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Sample records for potential vorticity mixing

  1. Potential vorticity and mixing in the south polar vortex during spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, D. L.; Chan, K. R.; Loewenstein, M.; Podolske, J. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Gary, B. L.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Newman, P. A.; Martin, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    Fluid dynamic aspects of the Antarctic ozone hole phenomena are studied. Data collected by the ER-2 aircraft as part of the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) are used to calculate the potential vorticity distribution on potential temperature surfaces. Most of the ER-2 flights show a monotonic decrease in potential vorticity and nitrous oxide toward the pole on isentropic surfaces.

  2. Baroclinic mixing of potential vorticity as the principal sharpening mechanism for the extratropical Tropopause Inversion Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu Meir; Geller, Marvin A.

    2016-09-01

    Previous works have shown that a dry, idealized general circulation model could produce many features of the extratropical Tropopause Inversion Layer (TIL). In particular, the following have been shown, but no explanations were given for these results. (1) A sharper extratropical TIL resulted more from increased horizontal resolution than from increased vertical resolution. (2) If the Equator-to-Pole temperature gradient was varied, the annual variation of the extratropical TIL found in observations could be reproduced. (3) The extratropical TIL altitude showed excellent correlation with the upper tropospheric relative vorticity, as had been previously proposed. (4) Increased horizontal model resolutions led to extratropical TILs that were at lower altitudes. We show that these conclusions follow from baroclinic mixing of high stratospheric potential vorticity into the troposphere being the principal sharpening mechanism for the extratropical TIL and the increased baroclinic activity occurring in higher horizontal resolution models. We furthermore suggest that the distance from the jet exerts a greater influence on the height and sharpness of the extratropical TIL than does the upper tropospheric relative vorticity, and this accounts for the annual behavior of the extratropical TIL found in observations and reproduced with a dry, mechanistic, global model.

  3. Potential vorticity index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcilon, Albert; Weng, Hengyi

    1990-01-01

    Using standard data analysis techniques, researchers explore the links between disturbance growth and quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (PV) gradients; appearance and disappearance of cutoff lows and blocking highs and their relation to a zonal index (properly defined in terms of PV); and teleconnections between different flow patterns and their relation to the zonal index. It was found that the PV index and the eddy index correlate better than a zonal index (defined by zonal wind) and the eddy index. In the frequency domain there are three frequencies (.03, .07 and .17 cpd (cycle per day) corresponding to periods of 33, 14 and 6 days) at which PV index and the eddy index exhibit local maxima. The high correlation found at periods of 33 days is mainly due to eddy activity at high latitudes while the local correlation maxima found at the shorter periods are mainly due mid-latitude eddy activity. The correlation between the PV index and the geopotential height anomaly at 500 mb, at each grid point in the Northern Hemisphere, shows the existence of most of the teleconnection patterns summarized by Wallace and Gutzler (1981): the North Atlantic Oscillation, the North Pacific Oscillation, and the Pacific/North American patterns. Results show that the Isentropic Potential Vorticity (IPV) analysis can be a very useful and powerful tool when used to understand the dynamics of several large scale atmospheric systems. Although the data are limited to only one winter, and it is difficult to assess the statistical significance of the correlation coefficients presented here, the results are encouraging from physical viewpoint.

  4. Electrothermal blinking vortices for chaotic mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loire, Sophie; Kauffmann, Paul; Gimenez, Paul; Meinhart, Carl; Mezic, Igor

    2012-11-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study of electrothermal chaotic mixing using blinking of asymmetric 2D electrothermal vortices. Electrothermal flows are modelled with 2D finite element method using COMSOL software based on an enhanced electrothermal model. Velocities in top-view and side-view devices are measured by micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV). The experimentally reconstructed velocity profile shows a dramatic asymmetry between the two vortices, in good agreement with the FEM model. The separation line between the two vortices is shifted and tilted making the blinking vortices overlap. We use the mix-variance coefficient (MVC) on experimental particle detection data and numerical trajectory simulations to evaluate mixing at different scales including the layering of fluid interfaces by the flow, a keypoint for efficient mixing. The blinking vortices method greatly improve mixing efficiency. Theoretical, experimental and simulation results of the mixing process will be presented.

  5. Potential vorticity index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barcilon, Albert; Weng, Hengyi

    1991-01-01

    Based on the European Center For Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment (FGGE) IIIb data set in the 1978 to 1979 winter, a potential vorticity (PV) index was defined as a measure of the zonally averaged, mid-latitude PV gradient on the 300 K isentropic surface in the Northern Hemisphere. The evolution of that index and its relation to teleconnection patterns of 500 mb geopotential height anomaly are studied. The results of the temporal and spatial variation of blocking and cyclogenesis in the 1978 to 1979 winter and its relation to global and local PV gradients were obtained. Complex empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses were performed, using the same FGGE data set for the 1978 to 1979 winter, for a representative high latitude band and mid latitude band geopotential height anomalies at 500 mb, phi sub h, phi sub m, and PV gradient at 300 K, delta(Q), at each longitude for the three month period. The focus of current research is the following: (1) to perform Fourier analyses for the first three EOF's of phi sub h, phi sub m, and delta(Q) at given latitude bands, and to find the dominant wavenumbers and frequencies which are responsible for these EOF's; (2) to compare the results from EOF and Fourier analyses which will be used to explore the relations of blocking and cyclogensis with local and global PV gradients; and (3) to study the time dependence of the local PV gradients and relate it to the PV index vacillation cycles observed in the PV index cycle.

  6. Plane mixing layer vortical structure kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the current project was to experimentally investigate the structure and dynamics of the streamwise vorticity in a plane mixing layer. The first part of this research program was intended to clarify whether the observed decrease in mean streamwise vorticity in the far-field of mixing layers is due primarily to the 'smearing' caused by vortex meander or to diffusion. Two-point velocity correlation measurements have been used to show that there is little spanwise meander of the large-scale streamwise vortical structure. The correlation measurements also indicate a large degree of transverse meander of the streamwise vorticity which is not surprising since the streamwise vorticity exists in the inclined braid region between the spanwise vortex core regions. The streamwise convection of the braid region thereby introduces an apparent transverse meander into measurements using stationary probes. These results corroborated with estimated secondary velocity profiles in which the streamwise vorticity produces a signature which was tracked in time.

  7. Friction and mixing effects on potential vorticity for bottom current crossing a marine strait: an application to the Sicily Channel (central Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcini, F.; Salusti, E.

    2015-05-01

    We discuss here the evolution of vorticity and potential vorticity (PV) for a bottom current crossing a marine channel in shallow-water approximation, focusing on the effect of friction and mixing. The purpose of this research is indeed to investigate the role of friction and vertical entrainment on vorticity and PV spatial evolution in channels or straits when along-channel morphology variations are significant. To pursue this investigation, we pose the vorticity and PV equations for a homogeneous bottom water vein and we calculate these two quantities as an integral form. Our theoretical findings are considered in the context of in situ hydrographic data related to the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water (EMDW), i.e., a dense, bottom water vein that flows northwestward, along the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea). Indeed, the narrow sill of this channel implies that friction and entrainment need to be considered. Small tidal effects in the Sicily Channel allow for a steady theoretical approach. We argue that bottom current vorticity is prone to significant sign changes and oscillations due to topographic effects when, in particular, the current flows over the sill of a channel. These vorticity variations are, however, modulated by frictional effects due to seafloor roughness and morphology. Such behavior is also reflected in the PV spatial evolution, which shows an abrupt peak around the sill region. Our diagnoses on vorticity and PV allow us to obtain general insights about the effect of mixing and friction on the pathway and internal structure of bottom-trapped currents flowing through channels and straits, and to discuss spatial variability of the frictional coefficient. Our approach significantly differs from other PV-constant approaches previously used in studying the dynamics of bottom currents flowing through rotating channels.

  8. Two applications of potential vorticity thinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Walter A.

    1987-01-01

    The phenomena of dissipative destabilization of external Rossby waves and the acceleration of the zonal mean jet during baroclinic life cycles are described in terms of potential vorticity. The main principle of the potential temperature variations at rigid boundaries have the same effect on the interior flow as do sheets of potential vorticity located just within the boundaries. It is noted that the potential vorticity theory is useful for understanding the dynamical behavior of meterological phenomena.

  9. SU(4) potentials with two vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Deldar, Sedigheh; Rafibakhsh, Shahnoosh

    2007-02-27

    There are three vortices for SU(4) gauge group where two of them are independent. Using both of these vortices in calculating the induced potentials between static sources, we show that the second vortex only affects the potentials at large distances and does not have a significant effect on the intermediate distance potentials and their slopes. The ratio of the probabilities of piercing a plaquette by the two type of vortices may be fixed by the ratio of diquark string tension to the string tension of the quarks in the fundamental representation.

  10. Three-dimensional analysis of potential vorticity associated with tropopause folds and observed variations of ozone and carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielsen, Edwin F.; Hipskind, R. Stephen; Gaines, Steven E.; Sachse, Glen W.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Hill, G. F.

    1987-01-01

    The usability and reliability of potential vorticity as a meteorological stratospheric tracer are evaluated. The concept of potential vorticity conservation during transport in which stratospheric and tropospheric air are mixing is tested. Aircraft data collected on April 20, 1984 in the western and southwestern U.S. are analyzed in order to derive potential vorticity data; vertical cross sections of constant-pressure data and temperature and wind speed gradients are examined. The tropopause fold observed during the April 20, 1984 aircraft flights is described. The potential vorticity, ozone mixing ratio, and carbon monoxide mixing ratio are compared; a positive correlation between potential vorticity and the ozone mixing ratio and a negative correlation between the potential vorticity and the carbon monoxide mixing ratio are detected. The data support the concepts of the conservation of potential vorticity, the entrainment and mixing of tropospheric air across the boundaries of the fold, and the applicability of potential vorticity as a stratospheric tracer.

  11. Potential vorticity formulation of compressible magnetohydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Arter, Wayne

    2013-01-04

    Compressible ideal magnetohydrodynamics is formulated in terms of the time evolution of potential vorticity and magnetic flux per unit mass using a compact Lie bracket notation. It is demonstrated that this simplifies analytic solution in at least one very important situation relevant to magnetic fusion experiments. Potentially important implications for analytic and numerical modelling of both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are also discussed.

  12. An eddy closure for potential vorticity

    SciTech Connect

    Ringler, Todd D

    2009-01-01

    The Gent-McWilliams (GM) parameterization is extended to include a direct influence in the momentum equation. The extension is carried out in two stages; an analysis of the inviscid system is followed by an analysis of the viscous system. In the inviscid analysis the momentum equation is modified such that potential vorticity is conserved along particle trajectories following a transport velocity that includes the Bolus velocity in a manner exactly analogous to the continuity and tracer equations. In addition (and in contrast to traditional GM closures), the new formulation of the inviscid momentum equation results in a conservative exchange between potential and kinetic forms of energy. The inviscid form of the eddy closure conserves total energy to within an error proportional to the time derivative of the Bolus velocity. The hypothesis that the viscous term in the momentum equation should give rise to potential vorticity being diffused along isopycnals in a manner analogous to other tracers is examined in detail. While the form of the momentum closure that follows from a strict adherence to this hypothesis is not immediately interpretable within the constructs of traditional momentum closures, three approximations to this hypothesis results in a form of dissipation that is consistent with traditional Laplacian diffusion. The first two approximations are that relative vorticity, not potential vorticity, is diffused along isopyncals and that the flow is in approximate geostrophic balance. An additional approximation to the Jacobian term is required when the dissipation coefficient varies in space. More importantly, the critique of this hypothesis results in the conclusion that the viscosity parameter in the momentum equation should be identical to the tradition GM closure parameter {Kappa}. Overall, we deem the viscous form of the eddy closure for potential vorticity as a viable closure for use in ocean circulation models.

  13. On calculating the potential vorticity flux

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Pei-Chun; Diamond, P. H.

    2015-03-15

    We discuss and compare different approaches to calculating the dynamics of anisotropic flow structure formation in quasi two-dimensional turbulence based on potential vorticity (PV) transport in real space. The general structure of the PV flux in the relaxation processes is deduced non-perturbatively. The transport coefficients of the PV flux are then systematically calculated using perturbation theory. We develop two non-perturbative relaxation models: the first is a mean field theory for the dynamics of minimum enstrophy relaxation based on the requirement that the mean flux of PV dissipates total potential enstrophy but conserves total fluid kinetic energy. The results show that the structure of PV flux has the form of a sum of a positive definite hyper-viscous and a negative or positive viscous flux of PV. Turbulence spreading is shown to be related to PV mixing via the link of turbulence energy flux to PV flux. In the relaxed state, the ratio of the PV gradient to zonal flow velocity is homogenized. This homogenized quantity sets a constraint on the amplitudes of PV and zonal flow in the relaxed state. The second relaxation model is derived from symmetry principles alone. The form of PV flux contains a nonlinear convective term in addition to viscous and hyper-viscous terms. For both cases, the transport coefficients are calculated using perturbation theory. For a broad turbulence spectrum, a modulational calculation of the PV flux gives both a negative viscosity and a positive hyper-viscosity. For a narrow turbulence spectrum, the result of a parametric instability analysis shows that PV transport is also convective. In both relaxation and perturbative analyses, it is shown that turbulent PV transport is sensitive to flow structure, and the transport coefficients are nonlinear functions of flow shear.

  14. Poloidal rotation and its relation to the potential vorticity flux

    SciTech Connect

    McDevitt, C. J.; Diamond, P. H.; Guercan, Oe. D.; Hahm, T. S.

    2010-11-15

    A kinetic generalization of a Taylor identity appropriate to a strongly magnetized plasma is derived. This relation provides an explicit link between the radial mixing of a four-dimensional (4D) gyrocenter fluid and the poloidal Reynolds stress. This kinetic analog of a Taylor identity is subsequently utilized to link the turbulent transport of poloidal momentum to the mixing of potential vorticity. A quasilinear calculation of the flux of potential vorticity is carried out, yielding diffusive, turbulent equipartition, and thermoelectric convective components. Self-consistency is enforced via the quasineutrality relation, revealing that for the case of a stationary small amplitude wave population, deviations from neoclassical predictions of poloidal rotation can be closely linked to the growth/damping profiles of the underlying drift wave microturbulence.

  15. Notes and correspondence: An alternative form for potential vorticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lait, Leslie R.

    1994-01-01

    A form of potential vorticity is described that has conversation properties similar to those of Ertel's potential vorticity (EPV) but removes the exponential variation with height displayed by EPV. This form is thus more suitable for inspecting vertical cross sections of potential vorticity and for use (with potential temperature) as a quasi-conserved coordinate in the analysis of chemical constituent data.

  16. Geostrophic Scatter Diagrams and Potential Vorticity Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, P. L.; Rhines, P. B.; White, A. A.

    1986-12-01

    where S is the potential vorticity forcing, K the lateral eddy (or viscous) v the horizontal velocity, and the integrals are taken over and around any region enclosed by a mean streamline. Hence dQ/dis often negative. corresponding to two common properties of quasi-geostrophic circulations: that the eddy motion (or viscosity) transport Q down its mean gradient (K > 0) and that the circulation integral have the same sign as the potential vorticity forcing. Two sets of examples, both involving (Q,) scatter diagrams constructed from numerically simulated data, are presented. One relates to steady baroclinic wave motion in a rotating annulus system, and the other to the time-averaged circulation in an ocean basin.

  17. Vorticity generation mechanisms in parallel injection schemes for supersonic mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, James M.; Haj-Hariri, Hossein; McDaniel, James C., Jr.

    1992-07-01

    A numerical study is reported of the three-dimensional nonreacting supersonic flow field produced by three parallel fuel injection schemes. Such injections are being considered as a means of enhancing fuel mixing in future Scramjet engine designs. The strength of vortex structures produced by ramp injectors and by rocket/jet interactions are quantified and their relative effectiveness in enhancing the fuel mixing process is addressed. An experimental setup for validation of the above numerical results has been constructed and preliminary results are presented. For the flow field parameters chosen, the ramp generated vorticity is found to be considerably larger than that generated by the shock. The unsteady recirculating flow field in the wake of the injector appears also to give rise to important additional vorticity and mixing.

  18. Localized ultrahigh frequency acoustic fields induced micro-vortices for submilliseconds microfluidic mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Weiwei; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Hongxiang; Yang, Yang; He, Meihang; Qu, Hemi; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Daihua; Duan, Xuexin

    2016-12-01

    We present an acoustic microfluidic mixing approach via acousto-mechanically induced micro-vortices sustained by localized ultrahigh frequency (UHF) acoustic fields. A micro-fabricated solid-mounted thin-film piezoelectric resonator (SMR) with a frequency of 1.54 GHz has been integrated into microfluidic systems. Experimental and simulation results show that UHF-SMR triggers strong acoustic field gradients to produce efficient and highly localized acoustic streaming vortices, providing a powerful source for microfluidic mixing. Homogeneous mixing with 87% mixing efficiency at a Peclet number of 35520 within 1 ms has been achieved. The proposed strategy shows a great potential for microfluidic mixing and enhanced molecule transportation in minimized analytical systems.

  19. Neutral surfaces and potential vorticity in the world's oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yuzhu; McDougall, Trevor J.

    1990-08-01

    slopes are illustrated here with contour maps and with vertical profiles, One would think that by choosing the reference pressure of potential density to be at the central pressure of a data set, the conservation equation of potential vorticity could be expressed with respect to these potential density surfaces with sufficient accuracy. Here it is shown that even the best potential density variable is significantly in error at thermoclinic frontal regions. This is linked to the fact that diapycnal velocities are not simply due to vertical mixing processes, but are also partly caused by epineutral mixing.

  20. Saturn's Polar Cyclones: Idealized 2-layer Experiments of Vorticity Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, M. E.; Emanuel, K.; Flierl, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Cassini mission has provided unprecedented high-resolution observations of Saturn's atmosphere. Among many discoveries, a massive warm-core cyclonic vortex has been observed on each pole. The South Polar Vortex (SPV), specifically, has the highest measured temperatures on Saturn, a double eyewall, deep eye and a rapid cyclonic jet with the second highest windspeeds observed on the planet. However, in part because Saturn lacks the thermal disequilibrium mechanism understood to be the energy source for tropical cyclones, scientists have yet to explain the storms' dynamics and energy source. Interestingly, numerous small, vortical (in the case of at least the SPV), and potentially convective systems are embedded within the large-scale flow of both polar vortices. We explore one potential mechanism of vortex maintenance: up-scale, poleward vorticity flux due to vortical hot towers (VHTs). Large GCMs cannot yet resolve local deep convection in the weather layer. Using a two-layer shallow water model on a polar β-plane, we represent deep convection with heton-like vortex pairs and allow them to move freely. We present results from a forced-dissipative system where the forcing is only at the convective scale, and show the effect of this 'convection' on a polar cyclone.

  1. Potential vorticity patterns in Mediterranean hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laviola, Sante; Marcello Miglietta, M.; Cerrai, Diego; Cattani, Elsa; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Two new variables have been introduced to better identify the potential vorticity (PV) anomalies due to the intrusion of dry stratospheric air from those induced by the diabatic latent heating. This new approach has been applied to the analysis of three Mediterranean tropical-like cyclones characterized by heavy precipitation patterns. Model simulations show that the interaction between an upper level PV streamer, located on the left exit of a jet stream and a middle-low level PV anomaly, induced by the convection development around the low level vortex, plays a key role in the intensification of cyclones in all cases. These anomalies, despite their strong mutual interaction, do not form a fully developed PV tower. In the mature stage, the shape of the upper level PV anomaly around the cyclone is different for each case and appears somehow dependent on the lifetime of the vortex. A first comparison with satellite-derived products seems to confirm the initial results from model simulations.

  2. In defense of Ertel's potential vorticity and its general applicability as a meteorological tracer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielsen, Edwin F.

    1990-01-01

    A potential vorticity theorem and its two summary statements published by Haynes and McIntyre are challenged conceptually by equations, discussions and examples. The apparent simplification proposed by the authors to convert from a mass to volume integral, i.e., by cancelling density against the specific volume in the potential vorticity, changes the physical significance of the integrand. It no longer is the potential vorticity. The resulting mean for either a bulk Eulerian or Lagrangian system is then not analogous to a mixing ratio and therefore not independent of the broad spectrum of internal waves, the independence that makes Ertel's potential vorticity so valuable either as a stratospheric tracer or as a predictive or diagnostic, large scale, meteorological variable.

  3. On the link between martian total ozone and potential vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, James A.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Patel, Manish R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that total ozone in the martian atmosphere is highly correlated with the dynamical tracer, potential vorticity, under certain conditions. The degree of correlation is investigated using a Mars global circulation model including a photochemical model. Potential vorticity is the quantity of choice to explore the dynamical nature of polar vortices because it contains information on winds and temperature in a single scalar variable. The correlation is found to display a distinct seasonal variation, with a strong positive correlation in both northern and southern winter at poleward latitudes in the northern and southern hemisphere respectively. The identified strong correlation implies variations in polar total ozone during winter are predominantly controlled by dynamical processes in these spatio-temporal regions. The weak correlation in northern and southern summer is due to the dominance of photochemical reactions resulting from extended exposure to sunlight. The total ozone/potential vorticity correlation is slightly weaker in southern winter due to topographical variations and the preference for ozone to accumulate in Hellas basin. In northern winter, total ozone can be used to track the polar vortex edge. The ozone/potential vorticity ratio is calculated for both northern and southern winter on Mars for the first time. Using the strong correlation in total ozone and potential vorticity in northern winter inside the polar vortex, it is shown that potential vorticity can be used as a proxy to deduce the distribution of total ozone where satellites cannot observe for the majority of northern winter. Where total ozone observations are available on the fringes of northern winter at poleward latitudes, the strong relationship of total ozone and potential vorticity implies that total ozone anomalies in the surf zone of the northern polar vortex can potentially be used to determine the origin of potential vorticity filaments.

  4. Process development of starch hydrolysis using mixing characteristics of Taylor vortices.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hayato; Horie, Takafumi; Hubacz, Robert; Ohmura, Naoto; Shimoyamada, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    In food industries, enzymatic starch hydrolysis is an important process that consists of two steps: gelatinization and saccharification. One of the major difficulties in designing the starch hydrolysis process is the sharp change in its rheological properties. In this study, Taylor-Couette flow reactor was applied to continuous starch hydrolysis process. The concentration of reducing sugar produced via enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated by varying operational variables: rotational speed of the inner cylinder, axial velocity (reaction time), amount of enzyme, and initial starch content in the slurry. When Taylor vortices were formed in the annular space, efficient hydrolysis occurred because Taylor vortices improved the mixing of gelatinized starch with enzyme. Furthermore, a modified inner cylinder was proposed, and its mixing performance was numerically investigated. The modified inner cylinder showed higher potential for enhanced mixing of gelatinized starch and the enzyme than the conventional cylinder.

  5. A potential vorticity perspective on atmospheric blocking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croci Maspoli, M.; Schwierz, C.

    2003-04-01

    A persistent large-scale anomaly of the west to east flow in the midlatitudes with a weakening and meridional splitting of the jet can be specified as atmospheric blocking. Lifetimes last from several days up to weeks so that blocking can therefore significantly determine monthly circulation index values. The vertical range affected by this phenomenon covers the entire troposphere as mirrored in increased surface pressure as well as an elevated tropopause and is also felt in the lower-stratosphere. Here we seek to shed more light on the physical mechanisms related to blocking by adopting the PV (potential vorticity) perspective with a focus on tropopause-level dynamics. Processes such as Rossby-wave breaking and diabatic heating can modify the conservative behaviour of the PV and are therefore important features for the formation and maintenance of atmospheric blocking. This motivates the definition of a novel blocking index based upon the three-dimensional structure of the phenomenon. A vertically integrated measure (PV within the 500 - 150 hPa layer, VIPV) is calculated, underlining the quasi-barotropic nature of blocked atmospheric state. Benefits of the new index include: representation of the two-dimensional structure of the phenomenon, its lifecycle and geographical distribution. The investigation is conducted over the period 1979 to 2001 using ECMWF reanalysis data. Characteristics of the VIPV field are presented. The new VIPV index is compared to a standard blocking index (e.g. Tibaldi and Molteni (1989)) on a case study basis and also with respect to seasonal variability. Relations to climate modes/indices (NAO, AO) are also discussed.

  6. Superposition of noncoaxial vortices in parametric wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhorukov, Anatoly P.; Kalinovich, Alexey A.; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Torner, Lluis

    2002-09-01

    In this paper we present a comprehensive study of the dynamics of screw phase dislocations under conditions of noncoaxial parametric three-wave mixing in the pump low-depletion regime. Under such conditions the signal and idler fields couple and so, the fields' properties change through propagation in the nonlinear crystal. We present an analytical model and a comprehensive study of the vortical features of the resulting field. The model is compared with the numerical solutions of the full equations. It is shown that by changing the relative amplitude and phase of the initial fields, one can control the domains where creation and annihilation of vortex-antivortex twins lead to different vortex content. We show that the effects studied here are relevant to a variety of physical systems. In particular, we show that the same phenomena are expected to occur in gyrotropic media and photonic crystals.

  7. Superposition of noncoaxial vortices in parametric wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Sukhorukov, Anatoly P; Kalinovich, Alexey A; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Torner, Lluis

    2002-09-01

    In this paper we present a comprehensive study of the dynamics of screw phase dislocations under conditions of noncoaxial parametric three-wave mixing in the pump low-depletion regime. Under such conditions the signal and idler fields couple and so, the fields' properties change through propagation in the nonlinear crystal. We present an analytical model and a comprehensive study of the vortical features of the resulting field. The model is compared with the numerical solutions of the full equations. It is shown that by changing the relative amplitude and phase of the initial fields, one can control the domains where creation and annihilation of vortex-antivortex twins lead to different vortex content. We show that the effects studied here are relevant to a variety of physical systems. In particular, we show that the same phenomena are expected to occur in gyrotropic media and photonic crystals.

  8. A potential vorticity theory for the formation of elongate channels in river deltas and lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcini, Federico; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2010-12-01

    Rivers empty into oceans and lakes as turbulent sediment-laden jets, which can be characterized by a Gaussian horizontal velocity profile that spreads and decays downstream because of shearing and lateral mixing at the jet margins. Recent experiments demonstrate that this velocity field controls river-mouth sedimentation patterns. In nature, diffuse jets are associated with mouth bar deposition forming bifurcating distributary networks, while focused jets are associated with levee deposition and the growth of elongate channels that do not bifurcate. River outflows from elongate channels are similar in structure to cold filaments observed in ocean currents, where high potential vorticity helps to preserve coherent structure over large distances. Motivated by these observations, we propose a hydrodynamic theory that seeks to predict the conditions under which elongate channels form. Our approach models jet velocity patterns using the flow vorticity. Both shearing and lateral spreading are directly related to the vertical component of vorticity. We introduce a new kind of potential vorticity that incorporates sediment concentration and thus allows study of jet sedimentation patterns. The potential vorticity equation reduces the number of fluid momentum equations to one without losing generality. This results in a compact analytical solution capable of describing the streamwise evolution of the potential vorticity of a sediment-laden jet from initial conditions at the river mouth. Our theory predicts that high potential vorticity is a necessary condition for focused levee deposition and the creation of elongate channels. Comparison to numerical, laboratory, and field studies indicates that potential vorticity is a primary control on channel morphology. Our results may be useful for designing river delta restoration schemes such as the proposed Mississippi Delta diversion.

  9. Measurements of the streamwise vortical structures in a plane mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1992-01-01

    The 3D structure of a plane two-stream mixing layer of velocity ratio 0.6 and originating from laminar initial boundary layers was investigated through direct measurements made in a specially constructed mixing-layer wind tunnel. The main objective of the study was to establish quantitatively the presence and the role of the secondary streamwise vortex structure (of the kind that has been shown in past flow visualization investigations to ride among the primary spanwise vortices) in the development of a plane turbulent mixing layer at relatively high Reynolds numbers. Results indicate that the instability leading to the formation of streamwise vortices is initially amplified just downstream of the first spanwise roll-up. The streamwise vortices, which first appear in clusters containing vorticity of both signs, realign further downstream to form counterrotating pairs. Due to the amalgamation of like-sign vortices, the streamwise vortex spacing increases in a stepwise fashion.

  10. TOMS total ozone trends in potential vorticity coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William J.; Wu, Fei

    1995-01-01

    Global total ozone measurements from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) are analyzed using potential vorticity (PV) as an approximate vortex-following coordinate. We analyze the time period November 1978-May 1991, prior to the volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The TOMS data are remapped into PV coordinates and trends are calculated, thereby characterizing ozone losses inside and outside the winter polar vortices. These analyses show large regions of ozone loss outside of the vortex in both hemispheres. Furthermore, these data suggest that midlatitude losses in the NH during winter-spring do not result solely from the transport of ozone depleted air from inside to outside the vortex.

  11. Potential Vorticity and Diabatic Processes in Frontal Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Michael Thomas

    1990-01-01

    In a two part study I investigate the role of potential vorticity anomalies in surface frontogenesis in both a dry and moist semi-geostrophic Eady model. Dry frontal dynamics is considered in Part one where I demonstrate rapid surface frontal formation for properly configured small disturbances even at zonal wavenumbers for which no exponentially unstable modes exist. While lack of exponential growth does not preclude frontal development the strength of the disturbance must exceed an amplitude threshold for frontal formation. In practice the finite amplitude constraint is not severe as it requires meridional winds of only a few meters per second. Part II explores surface frontogenesis in the presence of latent heat release using a generalization of the 2D Eady model that insures that the heating term gives correct asymptotic behavior at high and low temperatures. A variety of initial conditions are considered in which upper level potential vorticity disturbances induce strong positive potential vorticity anomalies near the lower surface. With uniform interior potential vorticity, baroclinic coupling between the upper disturbance and the induced surface disturbance is weak despite the near neutrality to slantwise convection. On the other hand examples of initial disturbances with interior potential vorticity show greatly enhanced baroclinic coupling between upper and lower disturbances. Comparison with observation suggests these represent a simple phenomenological description of squall line development. I also find that latent heat release destabilizes surface concentrated neutral disturbances that do not intensify in the dry problem. These frontal developments are not primarily baroclinic. Rather, the source of energy is conversion of latent heat into kinetic energy in ascent regions through generation of surface potential vorticity. Development is slow in comparison to baroclinic frontogenesis but is not crucially dependent on the presence of large amplitude

  12. A relationship between potential vorticity and zonal wind on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    We present evidence from analysis of Voyager data and numerical experiments that in Jupiter's troposphere at midlatitudes the potential vorticity is given simply by the reciprocal of the streamfunction. This relationship agrees with the results of a vortex-tube stretching analysis of the Voyager wind-field data of the Great Red Spot and White Oval BC, whereas other published models do not. The derivative of streamfunction with respect to potential vorticity is negative definite, and in the quasigeostrophic limit the relationship is neutrally stable with respect to Arnold's second stability theorem. Numerical experiments indicate that the relationship is also neutrally stable in the primitive shallow-water system. This resolves a long-standing question as to how Jupiter's cloud-top winds are able to violate the Rayleigh-Kuo stability criterion, and constrains the two-layer model to a single free parameter.

  13. TOMS total ozone trends in potential vorticity coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Randel, W.J.; Wu, F.

    1995-03-15

    Global total ozone measurements from the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) are analyzed using potential vorticity (PV) as an approximate vortex-following coordinate. We analyze the time period November 1978-May 1991, prior to the volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The TOMS data are remapped into PV coordinates and trends are calculated, thereby characterizing ozone losses inside and outside the winter polar vortices. These analyses show large regions of ozone loss outside of the vortex in both hemispheres. Furthermore, these data suggest that midlatitude losses in the NH during winter-spring do not result solely from the transport of ozone depleted air from inside to outside the vortex. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Conservation properties and potential systems of vorticity-type equations

    SciTech Connect

    Cheviakov, Alexei F.

    2014-03-15

    Partial differential equations of the form divN=0, N{sub t}+curl M=0 involving two vector functions in R{sup 3} depending on t, x, y, z appear in different physical contexts, including the vorticity formulation of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, and Maxwell's equations. It is shown that these equations possess an infinite family of local divergence-type conservation laws involving arbitrary functions of space and time. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the equations of interest have a rather special structure of a lower-degree (degree two) conservation law in R{sup 4}(t,x,y,z). The corresponding potential system has a clear physical meaning. For the Maxwell's equations, it gives rise to the scalar electric and the vector magnetic potentials; for the vorticity equations of fluid dynamics, the potentialization inverts the curl operator to yield the fluid dynamics equations in primitive variables; for MHD equations, the potential equations yield a generalization of the Galas-Bogoyavlenskij potential that describes magnetic surfaces of ideal MHD equilibria. The lower-degree conservation law is further shown to yield curl-type conservation laws and determined potential equations in certain lower-dimensional settings. Examples of new nonlocal conservation laws, including an infinite family of nonlocal material conservation laws of ideal time-dependent MHD equations in 2+1 dimensions, are presented.

  15. Phase decorrelation, streamwise vortices and acoustic radiation in mixing layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Zohar, Y.; Moser, R. D.; Rogers, M. M.; Lele, S. K.; Buell, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    Several direct numerical simulations were performed and analyzed to study various aspects of the early development of mixing layers. Included are the phase jitter of the large-scale eddies, which was studied using a 2-D spatially-evolving mixing layer simulation; the response of a time developing mixing layer to various spanwise disturbances; and the sound radiation from a 2-D compressible time developing mixing layer.

  16. Evolution of streamwise vortices and generation of small-scale motion in a plane mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nygaard, K. J.; Glezer, A.

    1991-01-01

    The present study investigates the evolution of streamwise vortices in a plane mixing layer and their role in the generation of small-scale 3D motion in a closed-return water facility. Spanwise-periodic streamwise vortices are excited by a time-harmonic wavetrain with spanwise-periodic amplitude variations synthesized by a mosaic of 32 surface film heaters flush-mounted on the low partition. The onset of streamwise vortices is accompanied by significant distortion in the transverse distribution of the streamwise velocity component. The presence of inflexion points, absent in corresponding velocity distributions of the unforced flow, suggests the formation of locally unstable regions of large shear in which broadband perturbations already present in the base flow undergo rapid amplification, followed by breakdown to small-scale motion. The cores of the primary vortices are significantly altered as a result of spanwise nonuniform excitation. The 3D features of the streamwise vortices and their interaction with the base flow are inferred from surfaces or rms velocity fluctuations and an approximation to cross-stream vorticity using 3D single component velocity data.

  17. Streamwise vorticity generation and mixing enhancement in free jets by 'delta-tabs'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of triangular tabs, placed at the nozzle exit, on the evolution of free jets is investigated. The effect, a large distortion of the jet cross section and a resultant increase in mixing downstream, has been inferred before to be due to a pair of streamwise vortices originating from each tab. In this paper, the generation mechanism of the streamwise vorticity (omega sub x) is considered first. Two sources are postulated. One is the upstream 'pressure hill', produced by the tab, which appears to be the dominant source. Another is due to vortex filaments shed from the sides of the tab and reoriented downstream by the mean shear of the mixing layer. In the case of a 'delta-tab', a triangular tab with its apex leaning downstream, vorticity from the two sources explain the stronger effect in that configuration. Data on the vorticity evolution for the effect of two delta-tabs are presented, up to twelve jet diameters from the exit, which show that the streamwise vortices persist even at the farthest measurement station. The magnitude of omega sub x-maximum decays continually with distance from the nozzle, its ratio to azimuthal vorticity maximum is found to be about 1/5 everywhere. The relative effect of a delta-tab on jets from an axisymmetric nozzle and a 8:1 rectangular nozzle is also studied. The mixing layer distortion is found to be less pronounced in the rectangular case. The jet mixing, as manifested by the mass flux measured at a downstream station, is increased in the axisymmetric jet but it is decreased in the rectangular jet under consideration by the delta-tab.

  18. Supersonic mixing enhancement by vorticity for high-speed propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settles, Gary S.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a three year study on vortex enhancement of supersonic mixing are discussed. Recent interests in compressible mixing has spurred research in the field of high speed shear layers. It was established that shear layer growth diminishes with increasing convective Mach number; this Mach number is the relative Mach number of the large scale structures in the shear layer with respect to the Mach numbers on either side of the shear layer. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of swirl on compressible mixing rates. Previously analytical and experimental results seem to indicate that swirling flow may significantly modify the shear layer, in some cases resulting in enhanced mixing. Previous studies of the effect of swirl on compressible mixing were incomplete since the amount of swirl in the flowfield was not quantified. This study was undertaken to conclusively determine the effect of swirl on supersonic mixing, including the quantification of the swirl. Preliminary results indicate that the swirl modestly enhances the mixing rates.

  19. Numerical simulation using vorticity-vector potential formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokunaga, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    An accurate and efficient computational method is needed for three-dimensional incompressible viscous flows in engineering applications. On solving the turbulent shear flows directly or using the subgrid scale model, it is indispensable to resolve the small scale fluid motions as well as the large scale motions. From this point of view, the pseudo-spectral method is used so far as the computational method. However, the finite difference or the finite element methods are widely applied for computing the flow with practical importance since these methods are easily applied to the flows with complex geometric configurations. However, there exist several problems in applying the finite difference method to direct and large eddy simulations. Accuracy is one of most important problems. This point was already addressed by the present author on the direct simulations on the instability of the plane Poiseuille flow and also on the transition to turbulence. In order to obtain high efficiency, the multi-grid Poisson solver is combined with the higher-order, accurate finite difference method. The formulation method is also one of the most important problems in applying the finite difference method to the incompressible turbulent flows. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations have been solved so far in the primitive variables formulation. One of the major difficulties of this method is the rigorous satisfaction of the equation of continuity. In general, the staggered grid is used for the satisfaction of the solenoidal condition for the velocity field at the wall boundary. However, the velocity field satisfies the equation of continuity automatically in the vorticity-vector potential formulation. From this point of view, the vorticity-vector potential method was extended to the generalized coordinate system. In the present article, we adopt the vorticity-vector potential formulation, the generalized coordinate system, and the 4th-order accurate difference method as the

  20. Vorticity-production mechanisms in shock/mixing-layer interaction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritarelli, R. C.; Kleiser, L.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we investigate analytically the importance of different vorticity-production mechanisms contributing to the shock-induced vorticity caused by the interaction of a steady oblique shock wave with a steady, planar, supersonic, laminar mixing layer. The inviscid analysis is performed under the condition of a supersonic post-shock flow, which guarantees that the shock refraction remains regular. Special attention is paid to the vorticity production induced by a change in shock strength along the shock. Our analysis subdivides the total vorticity production into its contributions due to bulk or volumetric compression, pre-shock density gradients and variable shock strength. The latter is the only contribution dependent on the shock-wave curvature. The magnitudes of these contributions are analysed for two limiting cases, i.e., the interaction of an oblique shock wave with a constant-density shear layer and the interaction with a constant-velocity mixing layer with density gradients only. Possible implications for shock/mixing-layer interactions occurring in scramjet combustors are briefly discussed.

  1. Tropical upper tropospheric humidity variations due to potential vorticity intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhya, M.; Sridharan, S.; Indira Devi, M.

    2015-09-01

    Four cases (March 2009, May 2009, April 2010 and February 2012) are presented in which the ERA-interim relative humidity (RH) shows consistent increase by more than 50 % in the upper troposphere (200-250 hPa) over tropics at the eastward side of the potential vorticity (PV) intrusion region. The increase in RH is confirmed with the spaceborne microwave limb sounder observations and radiosonde observations over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) and is observed irrespective of whether the PV intrusions are accompanied by deep convection or not. It is demonstrated that the increase in RH is due to poleward advection induced by the PV intrusions in their eastward side at the upper tropospheric heights. It is suggested that the low-latitude convection, which is not necessarily triggered by the PV intrusion, might have transported water vapour to the upper tropospheric heights.

  2. Numerical prediction and potential vorticity diagnosis of extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Zonghui

    By combining numerical simulations with different diagnostic tools, this thesis examines the various aspects of two explosively deepening cyclones-the superstorm of March 12-14 1993 and a storm that occurred during the Intensive Observation Period 14 (IOP-14) of the Canadian Atlantic Storm Program (CASP). Using conventional observations, the general aspects of the storms are documented and the dynamical and physical mechanisms are discussed. Then the life cycles are simulated with the Canadian Regional Finite-Element model. To improve the model initial conditions, a methodology is proposed on the basis of potential vorticity thinking, and is tested to be successful in the simulation of the March 1993 superstorm. Using the successful simulations as control runs, a series of numerical sensitivity experiments are conducted to study the impacts of model physics on the development of the two rapidly deepening cyclones. The deepening mechanisms of both storms are examined within the context of PV thinking, i.e., using piecewise potential vorticity inversion diagnostics. In both cases, the upper-level PV anomalies contribute the most to the surface cyclone, followed by the lower-level thermal anomalies and diabatic heating related moist PV anomaly. It is found that a favorable phase tilt between the upper- and lower-level PV anomalies allows a mutual interaction between them, in which the circulations associated with the upper-level anomalies enhance the lower-level anomalies, which in turn feedback positively into the upper-level PV anomalies. In addition to the vertical interactions, there also exist lateral interactions between the upper-level PV anomalies for the March 1993 superstorm. The upper-level PV features (troughs) are isolated with the piecewise PV inversion. By removing or changing the intensity of the trough in the initial conditions, the RFE model is integrated to examine the impact of each trough and its interaction with the other trough on the superstorm

  3. Behavior of streamwise rib vortices in a three-dimensional mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, J. M.; Bulbeck, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    The structure and behavior of a streamwise rib vortex in a direct numerical simulation of a time-developing three-dimensional incompressible plane mixing layer is examined. Where the rib vortex is being stretched, the vorticity vector is primarily directed in the vortex axial direction and the radial and azimuthal velocity distribution is similar to that of a Burger's vortex. In the region where the vortex stretching is negative, there is a change in the local topology of the vortex. The axial flow is decelerated and a negative azimuthal component of vorticity is induced. These features are characteristic of vortex breakdown. The temporal evolution of the rib vortex is similar to the evolution of an axisymmetric vortex in the early stages of vortex breakdown. The effect of vortex breakdown on other parts of the flow is, however, not as significant as the interaction between the rib vortex and other vortices.

  4. Experimental Study of Micro-Scale Taylor Vortices Within a Co-Axial Mixed-Flow Blood Pump.

    PubMed

    Shu, Fangjun; Tian, Ruijun; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Antaki, James F

    2015-12-29

    Taylor vortices in a miniature mixed-flow rotodynamic blood pump were investigated using micro-scale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) and a tracer particle visualization technique. The pump featured a cylindrical rotor (14.9 mm diameter) within a cylindrical bore, having a radial clearance of 500 μm and operated at rotational speeds varying from 1000 to 12 000 rpm. Corresponding Taylor numbers were 700-101 800, respectively. The critical Taylor number was observed to be highly dependent on the ratio of axial to circumferential velocity, increasing from 1200 to 18 000 corresponding to Rossby numbers from 0 to 0.175. This demonstrated a dramatic stabilizing effect of the axial flow. The size of Taylor vortices was also found to be inversely related to Rossby number. It is concluded that Taylor vortices can enhance the mixing in the annular gap and decrease the dwell time of blood cells in the high-shear-rate region, which has the potential to decrease hemolysis and platelet activation within the blood pump.

  5. Three-dimensional isoneutral potential vorticity structure in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Mary C.; Talley, Lynne D.

    1999-06-01

    The three-dimensional isoneutral potential vorticity structure of the Indian Ocean is examined using World Ocean Circulation Experiment and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration conductivity-temperature-depth data and historical bottle data. The distribution of the potential vorticity is set by the Indian Ocean's source waters and their circulation inside the basin. The lower thermocline has a high potential vorticity signal extending westward from northwest of Australia and a low signal from the Subantarctic Mode Water in the south. The Antarctic Intermediate Water inflow creates patches of high potential vorticity at intermediate depths in the southern Indian Ocean, below which the field becomes dominated by planetary vorticity, indicating a weaker meridional circulation and weaker potential vorticity sources. Wind-driven gyre depths have lower potential vorticity gradients primarily due to same-source waters. Homogenization and western shadow zones are not observed. The β-effect dominates the effect of the Somali Current and the Red Sea Water on the potential vorticity distribution. Isopleths tilt strongly away from latitude lines in the deep and abyssal waters as the Circumpolar Deep Water fills the basins in deep western boundary currents, indicating a strong meridional circulation north of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The lower-gradient intermediate layer surrounded vertically by layers with higher meridional potential vorticity gradients in the subtropical Indian Ocean suggests that Rossby waves will travel ˜1.3 times faster than standard theory predicts. To the south, several pools of homogenized potential vorticity appear in the upper 2000 m of the Southern Ocean where gyres previously have been identified. South of Australia the abyssal potential vorticity structure is set by a combination of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the bathymetry.

  6. Diagnostics of Cyclogenesis Over the Aegean Sea Using Potential Vorticity Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocas, H. A.

    In this study an attempt is made to investigate comprehensively the dynamics of a case of cyclogenesis over the Aegean Sea within the context of the potential vorticity. At early stages the cyclogenesis is manifested by a large scale development at the upper levels over Adriatic Sea and Yugoslavia associated with an upper tropospheric potential vorticity anomaly. At later stages a smaller scale development was generated over Aegean Sea associated with a low-level potential vorticity anomaly and a surface warm anomaly. By means of a two-dimensional potential vorticity inversion it is demonstrated that the scale, the position and the strength of the involved anomalies contribute to the surface development, however, the low-level potential vorticity anomaly seems to constitute the most significant feature, more likely to be associated with condensation.

  7. Transverse forces on vortices in superfluids in a periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonin, E. B.

    2016-08-01

    The paper analyzes the transverse forces (the Magnus and the Lorentz forces) on vortices in superfluids put into periodic potentials at T =0 . The case of weak potential and the tight-binding limit described by the Bose-Hubbard model were addressed. The analysis was based on the balance of true momentum and quasimomentum. A special attention was paid to the superfluid close to the superfluid-insulator transition. In this area of the phase diagram the theory predicts the particle-hole symmetry line where the Magnus force changes sign with respect to that expected from the sign of velocity circulation. Our analysis has shown that the magnitude of the Magnus force is a continuous function at crossing the particle-hole symmetry line. This challenges the theory connecting the magnitude of the Magnus force with topological Chern numbers and predicting a jump at crossing this line. Disagreement is explained by the role of intrinsic pinning and guided vortex motion ignored in the topological approach. It is one more evidence that in general topological arguments are not sufficient for derivation of equations of vortex motion.

  8. Tropical plumes due to potential vorticity intrusions over Indian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhya, M.; Sridharan, S.; Indira Devi, M.

    2016-05-01

    Four cases of potential vorticity (PV) intrusion events over Indian sector (March 2009, April 2010, April 2010 and March 2014) which lead to the generation of tropical plumes (TP) are presented. The PV intrusions are identified from the threshold value of ERA (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) Reanalysis)-interim PV at 350 K isentropic level greater than 1.4 potential vorticity unit (PVU) (1 PVU = 10- 6 Km2kg- 1 s- 1) at 13.5°N. These PV intrusions trigger convection to the east, which is identified from the low (< 270 K) infrared brightness temperature. It is noted that the spatial extent of convection is large in these cases and is similar to the TP structures commonly present over eastern Pacific and Atlantic sectors during northern winter. The Meteosat IR imagery also confirms the occurrence of tropical plumes over Indian sector. The TPs play a major role in the transport of moisture from lower latitudes to higher latitudes. The ERA-interim specific humidity averaged for 200-300 hPa shows large scale moisture transport from lower to higher latitudes tracking the plume structure. Apart from these, interannual and seasonal variations of the occurrence of TP in connection with the PV intrusion events over Indian sector for the years 2000-2014 are presented. It is found that the number of occurrence of TP is more during February-April and all the PV intrusions do not lead to the TP structures. The life time of majority of TP over Indian sector is found to be 1-2 days and all the TP are not precipitative. Unlike reported earlier, the PV intrusions having broad trough are also leading to TP over Indian sector, whereas the PV intrusions having narrow trough (less than 3° longitude band) do not lead to TP. Besides, the occurrence of TP does not relate to even the depth of penetration of PV trough. It is demonstrated that the occurrence of TP is due to the poleward advection associated with the PV intrusion.

  9. Zero potential vorticity envelopes for the zonal-mean velocity of the Venus/Titan atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Zhou, Wei

    1994-01-01

    The diagnostic analysis of numerical simulations of the Venus/Titan wind regime reveals an overlooked constraint upon the latitudinal structure of their zonal-mean angular momentum. The numerical experiments, as well as the limited planetary observations, are approximately consistent with the hypothesis that within the latitudes bounded by the wind maxima the total Ertel potential vorticity associated with the zonal-mean motion is approximately well mixed with respect to the neutral equatorial value for a stable circulation. The implied latitudinal profile of angular momentum is of the form M equal to or less than M(sub e)(cos lambda)(exp 2/Ri), where lambda is the latitude and Ri the local Richardson number, generally intermediate between the two extremes of uniform angular momentum (Ri approaches infinity) and uniform angular velocity (Ri = 1). The full range of angular momentum profile variation appears to be realized within the observed meridional - vertical structure of the Venus atmosphere, at least crudely approaching the implied relationship between stratification and zonal velocity there. While not itself indicative of a particular eddy mechanism or specific to atmospheric superrotation, the zero potential vorticity (ZPV) constraint represents a limiting bound for the eddy - mean flow adjustment of a neutrally stable baroclinic circulation and may be usefully applied to the diagnostic analysis of future remote sounding and in situ measurements from planetary spacecraft.

  10. Potential vorticity regimes over East Asia during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenyu; Chen, Ruyan; Wang, Bin; Wright, Jonathon S.; Yang, Zifan; Ma, Wenqian

    2017-02-01

    Nine potential vorticity (PV) regimes over East Asia are identified by applying a Self-Organizing Map and Hierarchical Ascendant Classification regime analysis to the daily PV reanalysis fields on the 300 K isentropic surface for December-March 1948-2014. According to the surface temperature anomalies over East Asia, these nine regimes are further classified into three classes, i.e., cold class (three regimes), warm class (four regimes), and neutral class (two regimes). The PV-based East Asian winter monsoon index (EAWMI) is used to study the relationship between PV distributions and the temperature anomalies. The magnitude of cold (warm) anomalies over the land areas of East Asia increases (decreases) quasi-linearly with the EAWMI. Regression analysis reveals that cold temperature anomalies preferentially occur when the EAWMI exceeds a threshold at ˜0.2 PVU (where 1 PVU ≡ 10-6 m2 K kg-1 s-1). PV inversion uncovers the mechanisms behind the relationships between the PV regimes and surface temperature anomalies and reveals that cold (warm) PV regimes are associated with significant warming (cooling) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. On average, cold regimes have longer durations than warm regimes. Interclass transition probabilities are much higher for paths from warm/neutral regimes to cold regimes than for paths from cold regimes to warm/neutral regimes. Besides, intraclass transitions are rare within the warm or neutral regimes. The PV regime analysis provides insight into the causes of severe cold spells over East Asia, with blocking circulation patterns identified as the primary factor in initiating and maintaining these cold spells.

  11. Diabatic modification of potential vorticity in extratropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagnon, J.

    2012-12-01

    Representation of diabatic processes and their impact on extratropical cyclones is a likely source of skill degradation in operational numerical weather prediction systems. This investigation examines the source, structure, and magnitude of diabatic potential vorticity (PV) anomalies generated by small-scale and parameterized processes in both mesoscale and global model simulations of extratropical cyclones in the North Atlantic. Simulations of several cold season extratropical storms have been performed using the Met Office Unified Model. Several cases simulated were drawn from the DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExTratropical cyclones (DIAMET) observational campaign during which the National Environmental Research Council (NERC) Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAE-146 aircraft was deployed. The influence of specific modelled processes was quantified using a set of tracers, each of which represents a history of the PV contributed by a specific segment of the model (e.g., boundary-layer scheme, cloud microphysics, convection scheme , radiation, etc.). This presentation will highlight several differences and similarities in high and low resolution simulations. For example, in high resolution simulations, tropopause folds are sharpened by a tripolar PV anomaly arising from the convection, boundary-layer, and microphysics schemes; this structure is not present in coarser global model simulations. However, a dipole of PV straddling the tropopause is diagnosed in both coarse- and fine-resolution simulations. The PV dipole, which is strongly influenced by long-wave radiative cooling, increases the gradient of PV near the tropopause and therefore modifies the characteristics Rossby wave propagation and moist baroclinic wave growth.

  12. Potential Vorticity Evolution in the Co-orbital Region of Embedded Protoplanets

    SciTech Connect

    Koller, J.

    2004-04-01

    This thesis presents two-dimensional hydrodynamic disk simulations with embedded protoplanets, emphasizing the non-linear dynamics in the co-orbital region. In particular, it demonstrates how a protoplanetary disk responds to embedded low mass planets at the inviscid limit. Since the potential vorticity (PV) flow is not conserved, due to the spiral shocks and possibly boundary layer effects emanating from the planet, the PV profile develops inflection points which eventually render the flow unstable. Vortices are produced in association with the potential vorticity minima. Born in the separatrix region, these vortices experience close encounters with the planet, consequently exerting strong torques on the planet. The existence of these vortices, if confirmed, have important implications on planetary migration rates. The formation of vortices is discussed in more detail and a key parameter is found which depends solely on planet mass and sound speed. With this key parameter, one can predict the disk evolution, PV growth rates, and threshold conditions for forming vortices in the co-orbital region. An analytical estimate for the change of PV due to shocks is compared to the actual change in PV in the hydrodynamic simulations. They match well except in the inner region where vortices form. In addition, extensive resolution tests were carried out but uncertainties remain about the physics of this particular region.

  13. Statistics of Vortical Structures in Variable-Density Turbulent Mixing Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, Jon; Livescu, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Direct Numerical Simulations are performed of temporal incompressible shear-driven planar mixing layers between two miscible streams of fluids with different densities. The simulations begin from thin disturbed interfaces and develop into self-similar states. We use very large domain sizes, corresponding to grids of up to 6144 x 2048 x 1536 points, to produce high-quality statistics and allow natural growth of turbulent structures. A wide range of Atwood numbers are explored, ranging from nearly constant density to A=0.87 (or a density ratio of 14). At high Atwood numbers, a variety of statistics show that variable-density effects produce significant asymmetries. Here we focus on the differences in vortical structure of the light and heavy fluid streams and the importance of non-Boussinesq effects as Atwood number increases. Detailed budgets of vorticity moments are examined in conjunction with the alignments of vorticity relative to other flow quantities. The results display the variable density effects due to compositional variations, a distinctly different mechanism from the density variations associated with compressibility in high-speed flows.

  14. Jupiter's zonal winds: are they bands of homogenized potential vorticity organized as a monotonic staircase?

    PubMed

    Marcus, Philip S; Shetty, Sushil

    2011-02-28

    The east-west striped pattern of clouds in Jupiter's weather layer is accompanied by a zonal flow containing 12 eastward-going jet streams alternating in latitude with westward-going jet streams. Based on theory, simulation and observations of the Earth's oceans and atmosphere, it is conjectured that Jupiter's weather layer is made of bands of constant potential vorticity (PV), where the interfaces between bands are at the latitudes of the maxima of the eastward-going jet streams. It is speculated that the mixing of PV on Jupiter is analogous to the mixing of salt in the ocean by the Phillips effect, which causes the salt density to form a monotonic 'staircase'. It is hypothesized that the PV in Jupiter's weather layer is also a staircase, decreasing from north to south. PV is a function of vorticity, as well as parameters with unknown values, e.g. the vertical stratification and the zonal flow beneath the observable weather layer. Therefore, these hypotheses cannot be tested directly. Using an atmospheric model that contains these unknown parameters, we solved the inverse problem and found values of the unknown parameters (and their uncertainties) that best fit Jovian observations. The unknown parameters influence how the zonal flow interacts with large vortices, e.g. the Great Red Spot (GRS; the largest and longest-lived Jovian vortex, centred at 23° S) and the Oval BA (the second largest vortex, centred at 33° S). Although we found that the PV distribution is approximately piecewise-constant and that the peaks of the eastward-going jet streams are at the latitudes of PV interfaces, there is also a PV interface at 20° S, where there is a westward-going jet stream. We find that the zonal PV is not a monotonic staircase due to the 'backwards' interface at 20° S. We show that this backwards interface is necessary to make the GRS nearly round, and that without that interface, the Red Spot would be highly elongated in the east-west direction and probably unstable.

  15. The estimation of heat and potential vorticity balance: applications to the Tourbillon array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Verdière, Alain Colin

    1986-03-01

    Long term direct current meter observations from Eastern Atlantic Basin Experiments are used to evaluate some of the terms of the quasigeostrophic equations thought to hold for long period motions in the ocean. A methodology is presented to estimate quantities such as streamfunction, vorticity and gradient of vorticity in an optimal way. At frequencies <0.5 cycles per year beta spiral dynamics appear to be of marginal relevance because the eddy buoyancy fluxes contribute significantly in such local analysis. The Tourbillon Experiment provides useful data for studies of motions at mesoscale frequencies: it is found that horizontal advections of heat and potential vorticity are major elements to balance the time rate of change of such quantities, substantiating the highly nonlinear character of the underlying eddy population. Significant relative vorticity fluxes are found below the main pycnocline. Statistics of other important terms such as vertical advection of heat and vortex stretching could not be estimated properly with the present data set.

  16. Creating orbiting vorticity vectors in magnetic particle suspensions through field symmetry transitions-a route to multi-axis mixing.

    PubMed

    Martin, James E; Solis, Kyle J

    2016-01-28

    It has recently been reported that two types of triaxial electric or magnetic fields can drive vorticity in dielectric or magnetic particle suspensions, respectively. The first type-symmetry-breaking rational fields-consists of three mutually orthogonal fields, two alternating and one dc, and the second type-rational triads-consists of three mutually orthogonal alternating fields. In each case it can be shown through experiment and theory that the fluid vorticity vector is parallel to one of the three field components. For any given set of field frequencies this axis is invariant, but the sign and magnitude of the vorticity (at constant field strength) can be controlled by the phase angles of the alternating components and, at least for some symmetry-breaking rational fields, the direction of the dc field. In short, the locus of possible vorticity vectors is a 1-d set that is symmetric about zero and is along a field direction. In this paper we show that continuous, 3-d control of the vorticity vector is possible by progressively transitioning the field symmetry by applying a dc bias along one of the principal axes. Such biased rational triads are a combination of symmetry-breaking rational fields and rational triads. A surprising aspect of these transitions is that the locus of possible vorticity vectors for any given field bias is extremely complex, encompassing all three spatial dimensions. As a result, the evolution of a vorticity vector as the dc bias is increased is complex, with large components occurring along unexpected directions. More remarkable are the elaborate vorticity vector orbits that occur when one or more of the field frequencies are detuned. These orbits provide the basis for highly effective mixing strategies wherein the vorticity axis periodically explores a range of orientations and magnitudes.

  17. Creating orbiting vorticity vectors in magnetic particle suspensions through field symmetry transitions–a route to multi-axis mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle Jameson

    2015-11-09

    It has recently been reported that two types of triaxial electric or magnetic fields can drive vorticity in dielectric or magnetic particle suspensions, respectively. The first type-symmetry -- breaking rational fields -- consists of three mutually orthogonal fields, two alternating and one dc, and the second type -- rational triads -- consists of three mutually orthogonal alternating fields. In each case it can be shown through experiment and theory that the fluid vorticity vector is parallel to one of the three field components. For any given set of field frequencies this axis is invariant, but the sign and magnitude of the vorticity (at constant field strength) can be controlled by the phase angles of the alternating components and, at least for some symmetry-breaking rational fields, the direction of the dc field. In short, the locus of possible vorticity vectors is a 1-d set that is symmetric about zero and is along a field direction. In this paper we show that continuous, 3-d control of the vorticity vector is possible by progressively transitioning the field symmetry by applying a dc bias along one of the principal axes. Such biased rational triads are a combination of symmetry-breaking rational fields and rational triads. A surprising aspect of these transitions is that the locus of possible vorticity vectors for any given field bias is extremely complex, encompassing all three spatial dimensions. As a result, the evolution of a vorticity vector as the dc bias is increased is complex, with large components occurring along unexpected directions. More remarkable are the elaborate vorticity vector orbits that occur when one or more of the field frequencies are detuned. As a result, these orbits provide the basis for highly effective mixing strategies wherein the vorticity axis periodically explores a range of orientations and magnitudes.

  18. Creating orbiting vorticity vectors in magnetic particle suspensions through field symmetry transitions–a route to multi-axis mixing

    DOE PAGES

    Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle Jameson

    2015-11-09

    It has recently been reported that two types of triaxial electric or magnetic fields can drive vorticity in dielectric or magnetic particle suspensions, respectively. The first type-symmetry -- breaking rational fields -- consists of three mutually orthogonal fields, two alternating and one dc, and the second type -- rational triads -- consists of three mutually orthogonal alternating fields. In each case it can be shown through experiment and theory that the fluid vorticity vector is parallel to one of the three field components. For any given set of field frequencies this axis is invariant, but the sign and magnitude ofmore » the vorticity (at constant field strength) can be controlled by the phase angles of the alternating components and, at least for some symmetry-breaking rational fields, the direction of the dc field. In short, the locus of possible vorticity vectors is a 1-d set that is symmetric about zero and is along a field direction. In this paper we show that continuous, 3-d control of the vorticity vector is possible by progressively transitioning the field symmetry by applying a dc bias along one of the principal axes. Such biased rational triads are a combination of symmetry-breaking rational fields and rational triads. A surprising aspect of these transitions is that the locus of possible vorticity vectors for any given field bias is extremely complex, encompassing all three spatial dimensions. As a result, the evolution of a vorticity vector as the dc bias is increased is complex, with large components occurring along unexpected directions. More remarkable are the elaborate vorticity vector orbits that occur when one or more of the field frequencies are detuned. As a result, these orbits provide the basis for highly effective mixing strategies wherein the vorticity axis periodically explores a range of orientations and magnitudes.« less

  19. An equivalent potential vorticity theory applied to the analysis and prediction of severe storm dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, D. A.; Kaplan, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    Potential vorticity theory is developed in a description of an equivalent potential temperature topography, and a new theory suited to the description of scale interaction is elaborated. Macroscale triggering of ageostrophic flow fields at the mesoscale, in turn leading to release of convective instability along narrow zones at the microscale, is examined. Correlation of appreciable decrease in potential vorticity with such phenomena as cumulonimbi, tornados, and duststorms is examined. The relevance of a multiscale energy-momentum cascade in numerical prediction of severe mesoscale and microscale phenomena from radiosonde data is reviewed. Hypotheses for mesoscale dynamics are constructed.

  20. The development of a mixing layer under the action of weak streamwise vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.; Mathew, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The action of weak, streamwise vortices on a plane, incompressible, steady mixing layer is examined in the large Reynolds number limit. The outer, inviscid region is bounded by a vortex sheet to which the viscous region is confined. It is shown that the local linear analysis becomes invalid at streamwise distances O(epsilon sup -1), where (epsilon much less than 1) is the crossflow amplitude, and a new nonlinear analysis is constructed for this region. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear problem show that the vortex sheet undergoes an O(1) change in position and that the solution is ultimately terminated by a breakdown in the numerical procedure. The corresponding viscous layer shows downstream thickening, but appears to remain well behaved up to the terminal location.

  1. The development of a mixing layer under the action of weak streamwise vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Marvin E.; Mathew, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The action of weak, streamwise vortices on a plane, incompressible, steady mixing layer is examined in the large Reynolds-number limit. The outer, inviscid region is bounded by a vortex sheet to which the viscous region is confined. It is shown that the local linear analysis becomes invalid at streamwise distances O(epsilon(sup -1)), where epsilon is much less than 1 is the cross flow amplitude, and a new nonlinear analysis is constructed for this region. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear problem show that the vortex sheet undergoes an O(1) change in position and that the solution is ultimately terminated by the appearance of a singularity. The corresponding viscous layer shows downstream thickening, but appears to remain well behaved up to the singular location.

  2. Experiments on the enhancement of compressible mixing via streamwise vorticity. II - Vortex strength assessment and seed particle dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naughton, J. W.; Cattafesta, L. N.; Settles, G. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of streamwise vorticity on compressible axisymmetric mixing layers is examined using vortex strength assessment and seed particle dynamics analysis. Experimental results indicate that the particles faithfully represent the dynamics of the turbulent swirling flow. A comparison of the previously determined mixing layer growth rates with the present vortex strength data reveals that the increase of turbulent mixing up to 60 percent scales with the degree of swirl. The mixing enhancement appears to be independent of the compressibility level of the mixing layer.

  3. Synergy dynamics of vortices and solitons in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate excited by an oscillating potential

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Kazuya; Tsubota, Makoto

    2010-10-15

    The hydrodynamics of quantized vortices and solitons in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate excited by an oscillating potential are studied by numerically solving the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The oscillating potential keeps nucleating vortex dipoles, whose impulses alternately change their direction synchronously with the oscillation of the potential. This leads to synergy dynamics of vortices and solitons in quantum fluids.

  4. Vortical Solitons of Three-Dimensional Bose—Einstein Condensates under Both a Bichromatic Optical Lattice and Anharmonic Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Bo; Zong, Feng-De; Wang, Ying

    2013-06-01

    We study Bose—Einstein condensate vortical solitons under both a bichromatic optical lattice and anharmonic potential. The vortical solitons are built in the form of a layer-chain structure made up of two fundamental vortices along the bichromatic optical lattice direction, which have not been reported before in the three-dimensional Bose—Einstein condensate. A variation approach is applied to find the optimum initial solutions of vortical solitons. The stabilities of the vortical solitons are confirmed by the numerical simulation of the time-dependent Gross—Pitaevskii equation. In particular, stable Bose—Einstein condensate vortical solitons with fundamental vortices of different atomic numbers in the external potential within a range of experimentally achievable timescales are found. We further manipulate the vortical solitons to an arbitrary position by steadily moving the bichromatic optical lattice, and find a stable region for the successful manipulation of vortical solitons without collapse. These results provide insight into controlling and manipulating the Bose—Einstein condensate vortical solitons for macroscopic quantum applications.

  5. Subtropical Potential Vorticity Intrusion Drives Increasing Tropospheric Ozone over the Tropical Central Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Graf, Hans-F.; Lan, Xiaoqing; Gong, Hainan; Nath, Reshmita; Hu, Kaiming; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Drawn from multiple reanalysis datasets, an increasing trend and westward shift in the number of Potential Vorticity intrusion events over the Pacific are evident. The increased frequency can be linked to a long-term trend in upper tropospheric equatorial westerly wind and subtropical jets during boreal winter to spring. These may be resulting from anomalous warming and cooling over the western Pacific warm pool and the tropical eastern Pacific, respectively. The intrusions brought dry and ozone rich air of stratospheric origin deep into the tropics. In the tropical upper troposphere, interannual ozone variability is mainly related to convection associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Zonal mean stratospheric overturning circulation organizes the transport of ozone rich air poleward and downward to the high and midlatitudes leading there to higher ozone concentration. In addition to these well described mechanisms, we observe a long-term increasing trend in ozone flux over the northern hemispheric outer tropical (10–25°N) central Pacific that results from equatorward transport and downward mixing from the midlatitude upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during PV intrusions. This increase in tropospheric ozone flux over the Pacific Ocean may affect the radiative processes and changes the budget of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals. PMID:26868836

  6. A potential vorticity-based determination of the transport barrier in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploeger, F.; Gottschling, C.; Griessbach, S.; Grooß, J.-U.; Guenther, G.; Konopka, P.; Müller, R.; Riese, M.; Stroh, F.; Tao, M.; Ungermann, J.; Vogel, B.; von Hobe, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Asian summer monsoon provides an important pathway of tropospheric source gases and pollution into the lower stratosphere. This transport is characterized by deep convection and steady upwelling, combined with confinement inside a large-scale anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). In this paper, we show that a barrier to horizontal transport along the 380 K isentrope in the monsoon anticyclone can be determined from a local maximum in the gradient of potential vorticity (PV), following methods developed for the polar vortex (e.g., Nash et al., 1996). The monsoon anticyclone is dynamically highly variable and the maximum in the PV gradient is weak, such that additional constraints are needed (e.g., time averaging). Nevertheless, PV contours in the monsoon anticyclone agree well with contours of trace gas mixing ratios (CO, O3) and mean age from model simulations with a Lagrangian chemistry transport model (CLaMS) and satellite observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument. Hence, the PV-based transport barrier reflects the separation between air inside the core of the anticyclone and the background atmosphere well. For the summer season 2011 we find an average PV value of 3.6 PVU for the transport barrier in the anticyclone on the 380 K isentrope.

  7. Tropical upper tropospheric ozone enhancements due to potential vorticity intrusions over Indian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhya, M.; Sridharan, S.; Indira Devi, M.; Gadhavi, H.

    2015-09-01

    Influence of potential vorticity (PV) intrusions at 13.5°N over and near Indian sector (50°E-90°E) on tropical upper tropospheric ozone mixing ratio (OMR) variations is demonstrated based on two case studies. Increase of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) reanalysis (ERA)-interim OMR in the upper troposphere (200-500 hPa) is observed during the intrusion events consistently in both cases. The OMR also shows similar tongue like structure as PV and it even follows the spatial shift of the PV tongue. In addition, the enhancements in the upper tropospheric OMR during the intrusion events are confirmed using microwave limb sounder (MLS) ozone data at 216 hPa. It is suggested that the existence of strong downdrafts, associated with the ageostrophic circulation due to jet stream, which is inferred from longitude-height cross-section of ERA-interim vertical velocity could bring the ozone further down, though high PV tongue remains only at higher level (above 400 hPa). The importance of these results lies in demonstrating the role of PV intrusion events on the enhancement of tropical upper tropospheric ozone over Indian sector, where the impact of the PV intrusions is not well understood when compared to that over Pacific and Atlantic sectors.

  8. Subtropical Potential Vorticity Intrusion Drives Increasing Tropospheric Ozone over the Tropical Central Pacific.

    PubMed

    Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Graf, Hans-F; Lan, Xiaoqing; Gong, Hainan; Nath, Reshmita; Hu, Kaiming; Wang, Lin

    2016-02-12

    Drawn from multiple reanalysis datasets, an increasing trend and westward shift in the number of Potential Vorticity intrusion events over the Pacific are evident. The increased frequency can be linked to a long-term trend in upper tropospheric equatorial westerly wind and subtropical jets during boreal winter to spring. These may be resulting from anomalous warming and cooling over the western Pacific warm pool and the tropical eastern Pacific, respectively. The intrusions brought dry and ozone rich air of stratospheric origin deep into the tropics. In the tropical upper troposphere, interannual ozone variability is mainly related to convection associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Zonal mean stratospheric overturning circulation organizes the transport of ozone rich air poleward and downward to the high and midlatitudes leading there to higher ozone concentration. In addition to these well described mechanisms, we observe a long-term increasing trend in ozone flux over the northern hemispheric outer tropical (10-25°N) central Pacific that results from equatorward transport and downward mixing from the midlatitude upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during PV intrusions. This increase in tropospheric ozone flux over the Pacific Ocean may affect the radiative processes and changes the budget of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals.

  9. Evolution of potential vorticity in the winter stratosphere of January-February 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerton, Timothy J.; Delisi, Donald P.

    Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) observations are used to study the evolution of potential vorticity in the stratosphere, January-February 1979. Daily analysis of this quantity at 850° and 1200°K provides circumstantial evidence of planetary wave ``breaking'' by which air parcels undergo rapid and irreversible separation from the circumpolar vortex during stratospheric warnings. Complementing this effect is the advection of subtropical, low-vorticity air into the polar region. Temporal evolution of the size, shape, and orientation of the main circumpolar vortex is revealed very clearly by the potential vorticity field. All three factors are important, although some have been emphasized more strongly in previous literature. The size of the vortex determines the range of latitudes over which planetary Rossby waves are able to propagate vertically. Diminution of vortex area during the observed warmings is believed to precondition the flow, focusing subsequent Rossby wave activity into the polar cap, as in the major warming of late February 1979. The shape of the vortex undergoes both reversible and irreversible deformation. Examples of irreversible deformation are seen in the advective formation of extended high-vorticity tongues over subtropical latitudes in connection with the warnings of late January, early February, and late February 1979. Two of these were recently discussed by McIntyre and Palmer. Reversible deformation is observed in the sudden cooling and concurrent wave 1, wave 2 vacillation, after the January warming. The orientation of the vortex can also be important, as in the period of rotation leading up to the major wave 2 warming of late February 1979. We suggest that the orientation of the vortex be included as part of the preconditioning process, in accord with numerical results of Butchart et al. We briefly consider the vertical structure of potential vorticity and ozone on two disturbed days in late January 1979

  10. Dynamics of quantum vorticity in a random potential.

    PubMed

    Link, Bennett

    2009-04-03

    I study the dynamics of a superfluid vortex in a random potential, as in the inner crust of a neutron star. Below a critical flow velocity of the ambient superfluid, a vortex is effectively immobilized by lattice forces even in the limit of zero dissipation. Low-velocity, translatory motion is not dynamically possible, a result with important implications for understanding neutron star precession and the dynamical properties of superfluid nuclear matter.

  11. Emergence of large-scale vorticity during diffusion in a random potential under an alternating bias.

    PubMed

    Makeev, Maxim A; Derényi, Imre; Barabási, Albert-László

    2005-02-01

    Conventional wisdom indicates that the presence of an alternating driving force will not change the long-term behavior of a Brownian particle moving in a random potential. Although this is true in one dimension, here we offer direct evidence that the inevitable local symmetry breaking present in a two-dimensional random potential leads to the emergence of a local ratchet effect that generates large-scale vorticity patterns consisting of steady-state net diffusive currents. For small fields the spatial correlation function of the current follows a logarithmic distance dependence, while for large external fields both the vorticity and the correlations gradually disappear. We uncover the scaling laws characterizing this unique pattern formation process, and discuss their potential relevance to real systems.

  12. DC to AC converter on Abrikosov vortices in a washboard pinning potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklovskij, Valerij A.; Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.

    2014-05-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of Abrikosov vortices in a cosine dc-biased washboard pinning potential at nonzero temperature is theoretically investigated. The problem is treated relying upon the exact solution of the Langevin equation for non-interacting vortices by using the Fokker-Planck method combined with the scalar continued fractions technique. The time variation of the local mean vortex velocity v(t) is calculated. The time voltage E(t) ~ v(t) is predicted to oscillate with a dc current-dependent frequency and a tunable pulse shape. Formulas for v(t) are discussed as functions of dc transport current and temperature, in a wide range of the corresponding dimensionless parameters. The derived expressions can be adapted for a number of physical applications utilizing the overdamped motion of a Brownian particle in a tilted cosine potential, e.g., the resistively shunted Josephson junction model.

  13. A potential vorticity-based index for the East Asian winter monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wenyu; Wang, Bin; Wright, Jonathon S.

    2016-08-01

    A novel dynamically based index that reflects the strength of the regional potential vorticity (PV) intrusion on the 300 K isentropic surface is proposed as a reliable measure of East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) intensity. The index captures essential aspects of the EAWM, including its climatic influences on East Asia, its continuous weakening trend since the 1980s, and its close relationships with the Siberian high, Arctic Oscillation, and El Niño. The use of a potential vorticity framework enables the definition of a new metric called continuous PV intrusion duration (CPVID), which can be used to monitor and explain wintertime weather extremes like the extreme snowfall event that occurred in south China during January 2008. The CPVID of March is comparable to that of December, indicating that data from this month should be included in estimates of the strength of the EAWM.

  14. Northern hemisphere mid-stratosphere vortex processes diagnosed from H2O, N2O and potential vorticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahoz, W. A.; Carr, E. S.; Froidevaux, L.; Harwood, R. S.; Kumer, J. B.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Peckham, G. E.; Read, W. G.; Ricaud, P. D.; Roche, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) H2O Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) N2O and potential vorticity calculated from UK Meteorological Office data are used to study mid-stratospheric vortex processes in the northern hemisphere winter of 1991-1992. Areas of moist air (at approx. 20 hPa) and N2O-poor air (at approx. 10hPa) are well-correlated with high values of potential vorticity and there is little or no large scale mixing across the vortex edge. We find evidence for the descent of relatively dry mesospheric air to the 840 K (approx. 10 hPa) level, as well as descent of moist air from the upper stratosphere to the 655 K (approx. 20 hPa) level. A reduction in the areas of the vortex and both the moist and H2O-poor regions is observed and there is evidence of moist and N2O-poor air parcels being extruded from the vortex.

  15. Idealized numerical simulation study of the potential vorticity banners over a mesoscale mountain: Dry adiabatic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiwei; Tan, Zhemin

    2009-09-01

    Topography-induced potential vorticity (PV) banners over a mesoscale topography (Dabie Mountain, hereafter DM) in eastern China, under an idealized dry adiabatic flow, are studied with a mesoscale numerical model, ARPS. PV banners generate over the leeside of the DM with a maximal intensity of ˜1.5 PVU, and extend more than 100 km downstream, while the width varies from several to tens of kilometers, which contrasts with the half-width of the peaks along the ridge of the DM. Wave breaking occurs near the leeside surface of the DM, and leads to a strong PV generation. Combining with the PV generation, due to the friction and the flow splitting upstream, the PV is advected downstream, and then forms the PV banners over the DM. The PV banners are sensitive to the model resolution, Coriolis force, friction, subgrid turbulent mixing, stratification, the upstream wind speed and wind direction. The negative PV banners have a more compact connection with the low level turbulent kinetic energy. The PV banners are built up by the baroclinic and barotropic components. The barotropic-associated PV can identify the distribution of the PV banners, while the baroclinic one only has important contributions on the flanks and on the leeside near the topography. PV fluxes are diagnosed to investigate the influence of friction on the PV banners. Similar patterns are found between the total PV flux and the advective PV flux, except near the surface and inside the dipole of the PV banners, where the nonadvective PV flux associated with the friction has a net negative contribution.

  16. Thin film mixed potential sensors

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Brosha, Eric L.; Mukundan, Rangachary

    2007-09-04

    A mixed potential sensor for oxidizable or reducible gases and a method of making. A substrate is provided and two electrodes are formed on a first surface of the substrate, each electrode being formed of a different catalytic material selected to produce a differential voltage between the electrodes from electrochemical reactions of the gases catalyzed by the electrode materials. An electrolytic layer of an electrolyte is formed over the electrodes to cover a first portion of the electrodes from direct exposure to the gases with a second portion of the electrodes uncovered for direct exposure to the gases.

  17. Potential Vorticity Streamers as Precursors to Tropical Cyclone Genesis in the Western Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    rearrangement of the upper-level PV structure via diabatic processes, resulting in a necessary reduction of vertical wind shear. 14...a tropopause-level potential vorticity (PV) anomaly. The second stage involved the rearrangement of the upper-level PV structure via diabatic ...13  b.   PV Anomaly Forcing of Convection ......................................14  c.  Repercussion of Diabatic Processes on PV Structure

  18. Role of Stratospheric Air in a Severe Weather Event: Analysis of Potential Vorticity and Total Ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goering, Melissa A.; Gallus, William A., Jr.; Olsen, Mark A.; Stanford, John L.

    2001-01-01

    The role of dry stratospheric air descending to low and middle tropospheric levels in a severe weather outbreak in the midwestern United States is examined using ACCEPT Eta model output, Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) analyses, and Earth probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP/TOMS) total ozone data. While stratospheric air was not found to play a direct role in the convection, backward trajectories show stratospheric air descended to 800 hPa just west of the convection. Damaging surface winds not associated with thunderstorms also occurred in the region of greatest stratospheric descent. Small-scale features in the high-resolution total ozone data compare favorably with geopotential heights and potential vorticity fields, supporting the notion that stratospheric air descended to near the surface. A detailed vertical structure in the potential vorticity appears to be captured by small-scale total ozone variations. The capability of the total ozone to identify mesoscale features assists model verification. The total ozone data suggest biases in the RUC analysis and Eta forecast of this event. The total ozone is also useful in determining whether potential vorticity is of stratospheric origin or is diabatically generated in the troposphere.

  19. Potential vorticity index vacillation in the 1978/79 winter - Its relation to teleconnnection patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weng, Heng-Yi

    1992-01-01

    The time series of the potential vorticity (PV) index, defined as a measure of the zonally averaged midlatitude PV gradient on the 30 K isentropic surface in the Northern Hemisphere, is studied. The time series and other indices, their variations, and their correlations in the frequency domain are investigated. Teleconnection patterns based on the spatial representation of cross-correlation functions between the PV index and 500 mb geopotential-height anomaly are presented. The rhythm of atmospheric motion organized by the PV dynamics is shown.

  20. Estimating Downward Cross-Tropopause Ozone Flux using Column Ozone and Potential Vorticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new method of estimating the downward ozone flux across the midlatitude tropopause is introduced. The algorithm derives the estimate from total column ozone observations. Vertical information is given by analysis potential vorticity fields. This method yields an annual estimate of 500 +/- 140 Tg/yr stratospheric injection of ozone into the northern hemisphere, midlatitude troposphere. The downward ozone flux exhibits the expected spring maximum and autumn minimum. The annual distribution of the cross-tropopause ozone, transport by latitude is consistent with the seasonal frequency and (list distribution) of baroclinic systems. This algorithm also produces localized results and call thus be applied to a single case or global studies.

  1. Multi-platform observation of submesoscale vortices formed by deep vertical mixing: characterization and role for the general circulation of the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, Anthony; Testor, Pierre; Mortier, Laurent; Houpert, Loïc

    2015-04-01

    Since 2010, an intense effort in the collection of in-situ observations has been carried out in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea thanks to gliders, regular cruises and a highly instrumented mooring line. This integrated observing system enabled a year-to-year monitoring of the deep water formation that occurred in the Gulf of Lions area during the 4 consecutive winters of the study period (2010-2013). Vortical structures remnant of wintertime deep vertical mixing events were regularly sampled by different platforms. They are isolated Submesoscale Coherent Vortices (SCVs) characterized by a small radius (~5km), strong depth-intensified azimutal velocities (~10-15cm/s) with a weaker surface signature, high Rossby (~0.5) and Burger (~1) numbers. Anticyclones are found to transport mode and newly formed deep waters resulting from vertical mixing characterized by intermediate (~300-500m) to deep (~2000m) mixing. Cyclones are characterized by a weakly stratified core of newly formed Western Mediterranean Deep Waters (or Dense Shelf Waters that cascaded from the shelf of the Gulf of Lions in 2012) extending from ~500-1000m depth to the bottom (~2300m). The formation of the cyclones might be favoured by bottom-reaching convection or cascading events reaching the abyssal plain. This study confirms the prominent role anticyclonic SCVs and shed light into the role of cyclonic SCVs in the spreading of newly formed deep waters out of an open-ocean deep convection area. They could also potentially impact vertical mixing during the the following winter through a local preconditioning effect.

  2. An Introduction to LANL Mixed Potential Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric Lanich; Kreller, Cortney

    2015-01-26

    These are slides for a webinar given on the topics of an introduction to LANL mixed potential sensors. Topics include the history of LANL electrochemical sensor work, an introduction to mixed potential sensors, LANL uniqueness, and an application of LANL mixed potential sensors. The summary is as follows: Improved understanding of the mixed-potential sensor mechanism (factors controlling the sensor response identified), sensor design optimized to maximize sensor sensitivity and durability (porous electrolyte/dense electrodes), electrodes selected for various specific applications (CO, HC, H2), sensor operating parameters optimized for improved gas selectivity (NOx, NH3).

  3. Nonlinear mixing of optical vortices with fractional topological charge in Raman sideband generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohaber, J.; Boran, Y.; Sayrac, M.; Johnson, L.; Zhu, F.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the nonlinear parametric interaction of femtosecond fractionally-charged optical vortices in a Raman-active medium. Propagation of such beams was described using the Kirchhoff-Fresnel integrals by embedding a non-integer 2π phase step in a Gaussian beam profile. When using fractionally-charged pump or Stokes beams, we observed the production of new topological charge and phase discontinuities in the Raman field. These newly generated fractionally-charged Raman vortex beams were found to follow the same orbital angular momentum algebra derived by Strohaber et al (2012 Opt. Lett. 37 3411) for integer vortex beams.

  4. Western Pacific Tropospheric Ozone and Potential Vorticity: Implications for Asian Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Newell, Reginald E.; Davis, Douglas D.; Liu, Shaw C.

    1997-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (03) cross sections measured with lidar from a DC-8 aircraft over the western Pacific correspond closely with potential vorticity (PV). Both are transported from the middle latitude stratosphere, although this is not the only source of 03, and both have sinks in the tropical boundary layer. 03 and PV are good indicators of photochemical and transport process interactions. In summer, some Asian pollution, raised by convection to the upper troposphere, passes southward into the tropics and to the Southern Hemisphere. In winter, subsidence keeps the pollution at low altitudes where it moves over the ocean towards the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), with photochemical destruction and secondary pollutant generation occurring en route. Convection raises this modified air to the upper troposphere, where some re may enter the stratosphere. Thus winter Asian pollution may at have a smaller direct influence on the global atmosphere than it would if injected at other longitudes and seasons.

  5. Hybridized Abrikosov Flux-lines and Pancake Vortices in Two-band Superconductors with Mixed Dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Eschrig, M.

    2008-03-01

    We study electronic structure and thermodynamic properties of a two-band superconductor, in which one band is ballistic and quasi-two dimensional (2D), and the other is diffusive and three dimensional (3D). We assume that superconductivity in the 3D diffusive band is ``weak'', i.e., mostly induced, as is the case in MgB2. Hybridization with the ``weak'' 3D diffusive band has significant and intriguing influence on the electronic properties of the ``strong'' 2D ballistic band. In particular, the effects of Coulomb interactions in the diffusive band and unusual Kramer-Pesch effect are examined. Furthermore, based on a circular-cell approximation within the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity, we explore the effects of magnetic field on vortex structure in such a two-band superconductor. We discuss hybridization of Abrikosov flux lines in the 3D diffusive band with pancake vortices in the 2D ballistic band.

  6. Nonlinear adjustment of a localized layer of buoyant, uniform potential vorticity fluid against a vertical wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfrich, Karl R.

    2006-08-01

    The nonlinear evolution of a localized layer of buoyant, uniform potential vorticity fluid with depth H, width w and length L released adjacent to a wall in a rotating system is studied using reduced-gravity shallow-water theory and numerical modeling. In the interior, far from the two ends of the layer, the initial adjustment gives, after ignoring inertia-gravity waves, a geostrophic flow of width w and layer velocities parallel to the wall directed in the downstream direction (defined by Kelvin wave propagation). This steady geostrophic flow serves as the initial condition for a semigeostrophic solution using the method of characteristics. At the downstream end, the theory shows that the fluid intrudes along the wall as rarefaction terminating at a nose of vanishing width and depth. However, in a real fluid the presence of the lower layer leads to a blunt gravity current head. The theory is amended by introducing a gravity current head condition that has a blunt bore joined to the rarefaction by a uniform gravity current. The upstream termination of the initial layer produces a Kelvin rarefaction that propagates downstream, decreasing the layer depth along the wall, and initiating upstream flow adjacent to the wall. The theoretical solution compares favorably to numerical solutions of the reduced-gravity shallow-water equations. The agreement between theory and numerical solutions occurs regardless of whether the numerical runs are initiated with an adjusted geostrophic solution or with the release of a stagnant layer. The latter case excites inertia-gravity waves that, despite their large amplitude and breaking, do not significantly affect the evolution of the geostrophic flow. At times beyond the validity of the semigeostrophic theory, the numerical solutions evolve into a stationary array of vortices. The vortex formation can be interpreted as the finite-amplitude manifestation of a linear instability of the new flow established by the passage of the Kelvin

  7. Potential vorticity and layer thickness variations in the flow around Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Oval BC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Timothy E.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1988-01-01

    Using Voyager images, layer thickness variations in the flow around Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and White Oval BC were investigated by treating potential vorticity as a conserved tracer. Fluid trajectories around the GRS and the White Oval BC were calculated assuming the flow to be frictionless, adiabatic, hydrostatic, and steady in the reference frame of the vortex. The data obtained constitute a useful diagnostic which will help to differentiate between models of Jovian vortices. Implications of the observations were studied in the context of a one-layer quasi-geostrophic model in which a thin upper weather layer, which contains the vortex, is supported hydrostatically by a much deeper lower layer.

  8. Temporal development of the correlation between ozone and potential vorticity in the Arctic in the winters of 1988/1989, 1989/1990, and 1990/1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knudsen, Bjorn; Vondergathen, Peter; Braathen, Geir O.; Fabian, Rolf; Jorgensen, Torben S.; Kyro, Esko; Neuber, Roland; Rummukainen, Markku

    1994-01-01

    Ozone sonde data of the winters 1988/89, 1989/90, and 1990/91 from a group of Arctic stations are used in this study. The ozone mixing ratio on several isentropic surfaces is correlated to the potential vorticity (P). The P is based on the initialized analysis data from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Similar investigations were made by Lait et al. (Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 521-524, March Supplement 1990) for the AASE campaign (January and February 1989), showing how the ozone mixing ratio varies with the distance to the edge of the vortex. Their findings are confirmed and extended to the following two winters. Furthermore we have studied the temporal development of the P-ozone correlations during these winters in order to recognize any chemical ozone depletion.

  9. Separating Internal Waves and Vortical Motions: Analysis of LatMix -EM-APEX Float Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    observing processes that lead to lateral mixing of water properties. The exploitation of autonomous platforms is a long-term goal. OBJECTIVES...Primary conclusions of the experiment are • EM-APEX float array is a powerful tool in assessing the motion and water properties on small...Goodman. (2015). Submesoscale water -mass spectra in the Sargasso Sea, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45, 1325-1338. Lien, R.-C. and P. Müller (1992). Normal mode

  10. Impacts of cloud-induced mass forcing on the development of moist potential vorticity anomaly during torrential rains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shouting; Zhou, Yushu; Cui, Xiaopeng; Dai, Guoping

    2004-12-01

    The impacts of cloud-induced mass forcing on the development of the moist potential vorticity (MPV) anomaly associated with torrential rains are investigated by using NCEP/NCAR 1° × 1° data. The MPV tendency equation with the cloud-induced mass forcing is derived, and applied to the torrential rain event over the Changjiang River-Huaihe River Valleys during 26 30 June 1999. The result shows that positive anomalies are located mainly between 850 hPa and 500 hPa, while the maximum MPV, maximum positive tendency of the MPV, and maximum surface rainfall are nearly collocated. The cloud-induced mass forcing contributes to the positive tendency of the moist potential vorticity anomaly. The results indicate that the MPV may be used to track the propagation of rain systems for operational applications.

  11. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Symmetry Analysis of Barotropic Potential Vorticity Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihlo, Alexander; Popovych, Roman O.

    2009-10-01

    Recently F. Huang [Commun. Theor. Phys. 42 (2004) 903] and X. Tang and P.K. Shukla [Commun. Theor. Phys. 49 (2008) 229] investigated symmetry properties of the barotropic potential vorticity equation without forcing and dissipation on the beta-plane. This equation is governed by two dimensionless parameters, F and β, representing the ratio of the characteristic length scale to the Rossby radius of deformation and the variation of earth' angular rotation, respectively. In the present paper it is shown that in the case F ≠ 0 there exists a well-defined point transformation to set β = 0. The classification of one- and two-dimensional Lie subalgebras of the Lie symmetry algebra of the potential vorticity equation is given for the parameter combination F ≠ 0 and β = 0. Based upon this classification, distinct classes of group-invariant solutions are obtained and extended to the case β ≠ 0.

  12. Central European tornado environments as viewed from a potential vorticity and Lagrangian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Michael A.; Sprenger, Michael; Moore, Richard W.

    2011-07-01

    ECMWF analysis data in conjunction with infrared satellite imagery and surface weather analyses from the German Weather Service are used to investigate 15 significant central European tornadoes (F2 intensity on the Fujita scale) that occurred in 2005 and 2006. The primary goals of the work are to: (i) determine the typical synoptic and mesoscale environments that are conducive to European tornadogenesis; (ii) compare and contrast the said environments with those found in the central United States (US), with a specific focus on severe storm predictors; and (iii) elucidate a methodology for the real-time forecasting of these destructive storms that, in addition to the use of severe storm predictors, leans heavily on the potential vorticity (PV) and Lagrangian frameworks of analysis. With the caveats that there is significant case-to-case variability and the sample size is relatively small, the results illustrate that most European tornadoes form close to (within 200 km of) a distinct upper-level PV anomaly and a majority under the cyclonic side of an upper-level jet streak. Lower-level forcing, in the form of surface fronts, is also found to be present in a number of cases. With regards to severe storm predictors (convective available potential energy, storm-relative helicity and the energy helicity index), this study confirms the earlier findings that, while representative values for European tornadic environments are substantially lower than their US counterparts, they do provide useful predictive information in that their values tend to be markedly higher than the local, monthly climatology. A subsequent Lagrangian analysis that isolates the coherent air streams present in US and European tornadoes provides significant insight into the discrepancies in both the synoptic environments and the absolute magnitude of the severe storm predictors. Backward trajectories launched from the tornado genesis time and position, illustrate that low-level flow blocking by the

  13. A Nonlinear Multigrid Solver for an Atmospheric General Circulation Model Based on Semi-Implicit Semi-Lagrangian Advection of Potential Vorticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormick, S.; Ruge, John W.

    1998-01-01

    This work represents a part of a project to develop an atmospheric general circulation model based on the semi-Lagrangian advection of potential vorticity (PC) with divergence as the companion prognostic variable.

  14. A potential-flow, deformable-body model for fluid structure interactions with compact vorticity: application to animal swimming measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John O.

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents an approach to quantify the unsteady fluid forces, moments and mass transport generated by swimming animals, based on measurements of the surrounding flow field. These goals are accomplished within a framework that is independent of the vorticity field, making it unnecessary to directly resolve boundary layers on the animal, body vortex interactions, or interactions among vortex lines in the wake. Instead, the method identifies Lagrangian coherent structures in the flow, whose dynamics in flows with compact vorticity are shown to be well approximated by potential flow concepts, especially the Kirchhoff and deformation potentials from deformable body theory. Examples of the application of these methods are given for pectoral fin locomotion of the bluegill sunfish and undulatory swimming of jellyfish, and the methods are validated by analysis of a canonical starting vortex ring flow. The transition to a Lagrangian approach toward animal swimming measurements suggests the possibility of implementing recently developed particle tracking (vis-à-vis DPIV) techniques for fully three-dimensional measurements of animal swimming.

  15. Rotary-wing aerodynamics. Volume 1: Basic theories of rotor aerodynamics with application to helicopters. [momentum, vortices, and potential theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of rotary-wing aircraft in general is defined. The energy effectiveness of helicopters is compared with that of other static thrust generators in hover, as well as with various air and ground vehicles in forward translation. The most important aspects of rotor-blade dynamics and rotor control are reviewed. The simple physicomathematical model of the rotor offered by the momentum theory is introduced and its usefulness and limitations are assessed. The combined blade-element and momentum theory approach, which provides greater accuracy in performance predictions, is described as well as the vortex theory which models a rotor blade by means of a vortex filament or vorticity surface. The application of the velocity and acceleration potential theory to the determination of flow fields around three dimensional, non-rotating bodies as well as to rotor aerodynamic problems is described. Airfoil sections suitable for rotors are also considered.

  16. Analysis of isentropic potential vorticities for the relationship between stratospheric polar vortex and the cooling process in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze the relationships between stratospheric polar vortex anomalies and cooling events in eastern China using isentropic reanalysis data from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Daily mean data from 2000 to 2011 are used to explore the effective stratospheric signals. First, diagnoses of the 2009/2010 winter show that after the stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) of the Atlantic-East Asian (AEA) pattern, the stratospheric high isentropic potential vorticity(IPV) center derived from the split polar vortex will move to the northeast of the Eurasian continent. The air mass, accompanied by some southward and eastward movements and characterized by high IPV values, will be stretched vertically, leading to apparent reinforcements of the positive vorticity and the development of a cold vortex system in the troposphere. The northerly wind on the western side of the cold vortex can transport cold air southward and downward, resulting in this distinct cooling process in eastern China. Secondly, the Empirical Orthogonal Function analyses of IPV anomalies on the 430 K isentropic surface during 2000-2011 winters indicate that the IPV distribution and time series of the first mode are able to represent the polar vortex variation features, which significantly influence cold-air activity in eastern China, especially in the AEA-type SSW winter. When the time series increases significantly, the polar vortex will be split and the high-IPV center will move to the northeast of the Eurasian continent with downward and southward developments, inducing obvious cooling in eastern China. Moreover, all the four times SSW events of AEA pattern from 2000 to 2011 are reflected in the first time series, and after the strong polar vortex disturbances, cooling processes of different intensities are observed in eastern China. The cooling can sustain at least one week. For this reason the first time series can be used as an available index of polar vortex oscillation and has

  17. Constructing Synoptic Maps of Stratospheric Column Ozone from HALOE, SAGE and Balloonsonde Data Using Potential Vorticity Isentropic Coordinate Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollandsworth, Stacey M.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Morris, Gary A.; Long, Craig; Zhou, Shuntai; Miller, Alvin J.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we utilize potential vorticity - isentropic (PVI) coordinate transformations as a means of combining ozone data from different sources to construct daily, synthetic three-dimensional ozone fields. This methodology has been used successfully to reconstruct ozone maps in particular regions from aircraft data over the period of the aircraft campaign. We expand this method to create high-resolution daily global maps of profile ozone data, particularly in the lower stratosphere, where high-resolution ozone data are sparse. Ozone climatologies in PVI-space are constructed from satellite-based SAGE II and UARS/HALOE data, both of which-use solar occultation techniques to make high vertical resolution ozone profile measurements, but with low spatial resolution. A climatology from ground-based balloonsonde data is also created. The climatologies are used to establish the relationship between ozone and dynamical variability, which is defined by the potential vorticity (in the form of equivalent latitude) and potential temperature fields. Once a PVI climatology has been created from data taken by one or more instruments, high-resolution daily profile ozone field estimates are constructed based solely on the PVI fields, which are available on a daily basis from NCEP analysis. These profile ozone maps could be used for a variety of applications, including use in conjunction with total ozone maps to create a daily tropospheric ozone product, as input to forecast models, or as a tool for validating independent ozone measurements when correlative data are not available. This technique is limited to regions where the ozone is a long-term tracer and the flow is adiabatic. We evaluate the internal consistency of the technique by transforming the ozone back to physical space and comparing to the original profiles. Biases in the long-term average of the differences are used to identify regions where the technique is consistently introducing errors. Initial results show

  18. What Causes Mars' Annular Polar Vortices?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D. W.; Guzewich, S. D.

    2016-09-01

    Martian polar vortices exhibit annuli of high potential vorticity, unlike the Earth, likely due to the effect of latent heating of carbon dioxide condensation in polar regions, which does not occur for Earth's most abundant atmospheric species.

  19. Compact vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M. A.; Menezes, R.; Zafalan, I.

    2017-02-01

    We study a family of Maxwell-Higgs models, described by the inclusion of a function of the scalar field that represent generalized magnetic permeability. We search for vortex configurations which obey first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. We first deal with the asymptotic behavior of the field configurations, and then implement a numerical study of the solutions, the energy density and the magnetic field. We work with the generalized permeability having distinct profiles, giving rise to new models, and we investigate how the vortices behave, compared with the solutions of the corresponding standard models. In particular, we show how to build compact vortices, that is, vortex solutions with the energy density and magnetic field vanishing outside a compact region of the plane.

  20. Vorticity generation by contoured wall injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Waitz, I.A.; Marble, F.E.; Zukoski, E.E. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena )

    1992-07-01

    A class of contoured wall fuel injectors was designed to enable shock-enhancement of hypervelocity mixing for supersonic combustion ramjet applications. Previous studies of these geometries left unresolved questions concerning the relative importance of various axial vorticity sources in mixing the injectant with the freestream. The present study is a numerical simulation of two generic fuel injectors which is aimed at elucidating the relative roles of axial vorticity sources including: baroclinic torque through shock-impingement, cross-stream shear, turning of boundary layer vorticity, shock curvature, and diffusive flux. Both the magnitude of the circulation, and the location of vorticity with respect to the mixing interface were considered. Baroclinic torque and cross-stream shear were found to be most important in convectively mixing the injectant with the freestream, with the former providing for deposition of vorticity directly on the fuel/air interface. 19 refs.

  1. Vorticity generation by contoured wall injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A.; Marble, Frank E.; Zukoski, Edward E.

    1992-01-01

    A class of contoured wall fuel injectors was designed to enable shock-enhancement of hypervelocity mixing for supersonic combustion ramjet applications. Previous studies of these geometries left unresolved questions concerning the relative importance of various axial vorticity sources in mixing the injectant with the freestream. The present study is a numerical simulation of two generic fuel injectors which is aimed at elucidating the relative roles of axial vorticity sources including: baroclinic torque through shock-impingement, cross-stream shear, turning of boundary layer vorticity, shock curvature, and diffusive flux. Both the magnitude of the circulation, and the location of vorticity with respect to the mixing interface were considered. Baroclinic torque and cross-stream shear were found to be most important in convectively mixing the injectant with the freestream, with the former providing for deposition of vorticity directly on the fuel/air interface.

  2. Boundary-layer turbulence modeling and vorticity dynamics: I. A kangaroo-process mixing model of boundary-layer turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, H.; de Leeuw, G.; van den Brink, A. Maassen

    A nonlocal turbulence transport theory is presented by means of a novel analysis of the Reynolds stress, inter alia involving the construct of a sample path space and a stochastic hypothesis. An analytical sampling rate model (satisfying exchange) and a nonlinear scaling relation (mapping the path space onto the boundary layer) lead to an integro-differential equation for the mixing of scalar densities, which represents fully-developed boundary-layer turbulence as a nondiffusive (Kubo-Anderson or kangaroo) type stochastic process. The underlying near-wall behavior (i.e. for y +→0) of fluctuating velocities fully agrees with recent direct numerical simulations. The model involves a scaling exponent ɛ, with ɛ→∞ in the diffusion limit. For the (partly analytical) solution for the mean velocity profile, excellent agreement with the experimental data yields ɛ≈0.58. The significance of ɛ as a turbulence Cantor set dimension (in the logarithmic profile region, i.e. for y +→∞) is discussed.

  3. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    apl.uw.edu/dasaro LONG-TERM GOALS I seek to understand the processes controlling lateral mixing in the ocean, particularly at the submesoscale ...APPROACH During AESOP, Lee and D’Asaro pioneered an innovative approach to measuring submesoscale structure in strong fronts. An adaptive measurement...injection of potential vorticity and scalars is predicted to create an intense ‘ submesoscale soup’ of high small-scale variance. The combination of small

  4. Vorticity Field from Successive Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two-dimensional version of the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) was used to numerically simulate the interaction of wake vortices from closely separated aircraft. The aircraft parameters and separations are taken from observed data at an actual airport. The wake vortices are generated near the runway threshold for four successive aircraft. The ambient conditions are characterized by light crosswinds and stable stratification. This movie shows the time sequence of the vorticity field from the successive wake vortices. Apparent are the interactions between each pair of successive wake vortices and the ground.

  5. First Generation College Student Leadership Potential: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojan-Clark, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods research compared the leadership potential of traditionally aged first generation college students to that of college students whose parents are college educated. A college education provides advantages to those who can obtain it (Baum & Payea, 2004; Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005; Education and the Value of…

  6. A potential-flow, deformable-body model for fluid-structure interactions with compact vorticity: application to animal swimming measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John O.

    This paper presents an approach to quantify the unsteady fluid forces, moments and mass transport generated by swimming animals, based on measurements of the surrounding flow field. These goals are accomplished within a framework that is independent of the vorticity field, making it unnecessary to directly resolve boundary layers on the animal, body-vortex interactions, or interactions among vortex lines in the wake. Instead, the method identifies Lagrangian coherent structures in the flow, whose dynamics in flows with compact vorticity are shown to be well approximated by potential flow concepts, especially the Kirchhoff and deformation potentials from deformable body theory. Examples of the application of these methods are given for pectoral fin locomotion of the bluegill sunfish and undulatory swimming of jellyfish, and the methods are validated by analysis of a canonical starting vortex ring flow. The transition to a Lagrangian approach toward animal swimming measurements suggests the possibility of implementing recently developed particle tracking (vis-à-vis DPIV) techniques for fully three-dimensional measurements of animal swimming.

  7. LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) observation of traveling planetary waves and potential vorticity advection in the stratosphere and mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerton, Timothy J.

    1991-02-01

    Eastward and westward traveling waves were observed by the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) during the northern winter 1978-1979. Eastward waves were prevalent in early winter and were involved in a minor Canadian warming in December 1978. A large westward traveling wave, as described by previous authors, was observed in January 1979 during a series of minor warmings. By comparing these two events, it is shown that in both cases the superposition of traveling and quasi-stationary waves led to constructive interference that was responsible for the warmings. However, there was significant asymmetry between eastward and westward traveling components. A local Eulerian analysis of potential vorticity (PV) transport indicates that adiabatic, geostrophic advection by the resolvable scales of motion explains qualitatively (but not quantitatively) the observed potential vorticity tendencies in the LIMS Northern Hemisphere winter. In particular, calculated advection explains the eastward rotation of the main vortex, intrusion of low PV air into the polar cap, and formation of high PV filaments at the vortex periphery.

  8. The potential for free and mixed convection in sedimentary basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raffensperger, J.P.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    1999-01-01

    Free thermal convection and mixed convection are considered as potential mechanisms for mass and heat transport in sedimentary basins. Mixed convection occurs when horizontal flows (forced convection) are superimposed on thermally driven flows. In cross section, mixed convection is characterized by convection cells that migrate laterally in the direction of forced convective flow. Two-dimensional finite-element simulations of variable-density groundwater flow and heat transport in a horizontal porous layer were performed to determine critical mean Rayleigh numbers for the onset of free convection, using both isothermal and semi-conductive boundaries. Additional simulations imposed a varying lateral fluid flux on the free-convection pattern. Results from these experiments indicate that forced convection becomes dominant, completely eliminating buoyancy-driven circulation, when the total forced-convection fluid flux exceeds the total flux possible due to free convection. Calculations of the thermal rock alteration index (RAI=q????T) delineate the patterns of potential diagenesis produced by fluid movement through temperature gradients. Free convection produces a distinct pattern of alternating positive and negative RAIs, whereas mixed convection produces a simpler layering of positive and negative values and in general less diagenetic alteration. ?? Springer-Verlag.

  9. Quantized vortices around wavefront nodes, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschfelder, J. O.; Goebel, C. J.; Bruch, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    Quantized vortices can occur around nodal points in wavefunctions. The derivation depends only on the wavefunction being single valued, continuous, and having continuous first derivatives. Since the derivation does not depend upon the dynamical equations, the quantized vortices are expected to occur for many types of waves such as electromagnetic and acoustic. Such vortices have appeared in the calculations of the H + H2 molecular collisions and play a role in the chemical kinetics. In a companion paper, it is shown that quantized vortices occur when optical waves are internally reflected from the face of a prism or particle beams are reflected from potential energy barriers.

  10. Interatomic potentials for mixed oxide and advanced nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwary, Pratyush; Walle, Axel van de; Jeon, Byoungseon; Groenbech-Jensen, Niels

    2011-03-01

    We extend our recently developed interatomic potentials for UO{sub 2} to the fuel system (U,Pu,Np)O{sub 2}. We do so by fitting against an extensive database of ab initio results as well as to experimental measurements. The applicability of these interactions to a variety of mixed environments beyond the fitting domain is also assessed. The employed formalism makes these potentials applicable across all interatomic distances without the need for any ambiguous splining to the well-established short-range Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark universal pair potential. We therefore expect these to be reliable potentials for carrying out damage simulations (and molecular dynamics simulations in general) in nuclear fuels of varying compositions for all relevant atomic collision energies.

  11. LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) observation of traveling planetary waves and potential vorticity advection in the stratosphere and mesosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkerton, T.J. )

    1991-02-20

    Eastward and westward traveling waves were observed by the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) during the northern winter 1978-1979. Eastward waves were prevalent in early winter and were involved in a minor Canadian warming in December 1978. A large westward traveling wave, as described by previous authors, was observed in January 1979 during a series of minor warmings. By comparing these two events, it is shown that in both cases the superposition of traveling and quasi-stationary waves led to constructive interference that was responsible for the warmings. However, there was significant asymmetry between eastward and westward traveling components. Eastward disturbances were confined mostly within the polar vortex, whereas quasi-stationary and westward traveling components propagated to the vortex periphery and beyond, into the tropics and mid-latitude mesosphere. This behavior is consistent with Rossby wave propagation and indicates that the location and magnitude of planetary wave breaking is sensitive to the frequency spectrum entering the middle atmosphere. However, this asymmetry is also a signature of the nonlinear critical layer as it projects onto the frequency spectrum. Both interpretations are shown to be valid during wave events observed by LIMS. A local Eulerian analysis of potential vorticity (PV) transport indicates that adiabatic, geostrophic advection by the resolvable scales of motion explains qualitatively (but not quantitatively) the observed potential vorticity tendencies in the LIMS northern hemisphere winter. In particular, calculated advection explains the eastward rotation of the main vortex, intrusion of low PV air into the polar cap, and formation of high PV filaments at the vortex periphery.

  12. Radiolysis Model Formulation for Integration with the Mixed Potential Model

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2014-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology has established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to conduct the research and development activities related to storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level radioactive waste. Within the UFDC, the components for a general system model of the degradation and subsequent transport of UNF is being developed to analyze the performance of disposal options [Sassani et al., 2012]. Two model components of the near-field part of the problem are the ANL Mixed Potential Model and the PNNL Radiolysis Model. This report is in response to the desire to integrate the two models as outlined in [Buck, E.C, J.L. Jerden, W.L. Ebert, R.S. Wittman, (2013) “Coupling the Mixed Potential and Radiolysis Models for Used Fuel Degradation,” FCRD-UFD-2013-000290, M3FT-PN0806058

  13. Correlations between Abelian monopoles and center vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini Nejad, Seyed Mohsen; Deldar, Sedigheh

    2017-04-01

    We study the correlations between center vortices and Abelian monopoles for SU(3) gauge group. Combining fractional fluxes of monopoles, center vortex fluxes are constructed in the thick center vortex model. Calculating the potentials induced by fractional fluxes constructing the center vortex flux in a thick center vortex-like model and comparing with the potential induced by center vortices, we observe an attraction between fractional fluxes of monopoles constructing the center vortex flux. We conclude that the center vortex flux is stable, as expected. In addition, we show that adding a contribution of the monopole-antimonopole pairs in the potentials induced by center vortices ruins the Casimir scaling at intermediate regime.

  14. What causes Mars' annular polar vortices?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D. W.; Guzewich, S. D.

    2017-01-01

    A distinctive feature of the Martian atmosphere is that the winter polar vortices exhibit annuli of high potential vorticity (PV) with a local minimum near the pole. These annuli are seen in observations, reanalyses, and free-running general circulation model simulations of Mars, but are not generally a feature of Earth's polar vortices, where there is a monotonic increase in magnitude of PV with latitude. The creation and maintenance of the annular polar vortices on Mars are not well understood. Here we use simulations with a Martian general circulation model to the show that annular vortices are related to another distinctive, and possibly unique in the solar system, feature of the Martian atmosphere: the condensation of the predominant atmospheric gas species (CO2) in polar winter regions. The latent heat associated with CO2 condensation leads to destruction of PV in the polar lower atmosphere, inducing the formation of an annular PV structure.

  15. Vortices in a rotating two-component Bose–Einstein condensate with tunable interactions and harmonic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Du, Zhi-Jing; Tan, Ren-Bing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang

    2014-07-15

    We consider a pair of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations modeling a rotating two-component Bose–Einstein condensate with tunable interactions and harmonic potential, with emphasis on the structure of vortex states by varying the strength of inter-component interaction, rotational frequency, and the aspect ratio of the harmonic potential. Our results show that the inter-component interaction greatly enhances the effect of rotation. For the case of isotropic harmonic potential and small inter-component interaction, the initial vortex structure remains unchanged. As the ratio of inter- to intra-component interactions increases, each component undergoes a transition from a vortex lattice (vortex line) in an isotropic (anisotropic) harmonic potential to an alternatively arranged stripe pattern, and eventually to the interwoven “serpentine” vortex sheets. Moreover, in the case of anisotropic harmonic potential the system can develop to a rotating droplet structure. -- Highlights: •Different vortex structures are obtained within the full parameter space. •Effects of system parameters on the ground state structure are discussed. •Phase transition between different vortex structures is also examined. •Present one possible way to obtain the rotating droplet structure. •Provide many possibilities to manipulate vortex in two-component BEC.

  16. Vortices and turbulence in trapped atomic condensates

    PubMed Central

    White, Angela C.; Anderson, Brian P.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-01-01

    After more than a decade of experiments generating and studying the physics of quantized vortices in atomic gas Bose–Einstein condensates, research is beginning to focus on the roles of vortices in quantum turbulence, as well as other measures of quantum turbulence in atomic condensates. Such research directions have the potential to uncover new insights into quantum turbulence, vortices, and superfluidity and also explore the similarities and differences between quantum and classical turbulence in entirely new settings. Here we present a critical assessment of theoretical and experimental studies in this emerging field of quantum turbulence in atomic condensates. PMID:24704880

  17. The fate of pancake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutyrin, G. G.; Radko, T.

    2017-03-01

    Nonlinear evolution of pancake-like vortices in a uniformly rotating and stratified fluid is studied using a 3D Boussinesq numerical model at large Rossby numbers. After the initial stage of viscous decay, the simulations reveal exponential growth of toroidal circulation cells (aka Taylor vortices) at the peripheral annulus with a negative Rayleigh discriminant. At the nonlinear stage, these thin cells redistribute the angular momentum and density differently at the levels of radial outflow and inflow. Resulting layering, with a vertical stacking of sharp variations in velocity and density, enhances small-scale mixing and energy decay. Characteristic detectable stretching patterns are produced in the density field. The circulation patterns, induced by centrifugal instability, tend to homogenize the angular momentum in the vicinity of the unstable region. We demonstrate that the peak intensity of the cells and the vortex energy decay are dramatically reduced by the earth's rotation due to conservation of total absolute angular momentum. The results have important implications for better understanding the fate of pancake vortices and physical mechanisms of energy transfer in stratified fluids.

  18. Effect of YSZ sintering temperature on mixed potential sensor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Sekhar, Praveen K; Brosha, Eric L; Rangachary, Mukundan; Garzon, Fernando H; Nelson, Mark A; Toracco, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the influence of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) sintering temperature on a Pt/YSZ/La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CrO{sub 3} mixed potential sensor performance is reported. The sintering temperature of YSZ was varied from 1000 to 1200 C. Mercury porosity measurements were performed to estimate the porosity and tortuosity of the YSZ sample as a function of sintering temperature. Further, the surface area of YSZ was computed by the BET method. After YSZ characterization, the unbiased and biased sensor response was recorded. The 1000 C sintered YSZ sample was taken as the reference for comparison purposes. Experimental results indicated a 30% reduction in porosity for the 1200 C sintered YSZ sample, accounting for a 14-fold increase in the sensor response rise time. In addition, for the same sample, a 13-fold increase in sensitivity was observed upon exposure to propylene (100 ppm), associated with a 76% reduction in surface area. The slow response time of the sensor with YSZ sintered at higher temperatures has been attributed to higher tortuosity (delay in gas permeation to the three phase interface). Whereas, reduced heterogeneous catalysis induced by lower surface area accounts for the rise in sensitivity levels. The optimum YSZ sintering temperature was found to lie between 1100 and 1150 C.

  19. Chaotic vortical flows and their manifestations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baznat, M.; Gudima, K.; Sorin, A.; Teryaev, O.

    2016-11-01

    We study vorticity and hydrodynamic helicity in semi-peripheral heavy-ion collisions using the kinetic model of Quark-Gluon Strings. The angular momentum, which is a source of P-odd observables, is preserved with a good accuracy. We observe formation of the specific toroidal structures of the vorticity field. Their existence, accompanied by the strange chemical potential, is mirrored in the polarization of hyperons of the percent order.

  20. Development and Interaction of Artificially Generated Hairpin Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, Daniel; McKenna, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    The development and interaction of hairpin vortices are examined and categorized to better understand their role in fully turbulent boundary layers. Hairpin vortices are generated within an otherwise laminar boundary layer using a free surface water channel. Direct injection is the primary generation method and the behavior of the vortices is first examined using flow visualization. Hydrogen bubble wire is combined with dye injection to help clarify the role of the vorticity in the fluid immediately surrounding the hairpin vortex. PIV data is also used to classify the development and maturity of the vortices for a range of free stream and injection conditions. The interactions of two hairpin vortices of varying maturity are characterized to investigate the potential mechanisms for the formation of hairpin packets beyond autogeneration. Finally, the behavior of hairpin vortices generated with a new technique that uses a transient hemispherical protrusion is also examined. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CBET-1040236.

  1. Oligomer and mixed-metal compounds potential multielectron transfer catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Rillema, D.P.

    1992-03-30

    Projects related to the design and characterization of multimetallic complexes has proceeded forward with a number of achievements. First, photoprocesses in hydrogel matrices lead to the conclusion that cationic metallochromophores could be ion exchanged into a hydrogel matrix ({kappa}-carageenan) and substantial photocurrents could be generated. Second, X-ray structures of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, Ru(bpm){sub 3}{sup 2+} and Ru(bpz){sub 3}{sup 2+}, where bpy is 2,2{prime}-bipyridine, bpm is 2,2{prime}-bipyrimidine and bpz is 2,2{prime}-bipyrizine, were obtained and revealed similar Ru-N bond distances in each complex even though their {sigma}-donor and {pi}-acceptor character differ markedly. The structure parameters are expected to provide theoreticians with the information needed to probe the electronic character of the molecular systems and provide us with direction in our synthetic strategies. Third, a copper(I) complex was synthesized with a dimeric-ethane-bridged, 1,10-phenanthroline ligand that resulted in isolation of a bimetallic species. The copper(I) complex did luminesce weakly, suggesting that the dimer possesses potential electron transfer capability. Fourth, the photophysical properties of (Re(CO){sub 4}(L-L)){sup +}, where L-L = heterocyclic diimine ligands, and Pt(bph)X{sub 2}, where bph = the dianion of biphenyl and X = CH{sub 3}CN, py or ethylendiamine, displayed luminescence at high energy and underwent excited-state electron transfer. Such high energy emitters provide high driving forces for undergoing excited-state electron transfer. Fifth, both energy and electron transfer were observed in mixed-metal complexes bridged by 1,2-bis(2,2{prime}-bipyridyl-4{prime}-yl) ethane.

  2. Modeling oceanic and atmospheric vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Dritschel, D.G.; Legras, B. CNRS, Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris )

    1993-03-01

    Numerical modeling and prediction of coherent structures in geophysical fluid dynamics is reviewed. Numerical computation is widely used in geophysical fluid dynamics due to the nonlinear behaviour of the systems studied and the complexity of the mathematical models used. Idealized systems and the determination of potential vorticity in simplified atmospheric models are discussed. Atmospheric vortex structures, their interactions, and the effects on weather are described. A quasigeostrophic model is used to illustrate the effect of trophospherically generated disturbances on the polar vortex using the contour dynamics numerical method. A comparison of numerical techniques for simulating the evolution of neighboring vortices of unequal size is given. Future developments in the use of numerical models in geophysical fluid dynamics and weather prediction are discussed. 15 refs.

  3. Representing the effects of stratosphere-troposphere exchange on 3-D O3 distributions in chemistry transport models using a potential vorticity-based parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jia; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Hogrefe, Christian; Wang, Jiandong; Gan, Chuen-Meei; Sarwar, Golam; Wong, David C.; McKeen, Stuart

    2016-09-01

    Downward transport of ozone (O3) from the stratosphere can be a significant contributor to tropospheric O3 background levels. However, this process often is not well represented in current regional models. In this study, we develop a seasonally and spatially varying potential vorticity (PV)-based function to parameterize upper tropospheric and/or lower stratospheric (UTLS) O3 in a chemistry transport model. This dynamic O3-PV function is developed based on 21-year ozonesonde records from World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC) with corresponding PV values from a 21-year Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulation across the Northern Hemisphere from 1990 to 2010. The result suggests strong spatial and seasonal variations of O3 / PV ratios which exhibits large values in the upper layers and in high-latitude regions, with highest values in spring and the lowest values in autumn over an annual cycle. The newly developed O3 / PV function was then applied in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for an annual simulation of the year 2006. The simulated UTLS O3 agrees much better with observations in both magnitude and seasonality after the implementation of the new parameterization. Considerable impacts on surface O3 model performance were found in the comparison with observations from three observational networks, i.e., EMEP, CASTNET and WDCGG. With the new parameterization, the negative bias in spring is reduced from -20 to -15 % in the reference case to -9 to -1 %, while the positive bias in autumn is increased from 1 to 15 % in the reference case to 5 to 22 %. Therefore, the downward transport of O3 from upper layers has large impacts on surface concentration and needs to be properly represented in regional models.

  4. Flow Visualization of Artificially Generated Hairpin Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, Daniel; Palframan, Mark

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the potential mechanisms for hairpin packet formation in fully turbulent boundary layers, a flow visualization study of artificially generated hairpin vortices in an otherwise laminar boundary layer is performed. The experiments are conducted in a recently constructed free surface water channel at Lafayette College. A new method to artificially generate individual hairpin vortices is employed which utilizes a flexible membrane which is inflated to create transient hemispherical protrusions on a flat plate, zero pressure gradient laminar boundary layer. By controlling the duration of time the membrane protrudes above the wall, a single vortex can be reliably generated. This technique avoids the need for fluid injection in order to ensure uniform particle seeding for subsequent PIV measurements. Multiple generation sites are placed at different streamwise locations to allow hairpins of different maturity to interact. The characteristics of single hairpin vortices will be compared to those described in the literature along with a qualitative analysis of the interaction of two hairpin vortices.

  5. Mixed Potentials: Experimental Illustrations of an Important Concept in Practical Electrochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, G. P.; Ritchie, I. M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a largely experimental approach to the concept of mixed potentials, pointing out the close parallel that exists between equilibrium potentials. Describes several important examples of mixed potentials, providing current-voltage and polarization curves and half reactions as examples. Includes a discussion of corrosion reactions and…

  6. Buoyancy-Induced, Columnar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Mark; Glezer, Ari

    2015-11-01

    Free buoyancy-induced, columnar vortices (dust devils) that are driven by thermal instabilities of ground-heated, stratified air in areas with sufficient insolation convert the potential energy of low-grade heat in the surface air layer into a vortex flow with significant kinetic energy. A variant of the naturally-occurring vortex is deliberately triggered and anchored within an azimuthal array of vertical, stator-like flow vanes that form an open-top enclosure and impart tangential momentum to the radially entrained air. This flow may be exploited for power generation by coupling the vortex to a vertical-axis turbine. The fundamental mechanisms associated with the formation, evolution, and dynamics of an anchored, buoyancy-driven columnar vortex within such a facility are investigated experimentally using a heated ground plane. Specific emphasis is placed on the manipulation of the vortex formation and structure and the dependence of the vorticity production and sustainment mechanisms on the thermal resources and characteristic scales of the anchoring flow vanes using stereo-PIV. It is shown that manipulation of the formation and advection of vorticity concentrations within the enclosure can be exploited for increasing the available kinetic energy. Supported by ARPA-E.

  7. Vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. M.; Marchant, N. G.; O’Dell, D. H. J.; Parker, N. G.

    2017-03-01

    The experimental realization of quantum-degenerate Bose gases made of atoms with sizeable magnetic dipole moments has created a new type of fluid, known as a quantum ferrofluid, which combines the extraordinary properties of superfluidity and ferrofluidity. A hallmark of superfluids is that they are constrained to rotate through vortices with quantized circulation. In quantum ferrofluids the long-range dipolar interactions add new ingredients by inducing magnetostriction and instabilities, and also affect the structural properties of vortices and vortex lattices. Here we give a review of the theory of vortices in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates, exploring the interplay of magnetism with vorticity and contrasting this with the established behaviour in non-dipolar condensates. We cover single vortex solutions, including structure, energy and stability, vortex pairs, including interactions and dynamics, and also vortex lattices. Our discussion is founded on the mean-field theory provided by the dipolar Gross–Pitaevskii equation, ranging from analytic treatments based on the Thomas–Fermi (hydrodynamic) and variational approaches to full numerical simulations. Routes for generating vortices in dipolar condensates are discussed, with particular attention paid to rotating condensates, where surface instabilities drive the nucleation of vortices, and lead to the emergence of rich and varied vortex lattice structures. We also present an outlook, including potential extensions to degenerate Fermi gases, quantum Hall physics, toroidal systems and the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition.

  8. Vortices and vortex lattices in quantum ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Martin, A M; Marchant, N G; O'Dell, D H J; Parker, N G

    2017-03-15

    The experimental realization of quantum-degenerate Bose gases made of atoms with sizeable magnetic dipole moments has created a new type of fluid, known as a quantum ferrofluid, which combines the extraordinary properties of superfluidity and ferrofluidity. A hallmark of superfluids is that they are constrained to rotate through vortices with quantized circulation. In quantum ferrofluids the long-range dipolar interactions add new ingredients by inducing magnetostriction and instabilities, and also affect the structural properties of vortices and vortex lattices. Here we give a review of the theory of vortices in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates, exploring the interplay of magnetism with vorticity and contrasting this with the established behaviour in non-dipolar condensates. We cover single vortex solutions, including structure, energy and stability, vortex pairs, including interactions and dynamics, and also vortex lattices. Our discussion is founded on the mean-field theory provided by the dipolar Gross-Pitaevskii equation, ranging from analytic treatments based on the Thomas-Fermi (hydrodynamic) and variational approaches to full numerical simulations. Routes for generating vortices in dipolar condensates are discussed, with particular attention paid to rotating condensates, where surface instabilities drive the nucleation of vortices, and lead to the emergence of rich and varied vortex lattice structures. We also present an outlook, including potential extensions to degenerate Fermi gases, quantum Hall physics, toroidal systems and the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition.

  9. Up-sliding Slantwise Vorticity Development and the complete vorticity equation with mass forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaopeng; Gao, Shouting; Wu, Guoxiong

    2003-09-01

    The moist potential vorticity (MPV) equation is derived from complete atmospheric equations including the effect of mass forcing, with which the theory of Up-sliding Slantwise Vorticity Development (USVD) is proposed based on the theory of Slantwise Vorticity Development (SVD). When an air parcel slides up along a slantwise isentropic surface, its vertical component of relative vorticity will develop, and the steeper the isentropic surface is, the more violent the development will be. From the definition of MPV and the MPV equation produced here in, a complete vorticity equation is then put forward with mass forcing, which explicitly includes the effects of both internal forcings, such as variations of stability, baroclinicity, and vertical shear of horizontal wind, and external forcings, such as diabatic heating, friction, and mass forcing. When isentropic surfaces are flat, the complete vorticity equation matches its traditional counterpart. The physical interpretations of some of the items which are included in the complete vorticity equation but not in the traditional one are studied with a simplified model of the Changjiang-Huaihe Meiyu front. A 60-h simulation is then performed to reproduce a torrential rain event in the Changjiang-Huaihe region and the output of the model is studied qualitatively based on the theory of USVD. The result shows that the conditions of the theory of USVD are easily satisfied immediately in front of mesoscale rainstorms in the downwind direction, that is, the theory of USVD is important to the development and movement of these kinds of systems.

  10. Relativistic Electron Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Stephen M.

    2017-03-01

    The desire to push recent experiments on electron vortices to higher energies leads to some theoretical difficulties. In particular the simple and very successful picture of phase vortices of vortex charge ℓ associated with ℓℏ units of orbital angular momentum per electron is challenged by the facts that (i) the spin and orbital angular momentum are not separately conserved for a Dirac electron, which suggests that the existence of a spin-orbit coupling will complicate matters, and (ii) that the velocity of a Dirac electron is not simply the gradient of a phase as it is in the Schrödinger theory suggesting that, perhaps, electron vortices might not exist at a fundamental level. We resolve these difficulties by showing that electron vortices do indeed exist in the relativistic theory and show that the charge of such a vortex is simply related to a conserved orbital part of the total angular momentum, closely related to the familiar situation for the orbital angular momentum of a photon.

  11. Numerical simulation of baroclinic Jovian vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achterberg, Richard K.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the evolution of baroclinic vortices in a time-dependent, nonlinear numerical model of a Jovian atmosphere. The model uses a normal-mode expansion in the vertical, using the barotropic and first two baroclinic modes. Results for the stability of baroclinic vortices on an f plane in the absence of a mean zonal flow are similar to results of Earth vortex models, although the presence of a fluid interior on the Jovian planets shifts the stability boundaries to smaller length scales. The presence of a barotropic mean zonal flow in the interior stabilizes vortices against instability and significantly modifies the finite amplitude form of baroclinic instabilities. The effect of a zonal flow on a form of barotropic instability produces periodic oscillations in the latitude and longitude of the vortex as observed at the level of the cloud tops. This instability may explain some, but not all, observations of longitudinal oscillations of vortices on the outer planets. Oscillations in aspect ratio and orientation of stable vortices in a zonal shear flow are observed in this baroclinic model, as in simpler two-dimensional models. Such oscillations are also observed in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Neptune. The meridional propagation and decay of vortices on a beta plane is inhibited by the presence of a mean zonal flow. The direction of propagation of a vortex relative to the mean zonal flow depends upon the sign of the meridional potential vorticity gradient; combined with observations of vortex drift rates, this may provide a constraint on model assumption for the flow in the deep interior of the Jovian planets.

  12. Separating Internal Waves and Vortical Structure in the Open Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauffenburger, N. E.; Sanford, T. B.; Lien, R.

    2012-12-01

    Deviating from past oceanographic surveys, a new, powerful array of profiling floats has been deployed for three weeks in the Sargasso Sea to monitor the evolving sub-mesoscale field. Using 18-20 EM-APEX floats, profiling to 100 m depth simultaneously, velocity (U and V), temperature, salinity and microstructure measurements (χ) were made on horizontal scales between 100 m and 10 km. This strategy provided a 3-D snapshot of the physical properties every half hour, which significantly reduces temporal aliasing. Area-averaged relative vorticity, vortex stretching, non-linear twisting, horizontal divergence and Ertel's potential vorticity have been computed and projected onto isopycnal surfaces. Since vortical modes carry Ertel's potential vorticity (and internal waves do not), this is a useful step in understanding the energetic contribution of vortical motions to the background internal wave field on small scales. In addition, the temporal material conservation law of Ertel's potential vorticity will be tested for the first time by determining the advection of the floats' measurements relative to the motion of the water parcels and by computing the horizontal gradients of the potential vorticity signal. The three deployments provide data to analyze the interaction of inertial waves, vortical processes and barotropic tides in and out of active frontogenesis.

  13. Linear phase distribution of acoustical vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Lu; Zheng, Haixiang; Ma, Qingyu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong

    2014-07-14

    Linear phase distribution of phase-coded acoustical vortices was theoretically investigated based on the radiation theory of point source, and then confirmed by experimental measurements. With the proposed criterion of positive phase slope, the possibility of constructing linear circular phase distributions is demonstrated to be determined by source parameters. Improved phase linearity can be achieved at larger source number, lower frequency, smaller vortex radius, and/or longer axial distance. Good agreements are observed between numerical simulations and measurement results for circular phase distributions. The favorable results confirm the feasibility of precise phase control for acoustical vortices and suggest potential applications in particle manipulation.

  14. Vorticity cutoff in nonlinear photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel

    2005-07-22

    Using group-theory arguments, we demonstrate that, unlike in homogeneous media, no symmetric vortices of arbitrary order can be generated in two-dimensional (2D) nonlinear systems possessing a discrete-point symmetry. The only condition needed is that the nonlinearity term exclusively depends on the modulus of the field. In the particular case of 2D periodic systems, such as nonlinear photonic crystals or Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials, it is shown that the realization of discrete symmetry forbids the existence of symmetric vortex solutions with vorticity higher than two.

  15. Vortice-propeller interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemon, Alain; Huberson, Serge

    1989-08-01

    The interactions between a ship's propeller blades and the boundary layer created by the ship are investigated. A finite element calculation method based on Navier-Stokes equation is developed. The application of an k-epsilon turbulence model for improving the analysis is considered. The flow azimuthal homogenization hypothesis is applied and leads to an accurate evaluation of the propeller performances. The unsteady effects generated by the interaction between the propeller blades and the vortices are analyzed.

  16. Axisymmetric Vortices with Swirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elcrat, A.

    2007-11-01

    This talk is concerned with finding solutions of the Euler equations by solving elliptic boundary value problems for the Bragg-Hawthorne equation L u= -urr -(1/r)ur - = r^2f (u) + h(u). Theoretical results have been given for previously (Elcrat and Miller, Differential and Integral Equations 16(4) 2003, 949-968) for problems with swirl and general classes of profile functions f, h by iterating Lu(n+1)= rf(u)n)) + h(u(n)), and showing u(n) converges montonically to a solution. The solutions obtained depend on the initial guess, which can be thought of as prescribing level sets of the vortex. When a computational program was attempted these monotone iterations turned out to be numerically unstable, and a stable computation was acheived by fixing the moment of the cross section of a vortex in the merideanal plane. (This generalizes previous computational results in Elcrat, Fornberg and Miller, JFM 433 2001, (315-328) We obtain famillies of vortices related to vortex rings with swirl, Moffatt's generalization of Hill's vortex and tubes of vorticity with swirl wrapped around the symmetry axis. The vortices are embedded in either an irrotational flow or a flow with shear, and we deal with the transition form no swirl in the vortex to flow with only swirl, a Beltrami flow.

  17. Tunneling decay of false vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-10-01

    We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

  18. Acoustical vortices on a Chip for 3D single particle manipulation and vorticity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaud, Antoine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Bou Matar, Olivier; Baudoin, Michael

    Surface acoustic waves offer most of the basic functions required for on-chip actuation of fluids at small scales: efficient flow mixing, integrated pumping, particles separation, droplet displacement, atomization, division and fusion. Nevertheless some more advanced functions such as 3D particles manipulation and vorticity control require the introduction of some specific kind of waves called acoustic vortices. These helical waves propagate spinning around a phase singularity called the dark core. On the one hand, the beam angular momentum can be transferred to the fluid and create point-wise vorticity for confined mixing, and on the other the dark core can trap individual particles in an acoustic well for single object manipulation. In this presentation, I will show how acoustical vortices on-a-chip can be synthesized with a programmable electronics and an array of transducers. I will then highlight how some of their specificities can be used for acoustical tweezing and twisting. This work is supported by ANR Project No. ANR-12-BS09-0021-01 and ANR-12- BS09-0021-02, and Rgion Nord Pas de Calais.

  19. Martian Polar Vortices: Comparison of Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waugh, D. W.; Toigo, A. D.; Guzewich, S. D.; Greybush, S. J.; Wilson, R. J.; Montabone, L.

    2016-01-01

    The structure and evolution of the Martian polar vortices is examined using two recently available reanalysis systems: version 1.0 of the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) and a preliminary version of the Ensemble Mars Atmosphere Reanalysis System (EMARS). There is quantitative agreement between the reanalyses in the lower atmosphere, where Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data are assimilated, but there are differences at higher altitudes reflecting differences in the free-running general circulation model simulations used in the two reanalyses. The reanalyses show similar potential vorticity (PV) structure of the vortices: There is near-uniform small PV equatorward of the core of the westerly jet, steep meridional PV gradients on the polar side of the jet core, and a maximum of PV located off of the pole. In maps of 30 sol mean PV, there is a near-continuous elliptical ring of high PV with roughly constant shape and longitudinal orientation from fall to spring. However, the shape and orientation of the vortex varies on daily time scales, and there is not a continuous ring of PV but rather a series of smaller scale coherent regions of high PV. The PV structure of the Martian polar vortices is, as has been reported before, very different from that of Earth's stratospheric polar vortices, but there are similarities with Earth's tropospheric vortices which also occur at the edge of the Hadley Cell, and have near-uniform small PV equatorward of the jet, and a large increase of PV poleward of the jet due to increased stratification.

  20. Martian polar vortices: Comparison of reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waugh, D. W.; Toigo, A. D.; Guzewich, S. D.; Greybush, S. J.; Wilson, R. J.; Montabone, L.

    2016-09-01

    The structure and evolution of the Martian polar vortices is examined using two recently available reanalysis systems: version 1.0 of the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) and a preliminary version of the Ensemble Mars Atmosphere Reanalysis System (EMARS). There is quantitative agreement between the reanalyses in the lower atmosphere, where Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data are assimilated, but there are differences at higher altitudes reflecting differences in the free-running general circulation model simulations used in the two reanalyses. The reanalyses show similar potential vorticity (PV) structure of the vortices: There is near-uniform small PV equatorward of the core of the westerly jet, steep meridional PV gradients on the polar side of the jet core, and a maximum of PV located off of the pole. In maps of 30 sol mean PV, there is a near-continuous elliptical ring of high PV with roughly constant shape and longitudinal orientation from fall to spring. However, the shape and orientation of the vortex varies on daily time scales, and there is not a continuous ring of PV but rather a series of smaller scale coherent regions of high PV. The PV structure of the Martian polar vortices is, as has been reported before, very different from that of Earth's stratospheric polar vortices, but there are similarities with Earth's tropospheric vortices which also occur at the edge of the Hadley Cell, and have near-uniform small PV equatorward of the jet, and a large increase of PV poleward of the jet due to increased stratification.

  1. Interaction of Atmospheric Plasma Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izhovkina, N. I.; Artekha, S. N.; Erokhin, N. S.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric electric fields, connected with the ionization of particles and plasma processes, occur in the fields of pressure gradients of mosaic mesh topology. Atmospheric aerosol particles play a significant role in the vortex generation. The Coriolis force and the motion of charged particles in the geomagnetic field lead to gyrotropy of the atmosphere and ionosphere. Occurrence of plasma vortices is stochastically determined for such an inhomogeneous gyrotropic medium. The geomagnetic field influences the change of structures of inhomogeneous media in the process of excitation of plasma vortices and their interaction. If colliding vortices are centered on the one geomagnetic line, the merge of vortices and the generation of a joint powerful vortex are possible. If a collision of vortices with centers at different geomagnetic field lines occurs, then the emergence of areas of heating and jet streams and the generation of new vortices are possible.

  2. Dust and the Mars Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzewich, S.; Waugh, D.; Toigo, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dust is a highly variable forcing mechanism altering martian atmospheric dynamics. The greatest variability in atmospheric dust opacity occurs during Mars' northern hemisphere fall and winter, the canonical "dust storm season". The northern polar vortex develops during this season and can be stretched, weakened, or strengthened by variations in atmospheric dust. Additionally, Mars' north polar vortex manifests as an annulus of high potential vorticity around the geographic pole, which is distinctly different than Earth's stratospheric polar vortices where potential vorticity peaks at the pole. We examine the role of dust in shaping and altering the martian polar vortices in a series of idealized MarsWRF general circulation model simulations. Increasing dust loading disrupts the northern polar vortex near the winter solstice leading to a "mid-winter warming", and this is also seen in observations from the Mars Climate Sounder and Thermal Emission Spectrometer during large dust events. These appear loosely analogous with terrestrial "sudden stratospheric warming" events, where the strong westerly jet around the pole weakens and air inside the vortex quickly warms. The southern hemisphere winter polar vortex is distinctly different from that of the northern hemisphere, and we show that the fundamental "handedness" of the current martian climactic regime makes the southern hemisphere vortex less sensitive to dust forcing.

  3. Balanced dynamics of mesoscale vortices produced in simulated convective systems

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.A.; Weisman, M.L. )

    1994-07-01

    Long-lived, mesoscale convective systems are known to occasionally produce Mesoscale Convective Vortices (MCVs) in the lower to middle troposphere with horizontal scales averaging 100-200 km. The formation of MCVs is investigated using fully three-dimensional cloud model simulations of idealized, Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs), initialized with a finite length line of unstable perturbations. In agreement with observations, the authors find that environmental conditions favoring MCV formation exhibit weak vertical shear confined to roughly the lowest 3 km, provided the Coriolis parameter (f) is chosen appropriate for midlatitudes. With f = 0, counterrotating vortices form on the line ends, positive to the north and negative to the south with westerly environmental shear. The MCV and end vortices are synonymous with anomalies of potential vorticity (PV). Using PV inversion techniques, the authors show that the vortices are nearly balanced, even with f = 0. However, the formation of mesoscale vortices depends upon the unbalanced, sloping, front-to-rear and rear inflow circulations of the mature squall line. End vortices form partly from the tilting of ambient shear but more from the tilting of the perturbation horizontal vorticity inherent in the squall line circulation. With the addition of earth's rotation, an asymmetric structure results with the cyclonic vortex dominant on the northern end of the line.

  4. A Convective Vorticity Vector Associated With Tropical Convection: A 2D Cloud-Resolving Modeling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Shou-Ting; Ping, Fan; Li, Xiao-Fan; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2004-01-01

    Although dry/moist potential vorticity is a useful physical quantity for meteorological analysis, it cannot be applied to the analysis of 2D simulations. A convective vorticity vector (CVV) is introduced in this study to analyze 2D cloud-resolving simulation data associated with 2D tropical convection. The cloud model is forced by the vertical velocity, zonal wind, horizontal advection, and sea surface temperature obtained from the TOGA COARE, and is integrated for a selected 10-day period. The CVV has zonal and vertical components in the 2D x-z frame. Analysis of zonally-averaged and mass-integrated quantities shows that the correlation coefficient between the vertical component of the CVV and the sum of the cloud hydrometeor mixing ratios is 0.81, whereas the correlation coefficient between the zonal component and the sum of the mixing ratios is only 0.18. This indicates that the vertical component of the CVV is closely associated with tropical convection. The tendency equation for the vertical component of the CVV is derived and the zonally-averaged and mass-integrated tendency budgets are analyzed. The tendency of the vertical component of the CVV is determined by the interaction between the vorticity and the zonal gradient of cloud heating. The results demonstrate that the vertical component of the CVV is a cloud-linked parameter and can be used to study tropical convection.

  5. L-tyrosine potentiates the anorexia induced by mixed-acting sympathomimetic drugs in hyperphagic rats.

    PubMed

    Hull, K M; Maher, T J

    1990-11-01

    The effects of L-tyrosine (L-TYR) on the anorectic activity of several mixed-acting sympathomimetics were determined during the dark cycle in rats made hyperphagic by food deprivation. L-TYR (200 mg/kg) significantly potentiated the anorectic activity of phenylpropanolamine, (-)-ephedrine and (+)-amphetamine by 48, 50 and 37%, respectively. When the dose of L-TYR was varied (25-400 mg/kg), a significant dose-dependent relationship was noted. The observed potentiation was positively correlated with increases in brain TYR concentrations; blockade of L-TYR uptake into the brain by the coadministration of L-valine prevented this potentiation. Various other L-amino acids, as well as D-TYR, failed to mimic the potentiating action of L-TYR. As determined by alpha-methyl-p-TYR pretreatment, the L-TYR-induced potentiation was dependent upon increased catecholamine synthesis. Although various other mixed-acting sympathomimetic anorexiants were similarly potentiated by L-TYR, the direct-acting beta-2 adrenoceptor anorexiants, salbutamol and methoxyphenamine, were not. These results indicate that L-TYR specifically potentiates the anorectic activity of the studied mixed-acting sympathomimetics and are consistent with the requirement of the central conversion of L-TYR to catecholamines via TYR hydroxylase for this response. The possibility that the effect of mixed-acting sympathomimetics is normally limited by the availability of L-TYR is suggested.

  6. Interaction of ultrasound with vortices in type-II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sonin, E.B.

    1996-04-01

    The theory of ultrasound in the mixed state of type-II superconductors is suggested which takes into account the Magnus force on vortices, the anti-Magnus force on ions, and diamagnetism of the mixed state. The acoustic Faraday effect (rotation of polarization of the transverse ultrasonic wave propagating along vortices) is linear in the Magnus force in any regime of the flux flow for wavelengths now used in the ultrasound experiments. Therefore, in contrast to previous predictions, the Faraday effect should be looked for only in clean superconductors with a strong Magnus force. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Vortices revealed: Swimming faster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houwelingen, Josje; van de Water, Willem; Kunnen, Rudie; van Heijst, Gertjan; Clercx, Herman

    2016-11-01

    Understanding and optimizing the propulsion in human swimming requires insight into the hydrodynamics of the flow around the swimmer. Experiments and simulations addressing the hydrodynamics of swimming have been conducted in studies before, including the visualization of the flow using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The main objective in this study is to develop a system to visualize the flow around a swimmer in practice inspired by this technique. The setup is placed in a regular swimming pool. The use of tracer particles and lasers to illuminate the particles is not allowed. Therefore, we choose to work with air bubbles with a diameter of 4 mm, illuminated by ambient light. Homogeneous bubble curtains are produced by tubes implemented in the bottom of the pool. The bubble motion is captured by six cameras placed in underwater casings. A first test with the setup has been conducted by pulling a cylinder through the bubbles and performing a PIV analysis. The vorticity plots of the resulting data show the expected vortex street behind the cylinder. The shedding frequency of the vortices resembles the expected frequency. Thus, it is possible to identify and follow the coherent structures. We will discuss these results and the first flow measurements around swimmers.

  8. Control of Flap Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David

    2005-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was carried out on a semi-span wing model to assess the feasibility of controlling vortices emanating from outboard flaps and tip-flaps by actively varying the degree of boundary layer separation. Separation was varied by means of perturbations produced from segmented zero-efflux oscillatory blowing slots, while estimates of span loadings and vortex sheet strengths were obtained by integrating wing surface pressures. These estimates were used as input to inviscid rollup relations as a means of predicting changes to the vortex characteristics resulting from the perturbations. Surveys of flow in the wake of the outboard and tip-flaps were made using a seven-hole probe, from which the vortex characteristics were directly deduced. Varying the degree of separation had a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size for both outboard and tip-flaps. Qualitative changes in vortex characteristics were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations, while the failure to account for viscosity was presumed to be the main reason for observed discrepancies. Introducing perturbations near the outboard flap-edges or on the tip-flap exerted significant control over vortices while producing negligible lift excursions.

  9. A Vortical Hot Tower Route to Tropical Cyclogenesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. T.; Nicholls, M. E.; Cram, T. A.; Saunders, A. B.

    2006-01-01

    A nonhydrostatic cloud model is used to examine the thermomechanics of tropical cyclogenesis under realistic meteorological conditions. Observations motivate the focus on the problem of how a midtropospheric cyclonic vortex, a frequent by-product of mesoscale convective systems during summertime conditions over tropical oceans, may be transformed into a surface-concentrated (warm core) tropical depression. As a first step, the vortex transformation is studied in the absence of vertical wind shear or zonal flow.Within the cyclonic vorticity-rich environment of the mesoscale convective vortex (MCV) embryo, the simulations demonstrate that small-scale cumulonimbus towers possessing intense cyclonic vorticity in their cores [vortical hot towers (VHTs)] emerge as the preferred coherent structures. The VHTs acquire their vertical vorticity through a combination of tilting of MCV horizontal vorticity and stretching of MCV and VHT-generated vertical vorticity. Horizontally localized and exhibiting convective lifetimes on the order of 1 h, VHTs overcome the generally adverse effects of downdrafts by consuming convective available potential energy in their local environment, humidifying the middle and upper troposphere, and undergoing diabatic vortex merger with neighboring towers.During metamorphosis, the VHTs vortically prime the mesoscale environment and collectively mimic a quasi-steady diabatic heating rate within the MCV embryo. A quasi-balanced toroidal (transverse) circulation develops on the system scale that converges cyclonic vorticity of the initial MCV and small-scale vorticity anomalies generated by subsequent tower activity. The VHTs are found to accelerate the spinup of near-surface mean tangential winds relative to an approximate axisymmetric model that excises the VHTs. This upscale growth mechanism appears capable of generating a tropical depression vortex on time scales on the order of 1 2 days, for reasonable parameter choices.Further tests of the VHT

  10. COSMIC VORTICITY AND THE ORIGIN HALO SPINS

    SciTech Connect

    Libeskind, Noam I.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Gottloeber, Stefan; Hess, Steffen; Hoffman, Yehuda; Knebe, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In the standard model of cosmology, structure emerges out of a non-rotational flow and the angular momentum of collapsing halos is induced by tidal torques. The growth of angular momentum in the linear and quasi-linear phases is associated with a shear, curl-free, flow and it is well described within the linear framework of tidal torque theory (TTT). However, TTT ceases to be applicable as halos approach turnaround when their ambient flow field becomes rotational. Subsequently, halos become embedded in a vortical flow field and the growth of their angular momentum is affected by the vorticity of their ambient velocity field. Using a cosmological simulation, we have examined the importance of the curl of the velocity field in determining halo spin, finding a significant alignment between the two: the vorticity tends to be perpendicular to the axis of the fastest collapse of the velocity shear tensor (e{sub 1}). This is independent of halo masses and cosmic web environment. Our results agree with previous findings on the tendency of halo spin to be perpendicular to e{sub 1}, and of the spin of (simulated) halos and (observed) galaxies to be aligned with the large-scale structure. It follows that angular momentum growth proceeds in two distinct phases. First, the angular momentum emerges out of a shear, curl-free, potential flow, as described by TTT. In the second phase, in which halos approach virialization, the angular momentum emerges out of a vortical flow and halo spin becomes partially aligned with the vorticity of the ambient flow field.

  11. Spatiotemporal Optical Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhajj, N.; Larkin, I.; Rosenthal, E. W.; Zahedpour, S.; Wahlstrand, J. K.; Milchberg, H. M.

    2016-07-01

    We present the first experimental evidence, supported by theory and simulation, of spatiotemporal optical vortices (STOVs). A STOV is an optical vortex with phase and energy circulation in a spatiotemporal plane. Depending on the sign of the material dispersion, the local electromagnetic energy flow is saddle or spiral about the STOV. STOVs are a fundamental element of the nonlinear collapse and subsequent propagation of short optical pulses in material media, and conserve topological charge, constraining their birth, evolution, and annihilation. We measure a self-generated STOV consisting of a ring-shaped null in the electromagnetic field about which the phase is spiral, forming a dynamic torus that is concentric with and tracks the propagating pulse. Our results, here obtained for optical pulse collapse and filamentation in air, are generalizable to a broad class of nonlinearly propagating waves.

  12. von Karman Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Each of these swirling clouds is the result of a meteorological phenomenon known as a von Karman vortex. These vortices appeared over Alexander Selkirk Island in the southern Pacific Ocean. Rising precipitously from the surrounding waters, the island's highest point is nearly a mile (1.6 km) above sea level. As wind-driven clouds encounter this obstacle, they flow around it to form large, spinning eddies. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on September 15, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and near-infrared wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  13. Resonant magnetic vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Decanini, Yves; Folacci, Antoine

    2003-04-01

    By using the complex angular momentum method, we provide a semiclassical analysis of electron scattering by a magnetic vortex of Aharonov-Bohm type. Regge poles of the S matrix are associated with surface waves orbiting around the vortex and supported by a magnetic field discontinuity. Rapid variations of sharp characteristic shapes can be observed on scattering cross sections. They correspond to quasibound states which are Breit-Wigner-type resonances associated with surface waves and which can be considered as quantum analogues of acoustic whispering-gallery modes. Such a resonant magnetic vortex could provide a different kind of artificial atom while the semiclassical approach developed here could be profitably extended in various areas of the physics of vortices.

  14. Four-wave mixing microscopy: a high potential nonlinear imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmke, Tobias; Knebl, Andreas; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    In this work we present non-resonant four-wave mixing microscopy as an additional contrast mechanism in nonlinear microscopy. The setup for this technique was based on a commercially available multiphoton microscope setup equipped with a titanium:sapphire-laser and an optical parametric oscillator as light sources. Fundamental system characteristics with respect to the spatio-temporal pulse overlap and the influence of aberrations on the process are presented. Experiments regarding the directionality of the four-wave mixing signal performed on fresh porcine meat showed an average ratio of the backward to forward signal mean intensity of 0.16 +/- 0.01. Nevertheless, structural information is comparable for both detection modalities. This highlights the potential of four-wave mixing microscopy for in vivo applications. Furthermore, results on porcine meat show the additional contrast generated by four-wave mixing. In summary, the results show a great potential of non-resonant four-wave mixing microscopy as label-free imaging modality in the biomedical sciences.

  15. Baroclinic Vortices in Rotating Stratified Shearing Flows: Cyclones, Anticyclones, and Zombie Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Pedram

    infer the height and internal stratification of some astrophysical and geophysical vortices because direct measurements of their vertical structures are difficult. In Chapter 3, we show numerically and experimentally that localized suction in rotating continuously stratified flows produces three-dimensional baroclinic cyclones. As expected from Chapter 2, the interiors of these cyclones are super-stratified. Suction, modeled as a small spherical sink in the simulations, creates an anisotropic flow toward the sink with directional dependence changing with the ratio of the Coriolis parameter to the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. Around the sink, this flow generates cyclonic vorticity and deflects isopycnals so that the interior of the cyclone becomes super-stratified. The super-stratified region is visualized in the companion experiments that we helped to design and analyze using the synthetic schlieren technique. Once the suction stops, the cyclones decay due to viscous dissipation in the simulations and experiments. The numerical results show that the vertical velocity of viscously decaying cyclones flows away from the cyclone's midplane, while the radial velocity flows toward the cyclone's center. This observation is explained based on the cyclo-geostrophic balance. This vertical velocity mixes the flow inside and outside of cyclone and reduces the super-stratification. We speculate that the predominance of anticyclones in geophysical and astrophysical flows is due to the fact that anticyclones require sub-stratification, which occurs naturally by mixing, while cyclones require super-stratification. In Chapter 4, we show that a previously unknown instability creates space-filling lattices of 3D turbulent baroclinic vortices in linearly-stable, rotating, stratified shear flows. The instability starts from a newly discovered family of easily-excited critical layers. This new family, named the baroclinic critical layer, has singular vertical velocities; the traditional family

  16. Structural analysis of mylonitic rocks in the Cougar Creek Complex, Oregon-Idaho using the porphyroclast hyperbolic distribution method, and potential use of SC'-type extensional shear bands as quantitative vorticity indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, Gene A.; Northrup, Clyde J.

    2008-08-01

    Mylonitic rocks of the Cougar Creek Complex of northeastern Oregon and west-central Idaho provide an opportunity to document the deformational structures produced during general non-coaxial shear within quartz-feldspar mylonites and to explore the potential role of SC'-type extensional shear bands in vorticity analysis. Well-developed feldspar porphyroclasts within six mylonite zones were utilized to estimate bulk kinematic vorticity ( Wk) using the porphyroclast hyperbolic distribution (PHD) method. Wk values for the Cougar Creek mylonites range from Wk = 0.26 to Wk = 0.37. Synthetic and antithetic shear band inclinations were measured relative to observed shear zone boundaries within five mylonite zones with estimated Wk values and compared to the non-coaxial flow field geometries and eigenvector orientations. In each mylonite zone, synthetic SC'-type shear band populations exhibit a range of inclination with maximum inclination lying approximately parallel to the acute bisector (AB) of the eigenvectors. Similarly, antithetic shear band populations show a range of inclination near the obtuse bisector (OB) of the eigenvectors. We infer that SC'-type extensional shear bands form initially parallel to AB and OB and rotate towards the flow plane with progressive deformation, decreasing their inclination relative to the shear zone boundary. AB and OB have significance in the strain field in that they represent orientations of maximum angular strain rate. Thus, planes perpendicular to AB and OB are mechanically favorable for small zones of localized simple shear (shear bands) within the heterogeneous bulk strain of the mylonite. Orientation analysis of populations of SC'-type shear bands may provide a direct, quantitative means of estimating Wk.

  17. Motion of multiple helical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Fuentes, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    In 1912 Joukowsky deduced that in an unbounded ideal fluid a set of helical vortices--when these are equal, coaxial and symmetrically arranged--would translate and rotate steadily while the vortices preserve their form and relative position. Each vortex is an infinite tube whose cross-section is circular (with radius a) and whose centerline is a helix of pitch L and radius R. The motion is thus determined by three non-dimensional parameters only: the number of vortices N, the vortex radius α = a / R and the vortex pitch τ = L / 2 πR . Here, we express the linear and angular velocities of the vortices as the sum of the mutually induced velocities found by Okulov (2004) and the self-induced velocities found by Velasco Fuentes (2015). We verified that our results are accurate over the whole range of values of the vortices' pitch and radius by numerically computing the vortex motion with two smoothed versions of the Biot-Savart law. It was found that the translation velocity U grows with the number of vortices (N) but decreases as the vortices' radius and pitch (a and τ, respectively) increase; in contrast, the rotation velocity Ω grows with N and a but has a local minimum around τ = 1 for fixed values of N and a.

  18. Modification of Vehicle Wake Vortices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-09

    flow over the tip from its lower side. 10 Tip vortices are thus prevented rather than being dissipated by 11 counter vortices, and the Coanda effect ...1 Patent 5,791,875 issued to Ngo on 11 August 1998 discloses 2 the use of the Coanda effect to suppress free-stream air flow 3 around the tip of a...FIG. 4 can direct the 6 Coanda flow in either direction. However, in any one time the 7 Coanda effect inducing flow is continuous and tip vortices

  19. On Multiple-Layered Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to find ways to make vortex flow fields decompose more quickly, photographs and observations are presented of vortex flow fields that indicate the presence of multiple layers of fluid rotating about a common axis. A survey of the literature indicates that multiple-layered vortices form in waterspouts, tornadoes and lift-generated vortices of aircraft. An explanation for the appearance of multiple-layered structures in vortices is suggested. The observations and data presented are intended to improve the understanding of the formation and persistence of vortex flow fields.

  20. On sharp vorticity gradients in elongating baroclinic eddies and their stabilization with a solid-body rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutyrin, Georgi G.

    2016-06-01

    Wide compensated vortices are not able to remain circular in idealized two-layer models unless the ocean depth is assumed to be unrealistically large. Small perturbations on both cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies grow slower if a middle layer with uniform potential vorticity (PV) is added, owing to a weakening of the vertical coupling between the upper and lower layers and a reduction of the PV gradient in the deep layer. Numerical simulations show that the nonlinear development of the most unstable elliptical mode causes self-elongation of the upper vortex core and splitting of the deep PV anomaly into two corotating parts. The emerging tripolar flow pattern in the lower layer results in self-intensification of the fluid rotation in the water column around the vortex center. Further vortex evolution depends on the model parameters and initial conditions, which limits predictability owing to multiple equilibrium attractors existing in the dynamical system. The vortex core strips thin filaments, which roll up into submesoscale vortices to result in substantial mixing at the vortex periphery. Stirring and damping of vorticity by bottom friction are found to be essential for subsequent vortex stabilization. The development of sharp PV gradients leads to nearly solid-body rotation inside the vortex core and formation of transport barriers at the vortex periphery. These processes have important implications for understanding the longevity of real-ocean eddies.

  1. Two-particle vortices in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnoi, Mikhail; Downing, Charles

    We show that a pair of two-dimensional massless Dirac-Weyl fermions can form a bound state independently on the sign of the inter-particle interaction potential, as long as this potential decays at large distances faster than Kepler's inverse distance law. The coupling occurs only at the Dirac point, when the charge carriers lose their chirality. These bipartite states must have a non-zero internal angular momentum, meaning that they only exist as stationary vortices. This leads to the emergence of a new type of energetically-favorable quasiparticles: double-charged zero-energy vortices. Their bosonic nature allows condensation and gives rise to Majorana physics without invoking a superconductor. The presence of dark-matter-like silent immobile vortices explains a range of poorly understood experiments in gated graphene structures at low doping. This work was supported by EU H2020 RISE project CoExAN, EU FP7 ITN NOTEDEV and FP7 IRSES project InterNoM.

  2. On the actual cathode mixed potential in direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zago, M.; Bisello, A.; Baricci, A.; Rabissi, C.; Brightman, E.; Hinds, G.; Casalegno, A.

    2016-09-01

    Methanol crossover is one of the most critical issues hindering commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells since it leads to waste of fuel and significantly affects cathode potential, forming a so-called mixed potential. Unfortunately, due to the sluggish anode kinetics, it is not possible to obtain a reliable estimation of cathode potential by simply measuring the cell voltage. In this work we address this limitation, quantifying the mixed potential by means of innovative open circuit voltage (OCV) tests with a methanol-hydrogen mixture fed to the anode. Over a wide range of operating conditions, the resulting cathode overpotential is between 250 and 430 mV and is strongly influenced by methanol crossover. We show using combined experimental and modelling analysis of cathode impedance that the methanol oxidation at the cathode mainly follows an electrochemical pathway. Finally, reference electrode measurements at both cathode inlet and outlet provide a local measurement of cathode potential, confirming the reliability of the innovative OCV tests and permitting the evaluation of cathode potential up to typical operating current. At 0.25 A cm-2 the operating cathode potential is around 0.85 V and the Ohmic drop through the catalyst layer is almost 50 mV, which is comparable to that in the membrane.

  3. Comparing the dynamics of skyrmions and superconducting vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Lin, S. Z.; Ray, D.; Reichhardt, C.

    2014-08-01

    Vortices in type-II superconductors have attracted enormous attention as ideal systems in which to study nonequilibrium collective phenomena, since the self-ordering of the vortices competes with quenched disorder and thermal effects. Dynamic effects found in vortex systems include depinning, nonequilibrium phase transitions, creep, structural order-disorder transitions, and melting. Understanding vortex dynamics is also important for applications of superconductors which require the vortices either to remain pinned or to move in a controlled fashion. Recently, topological defects called skyrmions have been realized experimentally in chiral magnets. Here we highlight similarities and differences between skyrmion dynamics and vortex dynamics. Many of the previous ideas and experimental setups that have been applied to superconducting vortices can also be used to study skyrmions. We also discuss some of the differences between the two systems, such as the potentially large contribution of the Magnus force in the skyrmion system that can dramatically alter the dynamics and transport properties.

  4. Computation of streamwise vorticity in a compressible flow of a winglet nozzle-based COIL device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Gaurav; Dawar, A. L.; Subbarao, P. M. V.; Endo, M.

    2008-02-01

    Chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) is a high-power laser with potential applications in both military as well as in the industry. COIL is the only chemical laser based on electronic transition with a wavelength of 1.315 μm, which falls in the near-infrared (IR) range. Thus, COIL beam can also be transported via optical fibers for remote applications such as dismantling of nuclear reactors. The efficiency of a supersonic COIL is essentially a function of mixing specially in systems employing cross-stream injection of the secondary lasing ( I2) flow in supersonic regime into the primary pumping (O 21Δ g) flow. Streamwise vorticity has been proven to be among the most effective manner of enhancing mixing and has been utilized in jet engines for thrust augmentation, noise reduction, supersonic combustion, etc. Therefore, a computational study of the generation of streamwise vorticity in the supersonic flow field of a COIL device employing a winglet nozzle with various delta wing angles of 5°, 10°, and 22.5° has been carried out. The study predicts a typical Mach number of approximately 1.75 for all the winglet geometries. The analysis also confirms that the winglet geometry doubles up both as a nozzle and as a vortex generator. The region of maximum turbulence and fully developed streamwise vortices is observed to occur close to the exit, at x/ λ of 0.5, of the winglets making it the most suitable region for secondary flow injection for achieving efficient mixing. The predicted length scale of the scalloped mixer formed by the winglet nozzle is 4 λ. Also, the winglet nozzle with 10° lobe angle is most suitable from the point of view of mixing developing cross-stream velocity of 120 m/s with acceptable pressure drop of 0.7 Torr. The winglet geometry with 5° lobe angle is associated with a low cross-stream velocity of 60 m/s, whereas the one with 22.5° lobe angle is associated with a large static and total pressure drop of 1.87 and 9.37 Torr, respectively

  5. Geometric creation of quantum vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Xiong, Chi; Chua, Alvin J. K.; Huang, Kerson

    2016-11-01

    We consider superfluidity and quantum vorticity in rotating spacetimes. The system is described by a complex scalar satisfying a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation. Rotation terms are identified and found to lead to the transfer of angular momentum of the spacetime to the scalar field. The scalar field responds by rotating, physically behaving as a superfluid, through the creation of quantized vortices. We demonstrate vortex nucleation through numerical simulation.

  6. Two-dimensional Brownian vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2008-12-01

    We introduce a stochastic model of 2D Brownian vortices associated with the canonical ensemble. The point vortices evolve through their usual mutual advection but they experience in addition a random velocity and a systematic drift generated by the system as a whole. The statistical equilibrium state of this stochastic model is the Gibbs canonical distribution. We consider a single species system and a system made of two types of vortices with positive and negative circulations. At positive temperatures, like-sign vortices repel each other (“plasma” case) and at negative temperatures, like-sign vortices attract each other (“gravity” case). We derive the stochastic equation satisfied by the exact vorticity field and the Fokker-Planck equation satisfied by the N-body distribution function. We present the BBGKY-like hierarchy of equations satisfied by the reduced distribution functions and close the hierarchy by considering an expansion of the solutions in powers of 1/N, where N is the number of vortices, in a proper thermodynamic limit. For spatially inhomogeneous systems, we derive the kinetic equations satisfied by the smooth vorticity field in a mean field approximation valid for N→+∞. For spatially homogeneous systems, we study the two-body correlation function, in a Debye-Hückel approximation valid at the order O(1/N). The results of this paper can also apply to other systems of random walkers with long-range interactions such as self-gravitating Brownian particles and bacterial populations experiencing chemotaxis. Furthermore, for positive temperatures, our study provides a kinetic derivation, from microscopic stochastic processes, of the Debye-Hückel model of electrolytes.

  7. Electrokinetic mixing at high zeta potentials: ionic size effects on cross stream diffusion.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian Yazdi, Alireza; Sadeghi, Arman; Saidi, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-03-15

    The electrokinetic phenomena at high zeta potentials may show several unique features which are not normally observed. One of these features is the ionic size (steric) effect associated with the solutions of high ionic concentration. In the present work, attention is given to the influences of finite ionic size on the cross stream diffusion process in an electrokinetically actuated Y-shaped micromixer. The method consists of a finite difference based numerical approach for non-uniform grid which is applied to the dimensionless form of the governing equations, including the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The results reveal that, neglecting the ionic size at high zeta potentials gives rise to the overestimation of the mixing length, because the steric effects retard liquid flow, thereby enhancing the mixing efficiency. The importance of steric effects is found to be more intense for channels of smaller width to height ratio. It is also observed that, in sharp contrast to the conditions that the ions are treated as point charges, increasing the zeta potential improves the cross stream diffusion when incorporating the ionic size. Moreover, increasing the EDL thickness decreases the mixing length, whereas the opposite is true for the channel aspect ratio.

  8. Numerical implementation of the mixed potential integral equation for planar structures with ferrite layers arbitrarily magnetized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa, F.; Medina, F.

    2006-12-01

    This work presents a new implementation of the mixed potential integral equation (MPIE) for planar structures that can include ferrite layers arbitrarily magnetized. The implementation of the MPIE here reported is carried out in the space domain. Thus it will combine the well-known numerical advantages of working with potentials as well as the flexibility for analyzing nonrectangular shape conductors with the additional ability of including anisotropic layers of arbitrarily magnetized ferrites. In this way, our approach widens the scope of the space domain MPIE and sets this method as a very efficient and versatile numerical tool to deal with a wide class of planar microwave circuits and antennas.

  9. The Shannon entropy information for mixed Manning Rosen potential in D-dimensional Schrodinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparmi, A.; Cari, C.; Nur Pratiwi, Beta; Arya Nugraha, Dewanta

    2017-01-01

    D dimensional Schrodinger equation for the mixed Manning Rosen potential was investigated using supersymmetric quantum mechanics. We obtained the energy eigenvalues from radial part solution and wavefunctions in radial and angular parts solution. From the lowest radial wavefunctions, we evaluated the Shannon entropy information using Matlab software. Based on the entropy densities demonstrated graphically, we obtained that the wave of position information entropy density moves right when the value of potential parameter q increases, while its wave moves left with the increase of parameter α. The wave of momentum information entropy densities were expressed in graphs. We observe that its amplitude increase with increasing parameter q and α

  10. Managing Flap Vortices via Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David

    2006-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted on a flapped semi-span model to investigate the concept and viability of near-wake vortex management by means of boundary layer separation control. Passive control was achieved using a simple fairing and active control was achieved via zero mass-flux blowing slots. Vortex sheet strength, estimated by integrating surface pressures, was used to predict vortex characteristics based on inviscid rollup relations and vortices trailing the flaps were mapped using a seven-hole probe. Separation control was found to have a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size over a wide range of angles of attack and control conditions. In general, the vortex trends were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations. Manipulation of the separated flow near the flap edges exerted significant control over either outboard or inboard edge vortices while producing small lift and moment excursions. Unsteady surface pressures indicated that dynamic separation and attachment control can be exploited to perturb vortices at wavelengths shorter than a typical wingspan. In summary, separation control has the potential for application to time-independent or time-dependent wake alleviation schemes, where the latter can be deployed to minimize adverse effects on ride-quality and dynamic structural loading.

  11. Potential performance of pillared inorgano- organo bentonite for soil mix technology permeable reactive barrier (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abunada, Z. M.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2013-12-01

    Modified bentonite has gained more interest for their effect in contaminant removal and environmental protection. This study is investigating the use of three different modified inorgano-organo bentonite (IOB) in soil mixing permeable reactive barrier. IOB were prepared using pillaring agents and quaternary ammonium cations (QAC) with different loading ratios. The permeabilities of compacted specimens containing IOB with two different soil types (sandy and gravelly soil) were measured for site contaminated groundwater, pure water and TEX compounds to study the potential of soil mix permeable reactive barrier (PRB). The soil permeability decreased by 1-2 order of magnitude once mixed with IOB. It also decreased by about 100 in case of TEX compound and site groundwater. The IOB was tested to remove Toluene, Ethyl-benzene, and o-Xylene (TEX) compound from model contaminated water in both batch and column test. Physical characteristics such as pore volume, porosity and specific structure in addition to level of surfactant loading were determined. Materials removal efficiency varied due to the surfactant loading, soil type and contaminant molecular weight. Sorption isotherm showed that the adsorbates preference increased in the order of T>E>X in all IOB types. Maximum TEX compound sorptive capacity varied also due to soil type with the highest was 86.89% 93.19% and 90.2% for T,E,X respectively on sandy soil. Key words: Inorgano-organo bentonite, permeability, reactive barrier, soil mix, sorption

  12. Representing the effects of stratosphere–troposphere exchange on 3-D O3 distributions in chemistry transport models using a potential vorticity-based parameterization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Downward transport of ozone (O3) from the stratosphere can be a significant contributor to tropospheric O3 background levels. However, this process often is not well represented in current regional models. In this study, we develop a seasonally and spatially varying potential vor...

  13. 2D Vortex Motion Driven by a Background Vorticity Gradient.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schecter, D. A.; Dubin, D. H. E.

    1999-11-01

    A background vorticity gradient can strongly influence the motion of vortices in 2D fluids. Examples are vortex motion in magnetized electron plasmas and hurricane tracks in planetary atmospheres.(See for example Huang, Fine and Driscoll, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74), 4424 (1995); C.G. Rossby, J. Mar. Res. 7, 175 (1948). Here, the vortex motion is examined numerically and analytically for the case of a point-like vortex in a background shear flow that is initially axisymmetric. The vortex acts to level the local background vorticity gradient. Conservation of angular momentum dictates that positive vortices (``clumps'') and negative vortices (``holes'') react oppositely: clumps move up the gradient, whereas holes move down the gradient. Both clumps and holes can be classified as either prograde or retrograde, depending on whether they rotate with or against the local background shear. An analysis, in which the background response to the vortex is linearized, gives the trajectory of a small retrograde vortex. When the vortex is prograde, the background response is nonlinear. A prograde vortex moves along the gradient at a slower rate that is given by a simple ``mix-and-move'' estimate. This rate vanishes when the local shear is sufficiently large, due to the trapping of background fluid around the vortex.

  14. Nucleation of Vortices and Anti-Vortices in Mesoscopic Superconducting Discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W. M.; Sobnack, M. B.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2008-02-01

    We investigate the nucleation of vortices and anti-vortices in a small superconducting disc. We formulate the Gibbs free energy of the disc with an arbitrary number of vortices and anti-vortices as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field and minimize the energy to obtain the optimal position of vortices for different applied fields and temperatures. We also analyse the stability of anti-vortices inside the disc.

  15. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Belue, A; Fischer, R P

    2007-01-08

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES&H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES&H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for reduction.

  16. The potential flow bounded by a mixing layer and a solid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, D. H.; Ferziger, J. H.

    1984-10-01

    The present investigation is a companion study to that of Wood and Bradshaw (1982), who measured the change in turbulence structure as the single-stream mixing layer approached that wind tunnnel floor. On the basis of spatial correlation measurements taken where the influence of the wall is small, Wood and Bradshaw concluded that the large turbulent eddies were essentially three-dimensional. In the present investigation it is shown that the extensions of Phillips's (1955) theory to include one-dimensional spectra and spatial correlations in the near-field potential flow provide an explanation for the large correlation scales, relative to the shear layer thickness, which have been measured outside turbulent mixing layers.

  17. Mixed micelles of 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid and selected hydrophobic bile acids: interaction parameter, partition coefficient of nitrazepam and mixed micelles haemolytic potential.

    PubMed

    Poša, Mihalj; Tepavčević, Vesna

    2011-09-01

    The formation of mixed micelles built of 7,12-dioxolithocholic and the following hydrophobic bile acids was examined by conductometric method: cholic (C), deoxycholic (D), chenodeoxycholic (CD), 12-oxolithocholic (12-oxoL), 7-oxolithocholic (7-oxoL), ursodeoxycholic (UD) and hiodeoxycholic (HD). Interaction parameter (β) in the studied binary mixed micelles had negative value, suggesting synergism between micelle building units. Based on β value, the hydrophobic bile acids formed two groups: group I (C, D and CD) and group II (12-oxoL, 7-oxoL, UD and HD). Bile acids from group II had more negative β values than bile acids from group I. Also, bile acids from group II formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds in aggregates with both smaller (2) and higher (4) aggregation numbers, according to the analysis of their stereochemical (conformational) structures and possible structures of mixed micelles built of these bile acids and 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid. Haemolytic potential and partition coefficient of nitrazepam were higher in mixed micelles built of the more hydrophobic bile acids (C, D, CD) and 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid than in micelles built only of 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid. On the other hand, these mixed micelles still had lower values of haemolytic potential than micelles built of C, D or CD. The mixed micelles that included bile acids: 12-oxoL, 7-oxoL, UD or HD did not significantly differ from the micelles of 7,12-dioxolithocholic acid, observing the values of their haemolytic potential.

  18. Filamentation with nonlinear Bessel vortices.

    PubMed

    Jukna, V; Milián, C; Xie, C; Itina, T; Dudley, J; Courvoisier, F; Couairon, A

    2014-10-20

    We present a new type of ring-shaped filaments featured by stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions to the laser beam propagation equation. Two different regimes are identified by direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of axicon focused Gaussian beams carrying helicity in a Kerr medium with multiphoton absorption: the stable nonlinear propagation regime corresponds to a slow beam reshaping into one of the stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions, called nonlinear Bessel vortices. The region of existence of nonlinear Bessel vortices is found semi-analytically. The influence of the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear losses on the beam shape is presented. Direct numerical simulations highlight the role of attractors played by nonlinear Bessel vortices in the stable propagation regime. Large input powers or small cone angles lead to the unstable propagation regime where nonlinear Bessel vortices break up into an helical multiple filament pattern or a more irregular structure. Nonlinear Bessel vortices are shown to be sufficiently intense to generate a ring-shaped filamentary ionized channel in the medium which is foreseen as opening the way to novel applications in laser material processing of transparent dielectrics.

  19. Detecting single-trial EEG evoked potential using a wavelet domain linear mixed model: application to error potentials classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinnato, J.; Roubaud, M.-C.; Burle, B.; Torrésani, B.

    2015-06-01

    Objective. The main goal of this work is to develop a model for multisensor signals, such as magnetoencephalography or electroencephalography (EEG) signals that account for inter-trial variability, suitable for corresponding binary classification problems. An important constraint is that the model be simple enough to handle small size and unbalanced datasets, as often encountered in BCI-type experiments. Approach. The method involves the linear mixed effects statistical model, wavelet transform, and spatial filtering, and aims at the characterization of localized discriminant features in multisensor signals. After discrete wavelet transform and spatial filtering, a projection onto the relevant wavelet and spatial channels subspaces is used for dimension reduction. The projected signals are then decomposed as the sum of a signal of interest (i.e., discriminant) and background noise, using a very simple Gaussian linear mixed model. Main results. Thanks to the simplicity of the model, the corresponding parameter estimation problem is simplified. Robust estimates of class-covariance matrices are obtained from small sample sizes and an effective Bayes plug-in classifier is derived. The approach is applied to the detection of error potentials in multichannel EEG data in a very unbalanced situation (detection of rare events). Classification results prove the relevance of the proposed approach in such a context. Significance. The combination of the linear mixed model, wavelet transform and spatial filtering for EEG classification is, to the best of our knowledge, an original approach, which is proven to be effective. This paper improves upon earlier results on similar problems, and the three main ingredients all play an important role.

  20. Mixing in explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  1. Stationary states of fermions in a sign potential with a mixed vector–scalar coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Castilho, W.M. Castro, A.S. de

    2014-01-15

    The scattering of a fermion in the background of a sign potential is considered with a general mixing of vector and scalar Lorentz structures with the scalar coupling stronger than or equal to the vector coupling under the Sturm–Liouville perspective. When the vector coupling and the scalar coupling have different magnitudes, an isolated solution shows that the fermion under a strong potential can be trapped in a highly localized region without manifestation of Klein’s paradox. It is also shown that the lonely bound-state solution disappears asymptotically as one approaches the conditions for the realization of spin and pseudospin symmetries. -- Highlights: •Scattering of fermions in a sign potential assessed under a Sturm–Liouville perspective. •An isolated bounded solution. •No pair production despite the high localization. •No bounded solution under exact spin and pseudospin symmetries.

  2. Hairpin Vortices: Autogeneration and Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, Daniel; Maharjan, Rijan; Sanders, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    The regeneration of hairpin vortices is examined in a free-surface water channel where vortices are artificially generated by means of injection in a laminar boundary layer. The process is visualized with dye and hydrogen bubble-wire techniques. The strength of an isolated hairpin required to begin the autogeneration process is established by means of PIV measurements on the symmetry plane. Because hairpins are in close proximity in a fully-turbulent boundary layer, two hairpins are generated at different streamwise locations and allowed to interact at different stages of development. The relative position, strength and maturity of the interacting hairpins that generate secondary vortices are examined. The morphology of the generation process and of the resulting secondary hairpin for both the isolated and interacting cases are discussed and compared to previous work. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CBET-1040236.

  3. Active Control of Stationary Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nino, Giovanni; Breidenthal, Robert; Bhide, Aditi; Sridhar, Aditya

    2016-11-01

    A system for active stationary vortex control is presented. The system uses a combination of plasma actuators, pressure sensors and electrical circuits deposited on aerodynamic surfaces using printing electronics methods. Once the pressure sensors sense a change on the intensity or on the position of the stationary vortices, its associated controller activates a set of plasma actuator to return the vortices to their original or intended positions. The forces produced by the actuators act on the secondary flow in the transverse plane, where velocities are much less than in the streamwise direction. As a demonstration case, the active vortex control system is mounted on a flat plate under low speed wind tunnel testing. Here, a set of vortex generators are used to generate the stationary vortices and the plasma actuators are used to move them. Preliminary results from the experiments are presented and compared with theoretical values. Thanks to the USAF AFOSR STTR support under contract # FA9550-15-C-0007.

  4. Mixed variational potentials and inherent symmetries of the Cahn–Hilliard theory of diffusive phase separation

    PubMed Central

    Miehe, C.; Hildebrand, F. E.; Böger, L.

    2014-01-01

    This work shows that the Cahn–Hilliard theory of diffusive phase separation is related to an intrinsic mixed variational principle that determines the rate of concentration and the chemical potential. The principle characterizes a canonically compact model structure, where the two balances involved for the species content and microforce appear as the Euler equations of a variational statement. The existence of the variational principle underlines an inherent symmetry in the two-field representation of the Cahn–Hilliard theory. This can be exploited in the numerical implementation by the construction of time- and space-discrete incremental potentials, which fully determine the update problems of typical time-stepping procedures. The mixed variational principles provide the most fundamental approach to the finite-element solution of the Cahn–Hilliard equation based on low-order basis functions, leading to monolithic symmetric algebraic systems of iterative update procedures based on a linearization of the nonlinear problem. They induce in a natural format the choice of symmetric solvers for Newton-type iterative updates, providing a speed-up and reduction of data storage when compared with non-symmetric implementations. In this sense, the potentials developed are believed to be fundamental ingredients to a deeper understanding of the Cahn–Hilliard theory. PMID:24711722

  5. Graphene with geometrically induced vorticity.

    PubMed

    Pachos, Jiannis K; Stone, Michael; Temme, Kristan

    2008-04-18

    At half filling, the electronic structure of graphene can be modeled by a pair of free two-dimensional Dirac fermions. We explicitly demonstrate that in the presence of a geometrically induced gauge field an everywhere-real Kekulé modulation of the hopping matrix elements can correspond to a nonreal Higgs field with nontrivial vorticity. This provides a natural setting for fractionally charged vortices with localized zero modes. For fullerenelike molecules we employ the index theorem to demonstrate the existence of six low-lying states that do not depend strongly on the Kekulé-induced mass gap.

  6. Apparent mass in viscous, vortical flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noca, Flavio

    2001-11-01

    The concept of added, virtual, apparent, or additional mass is well known in potential flow theory. It is added mass (or more exactly, the time derivative of virtual momentum) that wholly contributes to fluid dynamic forces in unsteady, potential flow configurations. While the force contribution from added mass can be easily evaluated in potential flows, it has always been thought that in real (vortical and viscous) flows, the contribution of added mass to the fluid dynamic force is intertwined in a complex way with the force resulting from wake and boundary layer vorticity. Recently, Shiels, Leonard, and Roshko (Journal of Fluids and Structures, vol 15, pp 3-21, 2001) [henceforth SLR] showed that the fluid dynamic lift force on a circular cylinder performing transverse oscillations in a steady stream can actually be decomposed into a lift force due to apparent mass (as evaluated from potential theory) and a ``wake'' force resulting from frictional as well as altered pressure forces caused by the boundary layer and wake growth in viscous flow. Through a rigorous formalism analogous to SLR’s, we will confirm that the SLR decomposition is correct and valid for any body shape in arbitrary motion. The SLR decomposition is a seminal discovery in the science of unsteady aero/hydrodynamics, as it allows to clearly distinguish the force contributions from added mass and from the ``wake''. The result is particularly important for understanding the flight and swimming mechanics of animals.

  7. Scattering and bound states of spinless particles in a mixed vector-scalar smooth step potential

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.G.; Castro, A.S. de

    2009-11-15

    Scattering and bound states for a spinless particle in the background of a kink-like smooth step potential, added with a scalar uniform background, are considered with a general mixing of vector and scalar Lorentz structures. The problem is mapped into the Schroedinger-like equation with an effective Rosen-Morse potential. It is shown that the scalar uniform background present subtle and trick effects for the scattering states and reveals itself a high-handed element for formation of bound states. In that process, it is shown that the problem of solving a differential equation for the eigenenergies is transmuted into the simpler and more efficient problem of solving an irrational algebraic equation.

  8. Scattering and bound states of fermions in a mixed vector–scalar smooth step potential

    SciTech Connect

    Castilho, W.M. Castro, A.S. de

    2014-07-15

    The scattering of a fermion in the background of a smooth step potential is considered with a general mixing of vector and scalar Lorentz structures with the scalar coupling stronger than or equal to the vector coupling. Charge-conjugation and chiral-conjugation transformations are discussed and it is shown that a finite set of intrinsically relativistic bound-state solutions appears as poles of the transmission amplitude. It is also shown that those bound solutions disappear asymptotically as one approaches the conditions for the realization of the so-called spin and pseudospin symmetries in a four-dimensional space–time. - Highlights: • Scattering and bound states of fermions in a kink-like potential. • No pair production despite the high localization. • No bounded solution under exact spin and pseudospin symmetries.

  9. Tropical Cyclone-Induced Ocean Mixing, Ocean Heat Transport, and the Potential for Climatic Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriver, R. L.; Huber, M.

    2006-12-01

    Ocean heat transport (OHT) is an important physical process that influences Earth's climate. Ocean mixing is considered to be a critical component in driving OHT, but potential climatic feedbacks between mixing and OHT are poorly understood. Tropical cyclones (TC)s are efficient ocean mixers, as evidenced by the cold wakes left behind these storms, and may substantially contribute to driving OHT (Emanuel, 2001). Furthermore, recent studies propose that TC activity is linked to the climate system via tropical sea surface temperature (SST) (Emanuel, 2005; Webster et al., 2005; Sriver and Huber, 2006), thus exposing a potential climatic feedback between global TC activity and OHT. Here we use near surface wind and SST data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis project (ERA-40) to investigate the relationship between globally integrated TC winds, TC-induced OHT, and mean annual tropical SST over the last 25 years. We show that the time series for these quantities exhibit agreement, and TC-induced OHT is extremely sensitive to changes in tropical SST. Results suggest future increases in SST will be accompanied by an increase in global TC activity and increased OHT.

  10. Stochastic Vorticity and Associated Filtering Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Amirdjanova, A.; Kallianpur, G.

    2002-12-19

    The focus of this work is on a two-dimensional stochastic vorticity equation for an incompressible homogeneous viscous fluid. We consider a signed measure-valued stochastic partial differential equation for a vorticity process based on the Skorohod-Ito evolution of a system of N randomly moving point vortices. A nonlinear filtering problem associated with the evolution of the vorticity is considered and a corresponding Fujisaki-Kallianpur-Kunita stochastic differential equation for the optimal filter is derived.

  11. Discrete vortices on anisotropic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gui-Hua; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Chen, Zi-Fa

    2015-08-01

    We consider the effects of anisotropy on two types of localized states with topological charges equal to 1 in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices, using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation as a paradigm model. We find that on-site-centered vortices with different propagation constants are not globally stable, and that upper and lower boundaries of the propagation constant exist. The region between these two boundaries is the domain outside of which the on-site-centered vortices are unstable. This region decreases in size as the anisotropy parameter is gradually increased. We also consider off-site-centered vortices on anisotropic lattices, which are unstable on this lattice type and either transform into stable quadrupoles or collapse. We find that the transformation of off-sitecentered vortices into quadrupoles, which occurs on anisotropic lattices, cannot occur on isotropic lattices. In the quadrupole case, a propagation-constant region also exists, outside of which the localized states cannot stably exist. The influence of anisotropy on this region is almost identical to its effects on the on-site-centered vortex case.

  12. Paraboloids and Vortices in Hydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, John M.

    1969-01-01

    Describes an apparatus designed to demonstrate vortical flow of a fluid. The apparatus consists of a transparent acrylic cylinder, with a drain hole, and mounted so that it can be rotated about its axis at speeds up to 1000 rpm. Experimental observations with water as the fluid under study are reported. (LC)

  13. Combustor with multistage internal vortices

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer Yu; Harrington, R.E.

    1987-05-01

    A fluidized bed combustor is provided with a multistage arrangement of vortex generators in the freeboard area. The vortex generators are provided by nozzle means which extend into the interior of the freeboard for forming vortices within the freeboard areas to enhance the combustion of particulate material entrained in product gases ascending into the freeboard from the fluidized bed. Each of the nozzles are radially inwardly spaced from the combustor walls defining the freeboard to provide for the formation of an essentially vortex-free, vertically extending annulus about the vortices whereby the particulate material centrifuged from the vortices against the inner walls of the combustor is returned through the annulus to the fluidized bed. By adjusting the vortex pattern within the freeboard, a significant portion of the full cross-sectional area of the freeboard except for the peripheral annulus can be contacted with the turbulent vortical flow for removing the particulate material from the gaseous products and also for enhancing the combustion thereof within the freeboard. 2 figs.

  14. Three-dimensional flow structures and vorticity control in fish-like swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Wolfgang, M. J.; Yue, D. K. P.; Triantafyllou, M. S.

    2002-10-01

    We employ a three-dimensional, nonlinear inviscid numerical method, in conjunction with experimental data from live fish and from a fish-like robotic mechanism, to establish the three-dimensional features of the flow around a fish-like body swimming in a straight line, and to identify the principal mechanisms of vorticity control employed in fish-like swimming. The computations contain no structural model for the fish and hence no recoil correction. First, we show the near-body flow structure produced by the travelling-wave undulations of the bodies of a tuna and a giant danio. As revealed in cross-sectional planes, for tuna the flow contains dominant features resembling the flow around a two-dimensional oscillating plate over most of the length of the fish body. For the giant danio, on the other hand, a mixed longitudinal transverse structure appears along the hind part of the body. We also investigate the interaction of the body-generated vortices with the oscillating caudal fin and with tail-generated vorticity. Two distinct vorticity interaction modes are identified: the first mode results in high thrust and is generated by constructive pairing of body-generated vorticity with same-sign tail-generated vorticity, resulting in the formation of a strong thrust wake; the second corresponds to high propulsive efficiency and is generated by destructive pairing of body-generated vorticity with opposite-sign tail-generated vorticity, resulting in the formation of a weak thrust wake.

  15. Observation of vector solitons with hidden vorticity.

    PubMed

    Izdebskaya, Yana V; Rebling, Johannes; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-03-01

    This letter reports the first experimental observation, to our knowledge, of optical vector solitons composed of two incoherently coupled vortex components. We employ nematic liquid crystal to generate stable vector solitons with counterrotating vortices and hidden vorticity. In contrast, the solitons with explicit vorticity and corotating vortex components show azimuthal splitting.

  16. The Stabilisation Potential of Individual and Mixed Assemblages of Natural Bacteria and Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Lubarsky, Helen V.; Hubas, Cédric; Chocholek, Melanie; Larson, Fredrik; Manz, Werner; Paterson, David M.; Gerbersdorf, Sabine U.

    2010-01-01

    It is recognized that microorganisms inhabiting natural sediments significantly mediate the erosive response of the bed (“ecosystem engineers”) through the secretion of naturally adhesive organic material (EPS: extracellular polymeric substances). However, little is known about the individual engineering capability of the main biofilm components (heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic microalgae) in terms of their individual contribution to the EPS pool and their relative functional contribution to substratum stabilisation. This paper investigates the engineering effects on a non-cohesive test bed as the surface was colonised by natural benthic assemblages (prokaryotic, eukaryotic and mixed cultures) of bacteria and microalgae. MagPI (Magnetic Particle Induction) and CSM (Cohesive Strength Meter) respectively determined the adhesive capacity and the cohesive strength of the culture surface. Stabilisation was significantly higher for the bacterial assemblages (up to a factor of 2) than for axenic microalgal assemblages. The EPS concentration and the EPS composition (carbohydrates and proteins) were both important in determining stabilisation. The peak of engineering effect was significantly greater in the mixed assemblage as compared to the bacterial (x 1.2) and axenic diatom (x 1.7) cultures. The possibility of synergistic effects between the bacterial and algal cultures in terms of stability was examined and rejected although the concentration of EPS did show a synergistic elevation in mixed culture. The rapid development and overall stabilisation potential of the various assemblages was impressive (x 7.5 and ×9.5, for MagPI and CSM, respectively, as compared to controls). We confirmed the important role of heterotrophic bacteria in “biostabilisation” and highlighted the interactions between autotrophic and heterotrophic biofilm consortia. This information contributes to the conceptual understanding of the microbial sediment engineering that represents an

  17. Coupling the Mixed Potential and Radiolysis Models for Used Fuel Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; Jerden, James L.; Ebert, William L.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2013-08-30

    The primary purpose of this report is to describe the strategy for coupling three process level models to produce an integrated Used Fuel Degradation Model (FDM). The FDM, which is based on fundamental chemical and physical principals, provides direct calculation of radionuclide source terms for use in repository performance assessments. The G-value for H2O2 production (Gcond) to be used in the Mixed Potential Model (MPM) (H2O2 is the only radiolytic product presently included but others will be added as appropriate) needs to account for intermediate spur reactions. The effects of these intermediate reactions on [H2O2] are accounted for in the Radiolysis Model (RM). This report details methods for applying RM calculations that encompass the effects of these fast interactions on [H2O2] as the solution composition evolves during successive MPM iterations and then represent the steady-state [H2O2] in terms of an “effective instantaneous or conditional” generation value (Gcond). It is anticipated that the value of Gcond will change slowly as the reaction progresses through several iterations of the MPM as changes in the nature of fuel surface occur. The Gcond values will be calculated with the RM either after several iterations or when concentrations of key reactants reach threshold values determined from previous sensitivity runs. Sensitivity runs with RM indicate significant changes in G-value can occur over narrow composition ranges. The objective of the mixed potential model (MPM) is to calculate the used fuel degradation rates for a wide range of disposal environments to provide the source term radionuclide release rates for generic repository concepts. The fuel degradation rate is calculated for chemical and oxidative dissolution mechanisms using mixed potential theory to account for all relevant redox reactions at the fuel surface, including those involving oxidants produced by solution radiolysis and provided by the radiolysis model (RM). The RM calculates

  18. Numerical prediction of airplane trailing vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czech, M. J.; Crouch, J. D.; Miller, G. D.; Strelets, M.

    2004-11-01

    The accurate prediction of airplane trailing vortices is of great interest for both cruise conditions in conjunction with the formation of contrails as well as approach conditions for reasons of flight safety and active vortex control. A numerical approach is introduced based on a quasi-3D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes formulation with a one-equation turbulence model. The numerical results show good agreement with wind-tunnel data out to ten spans for a range of wing and tail loadings typical of commercial airplanes in a landing configuration. The results show a one-, two- and three-pair system in the near-field with only minor changes to the initial lift distribution. The CFD correctly predicts the strength, demise and position of the individual vortex pairs over a range of test cases. The approach is further extended by considering thrust effects. For cruise conditions, far field predictions show the entrainment of the jet plume into the wake and provide the potential for coupling with a micro-physics model to predict the formation and early evolution of contrails. Potential influences of configuration details on the plume entrainment are considered. This numerical method also offers an attractive approach for assessing active schemes designed to accelerate the break-up of airplane trailing vortices.

  19. Three-dimensional evolution of large-scale vortices in supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jun-hong; Shen, Chi-bing; Wang, Qian-cheng

    2015-12-01

    The supersonic large-scale vortices generated by a streamwise vortex generator were investigated experimentally using the nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering method, with the emphasis on the entrainment and mixing characteristics in supersonic mixing layer. The spanwise coherent structures originated from the K-H instability grew up along with the vortex pairing process, which are able to exist in far field downstream of trailing edge. The large-scale streamwise vortex shed from the generator plays a major role in entraining the surrounding fluid from both sides of interface into mixing zone. Meanwhile, through the interaction with spanwise vortices, the streamwise vortex breaks up into the small-scale structures for molecular mixing. Moreover, the T-shaped structures and secondary K-H vortices are shown to be the usual topological structures in small-scale turbulence transport.

  20. Scales and dynamics of Submesoscale Coherent Vortices formed by deep convection in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, Anthony; Testor, Pierre; Houpert, Loïc.; Damien, Pierre; Prieur, Louis; Hayes, Daniel; Taillandier, Vincent; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; d'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Coppola, Laurent; Karstensen, Johannes; Mortier, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Since 2010, an intense effort in the collection of in situ observations has been carried out in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea thanks to gliders, profiling floats, regular cruises, and mooring lines. This integrated observing system enabled a year-to-year monitoring of the deep waters formation that occurred in the Gulf of Lions area during four consecutive winters (2010-2013). Vortical structures remnant of wintertime deep vertical mixing events were regularly sampled by the different observing platforms. These are Submesoscale Coherent Vortices (SCVs) characterized by a small radius (˜5-8 km), strong depth-intensified orbital velocities (˜10-20 cm s-1) with often a weak surface signature, high Rossby (˜0.5) and Burger numbers O(0.5-1). Anticyclones transport convected waters resulting from intermediate (˜300 m) to deep (˜2000 m) vertical mixing. Cyclones are characterized by a 500-1000 m thick layer of weakly stratified deep waters (or bottom waters that cascaded from the shelf of the Gulf of Lions in 2012) extending down to the bottom of the ocean at ˜2500 m. The formation of cyclonic eddies seems to be favored by bottom-reaching convection occurring during the study period or cascading events reaching the abyssal plain. We confirm the prominent role of anticyclonic SCVs and shed light on the important role of cyclonic SCVs in the spreading of a significant amount (˜30%) of the newly formed deep waters away from the winter mixing areas. Since they can survive until the following winter, they can potentially have a great impact on the mixed layer deepening through a local preconditioning effect.

  1. Potential of mixed microalgae to harness biodiesel from ecological water-bodies with simultaneous treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohan, S Venkata; Devi, M Prathima; Mohanakrishna, G; Amarnath, N; Babu, M Lenin; Sarma, P N

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel as an eco-friendly fuel is gaining much acceptance in recent years. This communication provides an overview on the possibility of using mixed microalgae existing in ecological water-bodies for harnessing biodiesel. Microalgal cultures from five water-bodies are cultivated in domestic wastewater in open-ponds and the harvested algal-biomass was processed through acid-catalyzed transesterification. Experiments evidenced the potential of using mixed microalgae for harnessing biodiesel. Presence of palmitic acid (C16:0) in higher fraction and physical properties of algal oil correlated well with the biodiesel properties. Functional characteristics of water-bodies showed to influence both species diversity and lipid accumulation. Microalgae from stagnant water-bodies receiving domestic discharges documented higher lipid accumulation. Algal-oil showed to consist 33 types of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids having wide food and fuel characteristics. Simultaneous wastewater treatment was also noticed due to the syntrophic association in the water-body microenvironment. Diversity studies visualized the composition of algae species known to accumulate higher lipids.

  2. Phase singularity of surface plasmon polaritons generated by optical vortices.

    PubMed

    Tan, P S; Yuan, G H; Wang, Q; Zhang, N; Zhang, D H; Yuan, X-C

    2011-08-15

    We demonstrate an experimental result that shows the phase singularity of surface plasmon waves generated by the direct transform of optical vortices at normal incidence focused on a structureless metal surface. The near-field two-dimensional intensity distribution near the focal plane is experimentally examined by using near-field scanning optical microscopy and shows a good agreement with the finite-difference time-domain simulation result. The experimental realization demonstrates a potential of the proposed excitation scheme to be reconfigured locally with advantages over structures milled into optically thick metallic films for plasmonics applications involving plasmonic vortices.

  3. Mixed-Potential Gas Sensors Using an Electrolyte Consisting of Zinc Phosphate Glass and Benzimidazole

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Takafumi; Itoh, Toshio; Shin, Woosuck

    2017-01-01

    Mixed-potential gas sensors with a proton conductor consisting of zinc metaphosphate glass and benzimidazole were fabricated for the detection of hydrogen produced by intestinal bacteria in dry and humid air. The gas sensor consisting of an alumina substrate with platinum and gold electrodes showed good response to different hydrogen concentrations from 250 parts per million (ppm) to 25,000 ppm in dry and humid air at 100–130 °C. The sensor response varied linearly with the hydrogen and carbon monoxide concentrations due to mass transport limitations. The sensor responses to hydrogen gas (e.g., −0.613 mV to 1000 ppm H2) was higher than those to carbon monoxide gas (e.g., −0.128 mV to 1000 ppm CO) at 120 °C under atmosphere with the same level of humidity as expired air. PMID:28067788

  4. Lie algebras for systems with mixed spectra. I. The scattering Pöschl-Teller potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Alejandro; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    1985-05-01

    Starting from an N-body quantum space, we consider the Lie-algebraic framework where the Pöschl-Teller Hamiltonian, - 1/2 ∂2χ +c sech2 χ+s csch2 χ, is the single sp(2,R) Casimir operator. The spectrum of this system is mixed: it contains a finite number of negative-energy bound states and a positive-energy continuum of free states; it is identified with the Clebsch-Gordan series of the D+×D- representation coupling. The wave functions are the sp(2,R) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of that coupling in the parabolic basis. Using only Lie-algebraic techniques, we find the asymptotic behavior of these wave functions; for the special pure-trough potential (s=0) we derive thus the transmission and reflection amplitudes of the scattering matrix.

  5. Modulation analysis of large-scale discrete vortices.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Luis A; Minzoni, Antonmaria A; Panayotaros, Panayotis; Smyth, Noel F

    2008-09-01

    The behavior of large-scale vortices governed by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation is studied. Using a discrete version of modulation theory, it is shown how vortices are trapped and stabilized by the self-consistent Peierls-Nabarro potential that they generate in the lattice. Large-scale circular and polygonal vortices are studied away from the anticontinuum limit, which is the limit considered in previous studies. In addition numerical studies are performed on large-scale, straight structures, and it is found that they are stabilized by a nonconstant mean level produced by standing waves generated at the ends of the structure. Finally, numerical evidence is produced for long-lived, localized, quasiperiodic structures.

  6. Interaction between x-ray and magnetic vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2015-12-01

    The interaction between two topological objects, an x-ray beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) and a magnetic vortex, is studied theoretically. The resonant x-ray scattering intensity is calculated as a function of the relative position of the magnetic and x-ray vortices. For a homogeneous system, the charge scattering is zero. For magnetic scattering, the intensity profile strongly depends on the relative topological indices of the x-ray and magnetic singularities. A strong enhancement in the intensity profile is observed for equal winding factors. Additionally, the profile displays edge effects, which depend on the scattering conditions, the radial dependence of the magnetic vortex, and the Laguerre-Gaussian mode of the OAM x-ray beam. The potential of resonant OAM x-ray scattering from magnetic vortices opens the door to study the dynamics and switching of magnetic vortices.

  7. Mixing Enhancement in a Lobed Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. L.; Majamaki, A. J.; Lam, I. T.; Delabroy, O.; Karagozian, A. R.; Marble, F. E.; Smith, O. I.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the non-reactive mixing processes associated with a lobed fuel injector in a coflowing air stream is presented. The lobed fuel injector is a device which generates streamwise vorticity, producing high strain rates which can enhance the mixing of reactants while delaying ignition in a controlled manner. The lobed injectors examined in the present study consist of two corrugated plates between which a fuel surrogate, CO2, is injected into coflowing air. Acetone is seeded in the CO2 supply as a fuel marker. Comparison of two alternative lobed injector geometries is made with a straight fuel injector to determine net differences in mixing and strain fields due to streamwise vorticity generation. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of the seeded acetone yields two-dimensional images of the scalar concentration field at various downstream locations, from which local mixing and scalar dissipation rates are computed. It is found that the lobed injector geometry can enhance molecular mixing and create a highly strained flowfield, and that the strain rates generated by scalar energy dissipation can potentially delay ignition in a reacting flowfield.

  8. Dissipative ring solitons with vorticity.

    PubMed

    Soto-Crespo, J M; Akhmediev, N; Mejia-Cortés, C; Devine, N

    2009-03-16

    We study dissipative ring solitons with vorticity in the frame of the (2+1)-dimensional cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. In dissipative media, radially symmetric ring structures with any vorticity m can be stable in a finite range of parameters. Beyond the region of stability, the solitons lose the radial symmetry but may remain stable, keeping the same value of the topological charge. We have found bifurcations into solitons with n-fold bending symmetry, with n independent on m. Solitons without circular symmetry can also display (m + 1)-fold modulation behaviour. A sequence of bifurcations can transform the ring soliton into a pulsating or chaotic state which keeps the same value of the topological charge as the original ring.

  9. Beach vortices near circular topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinds, A. K.; Johnson, E. R.; McDonald, N. R.

    2016-10-01

    Finite-area monopolar vortices which propagate around topography without change in shape are computed for circular seamounts and wells including the limiting cases of each: islands and infinitely deep wells. The time-dependent behaviour of vortex pairs propagating toward circular topography is also examined. Trajectories of point-vortex pairs exterior to the topography are found and compared to trajectories of vortex patches computed using contour dynamics.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Protoplanetary Vortices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Center for Turbulence Research 81 Annual Research Briefs 2003 Numerical simulation of protoplanetary vortices By H. Lin, J.A. Barranco t AND P.S...planetesimals and planets. In earlier works ( Barranco & Marcus 2000; Barranco et al. 2000; Lin et al. 2000) we have briefly described the possible physical...transport. In particular, Barranco et al. (2000) provided a general mathe- matical framework that is suitable for the asymptotic regime of the disk

  11. Breathers on quantized superfluid vortices.

    PubMed

    Salman, Hayder

    2013-10-18

    We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings.

  12. Breathers on Quantized Superfluid Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Hayder

    2013-10-01

    We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings.

  13. Decolorization potential of mixed microbial consortia for reactive and disperse textile dyestuffs.

    PubMed

    Asgher, Muhammad; Bhatti, H N; Shah, S A H; Asad, M Javaid; Legge, R L

    2007-06-01

    Four different aerobic mixed consortia collected from basins of wastewater streams coming out of dying plants of Crescent Textile (CT), Sitara Textile (ST), Chenab Fabrics (CF) and Noor Fatima Textile (NF), Faisalabad, Pakistan were applied for decolorization of Drimarene Orange K-GL, Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL, Foron Yellow SE4G and Foron Blue RDGLN for 10 days using the shake flask technique. CT culture showed the best decolorization potential on all dyestuffs followed by ST, NF and CF, respectively. CT could completely decolorize all dyes within 3-5 days. ST cultures showed effective decolorization potential on Foron Yellow SE4G and Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL but complete color removal was achieved after 4 and 7 days, respectively. NF culture showed 100% decolorization efficiencies on Foron Yellow SE4G and Foron Blue RDGLN but it took comparatively longer time periods (5-7 days). Where as, the NF culture had decolorized only 40% and 50% of Drimarene orange and red, respectively, after 10 days. CF caused complete decolorization of Foron Blue RDGLN and Drimarene Brilliant Red K-4BL after 4 and 8 days, respectively but it showed poor performance on other two dyes.

  14. Giant vortices in combined harmonic and quartic traps

    SciTech Connect

    Aftalion, Amandine; Danaila, Ionut

    2004-03-01

    We consider a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate confined in combined harmonic and quartic traps, following recent experiments [V. Bretin, S. Stock, Y. Seurin, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 050403 (2004)]. We investigate numerically the behavior of the wave function which solves the three-dimensional Gross Pitaevskii equation and analyze in detail the structure of vortices. For a quartic-plus-harmonic potential, as the angular velocity increases, the vortex lattice evolves into a vortex array with hole. The merging of vortices into the hole is highly three dimensional, starting from the top and bottom of the condensate to reach the center. We also investigate the case of a quartic-minus-harmonic potential, not covered by experiments or previous numerical works. For intermediate repulsive potentials, we show that the transition to a vortex array with hole takes place for lower angular velocities, when the lattice is made up of a small number of vortices. For the strong repulsive case, a transition from a giant vortex to a hole with a circle of vortices around is observed.

  15. Dynamics of driven superconducting vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Cynthia Olson

    1998-09-01

    Vortices in superconductors exhibit rich dynamical behaviors that are relevant to the physical properties of the material. In this thesis, we use simulations to study the dynamics of flux-gradient-driven vortices in different types of samples. We make connections between the microscopic behavior of the vortices and macroscopic experimentally observable measurements. First, we systematically quantify the effect of the pinning landscape on the macroscopic properties of vortex avalanches and vortex plastic flow. We relate the velocity field, cumulative patterns of vortex flow channels, and voltage noise measurements with statistical quantities, such as distributions of avalanche sizes. Samples with a high density of strong pinning sites produce very broad avalanche distributions. Easy-flow vortex channels appear in samples with a low pinning density, and typical avalanche sizes emerge in an otherwise broad distribution of sizes. We observe a crossover from interstitial motion in narrow channels to pin-to-pin motion in broad channels as the pin density is increased. Second, we also analyze the microscopic dynamics of vortex motion through channels that form river-like fractal networks in a variety of superconducting samples, and relate it to macroscopic measurable quantities such as the power spectrum. As a function of pinning strength, we calculate the fractal dimension, tortuosity, and the corresponding voltage noise spectrum. Above a certain pinning strength, a remarkable universal drop in both tortuosity and noise power occurs when the vortex motion changes from braiding channels to unbraided channels. Third, we also present a new dynamic phase diagram for driven vortices with varying lattice softness that indicates that, at high driving currents, at least two distinct dynamic phases of flux flow appear depending on the vortex-vortex interaction strength. When the flux lattice is soft, the vortices flow in independently moving channels with smectic structure. For

  16. Mix design and pollution control potential of pervious concrete with non-compliant waste fly ash.

    PubMed

    Soto-Pérez, Linoshka; Hwang, Sangchul

    2016-07-01

    Pervious concrete mix was optimized for the maximum compressive strength and the desired permeability at 7 mm/s with varying percentages of water-to-binder (W/B), fly ash-to-binder (FA/B), nano-iron oxide-to-binder (NI/B) and water reducer-to-binder (WR/B). The mass ratio of coarse aggregates in sizes of 4.75-9.5 mm to the binder was fixed at 4:1. Waste FA used in the study was not compliant with a standard specification for use as a mineral admixture in concrete. One optimum pervious concrete (Opt A) targeting high volume FA utilization had a 28-day compressive strength of 22.8 MPa and a permeability of 5.6 mm/s with a mix design at 36% W/B, 35% FA/B, 6% NI/B and 1.2% WR/B. The other (Opt B) targeting a less use of admixtures had a 28-day compressive strength and a permeability of 21.4 MPa and 7.6 mm/s, respectively, at 32% W/B, 10% FA/B, 0.5% NI/B and 0.8% WR/B. During 10 loads at a 2-h contact time each, the Opt A and Opt B achieved the average fecal coliform removals of 72.4% and 77.9% and phosphorus removals of 49.8% and 40.5%, respectively. Therefore, non-compliant waste FA could be utilized for a cleaner production of pervious concrete possessing a greater structural strength and compatible hydrological property and pollution control potential, compared to the ordinary pervious concrete.

  17. On the mixing enhancement in annular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, H. V.; Floryan, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    The potential for mixing enhancement associated with the use of axisymmetric ribs in annular flows has been analyzed. The enhancement relies on the use of streamwise vortices produced by the centrifugal instability. Conditions leading to the formation of such vortices have been established for a wide range of geometric parameters of interest using linear stability theory. It has been demonstrated that vortices can be formed only in the presence of ribs with O(1) wavelengths. Slopes of the bounding walls in the case of the long wavelength ribs are too small to create centrifugal forces sufficient for flow destabilization. In the case of short wavelength ribs, the slopes become excessively large, resulting in the stream moving away from the wall and becoming rectilinear and, thus, reducing the magnitude of the centrifugal force field. It has been shown that decreasing the annulus' radius reduces the critical Reynolds number when ribs are placed at the inner cylinder but increases when the ribs are placed at the outer cylinder. The onset of the shear-driven instability has been investigated as the resulting travelling waves may interfere with the formation of vortices. It has been shown that the axisymmetric waves play the critical role for annuli with large radii while the spiral waves play the critical role for annuli with small radii. The ribs always reduce the critical Reynolds number for the travelling waves when compared with the onset conditions for smooth annuli. The conduit geometries giving preference to the formation of vortices while avoiding creation of the travelling waves have been identified. It is demonstrated that predictions of flow characteristics determined through the analysis of sinusoidal ribs provide a good approximation of the flow response to ribs of arbitrary shape.

  18. Climatology of the Martian Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDunn, T. L.; Kass, D. M.; McCleese, D. J.; Kleinboehl, A.; Schofield, J. T.

    2013-12-01

    In the martian atmosphere, as in the terrestrial stratosphere, an intense cyclonic vortex forms over the winter pole. This vortex is known as the polar vortex and its edge is associated with the strong westerly jet that occurs over mid-latitudes during the winter season. The weather on Mars over the mid-to-high winter latitudes is heavily influenced by the polar vortex. However, the size, shape, and position of the vortex are not well characterized. Previous work has shown that the shape of the vortex can be deformed by baroclinic activity. Earlier work has also shown that southern-hemisphere dust activity can push the center of the northern vortex off the pole, resulting in marked deviations in the northern-hemisphere jet stream. It remains unknown how often such deformations in vortex shape and shifts in vortex position occur. Another feature of the vortex that remains poorly characterized is its strength. A strong vortex acts as a barrier against mixing, causing the winter air over the pole to become very cold, while a weak vortex permits mixing and is associated with less-cold polar temperatures. How frequently each of these phases occur and how long they persist remain unanswered questions. Here, we use temperature observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Climate Sounder to diagnose the size, shape, position, and strength of the polar vortex. We report the daily and seasonal behavior of both the northern and southern vortices.

  19. Internal and vorticity waves in decaying stratified flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulka, A.; Cano, D.

    2009-04-01

    Most predictive models fail when forcing at the Rossby deformation Radius is important and a large range of scales have to be taken into account. When mixing of reactants or pollutants has to be accounted, the range of scales spans from hundreds of Kilometers to the Bachelor or Kolmogorov sub milimiter scales. We present some theoretical arguments to describe the flow in terms of the three dimensional vorticity equations, using a lengthscale related to the vorticity (or enstrophy ) transport. Effect of intermittent eddies and non-homogeneity of diffusion are also key issues in the environment because both stratification and rotation body forces are important and cause anisotropy/non-homogeneity. These problems need further theoretical, numerical and observational work and one approach is to try to maximize the relevant geometrical information in order to understand and therefore predict these complex environmental dispersive flows. The importance of the study of turbulence structure and its relevance in diffusion of contaminants in environmental flows is clear when we see the effect of environmental disasters such as the Prestige oil spill or the Chernobil radioactive cloud spread in the atmosphere. A series of Experiments have been performed on a strongly stratified two layer fluid consisting of Brine in the bottom and freshwater above in a 1 square meter tank. The evolution of the vortices after the passage of a grid is video recorded and Particle tracking is applied on small pliolite particles floating at the interface. The combination of internal waves and vertical vorticity produces two separate time scales that may produce resonances. The vorticity is seen to oscilate in a complex way, where the frecuency decreases with time.

  20. Streamwise Vorticity Generation in Laminar and Turbulent Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, Aodeji O.; Wilson, Robert V.

    1999-01-01

    Complex streamwise vorticity fields are observed in the evolution of non-circular jets. Generation mechanisms are investigated via Reynolds-averaged (RANS), large-eddy (LES) and direct numerical (DNS) simulations of laminar and turbulent rectangular jets. Complex vortex interactions are found in DNS of laminar jets, but axis-switching is observed only when a single instability mode is present in the incoming mixing layer. With several modes present, the structures are not coherent and no axis-switching occurs, RANS computations also produce no axis-switching. On the other hand, LES of high Reynolds number turbulent jets produce axis-switching even for cases with several instability modes in the mixing layer. Analysis of the source terms of the mean streamwise vorticity equation through post-processing of the instantaneous results shows that, complex interactions of gradients of the normal and shear Reynolds stresses are responsible for the generation of streamwise vorticity which leads to axis-switching. RANS computations confirm these results. k - epsilon turbulence model computations fail to reproduce the phenomenon, whereas algebraic Reynolds stress model (ASM) computations, in which the secondary normal and shear stresses are computed explicitly, succeeded in reproducing the phenomenon accurately.

  1. Fully alternating, triaxial electric or magnetic fields offer new routes to fluid vorticity.

    PubMed

    Martin, James E; Solis, Kyle J

    2015-01-14

    Noncontact methods of generating strong fluid vorticity are important to problems involving heat and mass transfer, fluid mixing, active wetting, and droplet transport. Furthermore, because zero or even negative shear viscosities can be induced, vorticity can greatly extend the control range of the smart fluids used in magnetorheological devices. In recent work we have shown that a particular class of ac/ac/dc triaxial fields (symmetry-breaking rational fields) can create strong vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions and have presented a theory of the vorticity that is based on the symmetry of the 2-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse. In this paper we demonstrate that there are three countably infinite sets of fully alternating ac/ac/ac triaxial fields whose frequencies form rational triads that have the symmetry required to drive fluid vorticity. The symmetry of the 3-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse can be derived and from this the direction of the vorticity axis can be predicted, as can the dependence of the sign of the vorticity on the phase relations between the three field components. Experimental results are presented that validate the symmetry theory. These discoveries significantly broaden the class of triaxial fields that can be exploited to produce strong noncontact flow.

  2. Fully alternating, triaxial electric or magnetic fields offer new routes to fluid vorticity

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle J.

    2014-10-31

    Noncontact methods of generating strong fluid vorticity are important to problems involving heat and mass transfer, fluid mixing, active wetting, and droplet transport. Furthermore, because zero or even negative shear viscosities can be induced, vorticity can greatly extend the control range of the smart fluids used in magnetorheological devices. In recent work we have shown that a particular class of ac/ac/dc triaxial fields (so-called symmetry-breaking rational fields) can create strong vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions and have presented a theory of the vorticity that is based on the symmetry of the 2-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse. In this paper we demonstrate that there are three countably infinite sets of fully alternating ac/ac/ac triaxial fields whose frequencies form rational triads that have the symmetry required to drive fluid vorticity. The symmetry of the 3-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse can be derived and from this the direction of the vorticity axis can be predicted, as can the dependence of the sign of the vorticity on the phase relations between the three field components. Experimental results are presented that validate the symmetry theory. These discoveries significantly broaden the class of triaxial fields that can be exploited to produce strong noncontact flow.

  3. Fully alternating, triaxial electric or magnetic fields offer new routes to fluid vorticity

    DOE PAGES

    Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle J.

    2014-10-31

    Noncontact methods of generating strong fluid vorticity are important to problems involving heat and mass transfer, fluid mixing, active wetting, and droplet transport. Furthermore, because zero or even negative shear viscosities can be induced, vorticity can greatly extend the control range of the smart fluids used in magnetorheological devices. In recent work we have shown that a particular class of ac/ac/dc triaxial fields (so-called symmetry-breaking rational fields) can create strong vorticity in magnetic particle suspensions and have presented a theory of the vorticity that is based on the symmetry of the 2-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse.more » In this paper we demonstrate that there are three countably infinite sets of fully alternating ac/ac/ac triaxial fields whose frequencies form rational triads that have the symmetry required to drive fluid vorticity. The symmetry of the 3-d Lissajous trajectories of the field and its converse can be derived and from this the direction of the vorticity axis can be predicted, as can the dependence of the sign of the vorticity on the phase relations between the three field components. Experimental results are presented that validate the symmetry theory. These discoveries significantly broaden the class of triaxial fields that can be exploited to produce strong noncontact flow.« less

  4. Finite-temperature dynamics of vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, S.; Roy, Arko; Mukerjee, Subroto

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a single vortex and a pair of vortices in quasi two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates at finite temperatures. To this end, we use the stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which is the Langevin equation for the Bose-Einstein condensate. For a pair of vortices, we study the dynamics of both the vortex-vortex and vortex-antivortex pairs, which are generated by rotating the trap and moving the Gaussian obstacle potential, respectively. Due to thermal fluctuations, the constituent vortices are not symmetrically generated with respect to each other at finite temperatures. This initial asymmetry coupled with the presence of random thermal fluctuations in the system can lead to different decay rates for the component vortices of the pair, especially in the case of two corotating vortices.

  5. Domain walls and vortices in linearly coupled systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dror, Nir; Malomed, Boris A.; Zeng Jianhua

    2011-10-15

    We investigate one- and two-dimensional radial domain-wall (DW) states in the system of two nonlinear-Schroedinger (NLS) or Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations, which are couple by linear mixing and by nonlinear XPM (cross-phase-modulation). The system has straightforward applications to two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, and to bimodal light propagation in nonlinear optics. In the former case the two components represent different hyperfine atomic states, while in the latter setting they correspond to orthogonal polarizations of light. Conditions guaranteeing the stability of flat continuous wave (CW) asymmetric bimodal states are established, followed by the study of families of the corresponding DW patterns. Approximate analytical solutions for the DWs are found near the point of the symmetry-breaking bifurcation of the CW states. An exact DW solution is produced for ratio 3:1 of the XPM and SPM (self-phase modulation) coefficients. The DWs between flat asymmetric states, which are mirror images of each other, are completely stable, and all other species of the DWs, with zero crossings in one or two components, are fully unstable. Interactions between two DWs are considered too, and an effective potential accounting for the attraction between them is derived analytically. Direct simulations demonstrate merger and annihilation of the interacting DWs. The analysis is extended for the system including single- and double-peak external potentials. Generic solutions for trapped DWs are obtained in a numerical form, and their stability is investigated. An exact stable solution is found for the DW trapped by a single-peak potential. In the 2D geometry, stable two-component vortices are found, with topological charges s=1,2,3. Radial oscillations of annular DW-shaped pulsons, with s=0,1,2, are studied too. A linear relation between the period of the oscillations and the mean radius of the DW ring is derived analytically.

  6. Domain walls and vortices in linearly coupled systems.

    PubMed

    Dror, Nir; Malomed, Boris A; Zeng, Jianhua

    2011-10-01

    We investigate one- and two-dimensional radial domain-wall (DW) states in the system of two nonlinear-Schrödinger (NLS) or Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations, which are couple by linear mixing and by nonlinear XPM (cross-phase-modulation). The system has straightforward applications to two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, and to bimodal light propagation in nonlinear optics. In the former case the two components represent different hyperfine atomic states, while in the latter setting they correspond to orthogonal polarizations of light. Conditions guaranteeing the stability of flat continuous wave (CW) asymmetric bimodal states are established, followed by the study of families of the corresponding DW patterns. Approximate analytical solutions for the DWs are found near the point of the symmetry-breaking bifurcation of the CW states. An exact DW solution is produced for ratio 3:1 of the XPM and SPM (self-phase modulation) coefficients. The DWs between flat asymmetric states, which are mirror images of each other, are completely stable, and all other species of the DWs, with zero crossings in one or two components, are fully unstable. Interactions between two DWs are considered too, and an effective potential accounting for the attraction between them is derived analytically. Direct simulations demonstrate merger and annihilation of the interacting DWs. The analysis is extended for the system including single- and double-peak external potentials. Generic solutions for trapped DWs are obtained in a numerical form, and their stability is investigated. An exact stable solution is found for the DW trapped by a single-peak potential. In the 2D geometry, stable two-component vortices are found, with topological charges s=1,2,3. Radial oscillations of annular DW-shaped pulsons, with s=0,1,2, are studied too. A linear relation between the period of the oscillations and the mean radius of the DW ring is derived analytically.

  7. Complex Convective Thermal Fluxes and Vorticity Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Tellez, Jackson; Sotillos, Laura; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar; Sanchez, Jesus M.; Furmanek, Petr; Diez, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Local Diffusion and the topological structure of vorticity and velocity fields is measured in the transition from a homogeneous linearly stratified fluid to a cellular or layered structure by means of convective cooling and/or heating[1,2]. Patterns arise by setting up a convective flow generated by an array of Thermoelectric devices (Peltier/Seebeck cells) these are controlled by thermal PID generating a buoyant heat flux [2]. The experiments described here investigate high Prandtl number mixing using brine and fresh water in order to form density interfaces and low Prandtl number mixing with temperature gradients. The set of dimensionless parameters define conditions of numeric and small scale laboratory modeling of environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients were computed and visualized [3,4]. When convective heating and cooling takes place the combination of internal waves and buoyant turbulence is much more complicated if the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers are high in order to study entrainment and mixing. Using ESS and selfsimilarity structures in the velocity and vorticity fieds and intermittency [3,5] that forms in the non-homogeneous flow is related to mixing and stiring. The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of plumes and jets in different configurations presenting detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between structure functions, fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or nonmixing front occurring at a density interface due to body forces [6]and gravitational acceleration are analyzed considering the fractal and spectral structure of the fronts like in removable plate experiments for Rayleigh-Taylor flows. The evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and its complex configuration is studied

  8. Controlled vortical flow on delta wings through unsteady leading edge blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. T.; Roberts, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    The vortical flow over a delta wing contributes an important part of the lift - the so called nonlinear lift. Controlling this vortical flow with its favorable influence would enhance aircraft maneuverability at high angle of attack. Several previous studies have shown that control of the vortical flow field is possible through the use of blowing jets. The present experimental research studies vortical flow control by applying a new blowing scheme to the rounded leading edge of a delta wing; this blowing scheme is called Tangential Leading Edge Blowing (TLEB). Vortical flow response both to steady blowing and to unsteady blowing is investigated. It is found that TLEB can redevelop stable, strong vortices even in the post-stall angle of attack regime. Analysis of the steady data shows that the effect of leading edge blowing can be interpreted as an effective change in angle of attack. The examination of the fundamental time scales for vortical flow re-organization after the application of blowing for different initial states of the flow field is studied. Different time scales for flow re-organization are shown to depend upon the effective angle of attack. A faster response time can be achieved at angles of attack beyond stall by a suitable choice of the initial blowing momentum strength. Consequently, TLEB shows the potential of controlling the vortical flow over a wide range of angles of attack; i.e., in both for pre-stall and post-stall conditions.

  9. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    submesoscale , i.e. 100m-20km. OBJECTIVES Existing high resolution regional models typically resolve the mean vertical structure of the upper ocean...APPROACH During AESOP, Lee and D’Asaro pioneered an innovative approach to measuring submesoscale structure in strong fronts. An adaptive measurement...injection of potential vorticity and scalars is predicted to create an intense ‘ submesoscale soup’ of high small-scale variance. The combination of small

  10. "Explosively growing" vortices of unstably stratified atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishchenko, O. G.; Horton, W.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Fedun, V.

    2016-10-01

    A new type of "explosively growing" vortex structure is investigated theoretically in the framework of ideal fluid hydrodynamics. It is shown that vortex structures may arise in convectively unstable atmospheric layers containing background vorticity. From an exact analytical vortex solution the vertical vorticity structure and toroidal speed are derived and analyzed. The assumption that vorticity is constant with height leads to a solution that grows explosively when the flow is inviscid. The results shown are in agreement with observations and laboratory experiments

  11. Design of vanadium mixed-ligand complexes as potential anti-protozoa agents.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Julio; Guggeri, Lucía; Tomaz, Isabel; Arrambide, Gabriel; Navarro, Maribel; Pessoa, João Costa; Garat, Beatriz; Gambino, Dinorah

    2009-04-01

    In the search for new therapeutic tools against Chagas' disease (American Trypanosomiasis) four novel mixed-ligand vanadyl complexes, [V(IV)O(L(2)-2H)(L(1))], including a bidentate polypyridyl DNA intercalator (L(1)) and a tridentate salycylaldehyde semicarbazone derivative (L(2)) as ligands were synthesized, characterized by a combination of techniques, and in vitro evaluated. EPR suggest a distorted octahedral geometry with the tridentate semicarbazone occupying three equatorial positions and the polypyridyl ligand coordinated in an equatorial/axial mode. Both complexes including dipyrido[3,2-a: 2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz) as polypyridyl coligand showed IC(50) values in the muM range against Dm28c strain (epimastigotes) of Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of the disease, being as active as the anti-trypanosomal reference drug Nifurtimox. To get an insight into the trypanocidal mechanism of action of these compounds, DNA was evaluated as a potential parasite target and EPR, and (51)V NMR experiments were also carried out upon aging aerated solutions of the complexes. Data obtained by electrophoretic analysis suggest that the mechanism of action of these complexes could include DNA interactions.

  12. Mixed zirconia calcium phosphate coatings for dental implants: tailoring coating stability and bioactivity potential.

    PubMed

    Pardun, Karoline; Treccani, Laura; Volkmann, Eike; Streckbein, Philipp; Heiss, Christian; Li Destri, Giovanni; Marletta, Giovanni; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2015-03-01

    Enhanced coating stability and adhesion are essential for long-term success of orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, the effect of coating composition on mechanical, physico-chemical and biological properties of coated zirconia specimens is investigated. Zirconia discs and dental screw implants are coated using the wet powder spraying (WPS) technique. The coatings are obtained by mixing yttria-stabilized zirconia (TZ) and hydroxyapatite (HA) in various ratios while a pure HA coating served as reference material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometer analysis confirm a similar coating morphology and roughness for all studied coatings, whereas the coating stability can be tailored with composition and is probed by insertion and dissections experiments in bovine bone with coated zirconia screw implants. An increasing content of calcium phosphate (CP) resulted in a decrease of mechanical and chemical stability, while the bioactivity increased in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro experiments with human osteoblast cells (HOB) revealed that the cells grew well on all samples but are affected by dissolution behavior of the studied coatings. This work demonstrates the overall good mechanical strength, the excellent interfacial bonding and the bioactivity potential of coatings with higher TZ contents, which provide a highly interesting coating for dental implants.

  13. Simulations of Time-Dependent Three-Dimensional Vortices with Application to Neptune's Great Dark SPOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeau, R. P.; Dowling, T. E.

    1997-07-01

    We use the EPIC atmospheric model, a primitive-equation, isentropic-coordinate GCM, to simulate time-dependent vortices under conditions similar to those found on Neptune. The vortices have roughly elliptical cross-sections and exhibit motions that resemble the behavior of Neptune's Great Dark Spot (GDS), including equatorward drift, nutating oscillations in aspect ratio and orientation angle, and quasi-periodic tail formation. The simulated vortices also exhibit complex, three-dimensional motions that may explain the occasional appearance of the GDS as two overlapping ellipses. We find that the meridional drift of the vortices is strongly correlated with the meridional gradient of the environmental potential vorticity, beta (*) . The correlation suggests that the drift rate of GDS-type vortices on Neptune, which can be monitored over the long term by the Hubble Space Telescope, is diagnostic of the vorticity gradient on the planet. The best fit to the Voyager GDS drift rate in our simulations corresponds to beta (*) ~ 2 x 10(-12) m(-1) s(-1) . This is about 1/3 of the value given by the zonal-wind profile of Sromovsky et\\ al. (1993), determined by fitting a polynomial in latitude to the cloud-tracking data. We calculate a new fit to the same data using Legendre polynomials (spherical harmonics), which yields a significantly lower value for beta (*) in the mid-latitudes. We show that vortex shape oscillations occur both in cases of zero background potential-vorticity gradient, corresponding to the conditions in analytical Kida-type models of oscillating vortices, and in cases of non-zero background gradient, corresponding to conditions that have not yet been investigated analytically. While the shape oscillations are qualitatively Kida-like, in detail they are distinctly different. We also use the EPIC model to examine the demise of GDS-type vortices that drift too close to the equator.

  14. Current and potential providers of blood pressure self-screening: a mixed methods study in Oxfordshire

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, A C; Heneghan, C J; Greenfield, S M; Hobbs, F D R; Ward, A M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To (1) establish the extent of opportunities for members of the public to check their own blood pressure (BP) outside of healthcare consultations (BP self-screening), (2) investigate the reasons for and against hosting such a service and (3) ascertain how BP self-screening data are used in primary care. Design A mixed methods, cross-sectional study. Setting Primary care and community locations in Oxfordshire, UK. Participants 325 sites were surveyed to identify where and in what form BP self-screening services were available. 23 semistructured interviews were then completed with current and potential hosts of BP self-screening services. Results 18/82 (22%) general practices offered BP self-screening and 68/110 (62%) pharmacies offered professional-led BP screening. There was no evidence of permanent BP self-screening activities in other community settings. Healthcare professionals, managers, community workers and leaders were interviewed. Those in primary care generally felt that practice-based BP self-screening was a beneficial activity that increased the attainment of performance targets although there was variation in its perceived usefulness for patient care. The pharmacists interviewed provided BP checking as a service to the community but were unable to develop self-screening services without a clear business plan. Among potential hosts, barriers to providing a BP self-screening service included a perceived lack of healthcare commissioner and public demand, and a weak—if any—link to their core objectives as an organisation. Conclusions BP self-screening currently occurs in a minority of general practices. Any future development of community BP self-screening programmes will require (1) public promotion and (2) careful consideration of how best to support—and reward—the community hosts who currently perceive little if any benefit. PMID:28336742

  15. Numerical Simulation of Protoplanetary Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H.; Barranco, J. A.; Marcus, P. S.

    2003-01-01

    The fluid dynamics within a protoplanetary disk has been attracting the attention of many researchers for a few decades. Previous works include, to list only a few among many others, the well-known prescription of Shakura & Sunyaev, the convective and instability study of Stone & Balbus and Hawley et al., the Rossby wave approach of Lovelace et al., as well as a recent work by Klahr & Bodenheimer, which attempted to identify turbulent flow within the disk. The disk is commonly understood to be a thin gas disk rotating around a central star with differential rotation (the Keplerian velocity), and the central quest remains as how the flow behavior deviates (albeit by a small amount) from a strong balance established between gravitational and centrifugal forces, transfers mass and momentum inward, and eventually forms planetesimals and planets. In earlier works we have briefly described the possible physical processes involved in the disk; we have proposed the existence of long-lasting, coherent vortices as an efficient agent for mass and momentum transport. In particular, Barranco et al. provided a general mathematical framework that is suitable for the asymptotic regime of the disk; Barranco & Marcus (2000) addressed a proposed vortex-dust interaction mechanism which might lead to planetesimal formation; and Lin et al. (2002), as inspired by general geophysical vortex dynamics, proposed basic mechanisms by which vortices can transport mass and angular momentum. The current work follows up on our previous effort. We shall focus on the detailed numerical implementation of our problem. We have developed a parallel, pseudo-spectral code to simulate the full three-dimensional vortex dynamics in a stably-stratified, differentially rotating frame, which represents the environment of the disk. Our simulation is validated with full diagnostics and comparisons, and we present our results on a family of three-dimensional, coherent equilibrium vortices.

  16. On flows having constant vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Paul H.; Wu, Cheng-Chin

    2011-10-01

    Constant vorticity flows of a uniform fluid in a rigid ellipsoidal container rotating at a variable rate are considered. These include librationally driven and precessionally driven flows. The well-known Poincaré solution for precessionally driven flow in a spheroid is generalized to an ellipsoid with unequal principal axes. The dynamic stability of these flows is investigated, and of other flows in which the angular velocity of the container is constant in time. Solutions for the Chandler wobble are discussed. The role of an invariant, called here the Helmholtzian, is examined.

  17. Sound Generation by Aircraft Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, Jay C.; Wang, Frank Y.

    2003-01-01

    This report provides an extensive analysis of potential wake vortex noise sources that might be utilized to aid in their tracking. Several possible mechanisms of aircraft vortex sound generation are examined on the basis of discrete vortex dynamic models and characteristic acoustic signatures calculated by application of vortex sound theory. It is shown that the most robust mechanisms result in very low frequency infrasound. An instability of the vortex core structure is discussed and shown to be a possible mechanism for generating higher frequency sound bordering the audible frequency range. However, the frequencies produced are still low and cannot explain the reasonably high-pitched sound that has occasionally been observed experimentally. Since the robust mechanisms appear to generate only very low frequency sound, infrasonic tracking of the vortices may be warranted.

  18. Dynamic Assembly of Magnetic Colloidal Vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Mohorič, Tomaž; Kokot, Gašper; Osterman, Natan; Snezhko, Alexey; Vilfan, Andrej; Babič, Dušan; Dobnikar, Jure

    2016-04-29

    Magnetic colloids in external time-dependent fields are subject to complex induced many-body interactions governing their self-assembly into a variety of equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium structures such as chains, networks, suspended membranes, and colloidal foams. Here, we report experiments, simulations, and theory probing the dynamic assembly of superparamagnetic colloids in precessing external magnetic fields. Within a range of field frequencies, we observe dynamic large-scale structures such as ordered phases composed of precessing chains, ribbons, and rotating fluidic vortices. We show that the structure formation is inherently coupled to the buildup of torque, which originates from internal relaxation of induced dipoles and from transient correlations among the particles as a result of short-lived chain formation. We discuss in detail the physical properties of the vortex phase and demonstrate its potential in particle-coating applications.

  19. Nonquasineutral electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, J. R.; Richardson, A. S.; Ottinger, P. F.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W.

    2014-11-01

    Electron vortices are observed in the numerical simulation of current carrying plasmas on fast time scales where the ion motion can be ignored. In plasmas with nonuniform density n, vortices drift in the B × ∇n direction with a speed that is on the order of the Hall speed. This provides a mechanism for magnetic field penetration into a plasma. Here, we consider strong vortices with rotation speeds Vϕ close to the speed of light c where the vortex size δ is on the order of the magnetic Debye length λB=|B |/4 πe n and the vortex is thus nonquasineutral. Drifting vortices are typically studied using the electron magnetohydrodynamic model (EMHD), which ignores the displacement current and assumes quasineutrality. However, these assumptions are not strictly valid for drifting vortices when δ ≈ λB. In this paper, 2D electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas are studied for the first time using a fully electromagnetic, collisionless fluid code. Relatively large amplitude oscillations with periods that correspond to high frequency extraordinary modes are observed in the average drift speed. The drift speed W is calculated by averaging the electron velocity field over the vorticity. Interestingly, the time-averaged W from these simulations matches very well with W from the much simpler EMHD simulations even for strong vortices with order unity charge density separation.

  20. Vortices in normal part of proximity system

    DOE PAGES

    Kogan, V. G.

    2015-05-26

    It is shown that the order parameter Δ induced in the normal part of superconductor-normal-superconductor proximity system is modulated in the magnetic field differently from vortices in bulk superconductors. Whereas Δ turns zero at vortex centers, the magnetic structure of these vortices differs from that of Abrikosov's.

  1. Vertical vorticity at a free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Paul W.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of surface vorticity is developed as a necessary consequence of the discontinuity of flow at the fluid surface. The construct provides the proper boundary conditions for a vortex-dynamical description of surface waves. It is shown that the perturbed free surface in general possesses vertical vorticity, even when the underlying flow is irrotational and the fluid is ideal. This resolves a paradox pointed out by Umeki, who discovered irrotational surface waves with surface rotation in the horizontal plane. A dynamical equation for vertical vorticity at the free surface is derived and interpreted physically. The traditional idea that vortex lines terminate at fluid boundaries is shown to be unphysical and is amended to include surface vorticity. The extension of vertical surface vorticity into the bulk is connected with particular topological structures, such as plughole vortices, breaking waves, and Klein's Kaffeelöffel. This analysis generalizes boundary-layer vorticity theory to the free surface in the ideal limit. The analogy between surface vorticity on an ideal liquid and sheet currents at the surface of a superconductor is described. Work done as a Visiting Fellow at the Australian National University.

  2. Nonquasineutral electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Angus, J. R.; Richardson, A. S.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W.; Ottinger, P. F.

    2014-11-15

    Electron vortices are observed in the numerical simulation of current carrying plasmas on fast time scales where the ion motion can be ignored. In plasmas with nonuniform density n, vortices drift in the B × ∇n direction with a speed that is on the order of the Hall speed. This provides a mechanism for magnetic field penetration into a plasma. Here, we consider strong vortices with rotation speeds V{sub ϕ} close to the speed of light c where the vortex size δ is on the order of the magnetic Debye length λ{sub B}=|B|/4πen and the vortex is thus nonquasineutral. Drifting vortices are typically studied using the electron magnetohydrodynamic model (EMHD), which ignores the displacement current and assumes quasineutrality. However, these assumptions are not strictly valid for drifting vortices when δ ≈ λ{sub B}. In this paper, 2D electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas are studied for the first time using a fully electromagnetic, collisionless fluid code. Relatively large amplitude oscillations with periods that correspond to high frequency extraordinary modes are observed in the average drift speed. The drift speed W is calculated by averaging the electron velocity field over the vorticity. Interestingly, the time-averaged W from these simulations matches very well with W from the much simpler EMHD simulations even for strong vortices with order unity charge density separation.

  3. Flute vortices in nonuniform magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.Y.; Shukla, P.K.; Varma, R.K.

    1985-09-01

    Localized double vortices associated with the flute modes are shown to exist. Special emphasis is given to the effect of the convective variation of the fluid magnetic moment. It is shown that the latter effect considerably modifies the existence regions of the vortices.

  4. Storm-driven Mixing and Potential Impact on the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jiayan; Comiso, Josefino; Walsh, David; Krishfield, Richard; Honjo, Susumu; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Observations of the ocean, atmosphere, and ice made by Ice-Ocean Environmental Buoys (IOEBs) indicate that mixing events reaching the depth of the halocline have occurred in various regions in the Arctic Ocean. Our analysis suggests that these mixing events were mechanically forced by intense storms moving across the buoy sites. In this study, we analyzed these mixing events in the context of storm developments that occurred in the Beaufort Sea and in the general area just north of Fram Strait, two areas with quite different hydrographic structures. The Beaufort Sea is strongly influenced by inflow of Pacific water through Bering Strait, while the area north of Fram Strait is directly affected by the inflow of warm and salty North Atlantic water. Our analyses of the basin-wide evolution of the surface pressure and geostrophic wind fields indicate that the characteristics of the storms could be very different. The buoy-observed mixing occurred only in the spring and winter seasons when the stratification was relatively weak. This indicates the importance of stratification, although the mixing itself was mechanically driven. We also analyze the distribution of storms, both the long-term climatology as well as the patterns for each year in the last two decades. The frequency of storms is also shown to be correlated- (but not strongly) to Arctic Oscillation indices. This study indicates that the formation of new ice that leads to brine rejection is unlikely the mechanism that results in the type of mixing that could overturn the halocline. On the other hand, synoptic-scale storms can force mixing deep enough to the halocline and thermocline layer. Despite a very stable stratification associated with the Arctic halocline, the warm subsurface thermocline water is not always insulated from the mixed layer.

  5. Mixing dynamics and pattern formation around flow stagnation points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Juan J.; Dentz, Marco

    2016-04-01

    We study the mixing of two reactive fluids in the presence of convective instabilities. Such system is characterized by the formation of unique porosity patterns and mixing dynamics linked to the evolution of vortices and stagnation points. Around them, the fluid-fluid interface is stretched and compressed, which enhances mixing and triggers chemical reactions, and the system can be analyzed using fluid deformation model. We consider velocity fields generated by a double gyre synthetic velocity field and Rayleigh-Bénard and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. The different flow structures can be visualized by the strain rate and the finite time Lyapunov exponents. We show that the mixing enhancement given by the scalar dissipation rate is controlled by the equilibrium between interface compression and diffusion, which depends on the velocity field configuration. Furthermore, we establish a quantitative relation between the mixing rate and the evolution of the potential energy of the fluid when convection is driven by density instabilities.

  6. Persistence of the Lower Stratospheric Polar Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waugh, Darryn W.; Randel, William J.; Pawson, Steven; Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.

    1999-01-01

    The persistence of the Arctic and Antarctic lower stratospheric vortices is examined over the period 1958 to 1998. Three different vortex-following diagnostics (two using potential vorticity and one based solely on the zonal winds) are compared, and shown to give very similar results for the break up date. The variability in the timing of the breakup of each vortex is qualitatively the same: there are large interannual variations together with smaller decadal-scale variations and there is a significant increase in the persistence since the mid-1980s (all variations are larger for the Arctic vortex). Also, in both hemispheres there is a high correlation between the persistence and the strength and coldness of the spring vortex, with all quantities having the same interannual and decadal variability. However, there is no such correlation between the persistence and the characteristics of the mid-winter vortex. In the northern hemisphere there is also a high correlation between the vortex persistence and the upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric eddy heat flux averaged over the two months prior to the breakup. This indicates that the variability in the wave activity entering the stratosphere over late-winter to early-spring plays a key role in the variability of the vortex persistence (and spring polar temperatures) on both interannual and decadal time scales. However, the decadal variation in the Arctic vortex coldness and persistence for the 1990's falls outside the range of natural variability, while this is not the case for the eddy heat flux. This suggests that the recent increase in vortex persistence is not due solely to changes in the wave activity entering the stratosphere.

  7. Visualization of Mixing and Combustion in TNT Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Ferguson, R E; Oppenheim, A K; Seizew, M R

    2001-03-26

    Numerical simulations are used to visualize the mixing and combustion induced by explosions of spherical and cylindrical TNT charges. Evolution of the exothermic energy is controlled by mixing (vorticity), which is strongly influenced by wave reflections from confining walls.

  8. Manipulation of vortices by magnetic domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goa, P. E.; Hauglin, H.; Olsen, A.˚. A. F.; Shantsev, D.; Johansen, T. H.

    2003-01-01

    In a type-II superconductor, the magnetic field penetrates in the form of thin filaments called vortices. The controlled behavior of these vortices may provide the basis for a new generation of nanodevices. We present here a series of experiments showing simultaneous manipulation and imaging of individual vortices in a NbSe2 single crystal. The magnetic field from a Bloch wall in a ferrite garnet film (FGF) is used to manipulate the vortices. High-resolution magneto-optical imaging enables real-time observation of the vortex positions using the Faraday effect in the same FGF. Depending on the thickness of the sample, the vortices are either swept away or merely bent with the Bloch wall.

  9. Relative equilibria of vortices in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Palmore, J I

    1982-01-01

    An old problem of the evolution of finitely many interacting point vortices in the plane is shown to be amenable to investigation by critical point theory in a way that is identical to the study of the planar n-body problem of celestial mechanics. For any choice of positive circulations of the vortices it is shown by critical point theory applied to Kirchhoff's function that there are many relative equilibria configurations. Each of these configurations gives rise to a stationary configuration of the vortices in a suitably chosen rotating coordinate system. A sharp lower bound on the number of stationary vortex configurations for the problem of point vortices interacting in the plane is given. The problem of point vortices in a circular disk is defined and it is shown that these estimates hold for stationary configurations of small size.

  10. Suppression of vorticity in vortex and pipe flow interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, David; Mao, Xuerui

    2015-04-01

    The interaction of a vortex and a pipe flow, modelled as the Lamb-Oseen vortex and the Poiseuille flow, respectively, is investigated by means of stability analyses and direct numerical simulations (DNS). From the distribution of the most unstable mode, it is observed that the instability is induced by the combination of the radial gradients of the base azimuthal and axial velocity components, e.g. an axial (or azimuthal) vorticity perturbation acts on the axial (or azimuthal) base velocity via a lift-up effect to generate axial (or azimuthal) velocity streaks, which are further stretched by the base azimuthal (or axial) velocity to create azimuthal (or axial) vorticity. This lift-up-stretch mechanism is confirmed in DNS of the model base flow initially perturbed by the most unstable mode. After nonlinear saturation, the perturbations decay since the flow no longer supports instability after sufficient radial mixing induced by the lift-up of the azimuthal and axial velocity components. These observations suggest that the vorticity outside the vortex core can be suppressed by instabilities if a streamwise boundary layer flow exists outside the core.

  11. Reconstruction of Propagating Kelvin-Helmholtz Vortices at Mercury's Magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Torbjoern; Boardsen, Scott A.; Slavin, James A.; Blomberg, Lars G.; Cumnock, Judy A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje

    2011-01-01

    A series of quasi-periodic magnetopause crossings were recorded by the MESSENGER spacecraft during its third flyby of Mercury on 29 September 2009, likely caused by a train of propagating Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) vortices. We here revisit the observations to study the internal structure of the waves. Exploiting MESSENGER s rapid traversal of the magnetopause, we show that the observations permit a reconstruction of the structure of a rolled-up KH vortex directly from the spacecraft s magnetic field measurements. The derived geometry is consistent with all large-scale fluctuations in the magnetic field data, establishes the non-linear nature of the waves, and shows their vortex-like structure. In several of the wave passages, a reduction in magnetic field strength is observed in the middle of the wave, which is characteristic of rolled-up vortices and is related to the increase in magnetic pressure required to balance the centrifugal force on the plasma in the outer regions of a vortex, previously reported in computer simulations. As the KH wave starts to roll up, the reconstructed geometry suggests that the vortices develop two gradual transition regions in the magnetic field, possibly related to the mixing of magnetosheath and magnetospheric plasma, situated at the leading edges from the perspectives of both the magnetosphere and the magnetosheath.

  12. Potential dermal exposure in greenhouses for manual sprayers: analysis of the mix/load, application and re-entry stages.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Laura M; Querejeta, Giselle A; Flores, Andrea P; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2010-09-01

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure for the mix/load, application and re-entry stages, associated with procymidone and deltamethrin usage, was carried out for tomatoes grown in greenhouses of small production units in Argentina. Eight experiments were done with four different operators, under typical field conditions with a lever operated backpack sprayer. The methodology applied was based on the Whole Body Dosimetry technique, evaluating a set of different data for the mix and load, application and re-entry operations. These results indicated that the Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was (38+/-17)mLh(-1) with the highest proportion on torso, head and arms. When the three stages were compared, re-entry was found to contribute least towards the total Potential Dermal Exposure; meanwhile in all cases, except one, the mix/load operation was the stage with highest exposure. The Margin of Safety for each different operation was also calculated and the proportion of pesticide drift from the greenhouse to the environment is presented. These results emphasize the importance of improving the personal protection measures in the mix and load stage, an operation that is not usually associated with high-risk in small production units.

  13. Can symmetry transitions of complex fields enable 3-d control of fluid vorticity?

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James E.; Solis, Kyle Jameson

    2015-08-01

    Methods of inducing vigorous noncontact fluid flow are important to technologies involving heat and mass transfer and fluid mixing, since they eliminate the need for moving parts, pipes and seals, all of which compromise system reliability. Unfortunately, traditional noncontact flow methods are few, and have limitations of their own. We have discovered two classes of fields that can induce fluid vorticity without requiring either gravity or a thermal gradient. The first class we call Symmetry-Breaking Rational Fields. These are triaxial fields comprised of three orthogonal components, two ac and one dc. The second class is Rational Triad Fields, which differ in that all three components are alternating. In this report we quantify the induced vorticity for a wide variety of fields and consider symmetry transitions between these field types. These transitions give rise to orbiting vorticity vectors, a technology for non-contact, non-stationary fluid mixing.

  14. Twist Helicity in Classical Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeler, Martin W.; Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Irvine, William T. M.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experimental work has demonstrated that a partial measure of fluid Helicity (the sum of linking and writhing of vortex tubes) is conserved even as those vortices undergo topology changing reconnections. Measuring the total Helicity, however, requires additional information about how the vortex lines are locally twisted inside the vortex core. To bridge this gap, we have developed a novel technique for experimentally measuring twist Helicity. Using this method, we are able to measure the production and eventual decay of twist for a variety of vortex evolutions. Remarkably, we observe twist dynamics capable of conserving total Helicity even in the presence of rapidly changing writhe. This work was supported by the NSF MRSEC shared facilities at the University of Chicago (DMR-0820054) and an NSF CAREER award (DMR-1351506). W.T.M.I. further acknowledges support from the A.P. Sloan Foundation and the Packard Foundation.

  15. Dynamical vortices in superfluid films

    SciTech Connect

    Arovas, D.P.; Freire, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The coupling of superfluid film to a moving vortex is a gauge coupling entirely dictated by topology. From the definition of a linking number, one can define a gauge field scr(A){sup {mu}}, whose (2+1)-dimensional curl is the vortex three-current J{sup {mu}}, and to which the superfluid is minimally coupled. We compute the superfluid density and current response to a moving vortex. Exploiting the analogy to (2+1)-dimensional electrodynamics, we compute the effective vortex mass M({omega}) and find that it is logarithmically divergent in the {omega}{r_arrow}0 limit, with a constant imaginary part, yielding a super-Ohmic dissipation in the presence of an oscillating superflow. Numerical integration of the nonlinear Schr{umlt o}dinger equation supports these conclusions. The interaction of vortices with impurities coupling to the density also is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Exchange-biased magnetic vortices.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, A.; Sort, J.; Buchanan, K. S.; Nogues, J.; Inst. Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats; Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviews our work on the interplay between exchange bias due to the coupling of a ferromagnet to an antiferromagnet and the formation of magnetic vortices, which occur due to the patterning of a ferromagnet. Depending on the thermal and magnetic history, a variety of different effects can be observed. Thermal annealing in a saturating magnetic field establishes a spatially homogeneous exchange bias with a uniform unidirectional anisotropy. This results in an angular dependence of the magnetization reversal mode, which can be either via magnetization rotation or vortex nucleation and annihilation. In contrast, thermal annealing in a field smaller than the vortex annihilation field imprints the ferromagnetic vortex configuration in the antiferromagnet with high fidelity resulting in unusual asymmetric hysteresis loops. Furthermore, we discuss how the interfacial nature of the exchange bias can modify the vortex magnetization along the thickness of the ferromagnet.

  17. Doing Interdisciplinary Mixed Methods Health Care Research: Working the Boundaries, Tensions, and Synergistic Potential of Team-Based Research.

    PubMed

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2016-04-01

    Current trends in health care research point to a shift from disciplinary models to interdisciplinary team-based mixed methods inquiry designs. This keynote address discusses the problems and prospects of creating vibrant mixed methods health care interdisciplinary research teams that can harness their potential synergy that holds the promise of addressing complex health care issues. We examine the range of factors and issues these types of research teams need to consider to facilitate efficient interdisciplinary mixed methods team-based research. It is argued that concepts such as disciplinary comfort zones, a lack of attention to team dynamics, and low levels of reflexivity among interdisciplinary team members can inhibit the effectiveness of a research team. This keynote suggests a set of effective strategies to address the issues that emanate from the new field of research inquiry known as team science as well as lessons learned from tapping into research on organizational dynamics.

  18. Transition from slow Abrikosov to fast moving Josephson vortices in iron pnictide superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Philip J. W.; Balicas, Luis; Geshkenbein, Vadim; Blatter, Gianni; Karpinski, Janusz; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Batlogg, Bertram

    2013-02-01

    Iron pnictides are layered high Tc superconductors with moderate material anisotropy and thus Abrikosov vortices are expected in the mixed state. Yet, we have discovered a distinct change in the nature of the vortices from Abrikosov-like to Josephson-like in the pnictide superconductor SmFeAs(O,F) with Tc~48-50 K on cooling below a temperature T*~41-42 K, despite its moderate electronic anisotropy γ~4-6. This transition is hallmarked by a sharp drop in the critical current and accordingly a jump in the flux-flow voltage in a magnetic field precisely aligned along the FeAs layers, indicative of highly mobile vortices. T* coincides well with the temperature where the coherence length ξc perpendicular to the layers matches half of the FeAs-layer spacing. For fields slightly out-of-plane (> 0.1°- 0.15°) the vortices are completely immobilized as well-pinned Abrikosov segments are introduced when the vortex crosses the FeAs layers. We interpret these findings as a transition from well-pinned, slow moving Abrikosov vortices at high temperatures to weakly pinned, fast flowing Josephson vortices at low temperatures. This vortex dynamics could become technologically relevant as superconducting applications will always operate deep in the Josephson regime.

  19. Criterion for Identifying Vortices in High-Pressure Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Okong'o, Nora

    2007-01-01

    A study of four previously published computational criteria for identifying vortices in high-pressure flows has led to the selection of one of them as the best. This development can be expected to contribute to understanding of high-pressure flows, which occur in diverse settings, including diesel, gas turbine, and rocket engines and the atmospheres of Jupiter and other large gaseous planets. Information on the atmospheres of gaseous planets consists mainly of visual and thermal images of the flows over the planets. Also, validation of recently proposed computational models of high-pressure flows entails comparison with measurements, which are mainly of visual nature. Heretofore, the interpretation of images of high-pressure flows to identify vortices has been based on experience with low-pressure flows. However, high-pressure flows have features distinct from those of low-pressure flows, particularly in regions of high pressure gradient magnitude caused by dynamic turbulent effects and by thermodynamic mixing of chemical species. Therefore, interpretations based on low-pressure behavior may lead to misidentification of vortices and other flow structures in high-pressure flows. The study reported here was performed in recognition of the need for one or more quantitative criteria for identifying coherent flow structures - especially vortices - from previously generated flow-field data, to complement or supersede the determination of flow structures by visual inspection of instantaneous fields or flow animations. The focus in the study was on correlating visible images of flow features with various quantities computed from flow-field data.

  20. Generation and Growth of Single Hairpin Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Haidari, Ahmad

    The behavior of selectively generated single hairpin vortices are examined within a laminar boundary layer environment over a range of Reynolds numbers, the hairpin vortices are experimentally generated by means of controlled fluid injection from a streamwise slot. Flow visualization using both dye and hydrogen bubble wire is employed in conjunction with hot film anemometry to investigate the growth characteristics and evolution of these single hairpin vortices. Qualitatively, it is established that hairpin vortices form by local destabilization at the interface between the low-speed fluid introduced through the slot and the higher speed boundary layer flow. Kinematical considerations of the hairpin vortex are established. It is observed that a hairpin vortex generally displays visualization and velocity signatures characteristic of those observed for a turbulent boundary layer. Hydrogen-bubble wire visualization results specifically indicate that hairpin vortices generate two purely turbulent-like flow patterns. The first is a low-speed streak pattern developing immediately adjacent to the surface due to surface interaction by the counter -rotating legs of the hairpin vortex; the second pattern is a turbulent pocket-like pattern farther removed from the surface. It is determined from the visualization data that hairpin vortices manifest the necessary flow characteristics which give rise to the regenerative and sustained process required for maintenance of turbulence. The regeneration and the growth process takes place through the formation of similar hairpin-like vortices by one of two means. The first is an inviscid lateral propagation of the initial disturbance which gives rise to outboard (subsidiary), vortices which cause the lateral spreading of the structure. A more complicated and eruptive process occurs by means of viscous-inviscid interactions which give rise to trailing vortices (secondary), which cause the streamwise elongation of the disturbance. A

  1. Vortices and magnetic bags in Abelian models with extended scalar sectors and some of their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád

    2016-12-01

    A detailed study of vortices is presented in Ginzburg-Landau (or Abelian Higgs) models with two complex scalars (order parameters) assuming a general U (1 )×U (1 ) symmetric potential. Particular emphasis is given to the case in which only one of the scalars obtains a vacuum expectation value (VEV). It is found that for a significantly large domain in parameter space vortices with a scalar field condensate in their core [condensate core (CC)] coexist with Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) vortices. Importantly, CC vortices are stable and have lower energy than the ANO ones. Magnetic bags or giant vortices of the order of 1000 flux quanta are favored to form for the range of parameters ("strong couplings") appearing for the superconducting state of liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH). Furthermore, it is argued that finite energy/unit length 1VEV vortices are smoothly connected to fractional flux 2VEV ones. Stable, finite energy CC-type vortices are also exhibited in the case when one of the scalar fields is neutral.

  2. Aerodynamic control of fighter aircraft by manipulation of forebody vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, Gerald N.; Ng, T. Terry

    1991-01-01

    Methods of enhancing aircraft controllability and maneuverability at high angles of attack by manipulating the forebody vortices are discussed. Pneumatic control methods including jet blowing, slot blowing, and suction, and mechanical control methods using forebody and nose tip strakes are reviewed. The potential of various control devices in controlling the forebody flow, and thus, providing controlled yawing moments at high angles of attack are illustrated using wind tunnel results from a generic fighter and water tunnel results from an F/A-18.

  3. Characteristic modes and evolution processes of shear-layer vortices in an elevated transverse jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rong F.; Lan, Jen

    2005-03-01

    Characteristics and evolution processes of the traveling coherent flow structure in the shear layer of an elevated round jet in crossflow are studied experimentally in an open-loop wind tunnel. Streak pictures of the smoke flow patterns illuminated by the laser-light sheet in the median and horizontal planes are recorded with a high speed digital camera. Time histories of the instantaneous velocity of the vortical flows in the shear layer are digitized by a hot-wire anemometer through a high-speed data acquisition system. By analyzing the streak pictures of the smoke flow visualization, five characteristic flow structures, mixing-layer type vortices, backward-rolling vortices, forward-rolling vortices, swing-induced mushroom vortices, and jet-type vortices, are identified in the shear layer evolving from the up-wind edge of the jet exit. The behaviors and mechanisms of the vortical flow structure in the bent shear layer are prominently distinct in different flow regimes. The frequency characteristics, Strouhal number, power-spectrum density functions, autocorrelation coefficient, as well as the time and length scales of the coherent structure and the Lagrangian integral scales are obtained by processing the measured instantaneous velocity data. The Strouhal number is found to decay exponentially with the increase of the jet-to-crossflow momentum flux ratio. The autocorrelation coefficients provide the information for calculating the statistical time scales of the coherent structure and the integral time scales of turbulence fluctuations. The corresponding length scales of the vortical structure and the integral length scales of turbulence in the shear layer are therefore obtained and discussed.

  4. Polar Vortices in Shallow Water Simulations of Gas Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Morgan E.; Emanuel, Kerry

    2014-11-01

    Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune each exhibit unique polar atmospheric behavior. Assuming these flows are due to shallow dynamics, we explore the parameter space potentially responsible for the difference between each planet's polar features. The best observations have come from the Cassini misson to Saturn. Among many discoveries, a massive, warm and cyclonic vortex has been observed on each pole. The South Polar Vortex (SPV), specifically, has the highest measured temperatures on Saturn, a double eyewall, deep eye and a rapid cyclonic jet with the second highest windspeeds observed on the planet. Numerous small, vortical, and potentially convective systems are embedded within the large-scale flow of the SPV. Given these observations, we explore one potential mechanism of polar vortex maintenance: up-scale, poleward vorticity flux due to vortical hot towers (VHTs). Large GCMs cannot yet resolve local deep convection in the weather layer. Using a reduced gravity shallow water model on a polar beta plane, we represent convective towers with mass-flux driven vortex pairs and allow them to move freely. We show that there exist multiple regimes of polar flow, and that small and/or quickly rotating planets with sufficient total energy favor a polar cyclone in our simulations.

  5. Vortices in magnetically coupled superconducting layered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, Roman G.; Kogan, Vladimir G.; Clem, John R.

    2000-01-01

    Pancake vortices in stacks of thin superconducting films or layers are considered. It is stressed that in the absence of Josephson coupling topological restrictions upon possible configurations of vortices are removed and various examples of structures forbidden in bulk superconductors are given. In particular, it is shown that vortices may skip surface layers in samples of less than a certain size R{sub c} which might be macroscopic. The Josephson coupling suppresses R{sub c} estimates. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  6. Generation of Vortices in Superconducting Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W. M.; Sobnack, M. B.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    We study the nucleation of vortices in a thin mesoscopic superconducting disk and stable configurations of vortices as a function of the disk size, the applied magnetic field H and finite temperature T. We also investigate the stability of different vortex states inside the disk. Further, we compare the predictions from Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory and London theory - the GL equations take the superconducting density into account, but the London equations do not. Our simulations from both theories show similar vortex states. As more vortices are generated, more superconducting regions will be destoryed. The GL Equations consider this effect and provide a more accurate estimate.

  7. Generation of Vortices in Superconducting Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W. M.; Sobnack, M. B.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2010-12-01

    We study the nucleation of vortices in a thin mesoscopic superconducting disk and stable configurations of vortices as a function of the disk size, the applied magnetic field H and finite temperature T. We also investigate the stability of different vortex states inside the disk. Further, we compare the predictions from Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory and London theory - the GL equations take the superconducting density into account, but the London equations do not. Our simulations from both theories show similar vortex states. As more vortices are generated, more superconducting regions will be destoryed. The GL Equations consider this effect and provide a more accurate estimate.

  8. Velocity-vorticity patterns in turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect

    Pelz, R.B.; Yakhot, V.; Orszag, S.A.; Shtilman, L.; Levich, E.

    1985-06-10

    Direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations is used for the investigation of local helicity fluctuations in plane Poiseuille (channel) and Taylor-Green vortex flows. It is shown that in regions of high dissipation, the cosine of the angle between velocity and vorticity is evenly distributed; in regions of low dissipation, the velocity and vorticity vectors have a tendency to align. It is also shown that near the central part of the channel, velocity and vorticity vectors have a strong tendency to be aligned, while in the buffer region, all angles are nearly equally probable.

  9. Measurement of vorticity diffusion by NMR microscopy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer R; Callaghan, Paul T

    2010-05-01

    In a Newtonian fluid, vorticity diffuses at a rate determined by the kinematic viscosity. Here we use rapid NMR velocimetry, based on a RARE sequence, to image the time-dependent velocity field on startup of a fluid-filled cylinder and therefore measure the diffusion of vorticity. The results are consistent with the solution to the vorticity diffusion equation where the angular velocity on the outside surface of the fluid, at the cylinder's rotating wall, is fixed. This method is a means of measuring kinematic viscosity for low viscosity fluids without the need to measure stress.

  10. Vorticity in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei-Tian; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-06-01

    We study the event-by-event generation of flow vorticity in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Au +Au collisions and CERN Large Hadron Collider Pb +Pb collisions by using the hijing model. Different definitions of the vorticity field and velocity field are considered. A variety of properties of the vorticity are explored, including the impact parameter dependence, the collision energy dependence, the spatial distribution, the event-by-event fluctuation of the magnitude and azimuthal direction, and the time evolution. In addition, the spatial distribution of the flow helicity is also studied.

  11. Chemical potential of oxygen in (U, Pu) mixed oxide with Pu/(U+Pu) = 0.46

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawar, Rimpi; Chandramouli, V.; Anthonysamy, S.

    2016-05-01

    Chemical potential of oxygen in (U,Pu) mixed oxide with Pu/(U + Pu) = 0.46 was measured for the first time using H2/H2O gas equilibration combined with solid electrolyte EMF technique at 1073, 1273 and 1473 K covering an oxygen potential range of -525 to -325 kJ mol-1. The effect of oxygen potential on the oxygen to metal ratio was determined. Increase in oxygen potential increases the O/M. In this study the minimum O/M obtained was 1.985 below which reduction was not possible. Partial molar enthalpy ΔHbar O2 and entropy ΔSbar O2 of oxygen were calculated from the oxygen potential data. The values of -752.36 kJ mol-1 and 0.25 kJ mol-1 were obtained for ΔHbar O2 and ΔSbar O2 respectively.

  12. Lidar measurements of the atmospheric entrainment zone and the potential temperature jump across the top of the mixed layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boers, R.; Eloranta, E. W.

    1986-01-01

    Lidar data of the atmospheric entrainment zone from six days of clear air convection obtained in central Illinois during July 1979 are presented. A new method to measure the potential temperature jump across the entrainment zone based on only one temperature sounding and continuous lidar measurements of the mixed layer height is developed. An almost linear dependence is found between the normalized entrainment rate and the normalized thickness of the entrainment zone.

  13. Regional eddy vorticity transport and the equilibrium vorticity budgets of a numerical model ocean circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. E.; Holland, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    A mean vorticity budget analysis is presented of Holland's (1978) numerical ocean general circulation experiment. The stable budgets are compared with classical circulation theory to emphasize the ways in which the mesoscale motions of the model alter (or leave unaltered) classical vorticity balances. The basinwide meridional transports of vorticity by the mean flow and by the mesoscale flow in the mean are evaluated to establish the role(s) of the mesoscale in the larger scale equilibrium vorticity transports. The vorticity equation for this model fluid system is presented and the budget analysis method is described. Vorticity budgets over the selected regions and on a larger scale are given, and a summary of budget results is provided along with remarks about the utility of this type of analysis.

  14. Pharmacokinetic Potentiation of Mixed Organophosphate and Pyrethroid Poison Leading to Prolonged Delayed Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Meenakshi; Amin, Ruhul; Nagiri, Shivashankar Kaniyoor; Kudru, Chandrashekar Udyavara

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) and mixed pesticide poisoning remains an important cause of hospital admission. Therefore, physician must be aware of atypical presentations of delayed neurological complications of poisoning by taking proper patient history. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who presented with high stepping gait and muscle wasting in hands. Patient history revealed consumption of approximately 4ml of mixed pesticide, consisting of 50% chlorpyrifos with synthetic pyrethroid, 5% cypermethrin. The prolonged and severe nature of delayed peripheral neuropathy, persisting at two years of follow-up, suggests that even small quantities of OP taken in combination with a pyrethroid can result in significant morbidity and is irreversible. PMID:28050396

  15. Influence of aircraft vortices on spray cloud behavior.

    PubMed

    Mickle, R E

    1996-06-01

    For small droplet spraying, the spray cloud is initially entrained into the wingtip vortices so that the ultimate fate of the spray is controlled by the motion of these vortices. In close to 100 aerial sprays, the emitted spray cloud has been mapped using a scanning laser system that displays diffusion and transport of the spray cloud. Results detailing the concentrations within the spray cloud in space and time are given for sprays in parallel and crosswinds. Wind direction is seen to potentially alter the vortex motion and hence the fate of the spray cloud. In crosswind spraying, the vortex behavior associated with the 2 wings is found to differ, which leads to enhanced deposition from the upwind wing and enhanced drift from the downwind wing.

  16. Edge tunneling of vortices in superconducting thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Iengo, R. |; Jug, G. |

    1996-11-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of the decay of a supercurrent due to the zero-temperature quantum tunneling of vortices from the edge in a thin superconducting film in the absence of an external magnetic field. An explicit formula is derived for the tunneling rate of vortices, which are subject to the Magnus force induced by the supercurrent, through the Coulomb-like potential barrier binding them to the film{close_quote}s edge. Our approach ensues from the nonrelativistic version of a Schwinger-type calculation for the decay of the two-dimensional vacuum previously employed for describing vortex-antivortex pair nucleation in the bulk of the sample. In the dissipation-dominated limit, our explicit edge-tunneling formula yields numerical estimates which are compared with those obtained for bulk nucleation to show that both mechanisms are possible for the decay of a supercurrent. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  17. Internally mixed sulfate and organic particles as potential ice nuclei in the tropical tropopause region

    PubMed Central

    Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2010-01-01

    Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropical tropopause region and play a major role in the Earth’s climate. Any changes to cirrus abundance due to natural or anthropogenic influences must be considered to evaluate future climate change. The detailed impact of cirrus clouds on climate depends on ice particle number, size, morphology, and composition. These properties depend in turn on the nucleation mechanism of the ice particles. Although it is often assumed that ice nucleates via a homogeneous mechanism, recent work points to the possibility that heterogeneous ice nucleation is important in the tropical tropopause region. However, there are very few studies of depositional ice nucleation on the complex types of particles likely to be found in this region of the atmosphere. Here, we use a unique method to probe depositional ice nucleation on internally mixed ammonium sulfate/palmitic acid particles, namely optical microscopy coupled with Raman microscopy. The deliquescence and efflorescence phase transitions of the mixed particles were first studied to gain insight into whether the particles are likely to be liquid or solid in the tropical tropopause region. The ice nucleating ability of the particles was then measured under typical upper tropospheric conditions. It was found that coating the particles with insoluble palmitic acid had little effect on the deliquescence, efflorescence, or ice nucleating ability of ammonium sulfate. Additional experiments involving Raman mapping provide new insights into how the composition and morphology of mixed particles impact their ability to nucleate ice. PMID:20388912

  18. Internally mixed sulfate and organic particles as potential ice nuclei in the tropical tropopause region.

    PubMed

    Wise, Matthew E; Baustian, Kelly J; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2010-04-13

    Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropical tropopause region and play a major role in the Earth's climate. Any changes to cirrus abundance due to natural or anthropogenic influences must be considered to evaluate future climate change. The detailed impact of cirrus clouds on climate depends on ice particle number, size, morphology, and composition. These properties depend in turn on the nucleation mechanism of the ice particles. Although it is often assumed that ice nucleates via a homogeneous mechanism, recent work points to the possibility that heterogeneous ice nucleation is important in the tropical tropopause region. However, there are very few studies of depositional ice nucleation on the complex types of particles likely to be found in this region of the atmosphere. Here, we use a unique method to probe depositional ice nucleation on internally mixed ammonium sulfate/palmitic acid particles, namely optical microscopy coupled with Raman microscopy. The deliquescence and efflorescence phase transitions of the mixed particles were first studied to gain insight into whether the particles are likely to be liquid or solid in the tropical tropopause region. The ice nucleating ability of the particles was then measured under typical upper tropospheric conditions. It was found that coating the particles with insoluble palmitic acid had little effect on the deliquescence, efflorescence, or ice nucleating ability of ammonium sulfate. Additional experiments involving Raman mapping provide new insights into how the composition and morphology of mixed particles impact their ability to nucleate ice.

  19. Phase-matched four wave mixing and quantum beam splitting of matter waves in a periodic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hilligsoee, Karen Marie; Moelmer, Klaus

    2005-04-01

    We show that the dispersion properties imposed by an external periodic potential ensure both energy and quasimomentum conservation such that correlated pairs of atoms can be generated by four wave mixing from a Bose-Einstein condensate moving in an optical lattice potential. In our numerical solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, a condensate with initial quasimomentum k{sub 0} is transferred almost completely (>95%) into a pair of correlated atomic components with quasimomenta k{sub 1} and k{sub 2}, if the system is seeded with a smaller number of atoms with the appropriate quasimomentum k{sub 1}.

  20. Knots and Coils in Superfluid Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Scheeler, Martin; Irvine, William T. M.

    2014-11-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that linked and knotted vortices will spontaneously unknot or untie in both classical fluids and superfluids. This effect would appear to jeopardize any notion of conservation of fluid topology (helicity), but this need not be the case: vortices can transfer their knottedness to helical coils, preserving some measure of the original topology. By simulating superfluid vortices in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we find a geometric mechanism for efficiently transferring helicity in exactly this manner. Remarkably, the same transfer of topology to geometry also appears in viscous fluid vortices, suggesting it is a generic feature of non-ideal fluids. This work was supported by the NSF MRSEC shared facilities at the University of Chicago (DMR-0820054) and an NSF CAREER Award (DMR-1351506). W.T.M.I. further acknowledges support from the A.P. Sloan Foundation and the Packard Foundation.

  1. Interactions of coupled acoustic and vortical instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.; Sohn, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    In the past, the acoustic combustion instability was studied independently of the hydrodynamic instability induced by vortex motions. This paper is intended to combine the two different sources of energy everywhere within the spatial domain and determine the effect of one upon the other. This can be achieved by calculating the mean flow velocities and vorticities and their fluctuating parts of velocities and vortices, as well as the fluctuating pressure. The Orr-Sommerfeld equation is utilized to determine the wavenumbers and unsteady stream functions from which vortically coupled acoustic instability growth constants are calculated. This process demonstrates that there are two different frequencies, acoustic and hydrodynamic, various combinations of which contribute to either damping or amplification. It is found that stability boundaries for coupled acoustic and vortical oscillations are somewhat similar to the classical hydrodynamic stability boundaries, but they occur in the form of multiple islands.

  2. Scattering on two Aharonov-Bohm vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolny, E.

    2016-12-01

    The problem of two Aharonov-Bohm (AB) vortices for the Helmholtz equation is examined in detail. It is demonstrated that the method proposed by Myers (1963 J. Math. Phys. 6 1839) for slit diffraction can be generalised to obtain an explicit solution for AB vortices. Due to the singular nature of AB interaction the Green function and scattering amplitude for two AB vortices obey a series of partial differential equations. Coefficients entering these equations, fulfil ordinary non-linear differential equations whose solutions can be obtained by solving the Painlevé III equation. The asymptotics of necessary functions for very large and very small vortex separations are calculated explicitly. Taken together, this means that the problem of two AB vortices is exactly solvable.

  3. Potential application of ultra-high performance fiber-reinforced concrete with wet-mix shotcrete system in tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goblet, Valentine Pascale

    In the tunneling industry, shotcrete has been used for several decades. The use of shotcrete or wet-mix spray-on methods allows the application of this method in complex underground profiles and shapes. The need for time efficient spraying methods and constructability for lining coverage opens the door for technologies like steel and synthetic fiber reinforced shotcrete to achieve a uniform and a good quality product. An important advantage of the application of fiber reinforced concrete in shotcrete systems for tunneling is that almost no steel fixing is required. This leads to several other advantages including safer working conditions during excavation, less cost, and higher quality achieved through the use of this new technology. However, there are still some limitations. This research presents an analysis and evaluation of the potential application of a new R&D product, ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHP-FRC), developed by UTA associate professor Shih-Ho (Simon) Chao. This research will focus on its application to tunnel lining using a wet-mix shotcrete system. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the potential application of UHP-FRC with wet-mix shotcrete equipment. This is the first time UHP-FRC has been used for this purpose; hence, this thesis also presents a preliminary evaluation of the compressive and tensile strength of UHP-FRC after application with shotcrete equipment, and to identify proper shotcrete procedures for mixing and application of UHP-FRC. A test sample was created with the wet-mix shotcrete system for further compressive and tensile strength analysis and a proposed plan was developed on the best way to use the UHP-FRC in lining systems for the tunneling industry. As a result of this study, the viscosity for pumpability was achieved for UHP-FRC. However, the mixer was not fast enough to efficiently mix this material. After 2 days, material strength showed 7,200 psi, however, vertical shotcrete was not achieved

  4. Vorticity matching in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, David C.

    1991-12-01

    Recent experiments have rekindled interest in high Reynolds number flows using superfluid helium. In a continuing series of experiments, the flow of helium II through various devices (smooth pipes, corrugated pipes, valves, venturies, turbine flowmeters, and coanda flowmeters for example) was investigated. In all cases, the measured values (typically, mass flow rates and pressure drops) were found to be well described by classical relations for high Reynolds flows. This is unexpected since helium II consists of two interpenetrating fluids; one fluid with nonzero viscosity (the normal fluid) and one with zero viscosity (the superfluid). Only the normal fluid component should directly obey classical relations. Since the experiments listed above only measure the external behavior of the flow (i.e., pressure drops over devices), there is a great deal of room for interpretation of their results. One possible interpretation is that in turbulent flows the normal fluid and the superfluid velocity fields are somehow 'locked' together, presumably by the mutual friction force between the superfluid vortex filaments and the normal fluid. We refer to this locking together of the two fluids as 'vorticity matching.'

  5. The motion of helical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Fuentes, Oscar

    2014-11-01

    We study the motion of a helical vortex in an inviscid, incompressible fluid of infinite extent. The vortex is a thin tube, of circular cross section and uniform vorticity, whose centerline is a helix of uniform pitch. Ever since Joukowsky (1912) deduced that this vortex is a steady solution of the Euler equations, numerous attempts have been made to compute its self-induced velocity. Here we use Hardin's (1982) solution for the velocity field in order to compute, for any pitch value, the linear and angular velocities of the vortex. Our formulas were verified by direct numerical integration of both the Biot-Savart and Helmholtz equations, and were also found to compare favourably with previous theoretical results. In terms of the vortex capacity to transport fluid, we identified three regimes: a helix of large pitch moves slowly, carrying a large mass of fluid; a thin helix of small pitch moves fast, carrying a small mass of fluid; and a fat helix of small pitch is a moderate carrier itself but it pushes fluid forward along its axis.

  6. Tornadoes and other atmospheric vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The growth of random vortices in an atmosphere with buoyant instability and vertical wind shear is studied along with the velocities in a single gravity-driven vortex; a frictionless adiabatic model which is supported by laboratory experiments is first considered. The effects of axial drag, heat transfer, and precipitation-induced downdrafts are then calculated. Heat transfer and axial drag tend to have stabilizing effects; they reduce the downdrafts of updrafts due to buoyancy. It is found that downdrafts or tornadic magnitude might occur in negatively-buoyant columns. The radial-inflow velocity required to maintain a given maximum tangential velocity in a tornado is determined by using a turbulent vortex model. Conditions under which radial-inflow velocities become sufficiently large to produce tangential velocities of tornadic magnitude are determined. The radial velocities in the outer regions, as well as the tangential velocities in the inner regions may be large enough to cause damage. The surface boundary layer, which is a region where large radial inflows can occur, is studied, and the thickness of the radial-inflow friction layer is estimated. A tornado model which involves a rotating parent cloud, as well as buoyancy and precipitation effects, is discussed.

  7. The Born–Infeld vortices induced from a generalized Higgs mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We construct self-dual Born–Infeld vortices induced from a generalized Higgs mechanism. Two specific models of the theory are of focused interest where the Higgs potential is either of a |ϕ|4- or |ϕ|6-type. For the |ϕ|4-model, we obtain a sharp existence and uniqueness theorem for doubly periodic and planar vortices. For doubly periodic solutions, a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence is explicitly derived in terms of the vortex number, the Born–Infeld parameter, and the size of the periodic lattice domain. For the |ϕ|6-model, we show that both topological and non-topological vortices are present. This new phenomenon distinguishes the model from the classical Born–Infeld–Higgs theory studied earlier in the literature. A series of results regarding doubly periodic, topological, and non-topological vortices in the |ϕ|6-model are also established. PMID:27274694

  8. The Born-Infeld vortices induced from a generalized Higgs mechanism.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaosen

    2016-04-01

    We construct self-dual Born-Infeld vortices induced from a generalized Higgs mechanism. Two specific models of the theory are of focused interest where the Higgs potential is either of a |ϕ|(4)- or |ϕ|(6)-type. For the |ϕ|(4)-model, we obtain a sharp existence and uniqueness theorem for doubly periodic and planar vortices. For doubly periodic solutions, a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence is explicitly derived in terms of the vortex number, the Born-Infeld parameter, and the size of the periodic lattice domain. For the |ϕ|(6)-model, we show that both topological and non-topological vortices are present. This new phenomenon distinguishes the model from the classical Born-Infeld-Higgs theory studied earlier in the literature. A series of results regarding doubly periodic, topological, and non-topological vortices in the |ϕ|(6)-model are also established.

  9. On the Equivalence of Trapped Colloids, Pinned Vortices, and Spin Ice

    SciTech Connect

    Nisoli, Cristiano

    2014-04-23

    We investigate the recently reported analogies between pinned vortices in nano-structured superconductors or colloids in optical traps, and spin ice materials. The frustration of the two models, one describing colloids and vortices, the other describing spin ice, differs essentially. However, their effective energetics is made identical by the contribution of an emergent field associated to a topological charge. This equivalence extends to the local low-energy dynamics of the ice manifold, yet breaks down in lattices of mixed coordination, because of topological charge transfer between sub-latices.

  10. Propagation of optical vortices in a nonlinear atomic medium with a photonic band gap.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Ma, Danmeng; Zhang, Yiqi; Cao, Mingtao; Xu, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2017-03-15

    We experimentally generate a vortex beam through a four-wave mixing (FWM) process after satisfying the phase-matching condition in a rubidium atomic vapor cell with a photonic band gap (PBG) structure. The observed FWM vortex can also be viewed as the reflected part of the launched probe vortex from the PBG. Further, we investigate the propagation behaviors, including the spatial shift and splitting of the probe and FWM vortices in the medium with enhanced Kerr nonlinearity induced by electromagnetically induced transparency. This Letter can be useful for better understanding and manipulating the applications involving the interactions between optical vortices and the medium.

  11. Generation and propagation of optical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozas, David

    Optical vortices are singularities in phase fronts of laser beams. They are characterized by a dark core whose size (relative to the size of the background beam) may dramatically affect their behavior upon propagation. Previously, only large-core vortices have been extensively studied. The object of the research presented in this dissertation was to explore ways of generating small-core optical vortices (also called optical vortex filaments ), and to examine their propagation using analytical, numerical and experimental methods. Computer-generated holography enabled us to create arbitrary distributions of optical vortex filaments for experimental exploration. Hydrodynamic analogies were used to develop an heuristic model which described the dependence of vortex motion on other vortices and the background beam, both qualitatively and quantitatively. We predicted that pair of optical vortex filaments will rotate with angular rates inversely proportional to their separation distance (just like vortices in a fluid). We also reported the first experimental observation of this novel fluid-like effect. It was found, however, that upon propagation in linear media, the fluid-like rotation was not sustained owing to the overlap of diffracting vortex cores. Further numerical studies and experiments showed that rotation angle may be enhanced in nonlinear self-defocusing media. The results presented in this thesis offer us a better understanding of dynamics of propagating vortices which may result in applications in optical switching, optical data storage, manipulation of micro-particles and optical limiting for eye protection.

  12. Assessment of the potential suitability of southwest Brooklyn incinerator residue in asphaltic-concrete mixes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chesner, W.H.; Collins, R.J.; Fung, T.

    1988-02-01

    The results of a one-year incinerator residue sampling program at the Southwest Brooklyn Incinerator in New York City are reported. The program was designed to characterize the physical properties of incinerator residue. Asphalt mixes were prepared using blends of sampled incinerator residue with conventional aggregate, to determine the suitability of using incinerator residue in asphaltic concrete for road paving applications. The results of the investigation are compared with those of previous studies. Engineering and processing requirements are presented for converting residue into a usable aggregate material. Capital costs, operating costs, potential revenues and net annual costs are provided for a full-scale residue processing facility at the Southwest Brooklyn Incinerator. Environmental issues associated with residue recycling are identified and discussed. Recommendations are provided for additional laboratory work and field applications needed to demonstrate the use of residue in asphalt mixes.

  13. Simulations of time-dependent three-dimensional vortices with application to Neptune's Great Dark Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeau, Raymond Paul, Jr.

    We use the EPIC atmospheric: model, a primitive-equation, isentropic-coordinate GCM, to simulate time-dependent vortices under conditions similar to those found on Neptune. The vortices have roughly elliptical cross- sections and exhibit motions that resemble the behavior of Neptune's Great Dark Spot (GDS), including equatorward drift, nutating oscillations in aspect ratio and orientation angle, and quasi-periodic tail formation. The simulated vortices also exhibit complex, three- dimensional motions that may explain the occasional appearance of the GDS as two overlapping ellipses. We find that the meridional drift of the vortices is strongly correlated with the meridional gradient of the environmental potential vorticity, β*. This result complements related studies of hurricane motions. The correlation suggests that the drift rate of GDS-type vortices on Neptune, which can be monitored over the long term by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is diagnostic of the vorticity gradient on the planet. The best fit to the Voyager GDS drift rate in our simulations corresponds to β*/approx2×10-12/ m-1s- 1. This is about 1/3 of the value given by the zonal- wind profile of Sromovsky et al. (1993), determined by fitting a polynomial in latitude to the cloud-tracking data. We calculate new fit to the same data using Legendre polynomials (spherical harmonics), which yields a significantly lower value for β*, more in line with our vortex-drift results. We show that vortex shape oscillations occur both in cases of zero background potential-vorticity gradient, corresponding to the conditions in analytical Kida-type models of oscillating vortices, and in cases of non-zero background gradient, corresponding to conditions that have not yet been investigated analytically. While the shape oscillations are qualitatively Kida-like, in detail they are distinctly different, suggesting that existing theory may not be sufficient to describe non-uniform, three- dimensional vortices. We

  14. Dynamics of Vortices in Nano-Structured Superconductors with Periodic Arrays of Various Antidots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujibayashi, David E.; Kato, Masaru

    2012-12-01

    Stable vortex configurations and its dynamics in superconductors with various types of antidotes are examined, using the molecular dynamics simulation. A pinning potential function, which parameterizes spatial shapes and pinning potential structure of the antidot, is introduced. Dependence of saturation number, which is a maximum number of vortices pinned in a single antidot, on these spatial shape and potential structure are investigated.

  15. Mechanics of Individual, Isolated Vortices in a Cuprate Superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Auslaender, M.

    2010-05-25

    Superconductors often contain quantized microscopic whirlpools of electrons, called vortices, that can be modeled as one-dimensional elastic objects. Vortices are a diverse playground for condensed matter because of the interplay between thermal fluctuations, vortex-vortex interactions, and the interaction of the vortex core with the three-dimensional disorder landscape. While vortex matter has been studied extensively, the static and dynamic properties of an individual vortex have not. Here we employ magnetic force microscopy (MFM) to image and manipulate individual vortices in detwinned, single crystal YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.991} (YBCO), directly measuring the interaction of a moving vortex with the local disorder potential. We find an unexpected and dramatic enhancement of the response of a vortex to pulling when we wiggle it transversely. In addition, we find enhanced vortex pinning anisotropy that suggests clustering of oxygen vacancies in our sample and demonstrates the power of MFM to probe vortex structure and microscopic defects that cause pinning.

  16. Sensing and exploitation of vortices for a schooling fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Amy; Maertens, Audrey; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The question of whether fish are capable of actively sensing and using individual vortices while schooling has long been debated. Prior research has shown that fish can gain a hydrodynamic benefit when swimming in the wake of another fish. However, it remains unclear if lateral line feedback is necessary, and if so, how a fish may adjust its motion to maximize its energy savings. To begin to address this, we study though numerical simulations the hydrodynamic interactions between two fish swimming in tandem, focusing on the interaction of individual vortices with the following fish. Using a potential flow model, we show that the pressure sensed by the following fish can be captured with a low number of states, which provide information that allows the fish to locate near-field vortices and phase its undulating motion accordingly. We will discuss how vortex interactions along the fish can be beneficial, the signals they induce, and which strategies a fish may use to save the most energy.

  17. The effect of crossflow on Taylor vortices: A model problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, S. R.; Bassom, Andrew P.

    1993-01-01

    A number of practically relevant problems involving the impulsive motion or the rapid rotation of bodies immersed in fluid are susceptible to vortex-like instability modes. Depending upon the configuration of any particular problem the stability properties of any high-wavenumber vortices can take on one of two distinct forms. One of these is akin to the structure of Gortler vortices in boundary layer flows while the other is similar to the situation for classical Taylor vortices. Both the Gortler and Taylor problems have been extensively studied when crossflow effects are excluded from the underlying base flows. Recently, studies were made concerning the influence of crossflow on Gortler modes and a linearized stability analysis is used to examine crossflow properties for the Taylor mode. This work allows us to identify the most unstable vortex as the crossflow component increases and it is shown how, like the Gortler case, only a very small crossflow component is required in order to completely stabilize the flow. Our investigation forms the basis for an extension to the nonlinear problem and is of potential applicability to a range of pertinent flows.

  18. Rotating structures and vortices in low temperature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeuf, Jean-Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Rotating structures are present in a number of low temperature EXB devices such as Hall thrusters, magnetrons, Penning discharges etc...Some aspects of the physics of these rotating instabilities are specific to low temperature plasmas because of the relatively large collisionality, the role of ionization, and the fact that ions are often non-magnetized. On the basis of fully kinetic simulations (Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions) we describe the formation of a rotating instability associated with an ionization front (``rotating spoke'') and driven by a cross-field current in a self-sustained cylindrical magnetron discharge at gas pressure on the order of 1 Pa. The rotating spoke is a strong double layer (electrostatic sheath) moving towards the higher potential region at a velocity close to the critical ionization velocity, a concept proposed by Alfvén in the context of the formation of the solar system. The mechanisms of cross-field electron transport induced by this instability are analyzed. At lower pressure (<0.01 Pa) the plasma of a magnetron discharge is non-neutral and the simulations predict the formation of electron vortices rotating in the azimuthal direction and resulting from the diocotron instability. The properties of these vortices are specific since they form in a self-sustained discharge where ionization (and losses at the ends of the plasma column) play an essential role in contrast with the electron vortices in pure electron plasmas. We discuss and analyze the mechanisms leading to the generation, dynamics and merging of these self-sustained electron vortices, and to the periodic ejection of fast electrons at the column ends (consistent with previous experimental observations).

  19. Hypotriglyceridemic potential of fermented mixed tea made with third-crop green tea leaves and camellia (Camellia japonica) leaves in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Shizuka; Ohmachi, Kazuhiro; Miyata, Yuji; Tanaka, Takashi; Kubayasi, Takashi; Nagata, Yasuo; Tanaka, Kazunari

    2013-06-19

    Fermented mixed tea made with third-crop green tea leaves and camellia leaves by a tea-rolling process has been developed. The objective of this study was to investigate hypotriglyceridemic potential of the mixed tea in rats. The mixed tea contained theasinensins and theaflavins. Rats fed the mixed tea extract at the level of 1% exerted significantly lower body weight and adipose tissue weight compared to animals fed third-crop green tea or camellia tea extract alone for 4 weeks. Serum and hepatic triglyceride was significantly and dose-dependently decreased by the mixed tea. This decrease was associated with lowered lipogenic enzyme activities in the liver. Furthermore, an oral administration of 4 or 8% of the mixed tea extract followed by fat emulsion suppressed the increment of serum triglyceride level. These results suggest that the mixed tea has hypotriglyceridemic action, partially via delaying triglyceride absorption in the small intestine and repressing hepatic lipogenic enzymes.

  20. Spatial-temporal and modal analysis of propeller induced ground vortices by particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Sciacchitano, A.; Veldhuis, L. L. M.; Eitelberg, G.

    2016-10-01

    During the ground operation of aircraft, there is potentially a system of vortices generated from the ground toward the propulsor, commonly denoted as ground vortices. Although extensive research has been conducted on ground vortices induced by turbofans which were simplified by suction tubes, these studies cannot well capture the properties of ground vortices induced by propellers, e.g., the flow phenomena due to intermittent characteristics of blade passing and the presence of slipstream of the propeller. Therefore, the investigation of ground vortices induced by a propeller is performed to improve understanding of these phenomena. The distributions of velocities in two different planes containing the vortices were measured by high frequency Particle Image Velocimetry. These planes are a wall-parallel plane in close proximity to the ground and a wall-normal plane upstream of the propeller. The instantaneous flow fields feature highly unsteady flow in both of these two planes. The spectral analysis is conducted in these two flow fields and the energetic frequencies are quantified. The flow fields are further evaluated by applying the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition analysis to capture the coherent flow structures. Consistent flow structures with strong contributions to the turbulent kinetic energy are noticed in the two planes.

  1. Initial Circulation and Peak Vorticity Behavior of Vortices Shed from Airfoil Vortex Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendt, Bruce J.; Biesiadny, Tom (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An extensive parametric study of vortices shed from airfoil vortex generators has been conducted to determine the dependence of initial vortex circulation and peak vorticity on elements of the airfoil geometry and impinging flow conditions. These elements include the airfoil angle of attack, chord length, span, aspect ratio, local boundary layer thickness, and free stream Mach number. In addition, the influence of airfoil-to-airfoil spacing on the circulation and peak vorticity has been examined for pairs of co-rotating and counter-rotating vortices. The vortex generators were symmetric airfoils having a NACA-0012 cross-sectional profile. These airfoils were mounted either in isolation, or in pairs, on the surface of a straight pipe. The turbulent boundary layer thickness to pipe radius ratio was about 17 percent. The circulation and peak vorticity data were derived from cross-plane velocity measurements acquired with a seven-hole probe at one chord-length downstream of the airfoil trailing edge location. The circulation is observed to be proportional to the free-stream Mach number, the angle-of-attack, and the span-to-boundary layer thickness ratio. With these parameters held constant, the circulation is observed to fall off in monotonic fashion with increasing airfoil aspect ratio. The peak vorticity is also observed to be proportional to the free-stream Mach number, the airfoil angle-of-attack, and the span-to-boundary layer thickness ratio. Unlike circulation, however, the peak vorticity is observed to increase with increasing aspect ratio, reaching a peak value at an aspect ratio of about 2.0 before falling off again at higher values of aspect ratio. Co-rotating vortices shed from closely spaced pairs of airfoils have values of circulation and peak vorticity under those values found for vortices shed from isolated airfoils of the same geometry. Conversely, counter-rotating vortices show enhanced values of circulation and peak vorticity when compared to values

  2. A phloem-sap feeder mixes phloem and xylem sap to regulate osmotic potential.

    PubMed

    Pompon, Julien; Quiring, Dan; Goyer, Claudia; Giordanengo, Philippe; Pelletier, Yvan

    2011-09-01

    Phloem-sap feeders (Hemiptera) occasionally consume the dilute sap of xylem, a behaviour that has previously been associated with replenishing water balance following dehydration. However, a recent study reported that non-dehydrated aphids ingested xylem sap. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the consumption of xylem sap, which has a low osmolality, is a general response to osmotic stresses other than dehydration. Alate aphids were subjected to different treatments and subsequently transferred onto a plant, where electrical penetration graph (EPG) was used to estimate durations of passive phloem sap consumption and active sucking of xylem sap. The proportion of time aphids fed on xylem sap (i.e., time spent feeding on xylem sap/total time spent feeding on phloem plus xylem sap) was used as a proxy of the solute concentration of the uptake. The proportion of time alate aphids fed on xylem sap increased: (1) with the time spent imbibing an artificial diet containing a solution of sucrose, which is highly concentrated in phloem sap and is mainly responsible for the high osmotic potential of phloem sap; (2) with the osmotic potential of the artificial diet, when osmotic potential excess was not related to sucrose concentration; and (3) when aphids were deprived of primary symbionts, a condition previously shown to lead to a higher haemolymph osmotic potential. All our results converge to support the hypothesis that xylem sap consumption contributes to the regulation of the osmotic potential in phloem-sap feeders.

  3. Application of commercial sensor manufacturing methods for NOx/NH3 mixed potential sensors for emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L; Mukundan, Rangachary; Nelson, Mark A; Sekhar, Praveen; Williamson, Todd; Garzon, Fernando H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to develop a low cost on-board Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x})/Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) sensor that can not only be used for emissions control but has the potential to improve efficiency through better monitoring of the combustion process and feedback control in both vehicle and stationary systems. Over the past decade, Los AJamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a unique class of electrochemical gas sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen and nitrogen oxides. These sensors are based on the mixed-potential phenomenon and are a modification of the existing automotive lambda (oxygen) sensor and have the potential to meet the stringent sensitivity, selectivity and stability requirements of an on-board emissions/engine control sensor system. The current state of the art LANL technology is based on the stabilization of the electrochemical interfaces and relies on an externally heated, hand-made, tape cast device. We are now poised to apply our patented sensing principles in a mass production sensor platform that is more suitable for real world engine-out testing such as on dynamometers for vehicle applications and for exhaust-out testing in heavy boilers/SCR systems in power plants. In this present work, our goal is to advance towards commercialization of this technology by packaging the unique LANL sensor design in a standard automotive sensor-type platform. This work is being performed with the help of a leading US technical ceramics firm, utilizing commercial manufacturing techniques. Initial tape cast platforms with screen printed metal oxide and Pt sensor electrodes have shown promising results but also clearly show the need for us to optimize the electrode and electrolyte compositions/morphologies and interfaces of these devices in order to demonstrate a sensitive, selective, and stable NO{sub x} sensor. Our previous methods and routes to preparing stable and reproducible mixed potential sensors

  4. Baroclinic mixing in HE fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.; Ferguson, R.E.; Priolo, F.; Chien, K.Y.; Collins, J.P.

    1993-08-01

    Numerical simulations of the turbulent mixing in the fireball of an HE blast wave were performed with a second-order Godunov code. Adaptive mesh refinement was used to capture the convective mixing processes on the computational grid. The calculations revealed that the interface between the shock-compressed air and the dense detonation products was unstable. Vorticity was generated in that region by baroclinic effects. This caused the interface to roll-up into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were identified: a strong blast wave phase, where the mixing region was swept outward by the shockinduced flow; an implosion phase, that stretched the inner boundary of the mixing region back toward the origin; a re-shocking phase, where the imploding shock expands back outward from the origin and re-energizes the mixing later by RichtmyerMeshkov effects; and an asymptotic mixing phase, where line-scale structures are continually recreated by folding effects but the overall vorticity decays through a cascade process. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean-flow profiles and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The mean kinetic energy rapidly approached zero as the blast wave decayed, but the fluctuating kinetic energy asymptotically approached a small constant value. This represents the rotational kinetic energy driven by the vorticity field, that continued to mix the fluid at late times. It was shown that the vorticity field corresponds to a function that fluctuates between plus and minus values-with a volume-averaged mean of zero.

  5. 3D Vortices in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Samy; Barranco, Joseph; Marcus, Philip

    2010-11-01

    Like the atmosphere of Jupiter, protoplanetary disks (thin disks of gas & dust in orbit around newly-formed stars) are characterized by rapid rotation and intense shear, inspiring proposals that disks may also be populated with long-lived, robust storms analogous to the Great Red Spot. Such vortices may play key roles in the formation of stars and planets by transporting angular momentum, as well as trapping and concentrating dust grains, seeding the formation of planetesimals, the "building blocks" of planets. In our previous work (Barranco & Marcus 2005), we showed via numerical simulation (with an anelastic spectral code) that vortices near the midplane of the disk suffer an antisymmetric instability and are destroyed. However, internal gravity waves propagate away from the midplane, amplify and break, creating bands of vorticity that roll-up into new long-lived, stable vortices above and below the midplane. We will present new results on 3D vortex dynamics in protoplanetary disks, exploring the role of factors unique to this context: the Coriolis parameter f, the shear rate σ, and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency N are all of the same order of magnitude. In the region around the midplane Nf. This leads to strong refraction of internal gravity waves, causing the waves to amplify and break, generating vorticity.

  6. Investigation of Channel Vortices in Francis Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, M.; ZHOU, L. J.; WANG, Z. W.; LIU, D. M.; ZHAO, Y. Z.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper the characteristics of one type of channel vortex and the effect of different parameters on this channel vortex have been investigated experimentally with the aid of high speed photography. The results show that locations of the channel vortices move from near the hub down to near the band with the increase n11 or the decrease Q11 Meanwhile, with the decrease of Q11 or σ channel vortices become thicker with increasing appearing frequency. When the channel vortices come out near the hub or in the middle of the blade at low or moderate n11, the main frequency of pressure pulsation in the draft tube is the swirling frequency of vortex rope. However when the channel vortices come out near the band at high n11, the pressure pulsation in the draft tube has a wide-band spectrum with the frequency within 0.7∼1fn (rotating frequency). Then detailed numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the observed phenomenon. The results reveal this channel vortex is caused by the reversed flow in the draft tube. The mechanism is that channel vortices are induced when the reversed fluid flows up along the suction side of the blade and meets the upstream main flow.

  7. Microfibrillar-Associated Protein 4: A Potential Biomarker for Screening for Liver Fibrosis in a Mixed Patient Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sækmose, Susanne Gjørup; Mössner, Belinda; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Lindvig, Kristoffer; Schlosser, Anders; Holst, René; Barington, Torben; Holmskov, Uffe; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims A method for assessment of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis without the need for a liver biopsy is desirable. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is a suggested biomarker for identification of high-risk patients with severe fibrosis stages. This study aimed to examine associations between plasma MFAP4 (pMFAP4) and transient elastography or chronic hepatitis C virus infection in drug users and in a mixed patient cohort with increased risk of liver disease. Moreover, the study aimed to identify comorbidities that significantly influence pMFAP4. Methods pMFAP4 was measured in samples from 351 drug users attending treatment centres and from 248 acutely hospitalized medical patients with mixed diagnoses. Linear and logistic multivariate regression analyses were performed and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic-curves for cirrhosis were used to estimate cut-off points for pMFAP4. Univariate and subgroup analyses were performed using non-parametric methods. Results pMFAP4 increased significantly with liver fibrosis score. pMFAP4 was significantly associated with chronic viral infection in the drug users and with transient elastography in both cohorts. In the mixed patient cohort, pMFAP4 was significantly increased among patients with a previous diagnosis of liver disease or congestive heart failure compared to patients with other diagnoses. Conclusions pMFAP4 has the potential to be used as an outreach-screening tool for liver fibrosis in drug users and in mixed medical patients. pMFAP4 level is positively associated with transient elastography, but additional studies are warranted to validate the possible use of pMFAP4 in larger cohorts and in combination with transient elastography. PMID:26460565

  8. Study of mixed ternary transition metal ferrites as potential electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhujun, Bhamini; Tan, Michelle T. T.; Shanmugam, Anandan S.

    Nanocrystallites of three mixed ternary transition metal ferrite (MTTMF) were prepared by a facile sol-gel method and adopted as electrode material for supercapacitors. The phase development of the samples was determined using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the formation of a single-phase spinel ferrite in CuCoFe2O4 (CuCoF), NiCoFe2O4 (NiCoF) and NiCuFe2O4 (NiCuF). The surface characteristics and elemental composition of the nanocomposites have been studied by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The electrochemical performance of the nanomaterials was evaluated using a two-electrode configuration by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic technique in 1 M KOH electrolyte and was found to be in the order of: CuCoF > NiCoF > NiCuF. A maximum specific capacitance of 221 Fg-1 was obtained with CuCoF at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1. In addition to an excellent cycling stability, an energy density of 7.9 kW kg-1 was obtained at a current density of 1 Ag-1. The high electrochemical performance of the MTTMF nanocomposites obtained indicates that these materials are promising electrodes for supercapacitors.

  9. Jet Nozzle Having Centerbody for Enhanced Exit Area Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiner, John M. (Inventor); Gilinsky, Mikhail M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A nozzle arrangement includes a nozzle and a centerbody. The longitudinal axis of the centerbody is coaxially aligned with the nozzle. The centerbody has a free end portion shaped to create vortices in exhaust exiting the exit area. The vortices enhance mixing action in the exhaust and reduce exhaust noise while augmenting thrust.

  10. Grazing Effects on Net Global Warming Potential in Mixed Grass Prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantification of global warming potential (GWP) for grassland ecosystems is critically important given their vast geographical extent and inherent capacity to affect the global carbon cycle. Contributions of grassland ecosystems to net GWP, however, are largely unknown. In this study, we sought t...

  11. Chiral vortical effect from the compactified D4-branes with smeared D0-brane charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chao; Chen, Yidian; Huang, Mei

    2017-03-01

    By using the boundary derivative expansion formalism of fluid/gravity correspondence, we study the chiral vortical effect from the compactified D4-branes with smeared D0-brane charge. This background corresponds to a strongly coupled, nonconformal relativistic fluid with a conserved vector current. The presence of the chiral vortical effect is induced by the addition of a Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. Except that the non-dissipative anomalous viscous coefficient and the sound speed rely only on the chemical potential, most of the other thermal and hydrodynamical quantities of the first order depend both on the temperature and the chemical potential. According to our result, the way that the chiral vortical effect coefficient depends on the chemical potential seems irrelevant with whether the relativistic fluid is conformal or not. Stability analysis shows that this anomalous relativistic fluid is stable and the doping of the smeared D0-brane charge will slow down the sound speed.

  12. Cystic nephroma/mixed epithelial stromal tumor: a benign neoplasm with potential for recurrence.

    PubMed

    Sun, Belinda L; Abern, Michael; Garzon, Steven; Setty, Suman

    2015-05-01

    Cystic nephroma (CN) is a rare, benign, renal neoplasm composed of epithelial and stromal elements. Only about 200 cases have been reported since 1892 and recurrence has rarely been observed. We report a 32-year-old Hispanic woman, with a history of a right, complex cystic, renal mass treated by robotic decortication 2 years ago, who presented with flank pain, hematuria, and recurrent urinary tract infection. A magnetic resonance imaging study showed a 3.4-cm multicystic lesion with thickened septa and enhancement at the right kidney. The partial nephrectomy specimen revealed a well-circumscribed, multicystic tumor abutting the renal pelvis, with thick septa and smooth walls, filled with clear fluid. Microscopic examination showed variably sized cysts lined by cuboidal epithelium with focal hobnailing, without significant cytologic atypia and mitosis. The epithelial lining was positive for CK19, high molecular weight cytokeratin, and α-methylacyl-CoA racemase suggesting a primitive tubular epithelial phenotype. Primitive glomeruli-like structures were also present. The ovarian-like stroma was condensed around the cysts and was variably cellular with areas of muscle differentiation and thick-walled vessels. The stroma was positive for desmin, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and CD10. We suggest that CN represents a variable mixture of epithelial and stromal elements, immature glomerular, tubular, muscle, and vascular elements, which may be present in variable proportions creating a spectrum of lesions previously described as CN and mixed epithelial and stromal tumors (MEST). This case emphasizes that CN/MEST clinically/radiologically mimics other cystic renal neoplasms, especially cystic renal cell carcinoma and tubulocystic carcinoma, necessitating histopathological examination and immunohistochemial studies for definitive diagnosis. Additionally, CN has the tendency to recur when not completely excised initially.

  13. Zirconia-based mixed potential sensor with Pt electrode prepared by spin-coating of polymeric precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzan, A.; Woźniak, Ł.; Szymczewska, D.; Jasiński, P.

    2016-11-01

    Many types of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) based gas sensors have been explored extensively in recent years. Great attention have been directed to mixed-potential-type gas sensors. It is due to growing concerns with environmental issues. Not without a significance is the fact of very attractive performance of this type of sensor allowing to detect low concentration of pollutant gases. In this paper two types of YSZ based mixed-potential planar sensors were investigated, with platinum electrode painted using commercial paste and with spin coated platinum layer. Both types had second electrode in the form of porous gold. Measurements were performed at 400 °C in synthetic air and different concentrations of SO2. Gas flow was set to 100 cm3min-1 and the concentration of 50 ppm SO2 was tested. During this measurements the sensor was sintered in-situ at increasing temperatures. Sensor with 100 nm spin-coated platinum layer sintered at 700 °C was shown to exhibit two times smaller response than sensor with 5 μm porous electrode, while consisting of over 20 times smaller amount of Pt. The influence of sintering temperature on electrical conductivity of platinum films was also examined. Moreover, the platinum microstructure was investigated using SEM microscopy.

  14. A Note on Trapping Moving Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Hsiao C.

    2000-01-01

    The topic of stationary configurations of point vortices, also known as vortex equilibrium, has received considerable attention in recent years. By observing numerical results, it is found that a "counterpart" of this system also exists, in which moving vortices may be "trapped" by an inlet-like device to form a stationary pattern with no translational motion. After an intuitive explanation for the process, vortex trajectory maps based on numerical results are presented. These maps exhibit two stationary points under the present conditions, which are the focal points of vortex trajectories. A vortex upstream of these points, if within a certain offset range, will move towards these points spontaneously and be captured there. This proposed device is also capable of trapping spinning vortex pairs and triads. It is possible to impose a uniform stream at infinity, as long as the flow field is still dominated by the moving vortices.

  15. Vorticity, defects and correlations in active turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Thampi, Sumesh P.; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a numerical investigation of a continuum model of an active nematic, concentrating on the regime of active turbulence. Results are presented for the effect of three parameters, activity, elastic constant and rotational diffusion constant, on the order parameter and flow fields. Defects and distortions in the director field act as sources of vorticity, and thus vorticity is strongly correlated to the director field. In particular, the characteristic length of decay of vorticity and order parameter correlations is controlled by the defect density. By contrast, the decay of velocity correlations is determined by a balance between activity and dissipation. We highlight the role of microscopic flow generation mechanisms in determining the flow patterns and characteristic scales of active turbulence and contrast the behaviour of extensile and contractile active nematics. PMID:25332382

  16. Characterization of reconnecting vortices in superfluid helium

    PubMed Central

    Bewley, Gregory P.; Paoletti, Matthew S.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2008-01-01

    When two vortices cross, each of them breaks into two parts and exchanges part of itself for part of the other. This process, called vortex reconnection, occurs in classical and superfluids, and in magnetized plasmas and superconductors. We present the first experimental observations of reconnection between quantized vortices in superfluid helium. We do so by imaging micrometer-sized solid hydrogen particles trapped on quantized vortex cores and by inferring the occurrence of reconnection from the motions of groups of recoiling particles. We show that the distance separating particles on the just-reconnected vortex lines grows as a power law in time. The average value of the scaling exponent is approximately ½, consistent with the self-similar evolution of the vortices. PMID:18768790

  17. Vorticity, defects and correlations in active turbulence.

    PubMed

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M

    2014-11-28

    We describe a numerical investigation of a continuum model of an active nematic, concentrating on the regime of active turbulence. Results are presented for the effect of three parameters, activity, elastic constant and rotational diffusion constant, on the order parameter and flow fields. Defects and distortions in the director field act as sources of vorticity, and thus vorticity is strongly correlated to the director field. In particular, the characteristic length of decay of vorticity and order parameter correlations is controlled by the defect density. By contrast, the decay of velocity correlations is determined by a balance between activity and dissipation. We highlight the role of microscopic flow generation mechanisms in determining the flow patterns and characteristic scales of active turbulence and contrast the behaviour of extensile and contractile active nematics.

  18. Vorticity and divergence in the solar photosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, YI; Noyes, Robert W.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied an outstanding sequence of continuum images of the solar granulation from Pic du Midi Observatory. We have calculated the horizontal vector flow field using a correlation tracking algorithm, and from this determined three scalar field: the vertical component of the curl; the horizontal divergence; and the horizontal flow speed. The divergence field has substantially longer coherence time and more power than does the curl field. Statistically, curl is better correlated with regions of negative divergence - that is, the vertical vorticity is higher in downflow regions, suggesting excess vorticity in intergranular lanes. The average value of the divergence is largest (i.e., outflow is largest) where the horizontal speed is large; we associate these regions with exploding granules. A numerical simulation of general convection also shows similar statistical differences between curl and divergence. Some individual small bright points in the granulation pattern show large local vorticities.

  19. Identification of vortices in complex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, P.; Balachandar, S.; Adrian, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    Dating back to Leonardo da Vinci's famous sketches of vortices in turbulent flows, fluid dynamicists for over five centuries have continued to visualize and interpret complex flows in terms of motion of vortices. Nevertheless, much debate surrounds the question of how to unambiguously define vortices in complex flows. This debate has resulted in the availability of many vortex identification criteria---mathematical statements of what constitutes a vortex. Here we review the popularly used local or point- wise vortex identification criteria. Based on local flow kinematics, we describe a unified framework to interpret the similarities and differences in the usage of these criteria. We discuss the limitations on the applicability of these criteria when there is a significant component of vortex interactions. Finally, we provide guidelines for applying these criteria to geophysical flows.

  20. Measurements of Supersonic Wing Tip Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Michael K.; Kalkhoran, Iraj M.; Benston, James

    1994-01-01

    An experimental survey of supersonic wing tip vortices has been conducted at Mach 2.5 using small performed 2.25 chords down-stream of a semi-span rectangular wing at angle of attack of 5 and 10 degrees. The main objective of the experiments was to determine the Mach number, flow angularity and total pressure distribution in the core region of supersonic wing tip vortices. A secondary aim was to demonstrate the feasibility of using cone probes calibrated with a numerical flow solver to measure flow characteristics at supersonic speeds. Results showed that the numerically generated calibration curves can be used for 4-hole cone probes, but were not sufficiently accurate for conventional 5-hole probes due to nose bluntness effects. Combination of 4-hole cone probe measurements with independent pitot pressure measurements indicated a significant Mach number and total pressure deficit in the core regions of supersonic wing tip vortices, combined with an asymmetric 'Burger like' swirl distribution.

  1. Potential Human Pathogenic Bacteria in a Mixed Urban Watershed as Revealed by Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ibekwe, A. Mark; Leddy, Menu; Murinda, Shelton E.

    2013-01-01

    Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods for water depend on testing for fecal indicator bacterial counts or specific marker gene sequences to identify fecal contamination where potential human pathogenic bacteria could be present. In this study, we applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing to identify bacterial pathogen DNA sequences, including those not traditionally monitored by MST and correlated their abundances to specific sources of contamination such as urban runoff and agricultural runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), recreation park area, waste-water treatment plants, and natural sites with little or no human activities. Samples for pyrosequencing were surface water, and sediment collected from 19 sites. A total of 12,959 16S rRNA gene sequences with average length of ≤400 bp were obtained, and were assigned to corresponding taxonomic ranks using ribosomal database project (RDP), Classifier and Greengenes databases. The percent of total potential pathogens were highest in urban runoff water (7.94%), agricultural runoff sediment (6.52%), and Prado Park sediment (6.00%), respectively. Although the numbers of DNA sequence tags from pyrosequencing were very high for the natural site, corresponding percent potential pathogens were very low (3.78–4.08%). Most of the potential pathogenic bacterial sequences identified were from three major phyla, namely, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. The use of deep sequencing may provide improved and faster methods for the identification of pathogen sources in most watersheds so that better risk assessment methods may be developed to enhance public health. PMID:24278139

  2. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Raju, Muralikrishna; Watson, Valerie J.; Stack, Andrew G.; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-11-03

    We report that the amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10–5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g–1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in the LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g–1) had a negative rise potential (₋31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to ₋6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. In conclusion, these results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.

  3. Effect of strong acid functional groups on electrode rise potential in capacitive mixing by double layer expansion.

    PubMed

    Hatzell, Marta C; Raju, Muralikrishna; Watson, Valerie J; Stack, Andrew G; van Duin, Adri C T; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-12-02

    The amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10(–5)) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g(–1)) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in the LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g(–1)) had a negative rise potential (−31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to −6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. These results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.

  4. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    DOE PAGES

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Raju, Muralikrishna; Watson, Valerie J.; ...

    2014-11-03

    We report that the amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10–5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g–1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in themore » LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g–1) had a negative rise potential (₋31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to ₋6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. In conclusion, these results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.« less

  5. Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, N. N.; Ferziger, J. H.; Reynolds, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    The three dimensional, time dependent (incompressible) vorticity equations were used to simulate numerically the decay of isotropic box turbulence and time developing mixing layers. The vorticity equations were spatially filtered to define the large scale turbulence field, and the subgrid scale turbulence was modeled. A general method was developed to show numerical conservation of momentum, vorticity, and energy. The terms that arise from filtering the equations were treated (for both periodic boundary conditions and no stress boundary conditions) in a fast and accurate way by using fast Fourier transforms. Use of vorticity as the principal variable is shown to produce results equivalent to those obtained by use of the primitive variable equations.

  6. Aerodynamics and vortical structures in hovering fruitflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xue Guang; Sun, Mao

    2015-03-01

    We measure the wing kinematics and morphological parameters of seven freely hovering fruitflies and numerically compute the flows of the flapping wings. The computed mean lift approximately equals to the measured weight and the mean horizontal force is approximately zero, validating the computational model. Because of the very small relative velocity of the wing, the mean lift coefficient required to support the weight is rather large, around 1.8, and the Reynolds number of the wing is low, around 100. How such a large lift is produced at such a low Reynolds number is explained by combining the wing motion data, the computed vortical structures, and the theory of vorticity dynamics. It has been shown that two unsteady mechanisms are responsible for the high lift. One is referred as to "fast pitching-up rotation": at the start of an up- or downstroke when the wing has very small speed, it fast pitches down to a small angle of attack, and then, when its speed is higher, it fast pitches up to the angle it normally uses. When the wing pitches up while moving forward, large vorticity is produced and sheds at the trailing edge, and vorticity of opposite sign is produced near the leading edge and on the upper surface, resulting in a large time rate of change of the first moment of vorticity (or fluid impulse), hence a large aerodynamic force. The other is the well known "delayed stall" mechanism: in the mid-portion of the up- or downstroke the wing moves at large angle of attack (about 45 deg) and the leading-edge-vortex (LEV) moves with the wing; thus, the vortex ring, formed by the LEV, the tip vortices, and the starting vortex, expands in size continuously, producing a large time rate of change of fluid impulse or a large aerodynamic force.

  7. Vorticity Confinement Applied to Turbulent Wing Tip Vortices for Wake-Integral Drag Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Kristopher; Povitsky, Alex

    2013-11-01

    In the current study the vorticity confinement (VC) approach was applied to tip vortices shed by edges of stationary wings in order to predict induced drag by far-field integration in Trefftz plane. The VC parameter was evaluated first by application to convection of vortices in 2-D uniform flow and then to tip vortices shed in 3-D simulation of finite-aspect ratio rectangular wing in subsonic flight. Dependence of VC parameter on the flight Mach number and the angle of attack was evaluated. The aerodynamic drag results with application of VC to prevent numerical diffusion are much closer to analytic lifting line theory compared to integration over surface of wing while the viscous profile drag is more accurately evaluated by surface integration. To apply VC to viscous and turbulent flows, it is shown that VC does not affect the physical rate of dissipation of vortices in viscous/turbulent flows at time scales corresponding to convection of vortices from the wing to Trefftz plane of integration. To account for turbulent effects on tip vortices, VC was applied in combination with Spalart-Allmaras, k- ɛ, and six Reynolds stresses models of turbulence. The results are compared to experiments to validate the physical dissipation of tip vortex. This research was supported by The Dayton Area Graduate Studies Institute (DAGSI) and US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) grants in 2009-2013, US Army Research Office (ARO) in 2012-2013 and ASEE/AFRL summer faculty grant.

  8. Inward propagating chemical waves in Taylor vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Barnaby W.; Novak, Jan; Wilson, Mark C. T.; Britton, Melanie M.; Taylor, Annette F.

    2010-04-01

    Advection-reaction-diffusion (ARD) waves in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in steady Taylor-Couette vortices have been visualized using magnetic-resonance imaging and simulated using an adapted Oregonator model. We show how propagating wave behavior depends on the ratio of advective, chemical and diffusive time scales. In simulations, inward propagating spiral flamelets are observed at high Damköhler number (Da). At low Da, the reaction distributes itself over several vortices and then propagates inwards as contracting ring pulses—also observed experimentally.

  9. Noise from two-dimensional vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. D.; Stockman, N. O.

    1972-01-01

    The fluctuating flow in an idealized model of a turbulent shear layer composed of many discrete vortices is analyzed. Computer solutions reveal irregular motions which are similar in many respects to observed flows in turbulent three-dimensional layers. The model is further simplified to a pair of equal co-rotating vortices and the noise generation is analyzed in terms of equivalent quadrupole oscillations. Results of the analysis in a uniform medium are consistent with Lighthill's results. New results are obtained for the effects of mean velocity gradients, compressibility, temperature inhomogenities, and gradients of the mean Mach number.

  10. Dust Devils and Convective Vortices on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2017-03-01

    Dust devils are low pressure convective vortices able to lift dust from the surface of a planet. They are a common feature on Mars and they can also be found on desertic locations on Earth. On Mars they are considered an important part of the atmospheric dust cycle. Dust in Mars is an essential ingredient of the atmosphere where it affects the radiative balance of the planet. Here we review observations of these dusty vortices from orbit, from in situ measurements on the surface of Mars and some of the models developed to simulate them.

  11. Electron Vortices in Femtosecond Multiphoton Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pengel, D.; Kerbstadt, S.; Johannmeyer, D.; Englert, L.; Bayer, T.; Wollenhaupt, M.

    2017-02-01

    Multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms with a sequence of two counter-rotating circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses produces vortex-shaped photoelectron momentum distributions in the polarization plane describing Archimedean spirals. The pulse sequences are produced by polarization shaping and the three-dimensional photoelectron distributions are tomographically reconstructed from velocity map imaging measurements. We show that perturbative ionization leads to electron vortices with c6 rotational symmetry. A change from c6 to c4 rotational symmetry of the vortices is demonstrated for nonperturbative interaction.

  12. Dynamics of Vorticity Defects in Stratified Shear

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-19

    Balmforth, and R. V. Craster, Dynamics of defects in visco-elastic shear. J. Non - Newtonian Fluids, 72 (1997), pp. 281-304. [5] N. J. Balmforth, and W. R...vorticity being swept into nodes like B. Thus, accumulation of vorticity at points like B takes place unboundedly in the linear, non -dissipative...buoyancy formulation, in the Bousinessq approximation can be written in the following non -dimensional form, ∂ω ∂t + ∂(Ψ, ω) ∂(x, y) = ∂B ∂x + 1 Re ∇2ω

  13. Spatially-partitioned many-body vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaiman, S.; Alon, O. E.

    2016-02-01

    A vortex in Bose-Einstein condensates is a localized object which looks much like a tiny tornado storm. It is well described by mean-field theory. In the present work we go beyond the current paradigm and introduce many-body vortices. These are made of spatially- partitioned clouds, carry definite total angular momentum, and are fragmented rather than condensed objects which can only be described beyond mean-field theory. A phase diagram based on a mean-field model assists in predicting the parameters where many-body vortices occur. Implications are briefly discussed.

  14. Inward propagating chemical waves in Taylor vortices.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Barnaby W; Novak, Jan; Wilson, Mark C T; Britton, Melanie M; Taylor, Annette F

    2010-04-01

    Advection-reaction-diffusion (ARD) waves in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in steady Taylor-Couette vortices have been visualized using magnetic-resonance imaging and simulated using an adapted Oregonator model. We show how propagating wave behavior depends on the ratio of advective, chemical and diffusive time scales. In simulations, inward propagating spiral flamelets are observed at high Damköhler number (Da). At low Da, the reaction distributes itself over several vortices and then propagates inwards as contracting ring pulses--also observed experimentally.

  15. General guidelines for medically screening mixed population groups potentially exposed to nerve or vesicant agents

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B. ); Sidell, F.R. ); Leffingwell, S.S. . Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control)

    1992-01-01

    A number of state and local planners have requested guidance on screening protocols and have expressed interest in sampling body fluids from exposed or potentially exposed individuals as a means of estimating agent dose. These guidelines have been developed to provide a clear statement that could be used by state and local emergency response personnel in the event of a nerve or vesicant agent incident resulting in off-post contamination; maximum protection from harm is the goal. The assumption is that any population group so exposed would be heterogeneous for age, gender, reproductive status, and state of health.

  16. Anderson Localization for Schrödinger Operators on with Strongly Mixing Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgain, Jean; Schlag, Wilhelm

    In this paper we show that for a.e. x∈[ 0,2 π) the operators defined on as and with Dirichlet condition ψ- 1= 0, have pure point spectrum in with exponentially decaying eigenfunctions where δ > 0 and are small. As it is a simple consequence of known techniques that for small λ one has [- 2 +δ, 2-δ]⊂ spectrum (H(x)) for a.e.x∈[ 0, 2 π), we thus established Anderson localization on the spectrum up to the edges and the center. More general potentials than cosine can be treated, but only those energies with nonzero spectral density are allowed. Finally, we prove the same result for operators on the whole line with potential , where A:?2-->?2 is a hyperbolic toral automorphism, F∈C1(?2), ∫F= 0, and λ small. The basis for our analysis is an asymptotic formula for the Lyapunov exponent for λ--> 0 by Figotin-Pastur, and generalized by Chulaevski-Spencer. We combine this asymptotic expansion with certain martingale large deviation estimates in order to apply the methods developed by Bourgain and Goldstein in the quasi-periodic case.

  17. A simple model of tornado-like vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurgansky, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Based on similarity assumptions and integral technique borrowed from basic fluid dynamics, a simple model of steady tornado-like vortices has been developed which relates the maximum azimuthal velocity in the end-wall vortex adjacent to the ground surface to the amount of convective available potential energy (CAPE) accumulated in pre-tornadic conditions in the environmental atmosphere. By using Bayes' theorem the relative conditional probabilities for tornado occurrence - given the environmental CAPE-values - are estimated based on the knowledge of an unconditional CAPE-distribution in the atmosphere and also of the tornado intensity distribution.

  18. Vortex simulation of three-dimensional mixing layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inoue, Osamu

    1987-01-01

    Spanwise structures of 'nominally' two-dimensional (2D), spatially growing, turbulent mixing layers are simulated numerically by a three-dimensional (3D) vortex method. Small-amplitude 3D disturbances are introduced into an otherwise 2D flow field. Results show that a large-scale spanwise variation of the flow field is produced because of amplification of initial disturbances. Pairs of counterrotating streamwise vortices are formed as a result of stretching of primary spanwise vortices. The streamwise vortices are formed at a fixed spanwise location which depends on initial disturbances. The calculated magnitude of streamwise vorticity is close to that of the spanwise vorticity. The results also suggest that the presence of background disturbances may be essential for the formation of streamwise vortices. The results are in good qualitative agreement with experiments.

  19. Phase mixing due to the Galactic potential: steps in the position and velocity distributions of popped star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candlish, G. N.; Smith, R.; Fellhauer, M.; Gibson, B. K.; Kroupa, P.; Assmann, P.

    2014-02-01

    As star clusters are expected to form with low star formation efficiencies, the gas in the cluster is expelled quickly and early in their development: the star cluster `pops'. This leads to an unbound stellar system, evolving in the Galactic potential. Previous N-body simulations have demonstrated the existence of a stepped number density distribution of cluster stars after popping, both in vertical position and vertical velocity, with a passing resemblance to a Christmas tree. Using numerical and analytical methods, we investigate the source of this structure, which arises due to the phase mixing of the out-of-equilibrium stellar system, determined entirely by the background analytic potential. Considering only the vertical motions, we construct a theoretical model to describe the time evolution of the phase space distribution of stars in a Miyamoto-Nagai disc potential and a full Milky Way-type potential comprising bulge, halo and disc components, which is then compared with N-body simulations. Using our theoretical model, we investigate the possible observational signatures and the feasibility of detection.

  20. Potential benefits of the recovery of strategic/critical materials from mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Acton, C.F.; Hofman, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The United States is currently dependent on foreign suppliers for many of its strategic and critical materials. Chrome, platinum, and manganese are primarily supplied by South Africa and the Soviet Union. Zaire and Zambia are the major sources of cobalt. Budgetary cutbacks over the last 20 yr have reduced the stockpiles maintained for defense use. Many are currently in deficit. Considering the tenuous relationships the United States maintains with many of the countries relied on for these strategic materials, an alternative source of materials would be welcomed. One potential source of some of these strategic and critical materials is uranium mill tailings. Substantial quantities of uranium, vanadium, molybdenum, and cobalt have been successfully recovered from uranium mill tailings at Durango, Old Rifle, Grand Junction, Colorado, and Mexican Hat, Utah. The national defense stockpile currently has a deficit of cobalt and vanadium. Other strategic materials currently in deficit (nickel, platinum, palladium, etc.) also may be recoverable from mill tailings.

  1. Communication: Physical origins of ionization potential shifts in mixed carboxylic acids and water complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Quanli; Tang, Zhen; Su, Peifeng; Wu, Wei; Yang, Zhijun; Trindle, Carl O.; Knee, Joseph L.

    2016-08-01

    The ionization potential (IP) of the aromatic alpha hydroxy carboxylic acid, 9-hydroxy-9-fluorene carboxylic acid (9HFCA), is shifted by complexation with hydrogen bonding ligands such as water and formic acid. Generalized Kohn-Sham energy decomposition analysis decomposes the intermolecular binding energies into a frozen energy term, polarization, correlation, and/or dispersion energy terms, as well as terms of geometric relaxation and zero point energy. We observe that in each dimer the attractive polarization always increases upon ionization, enhancing binding in the cation and shifting the IP toward the red. For 9HFCA—H2O, a substantial decrease of the repulsive frozen energy in cation further shifts the IP toward red. For 9HFCA—HCOOH, the increase of the frozen energy actually occurs in the cation and shifts the IP toward blue. Consistent with the experimental measurements, our analysis provides new, non-intuitive perspectives on multiple hydrogen bonds interactions in carboxylic acids and water complexes.

  2. The structure of the vorticity field in homogeneous turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Michael M.; Moin, Parviz

    1987-01-01

    The structures of the vorticity fields in several homogeneous irrotational straining flows and a homogeneous turbulent shear flow were examined using a database generated by direct numerical simulation of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. In all cases, strong evidence was found for the presence of coherent vortical structures. The initially isotropic vorticity fields were rapidly affected by imposed mean strain and the rotational component of mean shear and developed accordingly. In the homogeneous turbulent shear-flow cases, the roll-up of mean vorticity into characteristic hairpin vortices was clearly observed, supporting the view that hairpin vortices are an important vortical structure in all turbulent shear flows; the absence of mean shear in the homogeneous irrotational straining flows precludes the presence of hairpin-like vortices.

  3. Evolution of a barotropic shear layer into elliptical vortices.

    PubMed

    Guha, Anirban; Rahmani, Mona; Lawrence, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    When a barotropic shear layer becomes unstable, it produces the well-known Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). The nonlinear manifestation of the KHI is usually in the form of spiral billows. However, a piecewise linear shear layer produces a different type of KHI characterized by elliptical vortices of constant vorticity connected via thin braids. Using direct numerical simulation and contour dynamics, we show that the interaction between two counterpropagating vorticity waves is solely responsible for this KHI formation. We investigate the oscillation of the vorticity wave amplitude, the rotation and nutation of the elliptical vortex, and straining of the braids. Our analysis also provides a possible explanation for the formation and evolution of elliptical vortices appearing in geophysical and astrophysical flows, e.g., meddies, stratospheric polar vortices, Jovian vortices, Neptune's Great Dark Spot, and coherent vortices in the wind belts of Uranus.

  4. Vorticity Control in Fish-like Propulsion and Maneuvering.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, M S; Techet, A H; Zhu, Q; Beal, D N; Hover, F S; Yue, D K P

    2002-11-01

    Vorticity control is employed by marine animals to enhance performance in maneuvering and propulsion. Studies on fish-like robots and experimental apparatus modelling rigid and flexible fins provide some of the basic mechanisms employed for controlling vorticity.

  5. Relaxation towards localized vorticity states in drift plasma and geostrophic flows.

    PubMed

    Agullo, Olivier; Verga, Alberto

    2004-05-01

    The drift of ions in a magnetized plasma or the height fluctuations of a rotating fluid layer are described by the conservation equation of a potential vorticity. This potential vorticity contains an intrinsic length scale, the hybrid Larmor radius in plasma, and the Rossby length in the quasigeostrophic flow. The influence of this scale in the evolution of a random initial vorticity field is investigated using a thermodynamic approach. In contrast to the perfect fluid case, where the vorticity tends to a well defined stationary state, complete relaxation towards an equilibrium state is not observed in numerical simulations of quasigeostrophic decaying turbulence. The absence of global thermodynamic equilibrium is explained by the relaxation towards states of local equilibrium where the vorticity is concentrated. The interaction between these separated regions is extremely weak. Explicit, axisymmetric, localized solutions of the mean field integrodifferential equation of extremal entropy states are obtained using asymptotic methods. A comparison of the computed solutions with the observed coherent structures shows that they effectively correspond to states in local thermodynamic equilibrium.

  6. Vortices and spirals at gap edges in 3D self-gravitating disk-planet simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.

    2012-12-01

    Numerical simulations of global 3D self-gravitating protoplanetary disks with a gap opened by an embedded planet are presented. The simulations are customised to examine planetary gap stability. Previous results, obtained by Lin & Papaloizou from 2D disk models, are reproduced in 3D. These include (i) the development of vortices associated with local potential vorticity minima at gap edges and their merging on dynamical timescales in weakly self-gravitating disks, (ii) the increased number of vortices as the strength of self-gravity is increased and their resisted merging, and (iii) suppression of the vortex instability and development of global spiral arms associated with local potential vorticity maxima in massive disks. The vertical structure of these disturbances are examined. In terms of the relative density perturbation, the vortex disturbance has weak vertical dependence when self-gravity is neglected. Vortices become more stratified with increasing self-gravity. This effect is seen even when the unperturbed region around the planet's orbital radius has a Toomre stability parameter ~ 10. The spiral modes display significant vertical structure at the gap edge, with the midplane density enhancement being several times larger than that near the upper disk boundary. However, for both instabilities the vertical Mach number is small, and on average vertical motions near the gap edge do not dominate over horizontal motions.

  7. Quail as a potential mixing vessel for the generation of new reassortant influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Thontiravong, Aunyaratana; Kitikoon, Pravina; Wannaratana, Suwarak; Tantilertcharoen, Rachod; Tuanudom, Ranida; Pakpinyo, Somsak; Sasipreeyajan, Jiroj; Oraveerakul, Kanisak; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2012-12-07

    Quail has been proposed as one of the intermediate hosts supporting the generation of newly reassortant influenza A viruses (IAVs) with the potential to infect humans. To evaluate the role of quail as an intermediate host of IAVs, co-infections of quail with swine-origin pandemic H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) duck H3N2 (dkH3N2) viruses (n=10) or endemic Thai swine H1N1 (swH1N1) and dkH3N2 viruses (n=10) were conducted. Three additional groups of five quail were each inoculated with pH1N1, swH1N1 and dkH3N2 as control groups to verify that each virus can infect quail. Our result showed that co-infected quail shed higher viral titers from the respiratory tract than single virus infected quail. This study confirmed that reassortant viruses could be readily generated in the respiratory tract of quail from both the pH1N1/dkH3N2 co-infected group (100% of quail generating reassortant viruses) and the swH1N1/dkH3N2 (33% of quail generating reassortant viruses) co-infected group without discernible clinical signs. The reassortment efficacy between the two combination of viruses was different in that the frequency of reassortant viruses was significantly higher in pH1N1/dkH3N2 co-infected quail (21.4%) compared to swH1N1/dkH3N2 co-infected quail (0.8%), indicating that gene combinations in pH1N1 have a higher potential to reassort with dkH3N2 compared to swH1N1. In summary, our result confirmed that quail could be an intermediate host of IAVs for generating new reassortant viruses. Our finding highlights the importance of monitoring IAVs especially pH1N1 in quail.

  8. Excitation of vortices using linear and nonlinear magnetostatic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boardman, A. D.; Rapoport, Yu. G.; Grimalsky, V. V.; Ivanov, B. A.; Koshevaya, S. V.; Velasco, L.; Zaspel, C. E.

    2005-02-01

    It is shown that stationary vortex structures can be excited in a ferrite film, in the important centimeter and millimeter wavelength ranges. It is shown that both linear and nonlinear structures can be excited using a three-beam interaction created with circular antennas. These give rise to a special phase distribution created by linear and nonlinear mixing. An interesting set of three clockwise rotating vortices joined by one counter-rotating one presents itself in the linear regime: a scenario that is only qualitatively changed by the onset of nonlinearity. It is pointed out that control of the vortex structure, through parametric coupling, based upon a microwave resonator, is possible and that there are many interesting possibilities for applications.

  9. Vorticity interaction effects on blunt bodies. [hypersonic viscous shock layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, E. C.; Wilcox, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical solutions of the viscous shock layer equations governing laminar and turbulent flows of a perfect gas and radiating and nonradiating mixtures of perfect gases in chemical equilibrium are presented for hypersonic flow over spherically blunted cones and hyperboloids. Turbulent properties are described in terms of the classical mixing length. Results are compared with boundary layer and inviscid flowfield solutions; agreement with inviscid flowfield data is satisfactory. Agreement with boundary layer solutions is good except in regions of strong vorticity interaction; in these flow regions, the viscous shock layer solutions appear to be more satisfactory than the boundary layer solutions. Boundary conditions suitable for hypersonic viscous shock layers are devised for an advanced turbulence theory.

  10. Topographic vorticity waves forced by Antarctic dense shelf water outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Gustavo M.; Padman, Laurie; Springer, Scott R.; Howard, Susan L.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.

    2014-02-01

    We use numerical simulations to investigate excitation of topographic vorticity waves (TVWs) along the Antarctic continental slope by outflows of dense shelf water through troughs. Idealized models show that wave frequency depends on the amount of stretching in the ambient fluid over the outflow and on background along-slope mean flow. Frequency is higher for steeper bottom slope, larger outflow density anomaly, and stronger westward mean flow. For weak stratification and weak westward along-slope flows typical of the Antarctic slope, wave energy propagates eastward, in the opposite direction from phase velocity. Our results are consistent with recent observations of TVWs in the southern Weddell Sea. In a realistic simulation of the Ross Sea, TVW properties are modulated on seasonal and shorter time scales as background ocean state varies. We expect these waves to affect mixing, cross-slope exchanges, and sea ice concentration in the vicinity of sources of dense water outflows.

  11. Velocity and Vorticity Fields of a Turbulent Plume under different experimental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulka, A. M.; Gonzalez-Nieto, P. L.; Redondo, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    The geophysical and practical importance and the applications of turbulent plumes as generators of strong dispersion processes are clearly recognized. In geophysics and astrophysics, it is usual to model as a jet or plume the generation mechanism of turbulent mixing as a part of a dispersion process [1-3]. An interesting geophysical problem is the study of volcanic plumes [2], which are columns of hot volcanic ash and gas emitted into the atmosphere during an explosive volcanic eruption. Another interesting like-plume phenomenon can be observed where a stream, usually a river, empties into a lake, sea or ocean, generating a river plume [3,4]. Turbulent plumes are fluid motions whose primary source of kinetic energy and momentum flux is due to body forces that arise from density inhomogeneities. The plume boundary acts as an interface across which ambient fluid is entrained, and the plume boundary moves at the velocity of the plume fluid. The difference between the plume-fluid radial velocity and the total fluid velocity quantifies in a natural way the purely horizontal entrainment flux of ambient fluid into the plume across the phase boundary at the plume edge [5,6]. We show some results of research on a single turbulent plume as well as on the structure of the interaction between different plumes and jets, We measure and compare velocity and vorticity fields occurring in different experimental configurations (Parametrized by the Atwood number and the initial potential energy as well as the Plume-Jet length scale). This work is based on experiments that have been performed in GFD laboratories (IPD and UPC) using visualizations methods (LIF,PIV) and advanced multiscaling techniques. We calculate velocity and vorticity PDFs and the evolution of the structure of stratified decaying, with DigFlow and Imacalc programs (Matulka 2010)[7], where video sequence processing provides a range of global and local descriptor features designed specifically for analysing fluid

  12. Propagation and scattering of acoustic-vorticity waves in annular swirling flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubev, Vladimir Viktorovich

    1997-08-01

    The dissertation presents a fundamental extension of unsteady aerodynamic theory developed to predict fluctuating forces on aircraft structural components. These excitations may result from a variety of upstream flow non-uniformities such as atmospheric turbulence, airframe tip vortices and wakes, engine inlet distortions and secondary flows. In the frame of reference of a downstream aircraft component, an upstream flow non- uniformity appears as a propagating vorticity wave (a gust). Classical treatment of gust interaction problems developed for uniform, potential upstream mean flows is based on the fact that it is possible to consider separately incident or scattered acoustic, entropic and vortical modes of unsteady flow motion. A purely vortical gust remains 'frozen' as it convects with the flow. The coupling between different unsteady components may occur only at the surface of a solid structure, or in the close vicinity of a lifting body. The classical approach, however, is not justified for an aircraft engine system where the internal turbomachinery flow is non-uniform and non-potential as it exhibits a strong swirling motion. In such a flow, acting centrifugal and Coriolis forces couple the various unsteady modes which thus can no longer be determined independently of each other. The new developed theory follows the decomposition of unsteady velocity field into vortical and potential components. In spite of the modal coupling, this decomposition elucidates the physical phenomena associated with unsteady swirling motion by indicating the degree of interaction between the various modes. It paves the way for generalizing the classical definition of a gust for vortical swirling flows. The concept of a generalized gust is developed based on the eigenmode pseudospectral analysis of the coupled equations of unsteady swirling motion. This analysis reveals two distinct regions of eigenvalues corresponding to pressure-dominated nearly-sonic and vorticity- dominated

  13. Cyclones and attractive streaming generated by acoustical vortices.

    PubMed

    Riaud, Antoine; Baudoin, Michael; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Bou Matar, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Acoustical and optical vortices have attracted great interest due to their ability to capture and manipulate particles with the use of radiation pressure. Here we show that acoustical vortices can also induce axial vortical flow reminiscent of cyclones, whose topology can be controlled by adjusting the properties of the acoustical beam. In confined geometry, the phase singularity enables generating "attractive streaming" with the flow directed toward the transducer. This opens perspectives for contactless vortical flow control.

  14. Vorticity dynamics in an intracranial aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Trung; Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2008-11-01

    Direct Numerical Simulation is carried out to investigate the vortex dynamics of physiologic pulsatile flow in an intracranial aneurysm. The numerical solver is based on the CURVIB (curvilinear grid/immersed boundary method) approach developed by Ge and Sotiropoulos, J. Comp. Physics, 225 (2007) and is applied to simulate the blood flow in a grid with 8 million grid nodes. The aneurysm geometry is extracted from MRI images from common carotid artery (CCA) of a rabbit (courtesy Dr.Kallmes, Mayo Clinic). The simulation reveals the formation of a strong vortex ring at the proximal end during accelerated flow phase. The vortical structure advances toward the aneurysm dome forming a distinct inclined circular ring that connects with the proximal wall via two long streamwise vortical structures. During the reverse flow phase, the back flow results to the formation of another ring at the distal end that advances in the opposite direction toward the proximal end and interacts with the vortical structures that were created during the accelerated phase. The basic vortex formation mechanism is similar to that observed by Webster and Longmire (1998) for pulsed flow through inclined nozzles. The similarities between the two flows will be discussed and the vorticity dynamics of an aneurysm and inclined nozzle flows will be analyzed.This work was supported in part by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  15. Numerical simulation of pump-intake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolf, Pavel; Klas, Roman

    2015-05-01

    Pump pre-swirl or uneven flow distribution in front of the pump can induce pump-intake vortices. These phenomena result in blockage of the impeller suction space, deterioration of efficiency, drop of head curve and earlier onset of cavitation. Real problematic case, where head curve drop was documented, is simulated using commercial CFD software. Computational simulation was carried out for three flow rates, which correspond to three operating regimes of the vertical pump. The domain consists of the pump sump, pump itself excluding the impeller and the delivery pipe. One-phase approach is applied, because the vortex cores were not filled with air during observation of the real pump operation. Numerical simulation identified two surface vortices and one bottom vortex. Their position and strength depend on the pump flow rate. Paper presents detail analysis of the flow field on the pump intake, discusses influence of the vortices on pump operation and suggests possible actions that should be taken to suppress the intake vortices.

  16. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  17. On the stability of reverse flow vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshkin, O. V.

    2016-12-01

    The nonlinear stability of vortex zones of reverse flows in a plane-parallel ideal incompressible flow is proved. The zones originate at large values of a dimensionless parameter taken in the inflow part of the boundary, the so-called vorticity level. Positive or negative values of this parameter lead to a left- or right-hand oriented vortex, respectively.

  18. Vorticity dynamics and thrust during VRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savas, Omer; Green, Richard; Caradonna, Francis

    2007-11-01

    Under certain conditions of rapid descent of a rotorcraft, the vortices that usually trail below a rotor disk to form the helical vortex wake collapse into a ring-like structure around the plane of the disk, which is known as the vortex ring state (VRS). The formation and subsequent breakdown of the ring-like vortex is accompanied by large thrust excursions. In axial descent the thrust excursions are aperiodic, while in non-axial descent a periodicity on the order of several tens of rotor revolutions is observed. We discuss here experimental observations of the phase relation between the thrust cycle and vorticity distribution. The experiments were performed in a towing tank using a three-blade rotor. Rotor thrust was measured by strain gages and the vorticity fields using PIV. The flow structure as marked by vorticity distribution highlight the changes in the flow topology during the VRS cycles contrast the flow behavior at the leading and the trailing edges. The flow over the trailing edge exhibits large variations, whereas that over the leading edge is more tamed. Maxima of the VRS thrust oscillations correlate well with the maxima of enstrophy observed at the trailing edge of the rotor disk.

  19. Temporal stability of multiple-cell vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, M. R.; Grosch, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    The temporal stability of multiple cell vortices is studied with a staggered Chebyshev spectral collocation technique. It is shown that cell multiplicity in the vortex core has a drastic effect on the stability characteristics. While validating the spectral collocation algorithm, two new viscous modes of instability for Batchelor's (1964) vortex were found. These modes are discussed in detail.

  20. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  1. Electron Irradiation and Thermal Processing of Mixed-ices of Potential Relevance to Jupiter Trojan Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoub, Ahmed; Poston, Michael J.; Hand, Kevin P.; Brown, Michael E.; Hodyss, Robert; Blacksberg, Jordana; Eiler, John M.; Carlson, Robert W.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-04-01

    In this work we explore the chemistry that occurs during the irradiation of ice mixtures on planetary surfaces, with the goal of linking the presence of specific chemical compounds to their formation locations in the solar system and subsequent processing by later migration inward. We focus on the outer solar system and the chemical differences for ice mixtures inside and outside the stability line for H2S. We perform a set of experiments to explore the hypothesis advanced by Wong & Brown that links the color bimodality in Jupiter's Trojans to the presence of H2S in the surface of their precursors. Non-thermal (10 keV electron irradiation) and thermally driven chemistry of CH3OH-NH3-H2O (“without H2S”) and H2S-CH3OH-NH3-H2O (“with H2S”) ices were examined. Mid-IR analyses of ice and mass spectrometry monitoring of the volatiles released during heating show a rich chemistry in both of the ice mixtures. The “with H2S” mixture experiment shows a rapid consumption of H2S molecules and production of OCS molecules after a few hours of irradiation. The heating of the irradiated “with H2S” mixture to temperatures above 120 K leads to the appearance of new infrared bands that we provisionally assign to SO2and CS. We show that radiolysis products are stable under the temperature and irradiation conditions of Jupiter Trojan asteroids. This makes them suitable target molecules for potential future missions as well as telescope observations with a high signal-to-noise ratio. We also suggest the consideration of sulfur chemistry in the theoretical modeling aimed at understanding the chemical composition of Trojans and KOBs.

  2. Available potential energy gain from mixing due to the nonlinearity of the equation of state in a global ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakawa, L. S.; Saenz, J. A.; Hogg, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    Densification in the ocean interior upon mixing at high latitudes, due to the nonlinear equation of state (EoS) of seawater, enhances the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). However, recent calculations using numerical simulations of global ocean circulation have shown that the nonlinearity of the EoS leads to a sink of gravitational potential energy (PE), from which one might infer that there is less energy available to be released to the MOC. Here the available PE (APE) budget of the global ocean is investigated using a numerical model with a nonlinear EoS under a realistic configuration. The results show that, while the nonlinearity of the EoS leads to a loss of gravitational PE, it is a source of APE. For the model used in this study, nonlinearity of the EoS is as significant as surface buoyancy forcing in generating APE.

  3. Malignant catarrhal fever in a Vietnamese pot-bellied pig. A potential threat to pigs in mixed-species exhibits?

    PubMed

    Lapp, S; Förster, C; Kummrow, M; Wohlsein, P; Haist, V

    2015-01-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) represents a sporadic and often fatal disease in various ungulate species including rarely swine. A close contact between susceptible and reservoir species of ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is a requirement for virus transmission. As in ruminants, a rapid course of disease with lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalitis and necrotizing vasculitis in multiple organs is frequently seen in porcine MCF. This report describes a case of MCF in a Vietnamese pot-bellied pig, which was kept in a zoological exhibit with direct contact to various ruminants. It represents the first description of porcine MCF with proven natural OvHV-2 infection in Germany. OvHV-2 should be considered as cause of fatalities among swine especially in mixed-species exhibits as present in many zoological gardens. Also farm pigs kept in free ranging husbandry systems with potential contact to sheep and other ruminant species may be at risk.

  4. ELECTRON IRRADIATION AND THERMAL PROCESSING OF MIXED-ICES OF POTENTIAL RELEVANCE TO JUPITER TROJAN ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Mahjoub, Ahmed; Poston, Michael J.; Hand, Kevin P.; Hodyss, Robert; Blacksberg, Jordana; Carlson, Robert W.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Choukroun, Mathieu; Brown, Michael E.; Eiler, John M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we explore the chemistry that occurs during the irradiation of ice mixtures on planetary surfaces, with the goal of linking the presence of specific chemical compounds to their formation locations in the solar system and subsequent processing by later migration inward. We focus on the outer solar system and the chemical differences for ice mixtures inside and outside the stability line for H{sub 2}S. We perform a set of experiments to explore the hypothesis advanced by Wong and Brown that links the color bimodality in Jupiter's Trojans to the presence of H{sub 2}S in the surface of their precursors. Non-thermal (10 keV electron irradiation) and thermally driven chemistry of CH{sub 3}OH–NH{sub 3}–H{sub 2}O (“without H{sub 2}S”) and H{sub 2}S–CH{sub 3}OH–NH{sub 3}–H{sub 2}O (“with H{sub 2}S”) ices were examined. Mid-IR analyses of ice and mass spectrometry monitoring of the volatiles released during heating show a rich chemistry in both of the ice mixtures. The “with H{sub 2}S” mixture experiment shows a rapid consumption of H{sub 2}S molecules and production of OCS molecules after a few hours of irradiation. The heating of the irradiated “with H{sub 2}S” mixture to temperatures above 120 K leads to the appearance of new infrared bands that we provisionally assign to SO{sub 2}and CS. We show that radiolysis products are stable under the temperature and irradiation conditions of Jupiter Trojan asteroids. This makes them suitable target molecules for potential future missions as well as telescope observations with a high signal-to-noise ratio. We also suggest the consideration of sulfur chemistry in the theoretical modeling aimed at understanding the chemical composition of Trojans and KOBs.

  5. Controlled Manipulation of Individual Vortices in a Superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Straver, E.W.J.

    2010-04-05

    We report controlled local manipulation of single vortices by low temperature magnetic force microscope (MFM) in a thin film of superconducting Nb. We are able to position the vortices in arbitrary configurations and to measure the distribution of local depinning forces. This technique opens up new possibilities for the characterization and use of vortices in superconductors.

  6. Comparing EAM Potentials to Model Slip Transfer of Sequential Mixed Character Dislocations Across Two Symmetric Tilt Grain Boundaries in Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuozhi; Xiong, Liming; Chen, Youping; McDowell, David L.

    2017-03-01

    Slip transfer via sequential pile-up dislocations across grain boundaries (GBs) plays an important role in plastic deformation in polycrystalline face-centered cubic (FCC) metals. In this work, large scale concurrent atomistic-continuum (CAC) method simulations are performed to address the slip transfer of mixed character dislocations across GBs in FCC Ni. Two symmetric tilt GBs, a Σ3{111} coherent twin boundary (CTB) and a Σ11{113} symmetric tilt GB (STGB), are investigated using five different fits to the embedded-atom method (EAM) interatomic potential to assess the variability of predicted dislocation-interface reaction. It is shown that for the Σ3 CTB, two of these potentials predict dislocation transmission while the other three predict dislocation absorption. In contrast, all five fits to the EAM potential predict that dislocations are absorbed by the Σ11 STGB. Simulation results are examined in terms of several slip transfer criteria in the literature, highlighting the complexity of dislocation/GB interactions and the significance of multiscale modeling of the slip transfer process.

  7. Prometheus Induced Vorticity in Saturn's F Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feo V.

    2016-11-01

    Saturn's rings are known to show remarkable real time variability in their structure. Many of which can be associated to interactions with nearby moons and moonlets. Possibly the most interesting and dynamic place in the rings, probably in the whole Solar System, is the F ring. A highly disrupted ring with large asymmetries both radially and azimuthally. Numerically non-zero components to the curl of the velocity vector field (vorticity) in the perturbed area of the F ring post encounter are witnessed, significantly above the background vorticity. Within the perturbed area rich distributions of local rotations is seen located in and around the channel edges. The gravitational scattering of ring particles during the encounter causes a significant elevated curl of the vector field above the background F ring vorticity for the first 1-3 orbital periods post encounter. After 3 orbital periods vorticity reverts quite quickly to near background levels. This new found dynamical vortex life of the ring will be of great interest to planet and planetesimals in proto-planetary disks where vortices and turbulence are suspected of having a significant role in their formation and migrations. Additionally, it is found that the immediate channel edges created by the close passage of Prometheus actually show high radial dispersions in the order 20-50 cm/s, up to a maximum of 1 m/s. This is much greater than the value required by Toomre for a disk to be unstable to the growth of axisymmetric oscillations. However, an area a few hundred km away from the edge shows a more promising location for the growth of coherent objects.

  8. Bilinear relative equilibria of identical point vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aref, Hassan; Beelen, Peter; Brøns, Morten

    2011-11-01

    A new class of bilinear relative equilibria of identical point vortices in which the vortices are constrained to be on two perpendicular lines, taken to be the x- and y-axes of a cartesian coordinate system, is introduced and studied. In general we have m vortices on the y-axis and n on the x- axis. We define generating polynomials q (z) and p (z) , respectively, for each set of vortices. A second order, linear ODE for p (z) given q (z) is derived. Several results relating the general solution of the ODE to relative equilibrium configurations are established. Our strongest result, obtained using Sturm's comparison theorem, is that if p (z) satisfies the ODE for a given q (z) with its imaginary zeros symmetric relative to the x-axis, then it must have at least n - m + 2 simple, real zeros. For m = 2 this provides a complete characterization of all zeros, and we study this case in some detail. In particular, we show that given q (z) =z2 +η2 , where η is real, there is a unique p (z) of degree n, and a unique value of η2 =An , such that the zeros of q (z) and p (z) form a relative equilibrium of n + 2 point vortices. We show that An ~2/3 n +1/2 , as n --> ∞ , where the coefficient of n is determined analytically, the next order term numerically. Supported in part by the Danish National Research Foundation through a Niels Bohr visiting professorship.

  9. Three-Dimensional Structure of Plane Mixing Layers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, James Horatio

    Recent studies have shown the existence of an organized and persistent streamwise vortex structure in plane mixing layers, which is believed to take the form of a row of alternating-sign streamwise vortices. So far, this streamwise vortex structure has been studied mostly through flow-visualization at relatively low Reynolds numbers. The main objective of the present work was to obtain quantitative measurements of the streamwise vorticity at Reynolds numbers more comparable to those commonly found in practical applications. In the first experiment, the artificially induced streamwise vortex was observed to decay as approximately 1/X^2 within the mixing layer. The effect of the vortex was to locally distort the mean strain distribution in the mixing layer, thus altering the production of the Reynolds stresses. Peak values of the normal stresses were increased by about 20% over the undisturbed case in the region of the streamwise vortex. In particular a strong, pronounced peak was generated in the secondary shear stress, (overline{u^' w^ '}).. In the second experiment, "naturally-occurring" streamwise vorticity was clearly observed in a two-stream mixing layer. Concentrated streamwise vortices appeared just downstream of the first roll-up of the spanwise vorticity, with an initial circulation which was roughly half that of the spanwise vortex circulation. The streamwise vortices first appeared in "clusters", the positions of which seemed to be related to small disturbances in one of the upstream boundary layers. The clusters quickly reorganized into a single row of alternating-sign vortices under the influence of vortex dynamics and changes in the normal stress anisotropy. The streamwise vortex spacing increased in a stepwise fashion, at least partially through the amalgamation of like-sign vortices. The wavelength of the streamwise vortices increased approximately as the mixing layer vorticity thickness, while their strength decayed as roughly 1/X^ {1.5}. In the

  10. Developing a fast and tunable micro-mixer using induced vortices around a conductive flexible link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi, Shahriar; Nazari, Mohsen; Daghighi, Yasaman

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of a micro-mixer based on the continuous deformation of a conducting flexible link. The induced vortices around the link enhance the mixing process. This micro-mixer consists of one straight microchannel and one conductive flexible link. One end of the link is fixed on the upper wall of the channel and the other end can move freely due to the fluid-solid interactions. Since this link is conductive, vortices form around the link (once the electric field is applied). Applying a time-varying DC electric field causes variation in the applied forces to the link; thus, the link will swipe the channel and acts as a micro-stirrer to enhance mixing results. The presented results show that there is a direct relationship between mixing efficiency and the length of the link, as well as the amplitude of time-varying DC electric field. The effects of Young's modulus, the average of applied electric field, and link position are also studied. Link with lower Young's modulus swipes larger area inside the channel and enhances the mixing efficiency. By increasing the length of the conductive link, large vortices will be induced around it and mixing efficiency enhances. Our numerical results show that average mixing efficiency of link with a length of L = 0.625 W = 156.25 μm is about 90%. The proposed micro-mixer is simple to be fabricated and mixes the fluid streams in a short period of time with high efficiency. Such micro-mixers can be used in various microfluidics, biomedical, or chemical applications.

  11. Vortices catapult droplets in atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Jerome, J. John Soundar Zaleski, Stéphane; Hoepffner, Jérôme; Marty, Sylvain; Matas, Jean-Philippe

    2013-11-15

    A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vortex; this reattached flow pushes the liquid film down; by now, a new recirculation vortex is being created in the wake of the wave—just where the liquid film is now located; the liquid film is blown up from below by the newly formed recirculation vortex in a manner similar to a bag-breakup event; the resulting droplets are catapulted by the recirculation vortex.

  12. Vortices catapult droplets in atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerome, J. John Soundar; Marty, Sylvain; Matas, Jean-Philippe; Zaleski, Stéphane; Hoepffner, Jérôme

    2013-11-01

    A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vortex; this reattached flow pushes the liquid film down; by now, a new recirculation vortex is being created in the wake of the wave—just where the liquid film is now located; the liquid film is blown up from below by the newly formed recirculation vortex in a manner similar to a bag-breakup event; the resulting droplets are catapulted by the recirculation vortex.

  13. Vortices catapult droplets in atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John Soundar Jerome, J.; Marty, Sylvain; Matas, Jean-Philippe; Zaleski, Stephane; Hoepffner, Jerome

    2013-11-01

    A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks-up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vortex; this reattached flow pushes the liquid film down; by now, a new recirculation vortex is being created in the wake of the wave-just where the liquid film is now located; the liquid film is blown-up from below by the newly formed recirculation vortex in a manner similar to a bag-breakup event.

  14. Active Management of Flap-Edge Trailing Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Vey, Stefan; Paschereit, Oliver C.; Meyer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The vortex hazard produced by large airliners and increasingly larger airliners entering service, combined with projected rapid increases in the demand for air transportation, is expected to act as a major impediment to increased air traffic capacity. Significant reduction in the vortex hazard is possible, however, by employing active vortex alleviation techniques that reduce the wake severity by dynamically modifying its vortex characteristics, providing that the techniques do not degrade performance or compromise safety and ride quality. With this as background, a series of experiments were performed, initially at NASA Langley Research Center and subsequently at the Berlin University of Technology in collaboration with the German Aerospace Center. The investigations demonstrated the basic mechanism for managing trailing vortices using retrofitted devices that are decoupled from conventional control surfaces. The basic premise for managing vortices advanced here is rooted in the erstwhile forgotten hypothesis of Albert Betz, as extended and verified ingeniously by Coleman duPont Donaldson and his collaborators. Using these devices, vortices may be perturbed at arbitrarily long wavelengths down to wavelengths less than a typical airliner wingspan and the oscillatory loads on the wings, and hence the vehicle, are small. Significant flexibility in the specific device has been demonstrated using local passive and active separation control as well as local circulation control via Gurney flaps. The method is now in a position to be tested in a wind tunnel with a longer test section on a scaled airliner configuration. Alternatively, the method can be tested directly in a towing tank, on a model aircraft, a light aircraft or a full-scale airliner. The authors believed that this method will have significant appeal from an industry perspective due to its retrofit potential with little to no impact on cruise (devices tucked away in the cove or retracted); low operating power

  15. Measuring vortical flows in the solar interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfellner, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This thesis focuses on observations of the effects of rotation on solar convection at the length scales of supergranulation and larger (>30 Mm). Rotation drives vortical flows through the Coriolis force and causes anisotropic velocity correlations that are believed to influence the large-scale solar dynamics. We obtain horizontal flows using photospheric Doppler velocity and continuum intensity images from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft via the techniques of time-distance helioseismology (TD) and local correlation tracking (LCT) of granules. In time-distance helioseismology, the local vertical vorticity can be measured by taking the difference between wave travel times measured in the anti-clockwise and clockwise directions along a closed contour. The agreement between the TD and LCT methods is excellent up to ±60° latitude, provided that a center-to-limb correction is applied. Averaging over longitude, one finds that there is a small but significant correlation between the horizontal divergence and the vertical vorticity component of supergranular flows away from the solar equator. By comparison to a noise model, we find that the TD technique can be used to probe the vertical vorticity of flows on spatial scales larger than about 15 Mm, thus including supergranules and also giant cells. We also find that the vertical vorticity signal is much easier to measure using SDO/HMI observations than previous observations. The impact of the Sun's rotation on supergranulation is studied in detail by making spatial maps of the vertical vorticity of the flows associated with the average supergranule. The average supergranule is constructed by co-aligning thousands of individual supergranules in a given latitude band. For the first time, we are able to spatially resolve vorticity associated with inflows and outflow regions. In the northern hemisphere, outflows are on average associated with a clockwise

  16. Vortices with scalar condensates in two-component Ginzburg-Landau systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád

    2016-11-01

    In a class of two-component Ginzburg-Landau models (TCGL) with a U(1) × U(1) symmetric potential, vortices with a condensate at their core may have significantly lower energies than the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen (ANO) ones. On the example of liquid metallic hydrogen (LMH) above the critical temperature for protons we show that the ANO vortices become unstable against core-condensation, while condensate-core (CC) vortices are stable. For LMH the ratio of the masses of the two types of condensates, M =m2 /m1 is large, and then as a consequence the energy per flux quantum of the vortices, En / n becomes a non-monotonous function of the number of flux quanta, n. This leads to yet another manifestation of neither type 1 nor type 2, (type 1.5) superconductivity: superconducting and normal domains coexist while various "giant" vortices form. We note that LMH provides a particularly clean example of type 1.5 state as the interband coupling between electronic and protonic Cooper-pairs is forbidden.

  17. A Rapidly Growing Instability in the Wake of Airfoils with Multiple Trailing Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Jason; Savas, Omer

    2000-11-01

    Dye flow visualization and two-dimensional PIV measurements are performed in the wakes of airfoils with multiple trailing vortices. The circulation-based Reynolds number of the vortices is of order 100,000. From the flow visualization data, an instability is observed to develop in the wake within 25 spans downstream of the airfoil. At approximately 50 spans, the instability becomes highly non-linear and three-dimensional, which, for some run parameters, results in an exchange of vorticity from opposite sides of the wake. By 200 spans, the dye is completely dispersed from the vortices and no coherent structures are visible in the wake. The PIV data indicate that the wake's "two-dimensional" kinetic energy decreases by a half at the onset of the non-linear behavior. By 200 spans, the "two-dimensional" kinetic energy is a fraction of its initial value. Further quantitative analyses demonstrate that at 200 spans, the resulting vortex core radius is on average 20of the individual vortices. The results of this study indicate that this rapidly growing instability has the potential for being a solution to the wake hazard problem

  18. Two-dimensional symbiotic solitons and vortices in binary condensates with attractive cross-species interaction

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xuekai; Driben, Rodislav; Malomed, Boris A.; Meier, Torsten; Schumacher, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) two-component spinor system with cubic attraction between the components and intra-species self-repulsion, which may be realized in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, as well as in a quasi-equilibrium condensate of microcavity polaritons. Including a 2D spatially periodic potential, which is necessary for the stabilization of the system against the critical collapse, we use detailed numerical calculations and an analytical variational approximation (VA) to predict the existence and stability of several types of 2D symbiotic solitons in the spinor system. Stability ranges are found for symmetric and asymmetric symbiotic fundamental solitons and vortices, including hidden-vorticity (HV) modes, with opposite vorticities in the two components. The VA produces exceptionally accurate predictions for the fundamental solitons and vortices. The fundamental solitons, both symmetric and asymmetric ones, are completely stable, in either case when they exist as gap solitons or regular ones. The symmetric and asymmetric vortices are stable if the inter-component attraction is stronger than the intra-species repulsion, while the HV modes have their stability region in the opposite case. PMID:27703235

  19. Methods of formation and nonlinear conversion of Bessel optical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyi, V. N.; King, Terence A.; Kazak, Nikolai S.; Khilo, Nikolay A.; Katranji, Evgeni G.; Ryzhevich, Anatol A.

    2001-05-01

    Linear and nonlinear processes of generation and transformation of optical vortices in crystals were investigated. New universal methods for production of Bessel light beams with optical vortices of the first, second and higher order by means of uniaxial and biaxial crystals were proposed. Light beams with optical vortices of topological charge +/- 1 and +/- 2 are experimentally obtained using KTP and HIO3 (iodic acid) biaxial crystals. We studied type II second harmonic generation by Bessel beams with optical vortices in nonlinear crystals. Results of investigation of the processes of Bessel light vortex order doubling, transfer of vortex to the second harmonic radiation, and annihilation of optical vortices with the opposite signa are presented.

  20. Recovering the vorticity of a light beam after scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salla, Gangi Reddy Perumangattu, Chithrabhanu; Anwar, Ali; Prabhakar, Shashi; Singh, Ravindra P.

    2015-07-13

    We generate optical vortices and scatter them through a rough surface. However, the scattered light passing through a lens shows the same vorticity when probed at the Fourier plane. The vorticity is measured using a nonseparable state of polarization and orbital angular momentum of light as it cannot be confirmed by the standard interferometric technique. The observed vorticity is found to be independent of the amount of scattered light collected. Therefore, vortices can be used as information carriers even in the presence of scattering media. The experimental results are well supported by the theoretical results.

  1. Stability of Solitary Waves and Vortices in a 2D Nonlinear Dirac Model.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G; Saxena, Avadh; Comech, Andrew; Lan, Ruomeng

    2016-05-27

    We explore a prototypical two-dimensional massive model of the nonlinear Dirac type and examine its solitary wave and vortex solutions. In addition to identifying the stationary states, we provide a systematic spectral stability analysis, illustrating the potential of spinor solutions to be neutrally stable in a wide parametric interval of frequencies. Solutions of higher vorticity are generically unstable and split into lower charge vortices in a way that preserves the total vorticity. These conclusions are found not to be restricted to the case of cubic two-dimensional nonlinearities but are found to be extended to the case of quintic nonlinearity, as well as to that of three spatial dimensions. Our results also reveal nontrivial differences with respect to the better understood nonrelativistic analogue of the model, namely the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  2. Acid Mine Drainage Passive Remediation: Potential Use of Alkaline Clay, Optimal Mixing Ratio and Long Term Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, F.; Liang, X.; Wen, Y.; Perone, H.

    2015-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mine industry. Surface water and ground water affected by this pollution are characterized by their acidity and the high content of sulfates and heavy metals. In this study, alkaline clay, an industrial waste with a high pH, which is utilized in the alumina refining process, was used as the remediation material to inhibit pyrite oxidation. Through a series of batch and column experiments, complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling, three important issues associated with this passive and auto sustainable acid mine drainage remediation method were investigated: 1) the potential use of alkaline clay as an AMD remediation material, 2) the adequate alkaline clay/coal refuse mixing ratio (AC/CR) to ensure pH values near to neutral conditions, and, 3) the prediction of long term impacts, in terms of the trends of the main parameters involved in this process such as pH, concentrations of sulfate, iron and other dissolved contaminants. Both field measurements and the samples used for the experiments came from a coal waste site located in Mather, Pennsylvania. Alkaline clay proved to be an effective remediation material for AMD. It was found that 10% AC/CR is an adequate mixing ratio (i.e. the upper limit), which has been also indicated by field measurements. The concentrations of some contaminants such as iron, manganese or sulfate are significantly reduced with the remediation approach, compared to those representative concentrations found in mine tailings. Moreover, results suggest a very reliable long-term stability of the remediation (i.e. neutral pH conditions are maintained), thus enhancing the generation of iron precipitates that could produce pyrite grain coating and hardpan (i.e. cemented layer) on the surface. These processes also made the amended layer less porous, thus increasing water retention and hindering oxygen diffusion.

  3. Three-Centimeter Doppler Radar Observations of Wingtip-Generated Wake Vortices in Clear Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Robert E.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Wissel, Vicki L. H.; Myers, Theodore

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a high risk, high pay-off experiment with the objective of detecting, for the first time, the presence of aircraft wake vortices in clear air using X-band Doppler radar. Field experiments were conducted in January 1995 at the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) to demonstrate the capability of the 9.33 GHz (I=3 cm) radar, which was assembled using an existing nine-meter parabolic antenna reflector at VVTT and the receiver/transmitter from the NASA Airborne Windshear Radar-Program. A C-130-aircraft, equipped with wingtip smoke generators, created visually marked wake vortices, which were recorded by video cameras. A C-band radar also observed the wake vortices during detection attempts with the X-band radar. Rawinsonde data was used to calculate vertical soundings of wake vortex decay time, cross aircraft bearing wind speed, and water vapor mixing ratio for aircraft passes over the radar measurement range. This experiment was a pathfinder in predicting, in real time, the location and persistence of C-130 vortices, and in setting the flight path of the aircraft to optimize X-band radar measurement of the wake vortex core in real time. This experiment was conducted in support of the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS).

  4. Mean flow generation by Görtler vortices in a rotating annulus with librating side walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi V., Abouzar; Klein, Marten; Harlander, Uwe; Kurgansky, Michael V.; Schaller, Eberhard; Will, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Time periodic variation of the rotation rate of an annulus induces in supercritical regime an unstable Stokes boundary layer over the cylinder side walls, generating Görtler vortices in a portion of a libration cycle as a discrete event. Numerical results show that these vortices propagate into the fluid bulk and generate an azimuthal mean flow. Direct numerical simulations of the fluid flow in an annular container with librating outer (inner) cylinder side wall and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations as diagnostic equations are used to investigate generation mechanism of the retrograde (prograde) azimuthal mean flow in the bulk. First, we explain, phenomenologically, how absolute angular momentum of the bulk flow is mixed and changed due to the propagation of the Görtler vortices, causing a new vortex of basin size. Then we investigate the RANS equations for intermediate time scale of the development of the Görtler vortices and for long time scale of the order of several libration periods. The former exhibits sign selection of the azimuthal mean flow. Investigating the latter, we predict that the azimuthal mean flow is proportional to the libration amplitude squared and to the inverse square root of the Ekman number and libration frequency and then confirms this using the numerical data. Additionally, presence of an upscale cascade of energy is shown, using the kinetic energy budget of fluctuating flow.

  5. Intensity of vortices: from soap bubbles to hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Meuel, T; Xiong, Y L; Fischer, P; Bruneau, C H; Bessafi, M; Kellay, H

    2013-12-13

    By using a half soap bubble heated from below, we obtain large isolated single vortices whose properties as well as their intensity are measured under different conditions. By studying the effects of rotation of the bubble on the vortex properties, we found that rotation favors vortices near the pole. Rotation also inhibits long life time vortices. The velocity and vorticity profiles of the vortices obtained are well described by a Gaussian vortex. Besides, the intensity of these vortices can be followed over long time spans revealing periods of intensification accompanied by trochoidal motion of the vortex center, features which are reminiscent of the behavior of tropical cyclones. An analysis of this intensification period suggests a simple relation valid for both the vortices observed here and for tropical cyclones.

  6. Intensity of vortices: from soap bubbles to hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuel, T.; Xiong, Y. L.; Fischer, P.; Bruneau, C. H.; Bessafi, M.; Kellay, H.

    2013-12-01

    By using a half soap bubble heated from below, we obtain large isolated single vortices whose properties as well as their intensity are measured under different conditions. By studying the effects of rotation of the bubble on the vortex properties, we found that rotation favors vortices near the pole. Rotation also inhibits long life time vortices. The velocity and vorticity profiles of the vortices obtained are well described by a Gaussian vortex. Besides, the intensity of these vortices can be followed over long time spans revealing periods of intensification accompanied by trochoidal motion of the vortex center, features which are reminiscent of the behavior of tropical cyclones. An analysis of this intensification period suggests a simple relation valid for both the vortices observed here and for tropical cyclones.

  7. Instability of isolated hollow vortices with zero circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiejima, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Inviscid linear stability analysis and numerical simulations are used to investigate how temporal disturbances evolve in double-annular hollow vortices with an opposite-signed vorticity (the total circulation is zero). Two extrema exist in the vorticity profile and constitute a factor of instability. The dispersion relation is expressed as a simple cubic equation. The results show that the instabilities of vortices are strongly enhanced by the hollow effect of the annular vorticity. In addition, the growth rate of the dominant modes significantly increases with decreasing negative-vorticity thickness. During the initial stage, the dominant unstable modes obtained from simulations are consistent with those obtained from the linear analysis. In nonlinear developments, the flow field stretches out in one direction depending on the motion of the plural vortex pair formed by rolling up the positive and negative vorticities. Once such structures in the vortex are generated, the vortex immediately breaks down and does not become metastable.

  8. Buoyancy in tropical cyclones and other rapidly rotating atmospheric vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Roger K.; Montgomery, Michael T.; Zhu, Hongyan

    2005-07-01

    important in tornadoes and possibly also in dust devils. We derive also a form of the Sawyer-Eliassen equation from which the toroidal (or secondary) circulation of a balanced vortex may be determined. The equation is shown to be the time derivative of the toroidal vorticity equation in which the time rate-of-change of the material derivative of potential toroidal vorticity is set to zero. In analogy with the general case, the diabatic forcing term in the Sawyer-Eliassen equation is shown to be approximately equal to the time rate-of-change of the azimuthal component of the curl of generalized buoyancy. Finally, we discuss the generation of buoyancy in tropical cyclones and contrast the definitions of buoyancy that have been used in recent studies of tropical cyclones. We emphasize the non-uniqueness of the buoyancy force, which depends on the choice of a reference density and pressure, and note that different, but equivalent interpretations of the flow dynamics may be expected to arise if different reference quantities are chosen.

  9. Emergent vortices in populations of colloidal rollers

    PubMed Central

    Bricard, Antoine; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Das, Debasish; Savoie, Charles; Chikkadi, Vijayakumar; Shitara, Kyohei; Chepizhko, Oleksandr; Peruani, Fernando; Saintillan, David; Bartolo, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Coherent vortical motion has been reported in a wide variety of populations including living organisms (bacteria, fishes, human crowds) and synthetic active matter (shaken grains, mixtures of biopolymers), yet a unified description of the formation and structure of this pattern remains lacking. Here we report the self-organization of motile colloids into a macroscopic steadily rotating vortex. Combining physical experiments and numerical simulations, we elucidate this collective behaviour. We demonstrate that the emergent-vortex structure lives on the verge of a phase separation, and single out the very constituents responsible for this state of polar active matter. Building on this observation, we establish a continuum theory and lay out a strong foundation for the description of vortical collective motion in a broad class of motile populations constrained by geometrical boundaries. PMID:26088835

  10. Dynamics and nucleation of vorticity in superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Jose Arruda De Oliveira

    1997-11-01

    This thesis contains numerical studies on vortex dynamics and on quantum nucleation of vorticity in superfluids at zero temperature. In both cases the superfluid was described by the Gross-Pitaevskii model. In the first part of the thesis, the vortex mass problem is analyzed by a numerical integration of the condensate equation of motion, the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. We were able to extract, from the observed vortex dynamics in a time-dependent superflow, the frequency dependence of the vortex effective mass. In the second part, the problem of quantum nucleation of vorticity in superflows past obstacles, in both one and two dimensions, is studied by the application of the bounce formalism of Coleman (12) to the coherent state action of the Gross-Pitaevskii model. We obtained bounce solutions and tunneling rates by directly solving the field equations for the condensate in imaginary time.

  11. Helical vortices: viscous dynamics and instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Maurice; Selcuk, Can; Delbende, Ivan; Ijlra-Upmc Team; Limsi-Cnrs Team

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the dynamical properties of helical vortices is of great importance for numerous applications such as wind turbines, helicopter rotors, ship propellers. Locally these flows often display a helical symmetry: fields are invariant through combined axial translation of distance Δz and rotation of angle θ = Δz / L around the same z-axis, where 2 πL denotes the helix pitch. A DNS code with built-in helical symmetry has been developed in order to compute viscous quasi-steady basic states with one or multiple vortices. These states will be characterized (core structure, ellipticity, ...) as a function of the pitch, without or with an axial flow component. The instability modes growing in the above base flows and their growth rates are investigated by a linearized version of the DNS code coupled to an Arnoldi procedure. This analysis is complemented by a helical thin-cored vortex filaments model. ANR HELIX.

  12. Trailing vortices from low speed flyers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, Rye; Kudo, Jun; Breuer, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The structure and strength of the vortex wake behind a airplane or animal flying with a fixed or flapping wing contains valuable information about the aerodynamic load history. However, the amount of vorticity measured in the trailing vortex is not always in agreement with the known lift generated, and the behavior of these vortices at relatively low Reynolds numbers is also not well-understood. We present the results from a series of wind tunnel PIV experiments conducted behind a low-aspect ratio rectangular wing at a chord-Reynolds numbers of 30,000. In addition to wake PIV measurements measured in the cross-stream (Trefftz) plane, we measure the lift and drag directly using a six-axis force-torque transducer. We discuss how vortex size, shape, strength and position vary in time and downstream location, as well as the challenges associated with the use of PIV wake measurements to accurate determine aerodynamic forces.

  13. Numerical prediction of flow in slender vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyna, Luis G.; Menne, Stefan

    1988-01-01

    The slender vortex approximation was investigated using the Navier-Stokes equations written in cylindrical coordinates. It is shown that, for free vortices without external pressure gradient, the breakdown length is proportional to the Reynolds number. For free vortices with adverse pressure gradients, the breakdown length is inversely proportional to the value of its gradient. For low Reynolds numbers, the predictions of the simplified system agreed well with the ones obtained from solutions of the full Navier-Stokes equations, whereas for high Reynolds numbers, the flow became quite sensitive to pressure fluctuations; it was found that the failure of the slender vortex equations corresponded to the critical condition as identified by Benjamin (1962) for inviscid flows. The predictions obtained from the approximating system were compared with available experimental results. For low swirl, a good agreement was obtained; for high swirl, on the other hand, upstream effects on the pressure gradient produced by the breakdown bubble caused poor agreement.

  14. Vortical solutions of the conical Euler equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Kenneth Grant

    Analytical, numerical, and experimental investigations of supersonic flows on delta wings are reported, with a focus on leading-edge vortices. A numerical algorithm employing local mesh refinement is developed to solve the Euler equations for inviscid compressible flow, and a model based on a similarity solution of the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations is constructed to treat localized regions of total pressure loss near the vortices. Computational results are compared in extensive graphs with experimental data obtained in the low-Mach-number test section of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at NASA Langley (Miller and Wood, 1985; Powell et al., 1986). Good general agreement is demonstrated, except in the cases with vortex flaps, where hinge-line viscous effects are found. A complete listing of the Euler solution algorithm LEVIS is provided in an appendix.

  15. Vortices in Low-Dimensional Magnetic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, B. V.

    2011-05-01

    Vortices are objects that are important to describe several physical phenomena. There are many examples of such objects in nature as in a large variety of physical situations like in fluid dynamics, superconductivity, magnetism, and biology. Historically, the interest in magnetic vortex-like excitations begun in the 1960s. That interest was mainly associated with an unusual phase-transition phenomenon in two-dimensional magnetic systems. More recently, direct experimental evidence for the existence of magnetic vortex states in nano-disks was found. The interest in such model was renewed due to the possibility of the use of magnetic nano-disks as bit elements in nano-scale memory devices. The goal of this study is to review some key points for the understanding of the vortex behavior and the progress that have been done in the study of vortices in low-dimensional magnetic systems.

  16. Statistics of intense turbulent vorticity events.

    PubMed

    Moriconi, L

    2004-08-01

    We investigate statistical properties of vorticity fluctuations in fully developed turbulence, which are known to exhibit a strong intermittent behavior. Taking as the starting point the Navier-Stokes equations with a random force term correlated at large scales, we obtain in the high Reynolds number regime a closed analytical expression for the probability distribution function of an arbitrary component of the vorticity field. The central idea underlying the analysis consists in the restriction of the velocity configurational phase-space to a particular sector where the rate of strain and the rotation tensors can be locally regarded as slow and fast degrees of freedom, respectively. This prescription is implemented along the Martin-Siggia-Rose functional framework, whereby instantons and perturbations around them are taken into account within a steepest-descent approach.

  17. Solitonic vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylutki, M.; Donadello, S.; Serafini, S.; Pitaevskii, L. P.; Dalfovo, F.; Lamporesi, G.; Ferrari, G.

    2015-04-01

    We analyse, theoretically and experimentally, the nature of solitonic vortices (SV) in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate. In the experiment, such defects are created via the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, when the temperature of a gas of sodium atoms is quenched across the BEC transition, and are imaged after a free expansion of the condensate. By using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we calculate the in-trap density and phase distributions characterizing a SV in the crossover from an elongated quasi-1D to a bulk 3D regime. The simulations show that the free expansion strongly amplifies the key features of a SV and produces a remarkable twist of the solitonic plane due to the quantized vorticity associated with the defect. Good agreement is found between simulations and experiments.

  18. Longitudinal vortices in concave surface boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, R. I.,; Winoto, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    Local measurements of mean and fluctuating velocity by laser anemometer were made inside the developing concave surface boundary layer in a free surface water channel at Reynolds numbers up to 16000. Concave surface radius was 3.5 times channel width and the ratio of spanwise mean boundary layer thickness to surface radius ranged between 0.03 and 0.11. Systems of longtitudinal vortices developed without artificial triggering. Vortex wavelength varied across the span by as much as a factor of 2, but mean wavelength was typically 1.3 times the boundary layer thickness and did not vary significantly in the flow direction. Continuous vortex growth at Reynolds number = 9800 contrasted with apparent breakup of the vortices at Reynolds number = 16000.

  19. Extreme Vortical Waves Under External Pressure Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrashkin, Anatoly; Soloviev, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    A vortical model for deep-water freak wave formation is presented. The wind action is simulated by non-uniform pressure on the free surface. The motion of the fluid is described by exact solution of 2D hydrodynamics equations for ideal inviscid fluid in Lagrange variables. Two types of flows are studied: the breather and freak wave in the field of Gerstner wave. Fluid particles rotate in circles of different radius and drift current is absent. The pressure on free surface is non-uniform and opposite in phase with the wave profile. It is examined alternating-sign and sign-constant negative distributions of the pressure. Dynamics of free surface and pressure for extreme waves are calculated. Unlike other models the analyzed flows are vortical. The vorticity is located mostly in the neighborhood of their peaks. For enough large amplitudes it has been found the effect of the wave overturn. The influence of distribution of the pressure and vorticity on appearance and character of the overturn are studied. It has been found that increasing of horizontal velocity of fluid with the height causes the overturn as in the case of simple wave. It is shown that the height of freak wave depends on the steepness of Gerstner wave. If its value is near to 1, then the height tends to 0. The freak wave can not form on a steep Gerstner flow. For small steepness the ratio between the height of the peak and Gerstner wave amplitude can reach 10 and even more. The wave of maximal amplitude has length from the range 20-60 m.

  20. Admissible upstream conditions for slender compressible vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.; Krause, E.; Menne, S.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of the compressibility on the flow in slender vortices is being studied. The dependence of the breakdown of the slender-vortex approximation on the upstream conditions is demonstrated for various Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers. Compatibility conditions, which have to be satisfied if the vortex is to remain slender, are discussed in detail. The general discussions are supplemented by several sample calculations.

  1. Vorticity, Stokes' Theorem and the Gauss's Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Vorticity is a property of the flow of any fluid and moving fluids acquire properties that allow an engineer to describe that particular flow in greater detail. It is important to recognize that mere motion alone does not guarantee that the air or any fluid has vorticity. Vorticity is one of four important quantities that define the kinematic properties of any fluid flow. The Navier-Stokes equations are the foundation of fluid mechanics, and Stokes' theorem is used in nearly every branch of mechanics as well as electromagnetics. Stokes' Theorem also plays a vital role in many secondary theorems such as those pertaining to vorticity and circulation. However, the divergence theorem is a mathematical statement of the physical fact that, in the absence of the creation or destruction of matter, the density within a region of space can change only by having it flow into, or away from the region through its boundary. This is also known as Gauss's Theorem. It should also be noted that there are many useful extensions of Gauss's Theorem, including the extension to include surfaces of discontinuity in V. Mathematically expressed, Stokes' theorem can be expressed by considering a surface S having a bounding curve C. Here, V is any sufficiently smooth vector field defined on the surface and its bounding curve C. Integral (Surface) [(DEL X V)] . dS = Integral (Contour) [V . dx] In this paper, the author outlines and stresses the importance of studying and teaching these mathematical techniques while developing a course in Hydrology and Fluid Mechanics. References Arfken, G. "Gauss's Theorem." 1.11 in Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 3rd ed. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, pp. 57-61, 1985. Morse, P. M. and Feshbach, H. "Gauss's Theorem." In Methods of Theoretical Physics, Part I. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 37-38, 1953. Eric W. Weisstein. "Divergence Theorem." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/DivergenceTheorem.html

  2. Nonlinear Generation of Vorticity by Surface Waves.

    PubMed

    Filatov, S V; Parfenyev, V M; Vergeles, S S; Brazhnikov, M Yu; Levchenko, A A; Lebedev, V V

    2016-02-05

    We demonstrate that waves excited on a fluid surface produce local surface rotation owing to hydrodynamic nonlinearity. We examine theoretically the effect and obtain an explicit formula for the vertical vorticity in terms of the surface elevation. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by measurements of surface motion in a cell with water where surface waves are excited by vertical and harmonic shaking the cell. The experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. We discuss physical consequences of the effect.

  3. Chiral Self-Gravitating Cosmic Vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Rybakov, Yu.P.

    2005-06-01

    In the framework of general relativity, an exact axisymmetric (vortex) solution of the equations of motion is obtained for the SU(2) symmetric sigma model. This solution is characterized by the topological charge (winding number) and angular deficit. In the linearized approximation, the Lyapunov stability of vortices is proved and the deflection angle of a light ray in the gravitational field of the vortex (gravitational lens effect) is calculated.

  4. Analytic Modeling of Severe Vortical Storms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-08

    AD---AO86 919 TR DEFENSE AND SPACE SYSTEMS GROUP REDONDO BEACH CA -ETC F/6 4/2 ANALYTIC MODELING OF SEVERE VORTICAL, STDRMS.CW),7JUL G0 F FENDELL ...and Space Systems Group One Space 1ark ___Redondo Beach, California 90278 Francis E. Fendell , Principal Investigator for Artic and Earth Sciences... Fendell , principal investigator, and Phillip Feldman, numerical analyst, of TRW Defense and Space Systems Group, and George Carrier of Harvard University

  5. Vortices in rotating superfluid 3He.

    PubMed

    Lounasmaa, O V; Thuneberg, E

    1999-07-06

    In this review we first present an introduction to 3He and to the ROTA collaboration under which most of the knowledge on vortices in superfluid 3He has been obtained. In the physics part, we start from the exceptional properties of helium at millikelvin temperatures. The dilemma of rotating superfluids is presented. In 4He and in 3He-B the problem is solved by nucleating an array of singular vortex lines. Their experimental detection in 3He by NMR is described next. The vortex cores in 3He-B have two different structures, both of which have spontaneously broken symmetry. A spin-mass vortex has been identified as well. This object is characterized by a flow of spins around the vortex line, in addition to the usual mass current. A great variety of vortices exist in the A phase of 3He; they are either singular or continuous, and their structure can be a line or a sheet or fill the whole liquid. Altogether seven different types of vortices have been detected in 3He by NMR. We also describe briefly other experimental methods that have been used by ROTA scientists in studying vortices in 3He and some important results thus obtained. Finally, we discuss the possible applications of experiments and theory of 3He to particle physics and cosmology. In particular, we report on experiments where superfluid 3He-B was heated locally by absorption of single neutrons. The resulting events can be used to test theoretical models of the Big Bang at the beginning of our universe.

  6. Mixing by barotropic instability in a nonlinear model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Kenneth P.; Chen, Ping

    1994-01-01

    A global, nonlinear, equivalent barotropic model is used to study the isentropic mixing of passive tracers by barotropic instability. Basic states are analytical zonal-mean jets representative of the zonal-mean flow in the upper stratosphere, where the observed 4-day wave is thought to be a result of barotropic, and possibly baroclinic, instability. As is known from previous studies, the phase speed and growth rate of the unstable waves is fairly sensitive to the shape of the zonal-mean jet; and the dominant wave mode at saturation is not necessarily the fastest growing mode; but the unstable modes share many features of the observed 4-day wave. Lagrangian trajectories computed from model winds are used to characterize the mixing by the flow. For profiles with both midlatitude and polar modes, mixing is stronger in midlatitude than inside the vortex; but there is little exchange of air across the vortex boundary. There is a minimum in the Lyapunov exponents of the flow and the particle dispersion at the jet maximum. For profiles with only polar unstable modes, there is weak mixing inside the vortex, no mixing outside the vortex, and no exchange of air across the vortex boundary. These results support the theoretical arguments that, whether wave disturbances are generated by local instability or propagate from other regions, the mixing properties of the total flow are determined by the locations of the wave critical lines and that strong gradients of potential vorticity are very resistant to mixing.

  7. Vortical and turbulent structure of planar and lobed mixer free-shear layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Duane Clark

    A comprehensive experimental investigation of the free-shear layer vortical and turbulent structure downstream of a lobed mixer has been conducted. Pulsed-laser flow visualization with smoke and three-dimensional velocity measurements with triple-sensor hot film anemometry were obtained for two lobed mixer configurations (symmetric and unsymmetric waveforms) and a baseline, planar configuration. Both laminar and turbulent initial boundary layer conditions were documented for each of the three configurations. The main result of this investigation is that a new vortex structure was found to exist for the lobed mixers in addition to the well-known streamwise vortex array. The normal vortex (due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) sheds periodically from the convoluted trailing edge of the lobed mixer and plays a major part in the enhanced mixing process in combination with the streamwise vorticity. The streamwise vorticity deforms the normal vortex into a pinched-off structure that creates intense turbulence and mixing. The scale of the normal vortex was approximately one fourth that of the planar case, thereby introducing a small-scale turbulence over a large cross-stream area of the flow that dominates the near-field Reynolds shear stress distribution. Thus, the lobed mixer free-shear layer provides enhanced mixing down to the molecular scale. The shear layer growth rate for the first 5-6 lobe heights was substantially greater than the planar free-shear layer due to the normal and streamwise vortex interaction. Downstream of six lobe heights, the growth rate slowed considerably to a rate below that of the planar configuration due to the reduced turbulent kinetic energy of a double-layered shear layer structure. The streamwise and normal vorticity were completely dissipated by 5-6 lobe heights. Also, the lobe mixer development was found to be surprisingly insensitive to initial laminar and turbulent boundary layer conditions (unlike the planar case).

  8. Vortical and Turbulent Structure of Planar and Lobed Mixer Free-Shear Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Duane Clark

    A comprehensive experimental investigation of the free-shear layer vortical and turbulent structure downstream of a lobed mixer has been conducted. Pulsed-laser flow visualization with smoke and three-dimensional velocity measurements with triple-sensor hot film anemometry were obtained for two lobed mixer configurations (symmetric and unsymmetric waveforms) and a baseline, planar configuration. Both laminar and turbulent initial boundary layer conditions were documented for each of the three configurations. The main result of this investigation is that a new vortex structure was found to exist for the lobed mixers in addition to the well-known streamwise vortex array. The normal vortex (due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) sheds periodically from the convoluted trailing edge of the lobed mixer and plays a major part in the enhanced mixing process in combination with the streamwise vorticity. The streamwise vorticity deforms the normal vortex into a pinched -off structure that creates intense turbulence and mixing. The scale of the normal vortex was approximately one fourth that of the planar case, thereby introducing a small-scale turbulence over a large cross-stream area of the flow that dominates the near-field Reynolds shear stress distribution. Thus, the lobed mixer free-shear layer provides enhanced mixing down to the molecular scale. The shear layer growth rate for the first 5-6 lobe heights was substantially greater than the planar free-shear layer due to the normal and streamwise vortex interaction. Downstream of six lobe heights, the growth rate slowed considerably to a rate below that of the planar configuration due to the reduced turbulent kinetic energy of a double-layered shear layer structure. The streamwise and normal vorticity were completely dissipated by 5-6 lobe heights. Also, the lobed mixer development was found to be surprisingly insensitive to initial laminar and turbulent boundary layer conditions (unlike the planar case).

  9. Self-Similar Compressible Free Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonEllenrieder, Karl

    1998-01-01

    Lie group methods are used to find both exact and numerical similarity solutions for compressible perturbations to all incompressible, two-dimensional, axisymmetric vortex reference flow. The reference flow vorticity satisfies an eigenvalue problem for which the solutions are a set of two-dimensional, self-similar, incompressible vortices. These solutions are augmented by deriving a conserved quantity for each eigenvalue, and identifying a Lie group which leaves the reference flow equations invariant. The partial differential equations governing the compressible perturbations to these reference flows are also invariant under the action of the same group. The similarity variables found with this group are used to determine the decay rates of the velocities and thermodynamic variables in the self-similar flows, and to reduce the governing partial differential equations to a set of ordinary differential equations. The ODE's are solved analytically and numerically for a Taylor vortex reference flow, and numerically for an Oseen vortex reference flow. The solutions are used to examine the dependencies of the temperature, density, entropy, dissipation and radial velocity on the Prandtl number. Also, experimental data on compressible free vortex flow are compared to the analytical results, the evolution of vortices from initial states which are not self-similar is discussed, and the energy transfer in a slightly-compressible vortex is considered.

  10. Evolution of isolated turbulent trailing vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraisamy, Karthik; Lele, Sanjiva K.

    2008-03-01

    In this work, the temporal evolution of a low swirl-number turbulent Batchelor vortex is studied using pseudospectral direct numerical simulations. The solution of the governing equations in the vorticity-velocity form allows for accurate application of boundary conditions. The physics of the evolution is investigated with an emphasis on the mechanisms that influence the transport of axial and angular momentum. Excitation of normal mode instabilities gives rise to coherent large scale helical structures inside the vortical core. The radial growth of these helical structures and the action of axial shear and differential rotation results in the creation of a polarized vortex layer. This vortex layer evolves into a series of hairpin-shaped structures that subsequently breakdown into elongated fine scale vortices. Ultimately, the radially outward propagation of these structures results in the relaxation of the flow towards a stable high-swirl configuration. Two conserved quantities, based on the deviation from the laminar solution, are derived and these prove to be useful in characterizing the polarized vortex layer and enhancing the understanding of the transport process. The generation and evolution of the Reynolds stresses is also addressed.

  11. Model flocks in a steady vortical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggaley, A. W.

    2015-05-01

    We modify the standard Vicsek model to clearly distinguish between intrinsic noise due to imperfect alignment between organisms and extrinsic noise due to fluid motion. We then consider the effect of a steady vortical flow, the Taylor-Green vortex, on the dynamics of the flock, for various flow speeds, with a fixed intrinsic particle speed. We pay particular attention to the morphology of the flow, and quantify its filamentarity. Strikingly, above a critical flow speed there is a pronounced increase in the filamentarity of the flock, when compared to the zero-flow case. This is due to the fact that particles appear confined to areas of low vorticity; a familiar phenomena, commonly seen in the clustering of inertial particles in vortical flows. Hence, the cooperative motion of the particles gives them an effective inertia, which is seen to have a profound effect on the morphology of the flock, in the presence of external fluid motion. Finally, we investigate the angle between the flow and the particles direction of movement and find it follows a power-law distribution.

  12. The dynamics of three vortices revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavantzis, John; Ting, LU

    1988-01-01

    The dynamics of three vortices was studied by Synge (1949) using the length of the sides of the triangle formed by the vortices as prime variables. The critical states at which the lengths of the sides remain fixed throughout the motion were found to be either equilateral triangles or collinear configurations. The equilateral configurations were either stable or unstable depending on whether the sum of the products of strengths K was greater or less than zero, respectively. In the case of K = 0, a one-parameter family of solutions of contracting and another of expanding similar triangles were found. It is shown here that, for this special case, the family of contracting similar solutions is always unstable while the family of expanding ones is stable. The critical states for collinear configurations in the general case are studied where K is greater than or less than zero. It is shown that there are either six or four critical states depending on the strengths of the vortices. The properties of these states are discussed.

  13. Vorticity banding in rodlike virus suspensions.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyongok; Lettinga, M P; Dogic, Z; Dhont, Jan K G

    2006-08-01

    Vorticity banding under steady shear flow is observed in a suspension of semiflexible colloidal rods (fd virus particles) within a part of the paranematic-nematic biphasic region. Banding occurs uniformly throughout the cell gap within a shear-rate interval (.gamma-, .gamma+) , which depends on the fd concentration. For shear rates below the lower-border shear rate .gamma- only shear elongation of inhomogeneities, which are formed due to paranematic-nematic phase separation, is observed. Within a small region just above the upper-border shear rate .gamma+ , banding occurs heterogeneously. An essential difference in the kinetics of vorticity banding is observed, depending on the morphology of inhomogeneities formed during the initial stages of the paranematic-nematic phase separation. Particle tracking and polarization experiments indicate that the vorticity bands are in a weak rolling flow, superimposed on the applied shear flow. We propose a mechanism for the origin of the banding instability and the transient stability of the banded states. This mechanism is related to the normal stresses generated by inhomogeneities formed due to the underlying paranematic-nematic phase transition.

  14. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  15. Numerical solution of periodic vortical flows about a thin airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.; Atassi, Hafiz M.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical method is developed for computing periodic, three-dimensional, vortical flows around isolated airfoils. The unsteady velocity is split into a vortical component which is a known function of the upstream flow conditions and the Lagrangian coordinates of the mean flow, and an irrotational field whose potential satisfies a nonconstant-coefficient, inhomogeneous, convective wave equation. Solutions for thin airfoils at zero degrees incidence to the mean flow are presented in this paper. Using an elliptic coordinate transformation, the computational domain is transformed into a rectangle. The Sommerfeld radiation condition is applied to the unsteady pressure on the grid line corresponding to the far field boundary. The results are compared with a Possio solver, and it is shown that for maximum accuracy the grid should depend on both the Mach number and reduced frequency. Finally, in order to assess the range of validity of the classical thin airfoil approximation, results for airfoils with zero thickness are compared with results for airfoils with small thickness.

  16. Formation And Ingestion Of Vortices Into Jet Engines During Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Ho Wei; Jermy, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Vortices can be produced and ingested into the intake of a turbofan and turbojet aero engine during high power operation near solid surfaces. This can happen either on the runway during take-off or during engine test runs in a test cell. The vortex can throw debris into the intake or cause the compressor to stall causing significant damage to the engine and may require major overhaul. The ability to predict the onset of a vortex is therefore extremely valuable to the industry and could potentially save millions of dollars in overhaul costs. The factors that determines whether or not a vortex forms include engine thrust level, geometric factors such as the distance between the engine core and the ground and the size of the engine core, and flow conditions such as ambient vorticity and height of boundary layer. Computational fluid dynamic studies have been carried out by the authors to attempt to predict the effects that these factors have on the threshold of vortex formation. These works include the first reported studies of numerical predictions of the vortex formation threshold on both the runway or test cell scenarios and include factors that have not been previously studied either numerically or experimentally.

  17. Management of Vortices Trailing Flapped Wings via Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David

    2005-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted on a flapped semi-span model to investigate the concept and viability of near-wake vortex management via separation control. Passive control was achieved by means of a simple fairing and active control was achieved via zero mass-flux blowing slots. Vortex sheet strength, estimated by integrating surface pressure ports, was used to predict vortex characteristics by means of inviscid rollup relations. Furthermore, vortices trailing the flaps were mapped using a seven-hole probe. Separation control was found to have a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size over a wide range of angles of attack and control conditions. In general, the vortex trends were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations. Manipulation of the separated flow near the flap edges exerted significant control over both outboard and inboard edge vortices while producing negligible lift excursions. Dynamic separation and attachment control was found to be an effective means for dynamically perturbing the vortex from arbitrarily long wavelengths down to wavelengths less than a typical wingspan. In summary, separation control has the potential for application to time-independent or time-dependent wake alleviation schemes, where the latter can be deployed to minimize adverse effects on ride-quality and dynamic structural loading.

  18. Numerical Investigation of Synthetic Buoyancy-Induced Columnar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaya, Nicholas; Stogner, Roy; Moser, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Much of the solar energy incident on the Earth's surface is absorbed into the ground, which in turn heats the air layer above the surface. This buoyant air layer contains considerable gravitational potential energy. The energy can drive the formation of columnar vortices (``Dust-Devils'') which arise naturally in the atmosphere. These ``Dust-Devils'' occur over a wide range of scales in many different locations across the Earth, as well as on Mars. A new energy harvesting approach makes use of this ubiquitous process by creating and anchoring the vortices artificially and extracting energy from them. In this talk we explore the characteristics of these vorticies through numerical simulation. Computational models of the turning vane system used to generate the vortex have been developed. We will discuss the formulation of these models and their validation against available experimental measurements. We will also describe the use of these simulations to optimize the turning vane configuration to maximize the power extraction, as well as serving as a vehicle to probe the dynamics of the underlying physical processes. Finally, this talk will conclude with comparisons between the synthetic vorticies and the naturally occurring phenomena. This work supported by the Department of Energy [ARPA-E] under Award Number [DE-FOA-0000670].

  19. Effect of the gas mixing technique on the plasma potential and emittance of the JYFL 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Suominen, P.; Ropponen, T.; Kalvas, T.; Heikkinen, P.; Koivisto, H.

    2005-09-01

    The effect of the gas mixing technique on the plasma potential, energy spread, and emittance of ion beams extracted from the JYFL 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been studied under various gas mixing conditions. The plasma potential and energy spread of the ion beams were studied with a plasma potential instrument developed at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). With the instrument the effects of the gas mixing on different plasma parameters such as plasma potential and the energy distribution of the ions can be studied. The purpose of this work was to confirm that ion cooling can explain the beneficial effect of the gas mixing on the production of highly charged ion beams. This was done by measuring the ion-beam current as a function of a stopping voltage in conjunction with emittance measurements. It was observed that gas mixing affects the shape of the beam current decay curves measured with low charge-state ion beams indicating that the temperature and/or the spatial distribution of these ions is affected by the mixing gas. The results obtained in the emittance measurements support the conclusion that the ion temperature changes due to the gas mixing. The effect of the energy spread on the emittance of different ion beams was also studied theoretically. It was observed that the emittance depends considerably on the dispersive matrix elements of the beam line transfer matrix. This effect is due to the fact that the dipole magnet is a dispersive ion optical component. The effect of the energy spread on the measured emittance in the bending plane of the magnet can be several tens of percent.

  20. Effects of Calcination Temperature and Acid-Base Properties on Mixed Potential Ammonia Sensors Modified by Metal Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Satsuma, Atsushi; Katagiri, Makoto; Kakimoto, Shiro; Sugaya, Satoshi; Shimizu, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    Mixed potential sensors were fabriated using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as a solid electrolyte and a mixture of Au and various metal oxides as a sensing electrode. The effects of calcination temperature ranging from 600 to 1,000 °C and acid-base properties of the metal oxides on the sensing properties were examined. The selective sensing of ammonia was achieved by modification of the sensing electrode using MoO3, Bi2O3 and V2O5, while the use of WO3, Nb2O5 and MgO was not effective. The melting points of the former group were below 820 °C, while those of the latter group were higher than 1,000 °C. Among the former group, the selective sensing of ammonia was strongly dependent on the calcination temperature, which was optimum around melting point of the corresponding metal oxides. The good spreading of the metal oxides on the electrode is suggested to be one of the important factors. In the former group, the relative response of ammonia to propene was in the order of MoO3 > Bi2O3 > V2O5, which agreed well with the acidity of the metal oxides. The importance of the acidic properties of metal oxides for ammonia sensing was clarified. PMID:22319402

  1. An exposure assessment of radionuclide emissions associated with potential mixed-low level waste disposal facilities at fifteen DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Socolof, M.L.

    1996-05-01

    A screening method was developed to compare the doses received via the atmospheric pathway at 15 potential DOE MLLW (mixed low-level waste) sites. Permissible waste concentrations were back calculated using the radioactivity NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) in 40 FR 61 (DOE Order 5820.2A performance objective). Site-specific soil and meteorological data were used to determine permissible waste concentrations (PORK). For a particular radionuclide, perks for each site do not vary by more than one order of magnitude. perks of {sup 14}C are about six orders of magnitude more restrictive than perks of {sup 3}H because of differences in liquid/vapor partitioning, decay, and exposure dose. When comparing results from the atmospheric pathway to the water and intruder pathways, {sup 14}C disposal concentrations were limited by the atmospheric pathway for most arid sites; for {sup 3}H, the atmospheric pathway was not limiting at any of the sites. Results of this performance evaluation process are to be used for planning for siting of disposal facilities.

  2. Effects of calcination temperature and acid-base properties on mixed potential ammonia sensors modified by metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Satsuma, Atsushi; Katagiri, Makoto; Kakimoto, Shiro; Sugaya, Satoshi; Shimizu, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    Mixed potential sensors were fabriated using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as a solid electrolyte and a mixture of Au and various metal oxides as a sensing electrode. The effects of calcination temperature ranging from 600 to 1,000 °C and acid-base properties of the metal oxides on the sensing properties were examined. The selective sensing of ammonia was achieved by modification of the sensing electrode using MoO(3), Bi(2)O(3) and V(2)O(5), while the use of WO(3,) Nb(2)O(5) and MgO was not effective. The melting points of the former group were below 820 °C, while those of the latter group were higher than 1,000 °C. Among the former group, the selective sensing of ammonia was strongly dependent on the calcination temperature, which was optimum around melting point of the corresponding metal oxides. The good spreading of the metal oxides on the electrode is suggested to be one of the important factors. In the former group, the relative response of ammonia to propene was in the order of MoO(3) > Bi(2)O(3) > V(2)O(5), which agreed well with the acidity of the metal oxides. The importance of the acidic properties of metal oxides for ammonia sensing was clarified.

  3. The thermodynamics of mixtures and the corresponding mixing rules in the SAFT-VR approach for potentials of variable range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo Lowri, Amparo; Davies, A.; Gil-Villegas, George Jackson

    The statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) has been extended recently to describe the thermodynamic properties of chain molecules formed from monomeric segments interacting with attractive potentials of variable range (VR) (Gil-Villegas, A., Galindo, A., Whitehead, P. J., Mills, S. J., Jackson, G., and Burgess, A. N., 1997, J. chem. Phys. , 106 , 4168). The SAFTVR approach is based on an accurate and compact representation of the free energy of chain molecules in terms of the contact value of the radial distribution function of the monomer reference system. This paper takes advantage of the SAFT-VR approach to focus on the nature of the expressions for mixtures of non-conformal molecules. A number of mixing rules are proposed, from the usual van der Waals one-fluid prescription to a complete description in terms of the pair distribution functions of the pair interactions that goes beyond the one-fluid level. As a first test of the adequacy of the theory for mixtures the SAFT-VR prediction is compared with Gibbs ensemble simulation data for the vapour-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria of two prototype mixtures containing square-well molecules.

  4. Surfzone vorticity in the presence of extreme bathymetric variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D.; Elgar, S.; Raubenheimer, B.

    2014-12-01

    Surfzone vorticity was measured at Duck, NC using a novel 5-m diameter vorticity sensor deployed in 1.75 m water depth. During the 4-week deployment the initially alongshore uniform bathymetry developed 200-m long mega-cusps with alongshore vertical changes of 1.5 m or more. When waves were small and the vorticity sensor was seaward of the surfzone, vorticity variance and mean vorticity varied with the tidally modulated water depth, consistent with a net seaward flux of surfzone-generated vorticity. Vorticity variance increased with incident wave heights up to 2-m. However, vorticity variance remained relatively constant for incident wave heights above 2-m, and suggests that eddy energy may become saturated in the inner surfzone during large wave events. In the presence of mega-cusps the mean vorticity (shear) is often large and generated by bathymetrically controlled rip currents, while vorticity variance remains strongly correlated with the incident wave height. Funded by NSF, ASD(R&E), and WHOI Coastal Ocean Institute.

  5. Non-Abelian vortices on a cylinder: Duality between vortices and walls

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Minoru; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Isozumi, Youichi; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke; Ohta, Kazutoshi

    2006-04-15

    We investigate vortices on a cylinder in supersymmetric non-Abelian gauge theory with hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation. We identify moduli space of periodic vortices and find that a pair of wall-like objects appears as the vortex moduli is varied. Usual domain walls also can be obtained from the single vortex on the cylinder by introducing a twisted boundary condition. We can understand these phenomena as a T duality among D-brane configurations in type II superstring theories. Using this T-duality picture, we find a one-to-one correspondence between the moduli space of non-Abelian vortices and that of kinky D-brane configurations for domain walls.

  6. Numerical studies of the margin of vortices with decaying cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, G. C.; Ting, L.

    1986-01-01

    The merging of vortices to a single one is a canonical incompressible viscous flow problem. The merging process begins when the core sizes or the vortices are comparable to their distances and ends when the contour lines of constant vorticity lines are circularized around one center. Approximate solutions to this problem are constructed by adapting the asymptotic solutions for distinct vortices. For the early stage of merging, the next-order terms in the asymptotic solutions are added to the leading term. For the later stage of merging, the vorticity distribution is reinitialized by vortices with overlapping core structures guided by the 'rule of merging' and the velocity of the 'vortex centers' are then defined by a minimum principle. To show the accuracy of the approximate solution, it is compared with the finite-difference solution.

  7. Zombie Vortices: Angular Momentum Transport and Planetesimal Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco, Joseph; Marcus, Philip; Pei, Suyang; Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Lecoanet, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Zombie vortices may fill the dead zones of protoplanetary disks, where they may play important roles in star and planet formation. We will investigate this new, purely hydrodynamic instability and explore the conditions necessary to resurrect the dead zone and fill it with large amplitude vortices that may transport angular momentum and allow mass to accrete onto the protostar. One unresolved issue is whether angular momentum transport is mediated via asymmetries in the vortices, vortex-vortex interactions, or acoustic waves launched by the vortices. Vortices may also play a crucial role in the formation of planetesimals, the building blocks of planets. It is still an open question how grains grow to kilometer-size. We will investigate the interactions of dust with vortices generated via our new hydrodynamic instability, and bridge the gap between micron-sized grains and kilometer-sized planetesimals. Supported by NSF AST-1010052.

  8. Natural convective mixing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Eduardo; de La Cruz, Luis; del Castillo, Luis

    1998-11-01

    Natural convective mixing flows. Eduardo Ramos and Luis M. de La Cruz, National University of Mexico and Luis Del Castillo San Luis Potosi University. The possibility of mixing a fluid with a natural convective flow is analysed by solving numerically the mass, momentum and energy equations in a cubic container. Two opposite vertical walls of the container are assumed to have temperatures that oscillate as functions of time. The phase of the oscillations is chosen in such a way that alternating corrotating vortices are formed in the cavity. The mixing efficiency of this kind of flow is examined with a Lagrangian tracking technique. This work was partially financed by CONACyT-Mexico project number GE0044

  9. Applications of the concept of generalized vorticity to space plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, P. M.; Edwards, W. F.; Rasmussen, C.; Thompson, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    A reformulation of the momentum equation for electrons or ions in a collisionless plasma leads to an equation which describes the behavior of the plasma in terms of a generalized vorticity. This vorticity is both divergence-free and conserved along plasma flow streamlines. When the plasma has zero vorticity, a special relation is established which appears to have application to small scale magnetic features within both conventional space plasmas and superconductors.

  10. Trajectories and Stability of Trailing Vortices Very Near the Ground

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    AD-A250 782 NatIonal Research Conseil national Council Canada de recherches Canada TRAJECTORIES AND STABILITY OF TRAILING VORTICES VERY NEAR THE...Im. M-16, piece 204, Chemin de Montr6al, Ottawa (Ontario) KIA OR6 UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED TRAJECTORIES AND STABILITY OF TRAILING VORTICES VERY NEAR THE...The behaviour of the trailing vortices of a Harvard aircraft used as the spraying vehicle during a set of experiments in aerial spraying over flat

  11. Flow enthalpy effects on scramjet mixing and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggins, D. W.; Mcclinton, C. R.; Rogers, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    The present analysis of the 3D characteristics of the mixing processes in a scramjet combustor gives attention to the streamwise, vorticity-driven macromixing, as well as shear-driven small-scale mixing, in both an unconfined Mach 6 airstream and a high-enthalpy (Mach-17) confined, Mach 6 airstream. The results obtained indicate that mixing is substantially lower for the high-enthalpy case. The effect of residence time on jet mixing is discussed in view of the production and decay of the axial vorticity, cross-flow velocities, and mean-flow velocities of these confined flows. The effective distance travelled by a fluid particle in the cross-flow, over the combustor length, is used to explain axial vorticity's contribution to mixing.

  12. Applying Chemical Potential and Partial Pressure Concepts to Understand the Spontaneous Mixing of Helium and Air in a Helium-Inflated Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jee-Yon Lee; Hee-Soo Yoo; Jong Sook Park; Kwang-Jin Hwang; Jin Seog Kim

    2005-01-01

    The spontaneous mixing of helium and air in a helium-inflated balloon is described in an experiment in which the partial pressure of the gases in the balloon are determined from the mole factions and the total pressure measured in the balloon. The results described provide a model for teaching concepts of partial pressure, chemical potential, and…

  13. Finite element techniques for the Navier-Stokes equations in the primitive variable formulation and the vorticity stream-function formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaisner, F.; Tezduyar, T. E.

    1987-01-01

    Finite element procedures for the Navier-Stokes equations in the primitive variable formulation and the vorticity stream-function formulation have been implemented. For both formulations, streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin techniques are used for the discretization of the transport equations. The main problem associated with the vorticity stream-function formulation is the lack of boundary conditions for vorticity at solid surfaces. Here an implicit treatment of the vorticity at no-slip boundaries is incorporated in a predictor-multicorrector time integration scheme. For the primitive variable formulation, mixed finite-element approximations are used. A nine-node element and a four-node + bubble element have been implemented. The latter is shown to exhibit a checkerboard pressure mode and a numerical treatment for this spurious pressure mode is proposed. The two methods are compared from the points of view of simulating internal and external flows and the possibilities of extensions to three dimensions.

  14. Acid rock drainage passive remediation: Potential use of alkaline clay, optimal mixing ratio and long-term impacts.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Fernando; Wen, Yipei; Perone, Hanna; Xu, Yi; Liang, Xu

    2017-01-15

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mining industry. Surface and ground water affected by this pollution are characterized by their acidity and the high content of sulfates and metals/metalloids. In this study, alkaline clay (AC), an industrial waste with a high alkalinity, which is utilized in the alumina refining process, was used as the remediation material to inhibit pyrite oxidation in waste coal piles. Through a series of laboratory experiments (static and kinetic), complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling, three important issues associated with this passive and sustainable ARD remediation method were investigated: 1) the potential use of alkaline clay as an ARD remediation material, 2) the adequate alkaline clay/coal refuse mixing ratio (AC/CR) to ensure pH values close to neutral conditions, and, 3) the implications for long-term performance, in terms of the trends of the main parameters involved in this process such as pH, concentrations of sulfate, iron and other dissolved contaminants. Both field measurements and the samples used for the experiments came from a local waste coal site. Through the analysis of the field measurements and the outcome of the laboratory experiments, AC proved to be an effective remediation material for ARD. Compared to those found in mine tailings, the concentrations of contaminants such as iron, manganese or sulfate were significantly reduced with this remediation approach. Moreover, results suggest a reliable long-term stability of the remediation (i.e. neutral pH conditions are maintained), thus enhancing the generation of iron precipitates that could produce pyrite grain coating. These processes also made the amended layer less porous, thus increased water retention and hindered oxygen diffusion.

  15. Matter in the form of toroidal electromagnetic vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Wilhelm F.

    2015-09-01

    The creation of charged elementary particles from neutral photons is explained as a conversion process of electromagnetic (EM) energy from linear to circular motion at the speed of light into two localized, toroidal shaped vortices of trapped EM energy that resist change of motion, perceptible as particles with inertia and hence mass. The photon can be represented as a superposition of left and right circular polarized transverse electric fields of opposite polarity originating from a common zero potential axis, the optical axis of the photon. If these components are separated by interaction with a strong field (nucleon) they would curl up into two electromagnetic vortices (EMV) due to longitudinal magnetic field components forming toroids. These vortices are perceptible as opposite charged elementary particles e+/- . These spinning toroids generate extended oscillating fields that interact with stationary field oscillations. The velocity-dependent frequency differences cause beat signals equivalent to matter waves, leading to interference. The extended fields entangled with every particle explain wave particle duality issues. Spin and magnetic moment are the natural outcome of these gyrating particles. As the energy and hence mass of the electron increases with acceleration so does its size shrink proportional to its reduced wavelength. The artificial weak and strong nuclear forces can be easily explained as different manifestations of the intermediate EM forces. The unstable neutron consists of a proton surrounded by a contracted and captured electron. The associated radial EM forces represent the weak nuclear force. The deuteron consists of two axially separated protons held together by a centrally captured electron. The axial EM forces represent the strong nuclear force, providing stability for "neutrons" only within nucleons. The same principles were applied to determine the geometries of force-balanced nuclei. The alpha-particle emerges as a very compact

  16. Mixing Near the Subtropical Jet - a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, L. L.; Randel, W. J.; Browell, E.; Mahoney, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Mixing is an important part of irreversible stratosphere troposphere exchange. Yet the mixing process is poorly understood. We present a case study of mixing in the vicinity of the subtropical jet, using airborne in situ and remote sensing data during SONEX mission. The case of intrusion of stratospheric air is identified using ozone profile curtains from DIAL LIDAR onboard DC-8. The thermal structure across the tropopause is mapped using temperature profiles from Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP), together with the potential vorticity field based on the ECMWF data. Spatial extent of mixing between stratospheric and tropospheric air is examined using tracer relationships from in situ measurement onboard DC-8. Results show that mixing between stratospheric and tropospheric air involved air mass with ozone value up to ~400 ppbv. The case study also show that based on the tracer relationship alone, without the background information provided by the LIDAR data and MTP data, it is often difficult to conclude whether the observed mixing represent stratosphere to troposphere transport or troposphere to stratosphere transport. Results also show that using 2 PVU or 3.5 PVU contour as the tropopause in this case will likely underestimate the stratosphere to troposphere transport.

  17. Observations of Electron Vorticity in the Inner Plasma Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurgiolo, C.; Goldstein, M. L.; Vinas, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    From a limited number of observations it appears that vorticity is a common feature in the inner plasma sheet. With the four Cluster spacecraft and the four PEACE instruments positioned in a tetrahedral configuration, for the first time it is possible to directly estimate the electron fluid vorticity in a space plasma. We show examples of electron fluid vorticity from multiple plasma sheet crossings. These include three time periods when Cluster passed through a reconnection ion diffusion region. Enhancements in vorticity are seen in association with each crossing of the ion diffusion region.

  18. Visualization tools for vorticity transport analysis in incompressible flow.

    PubMed

    Sadlo, Filip; Peikert, Ronald; Sick, Mirjam

    2006-01-01

    Vortices are undesirable in many applications while indispensable in others. It is therefore of common interest to understand their mechanisms of creation. This paper aims at analyzing the transport of vorticity inside incompressible flow. The analysis is based on the vorticity equation and is performed along pathlines which are typically started in upstream direction from vortex regions. Different methods for the quantitative and explorative analysis of vorticity transport are presented and applied to CFD simulations of water turbines. Simulation quality is accounted for by including the errors of meshing and convergence into analysis and visualization. The obtained results are discussed and interpretations with respect to engineering questions are given.

  19. Characteristics of internal vortical structures in a merged turbulent spot†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makita, Hideharu; Nishizawa, Akira

    2001-07-01

    Interaction phenomena between two turbulent spots were investigated in a zero pressure-gradient laminar boundary layer. Two types of hotwire rakes, a 16-channel I- and a 30-channel X-probe gave clear instantaneous vortical motion inside the spots, showing that the single spot was an aggregation of many small-scale hairpin vortices accompanied by upwashes and downwashes around their legs. The legs, a pair of counter-rotating longitudinal vortices, were identified by the existence of streaky velocity-defect and -excess regions at the bottom of the spot. As the spot grew downstream, the number of longitudinal vortices increased, though its wingtips were always accompanied by upwashes. When two spots were produced in parallel and merged with each other, the upwash of the low-speed fluid was strongly enhanced in their merged part through the mutual interaction between the longitudinal vortices at their inside wingtips. Resultant unstable inflectional velocity profile gave birth to several spanwise vortices around the top of the merged part. These intensified spanwise vortices conformed the heads of horseshoe vortices and grew larger than those around the head of non-interacting isolated spots. Such strengthened horseshoe vortices possibly maintain their geometric identity to the turbulent boundary layer further downstream and initiate the turbulent bulges in it.

  20. A splitting-free vorticity redistribution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhart, M.; Obi, S.

    2017-02-01

    We present a splitting-free variant of the vorticity redistribution method. Spatial consistency and stability when combined with a time-stepping scheme are proven. We propose a new strategy preventing excessive growth in the number of particles while retaining the order of consistency. The novel concept of small neighbourhoods significantly reduces the method's computational cost. In numerical experiments the method showed second order convergence, one order higher than predicted by the analysis. Compared to the fast multipole code used in the velocity computation, the method is about three times faster.

  1. Inviscid to turbulent transition of trailing vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iversen, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the plateau region in the vortex system which trails from a lifting wing are discussed. The decay of the vortex due to viscous or turbulent shear is very slow in the plateau so that the maximum tangential speed in the vortices remains nearly constant for some distance downstream of roll-up and then begins to decrease, becoming inversely proportional to the square root of the distance downstream. Mathematical models are developed to analyze the structure of the plateau area. Solutions are obtained for both constant and variable eddy viscosity models.

  2. Superfluid vortices in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallavarapu, S. Kumar; Alford, Mark; Windisch, Andreas; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2016-03-01

    Superfluid vortices in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter are known to be energetically disfavored as compared to well-separated triplets of ``semi-superfluid'' color flux tubes. In this talk we will provide results which will identify regions in parameter space where the superfluid vortex spontaneously decays. We will also discuss the nature of the mode that is responsible for the decay of a superfluid vortex in dense quark matter. We will conclude by mentioning the implications of our results to neutron stars.

  3. Models for some aspects of atmospheric vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    A frictionless adiabatic model is used to study the growth of random vortices in an atmosphere with buoyant instability and vertical wind shear, taking account of the effects of axial drag, heat transfer and precipitation-induced downdrafts. It is found that downdrafts of tornadic magnitude may occur in negatively buoyant columns. The radial-inflow velocity required to maintain a given maximum tangential velocity in a tornado is determined by using a turbulent vortex model. A tornado model which involves a rotating parent cloud as well as buoyancy and precipitation effects is also discussed.

  4. Internal energy flows in composite optical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer-Garcia, Manuel F.; Lopez-Mago, Dorilian; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.

    2016-09-01

    We study the energy ow pattern in the superposition of two off-axis optical vortices with orthogonal polarization states. This system presents a rich structure of polarization singularities, which allows us to study the transverse spin and orbital angular momentum of different polarization morphologies, which includes C points (stars, lemons and monstars) and L lines. We perform numerical simulations of the optical forces acting on submicron particles and show interesting configurations. We provide the set of control parameters to unambiguously distinguish between the spin and orbital ow contributions.

  5. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of a compressible, spatially evolving mixing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinstein, Fernando F.; Oran, Elaine S.; Hussain, Fazle

    1988-01-01

    The results from three-dimensional finite-difference simulations of a subsonic, spatially evolving mixing layer are presented. The numerical model solves the compressible time-dependent conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy density using the Flux-Corrected Transport algorithm and direction and timestep splitting. The mixing layer was found to be very sensitive to spanwise perturbations of the cross-stream velocity. Streamwise vortices, appearing in counter-rotating pairs, occurred in the region of the braids in response to sinusoidal coherent spanwise perturbations. These vortices are observed as identifiable coherent structures superimposed on the primary spanwise rolls and affecting considerably the vorticity distribution within their cores. Mass-density drops associated with the maxima of spanwise vorticity, were due to the formation and interaction of coherent structures. The growth rate of the mixing layer was observed to be much faster when streamwise vortical structures are present.

  6. Formation of vortices in first order phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, A. |; Perivolaropoulos, L. |

    1995-07-15

    Using a toy model Langrangian we investigate the formation of vortices in first order phase transitions. The evolution and interactions of vacuum bubbles are also studied using both analytical approximations and a numerical simulation of scalar field dynamics. A long-lived bubble wall bound state is discovered and its existence is justified by using a simplified potential for the bubble wall interaction. The conditions that need to be satisfied for vortex formation by bubble collisions are also studied with particular emphasis placed on geometrical considerations. These conditions are then implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation for the study of the probability of defect formation. It is shown that the probability of vortex formation by the collision of relativistically expanding bubbles gets reduced by about 10% due to the above-mentioned geometric effects.

  7. Is there Nuclear Pinning of Vortices in Superfluid Pulsars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, Paola; Pizzochero, Pierre M.

    2003-05-01

    We develop a fully consistent semianalytical model in order to study the vortex-nucleus interaction in the inner crust of neutron stars. In the framework of the local-density approximation and assuming a constant pairing gap and a square-well nuclear potential, the model takes into account all energy contributions and determines unambiguously the structure of the vortex core. The results show that, irrespective of the value of the pairing gap, only interstitial pinning takes place all along the inner crust. This is in contrast with all existing calculations, which predict nuclear pinning in the deeper layers of the crust. Should further studies confirm this surprising result, the explanation of pulsar glitches in terms of depinning of vortices will have to be carefully revisited.

  8. Role of electric discharges in the generation of atmospheric vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkevich, O. A.; Maslov, S. A.; Gusein-zade, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    The existing thermohydrodynamic and hydroelectromagnetic models of tornado are considered. The potentialities of the humid atmosphere as a heat engine generating air vortices are analyzed in detail. The ability of long-term atmospheric electric discharges to form a tornado funnel and create an initial twist of up to 10-3-10-2 s-1 in it are estimated. The possible effect of a lightning discharge on the initiation and evolution of the tornado is discussed. It is shown that the electric current flowing along the lightning channel can lead to helical instability and generation of a weak primary vortex. The channel formed in the atmosphere by a lightning discharge and the vortex motion of the parent thundercloud can enhance the primary vortex and promote its transformation into a tornado. Possible mechanisms of enhancement of the primary vortex created by a lightning discharge and the possibility of its transformation into a tornado in the postdischarge stage are discussed.

  9. Is there nuclear pinning of vortices in superfluid pulsars?

    PubMed

    Donati, Paola; Pizzochero, Pierre M

    2003-05-30

    We develop a fully consistent semianalytical model in order to study the vortex-nucleus interaction in the inner crust of neutron stars. In the framework of the local-density approximation and assuming a constant pairing gap and a square-well nuclear potential, the model takes into account all energy contributions and determines unambiguously the structure of the vortex core. The results show that, irrespective of the value of the pairing gap, only interstitial pinning takes place all along the inner crust. This is in contrast with all existing calculations, which predict nuclear pinning in the deeper layers of the crust. Should further studies confirm this surprising result, the explanation of pulsar glitches in terms of depinning of vortices will have to be carefully revisited.

  10. Mesoscale Convective Vortices in Multiscale, Idealized Simulations: Dependence on Background State, Interdependency with Moist Baroclinic Cyclones, and Comparison with BAMEX Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    The most rapid potential vorticity ( PV ) development occurred in and just behind the leading convective line. The entire system grew upscale with time...as the newly created PV rotated cyclonically around a common center as the leading convective line continued to expand outward. Ten hours after the...Using potential vorticity ( PV ) concepts, the intensification can be explained by the vertical gra- dient of diabatic heating within the convective system

  11. Vorticity amplification near the stagnation point of landing gear wheels: effect of the orientation of the impinging vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Mingyao; Feltham, Graham; Ekmekci, Alis

    2014-11-01

    When oncoming streams of weak vorticity aligned with the axle axis of a two-wheel landing gear impinge near the forward stagnation point of the wheels, a mechanism for vorticity collection, growth, amplification into discrete large-scale vortices, and shedding was formerly shown to exist. In the current study, the impinging vorticity streams are perpendicular to the axle axis, i.e. in a vertical orientation as opposed to the horizontal orientation before. Experiments are conducted in a recirculating water channel using hydrogen bubble visualization and particle image velocimetry at a Reynolds number of 32,500 (based on the wheel diameter). As with the horizontal orientation, vorticity collection and amplification are observed, but the large-scale vortices thus formed are stretched around the wheel circumference in contrast to being stretched around the wheel sides, as observed for the horizontal orientation. This flow behavior varies with the impingement location of the vorticity streams across the wheel width. Maximum vorticity amplification occurs at a critical impingement location and drastically alters the flow separation along the wheel circumference. In addition, the instantaneous vortical structures are identified and tracked using a Galilean-invariant criterion.

  12. Vorticity generation in compressible multiphase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballil, A.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Jolgam, S.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.

    2014-08-01

    The simulations of flows in inhomogeneous media of various physical regimes leading to shock-bubble interactions were performed using a developed numerical code based on a multi-component flow model. The numerical method which considers interfaces represented by contact discontinuities as numerically diffused zones, has been applied to simulate compressible two-phase flows. The approach takes advantage of the inherent numerical diffusion present in solutions. The mathematical formulation of the presented method is obtained after an averaging process of the single phase Navier-Stokes equations and contains the non-conservative equations and non-conservative terms that exist in the model to fulfill the interface condition. The finite volume Godunov-type computational technique, equipped with an approximate Riemann solver for calculating fluxes, is applied to simulate flows in two space dimensions. The approach accounts for pressure non-equilibrium. It resolves interfaces separating compressible fluids and captures the baroclinic source of vorticity generation. A numerically challenging shock bubble interaction problem is investigated to evaluate the effect of the Atwood number and shock wave intensity (various Mach numbers) on the interface evolution and vorticity generation.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Aircraft Trailing Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Switzer, George F.

    2000-01-01

    The increase in air traffic is currently outpacing the development of new airport runways. This is leading to greater air traffic congestion, resulting in costly delays and cancellations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under its Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program is investigating new technologies that will allow increased airport capacity while maintaining the present standards for safety. As an element of this program, the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) is being demonstrated in July 2000, at Dallas Ft-Worth Airport. This system allows reduced aircraft separations, thus increasing the arrival and departure rates, while insuring that wake vortices from a leading aircraft do not endanger trailing aircraft. The system uses predictions or wake vortex position and strength based on input from the current weather state. This prediction is accomplished by a semi-empirical model developed from theory, field observations, and relationships derived from numerical wake vortex simulations. Numerical experiments with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are being conducted in order to provide guidance for the enhancement of these prediction algorithms. The LES Simulations of wake vortices are carried out with NASA's Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS). Previous wake vortex investigations with TASS are described. The primary objective of these numerical studies has been to quantify vortex transport and decay in relation to atmospheric variables. This paper summarizes many of the previous investigations with the TASS model and presents some new results regarding the onset of wake vortex decay.

  14. Interaction of a polydisperse spray with vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacour, C.; Durox, D.; Ducruix, S.; Massot, M.

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the present work is to provide, through the association of optical diagnostics on a well-chosen experimental configuration, new insights into the coupling of a vortical gaseous flow with a polydisperse evaporating spray representative of practical injections. A cloud of droplets is injected in an inert laminar round jet, axisymmetric and pulsated, enabling the study of the interaction of strong-vorticity structures with a polydisperse spray. The experiment is a laboratory-scale representation of realistic injection configurations such as in engine combustion chambers or industrial burners. The chosen set-up leads to a well-controlled configuration and allows the coupling of two optical diagnostics, particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and interferometric particle imaging (IPI), which leads to the study of both the flow dynamic and the droplet size distribution. The behaviour of droplets is analysed regarding their relaxing and evaporating properties. Size-conditioned preferential concentration of both weakly evaporating and strongly evaporating sprays is investigated. Droplet trajectories are also analysed by means of high-rate tomographic visualizations. The time history between their ejection from the nozzle and their interaction with the vortex is strongly related to the droplet preferential concentration and the observed heterogeneous repartition in the gas flow.

  15. Monopoles and fractional vortices in chiral superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Volovik, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    I discuss two exotic objects that must be experimentally identified in chiral superfluids and superconductors. These are (i) the vortex with a fractional quantum number (N = 1/2 in chiral superfluids, and N = 1/2 and N = 1/4 in chiral superconductors), which plays the part of the Alice string in relativistic theories and (ii) the hedgehog in the ^l field, which is the counterpart of the Dirac magnetic monopole. These objects of different dimensions are topologically connected. They form the combined object that is called a nexus in relativistic theories. In chiral superconductors, the nexus has magnetic charge emanating radially from the hedgehog, whereas the half-quantum vortices play the part of the Dirac string. Each half-quantum vortex supplies the fractional magnetic flux to the hedgehog, representing 1/4 of the “conventional” Dirac string. I discuss the topological interaction of the superconductor's nexus with the ‘t Hooft–Polyakov magnetic monopole, which can exist in Grand Unified Theories. The monopole and the hedgehog with the same magnetic charge are topologically confined by a piece of the Abrikosov vortex. Such confinement makes the nexus a natural trap for the magnetic monopole. Other properties of half-quantum vortices and monopoles are discussed as well, including fermion zero modes. PMID:10716980

  16. Dynamo theory, vorticity generation, and exponential stretching.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Susan; Vishik, Misha M.

    1991-08-01

    A discussion is given of the analogy between the dynamo equation for the generation of a magnetic field by the motion of an electrically conducting fluid and the equation for the evolution of vorticity of a viscous fluid. In both cases exponential stretching is an important feature of the underlying instability problem. For the "fast" dynamo problem, the existence of exponential stretching (i.e., the positivity of the Lyapunov exponent) somewhere in the flow is a necessary condition when the flow is smooth. An example is presented of a flow with exponential stretching (an Anosov flow) that supports fast dynamo action. A parallel treatment is described for the linearized Navier-Stokes equations for the motion of a viscous fluid. In this problem the analogous necessary condition for "fast vorticity generation" is the existence of some instability in the corresponding Euler (i.e., inviscid) equation. Dynamo theory methods give a second related result, namely a universal geometric estimate from below on the growth rate of a small perturbation in an inviscid fluid. This bound gives an effective sufficient condition for local instability for Eulers equations. In particular, it is proved that a steady flow with a hyperbolic stagnation point is unstable. The growth rate of an infinitesimal perturbation in a metric with derivatives depends on this metric. This dependence is completely described.

  17. Toroidal vortices in resistive magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David; Bates, Jason W.; Li, Shuojun

    1997-04-01

    When a time-independent electric current flows toroidally in a uniform ring of electrically conducting fluid, a Lorentz force results, j×B, where j is the local electric current density, and B is the magnetic field it generates. Because of purely geometric effects, the curl of j×B is nonvanishing, and so j×B cannot be balanced by the gradient of any scalar pressure. Taking the curl of the fluid's equation of motion shows that the net effect of the j×B force is to generate toroidal vorticity. Allowed steady states necessarily contain toroidal vortices, with flows in the poloidal directions. The flow pattern is a characteristic "double smoke ring" configuration. The effect seems quite general, although it is analytically simple only in special limits. One limit described here is that of high viscosity (low Reynolds number), with stress-free wall boundary conditions on the velocity field, although it is apparent that similar mechanical motions will result for no-slip boundaries and higher Reynolds numbers. A rather ubiquitous connection between current-carrying toroids and vortex rings seems to be implied, one that disappears in the "straight cylinder" limit.

  18. Reconnection of vorticity lines and magnetic lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic field and fluid vorticity share many features. First, as divergence-free vector fields they are conveniently visualized in terms of their field lines, curves that are everywhere tangent to the field. The lines indicate direction and their density indicates field strength. The question arises of the extent to which the evolution of the fields can be treated in terms of the evolution of their field lines. Newcomb (1958) derived the general conditions on the evolution of vector fields that permit the identification of field lines from one instant to the next. The equations of evolution of the vorticity field and the magnetic field fall within Newcomb's analysis. The dynamics of the flows differ between these two systems, so that geometrically similar phenomena happen in different ways in the two systems. In this paper the geometrical similarities are emphasized. Reconnection will be defined here as evolution in which it is not possible to preserve the global identification of some field lines. There is a close relation between reconnection and the topology of the vector field lines. Nontrivial topology occurs where the field has null points or there are field lines that are closed loops.

  19. Close relative equilibria of identical point vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirksen, Tobias; Aref, Hassan

    2011-11-01

    Via numerical solution of the classical problem of relative equilibria for identical point vortices on the unbounded plane we have found configurations that are very close to the analytically known, centered, symmetrically arranged, nested equilateral triangles. Numerical solutions of this kind were found for 3 n + 1 vortices, where n = 2 , 3 , ... , 30 . A sufficient, although apparently not necessary, condition for this phenomenon of close solutions is that the ``core'' of the configuration is marginally stable, as occurs for a central vortex surrounded by an equilateral triangle. The open, regular heptagon also has this property, and new relative equilibria close to the nested, symmetrically arranged, regular heptagons have been found. The centered regular nonagon is also marginally stable. Again, a new family of close relative equilibria has been found. The closest relative equilibrium pairs occur, however, for symmetrically nested equilateral triangles. The numerical evidence is surveyed and related recent work mentioned. A Letter in Physics of Fluids 23 (2011) 051706 is available. Supported in part by the Danish National Research Foundation through a Niels Bohr visiting professorship.

  20. Tomographic PIV Study of Hairpin Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, Daniel; Rossmann, Tobias

    2014-11-01

    Tomographic PIV is used in a free surface water channel to quantify the flow behavior of hairpin vortices that are artificially generated in a laminar boundary layer. Direct injection from a 32:1 aspect ratio slot at low blowing ratios (0 . 1 < BR < 0 . 2) is used to generate an isolated hairpin vortex in a thick laminar boundary layer (485 < Reδ* < 600). Due to the large dynamic range of length and velocity scales (the resulting vortices have advection velocities 5X greater than their tangential velocities), a tailored optical arrangement and specialized post processing techniques are required to fully capture the small-scale behavior and long-time development of the flow field. Hairpin generation and evolution are presented using the λ2 criterion derived from the instantaneous, three-dimensional velocity field. The insight provided by the tomographic data is also compared to the conclusions drawn from 2D PIV and passive scalar visualizations. Finally, the three-dimensional behavior of the measured velocity field is correlated with that of a simultaneously imaged, passive scalar dye that marks the boundary of the injected fluid, allowing the examination of the entrainment behavior of the hairpin. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant CBET-1040236.

  1. Dynamics of Quantized Vortices Before Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andryushchenko, V. A.; Kondaurova, L. P.; Nemirovskii, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    The main goal of this paper is to investigate numerically the dynamics of quantized vortex loops, just before the reconnection at finite temperature, when mutual friction essentially changes the evolution of lines. Modeling is performed on the base of vortex filament method using the full Biot-Savart equation. It was discovered that the initial position of vortices and the temperature strongly affect the dependence on time of the minimum distance δ (t) between tips of two vortex loops. In particular, in some cases, the shrinking and collapse of vortex loops due to mutual friction occur earlier than the reconnection, thereby canceling the latter. However, this relationship takes a universal square-root form δ ( t) =√{( κ /2π ) ( t_{*}-t) } at distances smaller than the distances, satisfying the Schwarz reconnection criterion, when the nonlocal contribution to the Biot-Savart equation becomes about equal to the local contribution. In the "universal" stage, the nearest parts of vortices form a pyramid-like structure with angles which neither depend on the initial configuration nor on temperature.

  2. Active Vortical Flow Control for Alleviation of Twin-Tail Buffet of Generic Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheta, E. F.; Harrand, V. J.; Huttsell, L. J.

    2001-08-01

    A multidisciplinary computational investigation has been conducted to examine the feasibility of controlling the buffet problem using different active flow control methods. Tangential central blowing (TCB), tangential vortex blowing (TVB), and tangential spanwise blowing (TSB) methods were used to inject high-momentum fluid into the vortical flow of generic fighter aircraft flying at 30° angle of attack. The effect of blowing strength on the buffet responses is also investigated. The injection is aimed to strengthen the wing vortices and to delay the onset of breakdown in order to alleviate the twin-tail buffet. The results indicated that blowing directly into the core of the leading-edge vortices has more potential in controlling the buffet responses and in the reformation of unburst vortices with larger length. The TVB method produced the most favorable results with a reduction of about 43% in the buffet excitation parameter and a reduction of about 40% in the amplitude of bending deflection. This multidisciplinary investigation is conducted using the multidisciplinary computing environment (MDICE).

  3. Creation of vortices by torque in multidimensional media with inhomogeneous defocusing nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Driben, Rodislav; Meier, Torsten; Malomed, Boris A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new class of nonlinear systems was introduced, in which the self-trapping of fundamental and vortical localized modes in space of dimension D is supported by cubic self-repulsion with a strength growing as a function of the distance from the center, r, at any rate faster that rD. These systems support robust 2D and 3D modes which either do not exist or are unstable in other nonlinear systems. Here we demonstrate a possibility to create solitary vortices in this setting by applying a phase-imprinting torque to the ground state. Initially, a strong torque completely destroys the ground state. However, contrary to usual systems, where the destruction is irreversible, the present ones demonstrate a rapid restabilization and the creation of one or several shifted vortices orbiting the center. For the sake of comparison, we show analytically that, in the linear system with a 3D trapping potential, the action of a torque on the ground state is inefficient and creates only even-vorticity states with a small probability. PMID:25800140

  4. Dynamic manipulation of asymmetric forebody vortices to achieve linear control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Richard

    A wind tunnel experiment was performed to further investigate the potential of the dynamic manipulation of forebody vortices as a means of supplementing directional control of fighter aircraft at high angles of attack. Tests were conducted on a 65-deg delta-wing model fitted with a slender, pointed tangent-ogive forebody of circular cross-section and 12.8 deg semi-apex angle. Forward-blowing nozzles located near the apex of the forebody served as the means of manipulating the forebody vortices. As expected, forward blowing was very effective, i.e., little blowing effort was required to cause the forebody vortex on the blown side to assume the 'high' position. However, the magnitudes of yawing moment and side force developed by the slender forebody with blowing do not differ significantly from that of the no-blowing, baseline case. Moreover, blowing above a certain threshold value produced an unexpected reversal, with blowing causing the vortex on the blown side to assume the 'low' position instead and the yawing moment and side force to change sense. The results have shown that the dynamic manipulation scheme is very successful in producing a linear variation of time-average yawing moment with a duty-cycle parameter, even with sideslip, for the aircraft-like model. The results also show that, by switching the vortex pattern rapidly, the linearity can be maintained up to a reduced frequency of at least 0.32, which is expected to be very satisfactory for practical applications. A subsequent water tunnel experiment with the forebody alone was undertaken to conduct off-surface flow visualizations that confirmed the vortex reversal phenomenon. Based on the flow visualization studies, a hypothesis was formed regarding the cause of the reversal phenomenon; it postulates that at the reversal threshold the nozzle flux interrupts the formation of the high forebody vortex on the blowing side and encourages the shear layer to form a replacement vortex that lies close to the

  5. Streamwise vortex meander in a plane mixing layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Richard L.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1993-01-01

    The present experimental study was conducted in order to determine the existence of streamwise vortex meander in a mixing layer, and if present, its significance on the measured properties. The dependence of the velocity cross-correlation on the fixed probe location was shown to be a good indicator of the stationarity of the streamwise vortex location. The cross-correlation measurements obtained here indicate that spanwise meander is negligible, although transverse apparent meander (normal to the plane of the mixing layer) was indicated. The transverse meander, exemplified by the elliptical shape of the mean streamwise vorticity contours, was expected, since the streamwise vorticity in the braid region is essentially inclined, with respect to the streamwise direction. These conclusions were supported by results of estimated spanwise profiles of the transverse velocity component. The balance of evidence suggests that the measured mean streamwise vorticity decay is representative of the decay of the vorticity rather than an artifact of meander.

  6. Characterization of coherent structures in a turbulent mixing layer by digital image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernal, L. P.; Hernan, M. A.; Sarohia, V.

    1985-01-01

    Digital image analysis has been applied to a shadowgraph motion picture of a helium nitrogen mixing layer in order to characterize the coherent vortex structures in the flow. Both the primary spanwise coherent vortices and secondary streamwise vortices are considered. Pattern recognition algorithms were designed to take advantage of the more pronounced features of the vortices and of their temporal coherence to isolate them and to measure their characteristics. The resulting data base permits a deterministic description of the evolution of primary and seconary vortices.

  7. The inhibition and potentiation of procarbazine on hepatic mixed-function oxidases in phenobarbital tolerant and nontolerant mice.

    PubMed

    Onoda, K; Ho, I K

    1980-01-01

    The effect of procarbazine on mixed-function oxidases was investigated in naive and pentobarbital tolerant mice. In mice receiving procarbazine, 200 mg/kg, i.p. 1 hr earlier, metabolisms of pentobarbital, aniline and ethylmorphine in vitro and cytochrome P-450 content of hepatic microsomes were significantly decreased. The drug binding of either aniline or pentobarbital to cytochrome P-450 was also decreased. However, procarbazine failed to exert this effect after the enzymes had been induced by continuous administration of pentobarbital. Interestingly, procarbazine enhanced the barbiturate induced hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase activities when it was administered before the implantation of pentobarbital pellet. Both cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome b5 content after pentobarbital pellet implantation were further increased by pretreatment with procarbazine. This finding was further substantiated by the increase in pentobarbital and aniline binding to cytochrome P-450. The present studies may provide another model for studying the nature of hepatic mixed-function oxidase induction process.

  8. Numerical Capture of Wing-tip Vortex Using Vorticity Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baili; Lou, Jing; Kang, Chang Wei; Wilson, Alexander; Lundberg, Johan; Bensow, Rickard

    2012-11-01

    Tracking vortices accurately over large distances is very important in many areas of engineering, for instance flow over rotating helicopter blades, ship propeller blades and aircraft wings. However, due to the inherent numerical dissipation in the advection step of flow simulation, current Euler and RANS field solvers tend to damp these vortices too fast. One possible solution to reduce the unphysical decay of these vortices is the application of vorticity confinement methods. In this study, a vorticity confinement term is added to the momentum conservation equations which is a function of the local element size, the vorticity and the gradient of the absolute value of vorticity. The approach has been evaluated by a systematic numerical study on the tip vortex trailing from a rectangular NACA0012 half-wing. The simulated structure and development of the wing-tip vortex agree well with experiments both qualitatively and quantitatively without any adverse effects on the global flow field. It is shown that vorticity confinement can negate the effect of numerical dissipation, leading to a more or less constant vortex strength. This is an approximate method in that genuine viscous diffusion of the vortex is not modeled, but it can be appropriate for vortex dominant flows over short to medium length scales where viscous diffusion can be neglected.

  9. Adaptive Navier-Stokes calculations for vortical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murman, Earll M.

    1993-03-01

    Brief summaries are given of research performed in the following areas: (1) adaptive Euler equation solvers; (2) adaptation parameters for vortical flow; (3) vortex breakdown calculations; (4) calculations for the F-117A; (5) normal force hysteresis; (6) visualization of vortical flows on unstructured grids; and (7) modeling of vortex breakdown. The reference list gives reports with detailed results.

  10. Towards a theory of stochastic vorticity-augmentation. [tornado model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, V. C.

    1977-01-01

    A new hypothesis to account for the formation of tornadoes is presented. An elementary one-dimensional theory is formulated for vorticity transfer between an ambient sheared wind and a transverse penetrating jet. The theory points out the relevant quantities to be determined in describing the present stochastic mode of vorticity augmentation.

  11. Hidden vorticity in binary Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Brtka, Marijana; Gammal, Arnaldo; Malomed, Boris A.

    2010-11-15

    We consider a binary Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) described by a system of two-dimensional (2D) Gross-Pitaevskii equations with the harmonic-oscillator trapping potential. The intraspecies interactions are attractive, while the interaction between the species may have either sign. The same model applies to the copropagation of bimodal beams in photonic-crystal fibers. We consider a family of trapped hidden-vorticity (HV) modes in the form of bound states of two components with opposite vorticities S{sub 1,2}={+-}1, the total angular momentum being zero. A challenging problem is the stability of the HV modes. By means of a linear-stability analysis and direct simulations, stability domains are identified in a relevant parameter plane. In direct simulations, stable HV modes feature robustness against large perturbations, while unstable ones split into fragments whose number is identical to the azimuthal index of the fastest growing perturbation eigenmode. Conditions allowing for the creation of the HV modes in the experiment are discussed too. For comparison, a similar but simpler problem is studied in an analytical form, viz., the modulational instability of an HV state in a one-dimensional (1D) system with periodic boundary conditions (this system models a counterflow in a binary BEC mixture loaded into a toroidal trap or a bimodal optical beam coupled into a cylindrical shell). We demonstrate that the stabilization of the 1D HV modes is impossible, which stresses the significance of the stabilization of the HV modes in the 2D setting.

  12. Magnetic stabilization and vorticity in submillimeter paramagnetic liquid tubes

    PubMed Central

    Coey, J. Michael D.; Aogaki, Ryoichi; Byrne, Fiona; Stamenov, Plamen

    2009-01-01

    It is possible to suppress convection and dispersion of a paramagnetic liquid by means of a magnetic field. A tube of paramagnetic liquid can be stabilized in water along a ferromagnetic track in a vertical magnetic field, but not in a horizontal field. Conversely, an “antitube” of water can be stabilized in a paramagnetic liquid along the same track in a transverse horizontal field, but not in a vertical field. The stability arises from the interaction of the induced moment in the solution with the magnetic field gradient in the vicinity of the track. The magnetic force causes the tube of paramagnetic liquid to behave as if it were encased by an elastic membrane whose cross-section is modified by gravitational forces and Maxwell stress. Convection from the tube to its surroundings is inhibited, but not diffusion. Liquid motion within the paramagnetic tube, however, exhibits vorticity in tubes of diameter 1 mm or less—conditions where classical pipe flow would be perfectly streamline, and mixing extremely slow. The liquid tube is found to slide along the track almost without friction. Paramagnetic liquid tubes and antitubes offer appealing new prospects for mass transport, microfluidics, and electrodeposition. PMID:19416873

  13. Magnetic stabilization and vorticity in submillimeter paramagnetic liquid tubes.

    PubMed

    Coey, J Michael D; Aogaki, Ryoichi; Byrne, Fiona; Stamenov, Plamen

    2009-06-02

    It is possible to suppress convection and dispersion of a paramagnetic liquid by means of a magnetic field. A tube of paramagnetic liquid can be stabilized in water along a ferromagnetic track in a vertical magnetic field, but not in a horizontal field. Conversely, an "antitube" of water can be stabilized in a paramagnetic liquid along the same track in a transverse horizontal field, but not in a vertical field. The stability arises from the interaction of the induced moment in the solution with the magnetic field gradient in the vicinity of the track. The magnetic force causes the tube of paramagnetic liquid to behave as if it were encased by an elastic membrane whose cross-section is modified by gravitational forces and Maxwell stress. Convection from the tube to its surroundings is inhibited, but not diffusion. Liquid motion within the paramagnetic tube, however, exhibits vorticity in tubes of diameter 1 mm or less--conditions where classical pipe flow would be perfectly streamline, and mixing extremely slow. The liquid tube is found to slide along the track almost without friction. Paramagnetic liquid tubes and antitubes offer appealing new prospects for mass transport, microfluidics, and electrodeposition.

  14. Vorticity amplification near the stagnation point of landing gear wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltham, G.; Ekmekci, A.

    2014-04-01

    The vicinity near the forward stagnation point of landing-gear wheels has been found to support a mechanism for oncoming streams of weak vorticity to collect, grow, and amplify into discrete large-scale vortical structures that then shed with a distinct periodicity. To the authors' knowledge, such a flow phenomenon has never been reported before for landing gear wheels, which are in essence finite (three-dimensional) cylinders. To gain further insight into this phenomenon, a detailed experimental study has been undertaken employing the hydrogen bubble visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques. A very thin platinum wire, similar to those used in hydrogen bubble visualization applications, was placed upstream of the wheel model to produce two streams of weak vorticity (with opposite sign) that convected toward the model. As the vorticity streams enter the stagnation region of the wheels, significant flow deceleration and vorticity stretching act to collect, grow, and amplify the incoming vorticity streams into large-scale vortical structures. Experiments were performed at a fixed Reynolds number, with a value of 32 500 when defined based on the diameter of the wheel and a value of 21 based on the diameter of the vorticity-generating upstream wire. First, to establish a baseline, the natural flow field (without the presence of an upstream wire) was characterized, where experimentally determined values for the stagnation boundary-layer thickness and the velocity profile along the stagnation streamline were both found to agree with the values provided in the literature for two-dimensional cylinders. Subsequently, the dynamics of vorticity collection, growth, amplification, and shedding were studied. The size, stand-off distance and the shedding frequency of the vortical structures forming near the stagnation region were all found to strongly depend on the impingement location of the inbound vorticity on the wheel. A simple relationship between the non

  15. Moffatt vortices in the lid-driven cavity flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Sougata; Kalita, Jiten C.

    2016-10-01

    In incompressible viscous flows in a confined domain, vortices are known to form at the corners and in the vicinity of separation points. The existence of a sequence of vortices (known as Moffatt vortices) at the corner with diminishing size and rapidly decreasing intensity has been indicated by physical experiments as well as mathematical asymptotics. In this work, we establish the existence of Moffatt vortices for the flow in the famous Lid-driven square cavity at moderate Reynolds numbers by using an efficient Navier-Stokes solver on non-uniform space grids. We establish that Moffatt vortices in succession follow fixed geometric ratios in size and intensities for a particular Reynolds number. In order to eliminate the possibility of spurious solutions, we confirm the physical presence of the small scales by pressure gradient computation along the walls.

  16. Nanoscale assembly of superconducting vortices with scanning tunnelling microscope tip

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jun-Yi; Gladilin, Vladimir N.; Tempere, Jacques; Xue, Cun; Devreese, Jozef T.; Van de Vondel, Joris; Zhou, Youhe; Moshchalkov, Victor V.

    2016-01-01

    Vortices play a crucial role in determining the properties of superconductors as well as their applications. Therefore, characterization and manipulation of vortices, especially at the single-vortex level, is of great importance. Among many techniques to study single vortices, scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) stands out as a powerful tool, due to its ability to detect the local electronic states and high spatial resolution. However, local control of superconductivity as well as the manipulation of individual vortices with the STM tip is still lacking. Here we report a new function of the STM, namely to control the local pinning in a superconductor through the heating effect. Such effect allows us to quench the superconducting state at nanoscale, and leads to the growth of vortex clusters whose size can be controlled by the bias voltage. We also demonstrate the use of an STM tip to assemble single-quantum vortices into desired nanoscale configurations. PMID:27934960

  17. Generation of speckle vortices by Archimedes' spiral micro-holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Haibin; Liu, Tingting; Chen, Jun; Sun, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Speckle plays an important role in the optical field. Optical vortices which exist in random speckle fields usually contain useful phase information. The distribution of speckle field is determined by these optical vortices. In order to study speckle vortices quantitatively, we established a micro-holes array model based on the law of Archimedes' spiral arrangement. Speckle vortices can be generated by the random diffuse reflection points (spiral micro-holes). In the experiments, the gray image of Archimedes' spiral micro-holes are displayed on the screen of liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM), and the output optical field is captured by a CCD camera. The numerical simulations and experimental results show that the model can be used to generate speckle vortices.

  18. Nanoscale assembly of superconducting vortices with scanning tunnelling microscope tip.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jun-Yi; Gladilin, Vladimir N; Tempere, Jacques; Xue, Cun; Devreese, Jozef T; Van de Vondel, Joris; Zhou, Youhe; Moshchalkov, Victor V

    2016-12-09

    Vortices play a crucial role in determining the properties of superconductors as well as their applications. Therefore, characterization and manipulation of vortices, especially at the single-vortex level, is of great importance. Among many techniques to study single vortices, scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) stands out as a powerful tool, due to its ability to detect the local electronic states and high spatial resolution. However, local control of superconductivity as well as the manipulation of individual vortices with the STM tip is still lacking. Here we report a new function of the STM, namely to control the local pinning in a superconductor through the heating effect. Such effect allows us to quench the superconducting state at nanoscale, and leads to the growth of vortex clusters whose size can be controlled by the bias voltage. We also demonstrate the use of an STM tip to assemble single-quantum vortices into desired nanoscale configurations.

  19. Mechanisms of vortices termination in the cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hornung, D.; Otani, N. F.; Shajahan, T. K.; Baig, T.; Berg, S.; Han, S.; Krinsky, V. I.; Luther, S.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a solution to a long-standing problem: how to terminate multiple vortices in the heart, when the locations of their cores and their critical time windows are unknown. We scan the phases of all pinned vortices in parallel with electric field pulses (E-pulses). We specify a condition on pacing parameters that guarantees termination of one vortex. For more than one vortex with significantly different frequencies, the success of scanning depends on chance, and all vortices are terminated with a success rate of less than one. We found that a similar mechanism terminates also a free (not pinned) vortex. A series of about 500 experiments with termination of ventricular fibrillation by E-pulses in pig isolated hearts is evidence that pinned vortices, hidden from direct observation, are significant in fibrillation. These results form a physical basis needed for the creation of new effective low energy defibrillation methods based on the termination of vortices underlying fibrillation.

  20. Vorticity and magnetic shielding in a type-II superconductor.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Marco; Bicudo, Pedro; Sacramento, Pedro D

    2006-09-20

    We study in detail, solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, the magnetic field, supercurrent and order parameter profiles originated by a solenoid or magnetic whisker inserted in a type-II superconductor. We consider solutions of different vorticities, n, in the various cases. The results confirm the connection between the vorticity, the internal currents and the boundstates in a self-consistent way. The number of boundstates is given by the vorticity of the phase of the gap function as in the case with no external solenoid. In the limiting case of an infinitely thin solenoid, like a Dirac string, the solution is qualitatively different. The quasiparticle spectrum and wavefunctions are a function of n-n(ext), where n(ext) is the vorticity of the solenoid. The flux is in all cases determined by the vorticity of the gap function.

  1. Moving at the Speed of Potential: A Mixed-Methods Study of Accelerating Developmental Students in a California Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Paula L.

    2014-01-01

    Most developmental community college students are not completing the composition sequence successfully. This mixed-methods study examined acceleration as a way to help developmental community college students complete the composition sequence more quickly and more successfully. Acceleration is a curricular redesign that includes challenging…

  2. Layering from anticyclonic vortices in a rotating stratified medium with combined salinity and temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommeria, Joel; Burin, Michael; Viboud, Samuel

    2015-11-01

    We generate anticyclonic vortices by a fluid source in a rotating and uniformly stratified medium, a laboratory model of long lived vortex lenses in the ocean. Experiments are performed in the large `Coriolis' rotating platform at Grenoble, 13 m in diameter, providing previously unaccessible turbulent regimes. The other novelty is to combine temperature and salinity effects, like in `meddies', vortices formed by intrusion in the Atlantic ocean of warm and salty water from the Mediterranean Sea. For both heated an unheated cases, we observe shear driven instability at the vortex periphery, leading to the emission of material filament from a large-scale m=2 instability. Heated vortices behave much the same way but with two key additions. One, prominent at early times, is that the vortex edge appears serrated around most of its circumference in the upper part of the lens. Two, clearer for later times, a staircase density profile develops above the eddy. We explain this small scale turbulence as thermal convection in the statically unstable density profile resulting from selective vertical diffusion of temperature (while salinity is less diffusive). The resulting turbulent mixing generates horizontal intrusions at the upper part of the vortex, unlike the double-diffusive instability. This work has been funded by Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), project `OLA'.

  3. Decoherence and radiation-free relaxation in Meissner transmon qubit coupled to Abrikosov vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Jaseung; Yoscovits, Zack; Levchenko, Alex; Eckstein, James; Bezryadin, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    We present a type of transmon split-junction qubit which can be tuned by Meissner screening currents flowing in the adjacent superconducting film electrodes. The best detected relaxation time (T1) was of the order of 50 μ s and the dephasing time (T2) about 40 μ s . The achieved period of oscillation with magnetic field was much smaller than in the usual SQUID-based transmon qubits; thus a strong effective field amplification has been realized. This Meissner qubit allows a strong mixing of the current flowing in the qubit junctions and the currents generated by the Abrikosov vortices. We present a quantitative analysis of the radiation-free relaxation in qubits coupled to the Abrikosov vortices. The observation of coherent quantum oscillations provides strong evidence that the position of the vortex as well as its velocity do not have to accept exact values but can be smeared in the quantum mechanical sense. The eventual relaxation of such states contributes to an increased relaxation rate of the qubit coupled to vortices. Such relaxation is described using basic notions of the Caldeira-Leggett quantum dissipation theory.

  4. Large-deviation statistics of vorticity stretching in isotropic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Perry L; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-03-01

    A key feature of three-dimensional fluid turbulence is the stretching and realignment of vorticity by the action of the strain rate. It is shown in this paper, using the cumulant-generating function, that the cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence obeys a large deviation principle. As a result, the relevant statistics can be described by the vorticity stretching Cramér function. This function is computed from a direct numerical simulation data set at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of Re(λ)=433 and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected, the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramér functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of the largest FTLE. In an attempt to relate the vorticity stretching statistics to the vorticity magnitude probability density function in statistically stationary conditions, a model Kramers-Moyal equation is constructed using the statistics encoded in the Cramér function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude probability density function, with good agreement for the exponent but significant difference (35%) in the prefactor.

  5. Large-deviation statistics of vorticity stretching in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Perry L.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-03-01

    A key feature of three-dimensional fluid turbulence is the stretching and realignment of vorticity by the action of the strain rate. It is shown in this paper, using the cumulant-generating function, that the cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence obeys a large deviation principle. As a result, the relevant statistics can be described by the vorticity stretching Cramér function. This function is computed from a direct numerical simulation data set at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of Reλ=433 and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected, the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramér functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of the largest FTLE. In an attempt to relate the vorticity stretching statistics to the vorticity magnitude probability density function in statistically stationary conditions, a model Kramers-Moyal equation is constructed using the statistics encoded in the Cramér function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude probability density function, with good agreement for the exponent but significant difference (35%) in the prefactor.

  6. Vorticity is a marker of right ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fenster, Brett E; Browning, James; Schroeder, Joyce D; Schafer, Michal; Podgorski, Chris A; Smyser, Jamie; Silveira, Lori J; Buckner, J Kern; Hertzberg, Jean R

    2015-09-15

    Right ventricular diastolic dysfunction (RVDD) is an important prognostic indicator in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). RV vortex rings have been observed in healthy subjects, but their significance in RVDD is unknown. Vorticity, the local spinning motion of an element of fluid, may be a sensitive measure of RV vortex dynamics. Using four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), we investigated the relationship between right heart vorticity with echocardiographic indexes of RVDD. Thirteen (13) PAH subjects and 10 controls underwent same-day 4D flow CMR and echocardiography. RV diastolic function was assessed using trans-tricuspid valve (TV) early (E) and late (A) velocities, E/A ratio, and e' and a' tissue Doppler velocities. RV and right atrial (RA) integrated mean vorticity was calculated for E and A-wave filling periods using 4D datasets. Compared with controls, A-wave vorticity was significantly increased in RVDD subjects in both the RV [2343 (1,559-3,295) vs. 492 (267-2,649) 1/s, P = 0.028] and RA [30 (27-44) vs. 9 (5-27) 1/s, P = 0.005]. RA E vorticity was significantly decreased [13 (7-22) vs. 28 (15-31) 1/s, P = 0.038] in RVDD. E-wave vorticity correlated TV e', E-,and TV E/A (P < 0.05), and A-wave vorticity associated with both TV A and E/A (P < 0.02). RVDD is associated with alterations in E- and A-wave vorticity, and vorticity correlates with multiple echocardiographic markers of RVDD. Vorticity may be a robust noninvasive research tool for the investigation of RV fluid and tissue mechanical interactions in PAH.

  7. Atmospheric stability effects on potential radiological releases at a nuclear research facility in Romania: Characterising the atmospheric mixing state.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Scott D; Galeriu, Dan; Williams, Alastair G; Melintescu, Anca; Griffiths, Alan D; Crawford, Jagoda; Dyer, Leisa; Duma, Marin; Zorila, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    A radon-based nocturnal stability classification scheme is developed for a flat inland site near Bucharest, Romania, characterised by significant local surface roughness heterogeneity, and compared with traditional meteorologically-based techniques. Eight months of hourly meteorological and atmospheric radon observations from a 60 m tower at the IFIN-HH nuclear research facility are analysed. Heterogeneous surface roughness conditions in the 1 km radius exclusion zone around the site hinder accurate characterisation of nocturnal atmospheric mixing conditions using conventional meteorological techniques, so a radon-based scheme is trialled. When the nocturnal boundary layer is very stable, the Pasquill-Gifford "radiation" scheme overestimates the atmosphere's capacity to dilute pollutants with near-surface sources (such as tritiated water vapour) by 20% compared to the radon-based scheme. Under these conditions, near-surface wind speeds drop well below 1 m s(-1) and nocturnal mixing depths vary from ∼ 25 m to less than 10 m above ground level (a.g.l.). Combining nocturnal radon with daytime ceilometer data, we were able to reconstruct the full diurnal cycle of mixing depths. Average daytime mixing depths at this flat inland site range from 1200 to 1800 m a.g.l. in summer, and 500-900 m a.g.l. in winter. Using tower observations to constrain the nocturnal radon-derived effective mixing depth, we were able to estimate the seasonal range in the Bucharest regional radon flux as: 12 mBq m(-2) s(-1) in winter to 14 mBq m(-2) s(-1) in summer.

  8. Compressible flows with periodic vortical disturbances around lifting airfoils. Ph.D. Thesis - Notre Dame Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical method is developed for solving periodic, three-dimensional, vortical flows around lifting airfoils in subsonic flow. The first-order method that is presented fully accounts for the distortion effects of the nonuniform mean flow on the convected upstream vortical disturbances. The unsteady velocity is split into a vortical component which is a known function of the upstream flow conditions and the Lagrangian coordinates of the mean flow, and an irrotational field whose potential satisfies a nonconstant-coefficient, inhomogeneous, convective wave equation. Using an elliptic coordinate transformation, the unsteady boundary value problem is solved in the frequency domain on grids which are determined as a function of the Mach number and reduced frequency. The numerical scheme is validated through extensive comparisons with known solutions to unsteady vortical flow problems. In general, it is seen that the agreement between the numerical and analytical results is very good for reduced frequencies ranging from 0 to 4, and for Mach numbers ranging from .1 to .8. Numerical results are also presented for a wide variety of flow configurations for the purpose of determining the effects of airfoil thickness, angle of attack, camber, and Mach number on the unsteady lift and moment of airfoils subjected to periodic vortical gusts. It is seen that each of these parameters can have a significant effect on the unsteady airfoil response to the incident disturbances, and that the effect depends strongly upon the reduced frequency and the dimensionality of the gust. For a one-dimensional (transverse) or two-dimensional (transverse and longitudinal) gust, the results indicate that airfoil thickness increases the unsteady lift and moment at the low reduced frequencies but decreases it at the high reduced frequencies. The results show that an increase in airfoil Mach number leads to a significant increase in the unsteady lift and moment for the low reduced frequencies, but a

  9. Dynamics of coupled vortices in perpendicular field

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Shikha; Novosad, Valentyn Fradin, Frank Y.; Pearson, John E.; Bader, Samuel D.

    2014-02-24

    We explore the coupling mechanism of two magnetic vortices in the presence of a perpendicular bias field by pre-selecting the polarity combinations using the resonant-spin-ordering approach. First, out of the four vortex polarity combinations (two of which are degenerate), three stable core polarity states are achieved by lifting the degeneracy of one of the states. Second, the response of the stiffness constant for the vortex pair (similar polarity) in perpendicular bias is found to be asymmetric around the zero field, in contrast to the response obtained from a single vortex core. Finally, the collective response of the system for antiparallel core polarities is symmetric around zero bias. The vortex core whose polarization is opposite to the bias field dominates the response.

  10. Optomagnetism and ultrafast spintronics via optical vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffer, A. F.; Wätzel, J.; Berakdar, J.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic switching by circular polarized laser pulses is a promising tool for an ultrafast control of magnetism without the need for external magnetic fields. A principle limitation of the spatial resolution is set by the optical diffraction limit which is a clear disadvantage in view of the trend towards nanoscale magnetic structures to achieve high density storage. Here we suggest to exploit the light-matter interaction to achieve atomistic spatial and femtosecond temporal resolutions. The idea is to drive current loops in fullerenes attached to a scanning tip by virtue of femtosecond optical vortices. Using full- edge quantum simulations we calculate the magnetic field associated with the fullerenes current loops and employ this magnetic field for ferromagnetic resonance studies on magnetic adatoms.

  11. Vorticity Fluctuations in Plane Couette Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz de Zarate, Jose; Sengers, Jan V.

    2010-11-01

    In this presentation we evaluate the flow-induced amplification of the thermal noise in plane Couette configuration. The physical origin of the noise is the random nature of molecular collisions, that contribute with a stochastic component to the stress tensor (Landau's fluctuating hydrodynamics). This intrinsic stochastic forcing is then amplified by the mode- coupling mechanisms associated to shear flow. In a linear approximation, noise amplification can be studied by solving stochastic Orr-Sommerfeld and Squire equations. We compare the efficiency of the different mechanisms, being the most important the direct coupling between Squire and Orr-Sommerfed equations. The main effect is to amplify wall-normal vorticity fluctuations with an spanwise modulation at wave number around 1.5, a configuration that resembles the streaks that have been proposed as precursors of the flow instability.

  12. Geometric investigations of a vorticity model equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Martin; Kolev, Boris; Preston, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    This article consists of a detailed geometric study of the one-dimensional vorticity model equation which is a particular case of the generalized Constantin-Lax-Majda equation. Wunsch showed that this equation is the Euler-Arnold equation on Diff (S1) when the latter is endowed with the right-invariant homogeneous H ˙ 1 / 2-metric. In this article we prove that the exponential map of this Riemannian metric is not Fredholm and that the sectional curvature is locally unbounded. Furthermore, we prove a Beale-Kato-Majda-type blow-up criterion, which we then use to demonstrate a link to our non-Fredholmness result. Finally, we extend a blow-up result of Castro-Córdoba to the periodic case and to a much wider class of initial conditions, using a new generalization of an inequality for Hilbert transforms due to Córdoba-Córdoba.

  13. ZIRCONIA-BASED MIXED POTENTIAL CARBON MONOXIDE/HYDROCARBON SENSORS WITH LANTHANUM MAGNESIUM OXIDE, AND TERBIUM-DOPED YTTRIUM STABILIZED ZIRCONIA ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect

    E. L. BROSHA; R. MUKUNDAN; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    We have investigated the performance of dual metal oxide electrode mixed potential sensors in an engine-out, dynamometer environment. Sensors were fabricated by sputtering thin films of LaMnO{sub 3} and Tb-doped YSZ onto YSZ electrolyte. Au gauze held onto the metal oxide thin films with Au ink was used for current collection. The exhaust gas from a 4.8L, V8 engine operated in open loop, steady-state mode around stoichiometry at 1500 RPM and 50 Nm. The sensor showed a stable EMF response (with no hysteresis) to varying concentrations of total exhaust gas HC content. The sensor response was measured at 620 and 670 C and shows temperature behavior characteristic of mixed potential-type sensors. The results of these engine-dynamometer tests are encouraging; however, the limitations associated with Au current collection present the biggest impediment to automotive use.

  14. Superfluidity and vortices in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallavarapu, Satyanarayana Kumar

    This dissertation will elucidate specific features of superfluid behavior in dense quark matter, It will start with issues regarding spontaneous decay of superfluid vortices in dense quark matter. This will be followed by topics that explain superfluid phenomena from field theoretical viewpoint. In particular the first part of the dissertation will talk about superfluid vortices in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter which are known to be energetically disfavored as compared to well-separated triplets of "semi-superfluid" color flux tubes. In this talk we will provide results which will identify regions in parameter space where the superfluid vortex spontaneously decays. We will also discuss the nature of the mode that is responsible for the decay of a superfluid vortex in dense quark matter. We will conclude by mentioning the implications of our results to neutron stars. In the field theoretic formulation of a zero-temperature superfluid one connects the superfluid four-velocity which is a macroscopic observable with a microscopic field variable namely the gradient of the phase of a Bose-Condensed scalar field. On the other hand, a superfluid at nonzero temperatures is usually described in terms of a two-fluid model: the superfluid and the normal fluid. In the later part of the dissertation we offer a deeper understanding of the two-fluid model by deriving it from an underlying microscopic field theory. In particular, we shall obtain the macroscopic properties of a uniform, dissipationless superfluid at low temperatures and weak coupling within the framework of a ϕ 4 model. Though our study is very general, it may also be viewed as a step towards understanding the superfluid properties of various phases of dense nuclear and quark matter in the interior of compact star.

  15. Dynamics of Giant Planet Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueshaber, Shawn R.; Sayanagi, Kunio M.

    2016-10-01

    The polar atmospheres of the giant planets have come under increasing interest since a compact, warm-core, stable, cyclonic polar vortex was discovered at each of Saturn's poles. In addition, the south pole of Neptune appears to have a similar feature, and Uranus' north pole is exhibiting activity that could indicate the formation of a polar vortex. We investigate the formation and maintenance of these giant planet polar vortices by varying several key atmospheric dynamics parameters in a forced-dissipative, 1.5-layer shallow water model. Our simulations are run using the EPIC (Explicit Planetary Isentropic Coordinate) global circulation model, to which we have added a gamma-plane rectangular grid option appropriate for simulating polar atmospheric dynamics.In our numerical simulations, we vary the atmospheric deformation radius, planetary rotation rate, storm forcing intensity, and storm vorticity (cyclone-to-anticyclone) ratio to determine what combination of values favors the formation of a polar vortex. We find that forcing the atmosphere by injecting small-scale mass perturbations ("storms") to form either all cyclones, all anticyclones, or equal numbers of both, may all result in a cyclonic polar vortex. Additionally, we examine the role of eddy momentum convergence in the intensification and maintenance of a polar cyclone.Our simulation results are applicable to understanding all four of the solar system giant planets. In the future, we plan to expand our modeling effort with a more realistic 3D primitive equations model, also with a gamma-plane rectangular grid using EPIC. With our 3D primitive equations model, we will study how various vertical atmospheric stratification structures influence the formation and maintenance of a polar cyclone. While our shallow-water model only involves storms of a single layer, a 3D primitive equations model allows us to study how storms of finite vertical extent and at differing levels in the atmosphere may further favor

  16. Supersonic mixing and combustion in scramjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. B.; Capriotti, D. P.; Byington, C. S.; Greenberg, I.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies are being conducted to explore techniques to enhance mixing in scramjet combustors using parallel fuel injection from the base of swept and unswept wall-mounted ramps. The experiments reported herein were conducted using Mach 2 and 3 combustor inlet conditions. Supporting computational and cold flow studies indicated that the observed enhanced mixing for the swept ramp configuration is primarily due to the substantially higher degree of vorticity and entrainment generated by the swept trailing edges.

  17. Visualization of vorticity and vortices in wall-bounded turbulent flows.

    PubMed

    Helgeland, Anders; Pettersson Reif, B Anders; Andreassen, Øyvind; Wasberg, Carl Erik

    2007-01-01

    This study was initiated by the scientifically interesting prospect of applying advanced visualization techniques to gain further insight into various spatio-temporal characteristics of turbulent flows. The ability to study complex kinematical and dynamical features of turbulence provides means of extracting the underlying physics of turbulent fluid motion. The objective is to analyze the use of a vorticity field line approach to study numerically generated incompressible turbulent flows. In order to study the vorticity field, we present a field line animation technique which uses a specialized particle advection and seeding strategy. Efficient analysis is achieved by decoupling the rendering stage from the preceding stages of the visualization method. This allows interactive exploration of multiple fields simultaneously, which sets the stage for a more complete analysis of the flow field. Multifield visualizations are obtained using a flexible volume rendering framework which is presented in this paper. Vorticity field lines have been employed as indicators to provide a means to identify "ejection" and "sweep" regions; two particularly important spatio-temporal events in wall-bounded turbulent flows. Their relation to the rate of turbulent kinetic energy production and viscous dissipation, respectively, have been identified.

  18. An experimental investigation of thermal mixing and combustion in supersonic flows

    SciTech Connect

    Srikrishnan, A.R.; Kurian, J.; Sriramulu, V.

    1996-12-01

    A radially lobed nozzle (petal nozzle) is being increasingly recognized as a potential candidate for promoting mixing in compressible flows. An experimental investigation has been conducted to study its effectiveness in improving thermal mixing and combustion in supersonic flow. A hot gas jet issuing supersonically from a lobed nozzle mixes with a cold supersonic jet in a circular mixing tube. The two jets issue coaxially. A detailed survey of the flow field inside the mixing duct reveals that nearly complete thermal mixing (as exemplified by the nearly uniform temperature distribution) could be achieved in a short distance when a lobed nozzle is employed. The results also indicate the presence of large-scale vortices in the flow field downstream of the lobed nozzle. Having thus created a field in which mixing is good, supersonic combustion was then attempted. Kerosene was introduced into the hot stream issuing from the lobed nozzle and it burned mainly in the mixing tube, which served as a supersonic combustor. Resulting temperature and pressure rises were measured and the supersonic combustion efficiency was found to be of the order of 60%. The performance of a conventional conical nozzle was found to be much inferior to that of the petal nozzle under identical conditions.

  19. Atmospheric Chemistry Special Feature: Internally mixed sulfate and organic particles as potential ice nuclei in the tropical tropopause region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Matthew E.; Baustian, Kelly J.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2010-04-01

    Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropical tropopause region and play a major role in the Earth's climate. Any changes to cirrus abundance due to natural or anthropogenic influences must be considered to evaluate future climate change. The detailed impact of cirrus clouds on climate depends on ice particle number, size, morphology, and composition. These properties depend in turn on the nucleation mechanism of the ice particles. Although it is often assumed that ice nucleates via a homogeneous mechanism, recent work points to the possibility that heterogeneous ice nucleation is important in the tropical tropopause region. However, there are very few studies of depositional ice nucleation on the complex types of particles likely to be found in this region of the atmosphere. Here, we use a unique method to probe depositional ice nucleation on internally mixed ammonium sulfate/palmitic acid particles, namely optical microscopy coupled with Raman microscopy. The deliquescence and efflorescence phase transitions of the mixed particles were first studied to gain insight into whether the particles are likely to be liquid or solid in the tropical tropopause region. The ice nucleating ability of the particles was then measured under typical upper tropospheric conditions. It was found that coating the particles with insoluble palmitic acid had little effect on the deliquescence, efflorescence, or ice nucleating ability of ammonium sulfate. Additional experiments involving Raman mapping provide new insights into how the composition and morphology of mixed particles impact their ability to nucleate ice.

  20. Mixed release of two parasitoids and a polyphagous ladybird as a potential strategy to control the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaoling; Hu, Nana; Zhang, Fan; Ramirez-Romero, Ricardo; Desneux, Nicolas; Wang, Su; Ge, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A mixed species release of parasitoids is used to suppress outbreaks of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); however, this biocontrol may be inhibited by interspecific interactions. We investigated the effects of mixed releases of natural enemies of B. tabaci on predation rates, parasite performance and adult parasitoid emergence under greenhouse conditions. We tested the polyphagous predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and two whitefly-specific parasitoids, namely Encarsia formosa and Encarsia sophia (both, Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Harmonia axyridis exhibited the lowest rates of predation when released with each parasitoid than with both parasitoid species together and showed a significant preference for non-parasitized nymphs as prey. Both E. formosa and E. sophia parasitized more B. tabaci when released with the ladybird than when the wasps were released either alone or mixed with the other parasitoid. We also found that the presence of H. axyridis significantly reduced adult parasitoid emergence; the highest rate of adult emergence was obtained with parasitoids released alone. Our results indicate that different combinations of natural enemies can influence observed rates of predation, parasitism, and parasitoid emergence. Therefore, the combination of natural enemies to be used for a particular biological control program should depend on the specific objectives. PMID:27312174