondria-targeted esculetin alleviates mitochondrial dysfunction by AMPK-mediated nitric oxide and SIRT3 regulation in endothelial cells: potential implications in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Karnewar, Santosh; Vasamsetti, Sathish Babu; Gopoju, Raja; Kanugula, Anantha Koteswararao; Ganji, Sai Krishna; Prabhakar, Sripadi; Rangaraj, Nandini; Tupperwar, Nitin; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria-targeted compounds are emerging as a new class of drugs that can potentially alter the pathophysiology of those diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role. We have synthesized a novel mitochondria-targeted esculetin (Mito-Esc) with an aim to investigate its effect during oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell death and angiotensin (Ang)-II-induced atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice. Mito-Esc but not natural esculetin treatment significantly inhibited H2O2- and Ang-II-induced cell death in human aortic endothelial cells by enhancing NO production via AMPK-mediated eNOS phosphorylation. While L-NAME (NOS inhibitor) significantly abrogated Mito-Esc-mediated protective effects, Compound c (inhibitor of AMPK) significantly decreased Mito-Esc-mediated increase in NO production. Notably, Mito-Esc promoted mitochondrial biogenesis by enhancing SIRT3 expression through AMPK activation; and restored H2O2-induced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. siSIRT3 treatment not only completely reversed Mito-Esc-mediated mitochondrial biogenetic marker expressions but also caused endothelial cell death. Furthermore, Mito-Esc administration to ApoE−/− mice greatly alleviated Ang-II-induced atheromatous plaque formation, monocyte infiltration and serum pro-inflammatory cytokines levels. We conclude that Mito-Esc is preferentially taken up by the mitochondria and preserves endothelial cell survival during oxidative stress by modulating NO generation via AMPK. Also, Mito-Esc-induced SIRT3 plays a pivotal role in mediating mitochondrial biogenesis and perhaps contributes to its anti-atherogenic effects. PMID:27063143

  18. Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Lucília P.; Silva, Patrícia; Duarte, Marlene; Rodrigues, Liliana; Duarte, Catarina M. M.; Albuquerque, Cristina; Serra, Ana Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs) that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their effect in CSCs and tumor initiation properties. Here we examined the effect of ITCs-enriched Brassicaceae extracts derived from watercress and broccoli in cell proliferation, CSC phenotype and metastasis using a previously developed three-dimensional HT29 cell model with CSC-like traits. Both extracts were phytochemically characterized and their antiproliferative effect in HT29 monolayers was explored. Next, we performed cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis in HT29 spheroids treated with watercress and broccoli extracts and respective main ITCs, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN). Soft agar assays and relative quantitative expression analysis of stemness markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling players were performed to evaluate the effect of these phytochemicals in stemness and metastasis. Our results showed that both Brassicaceae extracts and ITCs exert antiproliferative effects in HT29 spheroids, arresting cell cycle at G2/M, possibly due to ITC-induced DNA damage. Colony formation and expression of LGR5 and CD133 cancer stemness markers were significantly reduced. Only watercress extract and PEITC decreased ALDH1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, as well as β-catenin expression. Our research provides new insights on CRC therapy using ITC-enriched Brassicaceae extracts, specially watercress extract, to target CSCs and circulating tumor cells by impairing cell proliferation, ALDH1-mediated chemo-resistance, anoikis evasion, self-renewal and metastatic potential. PMID:28394276

  19. Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lucília P; Silva, Patrícia; Duarte, Marlene; Rodrigues, Liliana; Duarte, Catarina M M; Albuquerque, Cristina; Serra, Ana Teresa

    2017-04-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs) that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their effect in CSCs and tumor initiation properties. Here we examined the effect of ITCs-enriched Brassicaceae extracts derived from watercress and broccoli in cell proliferation, CSC phenotype and metastasis using a previously developed three-dimensional HT29 cell model with CSC-like traits. Both extracts were phytochemically characterized and their antiproliferative effect in HT29 monolayers was explored. Next, we performed cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis in HT29 spheroids treated with watercress and broccoli extracts and respective main ITCs, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN). Soft agar assays and relative quantitative expression analysis of stemness markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling players were performed to evaluate the effect of these phytochemicals in stemness and metastasis. Our results showed that both Brassicaceae extracts and ITCs exert antiproliferative effects in HT29 spheroids, arresting cell cycle at G₂/M, possibly due to ITC-induced DNA damage. Colony formation and expression of LGR5 and CD133 cancer stemness markers were significantly reduced. Only watercress extract and PEITC decreased ALDH1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, as well as β-catenin expression. Our research provides new insights on CRC therapy using ITC-enriched Brassicaceae extracts, specially watercress extract, to target CSCs and circulating tumor cells by impairing cell proliferation, ALDH1-mediated chemo-resistance, anoikis evasion, self-renewal and metastatic potential.

  20. Priming with two DNA vaccines expressing hepatitis C virus NS3 protein targeting dendritic cells elicits superior heterologous protective potential in mice.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jie; Deng, Yao; Chen, Hong; Yin, Xiao; Yang, Yang; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-10-01

    Development an effective vaccine may offer an alternative preventive and therapeutic strategy against HCV infection. DNA vaccination has been shown to induce robust humoral and cellular immunity and overcome many problems associated with conventional vaccines. In this study, mice were primed with either conventional pVRC-based or suicidal pSC-based DNA vaccines carrying DEC-205-targeted NS3 antigen (DEC-NS3) and boosted with type 5 adenoviral vectors encoding the partial NS3 and core antigens (C44P). The prime boost regimen induced a marked increase in antigen-specific humoral and T-cell responses in comparison with either rAd5-based vaccines or DEC-205-targeted DNA immunization in isolation. The protective effect against heterogeneous challenge was correlated with high levels of anti-NS3 IgG and T-cell-mediated immunity against NS3 peptides. Moreover, priming with a suicidal DNA vaccine (pSC-DEC-NS3), which elicited increased TNF-α-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells against NS3-2 peptides (aa 1245-1461), after boosting, showed increased heterogeneous protective potential compared with priming with a conventional DNA vaccine (pVRC-DEC-NS3). In conclusion, a suicidal DNA vector (pSC-DEC-NS3) expressing DEC-205-targeted NS3 combined with boosting using an rAd5-based HCV vaccine (rAd5-C44P) is a good candidate for a safe and effective vaccine against HCV infection.

  1. Targeted Delivery of siRNA to Activated T Cells via Transferrin-Polyethylenimine (Tf-PEI) as a Potential Therapy of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuran; Kim, Na Hyung; Nadithe, Venkatareddy; Schalk, Dana; Thakur, Archana; Kılıç, Ayşe; Lum, Lawrence G.; Bassett, David JP; Merkel, Olivia M

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a worldwide health problem. Activated T cells (ATCs) in the lung, particularly T helper 2 cells (Th2), are strongly associated with inducing airway inflammatory responses and chemoattraction of inflammatory cells in asthma. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) as a promising anti-sense molecule can specifically silence inflammation related genes in ATCs, however, lack of safe and efficient siRNA delivery systems limits the application of siRNA as a therapeutic molecule in asthma. Here, we designed a novel pulmonary delivery system of siRNA, transferrin-polyethylenimine (Tf-PEI), to selectively deliver siRNA to ATCs in the lung. Tf-PEI polyplexes demonstrated optimal physicochemical properties such as size, distribution, zeta-potential, and siRNA condensation efficiency. Moreover, in vitro studies showed significantly enhanced cellular uptake and gene knockdown mediated by Tf-PEI polyplexes in human primary ATCs. Biodistribution of polyplexes in a murine asthmatic model confirmed that Tf-PEI polyplexes can efficiently and selectively deliver siRNA to ATCs. In conclusion, the present work proves the feasibility to target ATCs in asthma via Tf receptor. This strategy could potentially be used to design an efficient siRNA delivery system for asthma therapy. PMID:27001893

  2. Stromal Mesenchyme Cell Genes in Prostate Cancer Development: Epigenetic Markers for Cancer and Potential Targets for Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    oxidant, the sample was conjugated to hydrazide resin (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) at room temperature for 10–24 h. Non-glycosylated proteins were then... complex sample dynamic range) and increased detection of intracellular proteins from the tissue digestion media than the cell-free media of cultured...XJ, Martin DB, Aebersold R: Identification and quantification of N-linked glycoproteins using hydrazide chemistry, stable isotope labeling and mass

  3. Microarray gene expression analysis of fixed archival tissue permits molecular classification and identification of potential therapeutic targets in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Linton, Kim; Howarth, Christopher; Wappett, Mark; Newton, Gillian; Lachel, Cynthia; Iqbal, Javeed; Pepper, Stuart; Byers, Richard; Chan, Wing John; Radford, John

    2012-01-01

    Refractory/relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has a poor prognosis. Novel drugs targeting the constitutively activated NF-κB pathway characteristic of ABC-DLBCL are promising, but evaluation depends on accurate activated B cell-like (ABC)/germinal center B cell-like (GCB) molecular classification. This is traditionally performed on gene microarray expression profiles of fresh biopsies, which are not routinely collected, or by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, which lacks reproducibility and classification accuracy. We explored the possibility of using routine archival FFPE tissue for gene microarray applications. We examined Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2.0 gene expression profiles from paired archival FFPE and fresh-frozen tissues of 40 ABC/GCB-classified DLBCL cases to compare classification accuracy and test the potential for this approach to aid the discovery of therapeutic targets and disease classifiers in DLBCL. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of unselected present probe sets distinguished ABC/GCB in FFPE with remarkable accuracy, and a Bayesian classifier correctly assigned 32 of 36 cases with >90% probability. Enrichment for NF-κB genes was appropriately seen in ABC-DLBCL FFPE tissues. The top discriminatory genes expressed in FFPE separated cases with high statistical significance and contained novel biology with potential therapeutic insights, warranting further investigation. These results support a growing understanding that archival FFPE tissues can be used in microarray experiments aimed at molecular classification, prognostic biomarker discovery, and molecular exploration of rare diseases. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiguang; Lv, Lin; Yang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conventional chemotherapy is the main treatment for cancer and benefits patients in the form of decreased relapse and metastasis and longer overall survival. However, as the target therapy drugs and delivery systems are not wholly precise, it also results in quite a few side effects, and is less efficient in many cancers due to the spared cancer stem cells, which are considered the reason for chemotherapy resistance, relapse, and metastasis. Conventional chemotherapy limitations and the cancer stem cell hypothesis inspired our search for a novel chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells. In this review, we summarize cancer stem cell enrichment methods, the search for new efficient drugs, and the delivery of drugs targeting cancer stem cells. We also discuss cancer stem cell hierarchy complexity and the corresponding combination therapy for both cancer stem and non-stem cells. Learning from cancer stem cells may reveal novel strategies for chemotherapy in the future. PMID:26045975

  5. Etomidate Impairs Long-Term Potentiation In Vitro by Targeting α5-Subunit Containing GABAA Receptors on Nonpyramidal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, F. Clifford; Zarnowska, Ewa D.; Laha, Kurt T.; Engin, Elif; Zeller, Anja; Keist, Ruth; Rudolph, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Previous experiments using genetic and pharmacological manipulations have provided strong evidence that etomidate impairs synaptic plasticity and memory by modulating α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors (α5-GABAARs). Because α5-GABAARs mediate tonic inhibition (TI) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and etomidate enhances TI, etomidate enhancement of TI in pyramidal cells has been proposed as the underlying mechanism (Martin et al., 2009). Here we tested this hypothesis by selectively removing α5-GABAARs from pyramidal neurons (CA1–pyr–α5–KO) and comparing the ability of etomidate to enhance TI and block LTP in fl–α5 (WT), global–α5–KO (gl–α5–KO), and CA1–pyr–α5–KO mice. Etomidate suppressed LTP in slices from WT and CA1–pyr–α5–KO but not gl–α5–KO mice. There was a trend toward reduced TI in both gl–α5–KO and CA1–pyr–α5–KO mice, but etomidate enhanced TI to similar levels in all genotypes. The dissociation between effects of etomidate on TI and LTP in gl–α5–KO mice indicates that increased TI in pyramidal neurons is not the mechanism by which etomidate impairs LTP and memory. Rather, the ability of etomidate to block LTP in WT and CA1–pyr–α5–KO mice, but not in gl–α5–KO mice, points toward α5-GABAARs on nonpyramidal cells as the essential effectors controlling plasticity in this in vitro model of learning and memory. PMID:26134653

  6. Phospholipid profiling identifies acyl chain elongation as a ubiquitous trait and potential target for the treatment of lung squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Marien, Eyra; Meister, Michael; Muley, Thomas; del Pulgar, Teresa Gomez; Derua, Rita; Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Van de Plas, Raf; Vanderhoydonc, Frank; Machiels, Jelle; Binda, Maria Mercedes; Dehairs, Jonas; Willette-Brown, Jami; Hu, Yinling; Dienemann, Hendrik; Thomas, Michael; Schnabel, Philipp A.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Lacal, Juan Carlos; Waelkens, Etienne; Swinnen, Johannes V.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Beyond first line treatment, few therapeutic options are available, particularly for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Here, we have explored the phospholipidomes of 30 human SCCs and found that they almost invariably (in 96.7% of cases) contain phospholipids with longer acyl chains compared to matched normal tissues. This trait was confirmed using in situ 2D-imaging MS on tissue sections and by phospholipidomics of tumor and normal lung tissue of the L-IkkαKA/KA mouse model of lung SCC. In both human and mouse, the increase in acyl chain length in cancer tissue was accompanied by significant changes in the expression of acyl chain elongases (ELOVLs). Functional screening of differentially expressed ELOVLs by selective gene knockdown in SCC cell lines followed by phospholipidomics revealed ELOVL6 as the main elongation enzyme responsible for acyl chain elongation in cancer cells. Interestingly, inhibition of ELOVL6 drastically reduced colony formation of multiple SCC cell lines in vitro and significantly attenuated their growth as xenografts in vivo in mouse models. These findings identify acyl chain elongation as one of the most common traits of lung SCC discovered so far and pinpoint ELOVL6 as a novel potential target for cancer intervention. PMID:26862848

  7. Novel role of NOX in supporting aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells with mitochondrial dysfunction and as a potential target for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiqin; Hu, Yumin; Chen, Gang; Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Feng; Feng, Li; Pelicano, Helene; Wang, Hua; Keating, Michael J; Liu, Jinsong; McKeehan, Wallace; Wang, Huamin; Luo, Yongde; Huang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Elevated aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells (the Warburg effect) may be attributed to respiration injury or mitochondrial dysfunction, but the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic significance remain elusive. Here we report that induction of mitochondrial respiratory defect by tetracycline-controlled expression of a dominant negative form of DNA polymerase γ causes a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and increases ROS generation. We show that upregulation of NOX is critical to support the elevated glycolysis by providing additional NAD+. The upregulation of NOX is also consistently observed in cancer cells with compromised mitochondria due to the activation of oncogenic Ras or loss of p53, and in primary pancreatic cancer tissues. Suppression of NOX by chemical inhibition or genetic knockdown of gene expression selectively impacts cancer cells with mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to a decrease in cellular glycolysis, a loss of cell viability, and inhibition of cancer growth in vivo. Our study reveals a previously unrecognized function of NOX in cancer metabolism and suggests that NOX is a potential novel target for cancer treatment.

  8. Quantitation of rare circulating tumor cells by folate receptor α ligand-targeted PCR in bladder transitional cell carcinoma and its potential diagnostic significance.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fuming; Liu, Yuchen; Zhao, Rongchang; Zou, Xiangjun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jiaqiang; Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Feiyang; Zou, Xiaowen; Xia, Ye; Wang, Xuliang; Xing, Li; Li, Cailing; Lu, Jingxiao; Tang, Junlong; Zhou, Fangjian; Liu, Chunxiao; Gui, Yaoting; Cai, Zhiming; Sun, Xiaojuan

    2014-07-01

    Numerous attempts for detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) have been made to develop reliable assays for early diagnosis of cancers. In this study, we validated the application of folate receptor α (FRα) as the tumor marker to detect CTC through tumor-specific ligand PCR (LT-PCR) and assessed its utility for diagnosis of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Immunohistochemistry for FRα was performed on ten bladder TCC tissues. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for FRα was performed on both urine and serum specimens from bladder TCC patients (n = 64 and n = 20, respectively) and healthy volunteers (n = 20 and n = 23, respectively). Western blot analysis and qRT-PCR were performed to confirm the expression of FRα in bladder TCC cells. CTC values in 3-mL peripheral blood were measured in 57 bladder TCC patients, 48 healthy volunteers, and 15 subjects with benign urologic pathologies by the folate receptor α ligand-targeted PCR. We found that FRα protein was overexpressed in both bladder TCC cells and tissues. The levels of FRα mRNA were also much higher in bladder cancer cell lines 5637 and SW780 than those of leukocyte. Values of FRα were higher in both serum and urine specimens of bladder TCC patients than those of control. CTC values were also higher in 3-mL peripheral blood of bladder TCC patients than those of control (median 26.5 Cu/3 mL vs 14.0 Cu/3 mL). Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for bladder TCC detection was 0.819, 95 % CI (0.738-0.883). At the cutoff value of 15.43 Cu/3 mL, the sensitivity and the specificity for detecting bladder cancer are 82.14 and 61.9 %, respectively. We concluded that quantitation of CTCs through FRα ligand-PCR could be a promising method for noninvasive diagnosis of bladder TCC.

  9. RPL24: a potential therapeutic target whose depletion or acetylation inhibits polysome assembly and cancer cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Edell, Kathleen A.; Kehasse, Amanuel; Scott, Gary K.; Yau, Christina; Rothschild, Daniel E.; Schilling, Birgit; Gabriel, Bianca S.; Yevtushenko, Mariya A.; Hanson, Ingrid M.; Held, Jason M.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Benz, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Partial loss of large ribosomal subunit protein 24 (RPL24) function is known to protect mice against Akt or Myc-driven cancers, in part via translational inhibition of a subset of cap(eIF4E)-dependently translated mRNAs. The role of RPL24 in human malignancies is unknown. By analyzing a public dataset of matched human breast cancers and normal mammary tissue, we found that breast cancers express significantly more RPL24 than matched normal breast samples. Depletion of RPL24 in breast cancer cells by >70% reduced cell viability by 80% and decreased protein expression of the eIF4E-dependently translated proteins cyclin D1 (75%), survivin (46%) and NBS1 (30%) without altering GAPDH or beta-tubulin levels. RPL24 knockdown also reduced 80S subunit levels relative to 40S and 60S levels. These effects on expression of eIF4E-dependent proteins and ribosome assembly were mimicked by 2-24 h treatment with the pan-HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA), which induced acetylation of 15 different polysome-associated proteins including RPL24. Furthermore, HDAC6-selective inhibition or HDAC6 knockdown induced ribosomal protein acetylation. Via mass spectrometry, we found that 60S-associated, but not, polysome-associated, RPL24 undergoes HDACi-induced acetylation on K27. Thus, RPL24 K27 acetylation may play a role in ribosome assembly. These findings point toward a novel acetylation-dependent polysome assembly mechanism regulating tumorigenesis. PMID:24970821

  10. Regulatory T cell-mediated resolution of lung injury: identification of potential target genes via expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neil R.; D'Alessio, Franco R.; Tsushima, Kenji; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K.; Cheadle, Christopher; Grigoryev, Dmitry N.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2010-01-01

    In animal models of acute lung injury (ALI), gene expression studies have focused on the acute phase of illness, with little emphasis on resolution. In this study, the acute phase of intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (IT LPS)-induced lung injury was similar in wild-type (WT) and recombinase-activating gene-1-deficient (Rag-1−/−) lymphocyte-deficient mice, but resolution was impaired and resolution-phase lung gene expression remained different from baseline only in Rag-1−/− mice. By focusing on groups of genes involved in similar biological processes (gene ontologies) pertinent to inflammation and the immune response, we identified 102 genes at days 4 and 10 after IT LPS with significantly different expression between WT and Rag-1−/− mice. After adoptive transfer of isolated CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) to Rag-1−/− mice at the time of IT LPS, resolution was similar to that in WT mice. Of the 102 genes distinctly changed in either WT or Rag-1−/− mice from our 7 gene ontologies, 19 genes reverted from the Rag-1−/− to the WT pattern of expression after adoptive transfer of Tregs, implicating those 19 genes in Treg-mediated resolution of ALI. PMID:20028937

  11. Proliferation inhibition and differentiation induction of hepatic cancer stem cells by knockdown of BC047440: a potential therapeutic target of stem cell treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    You, Nan; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Weihui; Zhong, Xiao; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Recent findings suggest that clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression is driven by hepatic cancer stem cells (HCSCs) through their capacity for self-renewal, generation of heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells, resistance to chemotherapy and their ability to divide limitlessly, which may contribute to the failure of existing therapies to consistently eradicate malignant tumors. Therefore, HCSC-directed therapeutic approaches might represent strategies to improve clinical HCC therapy. In previous studies, we showed that BC047440 was found to play a critical role in mediating HCC cell proliferation. The present study sought to determine whether BC047440 is involved in maintaining HCSC malignant behavior (including proliferation and differentiation). We demonstrated that BC047440 expression was markedly upregulated in HCSCs. Furthermore, we inhibited BC047440 in HCSCs using short hairpin RNA (shRNA). The effects of BC047440 on proliferation and differentiation were investigated. We also analyzed the involvement of critical molecular events known to regulate the proliferation and the differentiation machinery. Excluding apoptosis-related effects, we found that BC047440 inhibition resulted in enhanced cell proliferation through enhancing cytoplasmic accumulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) with a concomitant decrease in the nuclear fraction. BC047440 inhibition also resulted in inducing HCSC differentiation into hepatocytes. Furthermore, following downregulation of BC047440, the level of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) increased. Finally, tumorigenicity suppression following BC047440 depletion was confirmed in a nude mouse model. In conclusion, our findings indicate that BC047440 plays an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of HCSCs and may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC.

  12. A novel dendritic-cell-targeting DNA vaccine for hepatitis B induces T cell and humoral immune responses and potentiates the antivirus activity in HBV transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Debin; Liu, Hong; Shi, Shuai; Dong, Liwei; Wang, Hongge; Wu, Nuoting; Gao, Hui; Cheng, Zhaojun; Zheng, Qun; Cai, Jiaojiao; Zou, Libo; Zou, Zhihua

    2015-12-01

    Strategies for inducing an effective immune response following vaccination have focused on targeting antigens to dendritic cells (DCs) through the DC-specific surface molecule DEC-205. The immunogenicity and efficacy of DNA vaccination can also be enhanced by fusing the encoded antigen to single-chain antibodies directed against DEC-205. Here, we investigated this promising approach for its enhancement of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific cellular and humoral immune responses and its antiviral effects in HBV transgenic mice. A plasmid DNA vaccine encoding mouse DEC-205 single-chain fragment variable (mDEC-205-scFv) linked with the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was constructed. Vaccination with this fusion DNA vaccine in HBV transgenic mice induced robust antiviral T cell and antibody immunity against HBsAg. The levels of serum-circulating HBsAg and the HBV DNA copy number were downregulated by the induction of a higher HBsAg-specific response. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of the novel mDEC-205-scFv-fused DNA vaccine in a mouse model of immune-tolerant, chronic HBV infection.

  13. Therapeutic potential of stem cells expressing suicide genes that selectively target human breast cancer cells: Evidence that they exert tumoricidal effects via tumor tropism

    PubMed Central

    YI, BO-RIM; CHOI, KELVIN J.; KIM, SEUNG U.; CHOI, KYUNG-CHUL

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide and is classified into ductal and lobular carcinoma. Breast cancer as well as lobular carcinoma is associated with various risk factors such as gender, age, female hormone exposure, ethnicity, family history and genetic risk factor-associated genes. Genes associated with a high risk of developing breast cancer include BRCA1, BRCA2, p53, PTEN, CHEK2 and ATM. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy are used to treat breast cancer but these therapies, except for surgery, have many side-effects such as alopecia, anesthesia, diarrhea and arthralgia. Gene-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (GEPT) or suicide gene therapy, may improve the therapeutic efficacy of conventional cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy without side-effects. GEPT most often involves the use of a viral vector to deliver a gene not found in mammalian cells and that produces enzymes which can convert a relatively non-toxic prodrug into a toxic agent. Examples of these systems include cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (CD/5-FC), carboxyl esterase/irinotecan (CE/CPT-11), and thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV). Recently, therapies based on genetically engineered stem cells (GESTECs) using a GEPT system have received a great deal of attention for their clinical and therapeutic potential to treat breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the potential of GESTECs via tumor tropism effects and therapeutic efficacy against several different types of cancer cells. GESTECs represent a useful tool for treating breast cancer without inducing injuries associated with conventional therapeutic modalities. PMID:22736197

  14. Targeting Cancer Stem Cells with Natural Killer Cell Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Luna, Jesus I; Grossenbacher, Steven K; Murphy, William J; Canter, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    Standard cytoreductive cancer therapy, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are frequently resisted by a small portion of cancer cells with 'stem-cell' like properties including quiescence and repopulation. Immunotherapy represents a breakthrough modality for improving oncologic outcomes in cancer patients. Since the success of immunotherapy is not contingent on target cell proliferation, it may also be uniquely suited to address the problem of resistance and repopulation exerted by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Areas covered: Natural killer (NK) cells have long been known for their ability to reject allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells, and there are increasing data demonstrating that NK cells can selectively identify and lyse CSCs. The authors review the current knowledge of CSCs and NK cells and highlight recent studies that support the concept that NK cells are capable of targeting CSC in solid tumors, especially in the context of combination therapy simultaneously targeting non-CSCs and CSCs. Expert opinion: Unlike cytotoxic cancer treatments, NK cells can target and eliminate quiescent/non-proliferating cells such as CSCs, and these enigmatic cells are an important source of relapse and metastasis. NK targeting of CSCs represents a novel and potentially high impact method to capitalize on the intrinsic therapeutic potential of NK cells.

  15. Targeting mast cells in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Reber, Laurent L; Frossard, Nelly

    2014-06-01

    Although mast cells have long been known to play a critical role in anaphylaxis and other allergic diseases, they also participate in some innate immune responses and may even have some protective functions. Data from the study of mast cell-deficient mice have facilitated our understanding of some of the molecular mechanisms driving mast cell functions during both innate and adaptive immune responses. This review presents an overview of the biology of mast cells and their potential involvement in various inflammatory diseases. We then discuss some of the current pharmacological approaches used to target mast cells and their products in several diseases associated with mast cell activation.

  16. Kappa immunoglobulin light chain polymorphisms and survival after allogeneic transplantation for B-cell malignancies: a potential graft-vs-leukaemia target.

    PubMed

    Etto, T L; Stewart, L A; Muirhead, J; Bailey, M; Schwarer, A P

    2007-01-01

    In the human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) setting, minor histocompatibility antigen (mHA) disparities between recipient and donor can lead to graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) or graft rejection. Graft-vs-leukaemia (GVL) effect is a beneficial T-cell-mediated immune response that can also occur following HLA-matched HSCT. mHAs with tissue expression restricted to cells of the haematopoietic system are particularly relevant as immunotherapeutic targets for destroying malignant cells without inducing GVHD. Therefore, it is important to identify further haematopoietic-restricted polymorphic mHAs, which may have the potential to be used clinically for adoptive immunotherapy. Polymorphic mismatching of minor antigens, such as the B-cell-specific protein, the kappa immunoglobulin light chain (kappa) may play a role in the incidence of GVL and therefore the survival of transplant recipients following transplantation for B-cell malignancies. Polymorphisms in the constant region of the immunoglobulin kappa polypeptide chain have been defined involving single amino acid changes at positions 153 and 191. In this study, 51 HLA-matched B-cell malignancy transplant pairs were kappa typed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion to investigate the association between kappa allotype disparity and outcome after transplantation. Kappa allotype disparity between transplant pairs may be associated with an increased survival compared with pairs not mismatched for kappa, as kappa mismatched recipients had a higher percentage of complete remissions and a decreased level of relapse in comparison with the nonmismatched recipients. HLA peptide prediction software was used to determine which HLA types were the best binders for kappa peptides. It was observed that patients with tissue types predicted to bind the kappa Km(1,2) peptides had better survival outcomes and no relapse compared with those with tissue types not

  17. ING Proteins as Potential Anticancer Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Unoki, M.; Kumamoto, K.; Harris, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent emerging evidence suggests that ING family proteins play roles in carcinogenesis both as oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes depending on the family members and on cell status. Previous results from non-physiologic overexpression experiments showed that all five family members induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, thus it had been thought until very recently that all of the family members function as tumor suppressor genes. Therefore restoration of ING family proteins in cancer cells has been proposed as a treatment for cancers. However, ING2 knockdown experiments showed unexpected results: ING2 knockdown led to senescence in normal human fibroblast cells and suppressed cancer cell growth. ING2 is also overexpressed in colorectal cancer, and promotes cancer cell invasion through an MMP13 dependent pathway. Additionally, it was reported that ING2 has two isoforms, ING2a and ING2b. Although expression of ING2a predominates compared with ING2b, both isoforms confer resistance against cell cycle arrest or apoptosis to cancer cells, thus knockdown of both isoforms is critical to remove this resistance. Taken together, these results suggest that ING2 can function as an oncogene in some specific types of cancer cells, indicating restoration of this gene in cancer cells could cause cancer progression. Because knockdown of ING2 suppresses cancer cell invasion and induces apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, ING2 may be an anticancer drug target. In this brief review, we discuss possible clinical applications of ING2 with the latest knowledge of molecular targeted therapies. PMID:19442116

  18. Fenretinide targets the side population in myeloma cell line NCI-H929 and potentiates the efficacy of antimyeloma with bortezomib and dexamethasone regimen.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenqing; Du, Juan; Du, Yanzhi; Pu, Honglei; Liu, Shuyan; He, Jie; Zhang, Ji; Hou, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Side population (SP) cells, a subset of enriched tumor initiating cells, have been demonstrated to have stem cell-like properties in multiple myeloma (MM) by us as well as other previous studies. A lack of agents targeting tumor initiating cells, however, represents a challenge in the treatment of MM. Previously, fenretinide, a well-tolerated vitamin A derivative, has been shown to exert effect on leukemic stem cells, but its actions against myeloma stem-like cells are still unknown. In this study, the effects of fenretinide on myeloma stem-like cells characteristic was comprehensively examined in SP and non-SP (MP) cells of NCI-H929 cell sorted by flow cytometry-based on Hoechst 33342 stain. We find that fenretinide is capable of eradicating MM SP and MP cells, but not normal bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) at physiologically achievable concentrations. Fenretinide alone exerted a selective cytotoxic effect on MM SP cells, as well as in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone. In particular, SP cells were highly sensitive to fenretinide, and in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone in colony formation and apoptosis assays. Accordingly, the apparent fenretinide-induced-apoptosis was linked to the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, we propose that fenretinide is a potent agent that targets tumor initiating cells and may be a promising therapeutic agent in MM treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential Therapeutic Targets in Uterine Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Cuppens, Tine; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Amant, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Uterine sarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 3,4% of all uterine cancers. Even after radical hysterectomy, most patients relapse or present with distant metastases. The very limited clinical benefit of adjuvant cytotoxic treatments is reflected by high mortality rates, emphasizing the need for new treatment strategies. This review summarizes rising potential targets in four distinct subtypes of uterine sarcomas: leiomyosarcoma, low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. Based on clinical reports, promising approaches for uterine leiomyosarcoma patients include inhibition of VEGF and mTOR signaling, preferably in combination with other targeted or cytotoxic compounds. Currently, the only targeted therapy approved in leiomyosarcoma patients is pazopanib, a multitargeted inhibitor blocking VEGFR, PDGFR, FGFR, and c-KIT. Additionally, preclinical evidence suggests effect of the inhibition of histone deacetylases, tyrosine kinase receptors, and the mitotic checkpoint protein aurora kinase A. In low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, antihormonal therapies including aromatase inhibitors and progestins have proven activity. Other potential targets are PDGFR, VEGFR, and histone deacetylases. In high-grade ESS that carry the YWHAE/FAM22A/B fusion gene, the generated 14-3-3 oncoprotein is a putative target, next to c-KIT and the Wnt pathway. The observation of heterogeneity within uterine sarcoma subtypes warrants a personalized treatment approach. PMID:26576131

  20. Targeted deep sequencing of plasma circulating cell-free DNA reveals Vimentin and Fibulin 1 as potential epigenetic biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sklias, Athena; Muller, David C.; Degli Esposti, Davide; Guilloreau, Paule; Mckay, James; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Hainaut, Pierre; Merle, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide, but is still lacking sensitive and specific biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis. In this study, we applied targeted massively parallel semiconductor sequencing to assess methylation on a panel of genes (FBLN1, HINT2, LAMC1, LTBP1, LTBP2, PSMA2, PSMA7, PXDN, TGFB1, UBE2L3, VIM and YWHAZ) in plasma circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and to evaluate the potential of these genes as HCC biomarkers in two different series, one from France (42 HCC cases and 42 controls) and one from Thailand (42 HCC cases, 26 chronic liver disease cases and 42 controls). We also analyzed a set of HCC and adjacent tissues and liver cell lines to further compare with ‘The Cancer Genome Atlas’ (TCGA) data. The methylation in cfDNA was detected for FBLN1, PSMA7, PXDN and VIM, with differences in methylation patterns between cases and controls for FBLN1 and VIM. The average methylation level across analyzed CpG-sites was associated with higher odds of HCC for VIM (1.48 [1.02, 2.16] for French cases and 2.18 [1.28, 3.72] for Thai cases), and lower odds of HCC for FBLN1 (0.89 [0.76, 1.03] for French cases and 0.75 [0.63, 0.88] for Thai cases). In conclusion, our study provides evidence that changes in VIM and FBLN1 methylation levels in cfDNA are associated with HCC and could represent useful plasma-based biomarkers. Also, the potential to investigate methylation patterns in cfDNA could bring new strategies for HCC detection and monitoring high-risk groups and response to treatment. PMID:28333958

  1. Inorganic mercury prevents the differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells: Amyloid precursor protein, microtubule associated proteins and ROS as potential targets.

    PubMed

    Chan, Miguel Chin; Bautista, Elizabeth; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Segovia, José

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to mercury (Hg) occurs through different pathways and forms including methylmecury (MeHg) from seafood and rice, ethylmercury (EtHg), and elemental Hg (Hg(0)) from dental amalgams and artisanal gold mining. Once in the brain all these forms are transformed to inorganic Hg (I-Hg), where it bioaccumulates and remains for long periods. Hg is a well-known neurotoxicant, with its most damaging effects reported during brain development, when cellular key events, such as cell differentiation take place. A considerable number of studies report an impairment of neuronal differentiation due to MeHg exposure, however the effects of I-Hg, an important form of Hg found in brain, have received less attention. In this study, we decided to examine the effects of I-Hg exposure (5, 10 and 20μM) on the differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells induced by retinoic acid (RA, 10μM). We observed extension of neuritic processes and increased expression of neuronal markers (MAP2, tubulin-βIII, and Tau) after RA stimulation, all these effects were decreased by the co-exposure to I-Hg. Interestingly, I-Hg increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) accompanied with increased levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDHA1). Remarkably I-Hg decreased levels of nitric oxide synthase neuronal (nNOS). Moreover I-Hg reduced the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) a protein recently involved in neuronal differentiation. These data suggest that the exposure to I-Hg impairs cell differentiation, and point to new potential targets of Hg toxicity such as APP and NO signaling.

  2. Macrophage inhibitory factor 1 acts as a potential biomarker in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and is a target for antibody-based therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Bing; Jiang, Xing-Ran; Yu, Xi-Ying; Wang, Lin; He, Shun; Feng, Fei-Yue; Guo, Li-Ping; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Shih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage inhibitory factor 1 (MIC1) is frequently altered in various cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of MIC1 for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Serum MIC1 of 286 ESCC and 250 healthy subjects was detected, the diagnostic performance was assessed and compared with SCC, CEA, CA199 and CA724, and the value as a prognostic indicator was also evaluated. The expression of MIC1 in ESCC cell lines, tissues were detected, and the inhibition of MIC1 antibody on ESCC was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the serum MIC1 of ESCC was significantly higher than normal groups (P < 0.001), and was positively associated with tumor invasion (P = 0.030) as well as lymph node metastasis (P = 0.007). The sensitivity of MIC1 was significantly better than SCC, CEA, CA199 and CA724, especially for stage I ESCC. Patients with higher serum MIC1 also had a poorer prognosis in relapse-free (P = 0.050) and tumor-specific survival (P = 0.005). In vitro studies showed that the expression of MIC1 was upregulated in 37.5% (3/8) ESCC cell lines and 45% (18/40) tissues, and the transcription of MIC1 in tumor tissues was significantly higher than paired adjacent normal tissues (P = 0.001). The antibody of MIC1 inhibited the tumor growth (P < 0.001), and showing preference for tumor tissues in xenograft model. The decreased formation of neovascularization lumen may be involved in the mechanism. We conclude that MIC1 plays an important role in the progression of ESCC and can serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for ESCC. PMID:24383865

  3. Metalloproteinases: potential therapeutic targets for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    In different inflammatory diseases, many metalloproteinases are over expressed and thought to promote progression of the disease. Understanding roles of these enzymes in disease progression as well as in normal homeostasis is crucial to identify target enzymes for the disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the autoimmune inflammatory diseases in which around 1-2 % of the world populations are suffered from. Roles of metalloproteinases are well documented in RA, but so far none of them is proposed to be a target enzyme. However, there are at least three enzymes that can potentially be molecular targets to inhibit progression of RA. Understanding roles of these enzymes in more detail and developing highly selective inhibitors to these enzymes would be essential for novel antimetalloproteinase therapies in future.

  4. Identification of potential glucocorticoid receptor therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alexandra L; Coarfa, Cristian; Qian, Jun; Wilkerson, Joseph J; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Krett, Nancy L; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Rosen, Steven T

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are a cornerstone of combination therapies for multiple myeloma. However, patients ultimately develop resistance to GCs frequently based on decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. An understanding of the direct targets of GC actions, which induce cell death, is expected to culminate in potential therapeutic strategies for inducing cell death by regulating downstream targets in the absence of a functional GR. The specific goal of our research is to identify primary GR targets that contribute to GC-induced cell death, with the ultimate goal of developing novel therapeutics around these targets that can be used to overcome resistance to GCs in the absence of GR. Using the MM.1S glucocorticoid-sensitive human myeloma cell line, we began with the broad platform of gene expression profiling to identify glucocorticoid-regulated genes further refined by combination treatment with phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase inhibition (PI3Ki). To further refine the search to distinguish direct and indirect targets of GR that respond to the combination GC and PI3Ki treatment of MM.1S cells, we integrated 1) gene expression profiles of combination GC treatment with PI3Ki, which induces synergistic cell death; 2) negative correlation between genes inhibited by combination treatment in MM.1S cells and genes over-expressed in myeloma patients to establish clinical relevance and 3) GR chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) in myeloma cells to identify global chromatin binding for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Using established bioinformatics platforms, we have integrated these data sets to identify a subset of candidate genes that may form the basis for a comprehensive picture of glucocorticoid actions in multiple myeloma. As a proof of principle, we have verified two targets, namely RRM2 and BCL2L1, as primary functional targets of GR involved in GC-induced cell death.

  5. Identification of potential glucocorticoid receptor therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Alexandra L.; Coarfa, Cristian; Qian, Jun; Wilkerson, Joseph J.; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Krett, Nancy L.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Rosen, Steven T.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are a cornerstone of combination therapies for multiple myeloma. However, patients ultimately develop resistance to GCs frequently based on decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. An understanding of the direct targets of GC actions, which induce cell death, is expected to culminate in potential therapeutic strategies for inducing cell death by regulating downstream targets in the absence of a functional GR. The specific goal of our research is to identify primary GR targets that contribute to GC-induced cell death, with the ultimate goal of developing novel therapeutics around these targets that can be used to overcome resistance to GCs in the absence of GR. Using the MM.1S glucocorticoid-sensitive human myeloma cell line, we began with the broad platform of gene expression profiling to identify glucocorticoid-regulated genes further refined by combination treatment with phosphatidylinositol-3’-kinase inhibition (PI3Ki). To further refine the search to distinguish direct and indirect targets of GR that respond to the combination GC and PI3Ki treatment of MM.1S cells, we integrated 1) gene expression profiles of combination GC treatment with PI3Ki, which induces synergistic cell death; 2) negative correlation between genes inhibited by combination treatment in MM.1S cells and genes over-expressed in myeloma patients to establish clinical relevance and 3) GR chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) in myeloma cells to identify global chromatin binding for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Using established bioinformatics platforms, we have integrated these data sets to identify a subset of candidate genes that may form the basis for a comprehensive picture of glucocorticoid actions in multiple myeloma. As a proof of principle, we have verified two targets, namely RRM2 and BCL2L1, as primary functional targets of GR involved in GC-induced cell death. PMID:26715915

  6. Preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic targets in dedifferentiated liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Hanes, Robert; Grad, Iwona; Lorenz, Susanne; Stratford, Eva W.; Munthe, Else; Reddy, Chilamakuri Chandra Sekhar; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A.; Myklebost, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Sarcomas are rare cancers with limited treatment options. Patients are generally treated by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery, and would benefit from new personalized approaches. In this study we demonstrate the potential of combining personal genomic characterization of patient tumors to identify targetable mutations with in vitro testing of specific drugs in patient-derived cell lines. We have analyzed three metastases from a patient with high-grade metastatic dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) by exome and transcriptome sequencing as well as DNA copy number analysis. Genomic aberrations of several potentially targetable genes, including amplification of KITLG and FRS2, in addition to amplification of CDK4 and MDM2, characteristic of this disease, were identified. We evaluated the efficacy of drugs targeting these aberrations or the corresponding signaling pathways in a cell line derived from the patient. Interestingly, the pan-FGFR inhibitor NVP-BGJ398, which targets FGFR upstream of FRS2, strongly inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and induced an accumulation of cells into the G0 phase of the cell cycle. This study indicates that FGFR inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the treatment of DDLPS with amplified FRS2. PMID:27409346

  7. Switching addictions between HER2 and FGFR2 in HER2-positive breast tumor cells: FGFR2 as a potential target for salvage after lapatinib failure

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Koichi; Tsurutani, Junji; Sakai, Kazuko; Kaneda, Hiroyasu; Fujisaka, Yasuhito; Takeda, Masayuki; Watatani, Masahiro; Arao, Tokuzo; Satoh, Taroh; Okamoto, Isamu; Kurata, Takayasu; Nishio, Kazuto; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2011-04-01

    Highlights: {yields} A lapatinib-resistant breast cancer cell line, UACC812 (UACC812/LR), was found to harbor amplification of the FGFR2 gene. {yields} Inhibition of the molecule by a specific inhibitor of FGFR dramatically induced growth inhibition accompanied by cell death. {yields} Immunohistochemical analysis of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer demonstrated an association between FGFR2 expression and poor outcome for lapatinib-containing chemotherapy. -- Abstract: Agents that target HER2 have improved the prognosis of patients with HER2-amplified breast cancers. However, patients who initially respond to such targeted therapy eventually develop resistance to the treatment. We have established a line of lapatinib-resistant breast cancer cells (UACC812/LR) by chronic exposure of HER2-amplified and lapatinib-sensitive UACC812 cells to the drug. The mechanism by which UACC812/LR acquired resistance to lapatinib was explored using comprehensive gene hybridization. The FGFR2 gene in UACC812/LR was highly amplified, accompanied by overexpression of FGFR2 and reduced expression of HER2, and a cell proliferation assay showed that the IC{sub 50} of PD173074, a small-molecule inhibitor of FGFR tyrosine kinase, was 10,000 times lower in UACC812/LR than in the parent cells. PD173074 decreased the phosphorylation of FGFR2 and substantially induced apoptosis in UACC812/LR, but not in the parent cells. FGFR2 appeared to be a pivotal molecule for the survival of UACC812/LR as they became independent of the HER2 pathway, suggesting that a switch of addiction from the HER2 to the FGFR2 pathway enabled cancer cells to become resistant to HER2-targeted therapy. The present study is the first to implicate FGFR in the development of resistance to lapatinib in cancer, and suggests that FGFR-targeted therapy might become a promising salvage strategy after lapatinib failure in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.

  8. Interaction of AR and iNOS in lens epithelial cell: A new pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets of diabetic cataract.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Liu, Wenping; Huang, Xinduo; Xiong, Jianping; Wei, Xiaoyong

    2017-02-01

    Although there is significant interest in revealing the role of aldose reductase (AR) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in diabetic cataract (DC), the interaction of AR and iNOS remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the pathogenesis mechanisms and explore as a new potential therapeutic targets for DC. This study investigated the interaction of AR-iNOS through the methods of enzyme kinetics, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation, co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The IC50 of AR for inhibition of iNOS activity is 0.04 μM, and the IC50 of iNOS for inhibition of AR activity is 0.042 μM through enzyme kinetics; the interface showed that ARG99 on AR and GLU317 on iNOS played the key roles in the interaction of AR-iNOS predicted by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Co-immunoprecipitation of protein complexes in human lens epithelial cell (HLEC) demonstrated that AR could association with iNOS in cell; and the interaction distance of AR-iNOS was 6.50 ± 0.22 nm detected by FRET. This study exhibited a direct inhibition interaction between AR and iNOS in HLECs. It is the first report of inhibition interaction between AR and iNOS, suggesting a new pathophysiological mechanism and providing a new insight into the therapeutic mechanism of DC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Subtilase SKI-1/S1P Is a Master Regulator of the HCV Lifecycle and a Potential Host Cell Target for Developing Indirect-Acting Antiviral Agents

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Andrea D.; Knecht, Wolfgang; Lazarov, Ina; Dixit, Surjit B.; Jean, François

    2012-01-01

    HCV infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer and liver transplantation worldwide. Overstimulation of host lipid metabolism in the liver by HCV-encoded proteins during viral infection creates a favorable environment for virus propagation and pathogenesis. In this study, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes acting as master regulators of lipid homeostasis could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with human Flaviviridae viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), whose assembly and pathogenesis depend on interaction with lipid droplets (LDs). One such master regulator of cholesterol metabolic pathways is the host subtilisin/kexin-isozyme-1 (SKI-1) – or site-1 protease (S1P). SKI-1/S1P plays a critical role in the proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), which control expression of the key enzymes of cholesterol and fatty-acid biosynthesis. Here we report the development of a SKI-1/S1P-specific protein-based inhibitor and its application to blocking the SREBP signaling cascade. We demonstrate that SKI-1/S1P inhibition effectively blocks HCV from establishing infection in hepatoma cells. The inhibitory mechanism is associated with a dramatic reduction in the abundance of neutral lipids, LDs, and the LD marker: adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP)/perilipin 2. Reduction of LD formation inhibits virus assembly from infected cells. Importantly, we confirm that SKI-1/S1P is a key host factor for HCV infection by using a specific active, site-directed, small-molecule inhibitor of SKI-1/S1P: PF-429242. Our studies identify SKI-1/S1P as both a novel regulator of the HCV lifecycle and as a potential host-directed therapeutic target against HCV infection and liver steatosis. With identification of an increasing number of human viruses that use host LDs for infection, our results suggest that SKI-1/S1P inhibitors may allow development

  10. Human subtilase SKI-1/S1P is a master regulator of the HCV Lifecycle and a potential host cell target for developing indirect-acting antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Andrea D; Knecht, Wolfgang; Lazarov, Ina; Dixit, Surjit B; Jean, François

    2012-01-01

    HCV infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer and liver transplantation worldwide. Overstimulation of host lipid metabolism in the liver by HCV-encoded proteins during viral infection creates a favorable environment for virus propagation and pathogenesis. In this study, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes acting as master regulators of lipid homeostasis could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with human Flaviviridae viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), whose assembly and pathogenesis depend on interaction with lipid droplets (LDs). One such master regulator of cholesterol metabolic pathways is the host subtilisin/kexin-isozyme-1 (SKI-1)--or site-1 protease (S1P). SKI-1/S1P plays a critical role in the proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), which control expression of the key enzymes of cholesterol and fatty-acid biosynthesis. Here we report the development of a SKI-1/S1P-specific protein-based inhibitor and its application to blocking the SREBP signaling cascade. We demonstrate that SKI-1/S1P inhibition effectively blocks HCV from establishing infection in hepatoma cells. The inhibitory mechanism is associated with a dramatic reduction in the abundance of neutral lipids, LDs, and the LD marker: adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP)/perilipin 2. Reduction of LD formation inhibits virus assembly from infected cells. Importantly, we confirm that SKI-1/S1P is a key host factor for HCV infection by using a specific active, site-directed, small-molecule inhibitor of SKI-1/S1P: PF-429242. Our studies identify SKI-1/S1P as both a novel regulator of the HCV lifecycle and as a potential host-directed therapeutic target against HCV infection and liver steatosis. With identification of an increasing number of human viruses that use host LDs for infection, our results suggest that SKI-1/S1P inhibitors may allow development of

  11. Notch1/3 and p53/p21 are a potential therapeutic target for APS-induced apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Xi; Han, Yi-Ping; Bai, Chong; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) can be applied to anti-cancer. However, the mechanism by which APS mediate this effect is unclear. In the present study, APS-mediated NSCLC cell apoptosis was investigated through the regulation of the notch signaling pathway. The cell viability was detected by the CCK8 assay. The mRNA and protein expression of notch1/3 and tumor suppressors were analyzed by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. The mRNA and protein of notch1 and notch3 were significantly up-regulated in tumor tissues as compared to non-tumor adjacent tissues. Treatment of human NSCLC cells with APS induced cell death in a dose-and time-dependent manner by using CCK8 assay. The mRNA and protein expression of notch1 and notch3 were significantly lower in NSCLC cells with APS treatment than that in control group. Moreover, western blotting analysis showed that treatment of H460 cells with APS significantly increased the pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase 8 levels, decreased the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 level. Furthermore, p53, p21 and p16 were obviously up-regulated by APS treatment in H460 cell. This study demonstrated that APS-treated could inhibit proliferation and promote cell apoptosis, at least partially, through suppressing the expression of notch1 and notch3 and up-regulating the expression of tumor suppressors in H460 NSCLC cell lines.

  12. Doxorubicin loaded polymeric gold nanoparticles targeted to human folate receptor upon laser photothermal therapy potentiates chemotherapy in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Banu, Hussaina; Sethi, Dipinder Kaur; Edgar, Andre; Sheriff, Adhnaan; Rayees, Nuthan; Renuka, N; Faheem, S M; Premkumar, Kumpati; Vasanthakumar, Geetha

    2015-08-01

    The current research focuses on the application of folate conjugated and doxorubicin loaded polymeric gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for the targeted treatment of folate receptor overexpressing breast cancers, augmented by adjunctive laser photothermal therapy. Herein, GNPs surface modified with folate, drug doxorubicin and polyethylene glycol were engineered and were used as vehicles for folate receptor targeted delivery of doxorubicin into cancer cells. Subsequently, the GNPs were photo-excited using laser light for mediating hyperthermia in the cancer cells. In vitro studies were performed to validate the efficacy of the combined modality of folate conjugated and doxorubicin loaded polymeric GNP mediated chemotherapy followed by photothermal therapy in comparison to treatment with free drug; and the combination modality showed better therapeutic efficacy than that of plain doxorubicin treatment in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that express increased levels of surface folate receptors when compared to MCF-7 breast cancer cells that express low levels of folate receptor. The mechanism of cell death was investigated using fluorescent microscopy. Immunoassays showed the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein p53 and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Collectively, these results suggest that the folate tagged doxorubicin loaded GNPs are an attractive platform for targeted delivery of doxorubicin and are agents suitable for photothermal cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sphingolipid and Ceramide Homeostasis: Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Young, Simon A.; Mina, John G.; Denny, Paul W.; Smith, Terry K.

    2012-01-01

    Sphingolipids are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells where they have been attributed a plethora of functions from the formation of structural domains to polarized cellular trafficking and signal transduction. Recent research has identified and characterised many of the key enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism and this has led to a heightened interest in the possibility of targeting these processes for therapies against cancers, Alzheimer's disease, and numerous important human pathogens. In this paper we outline the major pathways in eukaryotic sphingolipid metabolism and discuss these in relation to disease and therapy for both chronic and infectious conditions. PMID:22400113

  14. TLRs, future potential therapeutic targets for RA.

    PubMed

    Elshabrawy, Hatem A; Essani, Abdul E; Szekanecz, Zoltán; Fox, David A; Shahrara, Shiva

    2017-02-01

    Toll like receptors (TLR)s have a central role in regulating innate immunity and in the last decade studies have begun to reveal their significance in potentiating autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Earlier investigations have highlighted the importance of TLR2 and TLR4 function in RA pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the newer data that indicate roles for TLR5 and TLR7 in RA and its preclinical models. We evaluate the pathogenicity of TLRs in RA myeloid cells, synovial tissue fibroblasts, T cells, osteoclast progenitor cells and endothelial cells. These observations establish that ligation of TLRs can transform RA myeloid cells into M1 macrophages and that the inflammatory factors secreted from M1 and RA synovial tissue fibroblasts participate in TH-17 cell development. From the investigations conducted in RA preclinical models, we conclude that TLR-mediated inflammation can result in osteoclastic bone erosion by interconnecting the myeloid and TH-17 cell response to joint vascularization. In light of emerging unique aspects of TLR function, we summarize the novel approaches that are being tested to impair TLR activation in RA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogen Peroxide: A Potential Wound Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanya; Wang, Qi; Lu, Shuliang; Niu, Yiwen

    2017-04-05

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a topical antiseptic used in wound cleaning which kills pathogens through oxidation burst and local oxygen production. Hydrogen peroxide had been reported to be a reactive biochemical molecule synthesized by various cells which influences biological behavior through multiple mechanisms: alterations of membrane potential, generation of new molecules and changing intracellular redox balance which results in activation or inactivation of different signaling transduction pathways. Contrary to the traditional viewpoint that H2O2 probably impairs tissue through its high oxidative property, however, a proper level of H2O2 is considered as an important requirement for normal wound healing. Although the present clinical use of H2O2 is still limited to the elimination of microbial contamination and sometimes hemostasis, better understanding towards the sterilization ability and cell behavior regulatory function of H2O2 within wound will enhance the potential to exogenously augment and manipulate healing.

  16. CD38 expression predicts poor prognosis and might be a potential therapy target in extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Hua; Li, Peng-fei; Lu, Yue; Xia, Zhong-jun; Huang, Hui-qiang; Zhang, Yu-jing

    2015-08-01

    No standard chemotherapy regimens have been defined yet for extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL), and the prognosis of patients with advanced or relapsed disease is very poor. Daratumumab, an investigated anti-cancer drug targeting CD38, has been of great interest in the treatment of CD38-expressing malignancies, especially multiple myeloma. In this study, we reviewed the clinical data of 94 patients with ENKTL, investigated the expression of CD38, and analyzed the prognostic value of CD38 expression. Forty-seven patients had weak expression of CD38, and the other 47 patients had strong expression. The complete response (CR) rate was significantly higher in patients who were treated with asparaginase-based therapy (83.8 vs. 59.6 %, p = 0.025). There was a trend towards higher CR rate in CD38 weak expression group (78.7 vs. 59.6 %, p = 0.074). At a median follow-up time of 42 months, the 2-year and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 53.0 and 39.0 %, respectively, and the 2-year and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 68.0 and 58.0 %, respectively. In multivariate survival analysis including CD38 expression status, International Prognostic Index (IPI) score, local tumor invasion, and chemotherapy regimens, it was found that strong expression of CD38 and non-asparaginase-based chemoregimens were independent adverse prognostic factors for PFS (p = 0.009 and 0.027, respectively), while local tumor invasion and higher IPI score were independent adverse prognostic factors for OS (p = 0.002 and 0.035, respectively). In subgroup analysis, strong expression of CD38 significantly correlated with inferior survival outcomes in patients without local tumor invasion (p = 0.011) or with stage I-II disease (p = 0.008). In conclusion, we firstly found that the majority of ENKTL cases were CD38 positive, with half had strong expression of CD38, which significantly correlated with poor outcomes, indicating the potential role of

  17. Accelerating yield potential in soybean: potential targets for biotechnological improvement.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Yendrek, Craig R; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A; Long, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown legume and provides an important source of protein and oil. Global soybean production and yield per hectare increased steadily over the past century with improved agronomy and development of cultivars suited to a wide range of latitudes. In order to meet the needs of a growing world population without unsustainable expansion of the land area devoted to this crop, yield must increase at a faster rate than at present. Here, the historical basis for the yield gains realized in the past 90 years are examined together with potential metabolic targets for achieving further improvements in yield potential. These targets include improving photosynthetic efficiency, optimizing delivery and utilization of carbon, more efficient nitrogen fixation and altering flower initiation and abortion. Optimization of investment in photosynthetic enzymes, bypassing photorespiratory metabolism, engineering the electron transport chain and engineering a faster recovery from the photoprotected state are different strategies to improve photosynthesis in soybean. These potential improvements in photosynthetic carbon gain will need to be matched by increased carbon and nitrogen transport to developing soybean pods and seeds in order to maximize the benefit. Better understanding of control of carbon and nitrogen transport along with improved knowledge of the regulation of flower initiation and abortion will be needed to optimize sink capacity in soybean. Although few single targets are likely to deliver a quantum leap in yields, biotechnological advances in molecular breeding techniques that allow for alteration of the soybean genome and transcriptome promise significant yield gains. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. CD6 as a potential target for treating multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Singer, Nora G; Whitbred, Joy; Bowen, Michael A; Fox, David A; Lin, Feng

    2017-03-07

    CD6 was established as a marker of T cells more than three decades ago, and recent studies have identified CD6 as a risk gene for multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease in which autoreactive T cells are integrally involved. Nevertheless, the precise role of CD6 in regulating T-cell responses is controversial and its significance in the pathogenesis of various diseases remains elusive, partly due to the lack of animals engineered to alter expression of the CD6 gene. In this report, we found that CD6 KO mice showed decreased pathogenic T-cell responses, reduced spinal cord T-cell infiltration, and attenuated disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. CD6-deficient T cells exhibited augmented activation, but also significantly reduced survival and proliferation after activation, leading to overall decreased Th1 and Th17 polarization. Activated CD6-deficient T cells also showed impaired infiltration through brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayers. Furthermore, by developing CD6 humanized mice, we identified a mouse anti-human CD6 monoclonal antibody that is highly effective in treating established EAE without depleting T cells. These results suggest that (i) CD6 is a negative regulator of T-cell activation, (ii) at the same time, CD6 is a positive regulator of activated T-cell survival/proliferation and infiltration; and (iii) CD6 is a potential new target for treating MS and potentially other T-cell-driven autoimmune conditions.

  19. Dendritic Cell-Targeted Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Lillian; Delamarre, Lélia

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant effort, the development of effective vaccines inducing strong and durable T-cell responses against intracellular pathogens and cancer cells has remained a challenge. The initiation of effector CD8+ T-cell responses requires the presentation of peptides derived from internalized antigen on class I major histocompatibility complex molecules by dendritic cells (DCs) in a process called cross-presentation. A current strategy to enhance the effectiveness of vaccination is to deliver antigens directly to DCs. This is done via selective targeting of antigen using monoclonal antibodies directed against endocytic receptors on the surface of the DCs. In this review, we will discuss considerations relevant to the design of such vaccines: the existence of DC subsets with specialized functions, the impact of the antigen intracellular trafficking on cross-presentation, and the influence of maturation signals received by DCs on the outcome of the immune response. PMID:24910635

  20. Cost targets for domestic fuel cell CHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staffell, I.; Green, R.; Kendall, K.

    Fuel cells have the potential to reduce domestic energy bills by providing both heat and power at the point of use, generating high value electricity from a low cost fuel. However, the cost of installing the fuel cell must be sufficiently low to be recovered by the savings made over its lifetime. A computer simulation is used to estimate the savings and cost targets for fuel cell CHP systems. Two pitfalls of this kind of simulation are addressed: the selection of representative performance figures for fuel cells, and the range of houses from which energy demand data was taken. A meta-study of the current state of the art is presented, and used with 102 house-years of demand to simulate the range of economic performance expected from four fuel cell technologies within the UK domestic CHP market. Annual savings relative to a condensing boiler are estimated at €170-300 for a 1 kWe fuel cell, giving a target cost of €350-625 kW -1 for any fuel cell technology that can demonstrate a 2.5-year lifetime. Increasing lifetime and reducing fuel cell capacity are identified as routes to accelerated market entry. The importance of energy demand is seen to outweigh both economic and technical performance assumptions, while manufacture cost and system lifetime are highlighted as the only significant differences between the technologies considered. SOFC are considered to have the greatest potential, but uncertainty in the assumptions used precludes any clear-cut judgement.

  1. Generating Cell Targeting Aptamers for Nanotheranostics Using Cell-SELEX

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Yifan; Chen, Guang; Shangguan, Dihua; Zhang, Liqin; Wan, Shuo; Wu, Yuan; Zhang, Hui; Duan, Lian; Liu, Chao; You, Mingxu; Wang, Jie; Tan, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Detecting and understanding changes in cell conditions on the molecular level is of great importance for the accurate diagnosis and timely therapy of diseases. Cell-based SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment), a foundational technology used to generate highly-specific, cell-targeting aptamers, has been increasingly employed in studies of molecular medicine, including biomarker discovery and early diagnosis/targeting therapy of cancer. In this review, we begin with a mechanical description of the cell-SELEX process, covering aptamer selection, identification and identification, and aptamer characterization; following this introduction is a comprehensive discussion of the potential for aptamers as targeting moieties in the construction of various nanotheranostics. Challenges and prospects for cell-SELEX and aptamer-based nanotheranostic are also discussed. PMID:27375791

  2. Targeting nuclear transporters in cancer: Diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Stelma, Tamara; Chi, Alicia; van der Watt, Pauline J; Verrico, Annalisa; Lavia, Patrizia; Leaner, Virna D

    2016-04-01

    The Karyopherin superfamily is a major class of soluble transport receptors consisting of both import and export proteins. The trafficking of proteins involved in transcription, cell signalling and cell cycle regulation among other functions across the nuclear membrane is essential for normal cellular functioning. However, in cancer cells, the altered expression or localization of nuclear transporters as well as the disruption of endogenous nuclear transport inhibitors are some ways in which the Karyopherin proteins are dysregulated. The value of nuclear transporters in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer is currently being elucidated with recent studies highlighting their potential as biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  3. Heat shock proteins, cell survival and drug resistance: the mitochondrial chaperone TRAP1, a potential novel target for ovarian cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Landriscina, Matteo; Amoroso, Maria Rosaria; Piscazzi, Annamaria; Esposito, Franca

    2010-05-01

    Protein homeostasis is a highly complex network of molecular interactions governing the health and life span of the organism. Molecular chaperones, mainly heat shock proteins (HSP) and other stress-inducible proteins abundantly expressed in multiple compartments of the cell, are major modulators of protein homeostasis. TRAP1 is a mitochondrial HSP involved in protection against oxidant-induced DNA damage and apoptosis. It was recently described as a component of a mitochondrial pathway selectively up-regulated in tumor cells which antagonizes the proapoptotic activity of cyclophilin D, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore regulator, and is responsible for the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity, thus favoring cell survival. Interestingly, novel TRAP1 antagonists cause sudden collapse of mitochondrial function and selective tumor cell death, suggesting that this pathway may represent a novel molecular target to improve anticancer therapy. Preliminary data suggest that TRAP1 may be a valuable biomarker in ovarian cancers: in fact, TRAP1 levels are significantly higher in cisplatin-resistant ovarian tumors and ovarian carcinoma cell lines. While major advances have been made in understanding the genetics and molecular biology of cancer, given the considerable heterogeneity of ovarian cancer, the introduction of novel targeted therapies and the consequent selection of treatments based on the molecular profile of each tumor may have a major impact on the management of this malignancy and might contribute to building a new era of personalized medicine. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diazoxide potentiates mesenchymal stem cell survival via NF-κB-dependent miR-146a expression by targeting Fas

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yoko; Kim, Ha Won; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that preconditioning of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with diazoxide (DZ) significantly improved cell survival via NF-κB signaling. Since micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of a wide variety of biological events, including apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation, it is likely that DZ-induced survival is mediated by miRNAs. Here we show that miR-146a expressed during preconditioning with DZ is a key regulator of stem cell survival. Treatment of MSCs with DZ (200 μM) markedly increased miR-146a expression and promoted cell survival, as evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase release and transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining. Interestingly, blocking NF-κB by IKK-γ NEMO binding domain inhibitor peptide did not induce miR-146a expression, indicating NF-κB regulates miR-146a expression. Moreover, blockade of miR-146a expression by antisense miR-146a inhibitor abolished DZ-induced cytoprotective effects, suggesting a critical role of miR-146a in MSC survival. Computational analysis found a consensus putative target site of miR-146a relevant to apoptosis in the 3′ untranslated region of Fas mRNA. The role of Fas as a target gene was substantiated by abrogation of miR-146a, which markedly increased Fas protein expression. This was verified by luciferase reporter assay, which showed that forced expression of miR-146a downregulated Fas expression via targeting its 3′-UTR of this gene. Taken together, these data demonstrated that cytoprotection afforded by preconditioning of MSCs with DZ was regulated by miR-146a induction, which may be a novel therapeutic target in cardiac ischemic diseases. PMID:20656888

  5. Diazoxide potentiates mesenchymal stem cell survival via NF-kappaB-dependent miR-146a expression by targeting Fas.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoko; Kim, Ha Won; Ashraf, Muhammad; Haider, Husnain Kh

    2010-10-01

    We have previously reported that preconditioning of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with diazoxide (DZ) significantly improved cell survival via NF-κB signaling. Since micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of a wide variety of biological events, including apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation, it is likely that DZ-induced survival is mediated by miRNAs. Here we show that miR-146a expressed during preconditioning with DZ is a key regulator of stem cell survival. Treatment of MSCs with DZ (200 μM) markedly increased miR-146a expression and promoted cell survival, as evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase release and transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining. Interestingly, blocking NF-κB by IKK-γ NEMO binding domain inhibitor peptide did not induce miR-146a expression, indicating NF-κB regulates miR-146a expression. Moreover, blockade of miR-146a expression by antisense miR-146a inhibitor abolished DZ-induced cytoprotective effects, suggesting a critical role of miR-146a in MSC survival. Computational analysis found a consensus putative target site of miR-146a relevant to apoptosis in the 3' untranslated region of Fas mRNA. The role of Fas as a target gene was substantiated by abrogation of miR-146a, which markedly increased Fas protein expression. This was verified by luciferase reporter assay, which showed that forced expression of miR-146a downregulated Fas expression via targeting its 3'-UTR of this gene. Taken together, these data demonstrated that cytoprotection afforded by preconditioning of MSCs with DZ was regulated by miR-146a induction, which may be a novel therapeutic target in cardiac ischemic diseases.

  6. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell-surface glycoprotein apa as a potential adhesin to colonize target cells via the innate immune system pulmonary C-type lectin surfactant protein A.

    PubMed

    Ragas, Aude; Roussel, Lucie; Puzo, Germain; Rivière, Michel

    2007-02-23

    Tuberculosis is still a major health problem, and understanding the mechanism by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) invades and colonizes its host target cells remains an important issue for the control of infection. The innate immune system C-type lectins (C-TLs), including the human pulmonary surfactant protein A (PSP-A), have been recently identified as determinant players in the early recognition of the invading pathogen and in mounting the host defense response. Although the antigenic lipoglycan mannosylated lipoarabinomannan is currently considered to be the major C-TL target on the mycobacterial surface, the recognition by some C-TLs of the only mycobacterial species composing the "Mtb complex" indicates that mannosylated lipoarabinomannan cannot account alone for this specificity. Thus, we searched for the mycobacterial molecules targeted by human PSP-A, focusing our attention on the Mtb surface glycoproteins. We developed an original functional proteomic approach based on a lectin blot assay using crude human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as a source of physiological PSP-A. Combined with selective cell-surface protein extraction and mass spectrometry peptide mapping, this strategy allowed us to identify the Apa (alanine- and proline-rich antigenic) glycoprotein as new potential target for PSP-A. This result was supported by direct binding of PSP-A to purified Apa. Moreover, EDTA addition or deglycosylation of purified Apa samples completely abolished the interaction, demonstrating that the interaction is calcium- and mannose-dependent, as expected. Finally, we provide convincing evidence that Apa, formerly considered as mainly secreted, is associated with the cell wall for a sufficiently long time to aid in the attachment of PSP-A. Because, to date, Apa seems to be restricted to the Mtb complex strains, we propose that it may account for the selective recognition of those strains by PSP-A and other immune system C-TLs containing homologous functional

  7. Inositol hexaphosphate suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in HT-29 colorectal cancer cells in culture: PI3K/Akt pathway as a potential target

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guiyuan; Song, Yang; Cui, Lianhua; Wen, Zhaoxia; Lu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that is present in high amounts in almost all plants and mammalian cells. IP6 induces apoptosis in multiple types of cancer cells, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, skin tumor, liver cancer and colorectal cancer. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the activity of IP6 against human colorectal cancer cells (HT-29) and to determine whether the IP6 regulates apoptosis in HT-29 cells by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Method: A human colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29) was used for the study. HT-29 cells were treated with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL of IP6. The MTT colorimetric assay was used to observe the proliferation of HT-29 in vitro, and flow cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze the apoptosis of the HT-29 cells. The relative mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR, and relative protein levels were analyzed by Western blot analysis. Result: The results of MTT showed that HT-29 cells underwent inhibition of proliferation after exposure to IP6 (100-400 μg/mL) for 12 and 48 h, and this inhibition clearly relied on time and dosage. IP6 induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein expression of PI3K and Akt decreased in the groups treated with IP6, and IP6 inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt (pAkt), whereas increased the expression of its downstream effector, caspase-9. Conclusion: Our results suggested that by targeting PI3K/Akt pathway, IP6 suppresses cell survival and proliferation, but induces death in HT-29 cells. PMID:25973024

  8. Inositol hexaphosphate suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in HT-29 colorectal cancer cells in culture: PI3K/Akt pathway as a potential target.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiyuan; Song, Yang; Cui, Lianhua; Wen, Zhaoxia; Lu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that is present in high amounts in almost all plants and mammalian cells. IP6 induces apoptosis in multiple types of cancer cells, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, skin tumor, liver cancer and colorectal cancer. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the activity of IP6 against human colorectal cancer cells (HT-29) and to determine whether the IP6 regulates apoptosis in HT-29 cells by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. A human colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29) was used for the study. HT-29 cells were treated with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL of IP6. The MTT colorimetric assay was used to observe the proliferation of HT-29 in vitro, and flow cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze the apoptosis of the HT-29 cells. The relative mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR, and relative protein levels were analyzed by Western blot analysis. The results of MTT showed that HT-29 cells underwent inhibition of proliferation after exposure to IP6 (100-400 μg/mL) for 12 and 48 h, and this inhibition clearly relied on time and dosage. IP6 induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein expression of PI3K and Akt decreased in the groups treated with IP6, and IP6 inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt (pAkt), whereas increased the expression of its downstream effector, caspase-9. Our results suggested that by targeting PI3K/Akt pathway, IP6 suppresses cell survival and proliferation, but induces death in HT-29 cells.

  9. Significance of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its potential as a target for anti-metastasis therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Xu, Wen Wen; Lam, Alfred King Y.; Wang, Yang; Hu, Hui-Fang; Guan, Xin Yuan; Qin, Yan Ru; Saremi, Nassim; Tsao, Sai Wah; He, Qing-Yu; Cheung, Annie L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis is the most lethal hallmark of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The aim of the study is to identify key signaling pathways that control metastasis in ESCC. Highly invasive ESCC sublines (designated I3 cells) were established through three rounds of selection of cancer cells invading through matrigel-coated chambers. Gene expression profile of one of the I3 sublines was compared with that of its parental cell line using cDNA microarray analysis. Gene ontology and pathway analyses of the differentially expressed genes (both upregulated and downregulated) indicated that genes associated with cellular movement and the AKT pathway were associated with increased cancer cell invasiveness. Western blot analysis confirmed increased phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), N-cadherin and decreased E-cadherin expression in the I3 cells. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the clinical significance of p-AKT expression in ESCC, and the results showed higher p-AKT nuclear expression in lymph node metastases when compared with primary carcinoma. Inactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway with specific inhibitors, or with PTEN overexpression, resulted in reversed cadherin switching and inhibited cancer cell motility. Inhibition of the pathway by treatment with wortmannin markedly suppressed experimental metastasis in nude mice. Our data demonstrated the importance of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in ESCC metastasis and support PI3K/AKT as a valid therapeutic target in treatment of metastatic ESCC. PMID:28418888

  10. Elevated Th22 as well as Th17 cells associated with therapeutic outcome and clinical stage are potential targets in patients with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yan; He, Na; Li, Daqi; Ji, Chunyan; Ma, Daoxin

    2015-01-01

    T helper (Th) cell imbalance plays important roles in tumor development and their effects in Multiple myeloma (MM) remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the levels and clinical significance of Th22, Th17 and Th1 cells in patients with MM. Th subsets were examined by flow cytometry. Plasma IL-22, IL-17A and IFN-γ concentrations were measured by ELISA. AHR and RORC mRNA expression was examined by RT-PCR. Here, we found that the frequency of Th22 cells was significantly elevated in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) of newly-diagnosed MM patients, and recovered in complete remission patients after chemotherapy. The circulating Th17 cells accompanied by IL-17A levels were also up-regulated in MM patients and decreased after remission. We also found that there was a significantly positive correlation between Th22 and Th17 cells in MM patients. Moreover, the frequencies of Th22 and Th17 cells were higher in stage III than in stage I+II of MM. Our data demonstrated that Th22 and Th17 cells might be important therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma and could facilitate the effect of antitumor immunotherapy. PMID:26255628

  11. Elevated Th22 as well as Th17 cells associated with therapeutic outcome and clinical stage are potential targets in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Chen, Ping; Jia, Yan; He, Na; Li, Daqi; Ji, Chunyan; Ma, Daoxin

    2015-07-20

    T helper (Th) cell imbalance plays important roles in tumor development and their effects in Multiple myeloma (MM) remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the levels and clinical significance of Th22, Th17 and Th1 cells in patients with MM. Th subsets were examined by flow cytometry. Plasma IL-22, IL-17A and IFN-γ concentrations were measured by ELISA. AHR and RORC mRNA expression was examined by RT-PCR. Here, we found that the frequency of Th22 cells was significantly elevated in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) of newly-diagnosed MM patients, and recovered in complete remission patients after chemotherapy. The circulating Th17 cells accompanied by IL-17A levels were also up-regulated in MM patients and decreased after remission. We also found that there was a significantly positive correlation between Th22 and Th17 cells in MM patients. Moreover, the frequencies of Th22 and Th17 cells were higher in stage III than in stage I+II of MM. Our data demonstrated that Th22 and Th17 cells might be important therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma and could facilitate the effect of antitumor immunotherapy.

  12. Cotransformation and gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, L H; Shesely, E G; Kim, H S; Smithies, O

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated cotransformation in mammalian cells and its potential for identifying cells that have been modified by gene targeting. Selectable genes on separate DNA fragments were simultaneously introduced into cells by coelectroporation. When the introduced fragments were scored for random integration, 75% of the transformed cells integrated both fragments within the genome of the same cell. When one of the cointroduced fragments was scored for integration at a specific locus by gene targeting, only 4% of the targeted cells cointegrated the second fragment. Apparently, cells that have been modified by gene targeting with one DNA fragment rarely incorporate a second DNA fragment. Despite this limitation, we were able to use the cotransformation protocol to identify targeted cells by screening populations of colonies that had been transformed with a cointroduced selectable gene. When hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) targeting DNA was coelectroporated with a selectable neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) gene into embryonic stem (ES) cells, hprt-targeted colonies were isolated from the population of neo transformants at a frequency of 1 per 70 G418-resistant colonies. In parallel experiments with the same targeting construct, hprt-targeted cells were found at a frequency of 1 per 5,500 nonselected colonies. Thus, an 80-fold enrichment for targeted cells was observed within the population of colonies transformed with the cointroduced DNA compared with the population of nonselected colonies. This enrichment for targeted cells after cotransformation should be useful in the isolation of colonies that contain targeted but nonselectable gene alterations. Images PMID:1850104

  13. Obesity: Current and potential pharmacotherapeutics and targets.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswami, Vidya; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior. Dysregulation of one or more of these homeostatic components results in obesity. Coincident with obesity, reward mechanisms that regulate hedonic aspects of food intake override the homeostatic regulation of eating. In addition to functional interactions between homeostatic and reward systems in the regulation of food intake, homeostatic signals have the ability to alter vulnerability to drug abuse. Regarding the treatment of obesity, pharmacological monotherapies primarily focus on a single protein target. FDA-approved monotherapy options include phentermine (Adipex-P®), orlistat (Xenical®), lorcaserin (Belviq®) and liraglutide (Saxenda®). However, monotherapies have limited efficacy, in part due to the recruitment of alternate and counter-regulatory pathways. Consequently, a multi-target approach may provide greater benefit. Recently, two combination products have been approved by the FDA to treat obesity, including phentermine/topiramate (Qsymia®) and naltrexone/bupropion (Contrave®). The current review provides an overview of homeostatic and reward mechanisms that regulate energy balance, potential therapeutic targets for obesity and current treatment options, including some candidate therapeutics in clinical development. Finally, challenges in anti-obesity drug development are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  14. Identification of potential Plk1 targets in a cell-cycle specific proteome through structural dynamics of kinase and Polo box-mediated interactions.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Nousheen; Parveen, Zahida; Rashid, Sajid

    2013-01-01

    Polo like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a key player in orchestrating the wide variety of cell-cycle events ranging from centrosome maturation, mitotic entry, checkpoint recovery, transcriptional control, spindle assembly, mitotic progression, cytokinesis and DNA damage checkpoints recovery. Due to its versatile nature, Plk1 is considered an imperative regulator to tightly control the diverse aspects of the cell cycle network. Interactions among Plk1 polo box domain (PBD) and its putative binding proteins are crucial for the activation of Plk1 kinase domain (KD). To date, only a few substrate candidates have been characterized through the inclusion of both polo box and kinase domain-mediated interactions. Thus it became compelling to explore precise and specific Plk1 substrates through reassessment and extension of the structure-function paradigm. To narrow this apparently wide gap in knowledge, here we employed a thorough sequence search of Plk1 phosphorylation signature containing proteins and explored their structure-based features like conceptual PBD-binding capabilities and subsequent recruitment of KD directed phosphorylation to dissect novel targets of Plk1. Collectively, we identified 4,521 phosphodependent proteins sharing similarity to the consensus phosphorylation and PBD recognition motifs. Subsequent application of filters including similarity index, Gene Ontology enrichment and protein localization resulted in stringent pre-filtering of irrelevant candidates and isolated unique targets with well-defined roles in cell-cycle machinery and carcinogenesis. These candidates were further refined structurally using molecular docking and dynamic simulation assays. Overall, our screening approach enables the identification of several undefined cell-cycle associated functions of Plk1 by uncovering novel phosphorylation targets.

  15. Identification of Potential Plk1 Targets in a Cell-Cycle Specific Proteome through Structural Dynamics of Kinase and Polo Box-Mediated Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Nousheen; Parveen, Zahida; Rashid, Sajid

    2013-01-01

    Polo like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a key player in orchestrating the wide variety of cell-cycle events ranging from centrosome maturation, mitotic entry, checkpoint recovery, transcriptional control, spindle assembly, mitotic progression, cytokinesis and DNA damage checkpoints recovery. Due to its versatile nature, Plk1 is considered an imperative regulator to tightly control the diverse aspects of the cell cycle network. Interactions among Plk1 polo box domain (PBD) and its putative binding proteins are crucial for the activation of Plk1 kinase domain (KD). To date, only a few substrate candidates have been characterized through the inclusion of both polo box and kinase domain-mediated interactions. Thus it became compelling to explore precise and specific Plk1 substrates through reassessment and extension of the structure-function paradigm. To narrow this apparently wide gap in knowledge, here we employed a thorough sequence search of Plk1 phosphorylation signature containing proteins and explored their structure-based features like conceptual PBD-binding capabilities and subsequent recruitment of KD directed phosphorylation to dissect novel targets of Plk1. Collectively, we identified 4,521 phosphodependent proteins sharing similarity to the consensus phosphorylation and PBD recognition motifs. Subsequent application of filters including similarity index, Gene Ontology enrichment and protein localization resulted in stringent pre-filtering of irrelevant candidates and isolated unique targets with well-defined roles in cell-cycle machinery and carcinogenesis. These candidates were further refined structurally using molecular docking and dynamic simulation assays. Overall, our screening approach enables the identification of several undefined cell-cycle associated functions of Plk1 by uncovering novel phosphorylation targets. PMID:23967120

  16. p16(INK4A) inhibits the pro-metastatic potentials of osteosarcoma cells through targeting the ERK pathway and TGF-β1.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-05-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a downstream component of the evolutionarily conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathway, which controls the expression of a plethora of genes implicated in various physiological processes. This pathway is often hyper-activated by mutations or abnormal extracellular signaling in different types of human cancer, including the most common primary malignant bone tumor osteosarcomas. p16(INK4A) is an important tumor suppressor gene frequently lost in osteosarcomas, and is associated with the progression of these malignancies. We have shown, here, that the ERK1/2 protein kinase is also activated by p16(INK4A) down-regulation in osteosarcoma cells and normal human as well as mouse cells. This inhibitory effect is associated with the suppression of the upstream kinase MEK1/2, and is mediated via the repression of miR-21-5p and the consequent up-regulation of the MEK/ERK antagonist SPRY2 in osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, we have shown that p16(INK4) inhibits the migration/invasion abilities of these cells through miR-21-5p-dependent inhibition of ERK1/2. In addition, we present clear evidence that p16(INK4) represses the paracrine pro-migratory effect of osteosarcoma cells on stromal fibroblasts through the inhibition of the TGF-β1 expression/secretion. This effect is also ERK1/2-dependent, indicating that in addition to their cell-autonomous actions, p16(INK4) and ERK1/2 have also non-cell-autonomous cancer-related functions. Together, these results indicate that the tumor suppressor p16(INK4) protein represses the carcinogenic process of osteosarcoma cells not only as a cell cycle regulator, but also as a negative regulator of pro-carcinogenic/-metastatic pathways. This indicates that targeting the ERK pathway is of utmost therapeutic value. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Bacterial cell division proteins as antibiotic targets.

    PubMed

    den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Andreu, José M; Monasterio, Octavio

    2014-08-01

    Proteins involved in bacterial cell division often do not have a counterpart in eukaryotic cells and they are essential for the survival of the bacteria. The genetic accessibility of many bacterial species in combination with the Green Fluorescence Protein revolution to study localization of proteins and the availability of crystal structures has increased our knowledge on bacterial cell division considerably in this century. Consequently, bacterial cell division proteins are more and more recognized as potential new antibiotic targets. An international effort to find small molecules that inhibit the cell division initiating protein FtsZ has yielded many compounds of which some are promising as leads for preclinical use. The essential transglycosylase activity of peptidoglycan synthases has recently become accessible to inhibitor screening. Enzymatic assays for and structural information on essential integral membrane proteins such as MraY and FtsW involved in lipid II (the peptidoglycan building block precursor) biosynthesis have put these proteins on the list of potential new targets. This review summarises and discusses the results and approaches to the development of lead compounds that inhibit bacterial cell division.

  18. Epigenetic targeting of ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinu; Cardenas, Horacio; Fang, Fang; Condello, Salvatore; Taverna, Pietro; Segar, Matthew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P; Matei, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Emerging results indicate that cancer stem-like cells contribute to chemoresistance and poor clinical outcomes in many cancers, including ovarian cancer. As epigenetic regulators play a major role in the control of normal stem cell differentiation, epigenetics may offer a useful arena to develop strategies to target cancer stem-like cells. Epigenetic aberrations, especially DNA methylation, silence tumor-suppressor and differentiation-associated genes that regulate the survival of ovarian cancer stem-like cells (OCSC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA-hypomethylating agents may be able to reset OCSC toward a differentiated phenotype by evaluating the effects of the new DNA methytransferase inhibitor SGI-110 on OCSC phenotype, as defined by expression of the cancer stem-like marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). We demonstrated that ALDH(+) ovarian cancer cells possess multiple stem cell characteristics, were highly chemoresistant, and were enriched in xenografts residual after platinum therapy. Low-dose SGI-110 reduced the stem-like properties of ALDH(+) cells, including their tumor-initiating capacity, resensitized these OCSCs to platinum, and induced reexpression of differentiation-associated genes. Maintenance treatment with SGI-110 after carboplatin inhibited OCSC growth, causing global tumor hypomethylation and decreased tumor progression. Our work offers preclinical evidence that epigenome-targeting strategies have the potential to delay tumor progression by reprogramming residual cancer stem-like cells. Furthermore, the results suggest that SGI-110 might be administered in combination with platinum to prevent the development of recurrent and chemoresistant ovarian cancer.

  19. Epigenetic Targeting of Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinu; Cardenas, Horacio; Fang, Fang; Condello, Salvatore; Taverna, Pietro; Segar, Matthew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Matei, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that cancer stem-like cells contribute to chemoresistance and poor clinical outcomes in many cancers, including ovarian cancer (OC). As epigenetic regulators play a major role in the control of normal stem cell differentiation, epigenetics may offer a useful arena to develop strategies to target cancer stem-like cells. Epigenetic aberrations, especially DNA methylation, silence tumor suppressor and differentiation-associated genes that regulate the survival of ovarian cancer stem-like cell (OCSC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA hypomethylating agents may be able to reset OCSC towards a differentiated phenotype, by evaluating the effects of the new DNA methytransferase inhibitor SGI-110 on OCSC phenotype, as defined by expression of the cancer stem-like marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). We demonstrated that ALDH+ OC cells possess multiple stem cell characteristics, were highly chemoresistant, and were enriched in xenografts residual after platinum therapy. Low dose SGI-110 reduced the stem-like properties of ALDH+ cells, including their tumor initiating capacity, resensitized these OCSCs to platinum, and induced re-expression of differentiation-associated genes. Maintenance treatment with SGI-110 after carboplatin inhibited OCSC growth, causing global tumor hypomethylation and decreased tumor progression. Our work offers preclinical evidence that epigenome-targeting strategies have the potential to delay tumor progression by re-programming residual cancer stem-like cells. Further, the results suggest that SGI-110 might be administered in combination with platinum to prevent the development of recurrent and chemoresistant ovarian cancer. PMID:25035395

  20. Induction of autophagy is a key component of all-trans-retinoic acid-induced differentiation in leukemia cells and a potential target for pharmacologic modulation.

    PubMed

    Orfali, Nina; O'Donovan, Tracey R; Nyhan, Michelle J; Britschgi, Adrian; Tschan, Mario P; Cahill, Mary R; Mongan, Nigel P; Gudas, Lorraine J; McKenna, Sharon L

    2015-09-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the accumulation of immature blood cell precursors in the bone marrow. Pharmacologically overcoming the differentiation block in this condition is an attractive therapeutic avenue, which has achieved success only in a subtype of AML, acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Attempts to emulate this success in other AML subtypes have thus far been unsuccessful. Autophagy is a conserved protein degradation pathway with important roles in mammalian cell differentiation, particularly within the hematopoietic system. In the study described here, we investigated the functional importance of autophagy in APL cell differentiation. We found that autophagy is increased during all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced granulocytic differentiation of the APL cell line NB4 and that this is associated with increased expression of LC3II and GATE-16 proteins involved in autophagosome formation. Autophagy inhibition, using either drugs (chloroquine/3-methyladenine) or short-hairpin RNA targeting the essential autophagy gene ATG7, attenuates myeloid differentiation. Importantly, we found that enhancing autophagy promotes ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation of an ATRA-resistant derivative of the non-APL AML HL60 cell line (HL60-Diff-R). These data support the development of strategies to stimulate autophagy as a novel approach to promote differentiation in AML. Copyright © 2015 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. TASK-3 as a Potential Antidepressant Target

    PubMed Central

    Gotter, Anthony L.; Santarelli, Vincent P.; Doran, Scott M.; Tannenbaum, Pamela L.; Kraus, Richard L.; Rosahl, Thomas W.; Meziane, Hamid; Montial, Marina; Reiss, Duane R.; Wessner, Keith; McCampbell, Alexander; Stevens, Joanne; Brunner, Joseph; Fox, Steven V.; Uebele, Victor N.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Winrow, Christopher J.; Renger, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Modulation of TASK-3 (Kcnk9) potassium channels affect neurotransmitter release in thalamocortical centers and other sleep-related nuclei having the capacity to regulate arousal cycles and REM sleep changes associated with mood disorders and antidepressant action. Circumstantial evidence from this and previous studies suggest the potential for TASK-3 to be a novel antidepressant therapeutic target; TASK-3 knock-out mice display augmented circadian amplitude and exhibit sleep architecture characterized by suppressed REM activity. Detailed analysis of locomotor activity indicate that the amplitude of activity bout duration and bout number are augmented in TASK-3 mutants well beyond that seen wildtypes, findings substantiated by amplitude increases in body temperature and EEG recordings of sleep stage bouts. Polysomnographic analysis of TASK-3 mutants reveal increases in nocturnal active wake and suppressed REM sleep time while increased slow wave sleep typifies the inactive phase, findings that have implications for the cognitive impact of reduced TASK-3 activity. In direct measures of their resistance to despair behavior, TASK-3 knock-outs displayed significant decreases in immobility relative to wildtype controls in both tail suspension and forced swim tests. Treatment of wildtype animals with the antidepressant Fluoxetine markedly reduced REM sleep, while leaving active wake and slow wave sleep relatively intact. Remarkably, these effects were absent in TASK-3 mutants indicating that TASK-3 is either directly involved in the mechanism of this drug’s action, or participates in parallel pathways that achieve the same effect. Together, these results support the TASK-3 channel to act as a therapeutic target for antidepressant action. PMID:21885038

  2. Oncogenic microRNA 17-92 cluster is regulated by epithelial cell adhesion molecule and could be a potential therapeutic target in retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kandalam, Moutushy Mitra; Beta, Madhu; Maheswari, Uma K; Swaminathan, S; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2012-01-01

    Several miRNAs have been reported as candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressors, which are involved in the pathways specifically altered during tumorigenesis or metastasis. The miR 17-92 cluster located in 13q31 locus might contribute to retinoblastoma (RB) oncogenesis as 13q31 is amplified often in RB. We attempted to identify the factors involved in the regulation of miR 17-92 cluster in RB. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was performed to study the expression of the miR 17-92 cluster in primary RB tumors and in Y79 cells after epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) silencing. EpCAM was silenced using siRNA and confirmed by western blotting. The Y79 cells were transfected with individual and mixed antagomirs and studied the cell viability by (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, invasion by matrigel analysis and caspase-3 expression by flow cytometry. The relative expression of miR 17-92 cluster, compared to that of a normal retina, ranged from 25 to 220 fold (p<0.0001), miR-18 being highly expressed in RB. Post EpCAM silencing resulted in a significant decrease (p<0.01) in the expression of the miR 17-92 cluster by 4 to eightfold in Y79 cells. Y79 cells transfected with an antagomirs mix (all 5 miRNAs) showed decreased cell viability (p<0.001) and cell invasion (p<0.001). Similarly, Y79 cells treated with antagomirs mix showed increased expression of caspase-3 (p<0.001), which confirms the anti-proliferative effect of antagomirs. This study has showed varied expression of the miR17-92 cluster in primary RB tumors. EpCAM influences miR 17-92 cluster expression in retinoblastoma. In addition, we showed that the miR 17-92 cluster plays a role in RB cell proliferation and invasion. Therefore, targeting the miRNA 17-92 cluster may be beneficial for controlling Y79/RB cell proliferation and invasion.

  3. Sindbis viral vectors target hematopoietic malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Suzme, R; Tseng, J-C; Levin, B; Ibrahim, S; Meruelo, D; Pellicer, A

    2012-11-01

    Sindbis viral vectors target and inhibit the growth of various solid tumors in mouse models. However, their efficacy against blood cancer has not been well established. Here, we show that Sindbis vectors infect and efficiently trigger apoptosis in mouse BW5147 malignant hematopoietic T-cells, but only at low levels in human lymphoma and leukemia cells (Jurkat, Karpas, CEM, DHL and JB). The Mr 37/67 kD laminin receptor (LAMR) has been suggested to be the receptor for Sindbis virus. However, JB cells, which are infected by Sindbis at low efficiency, express high levels of LAMR, revealing that additional factors are involved in Sindbis tropism. To test the infectivity and therapeutic efficacy of Sindbis vectors against malignant hematopoietic cells in vivo, we injected BW5147 cells intraperitoneally into (C3HXAKR) F1 hybrid mice. We found that Sindbis vectors targeted the tumors and significantly prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice. We also tested the Sindbis vectors in a transgenic CD4-Rgr model, which spontaneously develop thymic lymphomas. However, infectivity in this model was less efficient. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Sindbis vectors have the potential to target and kill hematopoietic malignancies in mice, but further research is needed to evaluate the mechanism underlining the susceptibility of human lymphoid malignancies to Sindbis therapy.

  4. Metabolic isoenzyme shifts in cancer as potential novel therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Ononye, S N; Shi, W; Wali, V B; Aktas, B; Jiang, T; Hatzis, C; Pusztai, L

    2014-12-01

    The functional redundancy of metabolic enzyme expression may present a new strategy for developing targeted therapies in cancer. To satisfy the increased metabolic demand required during neoplastic transformations and proliferation, cancer cells may rely on additional isoforms of a metabolic enzyme to satisfy the increased demand for metabolic precursors, which could subsequently render cancer cells more vulnerable to isoform-specific inhibitors. In this review, we provide a survey of common isoenzyme shifts that have been reported to be important in cancer metabolism and link those to metabolic pathways that currently have drugs in various stages of development. This phenomenon suggests a potentially new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer by identifying shifts in the expression of metabolic isoenzymes between cancer and normal cells. We also delineate other putative metabolic isoenzymes that could be targets for novel targeted therapies for cancer. Changes in isoenzyme expression that occur during neoplastic transformations or in response to environmental pressure in cancer cells may result in isoenzyme diversity that may subsequently render cancer cells more vulnerable to isoform-specific inhibitors due to reliance on a single isoform to perform a vital enzymatic function.

  5. MUC13 protects colorectal cancer cells from death by activating the NF-κB pathway and is a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Y H; He, Y; Hasnain, S Z; Wang, R; Tong, H; Clarke, D T; Lourie, R; Oancea, I; Wong, K Y; Lumley, J W; Florin, T H; Sutton, P; Hooper, J D; McMillan, N A; McGuckin, M A

    2017-02-02

    MUC13 is a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein that is over produced by many cancers, although its functions are not fully understood. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a key transcription factor promoting cancer cell survival, but therapeutically targeting this pathway has proved difficult because NF-κB has pleiotropic functions. Here, we report that MUC13 prevents colorectal cancer cell death by promoting two distinct pathways of NF-kB activation, consequently upregulating BCL-XL. MUC13 promoted tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced NF-κB activation by interacting with TNFR1 and the E3 ligase, cIAP1, to increase ubiquitination of RIPK1. MUC13 also promoted genotoxin-induced NF-κB activation by increasing phosphorylation of ATM and SUMOylation of NF-κB essential modulator. Moreover, elevated expression of cytoplasmic MUC13 and NF-κB correlated with colorectal cancer progression and metastases. Our demonstration that MUC13 enhances NF-κB signaling in response to both TNF and DNA-damaging agents provides a new molecular target for specific inhibition of NF-κB activation. As proof of principle, silencing MUC13 sensitized colorectal cancer cells to killing by cytotoxic drugs and inflammatory signals and abolished chemotherapy-induced enrichment of CD133(+) CD44(+) cancer stem cells, slowed xenograft growth in mice, and synergized with 5-fluourouracil to induce tumor regression. Therefore, these data indicate that combining chemotherapy and MUC13 antagonism could improve the treatment of metastatic cancers.

  6. Cancer stem cells display extremely large evolvability: alternating plastic and rigid networks as a potential Mechanism: network models, novel therapeutic target strategies, and the contributions of hypoxia, inflammation and cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Peter; Hódsági, János; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Módos, Dezső; Perez-Lopez, Áron R; Szalay, Kristóf; Veres, Dániel V; Lenti, Katalin; Wu, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2015-02-01

    Cancer is increasingly perceived as a systems-level, network phenomenon. The major trend of malignant transformation can be described as a two-phase process, where an initial increase of network plasticity is followed by a decrease of plasticity at late stages of tumor development. The fluctuating intensity of stress factors, like hypoxia, inflammation and the either cooperative or hostile interactions of tumor inter-cellular networks, all increase the adaptation potential of cancer cells. This may lead to the bypass of cellular senescence, and to the development of cancer stem cells. We propose that the central tenet of cancer stem cell definition lies exactly in the indefinability of cancer stem cells. Actual properties of cancer stem cells depend on the individual "stress-history" of the given tumor. Cancer stem cells are characterized by an extremely large evolvability (i.e. a capacity to generate heritable phenotypic variation), which corresponds well with the defining hallmarks of cancer stem cells: the possession of the capacity to self-renew and to repeatedly re-build the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise a tumor in new environments. Cancer stem cells represent a cell population, which is adapted to adapt. We argue that the high evolvability of cancer stem cells is helped by their repeated transitions between plastic (proliferative, symmetrically dividing) and rigid (quiescent, asymmetrically dividing, often more invasive) phenotypes having plastic and rigid networks. Thus, cancer stem cells reverse and replay cancer development multiple times. We describe network models potentially explaining cancer stem cell-like behavior. Finally, we propose novel strategies including combination therapies and multi-target drugs to overcome the Nietzschean dilemma of cancer stem cell targeting: "what does not kill me makes me stronger".

  7. Targeted silver nanoparticles for ratiometric cell phenotyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmore, Anne-Mari A.; Simón-Gracia, Lorena; Toome, Kadri; Paiste, Päärn; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Mölder, Tarmo; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Braun, Gary B.; Teesalu, Tambet

    2016-04-01

    Affinity targeting is used to deliver nanoparticles to cells and tissues. For efficient targeting, it is critical to consider the expression and accessibility of the relevant receptors in the target cells. Here, we describe isotopically barcoded silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a tool for auditing affinity ligand receptors in cells. Tumor penetrating peptide RPARPAR (receptor: NRP-1) and tumor homing peptide GKRK (receptor: p32) were used as affinity ligands on the AgNPs. The binding and uptake of the peptide-functionalized AgNPs by cultured PPC-1 prostate cancer and M21 melanoma cells was dependent on the cell surface expression of the cognate peptide receptors. Barcoded peptide-functionalized AgNPs were synthesized from silver and palladium isotopes. The cells were incubated with a cocktail of the barcoded nanoparticles [RPARPAR (R), GKRK (K), and control], and cellular binding and internalization of each type of nanoparticle was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results of isotopic analysis were in agreement with data obtained using optical methods. Using ratiometric measurements, we were able to classify the PPC-1 cell line as mainly NRP-1-positive, with 75 +/- 5% R-AgNP uptake, and the M21 cell line as only p32-positive, with 89 +/- 9% K-AgNP uptake. The isotopically barcoded multiplexed AgNPs are useful as an in vitro ratiometric phenotyping tool and have potential uses in functional evaluation of the expression of accessible homing peptide receptors in vivo.Affinity targeting is used to deliver nanoparticles to cells and tissues. For efficient targeting, it is critical to consider the expression and accessibility of the relevant receptors in the target cells. Here, we describe isotopically barcoded silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a tool for auditing affinity ligand receptors in cells. Tumor penetrating peptide RPARPAR (receptor: NRP-1) and tumor homing peptide GKRK (receptor: p32) were used as affinity ligands on the AgNPs. The

  8. TRP Channels as Potential Drug Targets.

    PubMed

    Moran, Magdalene M

    2017-09-25

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of channels comprises a diverse group of cation channels. Four TRP channel subunits coassemble to form functional homo- or heterotetramers that pass sodium, calcium, or both in the inward direction. Modulating TRP channel activity provides an important way to impact cellular function by regulating both membrane excitability and intracellular calcium levels. The import of these channels is underscored by the number of genetic diseases caused when they are mutated: Skeletal, skin, sensory, ocular, cardiac, and neuronal disturbances all arise from aberrant TRP function. Not surprisingly, there has been significant pharmaceutical interest in targeting these fascinating channels. Compounds that modulate TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3, TRPV4, TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), and TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) have all entered clinical trials. The goal of this review is to familiarize the readers with the rationale behind the pursuit of these channels in drug discovery and the status of those efforts. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Volume 58 is January 6, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  9. Therapeutic Potential of Targeting the Ghrelin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Colldén, Gustav; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Müller, Timo D.

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin was discovered in 1999 as the endogenous ligand of the growth-hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a). Since then, ghrelin has been found to exert a plethora of physiological effects that go far beyond its initial characterization as a growth hormone (GH) secretagogue. Among the numerous well-established effects of ghrelin are the stimulation of appetite and lipid accumulation, the modulation of immunity and inflammation, the stimulation of gastric motility, the improvement of cardiac performance, the modulation of stress, anxiety, taste sensation and reward-seeking behavior, as well as the regulation of glucose metabolism and thermogenesis. Due to a variety of beneficial effects on systems’ metabolism, pharmacological targeting of the endogenous ghrelin system is widely considered a valuable approach to treat metabolic complications, such as chronic inflammation, gastroparesis or cancer-associated anorexia and cachexia. The aim of this review is to discuss and highlight the broad pharmacological potential of ghrelin pathway modulation for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia, sarcopenia, cardiopathy, neurodegenerative disorders, renal and pulmonary disease, gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, inflammatory disorders and metabolic syndrome. PMID:28398233

  10. From Proteomic Analysis to Potential Therapeutic Targets: Functional Profile of Two Lung Cancer Cell Lines, A549 and SW900, Widely Studied in Pre-Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Vitorino, Rui; Fardilha, Margarida; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The standard use of cell lines as in vitro pre-clinical models to study the molecular mechanisms that drive tumorigenesis and access drug sensitivity/effectiveness is of undisputable importance. Label-free mass spectrometry and bioinformatics were employed to study the proteomic profiles of two representative lung cancer cell lines and to unravel the specific biological processes. Adenocarcinoma A549 cells were enriched in proteins related to cellular respiration, ubiquitination, apoptosis and response to drug/hypoxia/oxidative stress. In turn, squamous carcinoma SW900 cells were enriched in proteins related to translation, apoptosis, response to inorganic/organic substances and cytoskeleton organization. Several proteins with differential expression were related to cancer transformation, tumor resistance, proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis. Combined analysis of proteome and interactome data highlighted key proteins and suggested that adenocarcinoma might be more prone to PI3K/Akt/mTOR and topoisomerase IIα inhibitors, and squamous carcinoma to Ck2 inhibitors. Moreover, ILF3 overexpression in adenocarcinoma, and PCNA and NEDD8 in squamous carcinoma shows them as promising candidates for therapeutic purposes. This study highlights the functional proteomic differences of two main subtypes of lung cancer models and hints several targeted therapies that might assist in this type of cancer. PMID:27814385

  11. Mas-related G protein coupled receptor-X2: A potential new target for modulating mast cell-mediated allergic and inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hydar

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are tissue resident immune cells that are best known for their roles in allergic and inflammatory diseases. In addition to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI), MCs express numerous G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are the most common targets of drug therapy. Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) is expressed on MCs and contributes to IgE and non-IgE-mediated responses in mice. Although NK-1R antagonists are highly effective in modulating experimental allergic and inflammatory responses in mice they lack efficacy in humans. This article reviews recent findings that demonstrate that while neuropeptides (NPs) activate murine MCs via NK-1R and Mas related G protein coupled receptor B2 (MrgprB2), they activate human MCs via Mas-related G protein coupled receptor X2 (MRGPRX2). Interestingly, conventional NK-1R antagonists have off-target activity against mouse MrgprB2 but not human MRGPRX2. These findings suggest that the failure to translate studies with NK-1R antagonists from in vivo mouse studies to the clinic likely reflects their lack of effect on human MRGPRX2. A unique feature of MRGPRX2 that distinguishes it from other GPCRs is that it is activated by a diverse group of ligands that include; neuropeptides, cysteine proteases, antimicrobial peptides and cationic proteins released from activated eosinophils. Thus, the development of small molecule MRGPRX2-specific antagonists or neutralizing antibodies may provide new targets for the treatment of MC-mediated allergic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:28090599

  12. Novel cell-penetrating peptide targeting mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Cerrato, Carmine Pasquale; Pirisinu, Marco; Vlachos, Efstathios Nikolaos; Langel, Ülo

    2015-11-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short, nontoxic peptides with cationic and/or amphipathic properties able to cross the cellular membrane. CPPs are used for the delivery of a wide variety of cargoes, such as proteins, oligonucleotides, and therapeutic molecules. The aim of the present study was to synthesize unusually small novel CPPs targeting mitochondria based on the Szeto-Schiller peptide (SS-31) to influence intramitochondrial processes and to improve the biologic effects. All the peptides used were synthesized manually using 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chemistry. In the first part of the study, HeLa 705, U87, and bEnd.3 cells were used as in vitro delivery model. Cells were incubated for 24 h at 37°C and 5% CO2 with different concentrations of our peptides. Cell proliferation assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. Biologic effects such as mitochondrial membrane potential and antioxidant activity were evaluated. H2O2 was used as positive control. Uptake studies were performed using peptides conjugated with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (FAM). Fluorescent microscopy was used to determine presence and localization of peptides into the cells. Isolated mitochondria from pretreated cells and mitochondria treated after isolation were used to confirm the targeting ability of the peptide. Uptake of FAM alone was used as negative control. Microscopy studies confirmed the ability of peptides to penetrate cell. Localization analysis showed increase in uptake by 35% compared with SS-31. Mitochondrial CPP 1 (mtCPP-1) had no effect on mitochondrial membrane potential and prevented reactive oxygen species formation in bEnd.3 cells by 2-fold compared with SS-31. No cytotoxicity was observed even at high concentration (100 µM). These data suggest that mtCPP-1 is a mitochondrial CPP and protect mitochondria from oxidative damage due to its own antioxidant activities. © FASEB.

  13. Mast cells as targets of pimecrolimus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhongcai; Jiao, Zongjiu

    2011-11-01

    Mast cells, the multi-functional secretory cells, are the pivotal effector cells in immune response, and contribute to the pathogenesis of many diverse diseases, like asthma and mastocytosis, by releasing numerous proinflammatory mediators. Pimecrolimus (SDZ ASM 981) is a derivative of the macrolactam ascomycin and is a member of the calcineurin inhibitor class of immunosuppressors. It inhibits the calcineurin-dependent activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells and the expression of a number of proinflammatory cytokines in turn. Pimecrolimus has high and selective anti-inflammatory activity within the skin, and with much lower potential to affect local and systemic immune responses. Therefore it has been widely used for treatment of various inflammatory skin diseases. It has a cellselective mode of action, and mast cells are its specific target cells. Pimecrolimus inhibits the release of both preformed and de novo synthesized mediators from activated mast cells and inhibits accumulation of mast cells by inducing apoptosis. Several experimental and clinical reports have demonstrated the successful application of pimecrolimus and other calcineurin inhibitors, such as tacrolimus and cyclosporine A, to treat mastocytosis, a spectrum of disorders characterized by mast cell hyperplasia, especially cutaneous mastocytosis. These new findings suggest that pimecrolimus and other calcineurin inhibitors may be a novel and effective therapeutic approach for mast cell-associated diseases such as asthma and mastocytosis.

  14. A platform to screen for C-type lectin receptor-binding carbohydrates and their potential for cell-specific targeting and immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Maglinao, Maha; Eriksson, Magdalena; Schlegel, Mark K; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Johannssen, Timo; Götze, Sebastian; Seeberger, Peter H; Lepenies, Bernd

    2014-02-10

    Myeloid C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) in innate immunity represent a superfamily of pattern recognition receptors that recognize carbohydrate structures on pathogens and self-antigens. The primary interaction of an antigen-presenting cell and a pathogen shapes the following immune response. Therefore, the identification of CLR ligands that can either enhance or modulate the immune response is of interest. We have developed a screening platform based on glycan arrays to identify immune modulatory carbohydrate ligands of CLRs. A comprehensive library of CLRs was expressed by fusing the extracellular part of each respective CLR, the part containing the carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 molecules. CLR-Fc fusion proteins display the CRD in a dimeric form, are properly glycosylated, and can be detected by a secondary antibody with a conjugated fluorophore. Thus, they are valuable tools for high-throughput screening. We were able to identify novel carbohydrate binders of CLRs using the glycan array technology. These CLR-binding carbohydrates were then covalently attached to the model antigen ovalbumin. The ovalbumin neoglycoconjugates were used in a dendritic cell/T cell co-culture assay to stimulate transgenic T cells in vitro. In addition, mice were immunized with these conjugates to analyze the immune modulatory properties of the CLR ligands in vivo. The CLR ligands induced an increased Th1 cytokine production in vitro and modulated the humoral response in vivo. The platform described here allows for the identification of CLR ligands, as well as the evaluation of each ligand's cell-specific targeting and immune modulatory properties.

  15. Streptococcus pneumoniae Cell-Wall-Localized Phosphoenolpyruvate Protein Phosphotransferase Can Function as an Adhesin: Identification of Its Host Target Molecules and Evaluation of Its Potential as a Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Mizrachi Nebenzahl, Yaffa; Blau, Karin; Kushnir, Tatyana; Shagan, Marilou; Portnoi, Maxim; Cohen, Aviad; Azriel, Shalhevet; Malka, Itai; Adawi, Asad; Kafka, Daniel; Dotan, Shahar; Guterman, Gali; Troib, Shany; Fishilevich, Tali; Gershoni, Jonathan M; Braiman, Alex; Mitchell, Andrea M; Mitchell, Timothy J; Porat, Nurith; Goliand, Inna; Chalifa Caspi, Vered; Swiatlo, Edwin; Tal, Michael; Ellis, Ronald; Elia, Natalie; Dagan, Ron

    2016-01-01

    In Streptococcus pneumonia, phosphoenolpyruvate protein phosphotransferase (PtsA) is an intracellular protein of the monosaccharide phosphotransferase systems. Biochemical and immunostaining methods were applied to show that PtsA also localizes to the bacterial cell-wall. Thus, it was suspected that PtsA has functions other than its main cytoplasmic enzymatic role. Indeed, recombinant PtsA and anti-rPtsA antiserum were shown to inhibit adhesion of S. pneumoniae to cultured human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Screening of a combinatorial peptide library expressed in a filamentous phage with rPtsA identified epitopes that were capable of inhibiting S. pneumoniae adhesion to A549 cells. The insert peptides in the phages were sequenced, and homologous sequences were found in human BMPER, multimerin1, protocadherin19, integrinβ4, epsin1 and collagen type VIIα1 proteins, all of which can be found in A549 cells except the latter. Six peptides, synthesized according to the homologous sequences in the human proteins, specifically bound rPtsA in the micromolar range and significantly inhibited pneumococcal adhesion in vitro to lung- and tracheal-derived cell lines. In addition, the tested peptides inhibited lung colonization after intranasal inoculation of mice with S. pneumoniae. Immunization with rPtsA protected the mice against a sublethal intranasal and a lethal intravenous pneumococcal challenge. In addition, mouse anti rPtsA antiserum reduced bacterial virulence in the intravenous inoculation mouse model. These findings showed that the surface-localized PtsA functions as an adhesin, PtsA binding peptides derived from its putative target molecules can be considered for future development of therapeutics, and rPtsA should be regarded as a candidate for vaccine development. PMID:26990554

  16. The in vitro and vivo effects of nuclear and cytosolic parafibromin expression on the aggressive phenotypes of colorectal cancer cells: a search of potential gene therapy target.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hua-Chuan; Liu, Jia-Jie; Li, Jing; Wu, Ji-Cheng; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Gui-Feng; Zhao, Xin; Jiang, Hua-Mao; Huang, Ke-Qiang; Li, Zhi-Jie

    2017-02-16

    Down-regulated parafibromin is positively linked to the pathogenesis of parathyroid, lung, breast, ovarian, gastric and colorectal cancers. Here, we found that wild-type (WT) parafibromin overexpression suppressed proliferation, tumor growth, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells (p<0.05), but it was the converse for mutant-type (MT, mutation in nucleus localization sequence) parafibromin (p<0.05). Both WT and MT transfectants inhibited migration and invasion, and caused better differentiation (p<0.05) of cancer cells. WT parafibromin transfectants showed the overexpression of Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, p38, p53, and AIF in HCT-15 and HCT-116 cells, while MT parafibromin only up-regulated p38 expression. There was lower mRNA expression of bcl-2 in parafibromin transfectants than the control and mock, while higher expression of c-myc, Cyclin D1, mTOR, and Raptor. According to transcriptomic analysis, WT parafibromin suppressed PI3K-Akt and FoxO signaling pathways, while MT one promoted PI3K-Akt pathway, focal adhesion, and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Parafibromin was less expressed in colorectal cancer than paired mucosa (p<0.05), and inversely correlated with its differentiation at both mRNA and protein levels (p<0.05). These findings indicated that WT parafibromin might reverse the aggressive phenotypes of colorectal cancer cells and be employed as a target for gene therapy. Down-regulated parafibromin expression might be closely linked to colorectal carcinogenesis and cancer differentiation.

  17. Calpain and AR-V7: Two potential therapeutic targets to overcome acquired docetaxel resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Lou, Ning; Li, Xiang; Xu, Guanghua; Ruan, Hailong; Xiao, Wen; Qiu, Bin; Bao, Lin; Yuan, Changfei; Huang, Xinmian; Wang, Keshan; Cao, Qi; Chen, Ke; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2017-06-01

    Docetaxel-based chemotherapy has been widely used as the first-line treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, the mechanisms of docetaxel-resistance remain unclear. In the present study with the establishment of 2 in vitro models of docetaxel-resistant CRPC cell sublines, we firstly reported that activation of calpain may play a promotional role in the resistance of docetaxel in prostate cancer, meanwhile using the calpain inhibitor combined with docetaxel improved the efficiency of docetaxel in docetaxel-resistant cell sublines. Moreover, we also found that the expression of androgen-independent constitutively and transcriptionally active androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) remained high in the docetaxel-resistant CRPC cell subline Rv1-DR, and that it may be involved in acquired docetaxel-resistance of CRPC. However, a novel importin-β inhibitor (importazole) was only capable of slightly decreasing the transcriptional activity of the AR signaling pathway via blocking nuclear import of AR-FL and various non-specific AR-Vs, instead of AR-V7. These findings suggest that calpain and AR-V7 may serve as important biomarkers in the treatment of CRPC, and targeting calpain and AR-V7 may provide a new approach in overcoming docetaxel-resistance.

  18. Actin as a potential target for decavanadate.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Susana; Moura, José J G; Aureliano, Manuel

    2010-12-01

    ATP prevents G-actin cysteine oxidation and vanadyl formation specifically induced by decavanadate, suggesting that the oxometalate-protein interaction is affected by the nucleotide. The ATP exchange rate is increased by 2-fold due to the presence of decavanadate when compared with control actin (3.1×10(-3) s(-1)), and an apparent dissociation constant (k(dapp)) of 227.4±25.7 μM and 112.3±8.7 μM was obtained in absence or presence of 20 μM V(10), respectively. Moreover, concentrations as low as 50 μM of decameric vanadate species (V(10)) increases the relative G-actin intrinsic fluorescence intensity by approximately 80% whereas for a 10-fold concentration of monomeric vanadate (V(1)) no effects were observed. Upon decavanadate titration, it was observed a linear increase in G-actin hydrophobic surface (2.6-fold), while no changes were detected for V(1) (0-200 μM). Taken together, three major ideas arise: i) ATP prevents decavanadate-induced G-actin cysteine oxidation and vanadate reduction; ii) decavanadate promotes actin conformational changes resulting on its inactivation, iii) decavanadate has an effect on actin ATP binding site. Once it is demonstrated that actin is a new potential target for decavanadate, being the ATP binding site a suitable site for decavanadate binding, it is proposed that some of the biological effects of vanadate can be, at least in part, explained by decavanadate interactions with actin.

  19. Characterisation of the clinical and activated T cell response to repeat delayed-type hypersensitivity skin challenges in human subjects, with KLH and PPD, as a potential model to test T cell-targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Belson, Alexandra; Schmidt, Tim; Fernando, Disala; Hardes, Kelly; Scott, Nicola; Brett, Sara; Clark, Deborah; Oliveira, João Joaquim; Davis, Bill; McHugh, Simon; Stone, John

    2016-05-01

    To characterise the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to repeated challenges of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) in healthy volunteers, as a potential model to test T cell-targeted investigational agents. Forty-nine subjects received either KLH, PPD, or PBS repeat skin challenges, and clinical assessments including induration, erythema and Laser Doppler Imaging. Skin biopsies or suction blisters were taken after challenge to investigate the cellular infiltrate of the challenge site, the T cell activation status, as determined by LAG-3 expression, and, specifically for the blister, the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines. Point estimates, estimates of variation and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were constructed for each type of challenge and timepoint. The DTH response could be measured at 48 and 120 h post-KLH and PPD challenge with induration, erythema and Laser Doppler Imaging, with 48 h post-challenge demonstrating the peak of the response. PPD was well tolerated in subjects after multiple challenges, however, a significant number of KLH-treated subjects demonstrated an injection site reaction 6-7 days following the SC injection. PPD demonstrated a boost effect on the second challenge as measured by increased induration, where as this was not noted consistently for KLH. Compared to unchallenged and PBS control-injected skin, increased T cell numbers were detected in the challenge site by both the skin suction blister and biopsy technique, at either time point following KLH or PPD challenge. Use of the T cell activation marker LAG-3 demonstrated the activated phenotype of these cells. In skin blisters, higher numbers of LAG-3+ T cells were detected at 48 h post-challenge, whereas in the biopsies, similar numbers of LAG-3+ cells were observed at both 48 and 120 h. Analysis of blister T cell subpopulations revealed some differences in phenotypes between the time points and between the CD4

  20. Targeting DNA repair and the cell cycle in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Brian M; Pinnell, Nancy; Wen, Patrick Y; D'Andrea, Alan

    2012-05-01

    Glioblastoma is a disease with poor outcomes despite standard therapy. Specific targeting of the DNA damage response is a strategy that is becoming increasingly employed in oncology and has intriguing potential for improving outcomes in glioblastoma. DNA damage targeting has implications for improving current therapy as well as the potential to leverage inherent differences in glioblastoma cells to widen the therapeutic window.

  1. Homologous recombination as a potential target for caffeine radiosensitization in mammalian cells: reduced caffeine radiosensitization in XRCC2 and XRCC3 mutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asaad, N. A.; Zeng, Z. C.; Guan, J.; Thacker, J.; Iliakis, G.

    2000-01-01

    The radiosensitizing effect of caffeine has been associated with the disruption of multiple DNA damage-responsive cell cycle checkpoints, but several lines of evidence also implicate inhibition of DNA repair. The role of DNA repair inhibition in caffeine radiosensitization remains uncharacterized, and it is unknown which repair process, or lesion, is affected. We show that a radiosensitive cell line, mutant for the RAD51 homolog XRCC2 and defective in homologous recombination repair (HRR), displays significantly diminished caffeine radiosensitization that can be restored by expression of XRCC2. Despite the reduced radiosensitization, caffeine effectively abrogates checkpoints in S and G2 phases in XRCC2 mutant cells indicating that checkpoint abrogation is not sufficient for radiosensitization. Another radiosensitive line, mutant for XRCC3 and defective in HRR, similarly shows reduced caffeine radiosensitization. On the other hand, a radiosensitive mutant (irs-20) of DNA-PKcs with a defect in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is radiosensitized by caffeine to an extent comparable to wild-type cells. In addition, rejoining of radiation-induced DNA DSBs, that mainly reflects NHEJ, remains unaffected by caffeine in XRCC2 and XRCC3 mutants, or their wild-type counterparts. These observations suggest that caffeine targets steps in HRR but not in NHEJ and that abrogation of checkpoint response is not sufficient to explain radiosensitization. Indeed, immortalized fibroblasts from AT patients show caffeine radiosensitization despite the checkpoint defects associated with ATM mutation. We propose that caffeine radiosensitization is mediated by inhibition of stages in DNA DSB repair requiring HRR and that checkpoint disruption contributes by allowing these DSBs to transit into irreparable states. Thus, checkpoints may contribute to genomic stability by promoting error-free HRR.

  2. Homologous recombination as a potential target for caffeine radiosensitization in mammalian cells: reduced caffeine radiosensitization in XRCC2 and XRCC3 mutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asaad, N. A.; Zeng, Z. C.; Guan, J.; Thacker, J.; Iliakis, G.

    2000-01-01

    The radiosensitizing effect of caffeine has been associated with the disruption of multiple DNA damage-responsive cell cycle checkpoints, but several lines of evidence also implicate inhibition of DNA repair. The role of DNA repair inhibition in caffeine radiosensitization remains uncharacterized, and it is unknown which repair process, or lesion, is affected. We show that a radiosensitive cell line, mutant for the RAD51 homolog XRCC2 and defective in homologous recombination repair (HRR), displays significantly diminished caffeine radiosensitization that can be restored by expression of XRCC2. Despite the reduced radiosensitization, caffeine effectively abrogates checkpoints in S and G2 phases in XRCC2 mutant cells indicating that checkpoint abrogation is not sufficient for radiosensitization. Another radiosensitive line, mutant for XRCC3 and defective in HRR, similarly shows reduced caffeine radiosensitization. On the other hand, a radiosensitive mutant (irs-20) of DNA-PKcs with a defect in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is radiosensitized by caffeine to an extent comparable to wild-type cells. In addition, rejoining of radiation-induced DNA DSBs, that mainly reflects NHEJ, remains unaffected by caffeine in XRCC2 and XRCC3 mutants, or their wild-type counterparts. These observations suggest that caffeine targets steps in HRR but not in NHEJ and that abrogation of checkpoint response is not sufficient to explain radiosensitization. Indeed, immortalized fibroblasts from AT patients show caffeine radiosensitization despite the checkpoint defects associated with ATM mutation. We propose that caffeine radiosensitization is mediated by inhibition of stages in DNA DSB repair requiring HRR and that checkpoint disruption contributes by allowing these DSBs to transit into irreparable states. Thus, checkpoints may contribute to genomic stability by promoting error-free HRR.

  3. Homologous recombination as a potential target for caffeine radiosensitization in mammalian cells: reduced caffeine radiosensitization in XRCC2 and XRCC3 mutants.

    PubMed

    Asaad, N A; Zeng, Z C; Guan, J; Thacker, J; Iliakis, G

    2000-11-23

    The radiosensitizing effect of caffeine has been associated with the disruption of multiple DNA damage-responsive cell cycle checkpoints, but several lines of evidence also implicate inhibition of DNA repair. The role of DNA repair inhibition in caffeine radiosensitization remains uncharacterized, and it is unknown which repair process, or lesion, is affected. We show that a radiosensitive cell line, mutant for the RAD51 homolog XRCC2 and defective in homologous recombination repair (HRR), displays significantly diminished caffeine radiosensitization that can be restored by expression of XRCC2. Despite the reduced radiosensitization, caffeine effectively abrogates checkpoints in S and G2 phases in XRCC2 mutant cells indicating that checkpoint abrogation is not sufficient for radiosensitization. Another radiosensitive line, mutant for XRCC3 and defective in HRR, similarly shows reduced caffeine radiosensitization. On the other hand, a radiosensitive mutant (irs-20) of DNA-PKcs with a defect in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is radiosensitized by caffeine to an extent comparable to wild-type cells. In addition, rejoining of radiation-induced DNA DSBs, that mainly reflects NHEJ, remains unaffected by caffeine in XRCC2 and XRCC3 mutants, or their wild-type counterparts. These observations suggest that caffeine targets steps in HRR but not in NHEJ and that abrogation of checkpoint response is not sufficient to explain radiosensitization. Indeed, immortalized fibroblasts from AT patients show caffeine radiosensitization despite the checkpoint defects associated with ATM mutation. We propose that caffeine radiosensitization is mediated by inhibition of stages in DNA DSB repair requiring HRR and that checkpoint disruption contributes by allowing these DSBs to transit into irreparable states. Thus, checkpoints may contribute to genomic stability by promoting error-free HRR.

  4. Selective targeting of JAK/STAT signaling is potentiated by Bcl-xL blockade in IL-2-dependent adult T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meili; Mathews Griner, Lesley A; Ju, Wei; Duveau, Damien Y; Guha, Rajarshi; Petrus, Michael N; Wen, Bernard; Maeda, Michiyuki; Shinn, Paul; Ferrer, Marc; Conlon, Kevin D; Bamford, Richard N; O'Shea, John J; Thomas, Craig J; Waldmann, Thomas A

    2015-10-06

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) develops in individuals infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1). Presently there is no curative therapy for ATL. HTLV-1-encoded protein Tax (transactivator from the X-gene region) up-regulates Bcl-xL (B-cell lymphoma-extra large) expression and activates interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-9, and IL-15 autocrine/paracrine systems, resulting in amplified JAK/STAT signaling. Inhibition of JAK signaling reduces cytokine-dependent ex vivo proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from ATL patients in smoldering/chronic stages. Currently, two JAK inhibitors are approved for human use. In this study, we examined activity of multiple JAK inhibitors in ATL cell lines. The selective JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib was examined in a high-throughput matrix screen combined with >450 potential therapeutic agents, and Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor navitoclax was identified as a strong candidate for multicomponent therapy. The combination was noted to strongly activate BAX (Bcl-2-associated X protein), effect mitochondrial depolarization, and increase caspase 3/7 activities that lead to cleavage of PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase) and Mcl-1 (myeloid cell leukemia 1). Ruxolitinib and navitoclax independently demonstrated modest antitumor efficacy, whereas the combination dramatically lowered tumor burden and prolonged survival in an ATL murine model. This combination strongly blocked ex vivo proliferation of five ATL patients' PBMCs. These studies provide support for a therapeutic trial in patients with smoldering/chronic ATL using a drug combination that inhibits JAK signaling and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL.

  5. Selective targeting of JAK/STAT signaling is potentiated by Bcl-xL blockade in IL-2–dependent adult T-cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meili; Mathews Griner, Lesley A.; Ju, Wei; Duveau, Damien Y.; Guha, Rajarshi; Petrus, Michael N.; Wen, Bernard; Maeda, Michiyuki; Shinn, Paul; Ferrer, Marc; Conlon, Kevin D.; Bamford, Richard N.; O’Shea, John J.; Thomas, Craig J.; Waldmann, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) develops in individuals infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1). Presently there is no curative therapy for ATL. HTLV-1–encoded protein Tax (transactivator from the X-gene region) up-regulates Bcl-xL (B-cell lymphoma-extra large) expression and activates interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-9, and IL-15 autocrine/paracrine systems, resulting in amplified JAK/STAT signaling. Inhibition of JAK signaling reduces cytokine-dependent ex vivo proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from ATL patients in smoldering/chronic stages. Currently, two JAK inhibitors are approved for human use. In this study, we examined activity of multiple JAK inhibitors in ATL cell lines. The selective JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib was examined in a high-throughput matrix screen combined with >450 potential therapeutic agents, and Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor navitoclax was identified as a strong candidate for multicomponent therapy. The combination was noted to strongly activate BAX (Bcl-2-associated X protein), effect mitochondrial depolarization, and increase caspase 3/7 activities that lead to cleavage of PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase) and Mcl-1 (myeloid cell leukemia 1). Ruxolitinib and navitoclax independently demonstrated modest antitumor efficacy, whereas the combination dramatically lowered tumor burden and prolonged survival in an ATL murine model. This combination strongly blocked ex vivo proliferation of five ATL patients’ PBMCs. These studies provide support for a therapeutic trial in patients with smoldering/chronic ATL using a drug combination that inhibits JAK signaling and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL. PMID:26396258

  6. Selecting Potential Targetable Biomarkers for Imaging Purposes in Colorectal Cancer Using TArget Selection Criteria (TASC): A Novel Target Identification Tool.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Marleen; Crane, Lucia Ma; Bart, Joost; van Leeuwen, Fijs W; van Dam, Gooitzen M

    2011-04-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal origin is associated with a poor prognosis. However, cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is available for a selected group of PC patients, which significantly increases overall survival rates up to 30%. As a consequence, there is substantial room for improvement. Tumor targeting is expected to improve the treatment efficacy of colorectal cancer (CRC) further through 1) more sensitive preoperative tumor detection, thus reducing overtreatment; 2) better intraoperative detection and surgical elimination of residual disease using tumor-specific intraoperative imaging; and 3) tumor-specific targeted therapeutics. This review focuses, in particular, on the development of tumor-targeted imaging agents. A large number of biomarkers are known to be upregulated in CRC. However, to date, no validated criteria have been described for the selection of the most promising biomarkers for tumor targeting. Such a scoring system might improve the selection of the correct biomarker for imaging purposes. In this review, we present the TArget Selection Criteria (TASC) scoring system for selection of potential biomarkers for tumor-targeted imaging. By applying TASC to biomarkers for CRC, we identified seven biomarkers (carcinoembryonic antigen, CXC chemokine receptor 4, epidermal growth factor receptor, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, matrix metalloproteinases, mucin 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor A) that seem most suitable for tumor-targeted imaging applications in colorectal cancer. Further cross-validation studies in CRC and other tumor types are necessary to establish its definitive value.

  7. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

    2000-04-01

    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy.

  8. Cooperative tumour cell membrane targeted phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Heegon; Lee, Junsung; Oh, Chanhee; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-06-01

    The targeted delivery of therapeutics using antibodies or nanomaterials has improved the precision and safety of cancer therapy. However, the paucity and heterogeneity of identified molecular targets within tumours have resulted in poor and uneven distribution of targeted agents, thus compromising treatment outcomes. Here, we construct a cooperative targeting system in which synthetic and biological nanocomponents participate together in the tumour cell membrane-selective localization of synthetic receptor-lipid conjugates (SR-lipids) to amplify the subsequent targeting of therapeutics. The SR-lipids are first delivered selectively to tumour cell membranes in the perivascular region using fusogenic liposomes. By hitchhiking with extracellular vesicles secreted by the cells, the SR-lipids are transferred to neighbouring cells and further spread throughout the tumour tissues where the molecular targets are limited. We show that this tumour cell membrane-targeted delivery of SR-lipids leads to uniform distribution and enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy of the targeted photosensitizer.

  9. Macrophages associated with tumors as potential targets and therapeutic intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei; Warren, Galya; Wei, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) form approximately 50% of tumor mass. TAMs were shown to promote tumor growth by suppressing immunocompetent cells, inducing neovascularization and supporting cancer stem cells. TAMs retain mobility in tumor mass, which can potentially be employed for better intratumoral biodistribution of nanocarriers and effective tumor growth inhibition. Due to the importance of TAMs, they are increasingly becoming principal targets of novel therapeutic approaches. In this review, we compare features of macrophages and TAMs that are essential for TAM-directed therapies, and illustrate the advantages of nanomedicine that are related to the preferential capture of nanocarriers by Mφ in the process of drug delivery. We discuss recent efforts in reprogramming or inhibiting tumor-protecting properties of TAMs, and potential strategies to increase efficacy of conventional chemotherapy by combining with macrophage-associated delivery of nanodrugs. PMID:24827844

  10. Macrophages associated with tumors as potential targets and therapeutic intermediates.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Serguei; Warren, Galya; Wei, Xin

    2014-04-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) form approximately 50% of tumor mass. TAMs were shown to promote tumor growth by suppressing immunocompetent cells, inducing neovascularization and supporting cancer stem cells. TAMs retain mobility in tumor mass, which can potentially be employed for better intratumoral biodistribution of nanocarriers and effective tumor growth inhibition. Due to the importance of TAMs, they are increasingly becoming principal targets of novel therapeutic approaches. In this review, we compare features of macrophages and TAMs that are essential for TAM-directed therapies, and illustrate the advantages of nanomedicine that are related to the preferential capture of nanocarriers by Mϕ in the process of drug delivery. We discuss recent efforts in reprogramming or inhibiting tumor-protecting properties of TAMs, and potential strategies to increase efficacy of conventional chemotherapy by combining with macrophage-associated delivery of nanodrugs.

  11. Targeting PARP-1 allosteric regulation offers therapeutic potential against cancer

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Jamin D.; Tholey, Renee M.; Langelier, Marie-France; Planck, Jamie L.; Schiewer, Matthew J.; Lal, Shruti; Bildzukewicz, Nikolai A.; Yeo, Charles J.; Knudsen, Karen E.; Brody, Jonathan R.; Pascal, John M.

    2014-01-01

    PARP-1 is a nuclear protein that has important roles in maintenance of genomic integrity. During genotoxic stress, PARP-1 recruits to sites of DNA damage where PARP-1 domain architecture initiates catalytic activation and subsequent poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent DNA repair. PARP-1 inhibition is a promising new way to selectively target cancers harboring DNA repair deficiencies. However, current inhibitors target other PARPs raising important questions concerning long-term off-target effects. Here we propose a new strategy that targets PARP-1 allosteric regulation as a selective way of inhibiting PARP-1. We found that disruption of PARP-1 domain-domain contacts through mutagenesis held no cellular consequences on recruitment to DNA damage or a model system of transcriptional regulation, but prevented DNA-damage dependent catalytic activation. Further, PARP-1 mutant overexpression in a pancreatic cancer cell line (MIA PaCa-2) increased sensitivity to platinum-based anti-cancer agents. These results not only highlight the potential of a synergistic drug combination of allosteric PARP inhibitors with DNA damaging agents in genomically unstable cancer cells (regardless of homologous recombination status), but also signify important applications of selective PARP-1 inhibition. Lastly, the development of a high-throughput (HT) PARP-1 assay is described as a tool to promote discovery of novel PARP-1 selective inhibitors. PMID:24189460

  12. Targeting PARP-1 allosteric regulation offers therapeutic potential against cancer.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Jamin D; Tholey, Renee M; Langelier, Marie-France; Planck, Jamie L; Schiewer, Matthew J; Lal, Shruti; Bildzukewicz, Nikolai A; Yeo, Charles J; Knudsen, Karen E; Brody, Jonathan R; Pascal, John M

    2014-01-01

    PARP-1 is a nuclear protein that has important roles in maintenance of genomic integrity. During genotoxic stress, PARP-1 recruits to sites of DNA damage where PARP-1 domain architecture initiates catalytic activation and subsequent poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent DNA repair. PARP-1 inhibition is a promising new way to selectively target cancers harboring DNA repair deficiencies. However, current inhibitors target other PARPs, raising important questions about long-term off-target effects. Here, we propose a new strategy that targets PARP-1 allosteric regulation as a selective way of inhibiting PARP-1. We found that disruption of PARP-1 domain-domain contacts through mutagenesis held no cellular consequences on recruitment to DNA damage or a model system of transcriptional regulation, but prevented DNA-damage-dependent catalytic activation. Furthermore, PARP-1 mutant overexpression in a pancreatic cancer cell line (MIA PaCa-2) increased sensitivity to platinum-based anticancer agents. These results not only highlight the potential of a synergistic drug combination of allosteric PARP inhibitors with DNA-damaging agents in genomically unstable cancer cells (regardless of homologous recombination status), but also signify important applications of selective PARP-1 inhibition. Finally, the development of a high-throughput PARP-1 assay is described as a tool to promote discovery of novel PARP-1 selective inhibitors.

  13. Protein tyrosine phosphatases as potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    He, Rong-jun; Yu, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Ruo-yu; Zhang, Zhong-yin

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a key regulatory process in virtually all aspects of cellular functions. Dysregulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a major cause of human diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, and neurological diseases. Indeed, protein tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated signaling events offer ample therapeutic targets, and drug discovery efforts to date have brought over two dozen kinase inhibitors to the clinic. Accordingly, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are considered next-generation drug targets. For instance, PTP1B is a well-known targets of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and recent studies indicate that it is also a promising target for breast cancer. SHP2 is a bona-fide oncoprotein, mutations of which cause juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors. In addition, LYP is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes and many other autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes recent findings on several highly recognized PTP family drug targets, including PTP1B, Src homology phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2(SHP2), lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), CD45, Fas associated phosphatase-1 (FAP-1), striatal enriched tyrosine phosphatases (STEP), mitogen-activated protein kinase/dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), phosphatases of regenerating liver-1 (PRL), low molecular weight PTPs (LMWPTP), and CDC25. Given that there are over 100 family members, we hope this review will serve as a road map for innovative drug discovery targeting PTPs. PMID:25220640

  14. Localized Dose Enhancement to Tumor Blood Vessel Endothelial Cells via Megavoltage X-rays and Targeted Gold Nanoparticles: New Potential for External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Berbeco, Ross I.; Ngwa, Wilfred; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Tumor endothelial cell damage during radiation therapy may contribute significantly to tumor eradication and treatment efficacy. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) delivered preferentially to the walls of tumor blood vessels produce low-energy, short-range photoelectrons during external beam radiotherapy, boosting dose to the tumor microvasculature. In this study dosimetry at the single-cell level is used to estimate the anticipated AuNP-mediated dose enhancement to tumor endothelial cells during 6-MV X-ray irradiation. Methods and Materials: Endothelial cells are modeled as thin slabs with 100-nm-diameter AuNPs attached within the blood vessel. The number of photoelectrons emitted per AuNP per gray of X-rays is computed at multiple points along the external beam central axis by use of a Monte Carlo-generated energy fluence spectrum. The energy deposited from AuNP emissions to the endothelium is calculated based on an analytic method incorporating the energy-loss formula of Cole. The endothelial dose enhancement factor (EDEF) is the ratio of the overall (externally plus internally generated) dose to endothelial cells in the presence of AuNPs to the dose without AuNPs (from the external beam only). Results: At 20-cm depth, the EDEF is 1.7 (70% dose increase) for an intravascular AuNP concentration of 30 mg/g. Most of this dose enhancement arises from the low-energy (approximately 100 keV) portion of the linear accelerator X-ray spectrum. Furthermore, for AuNP concentrations ranging from 7 to 140 mg/g, EDEF values of 1.2 to 4.4 (20-340% dose increase) are calculated. Conclusions: In contrast to calculations assuming that AuNPs distributed homogeneously throughout the target volume (macrodosimetry), our cellular microdosimetry calculations predict a major dose enhancement to tumor microvasculature from conventional linear accelerator X-rays. This effect may enable the delivery of ablative therapeutic doses to these sensitive microstructures while maintaining

  15. Targeting Aggressive Cancer Stem Cells in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Tracy; Nowak, Anna; Kakulas, Foteini

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and fatal type of primary brain tumor. Gliosarcoma (GSM) is a rarer and more aggressive variant of GBM that has recently been considered a potentially different disease. Current clinical treatment for both GBM and GSM includes maximal surgical resection followed by post-operative radiotherapy and concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in treating other solid tumors, treatment for GBM and GSM still remains palliative, with a very poor prognosis and a median survival rate of 12–15 months. Treatment failure is a result of a number of causes, including resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Recent research has applied the cancer stem cells theory of carcinogenesis to these tumors, suggesting the existence of a small subpopulation of glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) within these tumors. GSCs are thought to contribute to tumor progression, treatment resistance, and tumor recapitulation post-treatment and have become the focus of novel therapy strategies. Their isolation and investigation suggest that GSCs share critical signaling pathways with normal embryonic and somatic stem cells, but with distinct alterations. Research must focus on identifying these variations as they may present novel therapeutic targets. Targeting pluripotency transcription factors, SOX2, OCT4, and Nanog homeobox, demonstrates promising therapeutic potential that if applied in isolation or together with current treatments may improve overall survival, reduce tumor relapse, and achieve a cure for these patients. PMID:26258069

  16. MicroRNAs and Potential Targets in Osteosarcoma: Review

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Valerie B.; Yoo, Soonmoon; Kumar, Asmita; Vetter, Nancy S.; Kolb, E. Anders

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in children and young adults. Surgery and multi-agent chemotherapy are the standard treatment regimens for this disease. New therapies are being investigated to improve overall survival in patients. Molecular targets that actively modulate cell processes, such as cell-cycle control, cell proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis, have been studied, but it remains a challenge to develop novel, effective-targeted therapies to treat this heterogeneous and complex disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in regulating cell processes including growth, development, and disease. miRNAs function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors to regulate gene and protein expression. Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma with the potential for development in disease diagnostics and therapeutics. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on the role of miRNAs and their target genes and evaluate their potential use as therapeutic agents in osteosarcoma. We also summarize the efficacy of inhibition of oncogenic miRNAs or expression of tumor suppressor miRNAs in preclinical models of osteosarcoma. Recent progress on systemic delivery as well as current applications for miRNAs as therapeutic agents has seen the advancement of miR-34a in clinical trials for adult patients with non-resectable primary liver cancer or metastatic cancer with liver involvement. We suggest a global approach to the understanding of the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma may identify candidate miRNAs as promising biomarkers for this rare disease. PMID:26380245

  17. CARD9 as a potential target in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Matthew R; Haller, Samantha E; Ren, Jun; Nair, Sreejayan; He, Guanglong

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation and localized macrophage infiltration have been implicated in cardiovascular pathologies, including coronary artery disease, carotid atherosclerosis, heart failure, obesity-associated heart dysfunction, and cardiac fibrosis. Inflammation induces macrophage infiltration and activation and release of cytokines and chemokines, causing tissue dysfunction by instigating a positive feedback loop that further propagates inflammation. Cytosolic adaptor caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 (CARD9) is a protein expressed primarily by dendritic cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, in which it mediates cytokine secretion. The purpose of this review is to highlight the role of CARD9 as a potential target in inflammation-related cardiovascular pathologies. PMID:27920495

  18. Candidate genes and potential targets for therapeutics in Wilms' tumour.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Christopher; Coppes, Max J; Narendran, Aru

    2010-09-01

    Wilms' tumour (WT) is the most common malignant renal tumour of childhood. During the past two decades or so, molecular studies carried out on biopsy specimens and tumour-derived cell lines have identified a multitude of chromosomal and epigenetic alterations in WT. In addition, a significant amount of evidence has been gathered to identify the genes and signalling pathways that play a defining role in its genesis, growth, survival and treatment responsiveness. As such, these molecules and mechanisms constitute potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies for refractory WT. In this report we aim to review some of the many candidate genes and intersecting pathways that underlie the complexities of WT biology.

  19. Targeting dendritic cells--why bother?

    PubMed

    Kreutz, Martin; Tacken, Paul J; Figdor, Carl G

    2013-04-11

    Vaccination is among the most efficient forms of immunotherapy. Although sometimes inducing lifelong protective B-cell responses, T-cell-mediated immunity remains challenging. Targeting antigen to dendritic cells (DCs) is an extensively explored concept aimed at improving cellular immunity. The identification of various DC subsets with distinct functional characteristics now allows for the fine-tuning of targeting strategies. Although some of these DC subsets are regarded as superior for (cross-) priming of naive T cells, controversies still remain about which subset represents the best target for immunotherapy. Because targeting the antigen alone may not be sufficient to obtain effective T-cell responses, delivery systems have been developed to target multiple vaccine components to DCs. In this Perspective, we discuss the pros and cons of targeting DCs: if targeting is beneficial at all and which vaccine vehicles and immunization routes represent promising strategies to reach and activate DCs.

  20. Adenosine Type A2A Receptor in Peripheral Cell from Patients with Alzheimer's Disease, Vascular Dementia, and Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: A New/Old Potential Target.

    PubMed

    Arosio, Beatrice; Casati, Martina; Gussago, Cristina; Ferri, Evelyn; Abbate, Carlo; Scortichini, Valeria; Colombo, Elena; Rossi, Paolo Dionigi; Mari, Daniela

    2016-09-06

    As the European population gets older, the incidence of neurological disorders increases with significant impact on social costs. Despite differences in disease etiology, several brain disorders in the elderly (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus) share dementia as a common clinical feature. The current treatment for the majority of these diseases is merely symptomatic and does not modify the course of the illness. Symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus are the only ones that can be modified if they are recognized in time and treated appropriately. Therefore, an important clinical strategy may be disclosed by pathogenic pathways that can be modified and to find drugs that can slow down or even arrest disease progression. Possibly a way to answer this question could be by re-examining all the molecules which have so far succeeded in improving many aspects of cognitive deterioration in some neurodegenerative conditions, that were not considered because of controversial opinions. The main purpose of this summary is to further substantiate the hypothesis that the pathway of adenosine type A2A receptor could be used as a potential target to develop new/old therapeutic strategies.

  1. Natural flavonoids targeting deregulated cell cycle progression in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rana Pratap; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2006-03-01

    The prolonged duration requiring alteration of multi-genetic and epigenetic molecular events for cancer development provides a strong rationale for cancer prevention, which is developing as a potential strategy to arrest or reverse carcinogenic changes before the appearance of the malignant disease. Cell cycle progression is an important biological event having controlled regulation in normal cells, which almost universally becomes aberrant or deregulated in transformed and neoplastic cells. In this regard, targeting deregulated cell cycle progression and its modulation by various natural and synthetic agents are gaining widespread attention in recent years to control the unchecked growth and proliferation in cancer cells. In fact, a vast number of experimental studies convincingly show that many phytochemicals halt uncontrolled cell cycle progression in cancer cells. Among these phytochemicals, natural flavonoids have been identified as a one of the major classes of natural anticancer agents exerting antineoplastic activity via cell cycle arrest as a major mechanism in various types of cancer cells. This review is focused at the modulatory effects of natural flavonoids on cell cycle regulators including cyclin-dependent kinases and their inhibitors, cyclins, p53, retinoblastoma family of proteins, E2Fs, check-point kinases, ATM/ATR and survivin controlling G1/S and G2/M check-point transitions in cell cycle progression, and discusses how these molecular changes could contribute to the antineoplastic effects of natural flavonoids.

  2. Hepatic macrophages in liver fibrosis: pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai; You, Hong; Fan, Xu; Jia, Jidong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic macrophages account for the largest non-parenchymal cell population in the liver. Recent studies have found that hepatic macrophages have different functions in different stages of experimental liver fibrosis. Some studies found that there are different types of hepatic macrophages in the liver, although others have suggested that hepatic macrophages could switch to different phenotypes in different environments. Many studies demonstrated that while hepatic macrophages promoted fibrosis through the recruitment of proinflammatory immune cells, and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the early stages, these also promoted the resolution of hepatic fibrosis through the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases in the late stages. This article will review the current role played by hepatic macrophages in liver fibrosis and the potential therapeutic targets that modulate hepatic macrophages. PMID:27252881

  3. Targeting FGFR in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung.

    PubMed

    Hashemi-Sadraei, Neda; Hanna, Nasser

    2017-07-06

    Unlike for adenocarcinomas of the lung, no molecular targeted therapies have yet been developed for squamous cell lung cancers, because targetable oncogenic aberrations are scarce in this tumor type. Recent discoveries have established that the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway plays a fundamental role in cancer development by supporting tumor angiogenesis and cancer cell proliferation via different mechanisms. Through comprehensive genomic studies, aberrations in the FGF pathway have been identified in various tumor types, including squamous cell lung cancer, making FGF receptor (FGFR) a potentially druggable target in this malignancy. Several multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors include FGFR in their target spectrum and a number of these compounds have been approved for clinical use in different cancers. Novel agents selectively targeting FGFRs have been developed and are currently under investigation in clinical trials, showing promising results. This article reviews FGFR aberrations and the clinical data involving selective and multikinase FGFR inhibitors in squamous cell lung cancer.

  4. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of

  5. A retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective retinoid reveals that RXR-alpha is potentially a therapeutic target in breast cancer cell lines, and that it potentiates antiproliferative and apoptotic responses to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Crowe, David L; Chandraratna, Roshantha A S

    2004-01-01

    Certain lipids have been shown to be ligands for a subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily known as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Ligands for these transcription factors have been used in experimental cancer therapies. PPARs heterodimerize and bind DNA with retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which have homology to other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Retinoids have been found to be effective in treating many types of cancer. However, many breast cancers become resistant to the chemotherapeutic effects of these drugs. Recently, RXR-selective ligands were discovered that inhibited proliferation of all-trans retinoic acid resistant breast cancer cells in vitro and caused regression of the disease in animal models. There are few published studies on the efficacy of combined therapy using PPAR and RXR ligands for breast cancer prevention or treatment. We determined the effects of selective PPAR and RXR ligands on established human breast cancer cell lines in vitro. PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma ligands induced apoptotic and antiproliferative responses in human breast cancer cell lines, respectively, which were associated with specific changes in gene expression. These responses were potentiated by the RXR-selective ligand AGN194204. Interestingly, RXR-alpha-overexpressing retinoic acid resistant breast cancer cell lines were more sensitive to the effects of the RXR-selective compound. RXR-selective retinoids can potentiate the antiproliferative and apoptotic responses of breast cancer cell lines to PPAR ligands.

  6. A retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective retinoid reveals that RXR-α is potentially a therapeutic target in breast cancer cell lines, and that it potentiates antiproliferative and apoptotic responses to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, David L; Chandraratna, Roshantha AS

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Certain lipids have been shown to be ligands for a subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily known as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Ligands for these transcription factors have been used in experimental cancer therapies. PPARs heterodimerize and bind DNA with retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which have homology to other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Retinoids have been found to be effective in treating many types of cancer. However, many breast cancers become resistant to the chemotherapeutic effects of these drugs. Recently, RXR-selective ligands were discovered that inhibited proliferation of all-trans retinoic acid resistant breast cancer cells in vitro and caused regression of the disease in animal models. There are few published studies on the efficacy of combined therapy using PPAR and RXR ligands for breast cancer prevention or treatment. Methods We determined the effects of selective PPAR and RXR ligands on established human breast cancer cell lines in vitro. Results PPAR-α and PPAR-γ ligands induced apoptotic and antiproliferative responses in human breast cancer cell lines, respectively, which were associated with specific changes in gene expression. These responses were potentiated by the RXR-selective ligand AGN194204. Interestingly, RXR-α-overexpressing retinoic acid resistant breast cancer cell lines were more sensitive to the effects of the RXR-selective compound. Conclusion RXR-selective retinoids can potentiate the antiproliferative and apoptotic responses of breast cancer cell lines to PPAR ligands. PMID:15318936

  7. Ion Channels in Obesity: Pathophysiology and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Luiz H. C.; Souza, Iara L. L.; Pinheiro, Lílian S.; Silva, Bagnólia A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease related to metabolic disorders and associated with genetic determinants. Currently, ion channels activity has been linked to many of these disorders, in addition to the central regulation of food intake, energetic balance, hormone release and response, as well as the adipocyte cell proliferation. Therefore, the objective of this work is to review the current knowledge about the influence of ion channels in obesity development. This review used different sources of literature (Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) to assess the role of ion channels in the pathophysiology of obesity. Ion channels present diverse key functions, such as the maintenance of physiological homeostasis and cell proliferation. Cell biology and pharmacological experimental evidences demonstrate that proliferating cells exhibit ion channel expression, conductance, and electrical properties different from the resting cells. Thereby, a large variety of ion channels has been identified in the pathogenesis of obesity such as potassium, sodium, calcium and chloride channels, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and transient receptor potential channels. The fundamental involvement of these channels on the generation of obesity leads to the progress in the knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for the obesity pathophysiology, consequently emerging as new targets for pharmacological modulation. PMID:27065858

  8. Neutrophils: potential therapeutic targets in tularemia?

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Lee-Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    The central role of neutrophils in innate immunity and host defense has long been recognized, and the ability of these cells to efficiently engulf and kill invading bacteria has been extensively studied, as has the role of neutrophil apoptosis in resolution of the inflammatory response. In the past few years additional immunoregulatory properties of neutrophils were discovered, and it is now clear that these cells play a much greater role in control of the immune response than was previously appreciated. In this regard, it is noteworthy that Francisella tularensis is one of relatively few pathogens that can successfully parasitize neutrophils as well as macrophages, DC and epithelial cells. Herein we will review the mechanisms used by F. tularensis to evade elimination by neutrophils. We will also reprise effects of this pathogen on neutrophil migration and lifespan as compared with other infectious and inflammatory disease states. In addition, we will discuss the evidence which suggests that neutrophils contribute to disease progression rather than effective defense during tularemia, and consider whether manipulation of neutrophil migration or turnover may be suitable adjunctive therapeutic strategies. PMID:24409419

  9. Targeting invasive properties of melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Arozarena, Imanol; Wellbrock, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    Melanoma is a skin cancer notorious for its metastatic potential. As an initial step of the metastatic cascade, melanoma cells part from the primary tumour and invade the surrounding tissue, which is crucial for their dissemination and the formation of distant secondary tumours. Over the last two decades, our understanding of both, general and melanoma specific mechanisms of invasion has significantly improved, but to date no efficient therapeutic strategy tackling the invasive properties of melanoma cells has reached the clinic. In this review, we assess the major contributions towards the understanding of the molecular biology of melanoma cell invasion with a focus on melanoma specific traits. These traits are based on the neural crest origin of melanoma cells and explain their intrinsic invasive nature. A particular emphasis is given not only to lineage specific signalling mediated by TGFβ, and noncanonical and canonical WNT signalling, but also to the role of PDE5A and RHO-GTPases in modulating modes of melanoma cell invasion. We discuss existing caveats in the current understanding of the metastatic properties of melanoma cells, as well as the relevance of the 'phenotype switch' model and 'co-operativity' between different phenotypes in heterogeneous tumours. At the centre of these phenotypes is the lineage commitment factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, one of the most crucial regulators of the balance between de-differentiation (neural crest specific gene expression) and differentiation (melanocyte specific gene expression) that defines invasive and noninvasive melanoma cell phenotypes. Finally, we provide insight into the current evidence linking resistance to targeted therapies to invasive properties of melanoma cells. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. THE TRANSCRIPTIONAL SIGNATURES OF CELLS FROM THE HUMAN PEYRONIE'S DISEASE PLAQUE AND THE ABILITY OF THESE CELLS TO GENERATE A PLAQUE IN A RAT MODEL SUGGEST POTENTIAL THERAPEUTIC TARGETS

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, R; Vernet, D; Kovanecz, I; Rajfer, J; Gonzalez-Cadavid, NF

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The success of medical therapies for Peyronie's disease (PD) has not been optimal, possibly because many of them went directly to clinical application without sufficient preclinical scientific research. Previous studies revealed cellular and molecular pathways involved in the formation of the PD plaque, and in particular the role of the myofibroblast. Aims The current work aimed to determine under normal and fibrotic conditions what differentiates PD cells from tunica albuginea (TA) and corpora cavernosa (CC) cells, by defining their global transcriptional signatures and testing in vivo whether PD cells can generate a PD like plaque Main Outcomes Measures Fibroproliferative features of PD cells and identification of related key genes as novel targets to reduce plaque size Methods Human TA, PD, and CC cells were grown with TGFβ1 (TA+, PD+, CC+) or without it (TA−, PD−, CC−) and assayed by: a) immunofluorescence, western blot and RT/PCR for myofibroblast, smooth muscle cell and stem cell markers; b) collagen content; and c) DNA microarray analysis. The ability of PD+ cells to induce a PD like plaque in an immuno-suppressed rat model was assessed by Masson trichrome and Picrosirius Red. Results Upon TGFβ1stimulation, collagen levels were increased by myofibroblasts in the PD+ but not in the CC+ cells. The transcriptional signature of the PD− cells identified fibroproliferative, myogenic (myofibroblasts), inflammatory, and collagen turnover genes, that differentiate them from TA− or CC− cells, and respond to TGFβ1 with a PD+ fibrotic phenotype, by upregulation of IGF1, ACTG2, MYF5, ACTC1, PSTN, COL III, MMP3, and others. The PD+ cells injected into the TA of the rat induce a PD like plaque. Conclusions This suggests a novel combination therapy to eliminate a PD plaque, by targeting the identified genes to: a) improve collagenase action by stimulating endogenous MMPs specific to key collagen types, and b) counteract fibromatosis by inhibiting

  11. Recycling and target binding capacity of human natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    By combining a newly established single-cell cytotoxicity assay in agarose (16) with estimations of the maximum natural killer (NK) potential (Vmax) by 51Cr release that percentage of target-binding cells (TBC), the fraction of active killers among TBC, the kinetics of single-cell cytotoxicity, and the recycling of effector cells was studied. Using nylon wool-passed peripheral lymphocytes, approximately 10% of the cells will bind to NK- susceptible target cell lines. Most of these have receptors for IgG. Some 50% will go on to kill T cell targets and some 20% to kill the standard target cell K-562. As the individual NK cell is shown to have the capacity to recycle, i.e., to kill more than one target cell in the 3-h test period, and as recycling seems to vary between individuals, there is no consistent correlation between the number of TBC and 51Cr-release values. It seems as if the single-cell cytotoxicity assay, as presently performed in agarose, is a valuable complement to Vmax determinations by 51Cr-release to study the different steps involved in the cytolytic process: recognition, enzyme activation, and effector cell recycling. The discrimination between these steps will probably be necessary to define mechanisms influencing NK cells in different disease states as well as in learning more about the normal function and regulation of the human NK system. PMID:7252409

  12. PD-1 as a potential target in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    McDermott, David F; Atkins, Michael B

    2013-10-01

    Recently, an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the host response to tumors has led to the identification of checkpoint signaling pathways involved in limiting the anticancer immune response. One of the most critical checkpoint pathways responsible for mediating tumor-induced immune suppression is the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway, normally involved in promoting tolerance and preventing tissue damage in settings of chronic inflammation. Many human solid tumors express PD ligand 1 (PD-L1), and this is often associated with a worse prognosis. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from patients with cancer typically express PD-1 and have impaired antitumor functionality. Proof-of-concept has come from several preclinical studies in which blockade of PD-1 or PD-L1 enhanced T-cell function and tumor cell lysis. Three monoclonal antibodies against PD-1, and one against PD-L1, have reported phase 1 data. All four agents have shown encouraging preliminary activity, and those that have been evaluated in larger patient populations appear to have encouraging safety profiles. Additional data are eagerly awaited. This review summarizes emerging clinical data and potential of PD-1 pathway-targeted antibodies in development. If subsequent investigations confirm the initial results, it is conceivable that agents blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway will prove valuable additions to the growing armamentarium of targeted immunotherapeutic agents.

  13. TRAF6 Activation in Multiple Myeloma: A Potential Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Tamashiro, Samantha; Baritaki, Stavroula; Penichet, Manuel; Yu, Youhua; Chen, Haiming; Berenson, James; Bonavida, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable B-lymphocyte malignancy. New therapeutic options have become available during the past several years; however nearly all patients acquire resistance to currently available therapeutic agents. Mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis and chemoresistance of MM include genetic abnormalities, chromosomal translocations, gene mutations, the interaction between MM cells and the bone marrow microenvironment, and defects in the apoptotic signaling pathways. Survival signaling pathways associated with the pathogenesis of MM and bone marrow stromal cells play crucial roles in promoting growth, survival, adhesion, immortalization, angiogenesis, and drug resistance. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B/receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand/tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (RANK/RANKL-TRAF6) signal pathway mediates osteolytic bone lesions through the activation of the NF-κB and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JNK) pathways in osteoclast precursor cells and thus contributes to the main clinical manifestations of bone disease. TRAF6 has also been identified as a ligase for Akt ubiquitination and membrane recruitment and its phosphorylation on growth factor stimulation. The inhibition of TRAF6 by silencing RNA or by decoy peptides decreases MM tumor cell proliferation and increases apoptosis as well as bone resorption. Some proteasome inhibitors and benzoxadiazole derivatives showed inhibitory effects on the activity and function of TRAF6. Overall, we propose that TRAF6 may be considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of MM. PMID:22440007

  14. Targeting cancer stem cells using immunologic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qin; Li, Qiao; Liu, Shuang; Ning, Ning; Zhang, Xiaolian; Xu, Yingxin; Chang, Alfred E.; Wicha, Max S.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a small subset of tumor cells which have the ability to self-renew and generate the diverse cells that comprise the tumor bulk. They are responsible for local tumor recurrence and distant metastasis. However, they are resistant to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies which specifically target CSCs may improve the efficacy of cancer therapy. To immunologically target CSC phenotypes, innate immune responses to CSCs have been reported using NK cells and γδT cells. To target CSC specifically, in vitro CSC-primed T cells have been successfully generated and shown targeting of CSCs in vivo after adoptive transfer. Recently, CSC-based dendritic cell vaccine has demonstrated significant induction of anti-CSC immunity both in vivo in immunocommpetent hosts and in vitro as evident by CSC reactivity of CSC vaccine-primed antibodies and T cells. In addition, identification of specific antigens or genetic alterations in CSCs may provide more specific targets for immunotherapy. ALDH, CD44, CD133 and HER2 have served as markers to isolate CSCs from a number of tumor types in animal models and human tumors. They might serve as useful targets for CSC immunotherapy. Finally, since CSCs are regulated by interactions with the CSC niche, these interactions may serve as additional targets for CSC immunotherapy. Targeting the tumor microenvironment, such as interrupting the immune cell e.g. myeloid derived suppressor cells, and cytokines e.g. IL-6 and IL-8, as well as the immune checkpoint (PD1/PDL1, et.al) may provide additional novel strategies to enhance the immunological targeting of CSCs. PMID:25873269

  15. Brown fat tissue - a potential target to combat obesity.

    PubMed

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2012-01-01

    From the global population perspective, the epidemic of "globesity" (more than one billion adults being overweight) represents one of the largest public health problems (1). Traditional reasoning related to the dysbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure does not provide a satisfying explanation for a complexfailure to combat obesity. The brown adipose tisue (BAT) has a unique chemical structure and a specific metabolic role. A potential preventive co-factor is thermogenesis. BAT has the ability to dissipate energy byproducing heat, rather than storing energy as triglycerides. The cells of the white adipose tissue (WAT) contain one large globule of triglycerides which displaces the cell nucleus and other cell organelles excentrically, to the cell periphery. BAT contains numerous smaller droplets of triglycerides, much higher number of mitochondria and a specific uncoupling protein 1 or thermogenin. This specialized protein uncouples ATP production from mitochondrial respiration and converts energy into heat. Using sophisticated diagnostic techniques (e.g. imaging combination of positron-emisson tomography and computed tomography), scientists confirmed the importance of BAT not only in the newborn but also in adults who were found to possess considerable body stores of BAT.The highest proportion of BAT has been detected in lean individuals. As the body mass increases, BAT proportionately drops. Data both from animal and human studies suggest that BAT and mitochondrial uncoupling can be targeted for interventions to prevent and treat obesity. Melatonin and arginine have been proposed as possible interventional tools. The scientific world eagerly awaits further advanced studies to document possible metabolic and pharmacologic interventions, using BAT as a primary target to prevent and manage obesity (Fig. 5, Ref. 41).

  16. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit migration potential of pancreatic cancer cells by promoting mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and targeting NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ram; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2013-06-28

    Here we explore the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on pancreatic cancer cell migration and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Treatment of human pancreatic cancer cell lines Miapaca-2, PANC-1 and AsPC-1 with GSPs resulted in inhibition of cell migration (19-82%, P<0.01-0.001), which was associated with decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and inactivation of NF-κB. Treatment of cells with UO126, an inhibitor of MEK, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an inhibitor of NF-κB, also inhibited the migration of cells (40-80%, P<0.01-0.001). Inhibition of cell migration by GSPs was associated with reversal of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. This was associated with upregulation of E-cadherin and desmoglein-2 and down-regulation of fibronectin, N-cadherin and vimentin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0644 TITLE: Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chun-Ju...Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0644 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a cell population with acquired perpetuating self-renewal properties

  18. Targeting Ovarian Carcinoma Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    expertise with expertise in gynecologic oncology /ovarian carcinoma and in animal models of cancer this proposal will: 1) Identify, isolate, and...more numerous differentiated progeny characterizing the malignancy . Although the clinical significance of these cancer stem cells (CSC) has been...the dramatic initial response rates in ovarian carcinoma represent therapeutic effectiveness against the differentiated cancer cells making up the

  19. Epigenetic inactivation of the candidate tumor suppressor gene ASC/TMS1 in human renal cell carcinoma and its role as a potential therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qianling; Jin, Jie; Ying, Jianming; Cui, Yun; Sun, Mengkui; Zhang, Lian; Fan, Yu; Xu, Ben; Zhang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the epigenetic alteration and biological function of the pro-apoptotic gene ASC/TMS1 in renal cell carcinoma. ASC/TMS1 was downregulated in five out of six RCC cell lines. A significant downregulation was also detected in sixty-seven paired renal tumors compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues. The downregulation of ASC/TMS1 was correlated with promoter hypermethylation and could be restored with demethylation treatment. Re-expression of ASC/TMS1 in silenced RCC cell lines inhibited cell viability, colony formation, arrested cell cycle, induced apoptosis, suppressed cell invasion and repressed tumorigenicity in SCID mice. The antitumorigenic function of ASC/TMS1 in renal cancer was partially regulated by activation of p53 and p21 signaling. In addition, restoration of ASC/TMS1 sensitizes RCC cells to DNA damaging agents. Knockdown of ASC/TMS1 reduced DNA damaging agents-induced p53 activation and cell apoptosis. Moreover, ASC/TMS1 hypermethylation was further detected in 41.1% (83/202) of RCC tumors, but only 12% in adjacent non-cancerous tissues. ASC/TMS1 methylation was significantly correlated with higher tumor nuclear grade. In conclusion, ASC/TMS1 is a novel functional tumor suppressor in renal carcinogenesis. ASC/TMS1 tumor specific methylation may be a useful biomarker for designing improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for RCC. PMID:26093088

  20. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a target for cytomegalovirus infection: Implications for hematopoiesis, self-renewal and differentiation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Sergey V.; Harbacheuski, Ryhor; Lewis-Antes, Anita; Zhu Hua; Rameshwar, Pranela; Kotenko, Sergei V. . E-mail: kotenkse@umdnj.edu

    2007-03-30

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in bone marrow (BM) regulate the differentiation and proliferation of adjacent hematopoietic precursor cells and contribute to the regeneration of mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat and connective tissue. BM is an important site for the pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) where the virus establishes latency in hematopoietic progenitors and can transmit after reactivation to neighboring cells. Here we demonstrate that BM-MSCs are permissive to productive HCMV infection, and that HCMV alters the function of MSCs: (i) by changing the repertoire of cell surface molecules in BM-MSCs, HCMV modifies the pattern of interaction between BM-MSCs and hematopoietic cells; (ii) HCMV infection of BM-MSCs undergoing adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation impaired the process of differentiation. Our results suggest that by altering BM-MSC biology, HCMV may contribute to the development of various diseases.

  1. Hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) is a potential therapeutic target for dysplastic and leukemic cells due to integration of erythropoietin/PI3K pathway and regulation of erythropoiesis: HCK in erythropoietin/PI3K pathway.

    PubMed

    Roversi, Fernanda Marconi; Pericole, Fernando Vieira; Machado-Neto, João Agostinho; da Silva Santos Duarte, Adriana; Longhini, Ana Leda; Corrocher, Flávia Adolfo; Palodetto, Bruna; Ferro, Karla Priscila; Rosa, Renata Giardini; Baratti, Mariana Ozello; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Traina, Fabiola; Molinari, Alessio; Botta, Maurizio; Saad, Sara Teresinha Olalla

    2017-02-01

    New drug development for neoplasm treatment is nowadays based on molecular targets that participate in the disease pathogenesis and tumor phenotype. Herein, we describe a new specific pharmacological hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) inhibitor (iHCK-37) that was able to reduce PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways activation after erythropoietin induction in cells with high HCK expression: iHCK-37 treatment increased leukemic cells death and, very importantly, did not affect normal hematopoietic stem cells. We also present evidence that HCK, one of Src kinase family (SFK) member, regulates early-stage erythroid cell differentiation by acting as an upstream target of a frequently deregulated pathway in hematologic neoplasms, PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK. Notably, HCK levels were highly increased in stem cells from patients with some diseases, as Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) and Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), that are associated with ineffective erythropoiesis These discoveries support the exploration of the new pharmacological iHCK-37 in future preclinical and clinical studies.

  2. Molecular Profiling to Optimize Treatment in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Review of Potential Molecular Targets for Radiation Therapy by the Translational Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Ausborn, Natalie L.; Le, Quynh Thu; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Choy, Hak; Dicker, Adam P.; Saha, Debabrata; Simko, Jeff; Story, Michael D.; Torossian, Artour; Lu, Bo

    2012-07-15

    Therapeutic decisions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been mainly based on disease stage, performance status, and co-morbidities, and rarely on histological or molecular classification. Rather than applying broad treatments to unselected patients that may result in survival increase of only weeks to months, research efforts should be, and are being, focused on identifying predictive markers for molecularly targeted therapy and determining genomic signatures that predict survival and response to specific therapies. The availability of such targeted biologics requires their use to be matched to tumors of corresponding molecular vulnerability for maximum efficacy. Molecular markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), K-ras, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) represent potential parameters guide treatment decisions. Ultimately, identifying patients who will respond to specific therapies will allow optimal efficacy with minimal toxicity, which will result in more judicious and effective application of expensive targeted therapy as the new paradigm of personalized medicine develops.

  3. Therapeutic potential of HMGB1-targeting agents in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haichao; Zhu, Shu; Zhou, Rongrong; Li, Wei; Sama, Andrew E.

    2008-01-01

    Sepsis refers to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulting from a microbial infection. The inflammatory response is partly mediated by innate immune cells (such as macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils), which not only ingest and eliminate invading pathogens but also initiate an inflammatory response upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The prevailing theories of sepsis as a dysregulated inflammatory response, as manifested by excessive release of inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), are supported by extensive studies employing animal models of sepsis. Here we review emerging evidence that support extracellular HMGB1 as a late mediator of experimental sepsis, and discuss the therapeutic potential of several HMGB1-targeting agents (including neutralising antibodies and steroid-like tanshinones) in experimental sepsis. PMID:18980707

  4. Discoidin Domain Receptors: Potential Actors and Targets in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rammal, Hassan; Saby, Charles; Magnien, Kevin; Van-Gulick, Laurence; Garnotel, Roselyne; Buache, Emilie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Jeannesson, Pierre; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix critically controls cancer cell behavior by inducing several signaling pathways through cell membrane receptors. Besides conferring structural properties to tissues around the tumor, the extracellular matrix is able to regulate cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. Among these receptors, the integrins family constitutes a major class of receptors that mediate cell interactions with extracellular matrix components. Twenty years ago, a new class of extracellular matrix receptors has been discovered. These tyrosine kinase receptors are the two discoidin domain receptors DDR1 and DDR2. DDR1 was first identified in the Dictyostelium discoideum and was shown to mediate cell aggregation. DDR2 shares highly conserved sequences with DDR1. Both receptors are activated upon binding to collagen, one of the most abundant proteins in extracellular matrix. While DDR2 can only be activated by fibrillar collagen, particularly types I and III, DDR1 is mostly activated by type I and IV collagens. In contrast with classical growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors which display a rapid and transient activation, DDR1 and DDR2 are unique in that they exhibit delayed and sustained receptor phosphorylation upon binding to collagen. Recent studies have reported differential expression and mutations of DDR1 and DDR2 in several cancer types and indicate clearly that these receptors have to be taken into account as new players in the different aspects of tumor progression, from non-malignant to highly malignant and invasive stages. This review will discuss the current knowledge on the role of DDR1 and DDR2 in malignant transformation, cell proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, migratory, and invasive processes, and finally the modulation of the response to chemotherapy. These new insights suggest that DDR1 and DDR2 are new potential targets in cancer therapy.

  5. Discoidin Domain Receptors: Potential Actors and Targets in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rammal, Hassan; Saby, Charles; Magnien, Kevin; Van-Gulick, Laurence; Garnotel, Roselyne; Buache, Emilie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Jeannesson, Pierre; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix critically controls cancer cell behavior by inducing several signaling pathways through cell membrane receptors. Besides conferring structural properties to tissues around the tumor, the extracellular matrix is able to regulate cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. Among these receptors, the integrins family constitutes a major class of receptors that mediate cell interactions with extracellular matrix components. Twenty years ago, a new class of extracellular matrix receptors has been discovered. These tyrosine kinase receptors are the two discoidin domain receptors DDR1 and DDR2. DDR1 was first identified in the Dictyostelium discoideum and was shown to mediate cell aggregation. DDR2 shares highly conserved sequences with DDR1. Both receptors are activated upon binding to collagen, one of the most abundant proteins in extracellular matrix. While DDR2 can only be activated by fibrillar collagen, particularly types I and III, DDR1 is mostly activated by type I and IV collagens. In contrast with classical growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors which display a rapid and transient activation, DDR1 and DDR2 are unique in that they exhibit delayed and sustained receptor phosphorylation upon binding to collagen. Recent studies have reported differential expression and mutations of DDR1 and DDR2 in several cancer types and indicate clearly that these receptors have to be taken into account as new players in the different aspects of tumor progression, from non-malignant to highly malignant and invasive stages. This review will discuss the current knowledge on the role of DDR1 and DDR2 in malignant transformation, cell proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, migratory, and invasive processes, and finally the modulation of the response to chemotherapy. These new insights suggest that DDR1 and DDR2 are new potential targets in cancer therapy. PMID:27014069

  6. VEGF targets the tumour cell

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Hira Lal; Mercurio, Arthur M.

    2014-01-01

    The function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cancer is not limited to angiogenesis and vascular permeability. VEGF-mediated signalling occurs in tumour cells, and this signalling contributes to key aspects of tumorigenesis, including the function of cancer stem cells and tumour initiation. In addition to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases, the neuropilins are crucial for mediating the effects of VEGF on tumour cells, primarily because of their ability to regulate the function and the trafficking of growth factor receptors and integrins. This has important implications for our understanding of tumour biology and for the development of more effective therapeutic approaches. PMID:24263190

  7. VEGF targets the tumour cell.

    PubMed

    Goel, Hira Lal; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2013-12-01

    The function of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cancer is not limited to angiogenesis and vascular permeability. VEGF-mediated signalling occurs in tumour cells, and this signalling contributes to key aspects of tumorigenesis, including the function of cancer stem cells and tumour initiation. In addition to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases, the neuropilins are crucial for mediating the effects of VEGF on tumour cells, primarily because of their ability to regulate the function and the trafficking of growth factor receptors and integrins. This has important implications for our understanding of tumour biology and for the development of more effective therapeutic approaches.

  8. Cell-specific activation and detoxification of benzene metabolites in mouse and human bone marrow: Identification of target cells and a potential role for modulation of apoptosis in benzene toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.; Siegel, D.; Schattenberg, D.G.

    1996-12-01

    The role of cell-specific metabolism in benzene toxicity was examined in both murine and human bone marrow. Hemopoietic progenitor cells and stromal cells are important control points for regulation of hemopoiesis. We show that the selective toxicity of hydroquinone at the level of the macrophage in murine bone marrow stroma may be explained by a high peroxidase/nicotanimicle adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced [NAD(P)H]:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) ratio. Peroxidases metabolize hydroquinone to the reactive 1,4-benzoquinone, whereas NQO1 reduces the quinones formed, resulting in detoxification. Peroxidase and NQO1 activity in human stromal cultures vary as a function of time in culture, with peroxidase activity decreasing and NQO1 activity increasing with time. Peroxidase activity and, more specifically, myeloperoxidase, which had previously been considered to be expressed at the promyelocyte level, was detected in murine lineage-negative and human CD34{sup +} progenitor cells. This provides a metabolic mechanism whereby phenolic metabolites of benzene can be bioactivated in progenitor cells, which are considered initial target cells for the development of leukemias. Consequences of a high peroxidase/NQO1 ratio in HL-60 cells were shown to include hydroquinone-induced apoptosis. Hydroquinone can also inhibit proteases known to play a role in induction of apoptosis, suggesting that it may be able to inhibit apoptosis induced by other stimuli. Modulation of apoptosis may lead to aberrant hemopoiesis and neoplastic progression. This enzyme-directed approach has identified target cells of the phenolic metabolites of benzene in bone marrow and provided a metabolic basis for benzene-induced toxicity at the level of the progenitor cell in both murine and human bone marrow. 60 refs., 8 figs.

  9. PI3K target based novel cyano derivative of betulinic acid induces its signalling inhibition by down-regulation of pGSK3β and cyclin D1 and potentially checks cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Rabiya; Hussain, Aashiq; Sangwan, Payare L; Chinthakindi, Praveen K; Khan, Imran; Sharma, Parduman R; Koul, Surrinder; Saxena, Ajit K; Hamid, Abid

    2016-05-01

    In spite of the Betulinic acid (BA) being recognized as anticancerous source; its further use in clinical development is greatly hampered because of its poor pharmacokinetic properties. To circumvent these limitations, we synthesized a PI3K target based library of 18 triazole based derivatives and we identified a C-3 cyano analog of betulinic acid (CBA) with significant cell death effects with 5-7 fold higher potency than BA in various cancers. Importantly, no such report is available demonstrating the involvement of BA or its structural analogs in the modulation of PI3K pathway. Using, human leukemia HL-60 cells as a model, we for the first time report that CBA decreased expression of PI3K p110α, p85α, and pAKT in HL-60. Furthermore, we could find significant depletion of pGSK3β, cyclin D1 and increased expression of p21/cip, p27/Kip proteins. CBA induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, increased sub-G0 DNA fraction and annexin V binding of the cells besides imparting the typical surface features of cell death. Also, this target specific inhibition was associated with mitochondrial apoptosis as was reflected by expression studies of various proteins together with reactive oxygen species generation and decline in mitochondrial trans membrane potential. The apoptotic effectors i.e., caspase 8 and caspase 9 were found to get upregulated besides PI3K associated DNA repair enzyme i.e., PARP cleavage was observed. Thus, our results elucidated that CBA or other BA based small molecules inhibit PI3K/AKT pathway with induction of subsequent cancer cell death which may be useful therapeutic strategy against leukemias and possibly other cancers.

  10. Molecular Characteristics of Multicorn, a New Large Proteolytic Assembly and Potential Anti-Cancer Drug Target, in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    highly complex posttranslational modifications of TPPII. Task 3: months 6 - 18; expressing the gene(s) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe or mammalian...trends of increasing dead cell count and decreasing number of viable cells for different doses of the drugs remained the same as for the 48 hours...with AAF-CMAC were briefly washed with cold 50% ethanol , dried in air and wet-mounted on slides with PBS containing 0.3 mg/ml of PI. Synthesis of AAF

  11. Targeted Genome Engineering to Control VEGF Expression in Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Potential Implications for the Treatment of Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Min; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Shen, Yi-Ming; Bonsra, Kwaku; Kang, Byung-Jae; Yum, Soo-Young; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Lee, So-Yeong; Choi, Min-Cheol; Kim, Hyongbum Henry; Jang, Goo; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2017-03-01

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) exhibit potency for the regeneration of infarcted hearts. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is capable of inducing angiogenesis and can boost stem cell-based therapeutic effects. However, high levels of VEGF can cause abnormal blood vessel growth and hemangiomas. Thus, a controllable system to induce therapeutic levels of VEGF is required for cell therapy. We generated an inducible VEGF-secreting stem cell (VEGF/hUCB-MSC) that controls the expression of VEGF and tested the therapeutic efficacy in rat myocardial infarction (MI) model to apply functional stem cells to MI. To introduce the inducible VEGF gene cassette into a safe harbor site of the hUCB-MSC chromosome, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases system was used. After confirming the integration of the cassette into the locus, VEGF secretion in physiological concentration from VEGF/hUCB-MSCs after doxycycline (Dox) induction was proved in conditioned media. VEGF secretion was detected in mice implanted with VEGF/hUCB-MSCs grown via a cell sheet system. Vessel formation was induced in mice transplanted with Matrigel containing VEGF/hUCB-MSCs treated with Dox. Moreover, seeding of the VEGF/hUCB-MSCs onto the cardiac patch significantly improved the left ventricle ejection fraction and fractional shortening in a rat MI model upon VEGF induction. Induced VEGF/hUCB-MSC patches significantly decreased the MI size and fibrosis and increased muscle thickness, suggesting improved survival of cardiomyocytes and protection from MI damage. These results suggest that our inducible VEGF-secreting stem cell system is an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of MI. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1040-1051.

  12. Functionalized liposomes loaded with siRNAs targeting ion channels in effector memory T cells as a potential therapy for autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Hajdu, Péter; Chimote, Ameet A.; Thompson, Tyler; Koo, Youngmi; Yun, Yeoheung; Conforti, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Effector memory T cells (TM) play a key role in the pathology of certain autoimmune disorders. The activity of effector TM cells is under the control of Kv1.3 ion channels, which facilitate the Ca2+ influx necessary for T cell activation and function, i.e. cytokine release and proliferation. Consequently, the knock-down of Kv1.3 expression in effector TM’s may be utilized as a therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this study we synthesized lipid unilamellar nanoparticles (NPs) that can selectively deliver Kv1.3 siRNAs into TM cells in vitro. NPs made from a mixture of phosphatidylcholine, pegylated/biotinylated phosphoethanolamine and cholesterol were functionalized with biotinylated-CD45RO (cell surface marker of TM’s) antibodies via fluorophore-conjugated streptavidin (CD45RO-NPs). Incubation of T cells with CD45RO-NPs resulted into the selective attachment and endocytosis of the NPs into TM’s. Furthermore, the siRNA against Kv1.3, encapsulated into the CD45RO-NPs, was released into the cytosol. Consequently, the expression of Kv1.3 channels decreased significantly in TM’s, which led to a remarkable decrease in Ca2+ influx. Our results can form the basis of an innovative therapeutic approach in autoimmunity. PMID:24075407

  13. SRY and OCT4 Are Required for the Acquisition of Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties and Are Potential Differentiation Therapy Targets.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shigekazu; Ninomiya, Wataru; Sakamoto, Erina; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Akiyama, Hirotada; Tashiro, Fumio

    2015-09-01

    The acquisition of stemness is a hallmark of aggressive human hepatocellular carcinoma (hHCC). The stem cell marker OCT4 is frequently expressed in HCCs, and its expression correlates with those of putative cancer stem cell (CSC) markers and CSC properties. Here, we describe a novel mechanism of CSC maintenance by SRY through OCT4. We previously reported that Sry is involved in tumor malignancy in rodent HCCs. However, the oncogenic function of SRY in hHCCs is poorly understood. Ectopic expression of SRY increased multiple stem cell factors, including OCT4 and CD13. The OCT4 promoter contained SRY-binding sites that were directly activated by SRY. In HCC-derived cells, SRY knockdown decreased OCT4 expression and cancer stem-like phenotypes such as self-renewal, chemoresistance, and tumorigenicity. Conversely, OCT4 and SRY overexpression promoted cancer stem-like phenotypes. OCT4 knockdown in SRY clones downregulated the self-renewal capacity and chemoresistance. These data suggest that SRY is involved in the maintenance of cancer stem-like characteristics through OCT4. Moreover, CSCs of HCC-derived cells differentiated into Tuj1-positive neuron-like cells by retinoic acid. Noteworthily, SRY was highly expressed in some hHCC patients. Taken together, our findings imply a novel therapeutic strategy against CSCs of hHCCs.

  14. The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a potential therapeutic target, is regulated by miR-101 in renal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Toshihiko; Bilim, Vladimir N.; Ugolkov, Andrey V.; Yuuki, Kaori; Tsukigi, Masaaki; Motoyama, Teiichi; Tomita, Yoshihiko

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EZH2 is overexpressed in the nuclei of renal cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear EZH2 is associated with advanced stage and worse survival of RCC patients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EZH2 is negatively regulated by miR-101 in renal cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of EZH2 leads to re-expression of p27Kip1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reintroduction of miR-101 results in suppression of cell proliferation. -- Abstract: We investigated a prognostic significance and the mechanism of aberrant nuclear expression of EZH2, a histone methyltransferase, in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We found nuclear EZH2 in 48 of 100 RCCs and it was significantly correlated with worse survival in RCC patients. We detected a decreased expression of miR-101 in 15 of 54 RCCs. We found that re-expression of miR-101 resulted in EZH2 depletion and decreased renal cancer cell proliferation. Our results show nuclear EZH2 as a prognostic marker of worse survival in human RCC, and identify miR-101 as a negative regulator of EZH2 expression and renal cancer cell proliferation.

  15. Microbiome and Potential Targets for Chemoprevention of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Antonio Galvao; Whitaker, April; Pei, Zhiheng

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, with a dismal prognosis. It is increasingly recognized that esophageal cancer is a heterogeneous disease. It can be subdivided into two distinct groups: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, based on histological appearance. In the Western world, the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma was considerably higher than esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) until the 1990s when, due to a dramatic increase, the incidence of EA surpassed that of squamous cell carcinoma. EA typically follows a well-established stepwise evolution from chronic inflammation due to reflux esophagitis (RE) that progresses to metaplasia (Barrett’s esophagus- BE) to dysplasia, which often culminates in EA. The pathophysiology of EA is complex and involves diverse factors, including gastroesophageal reflux, gastric acid secretion, dysfunction of the antireflux barrier, gastric emptying disturbances, and abnormalities in esophageal defense mechanisms. The current understanding of the etiology of EA is mainly derived from epidemiological studies of risk factors such as cigarette smoking, obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disorders (GERD), and low fruit and vegetable consumption. Numerous studies have been done but the factors that drive the dynamic increase in the incidence of EA remain elusive. The advent of widespread antibiotic use occurred in the 1950s, preceding the surge of EA. Based on this temporal sequence, it has been hypothesized that antibiotics alter the microbiome to which the esophagus is exposed in patients who have GERD and that chronic exposure to this abnormal microbiome (i.e., changes in species diversity or abundance) accounts for the increase in EA. If changes in the proposed factors alter the stepwise progression (RE-BE-dysplasia- EA), they may represent potential targets for chemoprevention. New discoveries will help improve our understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of these cancers, and aid in finding novel

  16. Microbiome and potential targets for chemoprevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Neto, Antonio Galvao; Whitaker, April; Pei, Zhiheng

    2016-02-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, with a dismal prognosis. It is increasingly recognized that esophageal cancer is a heterogeneous disease. It can be subdivided into two distinct groups: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, based on histological appearance. In the Western world, the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma was considerably higher than esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) until the 1990s when, due to a dramatic increase, the incidence of EA surpassed that of squamous cell carcinoma. EA typically follows a well-established stepwise evolution from chronic inflammation due to reflux esophagitis (RE) that progresses to metaplasia (Barrett's esophagus [BE]) to dysplasia, which often culminates in EA. The pathophysiology of EA is complex and involves diverse factors, including gastroesophageal reflux, gastric acid secretion, dysfunction of the antireflux barrier, gastric emptying disturbances, and abnormalities in esophageal defense mechanisms. The current understanding of the etiology of EA is mainly derived from epidemiological studies of risk factors such as cigarette smoking, obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disorders (GERD), and low fruit and vegetable consumption. Numerous studies have been done, but the factors that drive the dynamic increase in the incidence of EA remain elusive. The advent of widespread antibiotic use occurred in the 1950s, preceding the surge of EA. Based on this temporal sequence, it has been hypothesized that antibiotics alter the microbiome to which the esophagus is exposed in patients who have GERD and that chronic exposure to this abnormal microbiome (ie, changes in species diversity or abundance) accounts for the increase in EA. If changes in the proposed factors alter the stepwise progression (RE-BE-dysplasia-EA), they may represent potential targets for chemoprevention. New discoveries will help improve our understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of these cancers, and aid in finding novel therapeutic

  17. Pyruvate Kinase M2: A Potential Target for Regulating Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Filho, Jose C.; Pålsson-McDermott, Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PK) is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the last step of glycolysis. Of the four PK isoforms expressed in mammalian cells, PKM2 has generated the most interest due to its impact on changes in cellular metabolism observed in cancer as well as in activated immune cells. As our understanding of dysregulated metabolism in cancer develops, and in light of the growing field of immunometabolism, intense efforts are in place to define the mechanism by which PKM2 regulates the metabolic profile of cancer as well as of immune cells. The enzymatic activity of PKM2 is heavily regulated by endogenous allosteric effectors as well as by intracellular signaling pathways, affecting both the enzymatic activity of PKM2 as a PK and the regulation of the recently described non-canonical nuclear functions of PKM2. We here review the current literature on PKM2 and its regulation, and discuss the potential for this protein as a therapeutic target in inflammatory disorders. PMID:27148264

  18. MPS1 kinase as a potential therapeutic target in medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Alimova, Irina; Ng, June; Harris, Peter; Birks, Diane; Donson, Andrew; Taylor, Michael D.; Foreman, Nicholas K.; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Vibhakar, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common type of malignant brain tumor that affects children. Although recent advances in chemotherapy and radiation have improved outcomes, high-risk patients perform poorly with significant morbidity. Gene expression profiling has revealed that monopolar spindle 1 (MPS1) (TTK1) is highly expressed in medulloblastoma patient samples compared to that noted in normal cerebellum. MPS1 is a key regulator of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a mitotic mechanism specifically required for proper chromosomal alignment and segregation. The SAC can be activated in aneuploid cancer cells and MPS1 is overexpressed in many types of cancers. A previous study has demonstrated the effectiveness of inhibiting MPS1 with small-molecule inhibitors, but the role of MPS1 in medulloblastoma is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that MPS1 inhibition by shRNA or with a small-molecule drug, NMS-P715, resulted in decreased cell growth, inhibition of clonogenic potential and induction of apoptosis in cells belonging to both the Shh and group 3 medulloblastoma genomic signature. These findings highlight MPS1 as a rational therapeutic target for medulloblastoma. PMID:27633003

  19. Extracellular Bacterial Proteases in Chronic Wounds: A Potential Therapeutic Target?

    PubMed

    Suleman, Louise

    2016-10-01

    Significance: Bacterial biofilms are considered to be responsible for over 80% of persistent infections, including chronic lung infections, osteomyelitis, periodontitis, endocarditis, and chronic wounds. Over 60% of chronic wounds are colonized with bacteria that reside within a biofilm. The exaggerated proteolytic environment of chronic wounds, more specifically elevated matrix metalloproteinases, is thought to be one of the possible reasons as to why chronic wounds fail to heal. However, the role of bacterial proteases within chronic wounds is not fully understood. Recent Advances: Recent research has shown that bacterial proteases can enable colonization and facilitate bacterial immune evasion. The inhibition of bacterial proteases such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase B (LasB) has resulted in the disruption of the bacterial biofilm in vitro. P. aeruginosa is thought to be a key pathogen in chronic wound infection, and therefore, the disruption of these biofilms, potentially through the targeting of P. aeruginosa bacterial proteases, is an attractive therapeutic endeavor. Critical Issues: Disrupting biofilm formation through the inhibition of bacterial proteases may lead to the dissemination of bacteria from the biofilm, allowing planktonic cells to colonize new sites within the wound. Future Directions: Despite a plethora of evidence supporting the role of bacterial proteases as virulence factors in infection, there remains a distinct lack of research into the effect of bacterial proteases in chronic wounds. To assess the viability of targeting bacterial proteases, future research should aim to understand the role of these proteases in a variety of chronic wound subtypes.

  20. Cardiorenal syndrome: pathophysiology and potential targets for clinical management.

    PubMed

    Hatamizadeh, Parta; Fonarow, Gregg C; Budoff, Matthew J; Darabian, Sirous; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-02-01

    Combined dysfunction of the heart and the kidneys, which can be associated with haemodynamic impairment, is classically referred to as cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Cardiac pump failure with resulting volume retention by the kidneys, once thought to be the major pathophysiologic mechanism of CRS, is now considered to be only a part of a much more complicated phenomenon. Multiple body systems may contribute to the development of this pathologic constellation in an interconnected network of events. These events include heart failure (systolic or diastolic), atherosclerosis and endothelial cell dysfunction, uraemia and kidney failure, neurohormonal dysregulation, anaemia and iron disorders, mineral metabolic derangements including fibroblast growth factor 23, phosphorus and vitamin D disorders, and inflammatory pathways that may lead to malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia complex and protein-energy wasting. Hence, a pathophysiologically and clinically relevant classification of CRS based on the above components would be prudent. With the existing medical knowledge, it is almost impossible to identify where the process has started in any given patient. Rather, the events involved are closely interrelated, so that once the process starts at a particular point, other pathways of the network are potentially activated. Current therapies for CRS as well as ongoing studies are mostly focused on haemodynamic adjustments. The timely targeting of different components of this complex network, which may eventually lead to haemodynamic and vascular compromise and cause refractoriness to conventional treatments, seems necessary. Future studies should focus on interventions targeting these components.

  1. Glycine transporter-1: a new potential therapeutic target for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The hypofunction hypothesis of glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia suggests that increasing NMDA receptor function via pharmacological manipulation could provide a new therapeutic strategy for schizophrenia. The glycine modulatory site on NMDA receptor complex is the one of the most attractive therapeutic targets for schizophrenia. One means of enhancing NMDA receptor neurotransmission is to increase the availability of the obligatory co-agonist glycine at modulatory site on the NMDA receptors through the inhibition of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) on glial cells. Some clinical studies have demonstrated that the GlyT-1 inhibitor sarcosine (N-methylglycine) shows antipsychotic activity in patients with schizophrenia. Currently, a number of pharmaceutical companies have been developing novel and selective GlyT-1 inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia. A recent double blind phase II study demonstrated that the novel GlyT-1 inhibitor RG1678 has a robust and clinically meaningful effect in patients with schizophrenia. In this article, the author reviews the recent findings on the GlyT-1 as a potential therapeutic target of schizophrenia.

  2. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase: potential therapeutic target and putative metabolic oncogene.

    PubMed

    Zogg, Cheryl K

    2014-01-01

    Exemplified by cancer cells' preference for glycolysis, for example, the Warburg effect, altered metabolism in tumorigenesis has emerged as an important aspect of cancer in the past 10-20 years. Whether due to changes in regulatory tumor suppressors/oncogenes or by acting as metabolic oncogenes themselves, enzymes involved in the complex network of metabolic pathways are being studied to understand their role and assess their utility as therapeutic targets. Conversion of glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate into phosphohydroxypyruvate by the enzyme phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH)-a rate-limiting step in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to serine-represents one such mechanism. Forgotten since classic animal studies in the 1980s, the role of PHGDH as a potential therapeutic target and putative metabolic oncogene has recently reemerged following publication of two prominent papers near-simultaneously in 2011. Since that time, numerous studies and a host of metabolic explanations have been put forward in an attempt to understand the results observed. In this paper, I review the historic progression of our understanding of the role of PHGDH in cancer from the early work by Snell through its reemergence and rise to prominence, culminating in an assessment of subsequent work and what it means for the future of PHGDH.

  3. TCGA bladder cancer study reveals potential drug targets

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with TCGA have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease. They also discovered that, at the molecular level, some subtypes of bla

  4. TCGA Bladder Cancer Study Reveals Potential Drug Targets - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with the TCGA Research Network have identified new potential therapeutic targets for a major form of bladder cancer, including important genes and pathways that are disrupted in the disease.

  5. Identification of a P2X7 receptor in GH(4)C(1) rat pituitary cells: a potential target for a bioactive substance produced by Pfiesteria piscicida.

    PubMed

    Kimm-Brinson, K L; Moeller, P D; Barbier, M; Glasgow, H; Burkholder, J M; Ramsdell, J S

    2001-05-01

    We examined the pharmacologic activity of a putative toxin (pPfTx) produced by Pfiesteria piscicida by characterizing the signaling pathways that induce the c-fos luciferase construct in GH(4)C(1) rat pituitary cells. Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) was determined to increase and, at higher concentrations, decrease luciferase activity in GH(4)C(1) rat pituitary cells that stably express c-fos luciferase. The inhibition of luciferase results from cytotoxicity, characteristic of the putative P. piscicida toxin (pPfTx). The actions of both pPfTx and ATP to induce c-fos luciferase were inhibited by the purinogenic receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS). Further characterization of a P2X receptor on the GH(4)C(1) cell was determined by the analog selectivity of P2X agonists. The P2X1/P2X3 agonist alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-MeATP) failed to increase or decrease c-fos luciferase. However, the P2X7 agonist 2',3'-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl ATP (BzATP), which had a predominant cytotoxic effect, was more potent than ATP. Immunoblot analysis of GH(4)C(1) cell membranes confirmed the presence of a 70-kDa protein that was immunoreactive to an antibody directed against the carboxy-terminal domain unique to the P2X7 receptor. The P2X7 irreversible antagonist oxidized-ATP (oxATP) inhibited the action of ATP, BzATP, and pPfTx. These findings indicate that GH(4)C(1) cells express purinogenic receptors with selectivity consistent with the P2X7 subtype and that this receptor pathway mediates the induction of the c-fos luciferase reporter gene by ATP and the putative Pfiesteria toxin

  6. Identification of a P2X7 receptor in GH(4)C(1) rat pituitary cells: a potential target for a bioactive substance produced by Pfiesteria piscicida.

    PubMed Central

    Kimm-Brinson, K L; Moeller, P D; Barbier, M; Glasgow, H; Burkholder, J M; Ramsdell, J S

    2001-01-01

    We examined the pharmacologic activity of a putative toxin (pPfTx) produced by Pfiesteria piscicida by characterizing the signaling pathways that induce the c-fos luciferase construct in GH(4)C(1) rat pituitary cells. Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) was determined to increase and, at higher concentrations, decrease luciferase activity in GH(4)C(1) rat pituitary cells that stably express c-fos luciferase. The inhibition of luciferase results from cytotoxicity, characteristic of the putative P. piscicida toxin (pPfTx). The actions of both pPfTx and ATP to induce c-fos luciferase were inhibited by the purinogenic receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS). Further characterization of a P2X receptor on the GH(4)C(1) cell was determined by the analog selectivity of P2X agonists. The P2X1/P2X3 agonist alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-MeATP) failed to increase or decrease c-fos luciferase. However, the P2X7 agonist 2',3'-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl ATP (BzATP), which had a predominant cytotoxic effect, was more potent than ATP. Immunoblot analysis of GH(4)C(1) cell membranes confirmed the presence of a 70-kDa protein that was immunoreactive to an antibody directed against the carboxy-terminal domain unique to the P2X7 receptor. The P2X7 irreversible antagonist oxidized-ATP (oxATP) inhibited the action of ATP, BzATP, and pPfTx. These findings indicate that GH(4)C(1) cells express purinogenic receptors with selectivity consistent with the P2X7 subtype and that this receptor pathway mediates the induction of the c-fos luciferase reporter gene by ATP and the putative Pfiesteria toxin PMID:11401756

  7. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Sha; Wang, An-Xin; Dong, Bing; Pu, Ke-Feng; Yuan, Li-Hua; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2012-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory, cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells. This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer. In this review, we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells, and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells, a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research. PMID:22507219

  8. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Sha; Wang, An-Xin; Dong, Bing; Pu, Ke-Feng; Yuan, Li-Hua; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2012-12-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory, cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells. This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer. In this review, we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells, and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells, a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research.

  9. Using Click Chemistry to Identify Potential Drug Targets in Plasmodium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0429 TITLE: Using "Click Chemistry " to Identify Potential Drug Targets in Plasmodium PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...29Mar2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0429 Using click chemistry to identify potential drug targets in Plasmodium 5b...Al-Tsp derivatives begins. Two classes of Tsp derivatives (Al-Tsp) are appropriate for click chemistry (Fig. 1). Class I derivatives carry a

  10. Hydroxychloroquine potentiates carfilzomib toxicity towards myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Baranowska, Katarzyna; Misund, Kristine; Starheim, Kristian K; Holien, Toril; Johansson, Ida; Darvekar, Sagar; Buene, Glenn; Waage, Anders; Bjørkøy, Geir; Sundan, Anders

    2016-10-25

    Cells degrade proteins either by proteasomes that clinically are targeted by for example bortezomib or carfilzomib, or by formation of autophagosomes and lysosomal degradation that can be inhibited by hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Multiple myeloma is unique among cancers because proteasomal inhibition has good clinical effects. However, some multiple myeloma patients display intrinsic resistance to the treatment and most patients acquire resistance over time. We hypothesized that simultaneous targeting both arms of protein degradation could be a way to improve treatment of multiple myeloma. Here we tested the combined effects of the lysosomal inhibitor HCQ and clinically relevant proteasome inhibitors on myeloma cell lines and primary cells. Carfilzomib and bortezomib both induced immunoglobulin-containing aggregates in myeloma cells. HCQ significantly potentiated the effect of carfilzomib in both cell lines and in primary myeloma cells. In contrast, HCQ had little or no effects on the toxicity of bortezomib. Furthermore, cells adapted to tolerate high levels of carfilzomib could be re-sensitized to the drug by co-treatment with HCQ. Thus, we show that inhibition of lysosomal degradation can overcome carfilzomib resistance, suggesting that the role of autophagy in myeloma cells is dependent on type of proteasome inhibitor. In conclusion, attempts should be made to combine HCQ with carfilzomib in the treatment of multiple myeloma.

  11. Hydroxychloroquine potentiates carfilzomib toxicity towards myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Starheim, Kristian K.; Holien, Toril; Johansson, Ida; Darvekar, Sagar; Buene, Glenn; Waage, Anders; Bjørkøy, Geir; Sundan, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Cells degrade proteins either by proteasomes that clinically are targeted by for example bortezomib or carfilzomib, or by formation of autophagosomes and lysosomal degradation that can be inhibited by hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Multiple myeloma is unique among cancers because proteasomal inhibition has good clinical effects. However, some multiple myeloma patients display intrinsic resistance to the treatment and most patients acquire resistance over time. We hypothesized that simultaneous targeting both arms of protein degradation could be a way to improve treatment of multiple myeloma. Here we tested the combined effects of the lysosomal inhibitor HCQ and clinically relevant proteasome inhibitors on myeloma cell lines and primary cells. Carfilzomib and bortezomib both induced immunoglobulin-containing aggregates in myeloma cells. HCQ significantly potentiated the effect of carfilzomib in both cell lines and in primary myeloma cells. In contrast, HCQ had little or no effects on the toxicity of bortezomib. Furthermore, cells adapted to tolerate high levels of carfilzomib could be re-sensitized to the drug by co-treatment with HCQ. Thus, we show that inhibition of lysosomal degradation can overcome carfilzomib resistance, suggesting that the role of autophagy in myeloma cells is dependent on type of proteasome inhibitor. In conclusion, attempts should be made to combine HCQ with carfilzomib in the treatment of multiple myeloma. PMID:27683126

  12. Cancer targeting potential of folate targeted nanocarrier under comparative influence of tretinoin and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Dhakad, Raghvendra Singh; Tekade, Rakesh Kumar; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was aimed to explore the cancer targeting potential of folate conjugated dendrimer (polypropylene imine, PPI) under strategic influence of folate receptor up-regulators (all trans Retinoic acid, ATRA and Dexamethasone, DEXA). The folate conjugated dendrimer nanoconjugate (FPPI) was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The cell line studies investigations were performed on MCF-7 cells. ATRA and DEXA caused 2.17 and 1.65 folds selective up-regulation of folate receptor respectively, when compared with untreated control, after 48 h of pretreatment. ATRA caused 50.47±2.11% more up regulation of folate receptor, than DEXA treated cell. Both up regulators showed a lag phase of 12 h in up-regulating the folate receptors. After 48 h, the IC50 values of naked docetaxel (DTX) and DTX loaded dendrimer (PPI-DTX) were found to be 678.93±11.99 nM and 663.51±15.23 nM, respectively, while DTX loaded folate-anchored dendrimer (FPPI-DTX) showed a selectively lowered IC50 value of 468.56±20.86 nM. FPPI-DTX further showed a significant reduction in IC50 value in ATRA and DEXA pretreated cells, wherein IC50 values of 184.21 nM and 290.40±14.05 nM, respectively were observed. The study also concludes ATRA to be a superior receptor up-regulator as well as promoter of folate based targeting compared to DEXA.

  13. New Blocking Antibodies Impede Adhesion, Migration and Survival of Ovarian Cancer Cells, Highlighting MFGE8 as a Potential Therapeutic Target of Human Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tibaldi, Lorenzo; Notebaert, Sofie; Dewulf, Melissa; Ngo, Thu Hoa; Zuany-Amorim, Claudia; Amzallag, Nathalie; Bernard-Pierrot, Isabelle; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Théry, Clotilde

    2013-01-01

    Milk Fat Globule – EGF – factor VIII (MFGE8), also called lactadherin, is a secreted protein, which binds extracellularly to phosphatidylserine and to αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins. On human and mouse cells expressing these integrins, such as endothelial cells, phagocytes and some tumors, MFGE8/lactadherin has been shown to promote survival, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and phagocytosis. A protumoral function of MFGE8 has consequently been documented for a few types of human cancers, including melanoma, a subtype of breast cancers, and bladder carcinoma. Inhibiting the functions of MFGE8 could thus represent a new type of therapy for human cancers. Here, we show by immunohistochemistry on a collection of human ovarian cancers that MFGE8 is overexpressed in 45% of these tumors, and we confirm that it is specifically overexpressed in the triple-negative subtype of human breast cancers. We have established new in vitro assays to measure the effect of MFGE8 on survival, adhesion and migration of human ovarian and triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Using these assays, we could identify new MFGE8-specific monoclonal antibodies, which efficiently blocked these three tumor-promoting effects of MFGE8. Our results suggest future use of MFGE8-blocking antibodies as new anti-cancer therapeutics in subgroups of ovarian carcinoma, and triple-negative breast carcinoma patients. PMID:23977342

  14. Inhibition of Lon blocks cell proliferation, enhances chemosensitivity by promoting apoptosis and decreases cellular bioenergetics of bladder cancer: potential roles of Lon as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in baldder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongrong; Xu, Cuicui; Shi, Yang; Wu, Xiaoyi; Wu, Zhi; Zhang, Jiliang; Chen, Lin; Wang, Lu; Yu, Xiaomin; Zhu, Haibo; Lu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    ATP-dependent Lon protease within mitochondrial matrix contributes to the degradation of abnormal proteins. The oxidative or hypoxic stress which represents the stress phenotype of cancer leads to up-regulation of Lon. However, the role of Lon in bladder cancer remains undefined. Here, we found that Lon expression in bladder cancer tissues was significantly higher than those in noncancerous tissues; down-regulation of Lon in bladder cancer cells significantly blocked cancer cell proliferation via suppression c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation due to decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and enhanced the sensitivity of bladder cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents by promoting apoptosis. We further found that Lon down-regulation in bladder cancer cells decreased cellular bioenergetics as determined by measuring aerobic respiration and glycolysis using extracellular flux analyzer. The tissue microarray (TMA) results showed that high expression of Lon was related to the T and TNM stage, as well as histological grade of bladder cancer patients. We also demonstrated that Lon was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of bladder cancer. Taken together, our data suggest that Lon could serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for treatment of bladder cancer, as well as for prediction of the effectiveness of chemotherapy. PMID:25526030

  15. MiR-30 Family Potentially Targeting PI3K-SIAH2 Predicted Interaction Network Represents a Novel Putative Theranostic Panel in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lawrence W. C.; Wang, Fengfeng; Meng, Fei; Wang, Lili; Wong, Sze Chuen Cesar; Au, Joseph S. K.; Yang, Sijun; Cho, William C. S.

    2017-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) comprises about 84% of all lung cancers. Many treatment options are available but the survival rate is still very low due to drug resistance. It has been found that phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) affects sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including gefitinib and erlotinib. Expression level of seven in absentia homolog 2 (SIAH2), an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, is upregulated in NSCLC and correlated with tumor grade. However, the relationship between PI3K and SIAH2 remains unclear and therefore it is not known whether they can act as treatment co-targets and theranostic dual markers for overcoming TKI resistance. It is worthy to note that PI3K and SIAH2 are potentially regulated by a common group of microRNAs in miR-30 family. Our bioinformatics analyses showed upregulated SIAH2 expression in NSCLC based on mass spectrometry data, explored its indirect interaction with PI3K and predicted their targeting microRNAs in common. We have also explored the potential role of miR-30 family in the modulation of PI3K-SIAH2 interaction in NSCLC. PMID:28210267

  16. Melatonin Suppresses the Growth of Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines (OVCAR-429 and PA-1) and Potentiates the Effect of G1 Arrest by Targeting CDKs

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ching-Ju; Chang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yi-Tz; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Hsu, Yi-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is found in animals as well as plants. In animals, it is a hormone that anticipates the daily onset of darkness and regulates physiological functions, such as sleep timing, blood pressure, and reproduction. Melatonin has also been found to have anti-tumor properties. Malignant cancers are the most common cause of death, and the mortality rate of ovarian tumor is the highest among gynecological diseases. This study investigated the anti-tumor effects of melatonin on the ovarian cancer lines, OVCAR-429 and PA-1. We observed the accumulation of melatonin-treated cells in the G1 phase due to the down-regulation of CDK 2 and 4. Our results suggest that in addition to the known effects on prevention, melatonin may also provide anti-tumor activity in established ovarian cancer. PMID:26840297

  17. Ewing's sarcoma cancer stem cell targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Roumiana

    2014-01-01

    Ewing`s sarcoma (ES) family of tumors (ESFTs) are round cell tumors of bone and soft tissues, afflicting children and young adults. This review summarizes the present findings about ES cancer stem cell (CSC) targeted therapy: prognostic factors, chromosomal translocations, initiation, epigenetic mechanisms, candidate cell of ES origin (Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs)). The ES CSC model, histopathogenesis, histogenesis, pathogenesis, ES mediated Hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) senescence are also discussed. ESFTs therapy is reviewed concerning CSCs, radiotherapy, risk of subsequent neoplasms, stem cell (SC) support, promising therapeutic targets for ES CSCs (CSC markers, immune targeting, RNAi phenotyping screens, proposed new drugs), candidate EWS-FLI1 target genes and further directions (including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)). Bone marrow-derived human MSCs are permissive for EWS-FLI1 expression with transition to ESFT-like cellular phenotype. ESFTs are genetically related to NCSC, permissive for EWS-FLI1 expression and susceptible to oncogene-induced immortalization. Primitive neuroectodermal features and MSC origin of ESFTs provide a basis of immune targeting. The microRNAs profile of ES CSCs is shared by ESCs and CSCs from divergent tumor types. Successful reprogramming of differentiated human somatic cells into a pluripotent state allows creation of patient- and disease-specific SCs. The functional role of endogenous EWS at stem cell level on both senescence and tumorigenesis is a link between cancer and aging. The regulatory mechanisms of oncogenic activity of EWS fusions could provide new prognostic biomarkers, therapeutic opportunities and tumor-specific anticancer agents against ESFTs.

  18. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhi-Xiang; Mo, Jingxin; Zhao, Guixian; Shu, Gang; Fu, Hua-Lin; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rationale for therapies targeting this aggressive cell population. Precise identification of renal CSC populations and the complete cell hierarchy will accurately inform characterization of disease subtypes. This will ultimately contribute to more personalized and targeted therapies. Here, we summarize potential targeting strategies for renal cancer cells and renal CSCs, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR), interleukins, CSC marker inhibitors, bone morphogenetic protein-2, antibody drug conjugates, and nanomedicine. In conclusion, targeting therapies for RCC represent new directions for exploration and clinical investigation and they plant a seed of hope for advanced clinical care.

  19. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhi-xiang; Mo, Jingxin; Zhao, Guixian; Shu, Gang; Fu, Hua-lin; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rationale for therapies targeting this aggressive cell population. Precise identification of renal CSC populations and the complete cell hierarchy will accurately inform characterization of disease subtypes. This will ultimately contribute to more personalized and targeted therapies. Here, we summarize potential targeting strategies for renal cancer cells and renal CSCs, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR), interleukins, CSC marker inhibitors, bone morphogenetic protein-2, antibody drug conjugates, and nanomedicine. In conclusion, targeting therapies for RCC represent new directions for exploration and clinical investigation and they plant a seed of hope for advanced clinical care. PMID:27891093

  20. Potential therapeutic targets in energy metabolism pathways of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rowshan Ara; Hossain, Sazzad; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2017-03-30

    Mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes make cancer cells proliferate indefinitely. As they possess almost all mechanisms for cell proliferation and survival like healthy cells, it is difficult to specifically target cancer cells in the body. Current treatments in most of the cases are harmful to healthy cells as well. Thus, it would be of great prudence to target specific characters of cancer cells. Since cancer cells avidly use glucose and glutamine to survive and proliferate by upregulating the relevant enzymes and their specific isoforms having important regulatory roles, it has been of great interest recently to target the energy-related metabolic pathways as part of the therapeutic interventions. This paper summarizes the roles of energy metabolism and their cross-talks with other important signaling pathways in regulating proliferation, invasion and metastasis in breast cancer. As breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease, a clear understanding of the variations of energy metabolism in different molecular subtypes would help in treating each type with a very customized, safer and efficient treatment regimen, by targeting specific glucose metabolism and related pathways with gene silencing nucleic acid sequences or small molecule drugs, or the combination of both.

  1. [Advances of molecular targeted therapy in squamous cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Zhang, Shucai

    2013-12-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC) is one of the most prevalent subtypes of lung cancer worldwide, about 400,000 persons die from squamous-cell lung cancer around the world, and its pathogenesis is closely linked with tobacco exposure. Unfortunately, squamous-cell lung cancer patients do not benefit from major advances in the development of targeted therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors that show exquisite activity in lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations or echinoderm microtubule associated protein like-4 (EML4)-ALK fusions, respectively. Major efforts have been launched to characterize the genomes of squamous-cell lung cancers. Among the new results emanating from these efforts are amplifications of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene, the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) gene mutation as potential novel targets for the treatment of SQCLCs. Researchers find that there are many specific molecular targeted genes in the genome of squamous-cell lung cancer patients. These changes play a vital role in cell cycle regulation, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, squamous epithelium differentiation, may be the candidate targeted moleculars in SQCLCs. Here, we provide a review on these discoveries and their implications for clinical trials in squamous-cell lung cancer assessing the value of novel therapeutics addressing these targets.

  2. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Jill W.; Latouche, Eduardo L.; Sano, Michael B.; Rossmeisl, John H.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Verbridge, Scott S.

    2015-11-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1 μs) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors.

  3. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells

    PubMed Central

    Ivey, Jill W.; Latouche, Eduardo L.; Sano, Michael B.; Rossmeisl, John H.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Verbridge, Scott S.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1 μs) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors. PMID:26596248

  4. Targeted cellular ablation based on the morphology of malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Jill W; Latouche, Eduardo L; Sano, Michael B; Rossmeisl, John H; Davalos, Rafael V; Verbridge, Scott S

    2015-11-24

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is especially challenging due to a shortage of methods to preferentially target diffuse infiltrative cells, and therapy-resistant glioma stem cell populations. Here we report a physical treatment method based on electrical disruption of cells, whose action depends strongly on cellular morphology. Interestingly, numerical modeling suggests that while outer lipid bilayer disruption induced by long pulses (~100 μs) is enhanced for larger cells, short pulses (~1 μs) preferentially result in high fields within the cell interior, which scale in magnitude with nucleus size. Because enlarged nuclei represent a reliable indicator of malignancy, this suggested a means of preferentially targeting malignant cells. While we demonstrate killing of both normal and malignant cells using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to treat spontaneous canine GBM, we proposed that properly tuned PEFs might provide targeted ablation based on nuclear size. Using 3D hydrogel models of normal and malignant brain tissues, which permit high-resolution interrogation during treatment testing, we confirmed that PEFs could be tuned to preferentially kill cancerous cells. Finally, we estimated the nuclear envelope electric potential disruption needed for cell death from PEFs. Our results may be useful in safely targeting the therapy-resistant cell niches that cause recurrence of GBM tumors.

  5. Phosphatidylserine: A cancer cell targeting biomarker.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhupender; Kanwar, Shamsher S

    2017-09-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. Many prominent cancer-associated molecules have been identified over the recent years which include EGFR, CD44, TGFbRII, HER2, miR-497, NMP22, BTA, Fibrin/FDP etc. These biomarkers are often used for screening, detection, diagnosis, prognosis, prediction and monitoring of cancer development. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an essential component in all human cells which is present on the inner leaflet of the cell membrane. The oxidative stress causes exposure of PS on the surface of the vascular endothelium in the cancer cells (lung, breast, pancreatic, bladder, skin, brain metastasis, rectal adenocarcinoma etc.) but not on the normal cells. The external PS is regulated by calcium-dependent flippase activity. Cancer cell lines with high surface PS have low flippase activity and high intracellular calcium content. Human Annexin-V, PS targeting antibodies (PGN635 and bavituximab and mch1N11), lysosomal protein, phospholipid Saposin C dioleoylphosphatidylserine (SapC-DOPS), peptide-peptoid hybrid PPS1, PS-binding 14-mer peptide (PSBP-6) and hexapeptide (E3) have been reported to target PS present on cancer cell surface. High expression of CD47 inhibits tumor cell phagocytosis by macrophages. The PS cancer biomarker has also been used to target the drugs to cancer cells specifically without affecting other healthy cells. Currently, the fusion protein (FP) consisting of L-methionase linked to human Annexin-V has been reported to target the cancer cells. The FP catalyzes the conversion of non-toxic prodrug selenomethionine into toxic methyl selenol which thus also prevents the methionine (essential amino acid) supplementation to the cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Finding Potential Therapeutic Targets against Shigella flexneri through Proteome Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Khan, Md. Arif; Hashem, Abu; Islam, Md. Monirul; Morshed, Mohammad Neaz; Keya, Chaman Ara; Salimullah, Md.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Shigella flexneri is a gram negative bacteria that causes the infectious disease “shigellosis.” S. flexneri is responsible for developing diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps in human. Antibiotics are mostly given to patients infected with shigella. Resistance to antibiotics can hinder its treatment significantly. Upon identification of essential therapeutic targets, vaccine and drug could be effective therapy for the treatment of shigellosis. Methods: The study was designed for the identification and qualitative characterization for potential drug targets from S. flexneri by using the subtractive proteome analysis. A set of computational tools were used to identify essential proteins those are required for the survival of S. flexneri. Total proteome (13,503 proteins) of S. flexneri was retrieved from NCBI and further analyzed by subtractive channel analysis. After identification of the metabolic proteins we have also performed its qualitative characterization to pave the way for the identification of promising drug targets. Results: Subtractive analysis revealed that a list of 53 targets of S. flexneri were human non-homologous essential metabolic proteins that might be used for potential drug targets. We have also found that 11 drug targets are involved in unique pathway. Most of these proteins are cytoplasmic, can be used as broad spectrum drug targets, can interact with other proteins and show the druggable properties. The functionality and drug binding site analysis suggest a promising effective way to design the new drugs against S. flexneri. Conclusion: Among the 53 therapeutic targets identified through this study, 13 were found highly potential as drug targets based on their physicochemical properties whilst only one was found as vaccine target against S. flexneri. The outcome might also be used as module as well as circuit design in systems biology. PMID:27920755

  7. Target Biological Structures: The Cell, Organelles, DNA and RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Holst, Marcelis; Grant, Maxine P.; Aldrich-Wright, Janice

    Living organisms are self replicating molecular factories of staggering complexity [1]. As a result, we are often overwhelmed when trying to identify potential targets for therapeutics. Water, inorganic ions and a large array of relatively small organic molecules (e.g., sugars, vitamins and fatty acids) account for approximately 80% of living matter, with water being the most abundant. Macromolecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) constitute the rest. The majority of potential therapeutic targets are found within the cell. Small molecules which are vital for cellular function are imported into the cell by a variety of mechanisms but unlike smaller molecules, macromolecules are assembled within the cell itself. Drugs are usually designed to target cellular macromolecules, as they perform very specific roles in the metabolic processes.

  8. High efficiency cell-specific targeting of cytokine activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Geneviève; Paul, Franciane; Staufenbiel, Markus; Bordat, Yann; van der Heyden, José; Wilmes, Stephan; Cartron, Guillaume; Apparailly, Florence; de Koker, Stefaan; Piehler, Jacob; Tavernier, Jan; Uzé, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Systemic toxicity currently prevents exploiting the huge potential of many cytokines for medical applications. Here we present a novel strategy to engineer immunocytokines with very high targeting efficacies. The method lies in the use of mutants of toxic cytokines that markedly reduce their receptor-binding affinities, and that are thus rendered essentially inactive. Upon fusion to nanobodies specifically binding to marker proteins, activity of these cytokines is selectively restored for cell populations expressing this marker. This ‘activity-by-targeting’ concept was validated for type I interferons and leptin. In the case of interferon, activity can be directed to target cells in vitro and to selected cell populations in mice, with up to 1,000-fold increased specific activity. This targeting strategy holds promise to revitalize the clinical potential of many cytokines.

  9. Photosensitivity of neurons enabled by cell-targeted gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-de-Souza, João L; Treger, Jeremy S; Dang, Bobo; Kent, Stephen B H; Pepperberg, David R; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2015-04-08

    Unmodified neurons can be directly stimulated with light to produce action potentials, but such techniques have lacked localization of the delivered light energy. Here we show that gold nanoparticles can be conjugated to high-avidity ligands for a variety of cellular targets. Once bound to a neuron, these particles transduce millisecond pulses of light into heat, which changes membrane capacitance, depolarizing the cell and eliciting action potentials. Compared to non-functionalized nanoparticles, ligand-conjugated nanoparticles highly resist convective washout and enable photothermal stimulation with lower delivered energy and resulting temperature increase. Ligands targeting three different membrane proteins were tested; all showed similar activity and washout resistance. This suggests that many types of ligands can be bound to nanoparticles, preserving ligand and nanoparticle function, and that many different cell phenotypes can be targeted by appropriate choice of ligand. The findings have applications as an alternative to optogenetics and potentially for therapies involving neuronal photostimulation.

  10. Immune targeting of cancer stem cells in gastrointestinal oncology

    PubMed Central

    Grossenbacher, Steven K.; Ames, Erik; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that a sub-population of quiescent cells exist within tumors which are resistant to conventional cytotoxic/anti-proliferative therapies. It is these CSCs which then seed tumor relapse, even in cases of apparent complete response to systemic therapy. Therefore, therapies, such as immunotherapy, which add a specific anti-CSC strategy to standard cytoreductive treatments may provide a promising new direction for future cancer therapies. CSCs are an attractive target for immune therapies since, unlike chemotherapy or radiotherapy, immune effector cells do not specifically require target cells to be proliferating in order to effectively kill them. Although recent advances have been made in the development of novel systemic and targeted therapies for advanced gastro-intestinal (GI) malignancies, there remains an unmet need for durable new therapies for these refractory malignancies. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies targeting CSCs are in pre-clinical and clinical development across the spectrum of the immune system, including strategies utilizing adaptive immune cell-based effectors, innate immune effectors, as well as vaccine approaches. Lastly, since important CSC functions are affected by the tumor microenvironment, targeting of both cellular (myeloid derived suppressor cells and tumor-associated macrophages) and sub-cellular (cytokines, chemokines, and PD1/PDL1) components of the tumor microenvironment is under investigation in the immune targeting of CSCs. These efforts are adding to the significant optimism about the potential utility of immunotherapy to overcome cancer resistance mechanisms and cure greater numbers of patients with advanced malignancy. PMID:27034806

  11. Recombinant immunotoxins in targeted cancer cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Y

    2001-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapy in general and immunotherapy in particular combines rational drug design with the progress in understanding cancer biology. This approach takes advantage of our recent knowledge of the mechanisms by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells, thus using the special properties of cancer cells to device novel therapeutic strategies. Recombinant immunotoxins are excellent examples of such processes, combining the knowledge of antigen expression by cancer cells with the enormous developments in recombinant DNA technology and antibody engineering. Recombinant immunotoxins are composed of a very potent protein toxin fused to a targeting moiety such as a recombinant antibody fragment or growth factor. These molecules bind to surface antigens specific for cancer cells and kill the target cells by catalytic inhibition of protein synthesis. Recombinant immunotoxins are developed for solid tumors and hematological malignancies and have been characterized intensively for their biological activity in vitro on cultured tumor cell lines as well as in vivo in animal models of human tumor xenografts. The excellent in vitro and in vivo activities of recombinant immunotoxins have lead to their preclinical development and to the initiation of clinical trail protocols. Recent trail results have demonstrated potent clinical efficacy in patients with malignant diseases that are refractory to traditional modalities of cancer treatment: surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The results demonstrate that such strategies can be developed into a separate modality of cancer treatment with the basic rationale of specifically targeting cancer cells on the basis of their unique surface markers. Efforts are now being made to improve the current molecules and to develop new agents with better clinical efficacy. This can be achieved by development of novel targeting moieties with improved specificity that will reduce toxicity to normal tissues. In this review

  12. Nuclisome--targeting the tumor cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Gedda, Lars; Edwards, Katarina

    2012-06-01

    The Nuclisome concept builds on a novel two-step targeting strategy with the aim to deliver short-range Auger-electron-emitting radionuclides to nuclear DNA of tumor cells. The concept is based on the use of Nuclisome-particles, i.e., tumor-targeted PEG-stabilized liposomes loaded with a unique DNA-intercalating compound that enables specific and effective delivery of radionuclides to DNA. The specific and potent two-step targeting leads to eradication of tumor cells while toxicity to normal organs is reduced to a minimum. Results of in vitro and in vivo studies point towards the Nuclisome concept as a promising strategy for the treatment of small tumor masses and, in particular, for the elimination of spread single cells and micrometastases.

  13. Modular Nanotransporters for Targeted Intracellular Delivery of Drugs: Folate Receptors as Potential Targets

    PubMed Central

    Slastnikova, Tatiana A.; Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Sobolev, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to a subcellular drug delivery system, modular nanotransporters (MNT) that can penetrate into target cells and deliver a therapeutic into their subcellular compartments, particularly into the nucleus. The therapeutics which need such type of delivery belong to two groups: (i) those that exert their effect only when delivered into a certain cell compartment (like DNA delivered into the nucleus); and (ii) those drugs that are capable of exerting their effect in different parts of the cells, however there can be found a cell compartment that is the most sensitive to their effect. A particular interest attract such cytotoxic agents as Auger electron emitters which are known to be ineffective outside the cell nucleus, whereas they possess high cytotoxicity in the vicinity of nuclear DNA through the induction of non-reparable double-strand DNA breaks. The review discusses main approaches permitting to choose internalizable receptors permitting both recognition of target cells and penetration into them. Special interest attract folate receptors which become accessible to blood circulating therapeutics after malignant transformation or on activated macrophages which makes them an attractive target for both several oncological and inflammatory diseases, like atherosclerosis. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that MNT is a promising platform for targeted delivery of different therapeutics into the nuclei of target cells. PMID:25312738

  14. Inducible co-stimulator (ICOS) up-regulation on activated T-cells in chronic graft-vs.-host disease following dog-leukocyte-antigen-nonidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation: A potential therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masahiko; Storb, Rainer; Loretz, Carol; Stone, Diane; Mielcarek, Marco; Sale, George E.; Rezvani, Andrew R.; Graves, Scott S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Inducible co-stimulator (ICOS), a member of the CD28 family of costimulatory molecules, is induced on CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells following their activation. ICOS functions as an essential immune regulator and ICOS blockade is a potential approach to immune modulation in allogeneic transplantation. Here, we describe the expression profile of ICOS in dogs and determine whether ICOS expression is up-regulated during chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) and host versus graft (HVG) reactions in the canine hematopoietic cell transplantation model. Methods Monoclonal antibodies against cell surface-expressed ICOS were produced and tested in vitro for suppression of canine mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR). Expression of ICOS on CD3+ cells was evaluated by flow cytometry using peripheral blood, lymph nodes and splenocytes obtained from dogs undergoing GVH and HVG reactions. Results Canine ICOS was expressed in an inducible pattern on T-cells activated by Con A, anti-CD3 mAb in combination with anti-CD28 mAb, and alloantigen stimulation. Immunosuppressive effects of ICOS blockade were observed in MLR using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from dog-leukocyte-antigen-nonidentical dogs. Immunosuppressive effects of ICOS blockade were observed in MLR when anti-ICOS was combined with suboptimal concentrations of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4-Ig (CTLA4-Ig) or cyclosporine. ICOS expression was significantly up-regulated on T-cells in dogs undergoing graft rejection or chronic GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Conclusion These studies suggest that ICOS plays a role in graft rejection and GVHD in an out-bred animal model, and ICOS blockade may be an approach to prevention and treatment of chronic GVHD. PMID:23694952

  15. Targeting cancer cell mitochondria as a therapeutic approach: recent updates.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qingbin; Wen, Shijun; Huang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in ATP generation, redox homeostasis and regulation of apoptosis. Due to the essential role of mitochondria in metabolism and cell survival, targeting mitochondria in cancer cells is considered as an attractive therapeutic strategy. However, metabolic flexibility in cancer cells may enable the upregulation of compensatory pathways, such as glycolysis to support cancer cell survival when mitochondrial metabolism is inhibited. Thus, compounds capable of both targeting mitochondria and inhibiting glycolysis may be particularly useful to overcome such drug-resistant mechanism. This review provides an update on recent development in the field of targeting mitochondria and novel compounds that impact mitochondria, glycolysis or both. Key challenges in this research area and potential solutions are also discussed.

  16. Rationale for B cell targeting in SLE

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Iñaki

    2014-01-01

    B cells are central pathogenic players in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and multiple other autoinmune diseases through antibody production as well as antibody independent functiona. At the same time, B cells are known to play important regulatory functions that may protect against autoimmune manifestations. Yet, the functional role of different B cell populations and their contribution to disease remain to be understood. The advent of agents that specifically target B cells, in particular anti-CD20 and ant-BLyS antibodies, have demonstrated the efficacy of this approach for the treatment of human autoimmunity. The analysis of patients treated with these and other B cell agents provide a unique opportunity to understand the correlates of clinical response and the significance of different B cell subsets. Here we discuss this information and how it could be used to better understand SLE and improve the rational design of B cell directed therapies in this disease. PMID:24763533

  17. Genetically Modified T Cells to Target Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Simone; Rodríguez-Cruz, Tania G.; DeRenzo, Christopher; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical procedures, radiation, and chemotherapy the outcome for patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor. While GBM cells express antigens that are potentially recognized by T cells, GBMs prevent the induction of GBM-specific immune responses by creating an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The advent of gene transfer has allowed the rapid generation of antigen-specific T cells as well as T cells with enhanced effector function. Here we review recent advances in the field of cell therapy with genetically modified T cells and how these advances might improve outcomes for patients with GBM in the future. PMID:24427741

  18. Transient Receptor Potential Channels as Targets for Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To date, 28 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been cloned and characterized. They are grouped into six subfamilies on the basis of their amino acid sequence homology: TRP Ankyrin (TRPA), TRP Canonical (TRPC), TRP Melastatin (TRPM), TRP Mucolipin (TRPML), TRP Polycystin (TRPP), and TRP Vanilloid (TRPV). Most of the TRP channels are nonselective cation channels expressed on the cell membrane and exhibit variable permeability ratios for Ca2+ versus Na+. They mediate sensory functions (such as vision, nociception, taste transduction, temperature sensation, and pheromone signaling) and homeostatic functions (such as divalent cation flux, hormone release, and osmoregulation). Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the specific roles of these TRP channels and their activation mechanisms. In this Review, the emphasis will be on the activation of TRP channels by phytochemicals that are claimed to exert health benefits. Recent findings complement the anecdotal evidence that some of these phytochemicals have specific receptors and the activation of which is responsible for the physiological effects. Now, the targets for these phytochemicals are being unveiled; a specific hypothesis can be proposed and tested experimentally to infer a scientific validity of the claims of the health benefits. The broader and pressing issues that have to be addressed are related to the quantities of the active ingredients in a given preparation, their bioavailability, metabolism, adverse effects, excretion, and systemic versus local effects. PMID:24926802

  19. TRPV1: A Potential Drug Target for Treating Various Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Rafael; Sheth, Sandeep; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel present on sensory neurons which is activated by heat, protons, capsaicin and a variety of endogenous lipids termed endovanilloids. As such, TRPV1 serves as a multimodal sensor of noxious stimuli which could trigger counteractive measures to avoid pain and injury. Activation of TRPV1 has been linked to chronic inflammatory pain conditions and peripheral neuropathy, as observed in diabetes. Expression of TRPV1 is also observed in non-neuronal sites such as the epithelium of bladder and lungs and in hair cells of the cochlea. At these sites, activation of TRPV1 has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diseases such as cystitis, asthma and hearing loss. Therefore, drugs which could modulate TRPV1 channel activity could be useful for the treatment of conditions ranging from chronic pain to hearing loss. This review describes the roles of TRPV1 in the normal physiology and pathophysiology of selected organs of the body and highlights how drugs targeting this channel could be important clinically. PMID:24861977

  20. AT2 Receptors: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Carey, Robert M

    2017-04-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is arguably the most important and best studied hormonal system in the control of blood pressure (BP) and the pathogenesis of hypertension. The RAS features its main effector angiotensin II (Ang II) acting via its 2 major receptors, angiotensin type-1(AT1R) and type-2 (AT2R). In general, AT2Rs oppose the detrimental actions of Ang II via AT1Rs. AT2R activation induces vasodilation and natriuresis, but its effects to lower BP in hypertension have not been as clear as anticipated. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that acute and chronic AT2R stimulation can induce natriuresis and lower BP in the Ang II infusion model of experimental hypertension. AT2R activation induces receptor recruitment from intracellular sites to the apical plasma membranes of renal proximal tubule cells via a bradykinin, nitric oxide, and cyclic guanosine 3',5' monophosphate signaling pathway that results in internalization and inactivation of sodium (Na+) transporters Na+-H+ exchanger-3 and Na+/K+ATPase. These responses do not require the presence of concurrent AT1R blockade and are effective both in the prevention and reversal of hypertension. This review will address the role of AT2Rs in the control of BP and Na+ excretion and the case for these receptors as potential therapeutic targets for hypertension in humans. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Epigenetic targeting of histone deacetylase: therapeutic potential in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ian F; Dexter, David T

    2013-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder affecting more than 4million people worldwide. The primary motor symptoms of the disease are due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. Dopamine replacement therapies have therefore revolutionised disease management by partially controlling these symptoms. However these drugs can produce debilitating side effects when used long term and do not protect degenerating neurons against death. Recent evidence has highlighted a pathological imbalance in PD between the acetylation and deacetylation of the histone proteins around which deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is coiled, in favour of excessive histone deacetylation. This mechanism of adding/removing acetyl groups to histone lysine residues is one of many epigenetic regulatory processes which control the expression of genes, many of which will be essential for neuronal survival. Hence, such epigenetic modifications may have a pathogenic role in PD. It has therefore been hypothesised that if this pathological imbalance can be corrected with the use of histone deacetylase inhibiting agents then neurodegeneration observed in PD can be ameliorated. This article will review the current literature with regard to epigenetic changes in PD and the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) in PD: examining the evidence of the neuroprotective effects of numerous HDACIs in cellular and animal models of Parkinsonian cell death. Ultimately answering the question: does epigenetic targeting of histone deacetylases hold therapeutic potential in PD?

  2. Innate inflammatory responses in stroke: mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Youl; Kawabori, Masahito; Yenari, Midori A.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a frequent cause of long-term disability and death worldwide. Ischemic stroke is more commonly encountered compared to hemorrhagic stroke, and leads to tissue death by ischemia due to occlusion of a cerebral artery. Inflammation is known to result as a result of ischemic injury, long thought to be involved in initiating the recovery and repair process. However, work over the past few decades indicates that aspects of this inflammatory response may in fact be detrimental to stroke outcome. Acutely, inflammation appears to have a detrimental effect, and anti-inflammatory treatments have been been studied as a potential therapeutic target. Chronically, reports suggest that post-ischemic inflammation is also essential for the tissue repairing and remodeling. The majority of the work in this area has centered around innate immune mechanisms, which will be the focus of this review. This review describes the different key players in neuroinflammation and their possible detrimental and protective effects in stroke. A better understanding of the roles of the different immune cells and their temporal profile of damage versus repair will help to clarify more effective modulation of inflammation post stroke. Introduction Stroke refers to conditions caused by occlusion and/or rupture of blood vessels in the brain, and is a leading cause of death and disability in the industrialized world. PMID:24372209

  3. Directing cell therapy to anatomic target sites in vivo with magnetic resonance targeting.

    PubMed

    Muthana, Munitta; Kennerley, Aneurin J; Hughes, Russell; Fagnano, Ester; Richardson, Jay; Paul, Melanie; Murdoch, Craig; Wright, Fiona; Payne, Christopher; Lythgoe, Mark F; Farrow, Neil; Dobson, Jon; Conner, Joe; Wild, Jim M; Lewis, Claire

    2015-08-18

    Cell-based therapy exploits modified human cells to treat diseases but its targeted application in specific tissues, particularly those lying deep in the body where direct injection is not possible, has been problematic. Here we use a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system to direct macrophages carrying an oncolytic virus, Seprehvir, into primary and metastatic tumour sites in mice. To achieve this, we magnetically label macrophages with super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and apply pulsed magnetic field gradients in the direction of the tumour sites. Magnetic resonance targeting guides macrophages from the bloodstream into tumours, resulting in increased tumour macrophage infiltration and reduction in tumour burden and metastasis. Our study indicates that clinical MRI scanners can not only track the location of magnetically labelled cells but also have the potential to steer them into one or more target tissues.

  4. Directing cell therapy to anatomic target sites in vivo with magnetic resonance targeting

    PubMed Central

    Muthana, Munitta; Kennerley, Aneurin J.; Hughes, Russell; Fagnano, Ester; Richardson, Jay; Paul, Melanie; Murdoch, Craig; Wright, Fiona; Payne, Christopher; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Farrow, Neil; Dobson, Jon; Conner, Joe; Wild, Jim M.; Lewis, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based therapy exploits modified human cells to treat diseases but its targeted application in specific tissues, particularly those lying deep in the body where direct injection is not possible, has been problematic. Here we use a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system to direct macrophages carrying an oncolytic virus, Seprehvir, into primary and metastatic tumour sites in mice. To achieve this, we magnetically label macrophages with super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and apply pulsed magnetic field gradients in the direction of the tumour sites. Magnetic resonance targeting guides macrophages from the bloodstream into tumours, resulting in increased tumour macrophage infiltration and reduction in tumour burden and metastasis. Our study indicates that clinical MRI scanners can not only track the location of magnetically labelled cells but also have the potential to steer them into one or more target tissues. PMID:26284300

  5. Drug-Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles for Cancer Stem Cell Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Li, Binbin; Li, Qinghua; Mo, Jingxin; Dai, Honglian

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reported to play critical roles in tumor initiation, propagation, and regeneration of cancer. Nano-size vehicles are employed to deliver drugs to target the CSCs for cancer therapy. Polymeric nanoparticles have been considered as the most efficient vehicles for drug delivery due to their excellent pharmacokinetic properties. The CSCs specific antibodies or ligands can be conjugated onto the surface or interior of nanoparticles to successfully target and finally eliminate CSCs. In this review, we focus on the approaches of polymeric nanoparticles design for loading drug, and their potential application for CSCs targeting in cancer therapy. PMID:28261093

  6. Targeted therapy against cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Rycaj, Kiera

    2015-07-01

    Research into cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the ability to self-renew and give rise to more mature (differentiated) cancer cells, and which may be the cells responsible for the overall organization of a tumor, has progressed rapidly and concomitantly with recent advances in studies of normal tissue stem cells. CSCs have been reported in a wide spectrum of human tumors. Like normal tissue stem cells, CSCs similarly exhibit significant phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. The ability of CSCs to self-renew results in the immortality of malignant cells at the population level, whereas the ability of CSCs to differentiate, either fully or partially, generates the cellular hierarchy and heterogeneity commonly observed in solid tumors. CSCs also appear to have maximized their pro-survival mechanisms leading to their relative resistance to anti-cancer therapies and subsequent relapse. Studies in animal models of human cancers have also provided insight into the heterogeneity and characteristics of CSCs, helping to establish a platform for the development of novel targeted therapies against specific CSCs. In the present study, we briefly review the most recent progress in dissecting CSC heterogeneity and targeting CSCs in various human tumor systems. We also highlight a few examples of CSC-targeted drug development and clinical trials, with the ultimate aim of developing more effective therapeutic regimens that are capable of preventing tumor recurrence and metastasis.

  7. Targeting survival pathways in chronic myeloid leukaemia stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, A; Latif, A L; Holyoake, T L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the presence of a fusion oncogene BCR-ABL, which encodes a protein with constitutive TK activity. The implementation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) marked a major advance in CML therapy; however, there are problems with current treatment. For example, relapse occurs when these drugs are discontinued in the majority of patients who have achieved a complete molecular response on TKI and these agents are less effective in patients with mutations in the BCR-ABL kinase domain. Importantly, TKI can effectively target proliferating mature cells, but do not eradicate quiescent leukaemic stem cells (LSCs), therefore allowing disease persistence despite treatment. It is essential that alternative strategies are used to target the LSC population. BCR-ABL activation is responsible for the modulation of different signalling pathways, which allows the LSC fraction to evade cell death. Several pathways have been shown to be modulated by BCR-ABL, including PI3K/AKT/mTOR, JAK-STAT and autophagy signalling pathways. Targeting components of these survival pathways, alone or in combination with TKI, therefore represents an attractive potential therapeutic approach for targeting the LSC. However, many pathways are also active in normal stem cells. Therefore, potential targets must be validated to effectively eradicate CML stem cells while sparing normal counterparts. This review summarizes the main pathways modulated in CML stem cells, the recent developments and the use of novel drugs to target components in these pathways which may be used to target the LSC population. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-8 PMID:23517124

  8. SLC7A5 act as a potential leukemic transformation target gene in myelodysplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan; Song, Jing; Chen, Bobin; Xu, Xiaoping; Lin, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogenous group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by increased risk of leukemic transformation. This study identifies microRNAs(miRNA) and miRNA targets that might represent leukemic transformation markers for MDS. Methods Based on our previously established nested case-control study cohort of MDS patients, we chose paired patients to undergo Angilent 8 × 15K human miRNA microarrays. Target prediction analysis was administrated using targetscan 5.1 software. We further investigated the function of target gene in MDS cell line using siRNA method, including cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, cell cycle and electron microscope. Results Finally we screened a subset of 7 miRNAs to be significantly differentially expressed between the case (at the end of follow up with leukemic transformation) and control group (at the end of follow up without leukemic transformation). Target prediction analysis revealed SLC7A5 was the common target gene of these 7 miRNAs. Further study on the function of SLC7A5 gene in SKM-1 cell line showed that downregulation of SLC7A5 inhibited SKM-1 cells proliferation, increased apoptosis and caused cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 stage. Conclusion Our data indicate that SLC7A5 gene may act as a potential leukemic transformation target gene in MDS. PMID:26657287

  9. PLK-1 Targeted Inhibitors and Their Potential against Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shiv; Kim, Jaebong

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic kinases are the key components of the cell cycle machinery and play vital roles in cell cycle progression. PLK-1 (Polo-like kinase-1) is a crucial mitotic protein kinase that plays an essential role in both the onset of G2/M transition and cytokinesis. The overexpression of PLK-1 is strongly correlated with a wide spectrum of human cancers and poor prognosis. The (si)RNA-mediated depletion of PLK-1 arrests tumor growth and triggers apoptosis in cancer cells without affecting normal cells. Therefore, PLK-1 has been selected as an attractive anticancer therapeutic drug target. Some small molecules have been discovered to target the catalytic and noncatalytic domains of PLK-1. These domains regulate the catalytic activation and subcellular localization of PLK-1. However, while PLK-1 inhibitors block tumor growth, they have been shown to cause severe adverse complications, such as toxicity, neutropenia, and bone marrow suppression during clinical trials, due to a lack of selectivity and specificity within the human kinome. To minimize these toxicities, inhibitors should be tested against all protein kinases in vivo and in vitro to enhance selectivity and specificity against targets. Here, we discuss the potency and selectivity of PLK-1-targeted inhibitors and their molecular interactions with PLK-1 domains. PMID:26557691

  10. Potential Targets for Antifungal Drug Discovery Based on Growth and Virulence in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuyun; Hou, Yinglong; Yue, Longtao; Liu, Shuyuan; Du, Juan; Sun, Shujuan

    2015-10-01

    Fungal infections, especially infections caused by Candida albicans, remain a challenging problem in clinical settings. Despite the development of more-effective antifungal drugs, their application is limited for various reasons. Thus, alternative treatments with drugs aimed at novel targets in C. albicans are needed. Knowledge of growth and virulence in fungal cells is essential not only to understand their pathogenic mechanisms but also to identify potential antifungal targets. This article reviews the current knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and virulence in C. albicans and examines potential targets for the development of new antifungal drugs.

  11. Mito-methyl coumarin, a novel mitochondria-targeted drug with great antitumor potential was synthesized.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanan; Xu, Wenqing

    2017-07-15

    Due to higher transmembrane potential of tumor cells, enhanced accumulation of cationic drugs in tumor mitochondria has been attributed to a higher (more negative inside) mitochondrial transmembrane potential compared with normal cells, emerging researchers are focus on developing mitochondria-targeted antitumor drugs. Coumarins showed great potential on antitumor, but mitochondria-targeted coumarin derivatives have not been reported. In the present study, we synthesized mitochondria-targeted-methyl coumarin (mito-methyl coumarin) through coupling 6-methyl coumarin to TPP. We confirmed that mito-methyl coumarin inhibited HeLa cells proliferation selectively, induced ROS generation, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, promoted mitochondria Ca(2+) accumulation, decreased mitochondria mass and induced HeLa cells apoptosis, but methyl coumarin did not. These results demonstrate that we succeed in synthesizing a novel mitochondria-targeted drug, mito-methyl coumarin, which is effective in inhibiting HeLa cells proliferation and inducing HeLa cells apoptosis through promoting ROS generation and mitochondria Ca(2+) accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular sonography with targeted microbubbles: current investigations and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Misun; Lyshchik, Andrej; Fleischer, Arthur C

    2010-06-01

    Sonography using targeted microbubbles affords a variety of diagnostic and potentially therapeutic clinical applications. It provides a whole new world of functional information at the cellular and molecular level. This information can then be used to diagnose and possibly prevent diseases at early stages as well as devise therapeutic strategies at the molecular level. It is also useful in monitoring tumor response to therapy and devising treatment timing and plans based on the molecular state of an individual's health. Moreover, targeted microbubble-enhanced sonography has several advantages over other imaging modalities, including widespread availability, low cost, fast acquisition times, and lack of radiation risk. These traits are likely to advance it as one of the imaging methods of choice in future clinical trials examining the impact of molecular imaging on treatment outcome. This review describes the fundamental concepts of targeted microbubble-enhanced sonography as well as its potential clinical applications.

  13. Label-free electronic detection of target cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandyarpour, Rahim; Javanmard, Mehdi; Harris, James; Davis, Ronald W.

    2014-03-01

    In this manuscript we describe an electronic label-free method for detection of target cells, which has potential applications ranging from pathogen detection for food safety all the way to detection of circulating tumor cells for cancer diagnosis. The nanoelectronic platform consists of a stack of electrodes separated by a 30nm thick insulating layer. Cells binding to the tip of the sensor result in a decrease in the impedance at the sensing tip due to an increase in the fringing capacitance between the electrodes. As a proof of concept we demonstrate the ability to detect Saccharomyces Cerevisae cells with high specificity using a sensor functionalized with Concanavalin A. Ultimately we envision using this sensor in conjunction with a technology for pre-concentration of target cells to develop a fully integrated micro total analysis system.

  14. Ion mediated targeting of cells with nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Vivek; Fu, Jinlong

    2010-03-01

    In eukaryotic cells, Ca^2+ ions are necessary for intracellular signaling, in activity of mitochondria and a variety of other cellular process that have been linked to cell apoptosis, proteins synthesis and cell-cycle regulation. Here we show that Ca^2+ ions, serving as the bio-compatible interface can be used to target Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SaC, baker's yeast), a model eukaryotic cell, with Au nanoparticles (10 nm). The Ca^2+ ions bind to the carboxylic acid groups in the citrate functionalized Au nanoparticles. This transforms the nanoparticles into micron long 1-D branched chain assemblies due to inter-particle dipole-dipole interaction and inter-particle bonding due to the divalent nature of the Ca^2+ ion. A similar transformation is observed with the use of divalent ions Mg^2+, Cd^2+ and Fe^2+. The 1-D assembly aids the interfacing of ion-nanoparticles on the cell by providing multiple contact points. Further monovalent ions such as Na^+ are also effective for the targeting of the cell with nanoparticles. However Na-Au nanoparticles are limited in their deposition as they exist in solution as single particles. The cells remain alive after the deposition process and their vitality is unaffected by the interfacing with ion-nanoparticles.

  15. Targeting the seeds of small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mahara, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    The concept of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), which includes the delivery of cytotoxic drugs to antigen-expressing tumor cells by harnessing the antigen-selectivity of a monoclonal antibody, has the potential to redefine the landscape of translational medicine. With the advent of patient derived xenograft (PDX) models and sophisticated genomic technologies, the identification of a selective antigen can be accurately validated within the appropriate tumor milieu. However, a major biological hurdle in cancer translational medicine is the inherent tumoral heterogeneity, underscoring the importance of targeting the ‘right’ sub-population of cancer cells. Herein, we review a seminal work highlighting the ability to target a key ‘stem-like’ cancer sub-population called tumor initiating cells (TICs) using engineered ADCs. While the promise of this approach needs to be validated in the clinical setting, TIC-targeted ADCs offer great hope for circumventing current limitations with conventional ADC therapy. PMID:28361078

  16. Assessing potential peptide targeting ligands by quantification of cellular adhesion of model nanoparticles under flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Broda, Ellen; Mickler, Frauke Martina; Lächelt, Ulrich; Morys, Stephan; Wagner, Ernst; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2015-09-10

    Sophisticated drug delivery systems are coated with targeting ligands to improve the specific adhesion to surface receptors on diseased cells. In our study, we developed a method with which we assessed the potential of peptide ligands to specifically bind to receptor overexpressing target cells. Therefore, a microfluidic setup was used where the cellular adhesion of nanoparticles with ligand and of control nanoparticles was observed in parallel under the same experimental conditions. The effect of the ligand on cellular binding was quantified by counting the number of adhered nanoparticles with ligand and differently labeled control nanoparticles on single cells after incubation under flow conditions. To provide easy-to-synthesize, stable and reproducible nanoparticles which mimic the surface characteristics of drug delivery systems and meet the requirements for quantitative analysis, latex beads based on amine-modified polystyrene were used as model nanoparticles. Two short peptides were tested to serve as targeting ligand on the beads by increasing the specific binding to HuH7 cells. The c-Met binding peptide cMBP2 was used for hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) targeting and the peptide B6 for transferrin receptor (TfR) targeting. The impact of the targeting peptide on binding was investigated by comparing the beads with ligand to different internal control beads: 1) without ligand and tailored surface charge (electrostatic control) and 2) with scrambled peptide and similar surface charge, but a different amino acid sequence (specificity control). Our results demonstrate that the method is very useful to select suitable targeting ligands for specific nanoparticle binding to receptor overexpressing tumor cells. We show that the cMBP2 ligand specifically enhances nanoparticle adhesion to target cells, whereas the B6 peptide mediates binding to tumor cells mainly by nonspecific interactions. All together, we suggest that cMBP2 is a suitable choice for

  17. Cancer targeting potential of some ligand-anchored poly(propylene imine) dendrimers: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Kesharwani, Prashant; Tekade, Rakesh K; Gajbhiye, Virendra; Jain, Keerti; Jain, Narendra K

    2011-06-01

    The present investigation was aimed at developing and comparing the cancer-targeting potential of ligand-anchored dendrimers. Folate-, dextran-, and galactose-anchored poly(propylene imine) dendrimers were synthesized and characterized. Dendritic formulations were evaluated for ex vivo cytotoxicity on HeLa and SiHa cell lines. Flow cytometry studies were performed on the HeLa cell line. An ex vivo MTT assay on HeLa cells indicated IC(50) values of 0.05, 0.2, 0.8, and 0.08 μM for folate, dextran, and galactose formulations, and for free paclitaxel (PTX), respectively. An analogous observation was carried out in SiHa cells, where IC(50) values of 0.6, 0.8, 10, and 6 μM were observed by folate, dextran, and galactose formulations, and free PTX, respectively. The outcome of the MTT assay and flow cytometry suggested the order of targeting potential of various ligands under investigation as folate > dextran > galactose. The outcome is deemed to be of scientific value and is believed to assist drug delivery scientists during selection of targeting ligands. The cancer targeting potential of folate, dextran and galactose functionalized polypropyleneimine (PPI) dendrimers was studied by this group of investigators, reporting the order of targeting potential as folate > dextran > galactose. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Animal lectins: potential antitumor therapeutic targets in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Hao; Zhang, Wen-zhi

    2012-10-01

    Lectins, a group of carbohydrate-binding proteins ubiquitously distributed into plants and animals, are well-known to have astonishing numerous links to human cancers. In this review, we present a brief outline of the representative animal lectins such as galectins, C-type lectins, and annexins by targeting programmed cell death (or apoptosis) pathways, and also summarize these representative lectins as possible anti-cancer drug targets. Taken together, these inspiring findings would provide a comprehensive perspective for further elucidating the multifaceted roles of animal lectins in apoptosis pathways of cancer, which, in turn, may ultimately help us to exploit lectins for their therapeutic purposes in future drug discovery.

  19. Central nervous system myeloid cells as drug targets: current status and translational challenges.

    PubMed

    Biber, Knut; Möller, Thomas; Boddeke, Erik; Prinz, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Myeloid cells of the central nervous system (CNS), which include parenchymal microglia, macrophages at CNS interfaces and monocytes recruited from the circulation during disease, are increasingly being recognized as targets for therapeutic intervention in neurological and psychiatric diseases. The origin of these cells in the immune system distinguishes them from ectodermal neurons and other glia and endows them with potential drug targets distinct from classical CNS target groups. However, despite the identification of several promising therapeutic approaches and molecular targets, no agents directly targeting these cells are currently available. Here, we assess strategies for targeting CNS myeloid cells and address key issues associated with their translation into the clinic.

  20. Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein as a potential target for cancer therapy: A mini review.

    PubMed

    Jagani, Hitesh; Kasinathan, Narayanan; Meka, Sreenivasa Reddy; Josyula, Venkata Rao

    2016-08-01

    Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein, is considered as a potential target in cancer treatment since its oncogenic potential has been proven and is well documented. Antisense technology and RNA interference (RNAi) have been used to reduce the expression of the Bcl-2 gene in many types of cancer cells and are effective as adjuvant therapy along with the chemotherapeutic agents. The lack of appropriate delivery systems is considered to be the main hurdle associated with the RNAi. In this review, we discuss the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein, its oncogenic potential, and various approaches utilized to target Bcl-2 including suitable delivery systems employed for successful delivery of siRNA.

  1. The late positive potential predicts subsequent interference with target processing.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Anna; Hajcak, Greg

    2011-10-01

    The current study investigated the association between neural engagement with task-irrelevant images and subsequent interference with target processing using the Emotional Interrupt paradigm [Mitchell, D., Richell, R., Leonard, A., & Blair, R. Emotion at the expense of cognition: Psychopathic individuals outperform controls on an operant response task. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 559, 2006]. Consistent with previous studies, PCA-derived factors corresponding to the early posterior negativity, P300, and late positive potential (LPP) were enhanced for emotional (i.e., both unpleasant and pleasant) compared with neutral distracters, and the P300 elicited by targets was smaller following emotional compared with neutral pictures. In addition, RTs were increased to targets that followed emotional pictures. Within-subject analyses demonstrated that slow trials were characterized by a smaller P300 and were preceded by pictures with a larger LPP. Additionally, between-subject analyses indicate that individuals with a larger LPP also demonstrated slower RTs to targets and reduced target-elicited P300s. All results were specific to the LPP and were not observed for either the early posterior negativity or the P300 elicited by task-irrelevant pictures. By relating the LPP to subsequent behavioral and ERP interference in both within- and between-subject analyses, the current study provides direct support for the notion that LPP indexes attentional engagement with visual stimuli that is uniquely associated with subsequent interference in terms of both RT slowing and P300 reduction to targets.

  2. CD70: A Potential Target in Breast Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Petrau, Camille; Cornic, Marie; Bertrand, Philippe; Maingonnat, Catherine; Marchand, Vinciane; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Jardin, Fabrice; Clatot, Florian

    2014-01-01

    CD70 is a co-stimulatory molecule involved in the immune response and also in cancer development and progression. Recent studies show that high CD70 expression in cancer cells may inhibit the anti-tumor response. Furthermore, CD70 expression has been reported as a predictive marker of resistance to chemotherapy in ovarian cancers. Some in vitro studies have shown that CD70 expression is epigenetically down-regulated through hypermethylation of its promoter during tumoral progression. This study evaluated the level of CD70 expression in surgical samples of breast invasive tumors and determined its correlation with CD70 promoter methylation. Twenty “luminal A” and 20 “basal-like” frozen samples from early breast tumors were retrospectively selected. CD70 expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Total DNA was bisulfite-treated, and methylation levels of 5 consecutive CG sites present in the proximal region (-464, -421) of the promoter were assessed by pyrosequencing analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney test. The median relative CD70 expression level was 0.37 and was significantly higher in the basal-like group (0.78 [0.24-31.7]) compared to the luminal A group (0.25 [0.03-1.83], p=0.0001). The median methylation level was 61%, with no significant difference between the basal-like (63%) and luminal A (58%) groups. No correlation was found between CD70 expression and CD70 methylation level. In this study, higher CD70 expression was observed in the basal-like group, but this expression was not related to promoter methylation. The higher expression in the poor-prognosis subgroup of patients makes CD70 a potential target for emerging anti-CD70 therapies. PMID:25368676

  3. Targeting cell cycle regulation in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Moralli, Santiago; Tarrado-Castellarnau, Míriam; Miranda, Anibal; Cascante, Marta

    2013-05-01

    Cell proliferation is an essential mechanism for growth, development and regeneration of eukaryotic organisms; however, it is also the cause of one of the most devastating diseases of our era: cancer. Given the relevance of the processes in which cell proliferation is involved, its regulation is of paramount importance for multicellular organisms. Cell division is orchestrated by a complex network of interactions between proteins, metabolism and microenvironment including several signaling pathways and mechanisms of control aiming to enable cell proliferation only in response to specific stimuli and under adequate conditions. Three main players have been identified in the coordinated variation of the many molecules that play a role in cell cycle: i) The cell cycle protein machinery including cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK)-cyclin complexes and related kinases, ii) The metabolic enzymes and related metabolites and iii) The reactive-oxygen species (ROS) and cellular redox status. The role of these key players and the interaction between oscillatory and non-oscillatory species have proved essential for driving the cell cycle. Moreover, cancer development has been associated to defects in all of them. Here, we provide an overview on the role of CDK-cyclin complexes, metabolic adaptations and oxidative stress in regulating progression through each cell cycle phase and transitions between them. Thus, new approaches for the design of innovative cancer therapies targeting crosstalk between cell cycle simultaneous events are proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Myeloid Cells as Targets for Therapy in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cotechini, Tiziana; Medler, Terry R.; Coussens, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that cancer development ensues based on reciprocal interactions between genomically altered neoplastic cells and diverse populations of recruited “host” cells co-opted to support malignant progression. Among the host cells recruited into tumor microenvironments, several subtypes of myeloid cells, including macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, and granulocytes contribute to tumor development by providing tumor-promoting factors as well as a spectrum of molecules that suppress cytotoxic activities of T lymphocytes. Based on compelling preclinical data revealing that inhibition of critical myeloid-based programs leads to tumor suppression, novel immune-based therapies and approaches are now entering the clinic for evaluation. This review discusses mechanisms underlying protumorigenic programming of myeloid cells and discusses how targeting of these has potential to attenuate solid tumor progression via the induction and of mobilization CD8+ cytotoxic T cell immunity. PMID:26222088

  5. Heterobivalent GLP-1/Glibenclamide for Targeting Pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nathaniel J.; Chung, Woo Jin; Weber, Craig; Ananthakrishnan, Kameswari; Anderson, Miranda; Patek, Renata; Zhang, Zhanyu; Limesand, Sean W.; Vagner, Josef; Lynch, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide (G)-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) linked cell signaling cascades are initiated upon binding of a specific agonist ligand to its cell surface receptor. Linking multiple heterologous ligands that simultaneously bind and potentially cross-link different receptors on the cell surface is a unique approach to modulate cell responses. Moreover, if the target receptors are pre-selected, based on analysis of cell specific expression of a receptor combination, then the linked binding elements may provide enhanced specificity of targeting to the cell type of interest; i.e., only to cells that express the complementary receptors. Two receptors whose expression is relatively specific, as a combination, to the insulin secreting β-cell of the pancreas, are the sulfonylurea-1 (SUR1) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors. A heterobivalent ligand was assembled of the active fragment of GLP-1 ([Phe12, Arg36] 7-36 GLP-1) and glibenclamide,a small organic ligand to the SUR1. The synthetic construct was labelled with Cy5 or Europium chelated in DTPA to evaluate binding to β-cell lines using fluorescence microscopy or time-resolved saturation and competition binding assays, respectively. Once the ligand binds to β-cells, it is rapidly capped and presumably removed from the cell surface via endocytosis. The bivalent ligand had an affinity ~3 fold higher than monomeric Europium labelled GLP-1, likely due to cooperative binding to the complimentary receptors on the βTC3 cells. The high affinity binding was lost in the presence of either unlabelled monomer demonstrating that interaction with both receptors is required for the enhanced binding at low concentrations. Importantly, bivalent enhancement was accomplished in a cell system with physiological levels of expression of the complementary receptors, indicating that this approach may be applicable for β-cell targeting in vivo. PMID:24259278

  6. Cell-penetrating peptides with intracellular organelle targeting.

    PubMed

    Cerrato, Carmine Pasquale; Künnapuu, Kadri; Langel, Ülo

    2017-02-01

    One of the major limiting steps in order to have an effective drug is the passage through one or more cell membranes to reach its site of action. To reach the action-site, the specific macromolecules are required to be delivered specifically to the cell compartment/organelle in their (pre)active form. Areas covered: In this review, we will discuss cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) developed in the last decade to transport small RNA/DNA, plasmids, antibodies, and nanoparticles into specific sites of the cell. The article describes CPPs in complex with cargo molecules that target specific intracellular organelles and their potential for pharmacological or clinical use. Expert opinion: Organelle targeting is the ultimate goal to ensure selective delivery to the site of action in the cells. CPP technologies represent an important strategy to address drug delivery to specific intracellular compartments by covalent conjugation to targeting sequences, potentially enabling strategies to combat genomic diseases as well as infections, cancer, neurodegenerative and hereditary diseases. They have proven to be successful in delivering various therapeutic agents into cells however, further in vivo experiments and clinical trials are required to demonstrate the efficacy of this technology.

  7. Optimizing Interacting Potentials to Form Targeted Materials Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2015-09-28

    Conventional applications of the principles of statistical mechanics (the "forward" problems), start with particle interaction potentials, and proceed to deduce local structure and macroscopic properties. Other applications (that may be classified as "inverse" problems), begin with targeted configurational information, such as low-order correlation functions that characterize local particle order, and attempt to back out full-system configurations and/or interaction potentials. To supplement these successful experimental and numerical "forward" approaches, we have focused on inverse approaches that make use of analytical and computational tools to optimize interactions for targeted self-assembly of nanosystems. The most original aspect of our work is its inherently inverse approach: instead of predicting structures that result from given interaction potentials among particles, we determine the optimal potential that most robustly stabilizes a given target structure subject to certain constraints. Our inverse approach could revolutionize the manner in which materials are designed and fabricated. There are a number of very tangible properties (e.g. zero thermal expansion behavior), elastic constants, optical properties for photonic applications, and transport properties.

  8. Pro-Tumoral Inflammatory Myeloid Cells as Emerging Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Szebeni, Gabor J.; Vizler, Csaba; Nagy, Lajos I.; Kitajka, Klara; Puskas, Laszlo G.

    2016-01-01

    Since the observation of Virchow, it has long been known that the tumor microenvironment constitutes the soil for the infiltration of inflammatory cells and for the release of inflammatory mediators. Under certain circumstances, inflammation remains unresolved and promotes cancer development. Here, we review some of these indisputable experimental and clinical evidences of cancer related smouldering inflammation. The most common myeloid infiltrate in solid tumors is composed of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). These cells promote tumor growth by several mechanisms, including their inherent immunosuppressive activity, promotion of neoangiogenesis, mediation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and alteration of cellular metabolism. The pro-tumoral functions of TAMs and MDSCs are further enhanced by their cross-talk offering a myriad of potential anti-cancer therapeutic targets. We highlight these main pro-tumoral mechanisms of myeloid cells and give a general overview of their phenotypical and functional diversity, offering examples of possible therapeutic targets. Pharmacological targeting of inflammatory cells and molecular mediators may result in therapies improving patient condition and prognosis. Here, we review experimental and clinical findings on cancer-related inflammation with a major focus on creating an inventory of current small molecule-based therapeutic interventions targeting cancer-related inflammatory cells: TAMs and MDSCs. PMID:27886105

  9. Targeting pediatric cancer stem cells with oncolytic virotherapy.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Gregory K; Cassady, Kevin A; Beierle, Elizabeth A; Markert, James M; Gillespie, G Yancey

    2012-04-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also termed "cancer-initiating cells" or "cancer progenitor cells," which have the ability to self-renew, proliferate, and maintain the neoplastic clone, have recently been discovered in a wide variety of pediatric tumors. These CSCs are thought to be responsible for tumorigenesis and tumor maintenance, aggressiveness, and recurrence due to inherent resistance to current treatment modalities such as chemotherapy and radiation. Oncolytic virotherapy offers a novel, targeted approach for eradicating pediatric CSCs using mechanisms of cell killing that differ from conventional therapies. Moreover, oncolytic viruses have the ability to target specific features of CSCs such as cell-surface proteins, transcription factors, and the CSC microenvironment. Through genetic engineering, a wide variety of foreign genes may be expressed by oncolytic viruses to augment the oncolytic effect. We review the current data regarding the ability of several types of oncolytic viruses (herpes simplex virus-1, adenovirus, reovirus, Seneca Valley virus, vaccinia virus, Newcastle disease virus, myxoma virus, vesicular stomatitis virus) to target and kill both CSCs and tumor cells in pediatric tumors. We highlight advantages and limitations of each virus and potential ways in which next-generation engineered viruses may target resilient CSCs.

  10. Magnetically Targeted Stem Cell Delivery for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cores, Jhon; Caranasos, Thomas G.; Cheng, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells play a special role in the body as agents of self-renewal and auto-reparation for tissues and organs. Stem cell therapies represent a promising alternative strategy to regenerate damaged tissue when natural repairing and conventional pharmacological intervention fail to do so. A fundamental impediment for the evolution of stem cell therapies has been the difficulty of effectively targeting administered stem cells to the disease foci. Biocompatible magnetically responsive nanoparticles are being utilized for the targeted delivery of stem cells in order to enhance their retention in the desired treatment site. This noninvasive treatment-localization strategy has shown promising results and has the potential to mitigate the problem of poor long-term stem cell engraftment in a number of organ systems post-delivery. In addition, these same nanoparticles can be used to track and monitor the cells in vivo, using magnetic resonance imaging. In the present review we underline the principles of magnetic targeting for stem cell delivery, with a look at the logic behind magnetic nanoparticle systems, their manufacturing and design variants, and their applications in various pathological models. PMID:26133387

  11. Targeting to the hair follicles: current status and potential.

    PubMed

    Wosicka, Hanna; Cal, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    The pilosebaceous unit is a complex structure that undergoes a specific growth cycle and comprises a few important drug targeting sites. For example, drugs can be targeted to the bulge region with stem cells or to the sebaceous glands. Interest in pilosebaceous units is directed towards their utilization as reservoirs for localized therapy and also as a transport pathway for systemic drug delivery. Improved investigative methods, such as differential stripping, are being developed in order to determine follicular penetration. This article reviews relevant aspects of effective follicle-targeting formulations and delivery systems as well as the activity status of hair follicles, and variations in follicle size and distribution throughout various body regions. Each of these factors strongly affects follicular permeation. We provide examples of improved penetration of particle-based formulations and of a size-dependent manner of follicular penetration. Contradictions are also discussed, indicating the need for detailed future investigations.

  12. Harnessing the potential of epigenetic therapy to target solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Nita; Easwaran, Hariharan; Baylin, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic therapies may play a prominent role in the future management of solid tumors. This possibility is based on the clinical efficacy of existing drugs in treating defined hematopoietic neoplasms, paired with promising new data from preclinical and clinical studies that examined these agents in solid tumors. We suggest that current drugs may represent a targeted therapeutic approach for reprogramming solid tumor cells, a strategy that must be pursued in concert with the explosion in knowledge about the molecular underpinnings of normal and cancer epigenomes. We hypothesize that understanding targeted proteins in the context of their enzymatic and scaffolding functions and in terms of their interactions in complexes with proteins that are targets of new drugs under development defines the future of epigenetic therapies for cancer. PMID:24382390

  13. Acylation in trypanosomatids: an essential process and potential drug target

    PubMed Central

    Goldston, Amanda M.; Sharma, Aabha I.; Paul, Kimberly S.; Engman, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acylation—the addition of fatty acid moieties such as myristate and palmitate to proteins—is essential for the survival, growth, and infectivity of the trypanosomatids: Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania. Myristoylation and palmitoylation are critical for parasite growth, targeting and localization, and the intrinsic function of some proteins. The trypanosomatids possess a single N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) and multiple palmitoyl acyltransferases, and these enzymes and their cellular targets are only now being characterized. Global inhibition of either process leads to cell death in trypanosomatids, and genetic ablation of NMT compromises virulence. Moreover, NMT inhibitors effectively cure T. brucei infection in rodents. Thus, protein acylation represents an attractive target for the development of trypanocidal drugs. PMID:24954795

  14. A hypothesis of target cell formation in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Wong, P

    2016-08-01

    A fraction of erythrocytes appear as target cells in stained blood smears in sickle cell disease, due to a inheritance of the hemoglobin variant Hb S, polymerizing upon deoxygenation. These cells appear in a three dimension as thin cups. A process of their formation in this disease is proposed based on a band 3-based mechanism of the erythrocyte shape control, able to explain the erythrocyte echinocytosis by glucose depletion. It indicates that their formation is due to a stomatocytogenic slow outward transport of the dibasic form of endogenous Pi with an H(+) by band 3, promoted by the decrease of the Donnan ratio, which decreases cell pH and volume, attributed by a decrease of cell KCl concentration by the higher efflux of K(+)Cl(-) cotransport and Ca(2+) activation of the Gardos channel. Its implications are briefly discussed with respect to target cells per se, target cell formation in other hemoglobinopathies, acquired and inherited disorders of the lipid metabolism and dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis as well as a stomatocyte presence in a double heterozygote of Hb S and Hb C and of an involvement of the process of target cell formation in acanthocytosis in acquired and inherited disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeting cell cycle regulators in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aleem, Eiman; Arceci, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies represent the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in economically developed countries. In hematologic malignancies normal hematopoiesis is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of a genetically altered stem or progenitor cell (HSPC) that maintains its ability of self-renewal. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) not only regulate the mammalian cell cycle, but also influence other vital cellular processes, such as stem cell renewal, differentiation, transcription, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Chromosomal translocations, amplification, overexpression and altered CDK activities have been described in different types of human cancer, which have made them attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition. Mouse models deficient for one or more CDKs have significantly contributed to our current understanding of the physiological functions of CDKs, as well as their roles in human cancer. The present review focuses on selected cell cycle kinases with recent emerging key functions in hematopoiesis and in hematopoietic malignancies, such as CDK6 and its role in MLL-rearranged leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, CDK1 and its regulator WEE-1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and cyclin C/CDK8/CDK19 complexes in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. The knowledge gained from gene knockout experiments in mice of these kinases is also summarized. An overview of compounds targeting these kinases, which are currently in clinical development in various solid tumors and hematopoietic malignances, is presented. These include the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors (palbociclib, LEE011, LY2835219), pan-CDK inhibitors that target CDK1 (dinaciclib, flavopiridol, AT7519, TG02, P276-00, terampeprocol and RGB 286638) as well as the WEE-1 kinase inhibitor, MK-1775. The advantage of combination therapy of cell cycle inhibitors with conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of AML, such as cytarabine, is discussed. PMID:25914884

  16. Targeting cell cycle regulators in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Aleem, Eiman; Arceci, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies represent the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in economically developed countries. In hematologic malignancies normal hematopoiesis is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of a genetically altered stem or progenitor cell (HSPC) that maintains its ability of self-renewal. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) not only regulate the mammalian cell cycle, but also influence other vital cellular processes, such as stem cell renewal, differentiation, transcription, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Chromosomal translocations, amplification, overexpression and altered CDK activities have been described in different types of human cancer, which have made them attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition. Mouse models deficient for one or more CDKs have significantly contributed to our current understanding of the physiological functions of CDKs, as well as their roles in human cancer. The present review focuses on selected cell cycle kinases with recent emerging key functions in hematopoiesis and in hematopoietic malignancies, such as CDK6 and its role in MLL-rearranged leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, CDK1 and its regulator WEE-1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and cyclin C/CDK8/CDK19 complexes in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. The knowledge gained from gene knockout experiments in mice of these kinases is also summarized. An overview of compounds targeting these kinases, which are currently in clinical development in various solid tumors and hematopoietic malignances, is presented. These include the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors (palbociclib, LEE011, LY2835219), pan-CDK inhibitors that target CDK1 (dinaciclib, flavopiridol, AT7519, TG02, P276-00, terampeprocol and RGB 286638) as well as the WEE-1 kinase inhibitor, MK-1775. The advantage of combination therapy of cell cycle inhibitors with conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of AML, such as cytarabine, is discussed.

  17. IDMap: facilitating the detection of potential leads with therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Ha, Soyang; Seo, Young-Ju; Kwon, Min-Seok; Chang, Byung-Ha; Han, Cheol-Kyu; Yoon, Jeong-Hyeok

    2008-06-01

    Pharmaceutical industry has been striving to reduce the costs of drug development and increase productivity. Among the many different attempts, drug repositioning (retargeting existing drugs) comes into the spotlight because of its financial efficiency. We introduce IDMap which predicts novel relationships between targets and chemicals and thus is capable of repositioning the marketed drugs by using text mining and chemical structure information. Also capable of mapping commercial chemicals to possible drug targets and vice versa, IDMap creates convenient environments for identifying the potential lead and its targets, especially in the field of drug repositioning. IDMap executable and its user manual including color images are freely available to non-commercial users at http://www.equispharm.com/idmap

  18. Therapeutic strategies targeting cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Xiaoyan; Shu, Jianchang; Du, Yiqi; Ben, Qiwen; Li, Zhaoshen

    2013-01-01

    Increasing studies have demonstrated a small proportion of cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist in the cancer cell population. CSCs have powerful self-renewal capacity and tumor-initiating ability and are resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. Conventional anticancer therapies kill the rapidly proliferating bulk cancer cells but spare the relatively quiescent CSCs, which cause cancer recurrence. So it is necessary to develop therapeutic strategies acting specifically on CSCs. In recent years, studies have shown that therapeutic agents such as metformin, salinomycin, DECA-14, rapamycin, oncostatin M (OSM), some natural compounds, oncolytic viruses, microRNAs, cell signaling pathway inhibitors, TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), interferon (IFN), telomerase inhibitors, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and monoclonal antibodies can suppress the self-renewal of CSCs in vitro and in vivo. A combination of these agents and conventional chemotherapy drugs can significantly inhibit tumor growth, metastasis and recurrence. These strategies targeting CSCs may bring new hopes to cancer therapy. PMID:23358473

  19. Siglec-15 is a potential therapeutic target for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Yusuke; Takahata, Masahiko; Mikuni, Shintaro; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Hamano, Hiroki; Angata, Takashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; Kinjo, Masataka; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2015-02-01

    organization of osteoclasts in both RANKL and TNF-α induced osteoclastogenesis. The present findings indicate that Siglec-15 is involved in estrogen deficiency-induced differentiation of osteoclasts and is thus a potential therapeutic target for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  20. Targeting B cells with biologics in SLE

    PubMed Central

    La Cava, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field The use of biologics as immune modulators in several autoimmune diseases has provided new tools to the physician's therapeutic armamentiarium and has led to improved patients' outcomes and quality of life. By producing autoantibodies, B cells in SLE are key players in the pathogenesis of the disease and in its clinical manifestations. Therefore, biologics that target B cells in SLE aims at reducing the activity of these cells for the induction of remissions and/or amelioration of disease activity, reduction of organ involvement, and limitation of the complications and side effects caused by immunosuppressive therapies. Areas covered in this review This review describes the past and current clinical trials with B cell-targeted biologics in SLE, to provide a historical perspective and the state-of-the-art on the topic. What the reader will gain We will review how the disappointment in the field from promising agents has been instrumental in providing valuable lessons leading to an improved design of new trials that are now giving encouraging results Take home message In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the use of B cell-based biologics in clinical trials has shown both disappointment and promise PMID:20919800

  1. Wake potential of swift ion in amorphous carbon target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Bahnam, Nabil janan; Ahmad, Khalid A.; Aboo Al-Numan, Abdullah Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    The wake potential and wake phenomena for swift proton in an amorphous carbon target were studied by utilising various dielectric function formalisms, including the Drude dielectric function, the Drude-Lorentz dielectric function and quantum dielectric function. The Drude model results exhibited a damped oscillatory behaviour in the longitudinal direction behind the projectile; the pattern of these oscillations decreases exponentially in the transverse direction. In addition, the wake potential extends slightly ahead of the projectile which also depends on the proton coordinate and velocity. The effect of electron binding on the wake potential, characterised by the ratio ωp2 / ω02 = 10 to 0.1, has been studied alongside the Drude-Lorentz dielectric function and quantum dielectric function formalisms; the results evidently show that the wake potential dip depth decreases with more oscillations when the electron density ratio ωp2 / ω02 decreases from 10 to 0.1. One of the primary objectives of the present work is to construct a reasonably realistic procedure for simulating the response of target to swift ions by combining an expression for the induced wake potential along with several important dielectric function models; the aim of this research is to reduce computational complexity without sacrificing accuracy. This is regarded as being an efficient strategy in that it creates suitable computer simulation procedures which are relevant to actual solids. After comparing this method with other models, the main differences and similarities have been noted while the end results have proved encouraging.

  2. Pharmacological aspects of targeting cancer gene therapy to endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sedlacek, H H

    2001-03-01

    Targeting cancer gene therapy to endothelial cells seems to be a rational approach, because (a) a clear correlation exists between proliferation of tumor vessels and tumor growth and malignancy, (b) differences of cell membrane structures between tumor endothelial cells and normal endothelial cells exist which could be used for targeting of vectors and (c) tumor endothelial cells are accessible to vector vehicles in spite of the peculiarities of the transvascular and interstitial blood flow in tumors. Based on the knowledge on the pharmacokinetics of macromolecules it can be concluded that vectors targeting tumor endothelial cells should own a long blood residence time after intravascular application. This precondition seems to be fulfilled best by vectors exhibiting a slight anionic charge. A long blood residence time would allow the formation of a high amount of complexes between tumor endothelial cells and vector particles. Such high amount of complexes should enable a high transfection rate of tumor endothelial cells. In view of their pharmacokinetic behavior nonviral vectors seem to be more suitable for in vivo targeting tumor endothelial cells than viral vectors. Specific binding of nonviral vectors to tumor endothelial cells should be enhanced by multifunctional ligands and the transduction efficiency should be improved by cationic carriers. Effector genes should encode proteins potent enough to induce reactions which eliminate the tumor tissue. To be effective to that degree such proteins should induce self-amplifying antitumor reactions. Examples for proteins which have the potential to induce such self-amplifying tumor reactions are proteins endowed with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity, enzymes which convert prodrugs into drugs and possibly also proteins which induce embolization of tumor vessels. The pharmacological data for such examples are discussed in detail.

  3. Cancer Stem Cells Therapeutic Target Database: The First Comprehensive Database for Therapeutic Targets of Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Cong, Ye; Luo, Huizhe Howard; Wu, Sijin; Zhao, Liyuan Eric; Liu, Quentin; Yang, Yongliang

    2017-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumor cells that have strong self-renewal capabilities and may contribute to the failure of conventional cancer therapies. Hence, therapeutics homing in on CSCs represent a novel and promising approach that may eradicate malignant tumors. However, the lack of information on validated targets of CSCs has greatly hindered the development of CSC-directed therapeutics. Herein, we describe the Cancer Stem Cells Therapeutic Target Database (CSCTT), the first online database to provide a rich bioinformatics resource for the display, search, and analysis of structure, function, and related annotation for therapeutic targets of cancer stem cells. CSCTT contains 135 proteins that are potential targets of CSCs, with validated experimental evidence manually curated from existing literatures. Proteins are carefully annotated with a detailed description of protein families, biological process, related diseases, and experimental evidences. In addition, CSCTT has compiled 213 documented therapeutic methods for cancer stem cells, including 118 small molecules and 20 biotherapy methods. The CSCTT may serve as a useful platform for the development of CSC-directed therapeutics against various malignant tumors. The CSCTT database is freely available to the public at http://www.csctt.org/. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:331-334.

  4. Mast cells: new therapeutic target in helminth immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Vukman, K V; Lalor, R; Aldridge, A; O'Neill, S M

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infection and their secreted antigens have a protective role in many immune-mediated inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, studies have focused primarily on identifying immune protective mechanisms of helminth infection and their secreted molecules on dendritic cells and macrophages. Given that mast cells have been shown to be implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of many inflammatory disorders, their role should also be examined and considered as cellular target for helminth-based therapies. As there is a dearth of studies examining the interaction of helminth-derived antigens and mast cells, this review will focus on the role of mast cells during helminth infection and examine our current understanding of the involvement of mast cells in TH 1/TH 17-mediated immune disorders. In this context, potential mechanisms by which helminths could target the TH 1/TH 17 promoting properties of mast cells can be identified to unveil novel therapeutic mast cell driven targets in combating these inflammatory disorders.

  5. Multiple personalities: synaptic target cells as introverts and extroverts.

    PubMed

    Ritzenthaler, S; Chiba, A

    2001-10-01

    The intricate process of wiring a neuronetwork requires a high degree of accuracy in the communication between pre- and post-synaptic cells. While presynaptic cells have been widely recognized for their dynamic role in synaptic matchmaking, post-synaptic cells have historically been overlooked as passive targets. Recent studies in the Drosophila embryonic neuromuscular system provide compelling evidence that post-synaptic cells participate actively in the synaptogenic process. Endocytosis allows them to quickly modify the array of molecular cues they provide on their surfaces and the extension of dynamic filopodia allows post-synaptic cells to engage in direct long-distance communication. By making use of familiar cellular mechanisms such as endocytosis and filopodia formation, post-synaptic cells may be able to communicate more effectively with potential synaptic partners.

  6. Bruton's tyrosine kinase is a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kokabee, Leila; Wang, Xianhui; Sevinsky, Christopher J; Wang, Wei Lin Winnie; Cheu, Lindsay; Chittur, Sridar V; Karimipoor, Morteza; Tenniswood, Martin; Conklin, Douglas S

    2015-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that has mainly been studied in haematopoietic cells. We have investigated whether BTK is a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer. We find that BTK is expressed in prostate cells, with the alternate BTK-C isoform predominantly expressed in prostate cancer cells and tumors. This isoform is transcribed from an alternative promoter and results in a protein with an amino-terminal extension. Prostate cancer cell lines and prostate tumors express more BTK-C transcript than the malignant NAMALWA B-cell line or human lymphomas. BTK protein expression is also observed in tumor tissue from prostate cancer patients. Down regulation of this protein with RNAi or inhibition with BTK-specific inhibitors, Ibrutinib, AVL-292 or CGI-1746 decrease cell survival and induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Microarray results show that inhibiting BTK under these conditions increases expression of apoptosis related genes, while overexpression of BTK-C is associated with elevated expression of genes with functions related to cell adhesion, cytoskeletal structure and the extracellular matrix. These results are consistent with studies that show that BTK signaling is important for adhesion and migration of B cells and suggest that BTK-C may confer similar properties to prostate cancer cells. Since BTK-C is a survival factor for these cells, it represents both a potential biomarker and novel therapeutic target for prostate cancer. PMID:26383180

  7. Bruton's tyrosine kinase is a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kokabee, Leila; Wang, Xianhui; Sevinsky, Christopher J; Wang, Wei Lin Winnie; Cheu, Lindsay; Chittur, Sridar V; Karimipoor, Morteza; Tenniswood, Martin; Conklin, Douglas S

    2015-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that has mainly been studied in haematopoietic cells. We have investigated whether BTK is a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer. We find that BTK is expressed in prostate cells, with the alternate BTK-C isoform predominantly expressed in prostate cancer cells and tumors. This isoform is transcribed from an alternative promoter and results in a protein with an amino-terminal extension. Prostate cancer cell lines and prostate tumors express more BTK-C transcript than the malignant NAMALWA B-cell line or human lymphomas. BTK protein expression is also observed in tumor tissue from prostate cancer patients. Down regulation of this protein with RNAi or inhibition with BTK-specific inhibitors, Ibrutinib, AVL-292 or CGI-1746 decrease cell survival and induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Microarray results show that inhibiting BTK under these conditions increases expression of apoptosis related genes, while overexpression of BTK-C is associated with elevated expression of genes with functions related to cell adhesion, cytoskeletal structure and the extracellular matrix. These results are consistent with studies that show that BTK signaling is important for adhesion and migration of B cells and suggest that BTK-C may confer similar properties to prostate cancer cells. Since BTK-C is a survival factor for these cells, it represents both a potential biomarker and novel therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

  8. M cell-targeted DNA vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Xinhai; Csencsits, Keri L.; Haddad, Asmahan; Walters, Nancy; Pascual, David W.

    2001-07-01

    DNA immunization, although attractive, is poor for inducing mucosal immunity, thus limiting its protective value against most infectious agents. To surmount this shortcoming, we devised a method for mucosal transgene vaccination by using an M cell ligand to direct the DNA vaccine to mucosal inductive tissues and the respiratory epithelium. This ligand, reovirus protein 1, when conjugated to polylysine (PL), can bind the apical surface of M cells from nasal-associated lymphoid tissues. Intranasal immunizations with protein 1-PL-DNA complexes produced antigen-specific serum IgG and prolonged mucosal IgA, as well as enhanced cell-mediated immunity, made evident by elevated pulmonary cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. Therefore, targeted transgene vaccination represents an approach for enabling DNA vaccination of the mucosa.

  9. The Network of Epithelial-mesenchymal transition: potential new targets for tumor resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nantajit, Danupon; Lin, Dong; Li, Jian Jian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In multiple cell metazoans, the ability of polarized epithelial cells to convert to motile mesenchymal cells in order to relocate to another location is governed by a unique process termed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). While being an essential process of cellular plasticity for normal tissue and organ developments, EMT is found to be involved in an array of malignant phenotypes of tumor cells including proliferation and invasion, angiogenesis, stemness of cancer cells and resistance to chemo-radiotherapy. Although EMT is being extensively studied and demonstrated to play a key role in tumor metastasis and in sustaining tumor hallmarks, there is a lack of clear picture of the overall EMT signaling network, wavering the potential clinical trials targeting EMT. Methods In this review, we highlight the potential key therapeutic targets of EMT linked with tumor aggressiveness, hypoxia, angiogenesis and cancer stem cells, emphasizing on an emerging EMT-associated NF-κB/HER2/STAT3 pathway in radioresistance of breast cancer stem cells. Results Further definition of cancer stem cell repopulation due to EMT-controlled tumor microenvironment will help to understand how tumors exploit the EMT mechanisms for their survival and expansion advantages. Conclusions The knowledge of EMT will offer more effective targets in clinical trials to treat therapy-resistant metastatic lesions. PMID:25270087

  10. Peptide targeting of quantum dots to human breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Emily M.; Seale-Goldsmith, Mary-Margaret; Dhawan, Deepika; Stewart, Jane; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Cooper, Christy L.; Reece, Lisa M.; Husk, Timothy; Bergstrom, Donald; Knapp, Deborah; Leary, James F.

    2008-02-01

    Nanomedical approaches to diseases such as cancer provide great promise with respect to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The impact of nanomedicine versus conventional therapies will be realized with regard to their specific cell targeting capabilities. Semiconductor nanoparticles have distinct advantages due to their chemical conjugation and detection characteristics. The attachment of a peptide sequence, LTVSPWY, was completed. These nanoparticles successfully targeted in vitro and in vivo systems. This technology can be utilized as a base mechanism for the construction of a multifunctional nanomedical system. Nanomedicine has great potential for impacting the treatment of specific diseases and healthcare delivery methods.

  11. SOX12: a novel potential target for acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haixia; Cai, Jiayi; Chen, Fangyuan; Zhu, Jianyi; Zhong, Jihua; Zhong, Hua

    2017-02-01

    The role of SRY-related high-mobility-group box (SOX) 12 in leukaemia progression and haematopoiesis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the expression and function of SOX12 in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) using human myeloid leukaemia samples and the acute myeloid cell line THP1. Mononuclear cells were isolated from the bone marrow of AML patients and healthy donors. SOX12 expression in haematopoietic cells was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). SOX12 short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) were transduced into THP1 cells, and gene knockdown was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. SOX12 was preferentially expressed in CD34(+) cells in AML patients. The THP1 cells transduced with SOX12 shRNAs exhibited significantly reduced SOX12 expression and cell proliferation. SOX12 knockdown had no effect on apoptosis, but it induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and reduced the number of colonies. The transduced THP1 and primary AML cells were reconstituted in non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice, and their numbers were significantly reduced 6-12 weeks after transplantation. The mRNA and protein levels of β-catenin were significantly diminished following SOX12 knockdown, accompanied by a decrease in TCF/Wnt activity. SOX12 may be involved in leukaemia progression by regulating the expression of β-catenin and then interfering with TCF/Wnt pathway, which may be a target for AML. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Targeting Cell Survival Proteins for Cancer Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manoj K.; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Deb, Lokesh; Huang, Jiamin; Karelia, Deepkamal N.; Amin, Shantu G.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2016-01-01

    Escaping from cell death is one of the adaptations that enable cancer cells to stave off anticancer therapies. The key players in avoiding apoptosis are collectively known as survival proteins. Survival proteins comprise the Bcl-2, inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP), and heat shock protein (HSP) families. The aberrant expression of these proteins is associated with a range of biological activities that promote cancer cell survival, proliferation, and resistance to therapy. Several therapeutic strategies that target survival proteins are based on mimicking BH3 domains or the IAP-binding motif or competing with ATP for the Hsp90 ATP-binding pocket. Alternative strategies, including use of nutraceuticals, transcriptional repression, and antisense oligonucleotides, provide options to target survival proteins. This review focuses on the role of survival proteins in chemoresistance and current therapeutic strategies in preclinical or clinical trials that target survival protein signaling pathways. Recent approaches to target survival proteins-including nutraceuticals, small-molecule inhibitors, peptides, and Bcl-2-specific mimetic are explored. Therapeutic inventions targeting survival proteins are promising strategies to inhibit cancer cell survival and chemoresistance. However, complete eradication of resistance is a distant dream. For a successful clinical outcome, pretreatment with novel survival protein inhibitors alone or in combination with conventional therapies holds great promise. PMID:26927133

  13. Mechanisms of Aminoglycoside Ototoxicity and Targets of Hair Cell Protection

    PubMed Central

    Huth, M. E.; Ricci, A. J.; Cheng, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are commonly prescribed antibiotics with deleterious side effects to the inner ear. Due to their popular application as a result of their potent antimicrobial activities, many efforts have been undertaken to prevent aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Over the years, understanding of the antimicrobial as well as ototoxic mechanisms of aminoglycosides has increased. These mechanisms are reviewed in regard to established and potential future targets of hair cell protection. PMID:22121370

  14. Heat Shock Protein 70s as Potential Molecular Targets for Colon Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Black, Jennifer D; Rezvani, Khosrow

    2016-01-01

    Targeted drugs modulate selective pathways activated or repressed only in cancer cells, resulting in a higher response to chemotherapy with less severe side effects. The use of a selected member of the heat shock protein 70 family (HSP70) as an effective therapeutic target in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) will be the focus of this review. We generated two main questions for this study: 1) What are the current and potential future molecular therapies in CRC? 2) Can selective members of the HSP70 family advance drug design and drug discovery for treatment of CRC patients? We discuss related articles based on their significance and translational contributions to the existing literature. The first part of this review discusses molecularly targeted agents that are currently used successfully in the clinic for the treatment of patients with CRC and highlights several novel targeted agents that are being investigated in ongoing trials. The second part of this review focuses on the unique tumorigenic functions of heat shock proteins, particularly mortalin-2, an essential heat shock protein for mitochondrial biogenesis in normal cells and a dominant oncoprotein in colon cancer cells. Basic and clinical studies have justified mortalin-2 as a potential molecular target, and its inhibition could dramatically improve patients' responses to standard chemotherapies. Further understanding of the contributions of HSP70 family members to CRC at the molecular level, combined with translation of new concepts into effective targeted therapies, are anticipated to improve clinical outcomes and increase the therapeutic synergy with combination treatment with cytotoxic agents.

  15. Targeted Cell Immobilization by Ultrasound Microbeam

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungwoo; Lee, Changyang; Kim, Hyung Ham; Jakob, Anette; Lemor, Robert; Teh, Shia-Yen; Lee, Abraham; Shung, K. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Various techniques exerting mechanical stress on cells have been developed to investigate cellular responses to externally controlled stimuli. Fundamental mechanotransduction processes, how applied physical forces are converted into biochemical signals, have often been examined by transmitting such forces through cells and probing its pathway at cellular levels. In fact, many cellular biomechanics studies have been performed by trapping (or immobilizing) individual cells, either attached to solid substrates or suspended in liquid media. In that context, we demonstrated two-dimensional acoustic trapping, where a lipid droplet of 125 μm in diameter was directed transversely towards the focus (or the trap center) similar to that of optical tweezers. Under the influence of restoring forces created by a 30 MHz focused ultrasound beam, the trapped droplet behaved as if tethered to the focus by a linear spring. In order to apply this method to cellular manipulation in the Mie regime (cell diameter > wavelength), the availability of sound beams with its beamwidth approaching cell size is crucial. This can only be achieved at a frequency higher than 100 MHz. We define ultrasound beams in the frequency range from 100 MHz to a few GHz as ultrasound microbeams because the lateral beamwidth at the focus would be in the micron range (reviewer #1). Hence a zinc oxide (ZnO) transducer that was designed and fabricated to transmit a 200 MHz focused sound beam was employed to immobilize a 10 μm human leukemia cell (K-562) within the trap. The cell was laterally displaced with respect to the trap center by mechanically translating the transducer over the focal plane. Both lateral displacement and position trajectory of the trapped cell were probed in a two-dimensional space, indicating that the retracting motion of these cells was similar to that of the lipid droplets at 30 MHz. The potential of this tool for studying cellular adhesion between white blood cells and endothelial cells

  16. TargetNet: a web service for predicting potential drug-target interaction profiling via multi-target SAR models.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhi-Jiang; Dong, Jie; Che, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Min-Feng; Wen, Ming; Wang, Ning-Ning; Wang, Shan; Lu, Ai-Ping; Cao, Dong-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Drug-target interactions (DTIs) are central to current drug discovery processes and public health fields. Analyzing the DTI profiling of the drugs helps to infer drug indications, adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, and drug mode of actions. Therefore, it is of high importance to reliably and fast predict DTI profiling of the drugs on a genome-scale level. Here, we develop the TargetNet server, which can make real-time DTI predictions based only on molecular structures, following the spirit of multi-target SAR methodology. Naïve Bayes models together with various molecular fingerprints were employed to construct prediction models. Ensemble learning from these fingerprints was also provided to improve the prediction ability. When the user submits a molecule, the server will predict the activity of the user's molecule across 623 human proteins by the established high quality SAR model, thus generating a DTI profiling that can be used as a feature vector of chemicals for wide applications. The 623 SAR models related to 623 human proteins were strictly evaluated and validated by several model validation strategies, resulting in the AUC scores of 75-100 %. We applied the generated DTI profiling to successfully predict potential targets, toxicity classification, drug-drug interactions, and drug mode of action, which sufficiently demonstrated the wide application value of the potential DTI profiling. The TargetNet webserver is designed based on the Django framework in Python, and is freely accessible at http://targetnet.scbdd.com .

  17. TargetNet: a web service for predicting potential drug-target interaction profiling via multi-target SAR models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhi-Jiang; Dong, Jie; Che, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Min-Feng; Wen, Ming; Wang, Ning-Ning; Wang, Shan; Lu, Ai-Ping; Cao, Dong-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Drug-target interactions (DTIs) are central to current drug discovery processes and public health fields. Analyzing the DTI profiling of the drugs helps to infer drug indications, adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, and drug mode of actions. Therefore, it is of high importance to reliably and fast predict DTI profiling of the drugs on a genome-scale level. Here, we develop the TargetNet server, which can make real-time DTI predictions based only on molecular structures, following the spirit of multi-target SAR methodology. Naïve Bayes models together with various molecular fingerprints were employed to construct prediction models. Ensemble learning from these fingerprints was also provided to improve the prediction ability. When the user submits a molecule, the server will predict the activity of the user's molecule across 623 human proteins by the established high quality SAR model, thus generating a DTI profiling that can be used as a feature vector of chemicals for wide applications. The 623 SAR models related to 623 human proteins were strictly evaluated and validated by several model validation strategies, resulting in the AUC scores of 75-100 %. We applied the generated DTI profiling to successfully predict potential targets, toxicity classification, drug-drug interactions, and drug mode of action, which sufficiently demonstrated the wide application value of the potential DTI profiling. The TargetNet webserver is designed based on the Django framework in Python, and is freely accessible at http://targetnet.scbdd.com.

  18. Trastuzumab Sensitizes Ovarian Cancer Cells to EGFR-targeted Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wilken, Jason A; Webster, Kristy T; Maihle, Nita J

    2010-03-27

    Early studies have demonstrated comparable levels of HER2/ErbB2 expression in both breast and ovarian cancer. Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a therapeutic monoclonal antibody directed against HER2, is FDA-approved for the treatment of both early and late stage breast cancer. However, clinical studies of trastuzumab in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients have not met the same level of success. Surprisingly, however, no reports have examined either the basis for primary trastuzumab resistance in ovarian cancer or potential ways of salvaging trastuzumab as a potential ovarian cancer therapeutic. An in vitro model of primary trastuzumab-resistant ovarian cancer was created by long-term culture of HER2-positive ovarian carcinoma-derived cell lines with trastuzumab. Trastuzumab treated vs. untreated parental cells were compared for HER receptor expression, trastuzumab sensitivity, and sensitivity to other HER-targeted therapeutics. In contrast to widely held assumptions, here we show that ovarian cancer cells that are not growth inhibited by trastuzumab are still responsive to trastuzumab. Specifically, we show that responsiveness to alternative HER-targeted inhibitors, such as gefitinib and cetuximab, is dramatically potentiated by long-term trastuzumab treatment of ovarian cancer cells. HER2-positive ovarian carcinoma-derived cells are, therefore, not "unresponsive" to trastuzumab as previously assumed, even when they not growth inhibited by this drug. Given the recent success of EGFR-targeted therapeutics for the treatment of other solid tumors, and the well-established safety profile of trastuzumab, results presented here provide a rationale for re-evaluation of trastuzumab as an experimental ovarian cancer therapeutic, either in concert with, or perhaps as a "primer" for EGFR-targeted therapeutics.

  19. Targeting tumor cells by enhancing radiation sensitivity.

    PubMed

    McKenna, W Gillies; Muschel, Ruth J

    2003-12-01

    The work of Al Knudson created the paradigm in which we see cancer as a result of the accumulation of multiple mutations. Our goal has been to exploit these mutations to develop strategies to enhance therapy for cancer by targeting the malignant cell while sparing the normal tissue. In studying the RAS oncogene, we observed that its expression when activated resulted in enhanced radioresistance. Conversely, inhibition of RAS made cells with activated RAS more radiosensitive. Hence, we postulated that it would be possible to sensitize tumors with RAS mutations to radiation without affecting the sensitivity of the normal tissue in patients with such tumors. This proved to be the case in animal models and has led to current clinical trials. These studies raised the question of identifying the downstream effectors of RAS that are responsible for altering the radiosensitivity of cells. We have found that phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3 kinase) is a critical component of this pathway. Blocking PI3 kinase enhanced the radiation response in vitro or in vivo of cells actively signaling through that pathway, but did not affect cells not actively signaling through PI3 kinase at the time of irradiation. Identification of tumors with active signaling in this pathway by immunohistochemical staining for phosphorylated AKT, the downstream target of PI3 kinase correlated with those patients for which radiation failed to achieve local control. Thus, characterization of the active signaling pathways in a given tumor might enable the selection of patients likely to respond to radiation. Pathways upstream from RAS may also be useful targets to consider for enhancing radiation therapy. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is upstream of PI3 kinase, may also mediate resistance through a common pathway. In addition to EGFR and RAS, PTEN can also regulate the PI3 kinase pathway. Identifying a common signal for EGFR, RAS, and PTEN that results in radiation resistance may uncover

  20. Autophagy and cell death to target cancer cells: exploiting synthetic lethality as cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Reyjal, Julie; Cormier, Kevin; Turcotte, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Since 1940 chemotherapy has been one of the major therapies used to kill cancer cells. However, conventional standard cytotoxic agents have a low therapeutic index and often show toxicity in healthy cells. Over the past decade, progress in molecular biology and genomics has identified signaling pathways and mutations driving different types of cancer. Genetic and epigenetic alterations that characterize tumor cells have been used in the development of targeted therapy, a very active area of cancer research. Moreover, identification of synthetic lethal interactions between two altered genes in cancer cells shows much promise to target specifically tumor cells. For a long time, apoptosis was considered the principal mechanism by which cells die from chemotherapeutic agents. Autophagy, necroptosis (a programmed cell death mechanism of necrosis), and lysosomal-mediated cell death significantly improve our understanding of how malignancy can be targeted by anticancer treatments. Autophagy is a highly regulated process by which misfolded proteins and organelles reach lysosomes for their degradation. Alterations in this cellular process have been observed in several pathological conditions, including cancer. The role of autophagy in cancer raised a paradox wherein it can act as a tumor suppressor at early stage of tumor development but can also be used by cancer cells as cytoprotection to promote survival in established tumors. It is interesting that autophagy can be targeted by anticancer agents to provoke cancer cell death. This review focuses on the role of autophagy in cancer cells and its potential to therapeutically kill cancer cells.

  1. Viral Capsid DNA Aptamer Conjugates as Multivalent Cell Targeting Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Gary J.; Hsiao, Sonny C.; Carrico, Zachary M.; Francis, Matthew B.

    2009-01-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers offer significant potential as convenient and evolvable targeting groups for drug delivery. To attach them to the surface of a genome-free viral capsid carrier, an efficient oxidative coupling strategy has been developed. The method involves the periodate-mediated reaction of phenylene diamine substituted oligonucleotides with aniline groups installed on the outer surface of the capsid shells. Up to 60 DNA strands can be attached to each viral capsid with no apparent loss of base-pairing capabilities or protein stability. The ability of the capsids to bind specific cellular targets was demonstrated through the attachment of a 41-nucleotide sequence that targets a tyrosine kinase receptor on Jurkat T cells. After the installation of a fluorescent dye on the capsid interior, capsids bearing the cell-targeting sequence showed significant levels of binding to the cells relative to control samples. Colocalization experiments using confocal microscopy indicated that the capsids were endocytosed and trafficked to lysosomes for degradation. These observations suggest that aptamer-labeled capsids could be used for the targeted drug delivery of acid-labile prodrugs that would be preferentially released upon lysosomal acidification. PMID:19603808

  2. Myogenic Potential of Canine Craniofacial Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Cassano, Marco; Mascarello, Francesco; Barthélémy, Inès; Blot, Stephane; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal fibers have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterize also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs) and responsible for the fiber growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here, we isolated SCs from canine somitic [somite-derived muscle (SDM): vastus lateralis, rectus abdominis, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas] and presomitic [pre-somite-derived muscle (PSDM): lateral rectus, temporalis, and retractor bulbi] muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM-SCs were obtained also from golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD). We characterized the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions, and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with aging and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain, myogenin) myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together, our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD SCs and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24860499

  3. Fc receptors as potential targets for the treatment of allergy, autoimmune disease and cancer.

    PubMed

    Takai, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Akira; Akiyama, Kenichi

    2003-09-01

    The activation threshold of various cells in the immune system is tuned by immune inhibitory receptors. The inhibitory Fc receptor, FcgammaRIIB, is one of the critical elements for keeping immune cells silent. Murine models for allergic responses and autoimmune diseases illustrate the indispensable roles of FcgammaRIIB in the suppression of these immune disorders. On the contrary, activating-type Fc receptors are crucial for the onset and exacerbation of such diseases. In addition, recent reports have revealed the pivotal roles of Fc receptors in enhancing antigen presentation by dendritic cells, which leads to efficient major histocompatibility complex class I- and class II-restricted T cell activation. In this context, anti-cancer immunopotentiation could be augmented by targeting the tumor antigens to Fc receptors on dendritic cells. This review summarizes recent advances in Fc receptor biomedicine in light of exploiting them as potential therapeutic targets for allergy, autoimmune disease and cancer.

  4. Immunotherapeutic strategies targeting natural killer T cell responses in cancer.

    PubMed

    Shissler, Susannah C; Bollino, Dominique R; Tiper, Irina V; Bates, Joshua P; Derakhshandeh, Roshanak; Webb, Tonya J

    2016-08-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique subset of lymphocytes that bridge the innate and adaptive immune system. NKT cells possess a classic αβ T cell receptor (TCR) that is able to recognize self and foreign glycolipid antigens presented by the nonclassical class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, CD1d. Type I NKT cells (referred to as invariant NKT cells) express a semi-invariant Vα14Jα18 TCR in mice and Vα24Jα18 TCR in humans. Type II NKT cells are CD1d-restricted T cells that express a more diverse set of TCR α chains. The two types of NKT cells often exert opposing effects especially in tumor immunity, where type II cells generally suppress tumor immunity while type I NKT cells can enhance anti-tumor immune responses. In this review, we focus on the role of NKT cells in cancer. We discuss their effector and suppressive functions, as well as describe preclinical and clinical studies utilizing therapeutic strategies focused on harnessing their potent anti-tumor effector functions, and conclude with a discussion on potential next steps for the utilization of NKT cell-targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer.

  5. Mast cells as targets for immunotherapy of solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Oldford, Sharon A; Marshall, Jean S

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells have historically been studied mainly in the context of allergic disease. In recent years, we have come to understand the critical importance of mast cells in tissue remodeling events and their role as sentinel cells in the induction and development of effective immune responses to infection. Studies of the role of mast cells in tumor immunity are more limited. The pro-tumorigenic role of mast cells has been widely reported. However, mast cell infiltration predicts improved prognosis in some cancers, suggesting that their prognostic value may be dependent on other variables. Such factors may include the nature of local mast cell subsets and the various activation stimuli present within the tumor microenvironment. Experimental models have highlighted the importance of mast cells in orchestrating the anti-tumor events that follow immunotherapies that target innate immunity. Mast cells are long-lived tissue resident cells that are abundant around many solid tumors and are radiation resistant making them unique candidates for combined treatment modalities. This review will examine some of the key roles of mast cells in tumor immunity, with a focus on potential immunotherapeutic interventions that harness the sentinel role of mast cells.

  6. Immunotherapeutic strategies targeting Natural killer T cell responses in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shissler, Susannah C.; Bollino, Dominique R.; Tiper, Irina V.; Bates, Joshua; Derakhshandeh, Roshanak; Webb, Tonya J.

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique subset of lymphocytes that bridge the innate and adaptive immune system. NKT cells possess a classic αβ T-cell receptor (TCR) that is able to recognize self and foreign glycolipid antigens presented by the nonclassical class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, CD1d. Type I NKT cells (referred to as invariant NKT cells) express a semi-invariant Vα14Jα18 TCR in mice and Vα24Jα18 TCR in humans. Type II NKT cells are CD1d-restricted T cells that express a more diverse set of TCR α chains. The two types of NKT cells often exert opposing effects especially in tumor immunity, where Type II cells generally suppress tumor immunity while Type I NKT cells can enhance antitumor immune responses. In this review, we focus on the role of NKT cells in cancer. We discuss their effector and suppressive functions, as well as describe preclinical and clinical studies utilizing therapeutic strategies focused on harnessing their potent anti-tumor effector functions, and conclude with a discussion on potential next steps for the utilization of NKT cell targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer. PMID:27393665

  7. HIV-1 target cells in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sarah B; Arrildt, Kathryn T; Sturdevant, Christa B; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    HIV-1 replication in the central nervous system (CNS) is typically limited by the availability of target cells. HIV-1 variants that are transmitted and dominate the early stages of infection almost exclusively use the CCR5 coreceptor and are well adapted to entering, and thus infecting, cells expressing high CD4 densities similar to those found on CD4+ T cells. While the "immune privileged" CNS is largely devoid of CD4+ T cells, macrophage and microglia are abundant throughout the CNS. These cells likely express CD4 densities that are too low to facilitate efficient entry or allow sustained replication by most HIV-1 isolates. Examination of CNS viral populations reveals that late in disease the CNS of some individuals contains HIV-1 lineages that have evolved the ability to enter cells expressing low levels of CD4 and are well-adapted to entering macrophages. These macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) viruses are able to maintain sustained replication in the CNS for many generations, and their presence is associated with severe neurocognitive impairment. Whether conditions such as pleocytosis are necessary for macrophage-tropic viruses to emerge in the CNS is unknown, and extensive examinations of macrophage-tropic variants have not revealed a genetic signature of this phenotype. It is clear, however, that macrophage tropism is rare among HIV-1 isolates and is not transmitted, but is important due to its pathogenic effects on hosts. Prior to the evolution of macrophage-tropic variants, the viruses that are predominately infecting T cells (R5 T cell-tropic) may infect macrophages at a low level and inefficiently, but this could contribute to the reservoir.

  8. HIV-1 target cells in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sarah B.; Arrildt, Kathryn T.; Sturdevant, Christa B.; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 replication in the central nervous system (CNS) is typically limited by the availability of target cells. HIV-1 variants that are transmitted and dominate the early stages of infection almost exclusively use the CCR5 coreceptor and are well adapted to entering, and thus infecting, cells expressing high CD4 densities similar to those found on CD4+ T cells. While the “immune privileged” CNS is largely devoid of CD4+ T cells, macrophage and microglia are abundant throughout the CNS. These cells likely express CD4 densities that are too low to facilitate efficient entry or allow sustained replication by most HIV-1 isolates. Examination of CNS viral populations reveals that late in disease the CNS of some individuals contains HIV-1 lineages that have evolved the ability to enter cells expressing low levels of CD4 and are well-adapted to entering macrophages. These macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) viruses are able to maintain sustained replication in the CNS for many generations, and their presence is associated with severe neurocognitive impairment. Whether conditions such as pleocytosis are necessary for macrophage-tropic viruses to emerge in the CNS is unknown, and extensive examinations of macrophage-tropic variants have not revealed a genetic signature of this phenotype. It is clear, however, that macrophage tropism is rare among HIV-1 isolates and is not transmitted, but is important due to its pathogenic effects on hosts. Prior to the evolution of macrophage-tropic variants, the viruses that are predominately infecting T cells (R5 T cell-tropic) may infect macrophages at a low level and inefficiently, but this could contribute to the reservoir. PMID:25236812

  9. Androgen receptor in human health: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Hifzur Rahman; Nanda, Sanjeev; Parray, Aijaz; Saleem, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Androgen is a key for the activation of Androgen Receptor (AR) in most of the disease conditions, however androgen-independent activation of AR is also found in aggressive type human malignancies. An intense search for the inhibitors of AR is underway to cure AR-dependent diseases. In addition to targeting various components of AR signaling pathway, compounds which directly target AR are under preclinical and clinical investigation. Various In vitro and preclinical animal studies suggest that different natural compounds have potential to act against AR. Some natural compounds have been found to be pharmacologically effective against AR irrespective of varying routs of administration viz; oral, intra-peritoneal and intravenous. This mini-review summarizes the studies conducted with different natural agents in determining their pharmacological utility against AR signaling.

  10. Phosphorylation events during viral infections provide potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Julie A.; Striker, Rob

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY For many medically relevant viruses, there is now considerable evidence that both viral and cellular kinases play important roles in viral infection. Ultimately, these kinases, and the cellular signaling pathways that they exploit, may serve as therapeutic targets for treating patients. Currently, small molecule inhibitors of kinases are under investigation as therapy for herpes viral infections. Additionally, a number of cellular or host-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors that have been previously FDA-approved for cancer treatment are under study in animal models and clinical trials, as they have shown promise for the treatment of various viral infections as well. This review will highlight the wide range of viral proteins phosphorylated by viral and cellular kinases, and the potential for variability of kinase recognition sites within viral substrates to impact phosphorylation and kinase prediction. Research studying kinase-targeting prophylactic and therapeutic treatments for a number of viral infections will also be discussed. PMID:22113983

  11. Schistosoma mansoni Sirtuins: Characterization and Potential as Chemotherapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Lancelot, Julien; Caby, Stéphanie; Dubois-Abdesselem, Florence; Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Trolet, Jacques; Oliveira, Guilherme; Bracher, Franz; Jung, Manfred; Pierce, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The chemotherapy of schistosomiasis currently depends on the use of a single drug, praziquantel. In order to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents we are investigating enzymes involved in the epigenetic modification of chromatin. Sirtuins are NAD+ dependent lysine deacetylases that are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes including histone deacetylation, and have been demonstrated to be therapeutic targets in various pathologies, including cancer. Methodology, Principal Findings In order to determine whether Schistosoma mansoni sirtuins are potential therapeutic targets we first identified and characterized their protein sequences. Five sirtuins (SmSirt) are encoded in the S. mansoni genome and phylogenetic analysis showed that they are orthologues of mammalian Sirt1, Sirt2, Sirt5, Sirt6 and Sirt7. Both SmSirt1 and SmSirt7 have large insertion in the catalytic domain compared to their mammalian orthologues. SmSirt5 is the only mitochondrial sirtuin encoded in the parasite genome (orthologues of Sirt3 and Sirt4 are absent) and transcripts corresponding to at least five splicing isoforms were identified. All five sirtuins are expressed throughout the parasite life-cycle, but with distinct patterns of expression. Sirtuin inhibitors were used to treat both schistosomula and adult worms maintained in culture. Three inhibitors in particular, Sirtinol, Salermide and MS3 induced apoptosis and death of schistosomula, the separation of adult worm pairs, and a reduction in egg laying. Moreover, Salermide treatment led to a marked disruption of the morphology of ovaries and testes. Transcriptional knockdown of SmSirt1 by RNA interference in adult worms led to morphological changes in the ovaries characterized by a marked increase in mature oocytes, reiterating the effects of sirtuin inhibitors and suggesting that SmSirt1 is their principal target. Conclusion, Significance Our data demonstrate the potential of schistosome sirtuins as therapeutic targets

  12. Chemosensitizing AML cells by targeting bone marrow endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Raphael C; Wasserstrom, Briana; Meacham, Amy; Wise, Elizabeth; Drusbosky, Leylah; Walter, Glenn A; Chaplin, David J; Siemann, Dietmar W; Purich, Daniel L; Cogle, Christopher R

    2016-05-01

    Refractory disease is the greatest challenge in treating patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Blood vessels may serve as sanctuary sites for AML. When AML cells were co-cultured with bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs), a greater proportion of leukemia cells were in G0/G1. This led us to a strategy of targeting BMECs with tubulin-binding combretastatins, causing BMECs to lose their flat phenotype, degrade their cytoskeleton, cease growth, and impair migration despite unchanged BMEC viability and metabolism. Combretastatins also caused downregulation of BMEC adhesion molecules known to tether AML cells, including vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin. When AML-BMEC co-cultures were treated with combretastatins, a significantly greater proportion of AML cells dislodged from BMECs and entered the G2/M cell cycle, suggesting enhanced susceptibility to cell cycle agents. Indeed, the combination of combretastatins and cytotoxic chemotherapy enhanced additive AML cell death. In vivo mice xenograft studies confirmed this finding by revealing complete AML regression after treatment with combretastatins and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Beyond highlighting the pathologic role of BMECs in the leukemia microenvironment as a protective reservoir of disease, these results support a new strategy for using vascular-targeting combretastatins in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy to treat AML.

  13. Tumor cell vascular mimicry: Novel targeting opportunity in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, Mary J C; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Seftor, Richard E B; Chao, Jun-Tzu; Chien, Du-Shieng; Chu, Yi-Wen

    2016-03-01

    In 1999, the American Journal of Pathology published an article, entitled "Vascular channel formation by human melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro: vasculogenic mimicry" by Maniotis and colleagues, which ignited a spirited debate for several years and earned the journal's distinction of a "citation classic" (Maniotis et al., 1999). Tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry (VM), also known as vascular mimicry, describes the plasticity of aggressive cancer cells forming de novo vascular networks and is associated with the malignant phenotype and poor clinical outcome. The tumor cells capable of VM share the commonality of a stem cell-like, transendothelial phenotype, which may be induced by hypoxia. Since its introduction as a novel paradigm for melanoma tumor perfusion, many studies have contributed new findings illuminating the underlying molecular pathways supporting VM in a variety of tumors, including carcinomas, sarcomas, glioblastomas, astrocytomas, and melanomas. Of special significance is the lack of effectiveness of angiogenesis inhibitors on tumor cell VM, suggesting a selective resistance by this phenotype to conventional therapy. Facilitating the functional plasticity of tumor cell VM are key proteins associated with vascular, stem cell, extracellular matrix, and hypoxia-related signaling pathways--each deserving serious consideration as potential therapeutic targets and diagnostic indicators of the aggressive, metastatic phenotype. This review highlights seminal findings pertinent to VM, including the effects of a novel, small molecular compound, CVM-1118, currently under clinical development to target VM, and illuminates important molecular pathways involved in the suppression of this plastic, aggressive phenotype, using melanoma as a model.

  14. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a potential targeting agent for delivery of boron to malignant gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Capala, J.; Barth, R.F.; Adams, D.M.; Bailey, M.Q.; Soloway, A.H.; Carlsson, J.

    1994-12-31

    The majority of high grade gliomas express an amplified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, and this often is associated with an increase in cell surface receptor expression. The rapid internalization and degradation of EGF-EGFR complexes, as well as their high affinity make EGF a potential targeting agent for delivery of {sup 10}B to tumor cells with an amplified number of EGFR. Human glioma cells can expresses as many as 10{sup 5} {minus}10{sup 6} EGF receptors per cell, and if these could be saturated with boronated EGF, then > 10{sup 8} boron atoms would be delivered per cell. Since EGF has a comparatively low molecular weight ({approximately} 6 kD), this has allowed us to construct relatively small bioconjugates containing {approximately} 900 boron atoms per EGF molecule{sup 3}, which also had high affinity for EGFR on tumor cells. In the present study, the feasibility of using EGF receptors as a potential target for therapy of gliomas was investigated by in vivo scintigraphic studies using {sup 131}I{minus} or {sup 99m}{Tc}-labeled EGF in a rat brain tumor model. Our results indicate that intratumorally delivered boron- EGF conjugates might be useful for targeting EGFR on glioma cells if the boron containing moiety of the conjugates persisted intracellularly. Further studies are required, however, to determine if this approach can be used for BNCT of the rat glioma.

  15. Genetic determinants and potential therapeutic targets for pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, Robert; Hendifar, Andrew E.; Tuli, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the United States, carrying a 5-year survival rate of approximately 5%, which is the poorest prognosis of any solid tumor type. Given the dismal prognosis associated with PDAC, a more thorough understanding of risk factors and genetic predisposition has important implications not only for cancer prevention, but also for screening techniques and the development of personalized therapies. While screening of the general population is not recommended or practicable with current diagnostic methods, studies are ongoing to evaluate its usefulness in people with at least 5- to 10-fold increased risk of PDAC. In order to help identify high-risk populations who would be most likely to benefit from early detection screening tests for pancreatic cancer, discovery of additional pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes is crucial. Thus, specific gene-based, gene-product, and marker-based testing for the early detection of pancreatic cancer are currently being developed, with the potential for these to be useful as potential therapeutic targets as well. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the genetic basis for PDAC with a focus on germline and familial determinants. A discussion of potential therapeutic targets and future directions in screening and treatment is also provided. PMID:24624093

  16. Mechanisms of hypochlorite injury of target cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schraufstätter, I U; Browne, K; Harris, A; Hyslop, P A; Jackson, J H; Quehenberger, O; Cochrane, C G

    1990-01-01

    HOCl, which is produced by the action of myeloperoxidase during the respiratory burst of stimulated neutrophils, was used as a cytotoxic reagent in P388D1 cells. Low concentrations of HOCl (10-20 microM) caused oxidation of plasma membrane sulfhydryls determined as decreased binding of iodoacetylated phycoerythrin. These same low concentrations of HOCl caused disturbance of various plasma membrane functions: they inactivated glucose and aminoisobutyric acid uptake, caused loss of cellular K+, and an increase in cell volume. It is likely that these changes were the consequence of plasma membrane SH-oxidation, since similar effects were observed with para-chloromercuriphenylsulfonate (pCMBS), a sulfhydryl reagent acting at the cell surface. Given in combination pCMBS and HOCl showed an additive effect. Higher doses of HOCl (greater than 50 microM) led to general oxidation of -SH, methionine and tryptophan residues, and formation of protein carbonyls. HOCl-induced loss of ATP and undegraded NAD was closely followed by cell lysis. In contrast, NAD degradation and ATP depletion caused by H2O2 preceded cell death by several hours. Formation of DNA strand breaks, a major factor of H2O2-induced injury, was not observed with HOCl. Thus targets of HOCl were distinct from those of H2O2 with the exception of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which was inactivated by both oxidants. PMID:2153710

  17. CD30 is a potential therapeutic target in malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Dabir, Snehal; Kresak, Adam; Yang, Michael; Fu, Pingfu; Wildey, Gary; Dowlati, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    CD30 is a cytokine receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFRSF8) that acts as a regulator of apoptosis. The presence of CD30 antigen is important in the diagnosis of Hodgkin’s disease and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. There have been sporadic reports of CD30 expression in non-lymphoid tumors, including malignant mesothelioma. Given the remarkable success of brentuximab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate directed against CD30 antigen, in lymphoid malignancies, we undertook a study to examine the incidence of CD30 in mesothelioma and to investigate the ability to target CD30 antigen in mesothelioma. Mesothelioma tumor specimens (N = 83) were examined for CD30 expression by immunohistochemistry. Positive CD30 expression was noted in 13 mesothelioma specimens, primarily those of epithelial histology. There was no significant correlation of CD30 positivity with either tumor grade, stage or survival. Examination of four mesothelioma cell lines (H28, H2052, H2452, and 211H) for CD30 expression by both FACS analysis and confocal microscopy showed that CD30 antigen localized to the cell membrane. Brentuximab vedotin treatment of cultured mesothelioma cells produced a dose-dependent decrease in cell growth and viability at clinically relevant concentrations. Our studies validate the presence of CD30 antigen in a subgroup of epithelial-type mesothelioma tumors and indicate that selected mesothelioma patients may derive benefit from brentuximab vedotin treatment. PMID:25589494

  18. Cancer Stem Cells Therapeutic Target Database: The First Comprehensive Database for Therapeutic Targets of Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Cong, Ye; Luo, Huizhe Howard; Wu, Sijin; Zhao, Liyuan Eric; Liu, Quentin; Yang, Yongliang

    2016-09-02

    SummaryCancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of tumor cells that have strong self-renewal capabilities and may contribute to the failure of conventional cancer therapies. Hence, therapeutics homing in on CSCs represent a novel and promising approach that may eradicate malignant tumors. However, the lack of information on validated targets of CSCs has greatly hindered the development of CSC-directed therapeutics. Herein, we describe the Cancer Stem Cells Therapeutic Target Database (CSCTT), the first online database to provide a rich bioinformatics resource for the display, search, and analysis of structure, function, and related annotation for therapeutic targets of cancer stem cells. CSCTT contains 135 proteins that are potential targets of CSCs, with validated experimental evidence manually curated from existing literatures. Proteins are carefully annotated with a detailed description of protein families, biological process, related diseases, and experimental evidences. In addition, CSCTT has compiled 213 documented therapeutic methods for cancer stem cells, including 118 small molecules and 20 biotherapy methods. The CSCTT may serve as a useful platform for the development of CSC-directed therapeutics against various malignant tumors. The CSCTT database is freely available to the public at http://www.csctt.org/ SIGNIFICANCE: Although the definition and role of cancer stem cells (CSCs, also called tumor-initiating cells) remain a topic of much debate, increasing evidence suggests that CSCs may be the driving force behind chemotherapy/radiotherapy resistance, as well as metastasis. Consequently, the elimination or differentiation of CSCs is critical for treating malignant tumors and improving clinical outcomes. Unfortunately, the progress of research into the development of anti-CSC therapeutics has been rather slow, and no anti-CSC drugs are yet in clinical use. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop a database that compiles useful information for

  19. Two-component signal transduction as potential drug targets in pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Eguchi, Yoko; Watanabe, Takafumi; Okamoto, Sho; Doi, Akihiro; Utsumi, Ryutaro

    2010-04-01

    Gene clusters contributing to processes such as cell growth and pathogenicity are often controlled by two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs). Specific inhibitors against TCS systems work differently from conventional antibiotics, and developing them into new drugs that are effective against various drug-resistant bacteria may be possible. Furthermore, inhibitors of TCSs that control virulence factors may reduce virulence without killing the pathogenic bacteria. Previous TCS inhibitors targeting the kinase domain of the histidine kinase sensor suffered from poor selectivity. Recent TCS inhibitors, however, target the sensory domains of the sensors blocking the quorum sensing system, or target the essential response regulator. These new targets are introduced, together with several specific TCSs that have the potential to serve as effective drug targets. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbon Nanotubes: An Emerging Drug Carrier for Targeting Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Shiv Sankar; Mishra, Arun Kumar; Verma, Navneet; Verma, Anurag; Pandit, Jayanta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    During recent years carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been attracted by many researchers as a drug delivery carrier. CNTs are the third allotropic form of carbon-fullerenes which were rolled into cylindrical tubes. To be integrated into the biological systems, CNTs can be chemically modified or functionalised with therapeutically active molecules by forming stable covalent bonds or supramolecular assemblies based on noncovalent interactions. Owing to their high carrying capacity, biocompatibility, and specificity to cells, various cancer cells have been explored with CNTs for evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters, cell viability, cytotoxicty, and drug delivery in tumor cells. This review attempts to highlight all aspects of CNTs which render them as an effective anticancer drug carrier and imaging agent. Also the potential application of CNT in targeting metastatic cancer cells by entrapping biomolecules and anticancer drugs has been covered in this review. PMID